Science.gov

Sample records for conejos norfolk oryctolagus

  1. Las Manas de Tio Conejo (Uncle Conejo's Tricks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    A lesson is presented that is designed to assist intermediate and advanced students of Spanish in both language proficiency and cultural understanding. Entirely in Spanish, the lesson focuses on the character of Tio Conejo, a well-known figure in Latin American folklore, offering insight into the significant contribution made to Hispanic…

  2. Las Manas de Tio Conejo (Uncle Conejo's Tricks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    A lesson is presented that is designed to assist intermediate and advanced students of Spanish in both language proficiency and cultural understanding. Entirely in Spanish, the lesson focuses on the character of Tio Conejo, a well-known figure in Latin American folklore, offering insight into the significant contribution made to Hispanic…

  3. Norfolk Island, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-13

    Situated 1670 km northeast of Sydney, Norfolk Island is an Australian Territory. It was permanently settled in 1856 by Pitcairn Islanders who were descendants of Tahitians and HMS Bounty mutineers. In 1979 Norfolk was granted limited self-government: the island elects a government that runs most of the island's affairs. In March, a local council replaced the local government, and the island was given closer financial ties to Australia. The image was acquired November 12, 2009, covers an area of 9 x 11 km, and is located at 29 degrees south, 168 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19463

  4. 78 FR 16816 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia..., North Carolina, and to modify its television station, WHRO-TV's license to specify Norfolk, Virginia...

  5. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation The Norfolk Southern Corporation (NS) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking the approval of...

  7. Norfolk and environs: A land use perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.; Buzzanell, Peter J.; Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.; Lins, Harry F.; McGinty, Herbert K.

    1975-01-01

    The Norfolk-Portsmouth Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods, built around the availability of remotely sensed data from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-I), later renamed LANDSAT I. The Norfolk tests were part of a larger experiment known as the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS), designed to test the extent to which LANDSAT and associated high-altitude aircraft data could be used as cost-effective inputs to a regional land use information system. The Norfolk SMSA contains a variety of land uses typical of the urbanized eastern seaboard, along with typical associated problems: rapid urbanization; heavy recreational, commercial, and residential demands on fragile beaches and coastal marsh environments; industrial, transportation, and governmental land and water uses impacting on residential and agricultural areas; drainage and land stability difficulties affecting construction and other uses; and increasing difficulties in maintaining satisfactory air and water quality.

  8. Authentic Intellectual Work on School Desegregation: The Digital History of Massive Resistance in Norfolk, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the fiftieth anniversary of the integration of Norfolk Public Schools. On February 2, 1959, the "Norfolk 17" integrated the formerly all-white public middle and high schools in Norfolk, Virginia. Less known than their counterparts in Little Rock, Arkansas, the stories of the Norfolk 17 underscore the struggle schools…

  9. Authentic Intellectual Work on School Desegregation: The Digital History of Massive Resistance in Norfolk, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the fiftieth anniversary of the integration of Norfolk Public Schools. On February 2, 1959, the "Norfolk 17" integrated the formerly all-white public middle and high schools in Norfolk, Virginia. Less known than their counterparts in Little Rock, Arkansas, the stories of the Norfolk 17 underscore the struggle schools…

  10. 76 FR 54189 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Association (``HRETA''), the licensee of noncommercial educational television station WHRO-TV, channel *16... City, North Carolina, as Elizabeth City's first local TV service. HRETA also requests modification of station WHRO-TV's license to specify Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, North Carolina as its community of...

  11. Modeling of Coastal Inundation, Storm Surge, and Relative Sea-Level Rise at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research, 29(1), 18–30. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. The potential...revision 17 June 2012. Published Pre-print online 17 September 2012. Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013 Coconut Creek, Florida January

  12. Applications of satellite snow cover in computerized short-term streamflow forecasting. [Conejos River, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leaf, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby the correlation between: (1) satellite derived snow-cover depletion and (2) residual snowpack water equivalent, can be used to update computerized residual flow forecasts for the Conejos River in southern Colorado.

  13. Radiological survey of the Norfolk Naval Station, the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, and Newport News Shipbuilding

    SciTech Connect

    Sensintaffar, E.L.; Blanchard, R.L.

    1988-10-01

    Since 1963, the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in cooperation with the US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) has surveyed facilities serving nuclear-powered warships on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the Gulf of Mexico. These surveys assess whether the operation of nuclear-powered warships, during construction, maintenance, overhaul, or refueling, have created elevated levels of radioactivity. The surveys emphasize sampling those areas and pathways that could expose the public. In 1984, NAVSEA requested that EPA survey all active facilities servicing nuclear-powered warships over the next three years. This report contains the results of surveys conducted at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Norfolk Naval Station and Newport News Shipbuilding during the period July 28 to August 1, 1986. Some of these same areas were previously surveyed by EERF personnel (at that time US Public Health Service) in January 1968. 1 ref., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Norfolk general practice: a comparison of rural and urban doctors

    PubMed Central

    Fearn, Richard M.G.

    1988-01-01

    A postal questionnaire was sent to all Norfolk practitioners, allowing a comparison to be made between rural general practice and urban practice in Norwich and Great Yarmouth. However, when Norfolk town and country doctors were compared, little difference was found in their personal or practice characteristics. In respect of their workload rural doctors, as expected, carried out more procedures overall but, somewhat surprisingly, did not make more home visits. Both sets of doctors had similar views on their present and future role in general practice. When Norfolk doctors collectively were compared with general practitioners nationally their service appeared to be of a high standard. The only uncertainty surrounded the effects of the greater clustering of Norfolk surgeries, together with the levels of home visiting and their attendant effects on patient accessibility. PMID:3255815

  16. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  17. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  18. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  19. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  20. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  1. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  2. 78 FR 49920 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the draw of the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing the broken tread plates and shimming the remaining tread plates to the proper elevation on the Norfolk Southern 5......

  3. Atmospheric particulate measurements in Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, R. W., Jr.; Sentell, R. J.; Woods, D. C.; Smith, J. R.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Characterization of atmospheric particulates was conducted at a site near the center of Norfolk, Virginia. Air quality was measured in terms of atmospheric mass loading, particle size distribution, and particulate elemental composition for a period of 2 weeks. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a mean level of air quality and deviations about this mean, (2) to ascertain diurnal changes or special events in air quality, and (3) to evaluate instrumentation and sampling schedules. Simultaneous measurements were made with the following instruments: a quartz crystal microbalance particulate monitor, a light-scattering multirange particle counter, a high-volume air sampler, and polycarbonate membrane filters. To assess the impact of meteorological conditions on air quality variations, continuous data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were recorded. Particulate elemental composition was obtained from neutron activation and scanning electron microscopy analyses of polycarbonate membrane filter samples. The measured average mass loading agrees reasonably well with the mass loadings determined by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board. There are consistent diurnal increases in atmospheric mass loading in the early morning and a sample time resolution of 1/2 hour seems necessary to detect most of the significant events.

  4. The Social Nature of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Rehrig, Angelika N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing concerns regarding the wellbeing of laboratory animals have caused biomedical research stakeholders to reconsider traditional housing of laboratory species and to provide social companionship for social species. European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are commonly individually housed in research facilities despite the occurrence of social groups in the wild. Here we review the current literature to provide a comprehensive description of the social behaviors and preferences of rabbits in the wild and in captivity. The implications of these studies regarding social housing of laboratory rabbits are discussed. PMID:27931309

  5. Conejo Valley Unified School District Master Plan for an Educational Results Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dorothy

    The Conejo Valley (CA) Unified School District Educational Results Information System (ERIS), a generalized District master program assessment plan to obtain results information for decision-makers at all levels, has been developed. This plan establishes guidelines, evaluates the current status of the use of educational results information and…

  6. Conejo Valley Unified School District Master Plan for an Educational Results Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dorothy

    The Conejo Valley (CA) Unified School District Educational Results Information System (ERIS), a generalized District master program assessment plan to obtain results information for decision-makers at all levels, has been developed. This plan establishes guidelines, evaluates the current status of the use of educational results information and…

  7. Air Pollution and urban climatology at Norfolk, Virginia

    Treesearch

    W. Maurice Pritchard; Kuldip P. Chopra

    1977-01-01

    The atmosphere at Norfolk is usually stable, with no strongly prevailing wind direction. Linear regression analyses of visibility data indicate a generally decreasing visibility trend between 1960 and 1972, with a possible trend reversal in later years. A 44 percent increase in the annual frequency of 0-4-mile visibility occurred in 1960-72. Similar analyses of...

  8. 7. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., MA. (Not on NEC). (See HAER No. MA-27 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 32. Photographic copy of historic lithograph, "Views of Norfolk and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of historic lithograph, "Views of Norfolk and Portsmouth from the Marine Hospital" by F. Sachse, 1851. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  10. An Analysis of the Dropout Problem in Norfolk Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Edwin C.

    The Norfolk, Virginia, city school system had the highest secondary school dropout rate in the State for the 1975-76 academic year. In the study discussed in this paper student dropouts are described from data in their academic files. The wish is expressed that by characterizing dropout prone students, something can be done to save them before…

  11. Modeling of Coastal Inundation, Storm Surge, and Relative Sea-Level Rise at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research, 00(0), 000–000. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. The...000–000 Coconut Creek, Florida Month 0000 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of

  12. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  13. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... June 26, 2013, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 and 49 CFR Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway...

  14. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: Under 49 U.S.C.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately...

  15. 76 FR 47645 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed...\\ between the point of switch at Track Station 55 + 65 and the point of switch at Track Station 30 + 70,...

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  17. 32 CFR 750.8 - Claims: Responsibility of the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims: Responsibility of the Tort Claims Unit... Tort Claims Unit Norfolk. (a) Reviewing prior actions. The adjudicating authority (Tort Claims Unit... received in proper form. (c) Adjudicating the claim. (1) The Tort Claims Unit Norfolk shall evaluate and...

  18. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  20. Particle Transport and Accumulation in Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, C.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Prouty, N.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Bight is incised by several large canyons two of which were studied as part of a multi-disciplinary project initiated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM, USA) and jointly funded by BOEM, NOAA and USGS. The heads of the canyons, which are situated 140 km apart, both lie at a distance of 90 km off shore on the same shelf margin and lack direct input from rivers. Two hypotheses were formulated at the start of the study: i) canyons incising the MAB shelf, including Norfolk and Baltimore, capture sediment and organic carbon. This transport ultimately enriches the canyon floor sediment, resulting in higher concentration and quality of carbon than the adjacent slope, and ii) given Baltimore and Norfolk canyons have a very different morphology and orientation from each other, and previous reports indicated differences in sediment grain size and transport properties, the canyons have different sedimentation patterns and accumulation rates, which explains the differing faunal communities between the two canyons. Core samples collected along the canyon axis and for comparison on the adjacent open slope were analyzed for their sediment composition, organic matter content and accumulation rates. Additionally water column properties, including turbidity were measured with CTD. In contrast to our expectations, sediment distribution, sedimentation rates and organic matter content differed strongly between both canyons. Although accumulation rates in both canyons were higher than accumulation rates on the open slope, Norfolk canyon showed an even distribution of sediment and organic matter along the canyon axis. While two distinct zones were observed in Baltimore Canyon; coarse grained sediments with low organic matter in the upper canyon and finer grained sediments with high organic matter content in the lower canyon. Differences are attributed to canyon morphology, physical processes and active particle transport.

  1. NORSTAR Project: Norfolk public schools student team for acoustical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortunato, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    Development of the NORSTAR (Norfolk Public Student Team for Acoustical Research) Project includes the definition, design, fabrication, testing, analysis, and publishing the results of an acoustical experiment. The student-run program is based on a space flight organization similar to the Viking Project. The experiment will measure the scattering transfer of momentum from a sound field to spheres in a liquid medium. It is hoped that the experimental results will shed light on a difficult physics problem - the difference in scattering cross section (the overall effect of the sound wave scattering) for solid spheres and hollow spheres of differing wall thicknesses.

  2. Dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in a Norfolk terrier.

    PubMed

    Beltran, E; Shelton, G D; Guo, L T; Dennis, R; Sanchez-Masian, D; Robinson, D; De Risio, L

    2015-05-01

    A six-month-old male entire Norfolk terrier was presented with a 3-month history of poor development, reluctance to exercise and progressive and diffuse muscle atrophy. Serum creatine kinase concentration was markedly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the epaxial muscles revealed asymmetrical streaky signal changes aligned within the muscle fibres (hyperintense on T2-weighted images and short-tau inversion recovery with moderate contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images). Electromyography revealed pseudomyotonic discharges and fibrillation potentials localised at the level of the supraspinatus, epaxial muscles and tibial cranialis muscles. Muscle biopsy results were consistent with dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy. The dog remained stable 7 months after diagnosis with coenzyme Q10 and l-carnitine; however after that time, there was a marked deterioration and the owners elected euthanasia. This case report describes the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging, electrodiagnostic and histopathological findings with immunohistochemical analysis in a Norfolk terrier with confirmed dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy, which has not been previously described in this breed.

  3. Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

  4. Water Surface Turbulance and Internal Waves, Norfolk, VA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-614-047 (5-14 June 1991) --- This image is of the Norfolk, Virginia -- Southern Delmarva Peninsula Southern Chesapeake Bay Area as seen in sunlight. The exposure is adjusted to emphasize the water patterns present. The outgoing tide generates considerable turbulence as it passes through the mouth of the bay. This is displayed by differences in reflective properties of the water surface due to differences in slope and turbidity. Ship wakes and the wakes of subsurface structures are seen clearly. The bridge tunnel system linking Norfolk with the peninsula and its effect on the system is quite apparent. Sunglint images over land areas were also acquired which emphasize land-water boundaries as demonstrated here in the small Delmarva inlets as a tool for wetland mapping, and river, lake and even pond description. During the first few days of the STS-40 mission the Eastern Seaboard of the United States was free of clouds and haze providing excellent photography of many of the major cities and the countryside of that area as well as the Gulf Stream.

  5. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G; Chalmers, R M

    2010-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been found in the faeces of over 150 mammalian host species, but the risks to public health from wildlife are poorly understood. In summer 2008, the Cryptosporidium sp. rabbit genotype was identified as the aetiological agent in an outbreak of waterborne human cryptosporidiosis. The source was a wild rabbit that had entered a treated water tank. To establish current knowledge about Cryptosporidium spp. infecting lagomorphs, especially the host range and biological characteristics of the rabbit genotype, and the potential risks to public health that rabbits may pose in the transmission of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis, we undertook a literature and data review. The literature returned demonstrates that although the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has been the most widely studied lagomorph, few large scale studies were found. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rabbit populations in the two large scale studies was 0.9% (95%CI 0.2-5.0) and 0.0% (95%CI 0.0-1.6). Neither study provided age nor sex profiles nor typing of Cryptosporidium isolates. The infecting Cryptosporidium species was confirmed in just four other studies of rabbits, all of which showed the rabbit genotype. Human-infectious Cryptosporidium species including Cryptosporidium parvum have caused experimental infections in rabbits and it is likely that this may also occur naturally. No published studies of the host range and biological features of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype were identified, but information was generated on the identification and differentiation of the rabbit genotype at various genetic loci. Both pet and wild rabbits are a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis and as such, good hygiene practices are recommended during and after handling rabbits or exposure to their faeces, or potentially contaminated surfaces. Water supplies should be protected against access by wildlife, including rabbits.

  6. Digestive utilization of ozone-exposed forage by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mixture of common Southern Piedmont (USA) grassland species (Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens) was exposed to ozone [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice-ambient (2X) concentrations] and fed to individually caged New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus c...

  7. Metastatic anaplastic adenocarcinoma suspected to be of mammary origin in an intact male rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Snyman, Heindrich N.; Lillie, Brandon N.

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old, intact male, pet dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented for a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. Histolopathology of the resected mass was suggestive of a mammary adenocarcinoma. Six months later, the rabbit died from severe dyspnea. Necropsy showed recurrence of the original mass with hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of the anaplastic adenocarcinoma, suspected to be of mammary origin. PMID:24790235

  8. 54. Virginia Route 615/Norfolk Southern Railroad. This example of a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Virginia Route 615/Norfolk Southern Railroad. This example of a prestressed concrete girder grade separation structure was built in 1959. View to the west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  9. TUESDAY: EPA Division Director to Highlight the New Norfolk Southern Eco Locomotives in Atlanta

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regional Air, Pesticides, and Toxics Management Division Director Beverly Banister will speak at the Norfolk Southern Inman Yard during the unveiling of the nation's first 'Eco' locomotives.

  10. 78 FR 34892 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ..., VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate thermite welding on rail joints on the Norfolk Southern... 33 CFR 117.5 to facilitate thermite welding on the rails. Under the regular operating schedule,...

  11. The Medicines of Katherine, Duchess of Norfolk, 1463-71.

    PubMed

    Kleineke, Hannes

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses the medicinal remedies consumed at the court of the Yorkist kings of England in the light of a lawsuit in the court of common pleas (edited in an appendix) between John Clerk, king's apothecary to Edward IV, and Katherine Neville, Duchess of Norfolk, over the partial non-payment of the apothecary's bills. It argues that the consumption of apothecaries' wares in large quantities was not merely a direct result of the excessive diet of the late medieval aristocracy, but in itself represented a facet of the conspicuous consumption inherent in the lifestyle of this particular social class. The remedies supplied by Clerk over a period of several years and listed in the legal record are set in the context of contemporary collections of medical recipes, particularly a 'dispensary' in the British Library's Harleian collection generally attributed to the king's apothecary.

  12. The Medicines of Katherine, Duchess of Norfolk, 1463–71

    PubMed Central

    Kleineke, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the medicinal remedies consumed at the court of the Yorkist kings of England in the light of a lawsuit in the court of common pleas (edited in an appendix) between John Clerk, king’s apothecary to Edward IV, and Katherine Neville, Duchess of Norfolk, over the partial non-payment of the apothecary’s bills. It argues that the consumption of apothecaries’ wares in large quantities was not merely a direct result of the excessive diet of the late medieval aristocracy, but in itself represented a facet of the conspicuous consumption inherent in the lifestyle of this particular social class. The remedies supplied by Clerk over a period of several years and listed in the legal record are set in the context of contemporary collections of medical recipes, particularly a ‘dispensary’ in the British Library’s Harleian collection generally attributed to the king’s apothecary. PMID:26352302

  13. Effects of irrigation water supply variations on limited resource farming in Conejos County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Jerry B.; Wang, Erda

    1993-02-01

    Farms in NE Conejos County, Colorado, are characterized by limited resources, uncertain surface flow irrigation systems, and mixed crop-livestock enterprise combinations which are dependent on public grazing resources. To model decision making on these farms, a linear program is developed stressing enterprise choices under conditions of multiple resource constraints. Differential access to grazing resources and irrigation water is emphasized in this research. Regarding the water resource, the model reflects farms situated alternatively on high-, medium-, and low-priority irrigation ditches within the Alamosa-La Jara river system, each with and without supplemental pumping. Differences are found in optimum enterprise mixes, net returns, choice of cropping technology, level of marketings, and other characteristics in response to variations in the availability of irrigation water. Implications are presented for alternative improvement strategies.

  14. Geologic Map of the San Luis Hills Area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digital image of the U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1906, 'Geologic map of the San Luis Hills area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado,' which was published in 1989 by Thompson and Machette, scale 1:50,000 but has been unavailable in a digital version. The map area represents the southwestern portion of the Alamosa 30' x 60' quadrangle, which is currently being remapped by the U.S. Geological Survey. The northern and eastern margins of the San Luis Hills area have been remapped at greater detail and thus small portions of the map area have been updated. The northern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1392, the northeastern portion is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1124, and the eastern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1074. The most significant changes to the 1989 map area are recognition of Lake Alamosa and its deposits (Alamosa Formation), remapping of bedrock in the northeastern San Luis Hills, and redating of volcanic units in the San Luis Hills. Although unpublished, new 40Ar/39Ar ages for volcanic units in the Conejos and Hinsdale Formations add precision to the previous K/Ar-dated rocks, but do not change the basic chronology of the units. The digital version of this map was prepared by Theodore R. Brandt by scanning the original map at 300 pixels per inch, prior to creating the press-quality (96 Mb) and standard (5 Mb) .pdf files.

  15. Pilot Study: Wound Healing with CorMatrix in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-23

    OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total # Approved # Used this FY Total # Used to Date Oryctolagus cuniculus 10 5 5 2 . PROTOCOL TYPE...of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 15 APR 2014 2 . REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 3...and the patch with the 6mm punch, the patch easily covered the entire wound on all sides when secured in place. 2 . Four wounds per ear was optimum

  16. Genetic diversity comparison of the DQA gene in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Vanessa; Abrantes, Joana; Munõz-Pajares, Antonio Jesús; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-10-01

    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) natural populations within the species native region, the Iberian Peninsula, are considered a reservoir of genetic diversity. Indeed, the Iberia was a Pleistocene refuge to the species and currently two subspecies are found in the peninsula (Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus and Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus). The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been substantially studied in wild populations due to their exceptional variability, believed to be pathogen driven. They play an important function as part of the adaptive immune system affecting the individual fitness and population viability. In this study, the MHC variability was assessed by analysing the exon 2 of the DQA gene in several European rabbit populations from Portugal, Spain and France and in domestic breeds. Twenty-eight DQA alleles were detected, among which 18 are described for the first time. The Iberian rabbit populations are well differentiated from the French population and domestic breeds. The Iberian populations retained the higher allelic diversity with the domestic breeds harbouring the lowest; in contrast, the DQA nucleotide diversity was higher in the French population. Signatures of positive selection were detected in four codons which are putative peptide-binding sites and have been previously detected in other mammals. The evolutionary relationships showed instances of trans-species polymorphism. Overall, our results suggest that the DQA in European rabbits is evolving under selection and genetic drift.

  17. Norfolk QOL-DN: validation of a patient reported outcome measure in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Paulson, James F; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Packman, Jeff; Grogan, Donna R; Coelho, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN) questionnaire is an instrument to assess QOL in diabetic polyneuropathy. The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study in 61 patients with V30M transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) and 16 healthy volunteers was to validate the Norfolk QOL-DN for assessment of QOL in TTR-FAP. Comparisons were conducted to identify the best items to discriminate disease stages and assess which individual Norfolk domains (symptoms, large fiber, small fiber, autonomic, and activities of daily living) would be most affected by disease stage. Analysis of individual items revealed a significant pattern of discrimination among disease stages (p < 0.001). Total QOL scores increased (indicating worsening) with duration of symptoms, with a steeper increase observed earlier in the course of disease. Significant correlations were observed between each Norfolk domain and other measures of neurological function. Limitations include cross-sectional study design, low patient numbers in this rare disease, and the ordinal-based character of the metric used; future areas to explore include item response theory approaches such as Rasch analysis. These results suggest the Norfolk QOL-DN is a reliable indicator of the impact of disease severity on QOL in patients with TTR-FAP. © 2014 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  18. Australian and Pacific contributions to the genetic diversity of Norfolk Island feral chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norfolk Island has a population of feral chickens which could be the result of domestic stock introduced onto the island by British settlers in 1788. However, there is ongoing debate about their origins because multiple human arrivals to the island may have brought chickens with them. Here we investigate the genetic origins of these feral chickens by sequencing their mitochondrial control region. We infer their phylogenetic relationships using a large dataset of novel sequences from Australian mainland domestic chickens and published sequences from around the world. Results Eleven control region haplotypes were found among the Norfolk Island feral and Australian mainland domestic chickens. Six of the Norfolk Island haplotypes fall within haplogroup E, but given the worldwide distribution of this haplogroup, the putative European origin of these chickens requires further investigation. One haplotype common among Norfolk Island and Australian samples belonged to a subgroup of haplogroup D, which appears to be restricted to chickens from Indonesia, Vanuatu and Guam. Conclusions Our data show that at least two mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (D and E) have contributed to the genetic make-up of Norfolk Island feral chickens. In addition, we have provided insights into the discrete geographical distribution and diversity of the chicken haplogroup D. In view of the worldwide interest in the characterisation of poultry resources, further assessment of chicken populations of Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific region is warranted. PMID:24063717

  19. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Adams--Warnock Railway, Inc. (AWRY), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under ] 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate,...

  20. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. 110.72aa Section 110.72aa Navigation and... Anchorage Areas § 110.72aa Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. (a) Special Anchorage Areas. (1) The waters of the Elizabeth River bounded by the shore and a...

  1. 76 FR 39978 - Virginia Port Authority-Acquisition Exemption-Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Virginia Port Authority--Acquisition Exemption--Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt... exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from the Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company (NPBL... provision that would limit interchange with a third party. VPA certifies that its projected annual...

  2. 75 FR 71487 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Crawford County, GA; Georgia Midland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Crawford County, GA; Georgia Midland Railroad, Inc.\\1\\--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Crawford County... discontinuing railroad-- not Georgia Midland Railroad Company, as indicated in the notice. Norfolk...

  3. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern...

  4. 78 FR 49605 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Ontario, Seneca, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Ontario, Seneca, and Wayne Counties, NY Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified...

  5. CINCH: an urban coalition for empowerment and action. Consortium for the Immunization of Norfolk's Children.

    PubMed

    Butterfoss, F D; Morrow, A L; Rosenthal, J; Dini, E; Crews, R C; Webster, J D; Louis, P

    1998-04-01

    CINCH (Consortium for the Immunization of Norfolk's Children) is an urban coalition that was developed in 1993 to improve childhood immunization rates in Norfolk, Virginia. CINCH involves diverse citizens and institutions in effective community-based assessment, planning, and action. A needs assessment from 1993 found that only 49% of Norfolk 2-year-olds were adequately immunized. Using this data, CINCH developed a plan focused on education and communication, support for at-risk families, increased access to immunizations, and improved immunization delivery. After federal funding ended in 1995, members voted to expand the scope of the coalition to address additional child health needs and to broaden the membership. CINCH is a model for a sustainable city-citizen learning environment that intervenes to "help families help themselves to better health." The coalition is presented as an organization that focuses on community empowerment and development. The stages of coalition development and implications for coalition implementation in other sites are discussed.

  6. A new, rare type of oceanic islands: The case of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, O.; Whan, T.; Arculus, R. J.; O'Neill, H. S.; Yaxley, G. M.; McAlpine, S.; Smith, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    Most intra-plate oceanic islands are considered to be expressions of partial melting of hot, ascending mantle plumes. Mantle plume activity is often evident by progressively-aged volcanic island chains, early flood basalts, or elevated mantle temperatures (hot-spots). However, some isolated volcanic islands lack these characteristics. Their mantle sources, causes of melting, and geodynamic settings remain elusive. Here we present petrologic and geochemical data for an example of this type of ocean island: Norfolk Island and neighbouring Phillip Island. These islands are only 7 km apart and are located in the Southwest Pacific. They are the only sub-aerial volcanic islands on the Norfolk Ridge, which extends roughly linearly south from New Caledonia and north from New Zealand. The Norfolk Ridge is a continental slice rifted from the eastern Australian margin during opening of the Tasman Sea and the on-going break-up of Gondwana. There are a few isolated, unexplored volcanic edifices trending NNW from the Norfolk Ridge north of Norfolk Island that may be a hot spot trace. Norfolk and Phillip islands are both composed of young (ca. 2-3 Ma), primitive basalts and basaltic andesites containing abundant phenocrysts of olivine and rare pyroxene and feldspar. Major element systematics are unique among the global spectrum of ocean island basalts, with low CaO, high Al2O3, and high Na/Ti indicating that melting processes and/or the mantle source differs from that of any other OIB. However, Fe/Mn are high, similar to other OIB, and REE patterns carry the typical OIB garnet signature. The highest MgO contents approach 9 wt%. The unusual major-element chemistry results in olivine-dominated crystallization extending to low MgO (ca. 6-7 wt%), hence little increase of incompatible elements with decreasing MgO, but surprisingly Ni and Cr also remain nearly constant with MgO. Isotopic compositions (Sr-Nd-Hf) indicate either a primitive mantle source composition (ɛNd=6

  7. Cohort profile: A prospective cohort study of objective physical and cognitive capability and visual health in an ageing population of men and women in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk 3).

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shabina A; Luben, Robert; Keevil, Victoria L; Moore, Stephanie; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Khawaja, Anthony P; Foster, Paul; Brayne, Carol; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-08-01

    The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) is a 10-country collaborative study in which EPIC-Norfolk is one of the UK centres. EPIC-Norfolk examined 25 639 men and women resident in East Anglia (aged 40-79 years), between 1993 and 1997. The EPIC collaboration was set up to examine the dietary determinants of cancer, but the remit in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort was broadened from the outset to include determinants of other health conditions and chronic diseases. EPIC-Norfolk completed a third round of health examinations (EPIC-Norfolk 3 or 3HC) in December 2011, on 8623 participants in the age range 48-92 years. EPIC-Norfolk focused on objective measures of cognitive function, physical capability and visual health, adapting this existing mid-life cohort to the current need to investigate healthy and independent living for ageing societies. With a wealth of longitudinal data and a biobank (including DNA) collected at up to three separate time points, EPIC-Norfolk offers the unique opportunity to investigate the association of lifestyle and biological factors, including genetic exposures, with a range of health outcomes in middle and later life. Information for data access can be found on the study website, details as given in this cohort profile.

  8. Norfolk State University Research Experience in Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, Raj

    2002-01-01

    The truly interdisciplinary nature of Earth System Science lends itself to the creation of research teams comprised of people with different scientific and technical backgrounds. In the annals of Earth System Science (ESS) education, the lack of an academic major in the discipline might be seen as a barrier to the involvement of undergraduates in the overall ESS-enterprise. This issue is further compounded at minority-serving institutions by the rarity of departments dedicated to Atmospheric Science, Oceanography or even the geosciences. At Norfolk State University, a Historically Black College, a six week, NASA-supported, summer undergraduate research program (REESS - Research Experience in Earth System Science) is creating a model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research coupled with a structured education program. The project is part of a wider effort at the University to enhance undergraduate education by identifying specific areas of student weaknesses regarding the content and process of science. A pre- and post-assessment test, which is focused on some fundamental topics in global climate change, is given to all participants as part of the evaluation of the program. Student attitudes towards the subject and the program's approach are also surveyed at the end of the research experience. In 2002, 11 undergraduates participated in REESS and were educated in the informed use of some of the vast remote sensing resources available through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The program ran from June 3rd through July 12, 2002. This was the final year of the project.

  9. Origin of rhyolite by crustal melting and the nature of parental magmas in the Oligocene Conejos Formation, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. F.; Ghosh, A.; Price, C. W.; Rinard, B. D.; Cullers, R. L.; Ren, M.

    2005-01-01

    Four closely spaced volcanoes (Summer Coon; Twin Mountains; Del Norte; Carnero Creek) form the east-central cluster of Conejos volcanic centers. These Conejos rocks range from high-K basaltic andesite to rhyolite, with andesite volumetrically the most abundant. Summer Coon and Twin Mountains are composite volcanoes. The Del Norte and Carnero Creek volcanoes are deeply eroded dacite shields. Rhyolite (10% of our Conejos analyses but a much smaller percentage by volume) is only known from Summer Coon and Twin Mountains volcanoes, although high-SiO 2 dacite occurs in the Del Norte volcano. The younger Hinsdale Formation contains a related series ranging from transitional basalt to high-K andesite; we use Hinsdale Formation analyses to represent Conejos parental magmas. Conejos and Hinsdale magmas evolved through AFC processes: Basalt, after interacting with lower crust, assimilated low K/Rb crust, similar in some ways to Taylor and McLennan (Taylor, S.R., and McLennan, S.M., 1985, The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific.) model upper crust; main series basaltic andesite fractionated to high-K andesite; rhyolite was produced by melting of high K/Ba upper crustal rocks similar to granite gneiss known from inclusions and basement outcrops. Some rhyolite may have been back-mixed into fractionating andesite and dacite. Field evidence for assimilation includes sanidinite-facies, partially melted, gneiss blocks up to 1 m in diameter. Temperature estimates (1100-900 ° C) from two-pyroxene equilibria are consistent with this interpretation, as are the sparsely porphyritic nature of the most-evolved rhyolites and the absence of phenocrystic alkali feldspar. Our study supports the conclusions of previous workers on AFC processes in similar, but generally more mafic, Conejos magmas of the southeastern San Juan Mountains. Our results, however, emphasize the importance of crustal melting in the generation of Conejos rhyolite. We further

  10. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034mg/d (range: 0-8531mg/d) for men and 970mg/d (0-6695mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233mg/d (0-3248mg/d) for men and 217 (0-2712mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk.

  11. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N.; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034 mg/d (range: 0–8531 mg/d) for men and 970 mg/d (0–6695 mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233 mg/d (0–3248 mg/d) for men and 217 (0–2712 mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  12. Keratomycosis in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) treated with topical 1% terbinafine ointment.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Aurélie; Guyonnet, Alexandre; Donzel, Elise; Guillot, Jacques; Pignon, Charly; Chahory, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and medical management of a 2-year-old spayed female dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) suffering from an ulcerative keratitis and a stromal abscess with a rapid evolution. The diagnosis of fungal keratitis was based on fungal culture identifying the pathogen as Aspergillus fumigatus. Treatment by topical terbinafine was efficacious in resolving the keratomycosis within 8 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous keratomycosis in a rabbit and the first description of successful therapy by terbinafine.

  13. The Effectiveness of Managed Care Techniques in the Contracted Provider Arrangement - Norfolk Demonstration Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Government Cost ...... .. ...... -- .31 Average Length of Stay ................... 35 Incidence of Rehospitalization ..... ..... 36 IV. DISCUSSION...37 Total Government Cost......... ....... ... 38 Average Length of Stay ..................43 Incidence of Rehospitalization...elsewhere (Smith, Gaumer, Barth, & Wanene, 1988). Additionally, the average length of stay (ALOS) for a psychiatric inpatient visit in the Norfolk

  14. New species of Nuuanu (Amphipoda: Nuuanuidae) from Norfolk Island, Torres Strait and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Bopiah, A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Nuuanu, N. quintalana sp. nov., N. stuckeyorun sp. nov. and N. titaseyi sp. nov. are described from Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean and the Torres Strait, Australia, respectively. There are currently 17 described species of Nuuanu with the genus distributed world-wide.

  15. Creating an innovative youth mental health service in the United Kingdom: The Norfolk Youth Service.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jon; Clarke, Tim; Lower, Rebecca; Ugochukwu, Uju; Maxwell, Sarah; Hodgekins, Jo; Wheeler, Karen; Goff, Andy; Mack, Robert; Horne, Rebecca; Fowler, David

    2017-08-04

    Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service. The Norfolk Youth Service model is described as a service model case study. The service rationale, national and local drivers, principles, aims, model, research priorities and future directions are reported. The Norfolk Youth Service is an innovative example of mental health transformation in the United Kingdom, comprising a pragmatic, assertive and "youth-friendly" service for young people aged 14 to 25 that transcends traditional service boundaries. The service was developed in collaboration with young people and partnership agencies and is based on an engaging and inclusive ethos. The service is a social-recovery oriented, evidence-based and aims to satisfy recent policy guidance. The redesign and transformation of youth mental health services in the United Kingdom is long overdue. The Norfolk Youth Service represents an example of reform that aims to meet the developmental and transitional needs of young people at the same time as remaining youth-oriented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. 77 FR 63920 - New Jersey Transit Corporation-Acquisition Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board New Jersey Transit Corporation--Acquisition Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company The New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ Transit), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice..., N.J., from milepost 8.616 to milepost 9.905 (the Line). NJ Transit states that, under the...

  17. Country Education Profiles: Australia, and Australia-Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Australia and Australian Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island). Statistics…

  18. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  19. 75 FR 44728 - Safety Zone; Elizabeth River Private Fireworks, Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Elizabeth River Private Fireworks... Point Reach, Norfolk, Virginia in support of the Elizabeth River Private Fireworks event. This action is... mariners from the hazards associated with fireworks displays. DATES: Comments and related material must...

  20. 75 FR 26155 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ..., Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean... action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay to protect mariners from the...

  1. 75 FR 34367 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ..., Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach... intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay ] to protect mariners from the hazards...

  2. Response to Carr and Zeigler's "White Flight and White Return in Norfolk."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armor, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Refutes criticisms by L. G. Carr and D. J. Ziegler of the author's predictions concerning mandatory busing in Norfolk, Virginia. Charges that Carr and Ziegler ignored or miscalculated statistical evidence. Concludes that canceling forced busing would have brought White students back to secondary schools, as it did to elementary schools. (SG)

  3. Biochar impact on improving root growth and water retention capacity in Norfolk hard setting subsoil layer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Norfolk soil series is a well-drained soil used commonly for agricultural production in the Eastern Carolinas. Certain profile features such as a hard setting subsoil layer with high bulk density, low water holding capacity and meager soil fertility characteristics makes this soil less producti...

  4. The Pedagogical Oppression of Black Students in Norfolk City Public Schools--Myth or Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, E. Curtis

    The policies and actions of the Norfolk City Public Schools are having a devastating effect on black students. The system's suspension and suggested expulsion notice data and employment record are objective indicators that the system was not designed to educate black children. Black students are suspended nearly twice as often as white children…

  5. 78 FR 17090 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... population growth and any increase in associated traffic. B. Basis and Purpose VDOT, which owns and operates..., due to increased traffic and population growth. The Hampton Roads Planning District Commission projected a population growth of 31% by 2034. This continued increase in traffic volume in Norfolk and at...

  6. 78 FR 67215 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Fayette and Wayne Counties, Ind.; C&NC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Counties, Ind. Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and C&NC Railroad Corporation (CNUR) (collectively... Abandonments and Discontinuances of Service for NSR to abandon, and for CNUR to discontinue service over...

  7. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 7: Land use information and air quality planning. [Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Reed, W. E.; Lewis, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The pilot air quality system provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for 1971-72 winter and the annual 1972 period. During the 1971-72 winter, estimated SO2 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Coastal Inundation and Sedimentation by Storm Surge, Tides, and Waves at Norfolk, Virginia, USA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    and the passage of a storm. DATA A collection of detail coastline information, accurate topographic data, and land surface features in the... Coastline information around the Naval Station Norfolk and the Hampton Roads area, Virginia, was extracted for this study from the shoreline database of the...Google Earth Pro 5.1 (http://earth.google.com). LIDAR network provides the land detail topography in the Naval Station Norfolk. The data at a 1- m

  9. Association between sucrose intake and risk of overweight and obesity in a prospective sub-cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Tasevska, Natasha; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Griffin, Julian L; Sims, Matthew A; Richardson, Larissa; Aspinall, Sue M; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between sugar intake and overweight using dietary biomarkers in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk). Prospective cohort study. EPIC-Norfolk in the UK, recruitment between 1993 and 1997. Men and women (n 1734) aged 39-77 years. Sucrose intake was assessed using 7 d diet diaries. Baseline spot urine samples were analysed for sucrose by GC-MS. Sucrose concentration adjusted by specific gravity was used as a biomarker for intake. Regression analyses were used to investigate associations between sucrose intake and risk of BMI>25·0 kg/m2 after three years of follow-up. After three years of follow-up, mean BMI was 26·8 kg/m2. Self-reported sucrose intake was significantly positively associated with the biomarker. Associations between the biomarker and BMI were positive (β=0·25; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·43), while they were inverse when using self-reported dietary data (β=-1·40; 95 % CI -1·81, -0·99). The age- and sex-adjusted OR for BMI>25·0 kg/m2 in participants in the fifth v. first quintile was 1·54 (95 % CI 1·12, 2·12; P trend=0·003) when using biomarker and 0·56 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·77; P trend<0·001) with self-reported dietary data. Our results suggest that sucrose measured by objective biomarker but not self-reported sucrose intake is positively associated with BMI. Future studies should consider the use of objective biomarkers of sucrose intake.

  10. Factors affecting the seroprevalence of lagovirus infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Astorga, Rafael J; Napp, Sebastián; Huerta, Belén; Carbonero, Alfonso; Perea, Anselmo; Arenas, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies were carried out on wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations in Southern Spain to assess the prevalence of lagovirus infection and to identify potentially associated risk factors. A total of 619 blood and 487 liver samples from wild rabbits were collected from seven hunting areas with different Mediterranean ecosystems. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between seropositivity and an extensive set of variables. The seroprevalence was 29.2% (95% CI: 25.6-32.8) and lagoviruses were not detected in liver samples. Logistic regression indicated that seropositivity to lagoviruses was associated with seropositivity to myxomatosis, wild rabbit density, the existence of artificial feeding sites, mean maximum monthly temperatures of 20-30 °C, and annual accumulated rainfall of >600 mm.

  11. Molecular detection of Bartonella alsatica in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Andalusia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Francisco J

    2010-10-01

    A sample of 279 European wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (141 males, 138 females), captured alive in Andalusia (Spain) and belonging to the two haplotype classes previously described for this species (230 and 49 corresponding with haplotypes A and B, respectively), were tested for the presence of Bartonella alsatica DNA. Two species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction assays targeting for 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and RNA polymerase β subunit genes have been developed. Forty-eight (17.20%) rabbits were infected with B. alsatica. Two-way contingency table analyses and the calculation of Cramer's V statistic showed no differences in infection rate, considering haplotype lineage or sex. The risk of infection of human population, especially for hunters in close contact with this demonstrated human pathogen, should be considered.

  12. Spontaneous Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma in a Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wijesundera, Kavindra Kumara; Izawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Denda, Yuki; Seto, Eiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneously occurring subcutaneous mass in the left forelimb of a nine-year-old rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Clinically, edema and hemorrhage were seen around the mass. No connection of the tumor mass to the appendicular skeleton was found. The tumor was arranged in a solid growth pattern and irregular bundles, and neoplastic cells were polygonal to spindle-shape. Osteoid (positive for osteocalcin) and multinucleated giant cells were diffusely or focally seen. Neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, osterix and Ki-67, indicating the nature of osteoblasts with proliferating activity, but negative for α-smooth muscle actin, desmin or CD204. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of extraskeletal osteosarcoma was made, a very rare tumor both in laboratory and pet rabbits. PMID:24155564

  13. Structural wood products in onshore buildings at Naval Station Norfolk, 2000.

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever

    2003-01-01

    As of December 31, 2000, there were 603 buildings at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Norfolk with a combined floor area of nearly 17.3 million ft2. In one-third of these buildings, structural wood products were used in one or more major structural building applications, utilizing an estimated 11.6 million board feet of lumber, 0.4 million ft2 (3/8-in. basis) of structural...

  14. Neogene-Quaternary depositional history of the eastern US continental rise seaward of the Washington-Norfolk Canyon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, S.D.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    High quality, digitally recorded and processed, water gun and air gun seismic reflection data collected seaward of the present position of the Washington-Norfolk canyon systems reveals new information on the development of the continental rise. This includes insight into the depositional history of the Washington-Norfolk fan system and the relative importance of gravity flow depositional processes versus abyssal bottom current reworking during rise development. Three major post-Horizon A/sup u/ accretionary sequences describe major changes in depositional processes and history within the region. Accretionary sequence I (early to middle Miocene) is characterized by the initial development of a depositional bulge seaward of the Washington-Norfolk canyon systems which is modified by bottom currents on the lower-most rise to form a proto-Hatteras Outer Ridge. The predominance of chaotic and hummocky seismic facies suggests widespread reworking by abyssal bottom currents. Accretionary sequence II (middle Miocene to late Pliocene) in this area is characterized by sediment waves (lower rise) and smooth, southward dipping, parallel reflectors associated with a thick central rise drift(.) deposit off the Hudson system to the North. Washington-Norfolk fan development appears less important during this time. Bottom currents are active, but more depositional in nature than during accretionary sequence I. Accretionary sequence III (late Pliocene to Present) is marked by gravity flow processes and distinct development of the Washington-Norfolk fan on the central rise.

  15. Geological and Geochemical Analysis of Seabed Stability at the Norfolk Ocean Disposal Site. Part 2. Geochemical Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    8217, :..-..,..:...-....-....,-..-..-.... -..-.: .-,,..- ., ..,-= .. .. Z DEPARTME 4T OF OCEANOGRAP11Y(II)SCHOOL. OF SCIENCES AND flf-AI;L~ * OLD DJOMINION UNIVERSITY NORFOLK, VIRG.INIA Ln 1~iCEiAL REPORT 83-7...Principal Investigator LV- Pro ress Report For the period ending September 15, 1983 Prepared for the LECTE. Z ) ~Department of the Army niersMR11 Norfolk...AUAh5-8 1 1UIl AZ ,jS (City, ;titi, aroj Z PCode) 10. SOURCE OF FLNOlNG UES PROGRAM PROAECT TASK( IWORK UNIT ELEMENT 1.0 %0 AC23ON %0 1:,---- 𔃺-10

  16. Confirmation of the occurrence of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo, 1827) at Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea.

    PubMed

    Duffy, C A J; Scott, M

    2016-09-26

    The occurrence of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus at Norfolk Island is confirmed. Carcharhinus plumbeus occurs over the mid to outer insular shelf from 38 m to at least 53 m depth, and appears to be at least as abundant as C. galapagensis in this habitat. No C. plumbeus were caught from shore despite most fishing effort being land-based. The presence of young-of-the-year confirms C. plumbeus breeds on the Norfolk Island shelf. Size at birth and the timing of parturition appear similar to that reported for eastern Australia.

  17. High-resolution studies of rainfall on Norfolk Island. Part II: Interpolation of rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, K. N.; Hay, J. E.; Stow, C. D.; Harris, D.

    1998-07-01

    Four spatial interpolation methods are compared using rainfall data from a network of thirteen rain gauges on Norfolk Island (area 35 km 2). The purpose is to obtain spatially continuous rainfall estimates across the island, from point measurements and for different integration times, by the most effective means. The more computationally demanding method of kriging provided no significant improvement over any of the much simpler inverse-distance, Thiessen, or areal-mean methods. In order to assimilate some of the characteristics of spatially varying rainfall, and based on the comparisons performed, the inverse-distance method is recommended for interpolations using spatially dense networks.

  18. Comparison of heating devices for maintaining body temperature in anesthetized laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Sikoski, Paul; Young, Richard W; Lockard, Mandy

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of various external heating devices in maintaining body temperature in anesthetized rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were divided into 3 groups and placed on either no heating device, a circulating warm-water blanket, or a forced-air warming device. The animals underwent identical surgical procedures unrelated to the scope of the study, and body temperatures were monitored at 5-min intervals for a 45-min period. Results showed that rabbits had a statistically significant loss of body temperature during the procedure when no heating device was used, no significant loss in body temperature with the use of the forced air-warming device, and a minor increase in body temperature with the use of the circulating warm-water blanket. This study shows that external heating devices are necessary for maintenance of normal body temperature in rabbits under general anesthesia, and forced-air warming devices and circulating warm-water blankets are effective heating devices.

  19. Enzymatic Modification of Soluble Cyanophycin Using the Type II Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase from Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    PubMed

    Wiefel, Lars; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    An increased structural variety expands the number of putative applications for cyanophycin (multi-l-arginyl-poly-[l-aspartic acid], CGP). Therefore, structural modifications of CGP are of major interest; these are commonly obtained by modification and optimization of the bacterial producing strain or by chemical modification. In this study, an enzymatic modification of arginine side chains from lysine-rich CGP is demonstrated using the peptidyl arginine deiminase from Oryctolagus cuniculus, purified from Escherichia coli after heterologous expression. About 10% of the arginine side chains are converted to citrulline which corresponds to 4% of the polymer's total side chains. An inhibition of the reaction in the presence of small amounts of l-citrulline is observed, thereby explaining the low conversion rate. CGP dipeptides can be modified with about 7.5 mol% of the Asp-Arg dipeptides being converted to Asp-Cit. These results show that the enzymatic modification of CGP is feasible, opening up a whole new area of possible CGP modifications for further research.

  20. Coccidiosis in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) populations in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sofia Marques; Ferreira, Catarina; Paupério, Joana; Silva, Rodolfo Miguel; Alves, Paulo Célio; Lemos, Armando

    2015-06-01

    The European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus is a keystone species from the Iberian Peninsula where viral diseases have played a prominent role in regulating their populations. Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease caused primarily by Eimeria spp., is also thought to have important negative effects. However, few studies have investigated the impact of coccidia on wild European rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Here we estimate coccidian prevalence in rabbit faecal samples collected along transects established in two ecological regions. Six Eimeria species, with different pathogenicity, were identified (E. coecicola, E. perforans, E media, E. magna, E. irresidua and E. flavescens). Species diversity varied significantly between regions although mean oocyst excretion levels were generally low in both areas (57.61 s.d.±78.07 and 17.03 s.d.±27.72, oocyst per gram of rabbit faeces). This study is the first to describe the composition of the Eimeria spp. assemblage for wild rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula and provides fundamental information for future studies on the potential interaction of viral and parasitic diseases.

  1. Context-dependent responses to neighbours and strangers in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Monclús, Raquel; Saavedra, Irene; de Miguel, Javier

    2014-07-01

    Territorial animals defend their territories against intruders. The level of aggression directed to intruders depends on the familiarity and/or the relative threat they pose, and it could be modified by the context of the interaction. We explored in a wild social mammal, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), whether residents responded more aggressively to strangers or to neighbours (dear enemy or nasty neighbour effects, respectively). We simulated the intrusion of neighbours or strangers in different parts of the territory of wild European rabbits in a suburban area in central Spain. For that, we placed faecal pellets of neighbouring or stranger rabbits in the territory of 5 rabbit colonies. Resident rabbits counter-marked preferably the odour stations with stranger odour, compared to the ones with neighbour odour, and they did not make a difference between neighbour and a non-odour control stimuli. The results suggest that rabbits show a dear enemy effect. However, repeated intrusions escalated the responses of rabbits towards neighbours. The location within the territory or the sex of the stranger did not affect the level of response. We conclude that in rabbits the relative threat posed by the intruder triggers the intensity of the interaction.

  2. Could wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) be reservoirs for Leishmania infantum in the focus of Madrid, Spain?

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Martín-Martín, Inés; Hernández, Sonia; Molina, Ricardo

    2014-05-28

    Xenodiagnosis has previously proved that hares (Lepus granatensis) from a focus of leishmaniasis in the southwestern Madrid region (Spain) are infective to Phlebotomus perniciosus, the only vector in the area, thus playing a probable role as active reservoirs in a sylvatic transmission cycle linked to the usual domestic one. Although actions have been taken to reduce the population of this lagomorph, a high population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is present in the area, which shows detectable anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies and a large number of individuals with DNA of this parasite. With the aim to elucidate the role of this lagomorph in the focus, xenodiagnostic studies carried out with wild rabbits captured in the area demonstrate that they are able to transmit L. infantum to P. perniciosus. Moreover, the study of blood meal preferences of P. perniciosus caught in the focus during and entomological survey shows strong evidence that rabbits are contributing to the maintenance of a high sand fly population in the area. These findings suggest that wild rabbits could play some role in Leishmania transmission.

  3. Vaccination of free-living juvenile wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) against myxomatosis improved their survival.

    PubMed

    Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Devillard, Sébastien; Guénézan, Michel; Fouchet, David; Pontier, Dominique; Marchandeau, Stéphane

    2008-04-17

    For several decades, the populations of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have declined, which is partly due to myxomatosis. Vaccination against this disease is expected to contribute to restoration of rabbit populations but the actual impact of myxomatosis is not well known and vaccination might have some negative effects. We analyzed the capture-mark-recapture data obtained in a 4-year field experiment (1991-1994) in a park near Paris, France wherein 300 out of 565 seronegative juvenile rabbits were vaccinated at first capture against myxomatosis with the nontransmissible Dervaximyxo SG33 vaccine. After accounting for weight at first capture, age-class (juvenile/adult), "trap-happiness" and season (spring/autumn) of the capture event, vaccinated rabbits had 1.8-fold greater odds of surviving than the unvaccinated rabbits. The average summer survival risk for vaccinated juveniles was 0.63 (+/-0.08 S.E.) whereas it was 0.48 (+/-0.08 S.E.) for unvaccinated juvenile rabbits.

  4. A case of interscapular fibrosarcoma in a dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Petterino, Claudio; Modesto, Paola; Strata, Daniela; Vascellari, Marta; Mutinelli, Franco; Ferrari, Angelo; Ratto, Alessandra

    2009-11-01

    A 1-year-old, intact, male dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was vaccinated against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease in February 1999, and a localized reaction appeared in the same anatomic site within a few days. No regression was observed after subcutaneous antibiotic treatment. The rabbit was kept under observation, and the swelling apparently disappeared in 3 months. The owner then decided to avoid any further subcutaneous drug administration. The referring veterinarian examined the animal on July 2006 for the sudden appearance of a nodular, 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm x 2.0 cm, subcutaneous mass located over the interscapular space. Fine-needle aspiration was performed, and a population of neoplastic spindle cells, rare pleomorphic multinucleated cells, and rare leukocytes were observed. The mass was surgically removed, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, and routinely processed for histologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical diagnostic investigation. The neoplastic tissue exhibited fascicles composed of malignant spindle-shaped cells with elongated to oval hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Occasional multinucleated cells were also observed. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin but did not stain for smooth muscle actin, desmin, myoglobin, and cytokeratins (AE1/AE3). Moreover, the histochemical stain for aluminum was positive. The diagnosis was fibrosarcoma based on morphologic and immunohistochemical results. The histologic features of this neoplasm were remarkably similar to feline injection-site sarcoma.

  5. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  6. Evidence of Leishmania infantum infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a natural area in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    García, Nerea; Moreno, Inmaculada; Alvarez, Julio; de la Cruz, María Luisa; Navarro, Alejandro; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; García-Seco, Teresa; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Conty, María Luisa; Toraño, Alfredo; Prieto, Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area.

  7. Evidence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a Natural Area in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Alejandro; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; García-Seco, Teresa; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Conty, María Luisa; Toraño, Alfredo; Prieto, Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area. PMID:24724079

  8. Eimeria species in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, S M; Oryan, A; Rakhshandehroo, E; Moshiri, A; Mootabi Alavi, A

    2010-12-01

    This investigation was accomplished during February to November 2008. A total of 71 wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) of about 5 to 12 months age were collected alive from different parts of Fars province, south of Iran. Faecal sampling was carried out directly from recti and the oocysts were isolated using sedimentation and floatation techniques and the sporulated oocyst were identified based on morphological and biological characteristics. All the rabbits were apparently healthy and showed no clinical symptoms. Twenty two rabbits (31.0%) were positive for infection with Eimeria and six species including Eimeria perforans (18.3%), Eimeria magna (16.9%), Eimeria media (14.1), Eimeria irresidua (11.2%), Eimeria flavescens (4.2%), and Eimeria coecicola (2.8%) were identified. Eighty six percent of the infected rabbits showed mixed infections with two or three Eimeria species. Lack of clinical signs could be due to the agro ecological and environmental conditions of rabbit habitats specifically dry and hot climatic features in recent years. In addition, immunity induced by long term exposure to low doses of oocysts shedded by the carrier animals probably have pivotal role in impairing parasitic developmental cycles and preventing acute coccidiosis.

  9. Experimental Infection of New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) with Leporid herpesvirus 4

    PubMed Central

    Sunohara-Neilson, Janet R; Brash, Marina; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Turner, Patricia V

    2013-01-01

    Leporid herpesvirus 4 (LHV4) is a novel alphaherpesvirus recently identified in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi). Little is known about the pathogenesis or time course of disease induced by this virus. We therefore intranasally inoculated 22 female New Zealand white rabbits with 8.4 × 104 CCID50 of a clinical viral isolate. Rabbits were monitored for clinical signs, viral shedding in oculonasal secretions, and development and persistence of serum antibodies. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 22 d postinfection (dpi) to evaluate gross and microscopic changes. Clinical signs were apparent between 3 to 8 dpi, and included oculonasal discharge, respiratory distress, and reduced appetite, and viral shedding occurred between 2 and 8 dpi. Seroconversion was seen at 11 dpi and persisted to the end of the study (day 22). Severe necrohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia and marked pulmonary edema were noted by 5 dpi and were most severe at 7 dpi. Pulmonary changes largely resolved by 22 dpi. In addition, multifocal splenic necrosis was present at 5 dpi and progressed to submassive necrosis by 7 dpi. Eosinophilic herpesviral intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the nasal mucosa, skin, spleen, and lung between 3 to 14 dpi. LHV4 is a pathogen that should be considered for rabbits that present with acute respiratory disease. LHV4 infection can be diagnosed based on characteristic microscopic changes in the lungs and spleen and by virus isolation. Serum antibody levels may be used to monitor viral prevalence in colonies. PMID:24210019

  10. Experimental infection of New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) with Leporid herpesvirus 4.

    PubMed

    Sunohara-Neilson, Janet R; Brash, Marina; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Eva; Turner, Patricia V

    2013-10-01

    Leporid herpesvirus 4 (LHV4) is a novel alphaherpesvirus recently identified in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi). Little is known about the pathogenesis or time course of disease induced by this virus. We therefore intranasally inoculated 22 female New Zealand white rabbits with 8.4 × 10(4) CCID50 of a clinical viral isolate. Rabbits were monitored for clinical signs, viral shedding in oculonasal secretions, and development and persistence of serum antibodies. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 22 d postinfection (dpi) to evaluate gross and microscopic changes. Clinical signs were apparent between 3 to 8 dpi, and included oculonasal discharge, respiratory distress, and reduced appetite, and viral shedding occurred between 2 and 8 dpi. Seroconversion was seen at 11 dpi and persisted to the end of the study (day 22). Severe necrohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia and marked pulmonary edema were noted by 5 dpi and were most severe at 7 dpi. Pulmonary changes largely resolved by 22 dpi. In addition, multifocal splenic necrosis was present at 5 dpi and progressed to submassive necrosis by 7 dpi. Eosinophilic herpesviral intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the nasal mucosa, skin, spleen, and lung between 3 to 14 dpi. LHV4 is a pathogen that should be considered for rabbits that present with acute respiratory disease. LHV4 infection can be diagnosed based on characteristic microscopic changes in the lungs and spleen and by virus isolation. Serum antibody levels may be used to monitor viral prevalence in colonies.

  11. Calculation of body surface area via computed tomography-guided modeling in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Ashley M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Trestrail, Earl A; Holt, Randall W; Kent, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    To optimize the use of CT-guided modeling for the calculation of body surface area (BSA) in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Animals-12 domestic rabbits. Adult rabbits (body weight, 1 to > 4 kg) that were client-owned animals undergoing CT for disease diagnosis or deceased laboratory animals donated from other research projects were scanned with a CT scanner. Images were transferred to a radiation therapy planning software program. Image slices were captured as contiguous slices at 100 kVp and 100 mA and processed to 0.1-cm-thick sections. The length of each contoured slice was summed to calculate a final BSA measurement. Nonlinear regression analysis was then used to derive an equation for the calculation of BSA in rabbits. The constant calculated by use of this method was 9.9 (range, 9.59 to 10). The R(2) for the goodness of fit was 0.9332. The equation that best described BSA as a function of body weight for domestic rabbits with this method was as follows: BSA = (9.9 × [body weight {in grams}](2/3))/10,000. The BSA calculated via the CT-guided method yielded results similar to those obtained with equations for other similarly sized mammals and verified the use of such equations for rabbits. Additionally, this technique can be used for species that lack equations for the accurate calculation of BSA.

  12. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  13. Geologic map and digital database of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California. The quadrangle, situated in Joshua Tree National Park in the eastern Transverse Ranges physiographic and structural province, encompasses part of the northern Eagle Mountains and part of the south flank of Pinto Basin. It is underlain by a basement terrane comprising Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and Mesozoic and Mesozoic or Cenozoic hypabyssal dikes. The basement terrane is capped by a widespread Tertiary erosion surface preserved in remnants in the Eagle Mountains and buried beneath Cenozoic deposits in Pinto Basin. Locally, Miocene basalt overlies the erosion surface. A sequence of at least three Quaternary pediments is planed into the north piedmont of the Eagle Mountains, each in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial deposits. The Tertiary erosion surface is deformed and broken by north-northwest-trending, high-angle, dip-slip faults in the Eagle Mountains and an east-west trending system of high-angle dip- and left-slip faults. In and adjacent to the Conejo Well quadrangle, faults of the northwest-trending set displace Miocene sedimentary rocks and basalt deposited on the Tertiary erosion surface and Pliocene and (or) Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on the oldest pediment. Faults of this system appear to be overlain by Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on younger pediments. East-west trending faults are younger than and perhaps in part coeval with faults of the northwest-trending set. The Conejo Well database was created using ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, which are geographical information system (GIS) software products of Envronmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The database consists of the following items: (1) a map coverage showing faults and geologic contacts and units, (2) a separate coverage showing dikes, (3) a coverage showing structural data, (4) a point coverage

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  15. Endemics and adventives: Thysanoptera (Insecta) biodiversity of Norfolk, a tiny Pacific Island.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Wells, Alice

    2015-06-02

    The thrips fauna of Norfolk Island is a curious mix of endemics and adventives, with notable absences that include one major trophic group. A brief introduction is provided to the history of human settlement and its ecological impact on this tiny land mass in the western Pacific Ocean. The Thysanoptera fauna comprises about 20% endemic and almost 50% widespread invasive species, and shows limited faunal relationships to the nearest territories, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This fauna, comprising 66 species, includes among named species 29 Terebrantia and 33 Tubulifera, with four Tubulifera remaining undescribed. At least 12 species are endemics, of which 10 are mycophagous, and up to 10 further species are possibly native to the island. As with the thrips fauna of most Pacific islands, many species are widespread invasives. However, most of the common thrips of eastern Australia have not been found on Norfolk Island, and the complete absence of leaf-feeding Phlaeothripinae is notable. The following new taxa are described: in the Phlaeothripidae, Buffettithrips rauti gen. et sp. n. and Priesneria akestra sp. n.; and in the Thripidae, Scirtothrips araucariae sp. n. and Thrips merae sp. n.

  16. 78 FR 35659 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Tipton and Howard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Tipton and Howard Counties, Ind. Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a verified notice of...), in Tipton and Howard Counties, Ind. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 46068..., 2013. By the Board, Rachel D. Campbell, Director, Office of Proceedings. Derrick A. Gardner, Clearance...

  17. 78 FR 16913 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Grand Trunk Western Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Grand... exemption as it pertains to the trackage rights described in Docket No. FD 35715 \\1\\ to permit the ] trackage rights to expire 24 months after the commencement date of the agreement, or the date that the...

  18. 78 FR 60375 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Claiborne County, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Claiborne County, TN, and Bell County, KY; CSX Transportation, Inc.--Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption--in Claiborne County, TN, and Bell County, KY Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and CSX...., and milepost 85.0, at Fonde in Bell County, Ky. (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal...

  19. 75 FR 61817 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Lease and Operation Exemption--Norfolk... NSR's engineering maps. JAIL certifies that the projected annual revenues as a result of the proposed... original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35411, must be filed with the Surface...

  20. 76 FR 42163 - East Penn Railroad, L.L.C.; Lease and Operation Exemption; Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board East Penn Railroad, L.L.C.; Lease and Operation Exemption; Norfolk Southern.... East Penn Railroad, L.L.C. (ESPN), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of...

  1. 77 FR 836 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Henry and Spalding Counties, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Henry and... milepost 9.72 M (east of Trestle Road in Locust Grove), in Henry and Spalding Counties, Ga. The line...

  2. 76 FR 75602 - Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ...-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc. (HAL), a noncarrier, has filed a verified... approximately 55.5 miles of railroad extending between milepost J 302.3 near Albany West, Ga., and milepost J... control of HAL upon HAL's becoming a Class III carrier. As a result of this transaction, and pursuant to a...

  3. Studies on coccidia species of genus Eimeria from domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Toula, F H; Ramadan, H H

    1998-12-01

    Five Eimeria species were reported from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) caught from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. According to their prevalences, they were: Eimeria perfarans (65%), E. magna (45%), E. stiedae (25%), E. exigua (20%) and E. piriformis (10%). 90% of the examined rabbits were positive and mixed infection with two or three Eimeria species was most frequent. E. stiedae, E. piriformis and E. exigua were identified and recorded for the first time from rabbits in Saudi Arabia and are considered as new locality or geographical distribution.

  4. Toxoplasmosis and the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus in Victoria, Australia with suggested mechanisms for dissemination of oocysts.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, J. C.; Edmonds, J. W.; Shepherd, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Sera or serum eluates from 1697 wild rabbits [Oryctolagus cuniculus (L)], collected over the past 10 years from 24 sites in 5 geographic regions of Victoria, were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Sera generally were classified into three broad groups, negative (titre less than 10), weakly reactive (titre 10 to 100) and strongly positive (titre greater than 1000). Strongly positive sera came from rabbits collected in a small number of localized areas, most significantly the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works (MMBW) Sewerage Farm at Werribee and Mud Island in Port Phillip Bay. PMID:7026675

  5. The potential role of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, M. J.; Henderson, D.; Greig, A.; Stevenson, K.; Sharp, J. M.; Hutchings, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep has been found in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the east of Scotland. Few studies have investigated either the level of faecal contamination by rabbits on farms, or the potential infectivity of rabbit excreta. The rate of rabbit faecal contamination deposited and the numbers encountered were estimated for 21 fields on 4 farms with a paratuberculosis problem. 7357 +/- 2571 S.E.M. rabbit faecal pellets were deposited per hectare per day and up to 81,000 pellets/ha ('standing crop') were encountered in October/November 1998. Where access to rabbits was restricted, the standing crop of faeces encountered fell to 22,000 pellets/ha. The prevalence of infection with M. a. paratuberculosis was assessed for 83 rabbits from the four farms. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from rabbits on all farms with an overall prevalence of 17%. Out of 17 rabbits from which urine was available, M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from two--the first reported isolation from urine in wild rabbits. The mean number of colony-forming units per gram of infected rabbit faeces was 7.6 x 10(5) +/- 5.2 x 10(5). A relative estimate of the input of M. a. paratuberculosis onto pasture, at the stocking levels found on the four farms, showed that sheep and cattle potentially contributed 4 and 125 times more organisms/ha per day respectively than rabbits. However, rabbits could still contribute millions of M. a. paratuberculosis organisms per ha per day. Existing rabbit control measures on farms may be inadequate in reducing the risk of transmission to livestock. PMID:12825741

  6. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  7. Parallel proteomics to improve coverage and confidence in the partially annotated Oryctolagus cuniculus mitochondrial proteome.

    PubMed

    White, Melanie Y; Brown, David A; Sheng, Simon; Cole, Robert N; O'Rourke, Brian; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2011-02-01

    The ability to decipher the dynamic protein component of any system is determined by the inherent limitations of the technologies used, the complexity of the sample, and the existence of an annotated genome. In the absence of an annotated genome, large-scale proteomic investigations can be technically difficult. Yet the functional and biological species differences across animal models can lead to selection of partially or nonannotated organisms over those with an annotated genome. The outweighing of biology over technology leads us to investigate the degree to which a parallel approach can facilitate proteome coverage in the absence of complete genome annotation. When studying species without complete genome annotation, a particular challenge is how to ensure high proteome coverage while meeting the bioinformatic stringencies of high-throughput proteomics. A protein inventory of Oryctolagus cuniculus mitochondria was created by overlapping "protein-centric" and "peptide-centric" one-dimensional and two-dimensional liquid chromatography strategies; with additional partitioning into membrane-enriched and soluble fractions. With the use of these five parallel approaches, 2934 unique peptides were identified, corresponding to 558 nonredundant protein groups. 230 of these proteins (41%) were identified by only a single technical approach, confirming the need for parallel techniques to improve annotation. To determine the extent of coverage, a side-by-side comparison with human and mouse cardiomyocyte mitochondrial studies was performed. A nonredundant list of 995 discrete proteins was compiled, of which 244 (25%) were common across species. The current investigation identified 142 unique protein groups, the majority of which were detected here by only one technical approach, in particular peptide- and protein-centric two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Although no single approach achieved more than 40% coverage, the combination of three approaches (protein- and

  8. The potential role of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Daniels, M J; Henderson, D; Greig, A; Stevenson, K; Sharp, J M; Hutchings, M R

    2003-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep has been found in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the east of Scotland. Few studies have investigated either the level of faecal contamination by rabbits on farms, or the potential infectivity of rabbit excreta. The rate of rabbit faecal contamination deposited and the numbers encountered were estimated for 21 fields on 4 farms with a paratuberculosis problem. 7357 +/- 2571 S.E.M. rabbit faecal pellets were deposited per hectare per day and up to 81,000 pellets/ha ('standing crop') were encountered in October/November 1998. Where access to rabbits was restricted, the standing crop of faeces encountered fell to 22,000 pellets/ha. The prevalence of infection with M. a. paratuberculosis was assessed for 83 rabbits from the four farms. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from rabbits on all farms with an overall prevalence of 17%. Out of 17 rabbits from which urine was available, M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from two--the first reported isolation from urine in wild rabbits. The mean number of colony-forming units per gram of infected rabbit faeces was 7.6 x 10(5) +/- 5.2 x 10(5). A relative estimate of the input of M. a. paratuberculosis onto pasture, at the stocking levels found on the four farms, showed that sheep and cattle potentially contributed 4 and 125 times more organisms/ha per day respectively than rabbits. However, rabbits could still contribute millions of M. a. paratuberculosis organisms per ha per day. Existing rabbit control measures on farms may be inadequate in reducing the risk of transmission to livestock.

  9. Widespread exposure to Sarcoptes scabiei in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Casáis, R; Delibes-Mateos, M; Calvete, C; Rouco, C; Castro, F; Colomar, V; Casas-Díaz, E; Ramírez, E; Moreno, S; Prieto, J M; Villafuerte, R

    2012-02-10

    Sarcoptic mange was recently described in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in north-eastern Mediterranean Spain, the first such infection reported in this species anywhere in the world. This finding has created concern in conservationists and game managers given that an outbreak of mange after a translocation would have catastrophic consequences for naïve rabbit populations in other parts of Spain. A retrospective serosurvey using an 'in house' ELISA test based on the use of a recombinant antigen aimed at determining the rates of contact with Sarcoptes scabiei was carried out on sera from 966 rabbits collected between 1993 and 2010 in Spain. Antibodies were found in 13% of wild rabbits in 60% of the 53 areas surveyed, as well as in 16 of the 17 Spanish provinces and islands studied. Seropositive rabbits were found amongst the oldest samples analyzed and in all studied years. Antibodies were also detected in 36% of rabbits from the protected island of Dragonera, where rabbits have probably not been released since the 1970s. On Mallorca, where 89 rabbits were inspected for both lesions and antibodies, the prevalence of lesions (5.6%) was much lower than the seroprevalence (22.5%), indicating that rabbits often survive infection or that ELISA detects infected rabbits before they develop visible lesions. Seroprevalence was higher in areas with medium levels of rabbit abundance, no restocking and high rainfall. The results show that mange is widespread in rabbits and that the mite is not a recent introduction. Thus, sarcoptic mange could be considered as an enzootic disease in the wild rabbit and so prophylactic measures implemented during rabbit translocations are to be encouraged to avoid local outbreaks in naïve populations.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of orbifloxacin oral suspension in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Watson, Megan K; Wittenburg, Luke A; Bui, Christine T; Jarosz, Kira A; Gustafson, Daniel L; Johnston, Matthew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of 2 doses of orbifloxacin in rabbits. ANIMALS 6 healthy purpose-bred adult female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PROCEDURES Each of 3 rabbits received orbifloxacin at either 10 or 20 mg/kg, PO. Then, after a 1-week washout period, they received the same dose IV. Blood samples were collected from each rabbit at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma orbifloxacin concentration was measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis for data obtained following PO administration and noncompartmental and compartmental analyses for data obtained following IV administration. RESULTS Following oral administration, the mean ± SD peak plasma orbifloxacin concentration was 1.66 ± 0.51 μg/mL for rabbits administered the 10 mg/kg dose and 3.00 ± 0.97 μg/mL for rabbits administered the 20 mg/kg dose and was attained at 2 hours after drug administration. The mean ± SD half-life of orbifloxacin in plasma was 7.3 ± 1.1 hours for rabbits administered the 10 mg/kg dose and 8.6 ± 0.55 hours for rabbits administered the 20 mg/kg dose. Mean bioavailability was 52.5% for rabbits administered the 10 mg/kg dose and 46.5% for rabbits administered the 20 mg/kg dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided pharmacokinetic properties for 2 doses (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) of orbifloxacin oral suspension in rabbits. Further studies are necessary to determine the protein-binding activity of orbifloxacin in rabbits before dosages for the treatment of common pathogens in this species are recommended.

  11. Bone marrow cell composition and morphology in healthy juvenile female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Riedel, Rebekah M; de Matos, Ricardo; Schaefer, Deanna M W

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide contemporary preliminary guidelines for the morphological evaluation of bone marrow in conjunction with CBC results for healthy juvenile (3- to 6-month-old) female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). ANIMALS 22 female New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES Each rabbit was sedated, and a blood sample (3 mL) was collected from an ear artery for a CBC, after which the rabbit was euthanized. Within 5 minutes after euthanasia, bone marrow samples were obtained from the femur for cytologic and histologic evaluation. Bone marrow specimens for cytologic evaluation were stained with modified Wright stain, and those for histologic evaluation were stained with either H&E or Prussian blue stain. RESULTS The CBC results were within published reference ranges for all rabbits except 4, each of which had mild leukopenia. Cytologic assessment of bone marrow revealed a median myeloid-to-erythroid ratio of 0.7 and 2.8 megakaryocytes/low-power field (magnification, 100X), and the median percentages of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages were 11.5%, 0.1%, and 0%, respectively. The myeloid-to-erythroid ratio was not significantly correlated with any CBC variable. On histologic evaluation of bone marrow, the cellularity ranged from 30% to 50%, there were 2.1 to 7.7 megakaryocytes/hpf (magnification, 400X), and no iron stores were visible in H&E or Prussian blue-stained specimens. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present study provided contemporary preliminary guidelines for the evaluation of bone marrow in healthy laboratory rabbits.

  12. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field.

  13. Measuring Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Tooth Growth and Eruption by Fluorescence Markers and Bur Marks.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Fabia; Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Kircher, Patrick; Geyer, Hans; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and rodents possess continuously growing teeth, and dental problems are a major health issue in these species. Knowledge of tooth growth characteristics is required to adequately treat dental problems and advise owners concerning diets. Most research was performed using bur marks and measuring eruption and wear manually. However, this method cannot be applied to teeth less rostral than the first premolar; therefore, for evaluation of molars, other methods are needed. We evaluated the use of fluorochromes xylenol orange and calcein green to measure growth rates of rabbit teeth and compared this method to results obtained by manually measuring the distance between a bur mark and the gingival margin of the same tooth (eruption) and by measuring the distance between the bur mark and the apex of the same tooth on computed tomography scans (growth). Apical fluorochrome measurements correlated well with eruption and growth rates obtained with bur marks, whereas measurements coronal to the pulp cavity did not. Growth rates were approximately 1.9 mm/wk for maxillary and 2.2 mm/wk for mandibular incisors. Growth rates of premolars were 2.14 ± 0.28 mm/wk in rabbits on a grass/rice hulls/sand pelleted diet and 0.93 ± 0.18 mm/wk in rabbits on a hay diet. Growth of molars could only be assessed using the measurement in dentin on the wall of the pulp cavity, which does not account for the real growth. However, being similar to this measurement in premolars, one could hypothesize similar growth in molars as in premolars. We conclude that the application of fluorochrome staining can be used to measure tooth growth in teeth that are not accessible for bur marks or in animals that are too small to assess tooth eruption or growth by bur marks.

  14. Stationary distributions of microsatellite loci between divergent population groups of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Queney, G; Ferrand, N; Weiss, S; Mougel, F; Monnerot, M

    2001-12-01

    Previous analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in the native range of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) demonstrated the occurrence of two highly divergent (2 Myr) maternal lineages with a well-defined geographical distribution. Analysis of both protein and immunoglobulin polymorphisms are highly concordant with this pattern of differentiation. However, the present analysis of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci (with a total of 169 alleles) in 24 wild populations reveals severe allele-size homoplasy which vastly underestimates divergence between the main groups of populations in Iberia. Nonetheless, when applied to more recent historical phenomena, this same data set not only confirms the occurrence of a strong bottleneck associated with the colonization of Mediterranean France but also suggests a two-step dispersal scenario that began with gene flow from northern Spain through the Pyrenean barrier and subsequent range expansion into northern France. The strength and appropriateness of applying microsatellites to more recent evolutionary questions is highlighted by the fact that both mtDNA and protein markers lacked the allelic diversity necessary to properly evaluate the colonization of France. The well-documented natural history of European rabbit populations provides an unusually comprehensive framework within which one can appraise the advantages and limitations of microsatellite markers in revealing patterns of genetic differentiation that have occurred across varying degrees of evolutionary time. The degree of size homoplasy presented in our data should serve as a warning to those drawing conclusions from microsatellite data sets which lack a set of complementary comparative markers, or involve long periods of evolutionary history, even within a single species.

  15. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Norfolk Naval Shipyard welders. Future research is still needed in a controlled environment to develop optimized GMAW-P procedures. 14. SUBJECT TERMS...Lincoln Electric brand machines have preferred interface by Norfolk Naval Shipyard welders. Future research is still needed in a controlled ...passed through a rod or wire. The heat of the arc will quickly melt a small amount of the work piece (base metal) and the tip of the electrode

  16. Potential geothermal energy use at the Naval Air Rework Facilities, Norfolk, Virginia and Jacksonville, Florida, and at the naval shipyard, Charleston, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Costain, J.K.; Glover, L. III; Newman, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility of geothermal energy use at naval installations in Norfolk, VA, Jacksonville, FL, and Charleston, SC was assessed. Geophysical and geological studies of the above areas were performed. Engineering and economic factors, affecting potential energy use, were evaluated. The Norfolk and Jacksonville facilities are identified as candidates for geothermal systems. System costs are predicted. Economic benefits of the proposed geothermal systems are forecast, using the net present value method of predicting future income.

  17. Translocal ecologies: the Norfolk broads, the "natural," and the international phytogeographical excursion, 1911.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Laura; Matless, David

    2011-01-01

    What we consider "nature" is always historical and relational, shaped in contingent configurations of representational and social practices. In the early twentieth century, the English ecologist A.G. Tansley lamented the pervasive problem of international misunderstandings concerning the nature of "nature." In order to create some consensus on the concepts and language of ecological plant geography, Tansley founded the International Phytogeographical Excursion, which brought together leading plant geographers and botanists from North America and Europe. The first IPE in August 1911 started with the Norfolk Broads. It was led by Marietta Pallis, Tansley's former student at Cambridge. This trip and the work of Pallis, neglected in other accounts of this early period of the history of ecology, influenced the relations between Tansley and important American ecologists H.C. Cowles and F.E. Clements. Understanding "place" as a network of relations, our regional focus shows how taking international dialogue, travel and interchange into account enriches understanding of ecological practice.

  18. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Anthothela spp.) from Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons: raw and processed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Lawler, Stephanie N.

    2015-01-01

    The files in this data release are the raw and processed DNA sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Lawler et. al. titled “Coral-associated bacterial diversity is conserved at the host-genus level in deep-sea Anthothela spp." They represent a 16S rRNA gene amplicon survey of the coral's microbiome completed using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with titanium reagents. Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons are in the Atlantic Ocean and the samples were collected in 2012-2013. The raw data files associated with this study have also been submitted to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under Bioproject number PRJNA296835. For more information, please see the README file.

  19. The association between pterygium and conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence: the Norfolk Island Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Justin C; Hewitt, Alex W; Kearns, Lisa S; Griffiths, Lyn R; Mackey, David A; Coroneo, Minas T

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the association between conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (UVAF), a biomarker of ocular ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, and prevalent pterygium. We conducted a cross-sectional study on Norfolk Island, South Pacific. All permanent residents aged ≥15 were invited to participate. Participants completed a sun exposure questionnaire and underwent autorefraction and slit lamp biomicroscope examination. Area of conjunctival UVAF (sum of temporal/nasal area in right and left eyes) was determined using computerized methods. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the associations with pterygia and UVAF, respectively. Of 641 participants, 70 people (10.9%) had pterygium in one or both eyes, and prevalence was higher in males (15.0% versus 7.7%, p = 0.003). Significant independent associations with pterygium in any eye were UVAF (per 10 mm(2)) [odds ratio (OR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.28, p = 0.002], tanning skin phenotype (OR 2.17, 1.20-3.92, p = 0.010) and spending more than three-quarters of the day outside (OR 2.22, 1.20-4.09, p = 0.011). Increasing quartile of UVAF was associated with increased risk of pterygium following adjustment of age, sex and time outdoors (p(Trend) = 0.002). Independent associations with increasing UVAF (per 10 mm(2)) were decreasing age, time outdoors, skin type and male gender (all p < 0.001). UVAF area correlated well with the duration of outdoor activity (p(Trend) < 0.001). Pterygium occurs in approximately one-tenth of Norfolk Islanders. Increasing conjunctival UVAF is associated with prevalent pterygia, confirming earlier epidemiological, laboratory and ray-tracing studies that pterygia are associated with UVR. Protection from the sun should be encouraged to reduce the prevalence of pterygium in the community. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. Shoreline responses to storm impacts: North Norfolk coast, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Sue; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Recent phases of enhanced mid-latitude storminess (e.g. NW European winter of 2013 - 14) have led to a growing awareness of the considerable impacts of storms on coastal landscapes and their communities. Using aerial photography, bi-annual cross-shore profiles, detailed alongshore ground survey, and offshore/inshore wave buoy and regional tide gauge datasets, this paper considers storm impacts on the barrier coastline of North Norfolk, UK. Firstly, at Scolt Head Island, we show that the barrier dune crest has been progressively set back landwards since 2006 in three storm-related phases, with each shoreline translation being of the order of 5-8 m. However, a fourth storm produced no significant shoreline change, demonstrating that the threshold for morphological change is a function of the combined effects of still water level and wave height at the shore, the magnitude and duration of these components, and the timing of their interaction. Secondly, we consider recovery times in the system against periods of quiescence and heightened storm activity on this coast. Thirdly, it has been argued that future changes in extreme water level will be governed by mean sea level rise. Long-term rates of North Norfolk barrier retreat (1.15 m a-1, 1891-2013) have occurred under a regional rate of relative sea level rise over the 20th century of 2.7 ± 0.4 mm a-1 (Lowestoft tide gauge, 1900-2014). If there is a broad correlation between rates of barrier retreat and sea level rise, then recent increases in the rate of regional sea level rise (4.4 ± 1.1 mm a-1, 1993-2011) imply a considerable acceleration in the rate of barrier migration over the remainder of the 21st century.

  1. Effects of fentanyl on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2015-02-01

    To determine effects of increasing plasma fentanyl concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. 6 adult female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen; ventilation was controlled and body temperature maintained between 38.5° and 39.5°C. Fentanyl was administered IV by use of a computer-controlled infusion system to achieve 6 target plasma concentrations. Isoflurane MAC was determined in duplicate by use of the bracketing technique with a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma fentanyl concentration at each MAC determination. The MAC values were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Mean ± SD plasma fentanyl concentrations were 0 ± 0 ng/mL (baseline), 1.2 ± 0.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ± 0.3 ng/mL, 4.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 9.2 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 17.5 ± 2.6 ng/mL, and 36.8 ± 2.4 ng/mL. Corresponding mean values for isoflurane MAC were 1.92 ± 0.16%, 1.80 ± 0.16%, 1.60 ± 0.23%, 1.46 ± 0.22%, 1.12 ± 0.19%, 0.89 ± 0.14%, and 0.70 ± 0.15%, respectively. Isoflurane MAC for plasma fentanyl concentrations ≥ 2.2 ng/mL differed significantly from the baseline value. In 3 rabbits, excessive spontaneous movement prevented MAC determination at the highest plasma fentanyl concentration. Fentanyl reduced isoflurane MAC by approximately 60% in New Zealand White rabbits. Further studies will be needed to investigate the cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane and fentanyl combinations in rabbits; however, fentanyl may prove to be a useful adjunct to inhalation anesthesia in this species.

  2. Investigations of a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), BAFF and its receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiahui; Pospisil, Richard; Ray, Satyajit; Milton, Jacqueline; Mage, Rose G

    2009-12-30

    B-cell activation factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) is a major contributor to survival of B lymphocytes during development and maturation. A relationship between circulating BAFF levels and disease activity has been reported in patients with the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Clinical trials targeting BAFF or its receptors are currently in progress. In order to further characterize a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) model of SLE, we investigated the expression of BAFF and its receptors in non-inbred, pedigreed rabbits derived from breeding and selection based on autoantibody responses. We immunized rabbits related to previous groups that developed autoantibodies and inflammatory responses after immunizations with peptides synthesized on multiple antigen-branched polylysine backbones. Blood and sera collected before immunization and after boosts were used for health monitoring, analyses of serum autoantibody responses by ELISA and immunofluorescence. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied by flow cytometry and were the source of mRNA for quantitative PCR analyses. We hypothesized that BAFF mRNA expression and serum BAFF levels measured indirectly through BAFF receptor binding might increase in autoantibody-producing rabbits. Immunized rabbits developed elevated levels of leucocyte populations, anti-nuclear, anti-dsDNA and other autoantibodies. BR3 mRNA levels in total PBMC decreased and BAFF levels remained low and unchanged in most immunized rabbits. By flow cytometry, percentages of BAFF positive cells decreased. Percentages of transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) decreased in most rabbits from all the immunized groups. The rabbit is an important model for human autoimmune and infectious diseases, and a high quality draft rabbit genome assembly was recently completed. Human disease models developed in non-inbred pedigreed animals are better able to reflect the complexities of diseases

  3. Cross Sectional Associations between Socio-Demographic Factors and Cognitive Performance in an Older British Population: The European Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shabina A.; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nichola; Moore, Stephanie; Anuj, Serena; Matthews, Fiona E.; Wareham, Nick; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognition covers a range of abilities, such as memory, response time and language, with tests assessing either specific or generic aspects. However differences between measures may be observed within the same individuals. Objective To investigate the cross-sectional association of cognitive performance and socio-demographic factors using different assessment tools across a range of abilities in a British cohort study. Methods Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) in Norfolk Study, aged 48–92 years, underwent a cognitive assessment between 2006 and 2011 (piloted between 2004 and 2006) and were investigated over a different domains using a range of cognitive tests. Results Cognitive measures were available on 8584 men and women. Though age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with cognitive performance in multivariable analysis, different associations were observed for different cognitive tests. Increasing age was associated with increased risk of a poor performance score in all of the tests, except for the National Adult Reading Test (NART), an assessment of crystallized intelligence. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had poor performance for verbal episodic memory, Odds Ratio, OR = 1.99 (95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI 1.72, 2.31), attention OR = 1.62, (95% CI 1.39, 1.88) and prospective memory OR = 1.46, (95% CI 1.29, 1.64); however, no sex difference was observed for global cognition, OR = 1.07 (95%CI 0.93, 1.24). The association with education was strongest for NART, and weakest for processing speed. Conclusion Age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with performance on cognitive tests assessing a range of different domains. However, the magnitude of associations of these factors with different cognitive tests differed. The varying relationships seen across different tests may help explain discrepancies in results reported in the current

  4. SeepC: Preliminary Characterization of Atlantic Margin Seep Ecosystems from Norfolk Canyon to New England Seep Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, P. J.; Ball, B.; Cole, E.; LaBella, A.; Wagner, J.; Van Dover, C. L.; Skarke, A. D.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2013, more than 500 seep sites have been located along the continental margin of the eastern US using acoustic signals of gas plumes in the water column. During a July 2015 R/V Atlantis expedition, scientists used the submersible Alvin to explore seep sites at depths of 300 to 1500 m. Study sites ranged from Norfolk Canyon north to New England Seep 2 and included Baltimore, Veatch, and Shallop Canyon sites, as well as new unnamed sites between Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons. Mussels dominated the seep sites (cf ''Bathymodiolus'' childressi) but only small populations (<10s of individuals) were observed at seep sites associated with Shallop Canyon. B. heckerae, the dominant mussel at the Blake Ridge and Cape Fear seep sites (sites associated with salt diapirs off the Carolinas), appear to be present at only one of the Atlantic Margin seeps. At the Norfolk Canyon site, dead B. heckerae shells were observed and live individuals may be within the explored area. The abundant vesicomyid clam of Blake Ridge and Cape Fear sites was absent at the continental margin seeps. Apart from B. childressi, the most conspicuous megafaunal invertebrate species at the newly explored seeps was the red crab, Chaceon sp. and the rock crab, Cancer sp. These crabs are not seep endemic but they were especially abundant at the seeps and were observed to feed and mate on the seep grounds. Molecular tools will be used to explore the genetic structure of mussel populations from Norfolk to New England seeps, and stable isotope methods will be used to test for differences among sites in the source of carbon used by mussels. Alvin video transects and photo-mosaics will be used to collect data on macrofauna associated with seeps and to test the hypothesis that shallow seeps (300-500m) support more diverse assemblages than deep sites (1000-1500m).

  5. The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment in microphthalmos and nanophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Day, Alexander C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Broadway, David C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of small eyes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study. Community cross-sectional study. East England population (Norwich, Norfolk and surrounding area). 8033 participants aged 48-92 years old from the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study, Norfolk, UK with axial length measurements. Participants underwent a standardised ocular examination including visual acuity (LogMAR), ocular biometry, non-contact tonometry, autorefraction and fundal photography. A small eye phenotype was defined as a participant with one or both eyes with axial length of <21 mm. Prevalence of small eyes, proportion with visual impairment, demographic and biometric factors. Ninety-six participants (1.20%, 95% CI 0.98% to 1.46%) had an eye with axial length less than 21 mm, of which 74 (77%) were women. Prevalence values for shorter axial lengths were <20 mm: 0.27% (0.18% to 0.41%); <19 mm: 0.17% (0.11% to 0.29%); <18 mm: 0.14% (0.08% to 0.25%). Two participants (2.1%) had low vision (presenting visual acuity >0.48 LogMAR) and one participant was blind (>1.3 LogMAR). The prevalence of unilateral visual impairment was higher in participants with a small eye. Multiple logistic regression modelling showed presence of a small eye to be significantly associated with shorter height, lower body mass index, higher systolic blood pressure and lower intraocular pressure. The prevalence of people with small eyes is higher than previously thought. While small eyes were more common in women, this appears to be related to shorter height and lower body mass index. Participants with small eyes were more likely to be blind or to have unilateral visual impairment.

  6. The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment in microphthalmos and nanophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Day, Alexander C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Broadway, David C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of small eyes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study. Design Community cross-sectional study. Setting East England population (Norwich, Norfolk and surrounding area). Participants 8033 participants aged 48–92 years old from the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study, Norfolk, UK with axial length measurements. Participants underwent a standardised ocular examination including visual acuity (LogMAR), ocular biometry, non-contact tonometry, autorefraction and fundal photography. A small eye phenotype was defined as a participant with one or both eyes with axial length of <21 mm. Outcome measures Prevalence of small eyes, proportion with visual impairment, demographic and biometric factors. Results Ninety-six participants (1.20%, 95% CI 0.98% to 1.46%) had an eye with axial length less than 21 mm, of which 74 (77%) were women. Prevalence values for shorter axial lengths were <20 mm: 0.27% (0.18% to 0.41%); <19 mm: 0.17% (0.11% to 0.29%); <18 mm: 0.14% (0.08% to 0.25%). Two participants (2.1%) had low vision (presenting visual acuity >0.48 LogMAR) and one participant was blind (>1.3 LogMAR). The prevalence of unilateral visual impairment was higher in participants with a small eye. Multiple logistic regression modelling showed presence of a small eye to be significantly associated with shorter height, lower body mass index, higher systolic blood pressure and lower intraocular pressure. Conclusions The prevalence of people with small eyes is higher than previously thought. While small eyes were more common in women, this appears to be related to shorter height and lower body mass index. Participants with small eyes were more likely to be blind or to have unilateral visual impairment. PMID:23883889

  7. The Norfolk Island Eye Study (NIES): rationale, methodology and distribution of ocular biometry (biometry of the bounty).

    PubMed

    Mackey, David A; Sherwin, Justin C; Kearns, Lisa S; Ma, Yaling; Kelly, John; Chu, Byoung-Sun; Macmillan, Robert; Barbour, Julie M; Wilkinson, Colleen H; Matovinovic, Elizabeth; Cox, Hannah C; Bellis, Claire; Lea, Rod A; Quinlan, Sharon; Griffiths, Lyn R; Hewitt, Alex W

    2011-02-01

    To describe the recruitment, ophthalmic examination methods and distribution of ocular biometry of participants in the Norfolk Island Eye Study, who were individuals descended from the English Bounty mutineers and their Polynesian wives. All 1,275 permanent residents of Norfolk Island aged over 15 years were invited to participate, including 602 individuals involved in a 2001 cardiovascular disease study. Participants completed a detailed questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive eye assessment including stereo disc and retinal photography, ocular coherence topography and conjunctival autofluorescence assessment. Additionally, blood or saliva was taken for DNA testing. 781 participants aged over 15 years were seen (54% female), comprising 61% of the permanent Island population. 343 people (43.9%) could trace their family history to the Pitcairn Islanders (Norfolk Island Pitcairn Pedigree). Mean anterior chamber depth was 3.32mm, mean axial length (AL) was 23.5mm, and mean central corneal thickness was 546 microns. There were no statistically significant differences in these characteristics between persons with and without Pitcairn Island ancestry. Mean intra-ocular pressure was lower in people with Pitcairn Island ancestry: 15.89mmHg compared to those without Pitcairn Island ancestry 16.49mmHg (P = .007). The mean keratometry value was lower in people with Pitcairn Island ancestry (43.22 vs. 43.52, P = .007). The corneas were flatter in people of Pitcairn ancestry but there was no corresponding difference in AL or refraction. Our study population is highly representative of the permanent population of Norfolk Island. Ocular biometry was similar to that of other white populations. Heritability estimates, linkage analysis and genome-wide studies will further elucidate the genetic determinants of chronic ocular diseases in this genetic isolate.

  8. Cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Sikoski, Paul; Trybus, James; Cline, J Mark; Muhammad, F Salih; Eckhoff, Andrew; Tan, Josh; Lockard, Mandy; Jolley, Tammy; Britt, Susan; Kock, Nancy D

    2008-06-01

    Pituitary adenoma in a rabbitA 44-mo-old, female, nulliparous New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) presented with bilaterally diffusely enlarged mammary glands with enlarged, discolored teats that exuded brown, mucoid discharge. The complete blood count and serum chemistry panels were within normal limits, bacteria were not isolated from a culture of the discharge, and the clinical signs did not resolve with antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography and serum prolactin levels supported the diagnosis of mammary gland dysplasia, possibly due to a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma, mammary hyperplasia, dysplasia, and cystic mammary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of abundant prolactin secreting cells in the pituitary adenoma. This is the second report of hyperprolactinemia with mammary dysplasia in rabbits, and the first report of cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a rabbit.

  9. Cystic Mammary Adenocarcinoma Associated with a Prolactin-secreting Pituitary Adenoma in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Sikoski, Paul; Trybus, James; Cline, J Mark; Muhammad, F Salih; Eckhoff, Andrew; Tan, Josh; Lockard, Mandy; Jolley, Tammy; Britt, Susan; Kock, Nancy D

    2008-01-01

    A 44-mo-old, female, nulliparous New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) presented with bilaterally diffusely enlarged mammary glands with enlarged, discolored teats that exuded brown, mucoid discharge. The complete blood count and serum chemistry panels were within normal limits, bacteria were not isolated from a culture of the discharge, and the clinical signs did not resolve with antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography and serum prolactin levels supported the diagnosis of mammary gland dysplasia, possibly due to a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma, mammary hyperplasia, dysplasia, and cystic mammary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of abundant prolactin secreting cells in the pituitary adenoma. This is the second report of hyperprolactinemia with mammary dysplasia in rabbits, and the first report of cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a rabbit. PMID:18589874

  10. Observations on the seasonal incidence of myxomatosis and its interactions with helminth parasites in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Boag, B

    1988-07-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were collected monthly over a 10-yr period and the incidence of myxomatosis and the size of helminth populations were recorded. Myxomatosis occurred annually, always as an epidemic in the latter half of the year and was associated with both an increase in the percentage of animals infected and the size of the infections of the nematodes Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus and the cestode Mosgovoyia pectinata. It is suggested that myxomatosis had the effect of reducing the rabbits' overall immune response to infection and that due to the regular annual occurrence of myxomatosis, the resulting increase in the size of helminth infections must be considered an integral part of the population dynamics of these parasites.

  11. The effect of single and concomitant pathogen infections on condition and fecundity of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Lello, J; Boag, B; Hudson, P J

    2005-12-01

    We assessed the effect of two pathogens (myxoma virus and Eimeria stiedae) and five macroparasites (gastrointestinal helminth species) of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) upon total host body mass and abdominal fat level. Additionally, we assessed the effects of these organisms on the number of foetuses in adult females during the peak breeding period. Both mass of abdominal fat and total body mass of the rabbit were negatively associated with myxoma virus infection and increasing helminth species richness. Total body mass was also negatively associated with the protozoan parasite E. steidae. No relationship was found between any of the parasites/pathogens and the number of foetuses in adult females, although only relatively small sample sizes were available for this section of the analysis. Increasing host body mass was positively associated with number of foetuses and we propose that mass reduction caused by the pathogen and parasite species could also have the consequence of reducing foetal number.

  12. Effect of pre-slaughter environment on some physiological parameters and meat quality in New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Nilufer; Coban, Omer; Lacin, Ekrem; Ceylan, Ziya Gokalp; Ozdemir, Dervis; Ozkan, Asuman

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pre-slaughter environment on physiology and meat quality in New Zealand rabbits. Pre-slaughter environment consisted of combined effects of social and non-social factors. For the experiment, 18 male New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 3 months of age, were used. Some biochemical and meat quality parameters of the animals were measured, and the results were compared with the control group. The pre-slaughter environment significantly influenced some biochemical and meat quality parameters (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). It is concluded that pre-slaughter environment negatively affected the welfare status and decreased the meat quality in New Zealand rabbits.

  13. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus.

    PubMed

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. Other leporid genera, Sylvilagus and Lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to MYXV, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. The protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I/DDX58) in sensing MYXV in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family evolution in the three leporid genera. This viral-sensor family also includes the melanoma differentiation-associated factor 5 (MDA5/IFIH1), and the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2/DHX58). Considering specifically the MYXV susceptible host (European rabbit) and one of the virus natural long-term hosts (Sylvilagus bachmani, brush rabbit), the amino acid differences of positively selected sites in RIG-I between the two species were located in the protein region responsible for viral RNA recognition and binding, the repressor domain. Such differences might play a determinant role in how MYXV is sensed. When looking for episodic selection on MDA5 and LGP2 of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), we also uncovered evidence of selective pressures that might be exerted by a species-specific leporipoxvirus, the Shope fibroma virus. Finally, a putative alternative splicing case was identified in Oryctolagus and Lepus MDA5 isoforms, corresponding to the deletion of one specific exon. This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV.

  14. A land use and environmental impact analysis of the Norfolk-Portsmouth SMSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchel, W. B.; Berlin, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remote sensing techniques for land use and environmental assessment in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area is discussed. Data cover the use of high altitude aircraft and satellite remote sensing data for: (1) identifying various heirarchial levels of land use, (2) monitoring land use changes for repetitive basis, (3) assessing the impact of competing land uses, and (4) identifying areas of potential environmental deterioration. High altitude aircraft photographs (scale 1:120,000) acquired in 1959, 1970, and 1972, plus Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) color composite images acquired in 1972 were used for the land use and environmental assessments. The high altitude aircraft photography, as expected, was successfully used to map Level 1, Level 2, as well as some urban Level 3 land use categories. However, the detail of land use analysis obtainable from the ERTS imagery exceeded the expectations for the U.S. Geological Survey's land use classification scheme. Study results are consistent with the initial investigation which determined Level 1 land use change to be 16.7 square km per year.

  15. Legacy of mutiny on the Bounty: founder effect and admixture on Norfolk Island.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, Stuart; Bellis, Claire; Lea, Rod A; Cox, Hannah; Dyer, Tom; Blangero, John; Visscher, Peter M; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2010-01-01

    The population of Norfolk Island, located off the eastern coast of Australia, possesses an unusual and fascinating history. Most present-day islanders are related to a small number of the 'Bounty' mutineer founders. These founders consisted of Caucasian males and Polynesian females and led to an admixed present-day population. By examining a single large pedigree of 5742 individuals, spanning >200 years, we analyzed the influence of admixture and founder effect on various cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related traits. On account of the relative isolation of the population, on average one-third of the genomes of present-day islanders (single large pedigree individuals) is derived from 17 initial founders. The proportion of Polynesian ancestry in the present-day individuals was found to significantly influence total triglycerides, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. For various cholesterol traits, the influence of ancestry was less marked but overall the direction of effect for all CVD-related traits was consistent with Polynesian ancestry conferring greater CVD risk. Marker-derived homozygosity was computed and agreed with measures of inbreeding derived from pedigree information. Founder effect (inbreeding and marker-derived homozygosity) significantly influenced height. In conclusion, both founder effect and extreme admixture have substantially influenced the genetic architecture of a variety of CVD-related traits in this population.

  16. Spatial distribution of mercury in the sediments and riparian environment of the River Yare, Norfolk, UK.

    PubMed

    Birkett, J W; Noreng, J M K; Lester, J N

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) were determined in sediments and riparian (bankside) soils from the River Yare, Norfolk, UK to assess the current extent of contamination arising from a historical point source discharge. The results demonstrate that the spatial distribution pattern in surficial sediments and soils follows that of a distinct pollution plume with an initial increase 2-3 km downstream from the point source discharge at Whitlingham Sewage Treatment Works (STW) outfall. Average T-Hg concentrations in the surficial sediments ranged from 0.1 to 8.13 mg kg(-1); bankside soil concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 2.63 mg kg(-1). There has been a decline in downstream background sediment concentrations of Hg over time. This is likely to be the result of burial by fresh relatively uncontaminated sediments and possibly in the lower reach as a consequence of the influence of the freshwater-saline interface occurring near Cantley. Channel morphology was also shown to be an important factor in determining the large variations of Hg concentrations between sample points within transects. The predominant source of Hg to the soils appears to be due to dredging and the deposition of sediments during flooding.

  17. A land use and environmental impact analysis of the Norfolk-Portsmouth SMSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchel, W. B.; Berlin, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remote sensing techniques for land use and environmental assessment in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area is discussed. Data cover the use of high altitude aircraft and satellite remote sensing data for: (1) identifying various heirarchial levels of land use, (2) monitoring land use changes for repetitive basis, (3) assessing the impact of competing land uses, and (4) identifying areas of potential environmental deterioration. High altitude aircraft photographs (scale 1:120,000) acquired in 1959, 1970, and 1972, plus Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) color composite images acquired in 1972 were used for the land use and environmental assessments. The high altitude aircraft photography, as expected, was successfully used to map Level 1, Level 2, as well as some urban Level 3 land use categories. However, the detail of land use analysis obtainable from the ERTS imagery exceeded the expectations for the U.S. Geological Survey's land use classification scheme. Study results are consistent with the initial investigation which determined Level 1 land use change to be 16.7 square km per year.

  18. Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Results Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12 months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). Conclusions SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions. PMID:24338086

  19. Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12 months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions.

  20. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7-13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711

  2. GRM crustal magnetic anomalies: Separating the Lord Howe Rise and Norfolk Ridge submarine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple source bodies often lie within the resolution element of the MAGSAT and POGO data. Small weak sources lying near larger stronger sources will tend to be missed, although they do contribute to the total observed anomaly. Lower elevation magnetic anomaly surveys such as GRM alleviate this problem through the combined effects of significantly greater resolution and stronger signal amplitude. This permits the detection of smaller source bodies, and analysis of their structure and nature. The improvement a GRM will provide is demonstrated in the Lord Howe Rise/Norfolk Ridge area east of Australia, between the Tasman Sea and south Fiji Basin. The submarine features origin have important plate tectonic implications. The Lord Howe Rise (LHR) is a continental fragment broken off from Australia by the opening of the Tasman Sea. It is a wide, shallow structure lying between 160 and 165 deg longitude at 23 to 37 deg S latitude. Seismic refraction data show the LHR crust extending to depths in excess of 20 km.

  3. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus), but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) and Hare (Lepus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus) or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus). Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often revealed in situations of

  4. Effect of age on the relationship of occupational social class with prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. A population-based cross-sectional study from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer - Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Myint, Phyo K; Luben, Robert N; Welch, Ailsa A; Bingham, Sheila A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on cardiovascular risk profile in different socioeconomic status were focused on younger populations and many of them have not been able to take into account age and sex differences. To investigate the relationship of occupational social class with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in younger (<65 years) and older (>or=65 years) men and women. A population-based-cross sectional study was conducted in a general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom. Participants were 23,085 men and women aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practice age-sex registers as part of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases were examined. The prevalence of smoking was significantly higher in those in manual social classes particularly in the younger (<65) age group. Younger women in manual social classes were more likely to be smokers compared to older women in the same social class. Being in manual social classes was associated with higher cholesterol levels in women but lower cholesterol levels in men. Manual social class was associated with higher physical activity in those younger than 65 years but this association was reversed in those 65 years or older. Occupational social class is differently related to cardiovascular risk factors in individuals depending on their age and sex. This may reflect differences in behavior at work and leisure, which vary by sex and pre- and postretirement. Interventions to promote health and reduce social inequalities need to take age and gender into account. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Evaluation of Norfolk Harbor Deepening Project (A Study on Its Possible Impact on Oysters, Hard Clams and Oyster Drills).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-20

    Virginia 23062 DTIC 20 June 1984 ELECTE ~L&JMAR 12 i9BB IA B! ,", Contract No. DACW65-84-M-0056 -Ap’oved to: publicO t01b0 I D)WtbuZidon Unlimited .~Norfolk...impact on the transport of the larval oysters and hard clams during their planktonic stage. Oysters and hard clams are widely tolerant to high salinity...planktonic for about 2 weeks and during this period are transported by currents. This latter aspect will be covered later in our discussion on oysters. ~i

  6. Nutritional methods in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk.

    PubMed

    Bingham, S A; Welch, A A; McTaggart, A; Mulligan, A A; Runswick, S A; Luben, R; Oakes, S; Khaw, K T; Wareham, N; Day, N E

    2001-06-01

    To describe methods and dietary habits of a large population cohort. Prospective assessment of diet using diet diaries and food-frequency questionnaires, and biomarkers of diet in 24-h urine collections and blood samples. Free living individuals aged 45 to 75 years living in Norfolk, UK. Food and nutrient intake from a food-frequency questionnaire on 23 003 men and women, and from a 7-day diet diary from 2117 men and women. Nitrogen, sodium and potassium excretion was obtained from single 24-h urine samples from 300 individuals in the EPIC cohort. Plasma vitamin C was measured for 20 846 men and women. The food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food diary were able to determine differences in foods and nutrients between the sexes and were reliable as judged by repeated administrations of each method. Plasma vitamin C was significantly higher in women than men. There were significant differences in mean intake of all nutrients measured by the two different methods in women but less so in men. The questionnaire overestimated dairy products and vegetables in both men and women when compared with intakes derived from the diary, but underestimated cereal and meat intake in men. There were some consistent trends with age in food and nutrient intakes assessed by both methods, particularly in men. Correlation coefficients between dietary intake assessed from the diary and excretion of nitrogen and potassium in a single 24-h urine sample ranged from 0.36 to 0.47. Those comparing urine excretion and intake assessed from the FFQ were 0.09 to 0.26. The correlations between plasma vitamin C and dietary intake from the first FFQ, 24-h recall or diary were 0.28, 0.35 and 0.40. EPIC Norfolk is one of the largest epidemiological studies of nutrition in the UK and the largest on which plasma vitamin C has been obtained. Methods for obtaining food and nutrient intake are described in detail. The results shown here for food and nutrient intakes can be compared with results from

  7. High resolution studies of rainfall on Norfolk Island, Part III: A model for rainfall redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, S. G.; Dirks, K. N.; Stow, C. D.

    1998-07-01

    A dense network of high resolution rain gauges has provided data on spatial scales of about 1.5 km and time scales of 15 sec on Norfolk Island, where the topography is dominated by a 300 m hill that is found to modify the spatial distribution of rainfall depending on wind direction. A correlation method is used to track coherent storm motion so as to identify the dominant wind direction and speed. Transects are selected across the island in the wind direction and the rainfall interpolated along each transect. It is found that there is often a decrease in rainfall upwind of the hill, followed by an increase downwind of the peak. The ratio of downwind to upwind catches increases linearly with wind speed. These observations do not accord with the often accepted explanation using a seeder-feeder mechanism. A simple wind drift model is proposed, in which raindrops follow trajectories modified by the perturbed wind flow over the hill. The transects are approximated by bell-shaped hill profiles. Analytic solutions for potential flow over a cylinder are then used to find a streamline with a bell shape similar to a topography transect through the hill and aligned with the wind direction. This streamline is used as the solid surface boundary, thereby giving a direct analytic flow field for the bell-shaped hill. A streamfunction is found for drop motion, allowing rainfall variations to be predicted. A parameterisation is developed that explains the shape and magnitude of the observed rainfall variations along a transect. Agreement between the rudimentary model and observations is found possible to within a few percent. This indicates that the wind drift process is viable as the dominating mechanism for determining rainfall distribution in the presence of low hills when low level moisture is absent.

  8. Area deprivation, individual socioeconomic status and low vision in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David C; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, K T; Foster, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    Poor vision is associated with lower socioeconomic status, but less is known about its relationship to area deprivation. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study Norfolk Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of 8563 participants with completed eye examinations. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured using standard protocols and low vision (LV) was defined as Snellen equivalent (VA) ≤6/12 in the better eye. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) was defined as improvement of VA by 2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution lines with pinhole. The lowest 5% of index of multiple deprivation rank was used to define the most deprived areas. The index of multiple deprivation is a composite measure using routine data from seven domains of deprivation to identify the most disadvantaged areas in England. Logistic regression was used to examine univariable and multivariable associations with LV. Ninety-six participants with missing data were excluded, leaving 8467 for analysis (98.9%). The mean age of the study group was 68.7 years (SD=8.1, range=48-92), with 55.1% women. LV was present in 263 participants (3.1%, 95% CI 2.7 to 3.5%). LV was associated with deprivation after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and cataract surgery (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6, p=0.03), but this effect was mitigated by additionally adjusting for URE (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4, p=0.09). People with LV are more likely to live in the most deprived areas; this association was independent of socioeconomic status and partly mediated by URE. Targeting URE in deprived areas may reduce health inequalities associated with LV.

  9. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Saltmarsh Benthic Foraminiferal Communities from North Norfolk, England.

    PubMed

    Saad, Salha A; Wade, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Time series foraminiferal data were obtained from samples collected from three sites at Brancaster Overy Staithe, Burnham Overy Staithe and Thornham on the North Norfolk coast over a 1-year period. At each collection point, six environmental variables-temperature, chlorophyll, sand, mud, pH and salinity-were also measured. The principle aim of this study was to examine the benthic foraminiferal fauna in regard to the temporal variability of foraminiferal abundance, seasonal trend, dominant species, species diversity and the impact of environmental variables on the foraminiferal communities in the top 1 cm of sediment over a 1-year time series. The foraminiferal assemblages at the three sites were dominated by three species: Haynesina germanica, Ammonia sp. and Elphidium williamsoni. Foraminiferal species showed considerable seasonal and temporal fluctuation throughout the year at the three investigated sites. The foraminiferal assemblage at the three low marsh zones showed a maximum abundance in autumn between September and November and a minimum abundance observed between July and August. There were two separate peaks in the abundance of Ammonia sp. and E. williamsoni, one in spring and another in autumn. In contrast, H. germanica showed a single peak in its abundance in autumn. A generalized additive modelling approach was used to explain the variation in the observed foraminiferal abundance and to estimate the significant impact of each of the environmental variables on living foraminiferal assemblages, with taxa abundance as the dependent variable. When included in the model as predictors, most of the environmental variables contributed little in explaining the observed variation in foraminiferal species abundance. However, the hypotheses for differences amongst sites, salinity and pH were significant and explained most of the variability in species relative abundance.

  10. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measures and Cognitive Function in the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cognitive function in a population of older British adults. Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort study underwent ophthalmic and cognitive assessment. Measurements of RNFL thickness were made using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Cognitive testing included a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SF-MMSE), an animal naming task, a letter cancellation task, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the National Adult Reading Test (NART), and the Paired Associates Learning Test. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess associations of RNFL thickness with cognitive test scores, adjusted for age, sex, education level, social class, visual acuity, axial length, and history of cataract surgery. Data were available from 5563 participants with a mean age of 67 years. A thicker HRT-derived RNFL thickness was associated with better scores for the SF-MMSE (0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], [0.02, 0.10], P = 0.005), HVLT (0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.29]; P = 0.014), and NART (-0.24, 95% CI [-0.46, -0.02], P = 0.035). The associations of RNFL thickness with SF-MMSE and HVLT remained significant following further adjustment for NART. We found a significant association between HRT-derived RNFL thickness and scores from cognitive tests assessing global function, recognition, learning, episodic memory, and premorbid intelligence. However, the associations were weak and not currently of predictive value. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the nature of these associations, and identify biological mechanisms.

  11. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma. Design Community based cross sectional observational study. Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas. Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma. Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma. Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma. Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. PMID:28903935

  12. Associations with retinal nerve fiber layer measures in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Broadway, David C; Luben, Robert; Sherwin, Justin C; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-07-26

    To describe GDxVCC retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measures and associations in a predominantly white British population. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a large multicenter cohort study, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. RNFL measurements were taken using the GDxVCC. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess associations of RNFL measures with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), height, blood pressure, social class, education level, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, intraocular pressure, and lens status. Models were linearly adjusted for typical scan score to handle scans with atypical retardation. There were complete data from 11,030 eyes of 6309 participants with mean age 68 years (48-90 years). Older age (-1.53 μm/decade [95% confidence interval {CI} -1.73, -1.33], P < 0.001), male sex (-0.44 μm [95% CI -0.04, -0.84], P = 0.031), shorter axial length (-0.15 μm/mm [95% CI -0.02, -0.28], P = 0.024), and pseudophakia (-0.49 μm [95% CI -0.94, -0.04], P = 0.033) were associated with thinner RNFL after adjustment for possible confounders. Higher BMI was associated with a thinner RNFL in men only (-0.30 μm/5 kg/m(2) [95% CI -0.58, -0.02], P = 0.039). This analysis of associations with RNFL thickness in a largely healthy population may provide insight into the determinants of glaucoma, suggesting higher risk in those who are older, in men, and in men with a higher BMI.

  13. Area deprivation, individual socioeconomic status and low vision in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David C; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, K T; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor vision is associated with lower socioeconomic status, but less is known about its relationship to area deprivation. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study Norfolk Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of 8563 participants with completed eye examinations. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured using standard protocols and low vision (LV) was defined as Snellen equivalent (VA) ≤6/12 in the better eye. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) was defined as improvement of VA by 2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution lines with pinhole. The lowest 5% of index of multiple deprivation rank was used to define the most deprived areas. The index of multiple deprivation is a composite measure using routine data from seven domains of deprivation to identify the most disadvantaged areas in England. Logistic regression was used to examine univariable and multivariable associations with LV. Results Ninety-six participants with missing data were excluded, leaving 8467 for analysis (98.9%). The mean age of the study group was 68.7 years (SD=8.1, range=48–92), with 55.1% women. LV was present in 263 participants (3.1%, 95% CI 2.7 to 3.5%). LV was associated with deprivation after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and cataract surgery (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6, p=0.03), but this effect was mitigated by additionally adjusting for URE (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4, p=0.09). Conclusions People with LV are more likely to live in the most deprived areas; this association was independent of socioeconomic status and partly mediated by URE. Targeting URE in deprived areas may reduce health inequalities associated with LV. PMID:24179053

  14. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measures and Cognitive Function in the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cognitive function in a population of older British adults. Methods Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort study underwent ophthalmic and cognitive assessment. Measurements of RNFL thickness were made using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Cognitive testing included a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SF-MMSE), an animal naming task, a letter cancellation task, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the National Adult Reading Test (NART), and the Paired Associates Learning Test. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess associations of RNFL thickness with cognitive test scores, adjusted for age, sex, education level, social class, visual acuity, axial length, and history of cataract surgery. Results Data were available from 5563 participants with a mean age of 67 years. A thicker HRT-derived RNFL thickness was associated with better scores for the SF-MMSE (0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], [0.02, 0.10], P = 0.005), HVLT (0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.29]; P = 0.014), and NART (−0.24, 95% CI [−0.46, −0.02], P = 0.035). The associations of RNFL thickness with SF-MMSE and HVLT remained significant following further adjustment for NART. Conclusions We found a significant association between HRT-derived RNFL thickness and scores from cognitive tests assessing global function, recognition, learning, episodic memory, and premorbid intelligence. However, the associations were weak and not currently of predictive value. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the nature of these associations, and identify biological mechanisms. PMID:27092718

  15. Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Glaucoma-Related Quantitative Traits in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We examined the association of corneal hysteresis (CH) with Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT)– and Glaucoma Detection with Variable Corneal Compensation scanning laser polarimeter (GDxVCC)–derived measures in a British population. Methods. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study—the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. Ocular response analyzer (ORA), HRT3, and GDxVCC measurements were taken at the research clinic. Three ORA measurements were taken per eye, and the single best value used. Participants meeting predefined criteria were referred for a second examination, including Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the associations of CH with HRT and GDxVCC parameters, adjusted for disc area. The GDxVCC analyses were adjusted further for typical scan score to handle atypical retardation. Results. There were complete research clinic data from 5134 participants. Corneal hysteresis was associated positively with HRT rim area (P < 0.001), and GDxVCC retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) average thickness (P = 0.006) and modulation (P = 0.003), and associated negatively with HRT linear cup-to-disc ratio (LCDR, P < 0.001), after adjustment for Goldmann-correlated IOP and other possible confounders. In the 602 participants undergoing the second examination, CH was associated negatively with LCDR (P = 0.008) after adjustment for GAT, CCT, and other possible confounders. Conclusions. Lower CH was associated with HRT and GDxVCC parameters in a direction that is seen in glaucoma and with ageing. Further research is required to establish if this is a causal relationship, or due to residual confounding by age, IOP, or CCT. PMID:24334448

  16. Associations With Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measures in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Broadway, David C.; Luben, Robert; Sherwin, Justin C.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To describe GDxVCC retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measures and associations in a predominantly white British population. Methods. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a large multicenter cohort study, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. RNFL measurements were taken using the GDxVCC. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess associations of RNFL measures with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), height, blood pressure, social class, education level, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, intraocular pressure, and lens status. Models were linearly adjusted for typical scan score to handle scans with atypical retardation. Results. There were complete data from 11,030 eyes of 6309 participants with mean age 68 years (48–90 years). Older age (−1.53 μm/decade [95% confidence interval {CI} −1.73, −1.33], P < 0.001), male sex (−0.44 μm [95% CI −0.04, −0.84], P = 0.031), shorter axial length (−0.15 μm/mm [95% CI −0.02, −0.28], P = 0.024), and pseudophakia (−0.49 μm [95% CI −0.94, −0.04], P = 0.033) were associated with thinner RNFL after adjustment for possible confounders. Higher BMI was associated with a thinner RNFL in men only (−0.30 μm/5 kg/m2 [95% CI −0.58, −0.02], P = 0.039). Conclusions. This analysis of associations with RNFL thickness in a largely healthy population may provide insight into the determinants of glaucoma, suggesting higher risk in those who are older, in men, and in men with a higher BMI. PMID:23821204

  17. Laser scanning tomography in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: principal components and associations.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-10-09

    To describe Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measures, their principal components, and their associations in a British population. The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study. Measurements were taken with the HRT-2 and the software subsequently updated to yield HRT-3 parameters. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify distinct components of the HRT variables. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine associations of these components with age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, social class, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, IOP, and lens status. Complete data were available from 10,859 eyes of 6430 participants with a mean age of 68 years. Principal components analysis identified three components with an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 79.9% of the variance of all the HRT measures. These were named cup, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and rim based on the factor loadings they were most correlated with. Older age was significantly associated with a greater cup (P = 0.003), smaller RNFL (P < 0.001), and smaller rim (P < 0.001). Female sex (P = 0.001), higher education (P < 0.001), and shorter axial length (P < 0.001) were associated with a greater RNFL. Lower BMI and higher IOP were associated with a greater cup (both, P < 0.001) and a smaller rim (BMI, P = 0.001; IOP, P < 0.001). Heidelberg Retina Tomograph measures in this cohort were largely explained by three principal components related to optic disc cup, RNFL, and rim. Associations with cup and rim were distinct to associations with RNFL, suggesting different underlying determinants.

  18. Laser Scanning Tomography in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: Principal Components and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To describe Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measures, their principal components, and their associations in a British population. Methods. The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study. Measurements were taken with the HRT-2 and the software subsequently updated to yield HRT-3 parameters. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify distinct components of the HRT variables. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine associations of these components with age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, social class, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, IOP, and lens status. Results. Complete data were available from 10,859 eyes of 6430 participants with a mean age of 68 years. Principal components analysis identified three components with an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 79.9% of the variance of all the HRT measures. These were named cup, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and rim based on the factor loadings they were most correlated with. Older age was significantly associated with a greater cup (P = 0.003), smaller RNFL (P < 0.001), and smaller rim (P < 0.001). Female sex (P = 0.001), higher education (P < 0.001), and shorter axial length (P < 0.001) were associated with a greater RNFL. Lower BMI and higher IOP were associated with a greater cup (both, P < 0.001) and a smaller rim (BMI, P = 0.001; IOP, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph measures in this cohort were largely explained by three principal components related to optic disc cup, RNFL, and rim. Associations with cup and rim were distinct to associations with RNFL, suggesting different underlying determinants. PMID:24030456

  19. Corneal biomechanical properties and glaucoma-related quantitative traits in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-07

    We examined the association of corneal hysteresis (CH) with Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT)- and Glaucoma Detection with Variable Corneal Compensation scanning laser polarimeter (GDxVCC)-derived measures in a British population. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study--the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. Ocular response analyzer (ORA), HRT3, and GDxVCC measurements were taken at the research clinic. Three ORA measurements were taken per eye, and the single best value used. Participants meeting predefined criteria were referred for a second examination, including Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the associations of CH with HRT and GDxVCC parameters, adjusted for disc area. The GDxVCC analyses were adjusted further for typical scan score to handle atypical retardation. There were complete research clinic data from 5134 participants. Corneal hysteresis was associated positively with HRT rim area (P < 0.001), and GDxVCC retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) average thickness (P = 0.006) and modulation (P = 0.003), and associated negatively with HRT linear cup-to-disc ratio (LCDR, P < 0.001), after adjustment for Goldmann-correlated IOP and other possible confounders. In the 602 participants undergoing the second examination, CH was associated negatively with LCDR (P = 0.008) after adjustment for GAT, CCT, and other possible confounders. Lower CH was associated with HRT and GDxVCC parameters in a direction that is seen in glaucoma and with ageing. Further research is required to establish if this is a causal relationship, or due to residual confounding by age, IOP, or CCT.

  20. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2017-09-13

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma.Design Community based cross sectional observational study.Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas.Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma.Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma.Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma.Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Distribution of conjunctival ultraviolet autoflourescence in a population-based study: the Norfolk Island Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, J C; Hewitt, A W; Kearns, L S; Coroneo, M T; Griffiths, L R; Mackey, D A

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (UVAF) in an adult population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in the genetic isolate of Norfolk Island, South Pacific Ocean. In all, 641 people, aged 15 to 89 years, were recruited. UVAF and standard (control) photographs were taken of the nasal and temporal interpalpebral regions bilaterally. Differences between the groups for non-normally distributed continuous variables were assessed using the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney ranksum test. Trends across categories were assessed using Cuzick's non-parametric test for trend or Kendall's rank correlation τ. Results Conjunctival UVAF is a non-parametric trait with a positively skewed distribution. Median amount of conjunctival UVAF per person (sum of four measurements; right nasal/temporal and left nasal/temporal) was 28.2 mm2 (interquartile range 14.5–48.2). There was an inverse, linear relationship between UVAF and advancing age (P<0.001). Males had a higher sum of UVAF compared with females (34.4 mm2 vs23.2 mm2, P<0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences in area of UVAF between right and left eyes or between nasal and temporal regions. Conclusion We have provided the first quantifiable estimates of conjunctival UVAF in an adult population. Further data are required to provide information about the natural history of UVAF and to characterise other potential disease associations with UVAF. UVR protective strategies should be emphasised at an early age to prevent the long-term adverse effects on health associated with excess UVR. PMID:21494284

  2. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days.

  3. Development of molecular assays for the identification of the 11 Eimeria species of the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ursula C; Fraga, Jane S; Licois, Dominique; Pakandl, Michal; Gruber, Arthur

    2011-03-10

    Coccidiosis are the major parasitic diseases in poultry and other domestic animals including the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Eleven distinct Eimeria species have been identified in this host, but no PCR-based method has been developed so far for unequivocal species differentiation. In this work, we describe the development of molecular diagnostic assays that allow for the detection and discrimination of the 11 Eimeria species that infect rabbits. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the ITS1 ribosomal DNAs and designed species-specific primers for each species. We performed specificity tests of the assays using heterologous sets of primers and DNA samples, and no cross-specific bands were observed. We obtained a detection limit varying from 500fg to 1pg, which corresponds approximately to 0.8-1.7 sporulated oocysts, respectively. The test reported here showed good reproducibility and presented a consistent sensitivity with three different brands of amplification enzymes. These novel diagnostic assays will permit population surveys to be performed with high sensitivity and specificity, thus contributing to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this important group of coccidian parasites.

  4. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of a malignant trichoepithelioma of the ear canal in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Budgeon, Casey; Mans, Christoph; Chamberlin, Tamara; Stein, John; Drees, Randi; Robat, Cecilia; Pinkerton, Marie; Imai, Denise M; McAnulty, Jonathan

    2014-07-15

    A 10-year-old spayed female Holland Lop-mix pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of purulent-hemorrhagic discharge from the right ear canal and a suspected mass within that ear canal. Results of contrast-enhanced CT, video otoscopy, and histologic examination of endoscopic tissue biopsy samples indicated severe otitis media and externa and a benign trichoepithelioma of the right ear canal. Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy were performed. Histologic examination of a surgical biopsy sample of the mass indicated malignant trichoepithelioma. Tumor recurrence was detected 22 weeks after surgery. The rabbit was euthanized 33 weeks after surgery because of the large size of the recurrent tumor and declining quality of life. Necropsy findings indicated a malignant trichoepithelioma with local and lymphatic invasion into the right mandibular lymph node. This was the first report of the clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcome for a domestic rabbit with a diagnosis of a malignant trichoepithelioma of the ear canal and associated otitis media and externa. Neoplasia should be included as a differential diagnosis for pet rabbits with otitis externa and media. Although such tumors are typically benign, trichoepitheliomas in rabbits can be malignant. Computed tomography and histologic examination of tissue samples were useful diagnostic techniques, but histologic examination of an endoscopic biopsy sample did not allow identification of malignant characteristics of the trichoepithelioma.

  5. Parasites of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from an urban area in Germany, in relation to worldwide results.

    PubMed

    Frank, Raphael; Kuhn, Thomas; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Rueckert, Sonja; Pham, Daniel; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-12-01

    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to the most invasive and successful mammalian species, which is distributed nearly worldwide. In Europe, they inhabit broad parts of the mainland and subsequently reached several European islands via anthropogenic diversion. Rabbits can also serve as hosts for numerous parasite species. The parasite and pathogen fauna of O. cuniculus have been well documented in various European countries, although studies in Germany are scarce. Until now, a comprehensive survey combining recent international studies over parasite fauna of wild rabbits had not been conducted. We examined 50 wild rabbits from an urban area near Aachen (Germany) to identify their metazoan parasite fauna, and then compared our findings to previous international investigations. A total of nine parasite species were isolated consisting of four endoparasite species (Cittotaenia denticulata, Graphidium strigosum, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis) and five ectoparasite species (Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ixodes ricinus, Leporacarus gibbus, Haemodipsus ventricosus, and Spilopsyllus cuniculi). Among the ectoparasites were two verifiable human pathogenic species and two potentially pathogenic species. In comparison to previous studies, a high number of similarities in composition of helminth species fauna were revealed. Furthermore, our results showed partial agreement with international surveys in prevalence and mean intensity of the parasites C. denticulata, G. strigosum, P. ambiguus, and T. retortaeformis.

  6. Detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in nonspecific vertebrate hosts sympatric to the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Merchán, Tomás; Rocha, Gregorio; Alda, Fernando; Silva, Eliane; Thompson, Gertrude; de Trucios, Sebastián Hidalgo; Pagés, Albert

    2011-08-01

    Since its detection in China in 1984, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) has been the subject of numerous studies. Yet, the evolutionary origin of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is still under debate. For example, some aspects related to the epidemiology of the disease are still unknown, such as where the virus is hosted between RHD outbreaks. To detect the presence of RHDV in rabbit-sympatric micromammals, 51 rodents (29 Mus spretus and 22 Apodemus sylvaticus) and 31 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the same location in central Spain were analyzed. In those samples in which the virus was detected, a fragment of the VP60 protein gene from the RHDV capsid was sequenced and the phylogenetic relationships between them and other strains of RHDV in the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed. In total, five viral strains were identified in A. sylvaticus, M. spretus and O. cuniculus. All strains were found to be well supported within the clade of RHDV found in rabbits in the Iberian Peninsula. Moreover, one of the strains was found in all three species under study, which suggests the capability of RHDV to infect other mammals apart from the rabbit which have not yet been investigated. The transmission of the virus is discussed as well as its ecoepidemiological implications.

  7. Large-scale assessment of myxomatosis prevalence in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 60years after first outbreak in Spain.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Rafael; Castro, Francisca; Ramírez, Esther; Cotilla, Irene; Parra, Francisco; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Recuerda, Pilar; Rouco, Carlos

    2017-05-18

    Myxomatosis is a viral disease that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) worldwide. In Spain, populations of wild rabbits drastically decreased in the 1950s after the first outbreak of myxomatosis. Since that first appearance, it seems to be an annual epizootic in Spain with periodic outbreaks, predominantly in summer and autumn. Taking into account rabbit population structure, abundance, and genetic lineage, this paper attempts to make a large-scale characterization of myxomatosis seroprevalence based on the immune status of 29 rabbit populations distributed throughout Spain, where O. cuniculus cuniculus and O. c. algirus, the two known rabbit subspecies, naturally inhabit. A total of 654 samples were collected between 2003 and 2009, and seroprevalence of antibodies against Myxoma virus (MYXV) was determined. Overall, our results revealed that 53% of the rabbit samples were positive to antibodies against MYXV. Newborn and juvenile rabbits were the most susceptible animals to the virus, with 19% and 16% seropositivity for newborn and juveniles, respectively, while adult rabbits were the most protected, with 65% of seropositive samples. This suggests that prevalence is negatively related to the proportion of newborn and juvenile rabbits in a population. Our results also showed that seroprevalence against MYXV tended to be higher in high-abundance populations. In contrast, no differences were detected in seroprevalence between rabbit subspecies. This study confirms that >60years since first outbreak, myxomatosis is an endemic disease in Spain. Based on the results, the establishment of a myxomatosis surveillance protocol is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental infection of wild-caught European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a naturally infected wild rabbit.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Casais, R; Colomar, V; Bach, E; Prieto, J M; Velarde, R

    2013-06-01

    Scabies was recently reported for the first time in the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). We experimentally exposed 10 seronegative wild-caught rabbits to skin from a mangy wild rabbit. Serological, physiological, parasitological and histopathological changes were recorded. Three rabbits developed antibodies at 2-5 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.), two of which then developed lesions at 7 w.p.i. One of these had a small area of alopecia on the hind limb that healed naturally within 1 week; the other developed more extensive lesions restricted to the hind limbs (as typically observed in wild rabbits) that lasted until the rabbit died (12.5 w.p.i.). The third rabbit died of trauma 5 w.p.i. before developing any lesions. Antibodies in the healed rabbit disappeared from serum at 8 w.p.i., whereas antibody levels in the sick rabbit increased until its death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis, probably arising from a concomitant infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, were the likely final cause of death in this rabbit. The mangy rabbit that served as a donor died of a multifocal fibrinosuppurative pneumonia that may have been secondary to the skin bacterial pyoderma.

  9. Selected Papers & Abstracts from the Annual International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education (32nd, Norfolk, Virginia, November 4-7, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nina S., Ed.; Galloway, Shayne, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to persist with providing members--and interested others--with the content of workshops from the 32nd Annual Conference held in Norfolk, the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) has decided to develop a hybrid publication that has materialized in two parts. Part I includes 11 papers: (1) Adventure Coaching (Doug Gray); (2)…

  10. The Content Validation and Resource Development For a Course in Materials and Processes of Industry Through the Use of NASA Experts at Norfolk State College. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    In an effort to develop a course in materials and processes of industry at Norfolk State College using Barton Herrscher's model of systematic instruction, a group of 12 NASA-Langley Research Center's (NASA-LRC) research engineers and technicians were recruited. The group acted as consultants in validating the content of the course and aided in…

  11. Composition, distribution and regional affinities of the deepwater ichthyofauna of the Lord Howe Rise and Norfolk Ridge, south-west Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zintzen, Vincent; Roberts, Clive D.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Williams, Alan; Althaus, Franziska; Last, Peter R.

    2011-04-01

    Fishes were collected from seamounts and insular slopes of the northern Tasman and southern Coral Seas in the environs of the Reinga Ridge, Norfolk Ridge and Lord Howe Rise, at depths ranging from 49 to 1927 m. A total of 348 demersal fish species in 99 families, which were collected from 135 samples taken with a variety of sampling gear, greatly improved taxonomic knowledge of this poorly known area. Twenty five percent of the fish sampled are considered to be potentially new species. Relatively high levels of regional endemicity and diversity are attributed to geological history, and the complexity of contemporary climatology, hydrography and habitat diversity of the region. Fish assemblages were highly structured by depth, but across regions, deep-water fish faunas showed stronger taxonomic affinities than shallower faunas. Although less pronounced, spatial differences pointed towards distinct faunas between the southern and northern parts of the area. The distribution patterns and affinities to regions adjacent to the survey area indicate that (1) the fish fauna on the Lord Howe Rise near Lord Howe Island and further north is distinct from the rest of the survey regions, and exhibits eastern Australian and northern (Coral Sea) affinities, (2) the Northern Norfolk Ridge fauna is distinct from the other regions and has strong affinities with New Caledonia, (3) fishes on the Southern Norfolk Ridge, Western Norfolk Ridge and Lord Howe Plateau have more shared species compared to the other regions indicating a high level of connectedness and affinities with New Zealand fauna, and (4) some species have a wide distribution along the Norfolk Ridge providing a possible deepwater pathway between New Caledonia and New Zealand. Survey data is also useful for assessing the regions' conservation values by identifying rare or unusual components of the fauna, those with very limited distributions, those with low productivity that may be vulnerable to human disturbance (fishing

  12. Clinical implications of JUPITER in a contemporary European population: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Rana, Jamal S; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-05-01

    Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) has raised several points of debate. We quantified the proportion of individuals meeting the JUPITER criteria, determined their risk profile, and their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events during a long-term follow-up in a contemporary European cohort. A total of 25 639 participants aged between 45 and 79 years were followed for 11.4 ± 2.8 years in EPIC-Norfolk population cohort. A total of 8397 individuals with complete data available were considered potentially eligible for primary prevention. A total of 846 (10.1%) individuals fulfilled the JUPITER criteria [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-C (LDL-C) <3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein ≥ 2 mg]. This group had a 10-person-year event rate of 14.6% compared with 7.0% for those with LDL-C <3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein <2 mg (P = 0.001); the corresponding adjusted hazard ratio for future CHD was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.31-2.21). The group fulfilling JUPITER criteria had significantly higher CHD risk compared with those with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/L and C-reactive protein <2 mg/L. Among individuals who did not qualify for statin therapy based on the Society of Cardiology Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) (n = 4652) or ATP III criteria (n = 4466), 18.1 and 18.9%, respectively, would have qualified using the JUPITER criteria. In this European cohort, JUPITER-eligible individuals had significantly higher event rates compared with those with LDL-C <3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein <2 mg and LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein <2 mg/L. Application of the JUPITER criteria qualified almost one-fifth of the population for statin therapy that otherwise would not have qualified based on SCORE or ATP III criteria.

  13. Systemic medication and intraocular pressure in a British population: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    To determine the association between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population of older British men and women. Population-based, cross-sectional study. We included 7093 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye Study. Exclusion criteria were a history of glaucoma therapy (medical, laser, or surgical), IOP asymmetry between eyes of >5 mmHg, and missing data for any covariables. The mean age of participants was 68 years (range, 48-92) and 56% were women. We measured IOP using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Three readings were taken per eye and the best signal value of the Goldmann-correlated IOP value considered. Participants were asked to bring all their medications and related documentation to the health examination, and these were recorded by the research nurse using an electronic case record form. The medication classes examined were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, nitrates, statins, insulin, biguanides, sulfonylureas, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We examined associations between medication use and IOP using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Models containing diabetic medication were further adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Mean IOP of the right and left eyes. Use of systemic β-blockers (-0.92 mmHg; 95% CI, -1.19, -0.65; P<0.001) and nitrates (-0.63 mmHg; 95% CI, -1.12, -0.14; P = 0.011) were independently associated with lower IOP. The observed associations between statin or aspirin use with IOP were no longer significant after adjustment for β-blocker use. This is the first population-based study to demonstrate and quantify clinically significant differences in IOP among participants using systemic β-blockers or nitrates. Lower IOP observed in participants using statins or aspirin was explained by

  14. Anthropogenic contribution to the geological and geomorphological record: A case study from Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Hannah; Hamilton, Ken; Lawley, Russell; Price, Simon James

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, sediment thicknesses and volumes provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to sedimentary systems in the context of the proposed Anthropocene epoch. We present a methodology for determining the volumetric contribution of anthropogenic deposits to the geological and geomorphological record and apply it to the Great Yarmouth area of Norfolk, UK. 115 boreholes, drilled to a maximum depth of 6 m below ground level, were used to determine the thickness and distribution of seven geo-archaeological units comprising natural and anthropogenic deposits in the central Great Yarmouth area. This was supplemented by additional depth information derived from 467 existing ground investigation boreholes and published 1:50 000 scale geological maps. The top and base of each geo-archaeological unit were modelled from elevations recorded in the borehole data. Grids were produced using a natural neighbour analysis with a 25 m cell size using MapInfo 8.0 Vertical Mapper 3.1 to produce palaeotopographical surfaces. Maximum, minimum and average elevations for each geo-archaeological unit generally increase with decreasing age with the exception of the Early-Medieval palaeotopographical surface which locally occurs at higher elevations than that of the younger Late-Medieval unit. The total sediment volume for the combined Modern, Post-Medieval, Late-Medieval and Early-Medieval geo-archaeological units is 10.91 × 105 m3. The total sediment volume for the Aeolian, River Terrace and Marine geo-archaeological units combined is 65.58 × 105 m3. Anthropogenic sedimentation rates were calculated to increase from 590 m3/yr during the Early-Medieval period, 1500 m3/yr during the Post-Medieval period and 2300 m3/yr during the Modern period. It is estimated that the combined anthropogenic geo-archaeological units contribute approximately 15% of the total volume of sediments that would have been traditionally considered

  15. Using lifestyle factors to identify individuals at higher risk of inflammatory polyarthritis (results from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk and the Norfolk Arthritis Register—the EPIC-2-NOAR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Manjari; Luben, Robert N; Morgan, Catharine; Bunn, Diane K; Marshall, Tarnya; Lunt, Mark; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Symmons, Deborah P M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bruce, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association of lifestyle factors with risk of inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer, Norfolk, UK (EPIC-Norfolk) gathered lifestyle data from participants aged 40–79 years from 1993 to 1997. Individuals who subsequently developed IP were identified by linkage with the Norfolk Arthritis Register. A Cox proportional hazard model was developed, and a score assigned to each risk factor to calculate the odds of developing IP. Results 25 455 EPIC participants were followed for a median (IQR) of 14.2 (12.9, 15.3) years; 184 developed incident IP (138 cumulatively fulfilled criteria for RA; 107 were seropositive). Pack-years of smoking were associated with increased risk of IP and RA in men (HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.37) per 10-pack-years) and seropositive IP (HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.41)) for all. Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased risk of IP (HR 2.54 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.09)), while alcohol (HR 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99) per unit/day) and higher social class (HR 0.36 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.89) for professionals vs manual workers) were associated with reduced risk. Body mass index was associated with seronegative IP (HR 2.75 (95% CI 1.39 to 5.46) for obese vs normal-weight participants). In women, parity (HR 2.81 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.76) for ≥2 vs no children) was associated with increased risk, and breast feeding (HR 0.66 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.94) for every 52 weeks of breast feeding) was inversely associated with risk. Risk factors from the model were used to generate a ‘risk score’. A total of 1159 (8.4%) women had scores reflecting a >3-fold increased risk of IP over those with a score of 0. Conclusions Several easily ascertained clinical and lifestyle factors can be used to stratify populations for risk of IP. PMID:23505230

  16. Occupational social class, educational level and area deprivation independently predict plasma ascorbic acid concentration: a cross-sectional population based study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, S; Bingham, S; Welch, A; Luben, R; Day, N; Wareham, N; Khaw, K-T

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the independent association between three different measures of socioeconomic status and plasma ascorbic acid level. Cross-sectional population based study. 20 292 men and women aged 39-79 y who participated in the EPIC-Norfolk study. Individuals in manual social classes, who had no educational qualifications or those who lived in the most deprived areas had significantly lower levels of plasma ascorbic acid compared to those in nonmanual social classes, with at least O-level qualifications or who lived in less deprived areas. The magnitude of effect for each measure of socioeconomic status was greater in current smokers compared to current nonsmokers. Education and social class were stronger predictors of differences in ascorbic acid levels, an indicator of dietary health behaviour, than a deprivation index based on the Townsend score. This suggests that education could be particularly important in influencing large socioeconomic differentials in health related behaviours and potentially, health outcomes in the UK.

  17. Growth and wear of incisor and cheek teeth in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl; Schulz, Ellen; Hummel, Jürgen; Fortelius, Mikael; Kircher, Patrick; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Although patterns of tooth wear are crucial in palaeo-reconstructions, and dental wear abnormalities are important in veterinary medicine, experimental investigations on the relationship between diet abrasiveness and tooth wear are rare. Here, we investigated the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness (due to both internal [phytoliths] and external abrasives [sand]) or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on incisor and premolar growth and wear, and incisor and cheek tooth length. Wear and tooth length differed between diets, with significant effects of both internal and external abrasives. While diet abrasiveness was linked to tooth length for all tooth positions, whole forage had an additional effect on upper incisor length only. Tooth growth was strongly related to tooth wear and differed correspondingly between diets and tooth positions. At 1.4-3.2 mm/week, the growth of cheek teeth measured in this study was higher than previously reported for rabbits. Dental abnormalities were most distinct on the diet with sand. This study demonstrates that concepts of constant tooth growth in rabbits requiring consistent wear are inappropriate, and that diet form (whole vs. pelleted) does not necessarily affect cheek teeth. Irrespective of the strong effect of external abrasives, internal abrasives have the potential to induce wear and hence exert selective pressure in evolution. Detailed differences in wear effects between tooth positions allow inferences about the mastication process. Elucidating feedback mechanisms that link growth to tooth-specific wear represents a promising area of future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Different Serological Profiles to Cooccurring Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Caliciviruses in Wild European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Across Australia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Tanya E; Liu, June; de Ven, Remy van; Strive, Tanja

    2017-02-23

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was released in Australia as a biocontrol agent for wild European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) in 1995-96; however, its effects were variable across Australia with the greatest population reductions seen in lower annual rainfall areas (<400 mm). There is speculation that the reduced effectiveness observed at higher annual rainfall sites is at least partially due to the presence of a nonpathogenic calicivirus (RCV-A1). The RCV-A1 is related to RHDV and confers partial and transient protection against lethal RHDV infection in laboratory tests. What is not well understood is where, how, and to what degree RCV-A1 impedes the effect of RHDV-mediated rabbit control under field conditions. We investigated seven wild rabbit populations across six states and territories representing different seasonal rainfall zones across Australia, four times during 2011-12, to investigate if the presence and prevalence of RCV-A1 coincided with a change in RHDV immunity status within these populations. Besides serology, tissue samples from both trapped and shot rabbits were collected for virus detection by RT-PCR. Overall, 52% (n=258) of the total samples (n=496) tested positive for RHDV antibodies and 42% (n=208) positive for RCV-A1 antibodies; 30% (n=150) of the sera contained antibodies to both viruses. The proportion of rabbits with RHDV antibodies increased significantly at sites where RCV-A1 antibodies were present (χ(2)1, α=0.1, P<0.001). Evidence that preinfection of RCV-A1 may lead to a higher proportion of sampled rabbits with antibodies to both viruses was found at only one site.

  19. Absence of a genetic bottleneck in a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) population exposed to a severe viral epizootic.

    PubMed

    Queney, G; Ferrand, N; Marchandeau, S; Azevedo, M; Mougel, F; Branco, M; Monnerot, M

    2000-09-01

    Infectious diseases and their demographic consequences are thought to influence the genetic diversity of populations. In Europe, during the last 50 years, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has suffered two important viral epizootics: myxomatosis and rabbit viral haemorraghic disease (RVHD). Although mortality rates were very high, the impact of these diseases on genetic diversity has never been assessed directly. The subject of this paper is a wild rabbit population in France, which has been studied since the beginning of the 1980s. The first outbreak of RVHD occurred in 1995 and provoked a demographic crash. The population, sampled for the first time in 1982 and 1994, was sampled again at the end of 1996 to examine the impact of the epizootic on genetic diversity. In spite of the observed high mortality rate ( approximately 90%), analysis of 14 polymorphic loci (allozymes and microsatellites) showed no loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. Determination of temporal changes in allele frequencies indicated that the population evolved under genetic drift. The temporal method of Waples demonstrated a significant decrease in the effective population size (Ne) correlated with the demographic crash due to the epizootic. However, the population had only been studied for two generations after the epizootic and the remnant population size probably stayed high enough ( approximately 50 individuals) to keep its genetic diversity at the precrash level. These results suggest that, contrary to what is usually thought and in spite of the subsequent high mortality rates, past epizootics (especially myxomatosis) may have had little effect on the genetic diversity of wild rabbit populations in Europe.

  20. Computed tomographic features of clinical and subclinical middle ear disease in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): 88 cases (2007-2014).

    PubMed

    de Matos, Ricardo; Ruby, Jennifer; Van Hatten, Ruth A; Thompson, Margret

    2015-02-01

    To describe and compare CT abnormalities of the middle ear in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that had clinical or subclinical middle ear disease and to determine the prevalence of otitis media and evaluate the role of predisposing factors for otitis media in that species. Retrospective case series. 88 domestic rabbits. Medical records for rabbits that underwent CT of the head in June 2007 through February 2014 were searched and classified on the basis of reason for head CT (i.e., ear-related disease vs non-ear-related disease). The ears, upper respiratory tract, teeth, and other important structures of each rabbit's head were evaluated. Follow-up information was obtained for rabbits with CT abnormalities of the middle ear without clinical signs (i.e., subclinical disease). 12 of 21 (57%) rabbits with clinical signs of ear disease and 18 of 67 (27%) rabbits without clinical signs of ear disease had CT abnormalities of the middle ear. In CT images, all affected ears had soft tissue-attenuating material within the tympanic bulla. Tympanic bulla lysis was associated with clinical middle ear disease. Most (12/18) rabbits with subclinical middle ear disease remained subclinical after CT examination. Middle ear CT-detected changes and lop-ear conformation or otitis externa were strongly correlated; middle ear disease and upper respiratory tract disease were not correlated. Data suggested that subclinical otitis media frequently affects rabbits, and those with bulla lysis should be closely monitored. Lop-eared rabbits and rabbits with otitis externa had a higher risk of developing otitis media.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of dopamine hydrochloride and phenylephrine hydrochloride in healthy isoflurane-anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Gosliga, Jaclyn M; Barter, Linda S

    2015-02-01

    To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of progressively increasing infusion rates of dopamine hydrochloride and phenylephrine hydrochloride in healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane. 6 New Zealand White rabbits. (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Each rabbit was anesthetized on 2 occasions (≥ 2 weeks apart) with isoflurane in oxygen at 1.5 times the published isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration of 2.07%. Carotid artery and pulmonary artery catheters were placed. During each anesthetic episode, each rabbit received 5 progressively increasing doses of either dopamine (5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 μg/kg/min) or phenylephrine (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μg/kg/min). Blood gas and cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained after a 20-minute equilibration period prior to administration of the first drug dose (baseline) and after each subsequent dose administration. Dopamine increased stroke index at the highest infusion rate of 30 μg/kg/min; however, cardiac output and mean arterial blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline values. Administration of phenylephrine at a rate of 2 μg/kg/min increased mean arterial blood pressure to 62 mm Hg from the baseline value of 45 mm Hg. This was a result of an increase in systemic vascular resistance with a concomitant decrease in heart rate and no change in cardiac output. Blood lactate concentration increased with time when rabbits received either treatment. Within the dose range of 5 to 30 μg/kg/min, dopamine was not an effective treatment for isoflurane-induced hypotension in rabbits and phenylephrine was only minimally effective at a dose of 2 μg/kg/min.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of equipotent doses of isoflurane alone and isoflurane plus fentanyl in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Tearney, Caitlin C; Barter, Linda S; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of equipotent concentrations of fentanyl and isoflurane, compared with isoflurane alone, on cardiovascular variables in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). ANIMALS 6 adult female New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and lungs were mechanically ventilated. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane alone (baseline) and with fentanyl administered IV to achieve 3 targeted plasma concentrations was determined for each rabbit by means of an electrical stimulus. Cardiovascular variables were measured in a separate experiment at 1.3X isoflurane MAC and equipotent doses of isoflurane plus fentanyl at the same 3 targeted plasma concentrations. Blood samples were collected for measurement of blood gas variables and plasma fentanyl concentrations. Treatment effects were evaluated by repeated-measures ANOVA followed by 2-tailed paired t tests with sequentially rejective Bonferroni correction. RESULTS Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.95 ± 0.27%. Mean measured plasma fentanyl concentrations of 4.97, 8.93, and 17.19 ng/mL reduced isoflurane MAC by 17%, 37%, and 56%, respectively. Mean measured plasma fentanyl concentrations during cardiovascular measurements were 5.49, 10.26, and 18.40 ng/mL. Compared with baseline measurements, heart rate was significantly lower at all 3 plasma fentanyl concentrations, mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance were significantly higher at mean fentanyl concentrations of 10.26 and 18.40 ng/mL, and cardiac output was significantly higher at 18.40 ng of fentanyl/mL. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of fentanyl in isoflurane-anesthetized rabbits resulted in improved mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, compared with isoflurane alone. This balanced anesthesia technique may prove useful in the management of clinical cases in this species.

  3. Are We Looking in the Wrong Place? Implications for Behavioural-Based Pain Assessment in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) and Beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Matthew C.; Coulter, Claire A.; Richardson, Claire A.; Flecknell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful observation of behaviour depends upon knowing both which behaviours to look for and focusing on the appropriate areas of the body to observe them. Behaviour based scoring systems have become increasingly widely used to assess animal pain and distress. Although studies are available demonstrating which behaviours need to be observed, there has been little attempt to assess how effectively observers apply such information when viewing an animal's behaviour. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used historical video recordings of New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) considered to be experiencing varying degrees of post-operative pain to assess the pattern of observation and the ability to assess pain exhibited by both experienced and inexperienced human participants (n = 151). Eye tracking equipment was used to identify how quickly, how frequently, for how long different areas of the rabbit's body were attended to by the participants. Simple visual analgoue scoring was used to assess the pain experienced in each sequence. The results demonstrate that irrespective of their experience or gender, observers focus first, more frequently and for longer on the face, compared to the abdomen, ears, back and hindquarters of the rabbit and that participants were poor at identifying rabbits in pain. Observing the back and hindquarters was correlated with ‘correct’ assessments and observing the face was correlated with ‘incorrect’ assessments. Conclusions In conclusion, irrespective of experience and gender, observers focused on the face when using behaviour to assess pain and were unable to effectively identify rabbits in pain. Focusing on the face is unlikely to be effective when using behavioural indicators of pain since they involve other body areas. Alternatively, if animals exhibit pain-related facial expressions, then it could improve our ability to assess pain. In addition, these results have potential implications for the

  4. Effects of ultraviolet radiation produced from artificial lights on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in captive domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi).

    PubMed

    Emerson, Jessica A; Whittington, Julia K; Allender, Matthew C; Mitchell, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effects of UVB radiation produced by artificial lights on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi). 9 juvenile domestic rabbits. After an acclimation period, rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and an initial blood sample was collected for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive 12-hour exposure to UVB radiation produced by 2 compact fluorescent lights daily (n = 5) or no UVB supplementation (4) commencing on day 1. The UVB radiation emitted into the cage was measured at 9 points approximately 34 cm from the surface of the UVB light sources (representing the position of the rabbits in the cage) after 10 hours of exposure on days 1, 8, and 14. On day 14, another blood sample was collected from anesthetized rabbits for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. The UVB radiation level was 8.3 to 58.1 μW/cm² for the exposed rabbits and consistently < 0.001 μW/cm² for the control rabbits. Mean ± SD serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the rabbits that were or were not provided supplemental UVB radiation for 14 days differed significantly (66.4 ± 14.3 nmol/L and 31.7 ± 9.9 nmol/L, respectively). Exposure to UVB radiation produced by artificial light significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in juvenile rabbits. Because vitamin D is an essential hormone in vertebrates, these findings suggested that the provision of supplemental UVB radiation to captive rabbits may be important.

  5. Validation of a minimally invasive blood-sampling technique for the analysis of hormones in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha).

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Fassbender, Mirja; Dehnhard, Martin; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Jewgenow, Katarina; Hofer, Heribert; Schaub, Günter A

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in small mammals showed that blood-sucking bugs (Reduviidae, Heteroptera) can be used to obtain blood from veins difficult to access by human experimenters. In the present study, we validated the use of reduviid bugs for endocrinological studies in endotherms using domestic rabbits as a model organism. Two processes could alter the hormone concentrations in the blood ingested by the bug: (1) Mixing of ingested blood with saliva, gut fluid, or hemolymph and (2) digestive processes. We compared concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, and hydrocortisone in blood samples that were acquired from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) by bugs (Dipetalogaster maxima) with hormone concentrations in blood obtained from the same individual rabbits with a conventional method, i.e., syringe. We found no significant differences in hormone concentrations between the two methods. Thus, the mixing effect is negligible immediately after the blood meal. In addition, we also could not find significant changes in concentrations of progesterone and hydrocortisone for up to 8h after the blood meal. Whereas levels of hydrocortisone remained unchanged for even 24h, progesterone levels significantly increased between eight and 24h. Thus, the bugs' excretory apparatus did not fractionate between water and hormones. Thirdly, we hypothesized that reduviid bugs impose less stress on the rabbits than the conventional method. We showed that deviations in hydrocortisone concentrations between the two blood sampling routines were lower when the bug method was used first and higher when the conventional method was used first. Thus, bugs imposed less stress on the study animals than the conventional method. Overall, we conclude that reduviid bugs present a minimally invasive method for obtaining blood from endotherm animals for endocrinological studies.

  6. Intakes and sources of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans, coumestrol and soya-containing foods in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk), from 7 d food diaries, using a newly updated database.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Angela A; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Lentjes, Marleen A H; van Scheltinga, Veronica; Powell, Natasha A; McTaggart, Alison; Bhaniani, Amit; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-08-01

    A diet rich in phyto-oestrogens has been suggested to protect against a variety of common diseases but UK intake data on phyto-oestrogens or their food sources are sparse. The present study estimates the average intakes of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans and coumestrol from 7 d food diaries and provides data on total isoflavone, lignan and phyto-oestrogen consumption by food group. Development of a food composition database for twelve phyto-oestrogens and analysis of soya food and phyto-oestrogen consumption in a populationbased study. Men and women, aged 40–79 years, from the general population participating in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) between 1993 and 1997, with nutrient and food data from 7 d food diaries. A subset of 20 437 participants. The median daily phyto-oestrogen intake for all men was 1199 mg (interquartile range 934–1537mg; mean 1504mg, SD 1502mg) and 888mg for all women (interquartile range 710–1135 mg; mean 1205 mg, SD 1701mg). In soya consumers, median daily intakes were higher: 2861 mg in men (interquartile range 1304–7269mg; mean 5051mg, SD 5031mg) and 3142 mg in women (interquartile range 1089–7327mg; mean 5396 mg, SD 6092 mg). In both men and women, bread made the greatest contribution to phyto-oestrogen intake – 40?8% and 35?6%, respectively. In soya consumers, vegetable dishes and soya/goat’s/sheep’s milks were the main contributors – 45?7% and 21?3% in men and 38?4% and 33?7% in women, respectively. The ability to estimate phyto-oestrogen intake in Western populations more accurately will aid investigations into their suggested effects on health.

  7. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project report, 20 June-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.; Smith, J.; Snow, S.; Thomas, R.

    1995-08-01

    The approach for conducting a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) at the Norfolk NAS is described along with background information about the site. Section 2 provides background information related to cooling tower operations and water treatment processes. Section 3 describes the current cooling tower activities and operations that were observed during the NAS site visit. Possible alternative practices for minimizing these wastes are discussed in Section 4. Recommendations on potential follow-up activities are also included in Section 4. Appendices include PPOA worksheets (Appendix A), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) discharge limits (Appendix B), discharge data (Appendix C), material safety data sheets (MSDS) (Appendix D), the Hampton Roads Sanitation District Cooling Tower Waste Discharge Policy with Industrial Wastewater Pollutant Limitations and Discharge Requirements (Appendix E), and the MSDS for DIAS-Aid Tower Treatment XP-300 (Appendix F).

  8. Norfolk Southern boxcar blocking/bracing plan for the mixed waste disposal initiative project. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Seigler, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs will dispose of mixed waste no longer deemed useful. This project is one of the initial activities used to help meet this goal. The project will transport the {approximately}46,000 drums of existing stabilized mixed waste located at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and presently stored in the K-31 and K-33 buildings to an off-site commercially licensed and permitted mixed waste disposal facility. Shipping and disposal of all {approximately}46,000 pond waste drums ({approximately}1,000,000 ft{sup 3} or 55,000 tons) is scheduled to occur over a period of {approximately}5--10 years. The first shipment of stabilized pond waste should transpire some time during the second quarter of FY 1994. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., proposes to line each of the Norfolk Southem boxcars with a prefabricated, white, 15-mm low-density polyethylene (LDPE) liner material. To avoid damaging the bottom of the polyethylene floor liner, a minimum .5 in. plywood will be nailed to the boxcars` nailable metal floor. At the end of the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative (MWDI) Project workers at the Envirocare facility will dismantle and dispose of all the polyethylene liner and plywood materials. Envirocare of Utah, Inc., located in Clive, Utah, will perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Energy Systems. Energy Systems will also perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Norfolk Southem Railroad.

  9. Distributions and habitat associations of deep-water corals in Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons, Mid-Atlantic Bight, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, S. D.; Watts, M. W.; Heil, A. D.; Rhode, M.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.

    2017-03-01

    A multi-disciplinary study of two major submarine canyons, Baltimore Canyon and Norfolk Canyon, off the US mid-Atlantic coast focused on the ecology and biology of canyon habitats, particularly those supporting deep-sea corals. Historical data on deep-sea corals from these canyons were sparse with less than 750 records for the mid-Atlantic region, with most being soft sediment species. This study substantially increased the number of deep-sea coral records for the target canyons and the region. Large gorgonians were the dominant structure-forming coral taxa on exposed hard substrates, but several species of scleractinians were also documented, including first observations of Lophelia pertusa in the mid-Atlantic Bight region. Coral distribution varied within and between the two canyons, with greater abundance of the octocoral Paragorgia arborea in Baltimore Canyon, and higher occurrence of stony corals in Norfolk Canyon; these observations reflect the differences in environmental conditions, particularly turbidity, between the canyons. Some species have a wide distribution (e.g., P. arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Anthothela grandiflora), while others are limited to certain habitat types and/or depth zones (e.g., Paramuricea placomus, L. pertusa, Solenosmilia variabilis). The distribution of a species is driven by a combination of factors, which include availability of appropriate physical structure and environmental conditions. Although the diversity of the structure-forming corals (gorgonians, branching scleractinians and large anemones) was low, many areas of both canyons supported high coral abundance and a diverse coral-associated community. The canyons provide suitable habitat for the development of deep-sea coral communities that is not readily available elsewhere on the sedimented shelf and slope of the Mid-Atlantic Bight.

  10. Distribution of lipid parameters according to different socio-economic indicators- the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Boekholdt, Matthijs S; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-08-28

    Data on the relationship between plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and social class have been inconsistent. Most previous studies have used one classification of social class. This was a cross-sectional population based study with data on occupational social class, educational level obtained using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 10,147 men and 12,304 women aged 45-80 years living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were recruited using general practice age-sex registers as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in baseline samples. Social class was classified according to three classifications: occupation, educational level, and area deprivation score according to Townsend deprivation index. Differences in lipid levels by socio-economic status indices were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression after adjusting for body mass index and alcohol consumption. Total cholesterol levels were associated with occupational level among men, and with educational level among women. Triglyceride levels were associated with educational level and occupational level among women, but the latter association was lost after adjustment for age and body mass index. HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with both educational level and educational level among men and women. The relationships with educational level were substantially attenuated by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use, whereas the association with educational class was retained upon adjustment. LDL-cholesterol levels were not associated with social class indices among men, but a positive association was observed with educational class among women. This association was not affected by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use. The findings of this study suggest that there are sex differences in the association between socio-economic status

  11. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  12. A new species of lithistid sponge hiding within the Isabella mirabilis species complex (Porifera: Demospongiae: Tetractinellida) from seamounts of the Norfolk Ridge.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Merrick; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hooper, John N A

    2016-07-07

    A population level study of the lithistid ('rock') sponge, Isabella mirabilis, revealed a new species, Isabella tanoa sp. nov., living on five seamounts on the Norfolk Ridge, SW Pacific, and representing the third species to be discovered since the genus was first described in 2005. Comparisons between the three species showed significant differences in morphological characters that corresponded to differences in their respective CO1 barcoding sequences. Conversely, three of the four genotypes of Isabella mirabilis remain unresolved using morphological markers.

  13. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis of primary open-angle glaucoma endophenotypes in the Norfolk Island isolate.

    PubMed

    Matovinovic, Elizabeth; Kho, Pik Fang; Lea, Rodney A; Benton, Miles C; Eccles, David A; Haupt, Larisa M; Hewitt, Alex W; Sherwin, Justin C; Mackey, David A; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) refers to a group of heterogeneous diseases involving optic nerve damage. Two well-established risk factors for POAG are elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and a thinner central corneal thickness (CCT). These endophenotypes exhibit a high degree of heritability across populations. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of outbred populations have robustly implicated several susceptibility gene variants for both IOP and CCT. Despite this progress, a substantial amount of genetic variance remains unexplained. Population-specific variants that might be rare in outbred populations may also influence POAG endophenotypes. The Norfolk Island population is a founder-effect genetic isolate that has been well characterized for POAG endophenotypes. This population is therefore a suitable candidate for mapping new variants that influence these complex traits. Three hundred and thirty participants from the Norfolk Island Eye Study (NIES) core pedigree provided DNA. Ocular measurements of CCT and IOP were also taken for analysis. Heritability analyses and genome-wide linkage analyses of short tandem repeats (STRs) were conducted using SOLAR. Pedigree-based GWASs of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed using the GenABEL software. CCT was the most heritable endophenotype in this cohort (h(2) = 0.77, p = 6×10(-6)), while IOP showed a heritability of 0.39 (p = 0.008). A genome-wide linkage analysis of these POAG phenotypes identified a maximum logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 1.9 for CCT on chromosome 20 (p = 0.0016) and 1.3 for IOP on chromosome 15 (p = 0.0072). The GWAS results revealed a study-wise significant association for IOP at rs790357, which is located within DLG2 on chr11q14.1 (p = 1.02×10(-7)). DLG2 is involved in neuronal signaling and development, and while it has not previously been associated with IOP, it has been associated with myopia. An analysis of 12 known SNPs for IOP showed that rs12419342

  14. German-translated Norfolk quality of life (QOL-DN) identifies the same factors as the English version of the tool and discriminates different levels of neuropathy severity.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Paulson, James F; Ford-Molvik, Stephanie L; Vinik, Aaron I

    2008-11-01

    The development and validation of Norfolk QOL-DN, a fiber-specific, quality-of-life tool for diabetic neuropathy, was published previously (Part 1). This study (Part 2) defines the psychometric properties of the German-translated Norfolk QOL-DN in a large multicenter (96 sites) population with neuropathy ranging from minimal to severe, comparing them with those in the original English/American version in a 30-center European/North American population with mild neuropathy; determines the power of the German-translated version in a five-staged diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) German population to discriminate different levels of neuropathy severity; and establishes factors having the greatest impact on QOL. One hundred eighty-six German patients were assessed: asymptomatic of DPN (n = 40), symptomatic (n = 46), DN with foot-ulcer history (n = 32), DN with amputations (n = 22), and DN amputation history (n = 46). German-translated Norfolk QOL-DN was administered to 177 patients with staged DN complications. German-translated Norfolk QOL-DN data were compared with QOL-DN data from the European/American study of 379 mild neuropathy patients. Exploratory factor analysis assessed factor structure consistency in the translated instrument. Ordinal regression analysis (polytomous universal model) was used to evaluate the association between factor scores and complication stages. The German translation identified the same five factors in more advanced neuropathy as in the English mild neuropathy population. Total QOL scores differed among each of the five neuropathy severity groups [analysis of variance p < 0.001, Tukey-Kramer post hoc, alpha = 0.05]. Two factors emerged as predictors of impaired QOL and disease severity: physical function/large fiber (Wald chi(2) = 6.188, p = 0.013) and activities of daily living (ADL)(Wald chi(2) = 9.098, p = 0.003). Norfolk QOL-DN discriminates levels of neuropathy within and between populations. Physical functioning and ADL are the

  15. A case of antibacterial-responsive mucocutaneous disease in a seven-year-old dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) resembling mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs.

    PubMed

    Benato, L; Stoeckli, M R; Smith, S H; Dickson, S; Thoday, K L; Meredith, A

    2013-04-01

    A seven-year-old, ovariohysterectomised female dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was referred with severe swelling and erythema of the mucocutaneous junctions of the lips, nares and vulva. Bilateral, severe periocular dermatitis was also present. Heavy pure growths of a member of the Staphylococcus intermedius group were cultured from nasal and aural swabs and skin biopsies. Other possible differential diagnoses were eliminated by standard tests. The clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the biopsies were most consistent with mucocutaneous pyoderma, a dermatosis previously reported in dogs but not in rabbits. Treatment of the bacterial infection with oral marbofloxacin and topical ofloxacin eye drops together with supportive therapy resulted in resolution of the lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of mucocutaneous bacterial pyoderma, similar to mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs, in a rabbit. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. A premature stop codon in the TYRP1 gene is associated with brown coat colour in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Utzeri, V J; Ribani, A; Fontanesi, L

    2014-08-01

    Classical genetic studies in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) suggested the presence of two alleles at the brown coat colour locus: a wild-type B allele that gives dense black pigment throughout the coat and a recessive b allele that in the homozygous condition (b/b genotype) produces brown rabbits that are unable to develop black pigmentation. In several other species, this locus is determined by mutations in the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene, encoding a melanocyte enzyme needed for the production of dark eumelanin. In this study, we investigated the rabbit TYRP1 gene as a strong candidate for the rabbit brown coat colour locus. A total of 3846 bp of the TYRP1 gene were sequenced in eight rabbits of different breeds and identified 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 12 in intronic regions, five in exons and six in the 3'-untranslated region) and an insertion/deletion of 13 bp, in the 3'-untranslated region, organised in a few haplotypes. A mutation in exon 2 (g.41360196G>A) leads to a premature stop codon at position 190 of the deduced amino acid sequence (p.Trp190ter). Therefore, translation predicts a truncated TYRP1 protein lacking almost completely the tyrosinase domain. Genotyping 203 rabbits of 32 different breeds identified this mutation only in brown Havana rabbits. Its potential functional relevance in disrupting the TYRP1 protein and its presence only in brown animals strongly argue for this non-sense mutation being a causative mutation for the recessive b allele at the brown locus in Oryctolagus cuniculus.

  17. Occupational social class, educational level, smoking and body mass index, and cause-specific mortality in men and women: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the independent associations between occupational and educational based measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and cause-specific mortality, and the extent to which potentially modifiable risk factors smoking and body mass index (BMI) explain such relationships. Prospective population study of 22,486 men and women aged 39-79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993-1997 and followed up for total mortality using death certification to 2006. In men a strong inverse relationship was found between social class and all cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, with relative risk of social class V compared to I of 2.21 for all cause mortality (95% CI 1.54-3.17, P < 0.001). This was attenuated but not abolished after adjusting for modifiable risk factors, smoking and BMI, with relative risk of social class V compared to I for all cause mortality of 1.92 (95% CI 1.34-2.77, P < 0.001). A similar, but smaller effect was seen in women. Educational status was not associated with mortality independently of social class. Social class and education are not necessarily interchangeable measures of SES. Some but not all of the socioeconomic differential in mortality can be explained by potentially modifiable risk factors smoking and BMI. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association of each socioeconomic indicator with specific health outcomes is needed if we are to reduce inequalities in health.

  18. MLH1 promoter methylation, diet, and lifestyle factors in mismatch repair deficient colorectal cancer patients from EPIC-Norfolk.

    PubMed

    Gay, Laura J; Arends, Mark J; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Bowman, Richard; Ibrahim, Ashraf E; Happerfield, Lisa; Luben, Robert; McTaggart, Alison; Ball, Richard Y; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2011-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the role diet and lifestyle play in the development of mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colorectal cancers (CRC). In this study, associations between MMR deficiency, clinicopathological characteristics, and dietary and lifestyle factors in sporadic CRC were investigated. Tumor samples from 185 individuals in the EPIC-Norfolk study were analyzed for MLH1 gene promoter methylation and microsatellite instability (MSI). Dietary and lifestyle data were collected prospectively using 7-day food diaries (7dd) and questionnaires. MMR-deficient tumor cases (MLH1 promoter methylation positive, MSI-H) were more likely to be female, older at diagnosis, early Dukes' stage (A/B), and proximal in location (MSI-H P = 0.03, 0.03, 0.02, and 0.001, respectively). Tumors with positive MLH1 promoter methylation (>20%) were associated with poor differentiation (P = 0.03). Low physical activity was associated with cases without MSI (P = 0.05). MMR deficiency was not significantly associated with cigarette smoking or alcohol, folate, fruit, vegetable, or meat consumption. We conclude that MMR-deficient tumors represent a distinct subset of sporadic CRC that are proximal in location, early Dukes' stage, and poorly differentiated, in cases that are female and older at diagnosis. There is no overall role for diet and lifestyle in MMR status in CRC, consistent with age-related susceptibility to MLH1 promoter methylation.

  19. Methylome-wide association study of whole blood DNA in the Norfolk Island isolate identifies robust loci associated with age.

    PubMed

    Benton, Miles C; Sutherland, Heidi G; Macartney-Coxson, Donia; Haupt, Larisa M; Lea, Rodney A; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-02-28

    Epigenetic regulation of various genomic functions, including gene expression, provide mechanisms whereby an organism can dynamically respond to changes in its environment and modify gene expression accordingly. One epigenetic mechanism implicated in human aging and age-related disorders is DNA methylation. Isolated populations such as Norfolk Island (NI) should be advantageous for the identification of epigenetic factors related to aging due to reduced genetic and environmental variation. Here we conducted a methylome-wide association study of age using whole blood DNA in 24 healthy female individuals from the NI genetic isolate (aged 24-47 years). We analysed 450K methylation array data using a machine learning approach (GLMnet) to identify age-associated CpGs. We identified 497 CpG sites, mapping to 422 genes, associated with age, with 11 sites previously associated with age. The strongest associations identified were for a single CpG site in MYOF and an extended region within the promoter of DDO. These hits were validated in curated public data from 2316 blood samples (MARMAL-AID). This study is the first to report robust age associations for MYOF and DDO, both of which have plausible functional roles in aging. This study also illustrates the value of genetic isolates to reveal new associations with epigenome-level data.

  20. Developing detailed records of relative sea-level change using a foraminiferal transfer function: an example from North Norfolk, UK.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Robin J; Horton, B P

    2006-04-15

    This paper provides a brief overview of the transfer function approach to sea-level reconstruction. Using the example of two overlapping sediment cores from the North Norfolk coast, UK, the advantages and limitations of the transfer function methodology are examined. While the selected cores are taken from different sites, and display contrasting patterns of sedimentation, the foraminiferal transfer function distils comparable records of relative sea-level change from both sequences. These reconstructions are consistent with existing sea-level index points from the region but produce a more detailed record of relative sea-level change. Transfer functions can extract sea-level information from a wider range of sedimentary sub-environments. This increases the amount of data that can be collected from coastal deposits and improves record resolution. The replicability of the transfer function methodology, coupled with the sequential nature of the data it produces, assists in the compilation and analysis of sea-level records from different sites. This technique has the potential to bridge the gap between short-term (instrumental) and long-term (geological or geophysical) records of sea-level change.

  1. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 2, parts A and B: Norfolk and environs; a land use perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Buzzanell, P. J.; Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Norfolk-Portsmouth metropolitan statistical area in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods. Land use and land cover data at three levels of detail were derived by manual image interpretation from both aircraft and satellite sources and used to characterize the 1,766 sq km (682 sq mi) area from the perspective of its various resource-related activities and problems. Measurements at level 1 from 1:100, 000 scale maps revealed 42 percent of the test area (excluding bays and estuaries) to be forest, 28 percent agriculture, 23 percent urban and built-up, 4 percent nonforested wetlands, and 2 percent water. At the same scale and level of detail, 10 percent of the area underwent change from one land use category to another in the period 1959-70, 62 percent of which involved the relatively irreversible change from forest or agriculture to urban uses.

  2. Preliminary Geologic Map of the North-Central Part of the Alamosa 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Alamosa, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts) and line (terrace and lacustrine spit/barrier bar) vector data for a map comprised of four 7.5' quadrangles in the north-central part of the Alamosa, Colorado, 30' x 60' quadrangle. The quadrangles include Baldy, Blanca, Blanca SE, and Lasauses. The map database, compiled at 1:50,000 scale from new 1:24,000-scale mapping, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic, tectonic, and stratigraphic interest. The mapped area is located primarily in Costilla County, but contains portions of Alamosa and Conejos Counties, and includes the town of Blanca in its northeastern part. The map area is mainly underlain by surficial geologic materials (fluvial and lacustrine deposits, and eolian sand), but Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks crop out in the San Luis Hills, which are in the central and southern parts of the mapped area. The surficial geology of this area has never been mapped at any scale greater than 1:250,000 (broad reconnaissance), so this new map provides important data for ground-water assessments, engineering geology, and the Quaternary geologic history of the San Luis Basin. Newly discovered shoreline deposits are of particular interest (sands and gravels) that are associated with the high-water stand of Lake Alamosa, a Pliocene to middle Pleistocene lake that occupied the San Luis basin prior to its overflow and cutting of a river gorge through the San Luis Hills. After the lake drained, the Rio Grande system included Colorado drainages for the first time since the Miocene (>5.3 Ma). In addition, Servilleta Basalt, which forms the Basaltic Hills on the east margin of the map area, is dated at 3.79+or-0.17 Ma, consistent with its general age range of 3.67-4.84 Ma. This map provides new geologic information for better understanding ground-water flow paths in and adjacent to the Rio Grande system. The map abuts U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1392 (a map of

  3. Selected water-quality characteristics and flow of ground water in the San Luis basin, including the Conejos River subbasin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.; Hammond, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from 99 wells and 19 springs in the San Luis basin in Colorado and New Mexico were evaluated to determine selected water quality characteristics as an aid in understanding the flow of groundwater in the basin. The evaluation shows that the distribution of chemical water types in the basin is consistent with chemical changes to be expected along flow paths in rocks typical of those in the basin. The San Luis basin area is underlain by a surficial (< 100-ft-thick) unconfined aquifer and, in turn, by a confining bed and a deeper confined aquifer. Previous studies have indicated that the groundwater system is recharged around the edges of the basin and that groundwater then moves toward discharge areas in the topographically closed part of the basin and along principal streams. The evaluation of water quality data showed that groundwater at the perimeter of the San Luis basin is primarily a calcium bicarbonate type, which is typical in recharge areas. Groundwater near the center of the basin is primarily a sodium bicarbonate type, which is typical of groundwater in downgradient areas. The change in principal cation from calcium to sodium indicates chemical evolution of the water along the groundwater flow path and supports previously developed concepts of groundwater movement in the basin. The exchange of calcium for sodium along the flow path also is assumed to occur in the Conejos River subbasin. Upgradient wells yield calcium bicarbonate type water, whereas downgradient wells yield sodium bicarbonate type water. However, an exception to this relation is found at McIntire Spring, which yields calcium bicarbonate type water from a downgradient location. The source of water discharging from the spring may be the confined aquifer, with hydraulic connection along the Manassa fault. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from both the unconfined and confined aquifers increases downgradient. The increase is dramatic in the closed basin

  4. Residential area deprivation predicts smoking habit independently of individual educational level and occupational social class. A cross sectional study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, S; Luben, R; Wareham, N; Day, N; Bingham, S; Welch, A; Oakes, S; Khaw, K-T

    2003-04-01

    To investigate the independent association between individual and area based measures of socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking habit. Cross sectional, population based study. 12 579 men and 15 132 women aged 39-79 years living in the general community participating in the EPIC-Norfolk Study in 1993-1997. The association between social class, educational status, Townsend residential deprivation level, and cigarette smoking status was examined. Cigarette smoking status at baseline survey. Social class, educational level, and residential deprivation level independently related to cigarette smoking habit in both men and women. Multivariate age adjusted odds ratios for current smoking in men were 1.62 (95% CI 1.45 to 1.81) for manual compared with non-manual social class, 1.32 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.48) for those with educational level less than O level compared with those with O level qualifications or higher and 1.84 (95% CI 1.62 to 2.08) for high versus low area deprivation level. For women, the odds ratios for current smoking for manual social class were 1.14 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.27); 1.31 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.46) for low educational level and 1.68 (95% CI 1.49 to 1.90) for high residential deprivation respectively. Residential deprivation level using the Townsend score, individual social class, and educational level all independently predict smoking habit in both men and women. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking need to tackle not just individual but also area based factors. Understanding the specific factors in deprived areas that influence smoking habit may help inform preventive efforts.

  5. Occupational social class, risk factors and cardiovascular disease incidence in men and women: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the association between occupational social class and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, and the extent to which classical and lifestyle risk factors explain such relationships, and if any differences persist after 65 years of age. Prospective population study of 22,478 men and women aged 39-79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993-1997 and followed up for total mortality to 2006. In both men and women an inverse relationship was observed between social class and CVD incidence, with a relative risk of social class V compared to I of 1.90 in men (95% CI 1.47 to 2.47, P < 0.001) and 1.90 in women (95% CI 1.45 to 2.49, P < 0.001). Adjusting for classical and lifestyle risk factors (age, smoking, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total blood cholesterol, history of diabetes, physical activity, weekly alcohol intake and plasma vitamin C levels) had little effect in men; the relative risk of social class V compared to I of 1.70 (95% CI 1.31 to 2.22, P < 0.001), while there was some attenuation seen in women, relative risk of social class V compared to I of 1.56 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.05, P = 0.011). The association persisted in men and women aged > or =65 years. Some but not all of the socioeconomic differential in CVD incidence can be explained by potentially modifiable classical and lifestyle risk factors. Low social class remains a risk factor for CVD after age 65 years. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association is needed if we are to reduce inequalities in health.

  6. Dietary intake measurement using 7 d diet diaries in British men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study: a focus on methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Mulligan, Angela A; Powell, Natasha A; Parry-Smith, David; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Welch, Ailsa A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the energy, nutrient and crude v. disaggregated food intake measured using 7 d diet diaries (7dDD) for the full baseline Norfolk cohort recruited for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) study, with emphasis on methodological issues. The first data collection took place between 1993 and 1998 in Norfolk, East Anglia (UK). Of the 30,445 men and women, aged 40-79 years, registered with a general practitioner invited to participate in the study, 25,639 came for a health examination and were asked to complete a 7dDD. Data from diaries with data recorded for at least 1 d were obtained for 99% members of the cohort; 10,354 (89·8%) of the men and 12,779 (91·5%) of the women completed the diet diaries for all 7 d. Mean energy intake (EI) was 9·44 (SD 2·22) MJ/d and 7·15 (SD 1·66) MJ/d, respectively. EI remained approximately stable across the days, but there was apparent under-reporting among the participants, especially among those with BMI >25 kg/m². Micronutrient density was higher among women than among men. In conclusion, under-reporting is an issue, but not more so than that found in national surveys. How foods were grouped (crude or disaggregated) made a difference to the estimates obtained, and comparison of intakes showed wide limits of agreement. The choice of variables influences estimates obtained from the food group data; while this may not alter the ranking of individuals within studies, this issue may be relevant when comparing absolute food intakes between studies.

  7. Longitudinal association of C-reactive protein and lung function over 13 years: The EPIC-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Kaptoge, Stephen; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is known to be associated with systemic inflammation. We examined the longitudinal association of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lung function in a cohort of 18,110 men and women from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk who were 40-79 years of age at baseline (recruited in 1993-1997) and followed-up through 2011. We assessed lung function by measuring forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at baseline, 4 years, and 13 years. Serum CRP levels were measured using a high-sensitivity assay at baseline and the 13-year follow up. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of loge-CRP and lung function were examined using multivariable linear mixed models. In the cross-sectional analysis, 1-standard-deviation increase in baseline loge-CRP (about 3-fold higher CRP on the original milligrams per liter scale) was associated with a -86.3 mL (95% confidence interval: -93.9, -78.6) reduction in FEV1. In longitudinal analysis, a 1-standard-deviation increase in loge-CRP over 13 years was also associated with a -64.0 mL (95% confidence interval: -72.1, -55.8) decline in FEV1 over the same period. The associations were similar for FVC and persisted among lifetime never-smokers. Baseline CRP levels were not predictive of the rate of change in FEV1 or FVC over time. In the present study, we found longitudinal observational evidence that suggested that increases in systemic inflammation are associated with declines in lung function.

  8. Mapping eQTLs in the Norfolk Island Genetic Isolate Identifies Candidate Genes for CVD Risk Traits

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Miles C.; Lea, Rod A.; Macartney-Coxson, Donia; Carless, Melanie A.; Göring, Harald H.; Bellis, Claire; Hanna, Michelle; Eccles, David; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Curran, Joanne E.; Harper, Jacquie L.; Blangero, John; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects millions of people worldwide and is influenced by numerous factors, including lifestyle and genetics. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) influence gene expression and are good candidates for CVD risk. Founder-effect pedigrees can provide additional power to map genes associated with disease risk. Therefore, we identified eQTLs in the genetic isolate of Norfolk Island (NI) and tested for associations between these and CVD risk factors. We measured genome-wide transcript levels of blood lymphocytes in 330 individuals and used pedigree-based heritability analysis to identify heritable transcripts. eQTLs were identified by genome-wide association testing of these transcripts. Testing for association between CVD risk factors (i.e., blood lipids, blood pressure, and body fat indices) and eQTLs revealed 1,712 heritable transcripts (p < 0.05) with heritability values ranging from 0.18 to 0.84. From these, we identified 200 cis-acting and 70 trans-acting eQTLs (p < 1.84 × 10−7) An eQTL-centric analysis of CVD risk traits revealed multiple associations, including 12 previously associated with CVD-related traits. Trait versus eQTL regression modeling identified four CVD risk candidates (NAAA, PAPSS1, NME1, and PRDX1), all of which have known biological roles in disease. In addition, we implicated several genes previously associated with CVD risk traits, including MTHFR and FN3KRP. We have successfully identified a panel of eQTLs in the NI pedigree and used this to implicate several genes in CVD risk. Future studies are required for further assessing the functional importance of these eQTLs and whether the findings here also relate to outbred populations. PMID:24314549

  9. Pathways to care of young people accessing a pilot specialist youth mental health service in Norfolk, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hodgekins, Jo; Clarke, Timothy; Cole, Hannah; Markides, Constantina; Ugochukwu, Uju; Cairns, Peter; Lower, Rebecca; Fowler, David; Wilson, Jon

    2017-10-01

    Pathways to care (PtC) are a means of examining and understanding routes into mental health care. It is important to examine PtC in order to identify ways in which individuals access services, as well as highlighting barriers or delays to appropriate treatment. This study aimed to examine PtC experienced by young people accessing a pilot specialist youth mental health service (SYMHS) for those with non-psychotic, severe and complex mental health conditions in Norfolk, UK. Data were collected on a subsample of referrals accepted into the pilot SYMHS (n = 94) over a 12-month period. Duration and number of PtC were assessed using a semi-structured interview augmented by health record examination. Measures of premorbid history, symptoms and functioning were also collected. The mean length of PtC was 3.74 years, and a mean of 5.53 pathways was experienced before appropriate services were accessed. Individuals were most likely to first seek help from their general practitioner followed by an educational provider. There were no associations between PtC and current symptoms, although individuals with a premorbid history of mental health problems experienced shorter PtC. There was a trend suggesting that individuals with long pathways had poorer functioning compared with those with shorter pathways. Pathways to care are variable in a group of young people presenting to mental health services. A majority of participants experienced 'long pathways', which may negatively impact on outcome. The results indicate the need to improve access to appropriate services by overcoming pathway barriers. Service implications are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Intakes and sources of soya foods and isoflavones in a UK population cohort study (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Mulligan, A A; Welch, A A; McTaggart, A A; Bhaniani, A; Bingham, S A

    2007-02-01

    It has been suggested that the consumption of a diet rich in phytoestrogens might protect against a variety of diseases common in Western societies. However, there are little available data on the food sources or distribution of intake in the UK diet. To estimate the average intake and range of soya foods and isoflavones in a population-based cohort and to provide data on isoflavone consumption by food group. Men and women (11,843) from the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary daidzein and genistein intakes were obtained from 7-day food diaries, completed by participants between 1993 and 1998 and calculated from an in-house food composition database. Energy and anthropometric measurements were also carried out. Average daily isoflavone intakes for both men and women were less than 1 mg (interquartile range (IQR) men: 0.39-0.82 mg; women: 0.30-0.64 mg). However, in soya-consumers, average daily intakes were higher: 8.6 mg in women (IQR: 2.28-10.72 mg) and 7.5 mg in men (IQR: 2.22-9.17 mg). In both men and women, bread and bread rolls made the highest contribution to isoflavone intake - 62.5 and 53.0%, respectively. In soya-consuming men and women, vegetable dishes and milks were the main contributors - 25.0 and 38.5% in men and 38.5% and 26.0% in women, respectively. Isoflavone intake is low in the UK but may be an underestimate due to soya added to commercial products. Future analyses of the isoflavone and lignan content of basic ingredient foods and commercial items commonly consumed in the UK diet will enable more accurate estimates of phytoestrogen intake to be made. The ability to estimate isoflavone intake in Western populations more accurately will enable investigations to be conducted into the suggested beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on health.

  11. Lipoprotein (a) and risk of coronary, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease; the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    PubMed Central

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Sjouke, Barbara; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Hovingh, G. Kees; Luben, Robert N.; Wainwright, Nicholas W. J.; Pomilla, Cristina; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While the association between circulating levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke is well established, its role in risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) remains unclear. Here, we examine the association between Lp(a) levels and PAD in a large prospective cohort. To contextualise these findings, we also examined the association between Lp(a) levels and risk of stroke and CAD and studied the role of LDL as an effect modifier of Lp(a) associated cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results Lp(a) levels were measured in apparently healthy participants in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between Lp(a) levels and risk of PAD, stroke and CAD outcomes. During 212,981 person-years at risk, a total of 2365 CAD, 284 ischemic stroke and 596 PAD events occurred in 18,720 participants. Lp(a) was associated with PAD and CAD outcomes but not with ischemic stroke (HR per 2.7 fold increase in Lp(a) of 1.37, 95% CI 1.25-1.50, 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22 and 0.91, 95%CI 0.79-1.03 respectively). LDL-C levels did not modify these associations. Conclusion Lp(a) levels were associated with future PAD and CAD events. The association between Lp(a) and cardiovascular disease was not modified by LDL-C levels. PMID:23065826

  12. Depression and ischemic heart disease mortality: evidence from the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Surtees, Paul G; Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-04-01

    The authors investigated the association between major depressive disorder, including its clinical course, and mortality from ischemic heart disease. This was a prospective cohort study of 8,261 men and 11,388 women 41-80 years of age who were free of clinical manifestations of heart disease and participated in the Norfolk, U.K., cohort of the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer. The authors conducted a cross-sectional assessment of major depressive disorder during the period 1996-2000 and ascertained subsequent deaths from ischemic heart disease through linkage with data from the U.K. Office for National Statistics. As of July 31, 2006, 274 deaths from ischemic heart disease were recorded over a total follow-up of 162,974 person-years (the median follow-up period was 8.5 years). Participants who had major depression during the year preceding baseline assessment were 2.7 times more likely to die from ischemic heart disease over the follow-up period than those who did not, independently of age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, social class, heavy alcohol use, and antidepressant medication use. This association remained after exclusion of the first 6 years of follow-up data. Consideration of measures of major depression history (including recency of onset, recurrence, chronicity, and age at first onset) revealed recency of onset to be associated most strongly with ischemic heart disease mortality. Major depression was associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality. The association was independent of established risk factors for ischemic heart disease and remained undiminished several years after the original assessment.

  13. Differences in dietary supplement use and secular and seasonal trends assessed using three different instruments in the EPIC-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-06-01

    Supplement use has increased over time and measurements of supplement use are dependent on instruments chosen. Therefore, we investigated three different questionnaires to measure supplement use and whether these results were associated with age, year of recruitment (secular trend, 1993-1998), and seasonal trends. The questionnaires were self-administered within a median time interval of 54 days and included a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire (1-year recall), a Food Frequency Questionnaire (1-year recall), and a 7-day diet diary. Men and women, aged 40-79 years from the general population living in Norfolk (East Anglia, UK), recruited between 1993 and 1998 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Study (EPIC-Norfolk). The prevalence of supplement use estimated with different instruments ranged from 31.7% to 39.0% for men and 45.0% to 54.3% for women. Agreement was substantial with kappa-statistics between 0.72 and 0.81. Participants' age (men only) and recruitment year were independently associated with supplement use; season showed inconsistent results. The diary provides a good agreement as measured by the kappa-statistic, compared to more long-term measures of supplement use classification. The secular and seasonal trends in supplement use and type of assessment instrument need to be taken into account in studies on health and supplement use.

  14. Description and comparison of excretory urography performed during radiography and computed tomography for evaluation of the urinary system in healthy New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Laura; Altuzarra, Raul; Espada, Yvonne; Dominguez, Elisabet; Novellas, Rosa; Martorell, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases. ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases. RESULTS Excretory urograms of excellent diagnostic quality were achieved with both imaging modalities. For all rabbits, the nephrographic phase of the urogram appeared in the first postcontrast REU image (obtained between 34 and 40 seconds after initiation of contrast medium administration) and at a median interval of 20 seconds in CTEU images. The pyelographic phase began at a median interval of 1.63 minutes with both imaging modalities. Contrast medium was visible within the urinary bladder at a median interval of 2.20 minutes. Median interval to the point at which the nephrogram and pyelogram were no longer visible in REU images was 8 hours and 2.67 hours, respectively. The CTEU technique was better than the REU technique for evaluating renal parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that REU and, particularly, CTEU may be valuable tools for the diagnosis of renal and urinary tract disease in rabbits; however, additional evaluation in diseased rabbits is required.

  15. High rates of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma nabiasi infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in sympatric and syntrophic conditions in an endemic canine leishmaniasis area: epidemiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sáez, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Morales-Yuste, M; Corpas-López, V; Pratlong, F; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2014-05-28

    Leishmania infantum infection has been reported in various host species, both domestic and wild, in some cases with high prevalence rates. However, until the recent discovery of infected hares, no studies had provided clear evidence of any significant reservoir other than domestic dogs. Our focus was on another lagomorph, Oryctolagus cuniculus or wild rabbit. This species is native to the Iberian Peninsula and its presence and abundance gave rise to the name of Spain. In an endemic area for canine leishmaniasis in the southeast of Spain, 150 rabbits were captured over a period of three years. Samples of blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen, heart and skin were taken and analysed through parasitological, serological and molecular techniques in order to detect Leishmania and Trypanosoma. 20.7% of the rabbits were infected with L. infantum and 82.4% with Trypanosoma nabiasi, and 14.8% of mixed infections were detected. Both parasites were found in all the animal organs analysed, a factor which, along with the presence of serological cross-reactions, must be taken into account in epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis. O. cuniculus is an abundant and gregarious species, with a long enough average lifespan to ensure L. infantum transmission. The presence of the parasite in the skin and blood of these rabbits with no acute manifestation of disease ensures its contact with the vector, which finds in their warrens a suitable biotope to inhabit. The rabbit therefore seems to meet the most of conditions for being considered a reservoir host of L. infantum.

  16. Sequelae of Occult Aggression Disqualifying Young, Socially Housed, Female New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Participation in Dermal Toxicology Studies.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Moorman-White, Diane M; Ventura, Donnalee; Schneider, Brett W; Bittner, Thomas W

    2017-10-01

    International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations. However, occult aggression that occurred between daily observations or nocturnally resulted in skin wounding. The skin injuries, first identified during prestudy clipping of fur from the back of each rabbit 6 wk after arrival, disqualified every animal from participation in skin toxicology and muscle implantation studies. Success meeting scientific research requirements while promoting animal welfare and health when socially housing New Zealand white rabbits requires examining the behavioral repertoire of their wild counterparts, European rabbits. Factors including age, sex, and housing density influence territoriality, dominance hierarchy, social ranking, and natural, agonistic, injurious, behavioral tendencies. IACUC and other relevant oversight bodies, researchers, and animal care staff should consider this case study and the species-specific natural history of New Zealand white rabbits when assessing the harm and benefit of social housing in regard to research utility and animal welfare.

  17. Rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Brazil associated with the type BrIII Brazilian clonal lineage of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Lismara Castro; Pena, Hilda Fátima Jesus; Leite Filho, Ronaldo Viana; Argenta, Fernando Froner; Alves, Bruna Farias; Oliveira, Solange; Gennari, Solange Maria; Driemeier, David

    2017-08-28

    Toxoplasmosis is a widely distributed disease that infects birds and mammals, including humans. Acute clinical course of toxoplasmosis is considered to be rare among domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The aim of this study was to present the first report of fatal acute disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii type BrIII genotype, a typical Brazilian clonal lineage, in a domestic rabbit. T. gondii was identified in histological sections of spleen and liver tissue, and these tissues were also immunohistochemically positive for T. gondii. After the histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of T. gondii, the genotype of this pathogen was determined via PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3) and via microsatellite (MS) analysis with 15 markers (TUB2, W35, TgMA, B18, B17, M33, IV.1, X1.1, M48, M102, N60, N82, AA, N61, and N83). This study shows that type BrIII genotype, circulating in Brazil in different hosts, can cause acute disease in a naturally infected animal host. The described case also involves the first reported occurrence of the 291 allele for the typing marker TUB2 in a type BrIII strain, emphasizing the genetic diversity of T. gondii in Brazil.

  18. Recombination and Speciation: Loci Near Centromeres Are More Differentiated Than Loci Near Telomeres Between Subspecies of the European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Miguel; Ferrand, Nuno; Nachman, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical studies suggest that regions of restricted recombination play an important role in the formation of new species. To test this idea, we studied nucleotide variation in two parapatric subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We surveyed five loci near centromeres, where recombination is expected to be suppressed, and five loci near telomeres, where recombination is expected to be higher. We analyzed this multilocus data set using a divergence-with-gene flow framework and we report three main findings. First, we estimated that these subspecies diverged ∼1.8 MYA and maintained large effective population sizes (O. c. algirus Ne ≈ 1,600,000 and O. c. cuniculus Ne ≈ 780,000). Second, we rejected a strict allopatric model of divergence without gene flow; instead, high rates of gene flow were inferred in both directions. Third, we found different patterns between loci near centromeres and loci near telomeres. Loci near centromeres exhibited higher levels of linkage disequilibrium than loci near telomeres. In addition, while all loci near telomeres showed little differentiation between subspecies, three of five loci near centromeres showed strong differentiation. These results support a view of speciation in which regions of low recombination can facilitate species divergence in the presence of gene flow. PMID:19015539

  19. Comparative analysis of genome sequences of the Th2 cytokine region of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with those of nine different species

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, E. Michael; Agarwala, Richa; Mage, Rose G.; Schäffer, Alejandro A.

    2012-01-01

    The regions encoding the coordinately regulated Th2 cytokines IL5, IL4 and IL13 are located on chromosomes 5 of man and 11 of mouse. They have been intensively studied because these interleukins have protective roles in helminth infections, but may lead to detrimental effects such as allergy, asthma, and fibrosis in lung and liver. We added to previous studies by comparing sequences of syntenic regions on chromosome 3 of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) genome OryCun 2.0 assembly from a tuberculosis-susceptible strain, with the corresponding region of ENCODE ENm002 from a normal rabbit as well as with 9 other mammalian species. We searched for rabbit transcription factor binding sites in putative promoter and other non-coding regions of IL5, RAD50, IL13 and IL4. Although we identified several differences between the two donor rabbits in coding and non-coding regions of potential functional significance, confirmation awaits additional sequencing of other rabbits. PMID:23239928

  20. Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Concentration and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Friesen, Marlin D.; Riboli, Elio; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Background The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD. Methods and Findings We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA) concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk) of 25,639 individuals aged 40–79 years examined in 1993–1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0) plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27–2.41, p<0.0001), in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q), and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60–0.99, p<0.05) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0) concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59–0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1). Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids. Conclusions In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  1. Apolipoprotein C-III Levels and Incident Coronary Artery Disease Risk: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    PubMed

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Yang, Xiaohong; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Stroes, Erik S G; Witztum, Joseph L; Hovingh, G Kees; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2017-06-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoC-III levels are causally linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The mechanism(s) through which apoC-III increases CAD risk remains largely unknown. The aim was to confirm the association between apoC-III plasma levels and CAD risk and to explore which lipoprotein subfractions contribute to this relationship between apoC-III and CAD risk. Plasma apoC-III levels were measured in baseline samples from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The study comprised 2711 apparently healthy study participants, of whom 832 subsequently developed CAD. We studied the association of baseline apoC-III levels with incident CAD risk, lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and inflammatory biomarkers. ApoC-III levels were significantly associated with CAD risk (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.48 for highest compared with lowest quintile), retaining significance after adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.94). ApoC-III levels were positively correlated with triglyceride levels, (r=0.39), particle numbers of very-low-density lipoprotein (r=0.25), intermediate-density lipoprotein (r=0.23), small dense low-density lipoprotein (r=0.26), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r=0.15), whereas an inverse correlation was observed with large low-density lipoprotein particle number (r=-0.11), P<0.001 for each. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between apoC-III and CAD risk could be explained by triglyceride elevation (triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein, and intermediate-density lipoprotein particles), small low-density lipoprotein particle size, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. ApoC-III levels are significantly associated with incident CAD risk. Elevated

  2. Estimated urinary sodium excretion and risk of heart failure in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido; Sharp, Stephen J; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-04-01

    Interventional trials provide evidence for a beneficial effect of reduced dietary sodium intake on blood pressure. The association of sodium intake with heart failure which is a long-term complication of hypertension has not been examined. Hazard ratios [HRs, 95% confidence interval (CI)] of heart failure comparing quintiles of estimated 24 h urinary sodium excretion (USE) were calculated in apparently healthy men (9017) and women (10,840) aged 39–79 participating in the EPIC study in Norfolk. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 1210 incident cases of heart failure occurred. Compared with the reference category (128 mmol/day≤USE≤148 mmol/day), the top quintile (USE≥191 mmol/day) was associated with a significantly increased hazard of heart failure (1.32, 1.07–1.62) in multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes, cholesterol, social class, educational level, smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption, with a marked attenuation (1.21, 0.98–1.49) when further adjusting for blood pressure. The bottom quintile (USE≤127 mmol/day) was also associated with an increased hazard of heart failure (1.29, 1.04–1.60) in multivariable analysis without relevant attenuation by blood pressure adjustment (1.26, 1.02–1.56), but with substantial attenuation when adjusting for interim ischaemic heart disease and baseline C-reactive protein levels and exclusion of events during the first 2 years (1.18, 0.96–1.47). We demonstrate a U-shaped association between USE and heart failure risk in an apparently healthy middle-aged population. The risk associated with the high range of USE was attenuated after adjustment for blood pressure, whereas the risk associated with the low range of USE was attenuated after adjustment for pre-existing disease processes. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Fracture Risk in Relation to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Physical Activity: Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Cristina; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Huybrechts, Inge; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and physical inactivity have been associated with bone loss and fractures, but their combined effect has scarcely been studied either in younger or older adults. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between physical activity, age and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status separately and in combination with the incidence of fracture risk in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. Baseline (1993–1998) self-reported physical activity and serum 25(OH)D concentrations at follow-up (1998–2000) were collected in 14,624 men and women (aged 42–82 y between 1998 and 2000). Fracture incidence was ascertained up to March 2015. Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine HRs of fractures by plasma 25(OH)D (<30, 30 to <50, 50 to <70, 70 to <90, >90 nmol/L), age (<65 y and >65 y) and physical activity (inactive and active) categories, by follow-up time per 20 nmol/L increase in serum 25(OH)D and to explore age-25(OH)D and physical activity-25(OH)D interactions. The age-, sex-, and month-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for all fractures (1183 fractures) by increasing vitamin D category were not significantly different. With additional adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, supplement use and history of fractures, the fracture risk was 29% lower in those participants with 50 to 70 nmol/L compared with those in the lowest quintile (<30 nmol/L). Physical inactivity based on a single baseline assessment was not associated with fracture risk. Vitamin D status appeared inversely related to fractures in middle aged adults. In older adults, the relationship between vitamin D status and fracture risk was observed to be J-shaped. Clinical and public health practice in vitamin D supplementation could partially explain these findings, although definitive conclusions are difficult due to potential changes in exposure status over the long follow up period. PMID:27749911

  4. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets.

  5. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  6. Intake, selection, digesta retention, digestion and gut fill of two coprophageous species, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), on a hay-only diet.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Kreuzer, M; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2011-10-01

    A colonic separation mechanism (CSM) is the prerequisite for the digestive strategy of coprophagy. Two different CSM are known in small herbivores, the 'wash-back' CSM of lagomorphs and the 'mucous-trap' CSM of rodents. Differences between these groups in their digestive pattern when fed exclusively hay were investigated in six rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and six guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Intake, digestibility (by total faecal collection), solute and particle mean retention times (MRT, using Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibres) were measured. Rabbits selected less fibrous parts of the hay than guinea pigs, leaving orts with higher content of neutral detergent fibre [NDF; 721 ± 21 vs. 642 ± 31 g/kg dry matter (DM) in guinea pigs]. They also expressed a lower NDF digestibility (0.44 ± 0.10 vs. 0.55 ± 0.05 of total), a similar particle MRT (15 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 6 h), a longer solute MRT (51 ± 9 vs. 16 ± 4 h), and a lower calculated dry matter gut fill (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 29.7 ± 4.1 g DM/kg body mass) than guinea pigs (p < 0.05 for each variable). These results support the assumption that the 'wash-back' CSM, exhibited in the rabbits, is more efficient in extracting bacterial matter from the colonic digesta plug than the 'mucous-trap' CSM found in the guinea pigs. Related to metabolic body mass, rabbits therefore need a less capacious colon for their CSM where a more efficient bacteria wash-out is reflected in the lower fibre digestibility. A lighter digestive tract could contribute to a peculiarity of lagomorphs: their ability to run faster than other similar-sized mammals. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  8. Effects of lidocaine administration via continuous rate infusion on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; Carpenter, James W; Mason, Diane E; KuKanich, Butch; Beaufrère, Hugues; Boysen, Courtney

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. Five 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline isoflurane MAC was determined by use of the tail clamp technique. A loading dose of lidocaine (2.0 mg/kg, IV) was administered followed by a CRI of lidocaine at 50 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined. Another loading dose was administered, and the lidocaine CRI then was increased to 100 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined again. Plasma samples were obtained for lidocaine analysis after each MAC determination. Baseline isoflurane MAC was 2.09%, which was similar to previously reported values in this species. Lidocaine CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min induced significant reductions in MAC. The 50 μg/kg/min CRI resulted in a mean plasma lidocaine concentration of 0.654 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 10.5%. The 100 μg/kg/min CRI of lidocaine resulted in a mean plasma concentration of 1.578 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 21.7%. Lidocaine also induced significant decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. All cardiopulmonary variables were within reference ranges for rabbits anesthetized with inhalation anesthetics. No adverse effects were detected; all rabbits had an uncomplicated recovery from anesthesia. Lidocaine administered as a CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min decreased isoflurane MAC in rabbits. The IV administration of lidocaine may be a useful adjunct in anesthesia of rabbits.

  9. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system.

  10. Successful eradication of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from the island of Selvagem Grande (Macaronesian archipelago), in the Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Paulo; Menezes, Dilia; Trout, Roger; Buckle, Alan; Geraldes, Pedro; Jesus, José

    2010-03-01

    The Portuguese island of Selvagem Grande (Great Salvage) in Macaronesia is an important seabird breeding station in the eastern Atlantic. Significant populations of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli, 1769), Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulweria (Jardine & Selby, 1828) and little shearwater Puffinus assimilis baroli (Bonaparte, 1857) are present, and white-faced storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina (Latham, 1790) and Madeiran storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt, 1851) populations are of global significance. Selvagem Grande also provides diverse habitats for an extensive flora, including 11 endemic species. The 270-ha island was also inhabited by two alien invasive mammals: the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the house mouse Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Both are known to have had adverse impacts on breeding seabirds and island vegetation. In 2002, the Natural Park of Madeira conducted a program using brodifacoum bait formulations aimed at rabbit and mouse eradication. Approximately 17 000 individual baiting points were established on a 12.5 × 12.5 m grid. Baits were also applied by hand "seeding" on steep slopes and cliffs where bait stations could not be placed. Rabbits were removed after a month. However, mice persisted for considerably longer and strategic bait applications against them continued for a further six months. Subsequent assessments by trapping, bait takes and systematic observation of signs over three years, has confirmed the removal of both alien invasive species. This paper presents information on these operations, on measures adopted to mitigate adverse impacts of the eradication program on important vertebrate non-target species, including Berthelot's pipit Anthus berthelotii Bolle, 1862 and a species of gecko Tarentola bischoffi Joger, 1984 and on the initial response of the island's ecosystem to the eradication of rabbits and mice. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  11. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  12. A Phenomic Scan of the Norfolk Island Genetic Isolate Identifies a Major Pleiotropic Effect Locus Associated with Metabolic and Renal Disorder Markers

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Miles C.; Lea, Rodney A.; Macartney-Coxson, Donia; Hanna, Michelle; Eccles, David A.; Carless, Melanie A.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Bellis, Claire; Goring, Harald H.; Curran, Joanne E.; Harper, Jacquie L.; Gibson, Gregory; Blangero, John; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Multiphenotype genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may reveal pleiotropic genes, which would remain undetected using single phenotype analyses. Analysis of large pedigrees offers the added advantage of more accurately assessing trait heritability, which can help prioritise genetically influenced phenotypes for GWAS analysis. In this study we performed a principal component analysis (PCA), heritability (h2) estimation and pedigree-based GWAS of 37 cardiovascular disease -related phenotypes in 330 related individuals forming a large pedigree from the Norfolk Island genetic isolate. PCA revealed 13 components explaining >75% of the total variance. Nine components yielded statistically significant h2 values ranging from 0.22 to 0.54 (P<0.05). The most heritable component was loaded with 7 phenotypic measures reflecting metabolic and renal dysfunction. A GWAS of this composite phenotype revealed statistically significant associations for 3 adjacent SNPs on chromosome 1p22.2 (P<1x10-8). These SNPs form a 42kb haplotype block and explain 11% of the genetic variance for this renal function phenotype. Replication analysis of the tagging SNP (rs1396315) in an independent US cohort supports the association (P = 0.000011). Blood transcript analysis showed 35 genes were associated with rs1396315 (P<0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis of these genes revealed the most enriched pathway was purine metabolism (P = 0.0015). Overall, our findings provide convincing evidence for a major pleiotropic effect locus on chromosome 1p22.2 influencing risk of renal dysfunction via purine metabolism pathways in the Norfolk Island population. Further studies are now warranted to interrogate the functional relevance of this locus in terms of renal pathology and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26474483

  13. Demersal fish distribution and habitat use within and near Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons, U.S. Middle Atlantic Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Quattrini, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous submarine canyons along the United States middle Atlantic continental margin support enhanced productivity, diverse and unique habitats, active fisheries, and are vulnerable to various anthropogenic disturbances. During two cruises (15 Aug–2 Oct 2012 and 30 Apr–27 May 2013), Baltimore and Norfolk canyons and nearby areas (including two cold seeps) were intensively surveyed to determine demersal fish distributions and habitat associations. Overall, 34 ROV dives (234–1612 m) resulted in 295 h of bottom video observations and numerous collections. These data were supplemented by 40, 30-min bottom trawl samples. Fish observations were assigned to five general habitat designations: 1) sand-mud (flat), 2) sloping sand-mud with burrows, 3) low profile gravel, rock, boulder, 4) high profile, canyon walls, rocks or ridges, and 5) seep-mixed hard and soft substrata, the later subdivided into seven habitats based on amounts of dead mussel and rock cover. The influence of corals, sponges and live mussels (seeps only) on fish distributions was also investigated. Both canyon areas supported abundant and diverse fish communities and exhibited a wide range of habitats, including extensive areas of deep-sea corals and sponges and two nearby methane seeps (380–430 m, 1455–1610 m). All methods combined yielded a total of 123 species of fishes, 12 of which are either new records for this region or have new range data. Depth was a major factor that separated the fish faunas into two zones with a boundary around 1400 m. Fishes defining the deeper zone included Lycodes sp.,Dicrolene introniger, Gaidropsaurus ensis, Hydrolagus affinis, Antimora rostrata, andAldrovandia sp. Fishes in the deep zone did not exhibit strong habitat affinities, despite the presence of a quite rugged, extensive methane seep. We propose that habitat specificity decreases with increasing depth. Fishes in the shallower zone, characterized by Laemonema sp., Phycis chesteri, Nezumia bairdii, Brosme

  14. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  15. Insights into the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) innate immune system: genetic diversity of the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in wild populations and domestic breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the innate immune system and are a major class of pattern recognition receptors representing the first line of the innate immune response. The TLR molecule is structurally composed by an ectodomain that contains leucine rich repeats (LRRs) that interact with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), a transmembrane domain and a conserved cytoplasmic domain designated TIR (Toll-IL1 receptor) that is responsible for the intracellular signaling. TLR3 has been associated with the direct recognition of double-stranded viral RNA resulting from viral replication, while TLR7 and TLR8 target single-stranded viral RNA. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), TLR7 and TLR8 were reported to be absent and pseudogenised, respectively, making TLR3 the only available TLR for the recognition of viral RNA. Thus, the levels of diversity of TLR3 were evaluated in the European rabbit by analysing different genetic backgrounds and exposure to pathogen pressures. Results We detected 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of TLR3. The highest diversity was observed in the wild populations of Iberian Peninsula, between 22–33 polymorphic positions. In the French population, 18 SNPs were observed and only 4 polymorphic positions were detected in the domestic breeds. 14 non-synonymous substitutions were observed, most of them in the LRR molecules. The remaining were scattered across the transmembrane and TIR domains. Conclusion The study of TLR3 in European rabbit populations might be relevant to understand the interplay between RNA viruses and innate immunity. Wild rabbit populations presented more diversity than domestic breeds and other mammals previously studied. This might be linked to the absence of population bottlenecks during their evolution and to the almost inexistence of man-mediated selection. The observed variability might have also been potentiated by the contact of the wild populations

  16. Laser Ablation Trace Element Analysis of Modern and Fossil Desmophyllum dianthus from Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons in Mid-Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemann, M.; Roark, B.; Fallon, S.; Eggins, S.; Kinsley, L.; Prouty, N.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea cup corals are a promising archive for paleoceanographic reconstructions as they are globally distributed with some fossil specimens living throughout the Holocene and into the Last Glacial period. Here we explore the utility of using laser ablation (LA)- ICP-MS to measure the trace elements and δ11B in solitary scleractinian, cup corals, Desmophyllum dianthus collected in Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons from the Mid-Atlantic Ocean. Twelve modern and twenty-six sub-fossil D. dianthus, were collected between a depth range of 400m - 1400m with ambient seawater pH range of 7.89 - 8.00. Modern seawater column chemistry including radiocarbon, nutrients, total alkalinity and particulate trace elements were measured to calibrate geochemical proxies in the live specimens. Radiocarbon measurements indicate sub-fossil specimens lived as long ago as 800 years. A suite of trace elements including P/Ca, Ba/Ca, and U/Ca were analyzed to reconstruct nutrient changes and carbonate ion concentrations. Using previously published calibration equations, modern coral P/Ca ratios yield dissolved inorganic P values of 0.24 - 1.70 μmol/L in line with measured values of 0.1-2.5 μmol/L in the water column. In addition, Ba/Ca (nutrients) yield dissolved Ba values of 25-137 ±16 nmol/kg and U/Ca results yield carbonate ion concentrations of 40-129 ±29 μmol/kg, which are both consistent with previously published work. This study represents the first ever LA-ICP-MS measurements of δ11B using modern and sub-fossil D. dianthus where the modern corals averaged δ11B=18.15±0.01‰. These results are similar to previously published solution ICP-MS results, but using published pH-δ11B calibration equation yields higher pH values than in-situ pH values suggesting future modern calibration work is necessary. Overall, these results show promise for using sub-fossil D. dianthus to reconstruct biogeochemical processes at intermediate and deep waters in Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons.

  17. Social class, risk factors, and stroke incidence in men and women: a prospective study in the European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between occupational social class and stroke incidence and the extent to which classical, lifestyle, and psychosocial risk factors may explain such relationships. A prospective population study was conducted of 22488 men and women aged 39 to 79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, UK, recruited in 1993 to 1997 and followed up for stroke incidence to 2007. An inverse relationship was observed between social class and stroke incidence with an age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for social Class V compared with I of 2.62 (95% CI, 1.63 to 4.22; P=0.001). Adjusting for classical (systolic blood pressure, total blood cholesterol, smoking, history of diabetes, and body mass index), lifestyle (plasma vitamin C levels, alcohol intake, and physical activity), and psychosocial (5-item version of the Mental Health Inventory) risk factors had little effect, and a socioeconomic differential was still apparent: hazard ratio for social Class V compared with I of 2.55 (95% CI, 1.34 to 4.85, P=0.004 for comparison of V to I). Stroke incidence increased with lower social class in both men and women. Adjustment for a comprehensive range of classical, lifestyle, and psychosocial risk factors did not explain the socioeconomic differential in stroke incidence. If we are to reduce inequalities in health, further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association is needed.

  18. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Griffin, Simon; Jones, Andy P

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk study. Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute), daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA). Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling. After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (p<0.01) and 8 minutes less time spent in LMVPA but 15 minutes more sedentary time, compared to the best conditions. Day length and weather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  19. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States: technical assistance report no. 5. Geothermal space heating-naval air rework facility, Norfolk, Virginia. [Aircraft hangers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, F.K.; Henderson, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The electronic integration hangar, designated LP-167, was selected for study, as it was a single-story building with a large floor area. Because of the high ceiling and the sliding doors necessary to admit aircraft, the heat loss rate, based on floor area, was about twice that of commercial buildings. It was furnished with an oil-fired hot water heating system capable of high thermal output to meet heating requirements in the coldest weather. On the basis of the known characteristics of geothermal sources for the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and wells drilled and assayed in the Norfolk area, a reasonable estimate of the parameters of a well drilled at NARF was made. This included a low temperature output from the well of only 107/sup 0/F, so that direct transfer of warm water between the wellhead heat exchanger (HX) and the hot water radiating system in the building was not practical. Four design options are explored and calculations are presented on each one.

  20. Performance of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine and the Framingham Risk Equations in Estimating Cardiovascular Disease in the EPIC- Norfolk Cohort.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rebecca K; Coleman, Ruth L; Price, Hermione C; Holman, Rury R; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine (version 3) and the Framingham risk equations (2008) in estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in three populations: 1) individuals with known diabetes; 2) individuals with nondiabetic hyperglycemia, defined as A1C >or=6.0%; and 3) individuals with normoglycemia defined as A1C <6.0%. This was a population-based prospective cohort (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk). Participants aged 40-79 years recruited from U.K. general practices attended a health examination (1993-1998) and were followed for CVD events/death until April 2007. CVD risk estimates were calculated for 10,137 individuals. Over 10.1 years, there were 69 CVD events in the diabetes group (25.4%), 160 in the hyperglycemia group (17.7%), and 732 in the normoglycemia group (8.2%). Estimated CVD 10-year risk in the diabetes group was 33 and 37% using the UKPDS and Framingham equations, respectively. In the hyperglycemia group, estimated CVD risks were 31 and 22%, respectively, and for the normoglycemia group risks were 20 and 14%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the ability of the risk equations to discriminate between individuals at different risk of CVD events in each subgroup; both equations overestimated CVD risk. The Framingham equations performed better in the hyperglycemia and normoglycemia groups as they did not overestimate risk as much as the UKPDS Risk Engine, and they classified more participants correctly. Both the UKPDS Risk Engine and Framingham risk equations were moderately effective at ranking individuals and are therefore suitable for resource prioritization. However, both overestimated true risk, which is important when one is using scores to communicate prognostic information to individuals.

  1. The role of rheumatoid arthritis genetic susceptibility markers in the prediction of erosive disease in patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Darren; Thomson, Wendy; Lunt, Mark; Flynn, Edward; Martin, Paul; Eyre, Steven; Farragher, Tracey; Bunn, Diane; Worthington, Jane; Symmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Recent whole-genome and candidate gene association studies in RA have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that predispose to disease with moderate risk. It remains poorly understood how recently identified genetic factors may contribute to RA severity. We therefore sought to investigate the role of recently identified RA susceptibility SNP markers in predicting erosive outcome in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis (IP). Methods. DNA and X-ray data were available for 1049 patients who were registered between 1990 and 2003 with the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR); a primary care-based inception cohort of patients with recent-onset IP. Demographic and clinical data were recorded at inclusion, and at yearly assessments thereafter. Patients were genotyped for 18 SNP markers. The presence of serum anti citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) was assessed in samples collected at inclusion to the NOAR. The association of serological and genetic markers with poor radiological (Larsen) score at Years 1 and 5, and erosions at Years 1 and 5 was investigated. Results. Baseline ACPA positivity was associated with erosive disease and higher radiological damage. SNP markers within the TRAF1/C5 locus were associated with erosive disease at Year 1 [rs2900180: odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95% CI 1.14, 2.05)] and Year 5 [rs2900180: OR 1.47 (95% CI 1.07, 2.02)]. None of the SNP markers tested was associated with Larsen score. Conclusion. Our results are in keeping with a previous report and suggest that the TRAF1/C5 region is associated with risk of development of radiological erosions in IP/RA patients. The finding requires replication in other large data sets. PMID:20219786

  2. N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and mortality risk in early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Registry (NOAR)

    PubMed Central

    Mirjafari, Hoda; Welsh, Paul; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Wilson, Paddy; Marshall, Tarnya; Edlin, Helena; Bunn, Diane; Chipping, Jacqueline; Lunt, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M; Sattar, Naveed; Bruce, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    Background We measured N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), a marker of cardiac dysfunction, in an inception cohort with early inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and assessed its association with disease phenotype, cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause and CVD related mortality. Methods Subjects with early IP were recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register from January 2000 to December 2008 and followed up to death or until March 2010 including any data from the national death register. The associations of baseline NT-pro-BNP with IP related factors and CVD were assessed by linear regression. Cox proportional hazards models examined the independent association of baseline NT-pro-BNP with all-cause and CVD mortality. Results We studied 960 early IP subjects; 163 (17%) had prior CVD. 373 (39%) patients had a baseline NT-pro-BNP levels ≥100 pg/ml. NT-pro-BNP was associated with age, female gender, HAQ score, CRP, current smoking, history of hypertension, prior CVD and the presence of carotid plaque. 92 (10%) IP subjects died including 31 (3%) from CVD. In an age and gender adjusted analysis, having a raised NT-pro-BNP level (≥100 pg/ml) was associated with both all-cause and CVD mortality (adjusted HR (95% CI) 2.36 (1.42 to 3.94) and 3.40 (1.28 to 9.03), respectively). These findings were robust to adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors and prevalent CVD. Conclusions In early IP patients, elevated NT-pro-BNP is related to HAQ and CRP and predicts all-cause and CVD mortality independently of conventional CVD risk factors. Further study is required to identify whether NT-pro-BNP may be clinically useful in targeting intensive interventions to IP patients at greatest risk of CVD. PMID:23511225

  3. Gender and the double burden of economic and social disadvantages on healthy eating: cross-sectional study of older adults in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-07-22

    Multiple economic factors and social relationships determine dietary behaviours, but the inter-relations between determinants is unknown. Whether women and men differ in the vulnerability to, and impact of, combined disadvantages is also unclear. We examined associations between diverse combinations of economic resources and social relationships, and healthy eating in British older women and men. Our sample comprised 9,580 over-50s (47 % of over-50 respondents) in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. We examined six economic factors (education, social class, home-ownership, money for needs, frequency of insufficient money for food/clothing, paying bills) and three social relationships (marital status, living arrangement and friend contact), independently and in combination, in relation to fruit variety and vegetable variety. We analysed gender-specific associations using multivariable linear regression with interaction terms. Lower social class, lower education, and difficulty paying bills were associated with lower fruit and vegetable variety in both genders, independent of social relationships. All social relationships were independently associated with fruit variety in men and with vegetable variety in both genders. Substantially lower variety was found for all combinations of low economic resources and lack of social relationship than for either measure alone, with men faring worse in the majority of combined disadvantages. For example, the difference in vegetable variety for men reporting low social class and non-married was much greater (β -4.1, [-4.8, -3.4]), than the independent association of low social class (β -1.5, [-1.8,-1.2]), or non-married (β -1.8, [-2.3,-1.3]). Variety was also lower among men with high economic resources but non-married or lone-living. A double burden of low economic resources and lack of social relationships suggested they are unique joint determinants, particularly in older men, and that public health efforts to improve healthy

  4. The association between a biomarker score for fruit and vegetable intake and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Norfolk study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew JM; Sharp, Stephen J; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Biomarkers for a mixed fruit and vegetable (FV) diet are needed to provide a better understanding of the association between FV intake and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the prospective association between a composite score comprised of three biomarkers of FV intake in free-living populations and incident diabetes. Subjects/Methods A total of 318 incident diabetes cases and 926 controls from the EPIC-Norfolk study aged 40-79 years at baseline (1993-1997) completed 7-day food diaries (7DD) and had plasma vitamin C and carotenoid measures. A composite biomarker score (CB-score) comprising the sum of plasma vitamin C, beta-carotene and lutein was derived. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for incident diabetes were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results A strong inverse association was found between the CB-score and incident diabetes. The OR (95% CI) of diabetes comparing quartiles Q2, Q3 and Q4 of the CB-score with Q1 (reference category) were 0.70 (0.49, 1.00), 0.34 (0.23, 0.52) and 0.19 (0.12, 0.32), respectively, and 0.49 (0.40, 0.58) per SD change in CB-score in a model adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. The association was marginally attenuated after additionally adjusting for BMI and waist circumference (0.60 (0.49, 0.74) per SD change in CB-score). Conclusions A combination of biomarkers representing the intake of a mixed FV diet was strongly inversely associated with incident diabetes. These findings provide further support for measuring dietary biomarkers in studies of diet-disease associations and highlight the importance of consuming FV for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25387899

  5. Prospective association of the Mediterranean diet with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality and its population impact in a non-Mediterranean population: the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tammy Y N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Imamura, Fumiaki; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-09-29

    Despite convincing evidence in the Mediterranean region, the cardiovascular benefit of the Mediterranean diet is not well established in non-Mediterranean countries and the optimal criteria for defining adherence are unclear. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of adherence to this diet is also unknown. In the UK-based EPIC-Norfolk prospective cohort, we evaluated habitual diets assessed at baseline (1993-1997) and during follow-up (1998-2000) using food-frequency questionnaires (n = 23,902). We estimated a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) using cut-points projected from the Mediterranean dietary pyramid, and also three other pre-existing MDSs. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with repeated measures of MDS and covariates, we examined prospective associations between each MDS with incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by 2009 and mortality by 2013, and estimated PAF for each outcome attributable to low MDS. We observed 7606 incident CVD events (2818/100,000 person-years) and 1714 CVD deaths (448/100,000). The MDS based on the Mediterranean dietary pyramid was significantly associated with lower incidence of the cardiovascular outcomes, with hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 0.95 (0.92-0.97) per one standard deviation for incident CVD and 0.91 (0.87-0.96) for CVD mortality. Associations were similar for composite incident ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Other pre-existing MDSs showed similar, but more modest associations. PAF due to low dietary pyramid based MDS (<95th percentile) was 3.9 % (1.3-6.5 %) for total incident CVD and 12.5 % (4.5-20.6 %) for CVD mortality. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower CVD incidence and mortality in the UK. This diet has an important population health impact for the prevention of CVD.

  6. Longitudinal association of C-reactive protein and Haemoglobin A1c over 13 years: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer--Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Kaptoge, Stephen; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-05-22

    Type-2 diabetes is associated with systemic inflammation and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. However, the longitudinal association of CRP and haemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) has not been described in large prospective studies. Understanding such associations may shed light on the role of inflammation in development of type-2 diabetes and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases. EPIC-Norfolk is a cohort study of men and women aged 40-79 years at time of recruitment (1993-1997). Serum CRP (mg/l) was measured using a high-sensitivity assay at baseline and 13-years follow-up. HbA1c (%) was measured at baseline, 4, and 13 years. Participants were excluded if they were diagnosed with diabetes or were taking diabetes medication. Data on at least one measurement of CRP and HbA1c was available for 14228 participants (55 % of the cohort). In the cross-sectional analysis of baseline data, a 1-SD higher loge-CRP (about three-fold higher CRP) was associated with 0.06 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.08) higher HbA1c (%) adjusted for potential confounders. In longitudinal analysis using multivariable linear mixed models, change in CRP over 13 years was to a similar extent positively associated with increase in HbA1c, such that 1-SD higher longitudinal change in loge-CRP was associated with 0.04 (95 % CI 0.02, 0.05) increase in HbA1c. In this study we found longitudinal observational evidence suggesting that increase in systemic inflammation is associated with an increase in HbA1c and thus systemic inflammation may have a role in development of type-2 diabetes and its complications.

  7. Marital transitions and associated changes in fruit and vegetable intake: Findings from the population-based prospective EPIC-Norfolk cohort, UK.

    PubMed

    Vinther, Johan L; Conklin, Annalijn I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Diet is critical to health and social relationships are an important determinant of diet. We report the association between transitions in marital status and healthy eating behaviours in a UK population. Longitudinal study of middle-age and older adults 39-78y (n = 11 577) in EPIC-Norfolk, a population-based cohort, who completed food frequency questionnaires in 1993-97 and 1998-2002. Multivariable linear regression analyses assessed gender-specific associations between five categories of marital transitions and changes in quantity (g/d), and variety (no/month) of fruits or vegetables. In 3.6 years of follow-up and relative to men who stayed married, widowed men showed significant declines (mean difference, 95% CI) in all four indicators of healthy eating including fruit quantity (-47.7, -80.6 to -14.9 g/d), fruit variety (-0.6, -1.1 to -0.2 no/month), vegetable quantity (-27.7, -50.5 to -4.9 g/d), and vegetable variety (-1.6, -2.2 to -0.9 no/month). Men who were separated or divorced or who remained single also showed significant declines in three of the indicators. Among women, only those who became separated/divorced or stayed single showed declines in one indicator, vegetable variety. Unhealthy changes to diet accompanying divorce, separation and becoming widowed may be more common among men than women. Moreover, deterioration in fruit and vegetable intakes was more apparent for variety rather than quantity consumed. Programmes to promote healthy eating among older adults need to recognise these social determinants of diet and consider prioritising people who live alone and in particular men who have recently left relationships or who have been widowed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Dog ownership supports the maintenance of physical activity during poor weather in older English adults: cross-sectional results from the EPIC Norfolk cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Luben, Robert; Jones, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Background Dog ownership has been suggested to encourage physical activity in older adults and may enhance resilience to poor environmental conditions. This study investigates the role of dog ownership and walking as a means of supporting the maintenance of physical activity in older adults during periods of inclement weather. Methods The analysis used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk cohort. Daily physical activity (counts per minute) and minutes of sedentary behaviour were measured using accelerometers over 7 days. Three types of environmental conditions, day length, precipitation and maximum temperature, were date matched with daily physical activity. A multilevel first-order autoregressive time-series model quantified the moderating effect of self-reported dog ownership and walking on the association between physical activity and weather factors. Results Among the 3123 participants, 18% reported having a dog in their households and two-thirds of dog owners walked their dogs at least once a day. Regular dog walkers were more active and less sedentary on days with the poorest conditions than non-dog owners were on the days with the best conditions. In days with the worst conditions, those who walked their dogs had 20% higher activity levels than non-dog owners and spent 30 min/day less sedentary. Conclusion Those who walked dogs were consistently more physically active than those who did not regardless of environmental conditions. These large differences suggest that dog walking, where appropriate, can be a component of interventions to support physical activity in older adults. PMID:28739839

  9. Parapercis nigrodorsalis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from northern New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea and remarks on P. binivirgata (Waite, 1904).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Struthers, Carl D; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2014-08-26

    A new species of pinguipedid fish, Parapercis nigrodorsalis, is described from 17 specimens collected off the North Island of New Zealand and Wanganella Bank, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, in depths of 56-280 m. The species has also been photographed underwater off the Poor Knights Islands Reserve and Burgess Island, Mokohinau Group, in New Zealand. It is most similar to Parapercis binivirgata (Waite, 1904) in morphology, coloration and meristic values, but is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays V, 23, anal-fin rays I, 19, lateral-line scales 57-63, vomer with 1-2 irregular rows of robust conical teeth, palatines with 1-2 rows of small teeth, angle of subopercle smooth, 10 abdominal and 22 caudal vertebrae, and coloration, including seven broad reddish-brown bands on the upper body between the spinous dorsal-fin and the caudal peduncle, most bands bifurcated into close-set double bars with black smudge-like blotches below, and membrane of the spinous dorsal fin black. Comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding produced a genetic divergence of 5.38% and 7.63% between the new species and its two closest sampled congeners. The holotype of P. binivirgata is identified from two specimens previously regarded as syntypes, some revisions are made to meristic data in the original description of the latter, and a detailed description of the revised geographic range of P. binivirgata is provided.  

  10. Non-HDL cholesterol vs. apo B for risk of coronary heart disease in healthy individuals: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Rana, Jamal S; Arsenault, Benoit J; Shah, Prediman K; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the performance of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) compared with apolipoprotein B (apo B) in the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Therefore, we compared the associations between non-HDL-C and apo B in regard to CHD among apparently healthy Western European individuals. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study, 25,639 men and women aged 45-79 years were followed for 11·4 ± 2·8 years. Those with diabetes or prevalent CHD at baseline were excluded. A total of 2066 (12·1%) participants developed CHD during 195 692 person-years follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] of future CHD per one standard deviation increase was 1·22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1·17-1·27] for LDL-C, 1·26 (95% CI 1·20-1·31) for non-HDL-C and 1·19 (95% CI 1·14-1·24) for apo B, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted HR of future CHD in the highest quartile LDL-C was 1·67 (95% CI: 1·47-1·91). For non-HDL-C and apo B, these respective HRs were 1·87 (95% CI: 1·62-2·15) and 1·56 (95% CI: 1·36-1·78). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed that there was incremental and comparable increase in risk of CHD with increasing quartiles of both non-HDL-C and apo B. In this prospective study, non-HDL-C and apo B were comparable in their ability to predict risk of future CHD. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Peto, Tunde; Tufail, Adnan; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large British cohort study. The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow up (2006-2011) via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD. 5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91) at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8%) and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%). In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C ) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD. We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants.

  12. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: rationale, methods and a cross-sectional analysis of visual impairment in a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Hayat, Shabina; Broadway, David C; Luben, Robert; Garway-Heath, David F; Sherwin, Justin C; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Dalzell, Nichola; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To summarise the methods of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study, and to present data on the prevalence of visual impairment and associations with visual impairment in the participants. Design A population-based cross-sectional study nested within an on-going prospective cohort study (EPIC). Setting East England population (the city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Participants A total of 8623 participants aged 48–92 years attended the Eye Study and underwent assessment of visual acuity, autorefraction, biometry, tonometry, corneal biomechanical measures, scanning laser polarimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fundal photography and automated perimetry. Outcome measures Visual impairment was defined according to the WHO classification and the UK driving standard, and was based on presenting visual acuity. Summary measures of other ophthalmic measurements are also presented. Results The prevalence (95% CI) of WHO-defined moderate-to-severe visual impairment and blindness was 0.74% (0.55% to 0.92%). The prevalence (95% CI) of presenting visual acuity worse than the UK driving standard was 5.87% (5.38% to 6.37%). Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment or blindness (p<0.001). Presenting visual acuity worse than UK driving standard was associated with older age (p<0.001), female sex (p=0.005) and lower educational level (p=0.022). Conclusions The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in this selected population was low. Visual impairment was more likely in older participants, women and those with a lower educational level. PMID:23516272

  13. Topical Beta-Blockers and Cardiovascular Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Data from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Claude; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Broadway, David C; Foster, Paul J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick

    2016-10-01

    To determine if topical beta-blocker use is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, particularly among people with self-reported glaucoma. All participants who participated in the first health check (N = 25,639) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort (1993-2013) were included in this prospective cohort study, with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. We determined use of topical beta-blockers at baseline through a self-reported questionnaire and prescription check at the first clinical visit. Cardiovascular mortality was ascertained through data linkage with the Office for National Statistics mortality database. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Meta-analysis of the present study's results together with other identified literature was performed using a random effects model. We did not find an association between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.93, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.67-1.30). In the 514 participants with self-reported glaucoma, no association was found between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.56-1.40). In the primary meta-analysis of four publications, there was no evidence of an association between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (pooled HR estimate 1.10, 95% CI 0.84-1.36). Topical beta-blockers do not appear to be associated with excess cardiovascular mortality. This evidence does not indicate that a change in current practice is warranted, although clinicians should continue to assess individual patients and their cardiovascular risk prior to commencing topical beta-blockers.

  14. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Tufail, Adnan; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large British cohort study. Methods The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow up (2006-2011) via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD. Results 5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91) at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8%) and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%). In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C ) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants. PMID:26176222

  15. Population and assay thresholds for the predictive value of lipoprotein (a) for coronary artery disease: the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Rutger; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Stoekenbroek, Robert M; Hovingh, G Kees; Witztum, Joseph L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-04-01

    Variable agreement exists between different lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] measurement methods, but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The predictive value of Lp(a) measured by two different assays [Randox and University of California, San Diego (UCSD)] was determined in 623 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 948 controls in a case-control study within the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. Participants were divided into sex-specific quintiles, and by Lp(a) <50 versus ∼50 mg/dl, which represents the 80th percentile in northern European subjects. Randox and UCSD Lp(a) levels were strongly correlated; Spearman's correlation coefficients for men, women, and sexes combined were 0.905, 0.915, and 0.909, respectively (P< 0.001 for each). The >80th percentile cutoff values, however, were 36 mg/dl and 24 mg/dl for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. Despite this, Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with CAD risk, with odds ratios of 2.18 (1.58-3.01) and 2.35 (1.70-3.26) for people in the top versus bottom Lp(a) quintile for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. This study demonstrates that CAD risk is present at lower Lp(a) levels than the currently suggested optimal Lp(a) level of <50 mg/dl. Appropriate thresholds may need to be population and assay specific until Lp(a) assays are standardized and Lp(a) thresholds are evaluated broadly across all populations at risk for CVD and aortic stenosis.

  16. SMAD7 and MGMT genotype variants and cancer incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk Study.

    PubMed

    Loh, Yet Hua; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Wood, Angela; Luben, Robert N; McTaggart, Alison; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2011-08-01

    The SMAD7 gene was recently identified to be associated with colorectal cancer risk. Smad7 protein is a known inhibitor of TGF-β signalling pathway which has a prominent role in tumorigenesis. MGMT gene regulates the direct damage reversal repair pathway, preventing DNA damage and potential cancer development. This exploratory study aims to investigate the association between SMAD7 (rs4464148, rs4939827) and MGMT (rs12917, rs2308321) genotype variants, and all-cancer incidence. Our study population was a sub-cohort of the EPIC-Norfolk study, a prospective cohort of approximately 25,000 men and women aged 40-79. Between recruitment 1993-1997 and follow-up to 2006, 192 incident cases and 1155 non-cases with genotype data were identified. Baseline 7-day food diary and health/lifestyle questionnaire data were analysed. SMAD7 rs4464148 variant genotype was associated with increased cancer incidence [HR=1.34, 95%CI=1.00-1.80] but no overall association for SMAD7 rs4939827 or MGMT genotypes. Participants with variant genotypes in both SMAD7 SNPs had a higher cancer incidence compared to those without any (HR=2.74, 95%CI=1.10-6.79) (P=0.03; P(trend)=0.01). Amongst the younger age participants (

  17. Topical Beta-Blockers and Cardiovascular Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Data from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinnock, Claude; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Broadway, David C.; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine if topical beta-blocker use is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, particularly among people with self-reported glaucoma. Methods: All participants who participated in the first health check (N = 25,639) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort (1993–2013) were included in this prospective cohort study, with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. We determined use of topical beta-blockers at baseline through a self-reported questionnaire and prescription check at the first clinical visit. Cardiovascular mortality was ascertained through data linkage with the Office for National Statistics mortality database. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Meta-analysis of the present study’s results together with other identified literature was performed using a random effects model. Results: We did not find an association between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.93, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.67–1.30). In the 514 participants with self-reported glaucoma, no association was found between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.56–1.40). In the primary meta-analysis of four publications, there was no evidence of an association between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (pooled HR estimate 1.10, 95% CI 0.84–1.36). Conclusion: Topical beta-blockers do not appear to be associated with excess cardiovascular mortality. This evidence does not indicate that a change in current practice is warranted, although clinicians should continue to assess individual patients and their cardiovascular risk prior to commencing topical beta-blockers. PMID:27551956

  18. Dietary magnesium and potassium intakes and circulating magnesium are associated with heel bone ultrasound attenuation and osteoporotic fracture risk in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hayhoe, Richard P G; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Welch, Ailsa A

    2015-08-01

    In our aging population, maintenance of bone health is critical to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and potentially debilitating consequences of fractures in older individuals. Among modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors, dietary magnesium and potassium intakes are postulated to influence bone quality and osteoporosis, principally via calcium-dependent alteration of bone structure and turnover. We investigated the influence of dietary magnesium and potassium intakes, as well as circulating magnesium, on bone density status and fracture risk in an adult population in the United Kingdom. A random subset of 4000 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort of 25,639 men and women with baseline data was used for bone density cross-sectional analyses and combined with fracture cases (n = 1502) for fracture case-cohort longitudinal analyses (mean follow-up 13.4 y). Relevant biological, lifestyle, and dietary covariates were used in multivariate regression analyses to determine associations between dietary magnesium and potassium intakes and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), as well as in Prentice-weighted Cox regression to determine associated risk of fracture. Separate analyses, excluding dietary covariates, investigated associations of BUA and fractures with serum magnesium concentration. Statistically significant positive trends in calcaneal BUA for women (n = 1360) but not men (n = 968) were apparent across increasing quintiles of magnesium plus potassium (Mg+K) z score intake (P = 0.03) or potassium intake alone (P = 0.04). Reduced hip fracture risk in both men (n = 1958) and women (n = 2755) was evident for individuals in specific Mg+K z score intake quintiles compared with the lowest. Statistically significant trends in fracture risk in men across serum magnesium concentration groups were apparent for spine fractures (P = 0.02) and total hip, spine, and wrist fractures (P = 0.02). None of these

  19. The physical capability of community-based men and women from a British cohort: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a case-finding algorithm for sarcopenia, recommending muscle mass measurement in older adults with low grip strength (women <20 kg; men <30 kg) or slow walking speed (≤0.8 m/s). However, the implications of adopting this algorithm into clinical practice are unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the physical capability of men and women from a British population-based cohort study. Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study, 8,623 community-based adults (48-92 years old) underwent assessment of grip strength, walking speed, timed chair stands and standing balance. The proportion of older men and women (≥65 years) fulfilling EWGSOP criteria for muscle mass measurement was estimated. Additionally, cross-sectional associations of physical capability with age and sex were explored using linear and logistic regression. Results Approximately 1 in 4 older participants (28.8%) fulfilled criteria for muscle mass measurement with a greater proportion of women than men falling below threshold criteria (33.6% versus 23.6%). Even after adjustment for anthropometry, women were 12.4 kg (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 12.0, 12.7) weaker, took 12.0% (95% CI 10.0, 14.0) longer to perform five chair stands and were 1.82 (95% CI 1.48, 2.23) times more likely to be unable to hold a tandem stand for 10 seconds than men, although usual walking speed was similar. Physical capability was inversely associated with age and per year, walking speed decreased by 0.01 m/s (95% CI 0.01, 0.01) and grip strength decreased by 0.49 kg (men; 95% CI 0.46, 0.51) and 0.25 kg (women; 95% CI 0.23, 0.27). Despite this, there was still variation within age-groups and not all older people had low physical capability. Conclusions Every effort to optimise functional health in later life should be made since poor function is not inevitable. However, if the EWGSOP sarcopenia case

  20. Twenty-Year Outcome and Association Between Early Treatment and Mortality and Disability in an Inception Cohort of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From the Norfolk Arthritis Register.

    PubMed

    Gwinnutt, James M; Symmons, Deborah P M; MacGregor, Alexander J; Chipping, Jacqueline R; Marshall, Tarnya; Lunt, Mark; Verstappen, Suzanne M M

    2017-08-01

    To describe the outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 20 years from symptom onset, and to assess the association between early treatment (with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs/steroids) and mortality and disability during follow-up. Patients recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) between 1990 and 1994 who met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism RA criteria at baseline were included in this analysis. Demographic and clinical variables were collected at baseline and at years 1-3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Disease activity (swollen joint count [SJC]/tender joint count [TJC]), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), and mortality over 20 years were determined. Associations between treatment group (early treatment [ET], treatment ≤6 months after symptom onset; late treatment [LT], treatment >6 months after symptom onset; never treatment [NT], no treatment) and mortality and disability were assessed using weighted pooled logistic regression and weighted multilevel mixed-effects linear regression, respectively. Inverse weights were used to account for confounding by indication and censoring. This study included 602 patients with RA (median age 56 years [interquartile range 44-68 years]; 65.9% women). The median SJCs and TJCs were low during the follow-up period (1-3 swollen joints and 3-6 tender joints). The median HAQ DI score increased after year 1 but remained at low/moderate levels (median 1.25 after year 10). The risk of mortality was reduced in the ET and LT groups compared with that in the NT group. The ET group and the NT group had comparable HAQ DI scores during the follow-up period (β = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.06, 0.12), while the HAQ DI score was increased in the LT group (for LT versus NT, β = 0.10 [95% CI 0.02, 0.17]). The results of this study indicate the importance of early treatment with regard to the long-term outcomes in

  1. Dietary, lifestyle and clinicopathological factors associated with APC mutations and promoter methylation in colorectal cancers from the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Gay, Laura J; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Keen, Jennifer; Bowman, Richard; Naguib, Adam; Cooke, James; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Burns, Philip A; Luben, Robert; Lentjes, Marleen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ball, Richard Y; Ibrahim, Ashraf Ek; Arends, Mark J

    2012-11-01

    The tumour suppressor APC is the most commonly altered gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). Genetic and epigenetic alterations of APC may therefore be associated with dietary and lifestyle risk factors for CRC. Analysis of APC mutations in the extended mutation cluster region (codons 1276-1556) and APC promoter 1A methylation was performed on 185 archival CRC samples collected from participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study, with the aim of relating these to high-quality seven-day dietary and lifestyle data collected prospectively. Truncating APC mutations (APC(+) ) and promoter 1A methylation (PM(+) ) were identified in 43% and 23% of CRCs analysed, respectively. Distal CRCs were more likely than proximal CRCs to be APC(+) or PM(+) (p = 0.04). APC(+) CRCs were more likely to be moderately/well differentiated and microsatellite stable than APC(-) CRCs (p = 0.05 and 0.03). APC(+) CRC cases consumed more alcohol than their counterparts (p = 0.01) and PM(+) CRC cases consumed lower levels of folate and fibre (p = 0.01 and 0.004). APC(+) or PM(+) CRC cases consumed higher levels of processed meat and iron from red meat and red meat products (p = 0.007 and 0.006). Specifically, CRC cases harbouring GC-to-AT transition mutations consumed higher levels of processed meat (35 versus 24 g/day, p = 0.04) and iron from red meat and red meat products (0.8 versus 0.6 mg/day, p = 0.05). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex and cigarette-smoking status, each 19 g/day (1SD) increment increase in processed meat consumption was associated with cases with GC-to-AT mutations (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.03-2.75). In conclusion, APC(+) and PM(+) CRCs may be influenced by diet and GC-to-AT mutations in APC are associated with processed meat consumption, suggesting a mechanistic link with dietary alkylating agents, such as N-nitroso compounds.

  2. Composition and distribution of deep-sea benthic invertebrate megafauna on the Lord Howe Rise and Norfolk Ridge, southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.; Althaus, F.; Clark, M. R.; Gowlett-Holmes, K.

    2011-04-01

    The deep-sea biodiversity of the Lord Howe Rise and Norfolk Ridge - two complex submarine features that extend in a north-south direction either side of a deep basin within the northern Tasman Sea and southern Coral Sea - was sampled in 2003 for the first time on a broad regional scale. The total of 1313 megabenthic invertebrate species from 17 higher order taxa collected between 100 and 1800 m depths showed faunal diversity and novelty was high. Only 256 of these species were named, and 10% of these were described as a result of this survey; 78% are un-named and believed to be mostly new species. Of the 1253 species included in quantitative analyses, most appeared to be rare - 85% were only found once. This indicates intra-regional endemism may be high, but undersampling is also likely. Species accumulation curves confirm that many additional species remain to be collected. There was high regional-scale spatial heterogeneity in species distribution patterns which appeared to be influenced by hydrographic patterns and feature-scale topography, and to a lesser extent by seabed type. Depth and oxygen concentration (correlated with depth) had most influence on distribution patterns of fauna, with assemblages identified from three depth-zones: 100-400 m (deep continental shelf and shelf edge), 400-700 m (upper continental slope) and >700 m (mid-continental slope). In the shallowest depth zone, there were north-south (latitudinal) patterns in invertebrate assemblages that appeared to be influenced by water mass distribution. Species overlap was higher in the south than the north, probably due to the Tasman Front forming a hydrographic connection between the southern parts of the Rise and the Ridge at shallower depths. At depths >700 m, the absence of a latitudinal pattern in assemblage structure was attributed to the continuity of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the study area. Differentiation of two assemblages in sled samples from the >700 m depth zone, as well as

  3. The development and validation of the Norfolk QOL-DN, a new measure of patients' perception of the effects of diabetes and diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Hayes, Risa P; Oglesby, Alan; Bastyr, Edward; Barlow, Patricia; Ford-Molvik, Stephanie L; Vinik, Aaron I

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcomes measure, sensitive to the different features of diabetic neuropathy (DN)-small fiber, large fiber, and autonomic nerve function. The review of 1,000 structured patient interviews guided the development of 28 items pertaining specifically to the symptoms and impact of large fiber, small fiber, and autonomic nerve function. These items, in addition to 14 generic health status items and five general information items formed the 47-item Norfolk Quality of Life Questionnaire-Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN). Items were grouped according to small fiber, large fiber, and autonomic nerve function, symptoms, and activities of daily living (ADL). Scores in individual domains were aggregated to provide a total score. Item groupings were tested for their ability to distinguish between the effects of specific nerve fiber deficits in 262 subjects-81 healthy controls (C), 86 controls with diabetes (DC), and 95 patients with DN-using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Test-retest reliability over a 4-6-week period was estimated by intra-class correlation coefficients and ANOVA on data of a subset of patients and controls. Differences between DN subjects and both DC and C subjects were significant (P < 0.05) for all item groupings. Total quality of life (QOL) scores correlated with total neuropathy scores. The ADL, total QOL, and autonomic scores were greater in DC than C subjects (P < 0.05). Intra-class correlation coefficients were > 0.9 for most domains. Internal consistency of the fiberspecific domains using Cronbach's alpha was > 0.6 and up to 0.8. The fiber-specific domains of the QOL-DN demonstrated acceptable reliability and ability to discriminate between subjects with and without neuropathy. Not surprisingly, the DN group scored significantly (P < 0.05) higher than either of the two control groups (i.e., greater impairment). The

  4. Socioeconomic status, financial hardship and measured obesity in older adults: a cross-sectional study of the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Suhrcke, Marc; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2013-11-04

    Socioeconomic status is strongly associated with obesity. Current economic circumstances are also independently associated with self-reported weight status in Finnish civil servants. We aimed to examine three types of financial hardship in relation to measured general and central obesity in a general population of older adults, while considering conventional socioeconomic indicators. Data from 10,137 participants (≥50 years) in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort who responded to a postal Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire (1996-2000) and attended a clinical assessment (1998-2002). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed likelihood of general obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m²) and central obesity (women: ≥88 cm; men: ≥102 cm) calculated from measured anthropometrics. Obesity prevalence was consistently patterned by standard socioeconomic indicators, with over-50s in the lowest social class being twice as likely to be obese than those in the highest class (women OR 2.10 [CI95: 1.41-3.13]; men OR 2.36 [1.44-3.87]). After adjustment for socioeconomic status, reporting having less than enough money for one's needs (compared to more than enough) was associated with obesity in women (OR 2.04 [1.54-2.69]) and men (OR 1.83 [1.34-2.49]). Similar associations were demonstrated between obesity and always or often not having enough money for food/clothing (women OR 1.40 [1.03-1.90]; men OR 1.81 [1.28-2.56]), compared to reporting this never occurred. The strongest independent associations were seen for obesity and reported greatest level of difficulty paying bills (women OR 2.20 [1.37-3.55]; men 2.40 [1.38-4.17]), compared to having no difficulties. Findings for central obesity were slightly higher in women and lower in men. Obesity in British over-50s was more likely in study participants who reported greater financial hardship, even after education, social class and home ownership were taken into account. Public health policies need to consider the hitherto neglected role

  5. Marital transitions and associated changes in fruit and vegetable intake: Findings from the population-based prospective EPIC-Norfolk cohort, UK

    PubMed Central

    Vinther, Johan L.; Conklin, Annalijn I.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet is critical to health and social relationships are an important determinant of diet. We report the association between transitions in marital status and healthy eating behaviours in a UK population. Methods Longitudinal study of middle-age and older adults 39−78y (n = 11 577) in EPIC-Norfolk, a population-based cohort, who completed food frequency questionnaires in 1993–97 and 1998–2002. Multivariable linear regression analyses assessed gender-specific associations between five categories of marital transitions and changes in quantity (g/d), and variety (no/month) of fruits or vegetables. Results In 3.6 years of follow-up and relative to men who stayed married, widowed men showed significant declines (mean difference, 95% CI) in all four indicators of healthy eating including fruit quantity (−47.7, −80.6 to −14.9 g/d), fruit variety (−0.6, −1.1 to −0.2 no/month), vegetable quantity (−27.7, −50.5 to −4.9 g/d), and vegetable variety (−1.6, −2.2 to −0.9 no/month). Men who were separated or divorced or who remained single also showed significant declines in three of the indicators. Among women, only those who became separated/divorced or stayed single showed declines in one indicator, vegetable variety. Conclusion Unhealthy changes to diet accompanying divorce, separation and becoming widowed may be more common among men than women. Moreover, deterioration in fruit and vegetable intakes was more apparent for variety rather than quantity consumed. Programmes to promote healthy eating among older adults need to recognise these social determinants of diet and consider prioritising people who live alone and in particular men who have recently left relationships or who have been widowed. PMID:27082023

  6. Seropositivity is associated with insulin resistance in patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR): an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP), especially in seropositive disease. In established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), insulin resistance (IR) is increased and associated with CVD. We investigated factors associated with IR in an inception cohort of patients with early IP. Methods Patients with early IP (two or more swollen joints for four or more weeks), aged 18 to 65 years, seen within 24 months of symptom onset were recruited from the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR), a primary-care-based inception cohort. Assessment included joint examination, current and prior therapy and completion of the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Fasting blood was taken for measurement of CVD risk factors, rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and insulin levels. IR was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). We examined factors associated with IR using univariate and multivariable linear regression models. Results A total of 196 patients, including 59 (30%) males, were studied with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age and IP symptom duration of 49 (40 to 57) years and 6.7 (4.6 to 10.7) months, respectively. After age and gender adjustment, HOMA-IR was associated with obesity, (β-Coefficient (95% CI); 1.60 (0.96, 2.24)), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (0.03 (0.01, 0.05) and 0.04 (0.01, 0.08) respectively), triglycerides (1.06 (0.54, 1.57)), and HDL (-1.38 (-2.17,-0.58)). HOMA-IR was associated with serological status and this association persisted after adjustment for classic CVD risk factors and other IP-related variables (RF β-Coefficient (95% CI); 0.87 (0.20, 1.53) and ACPA β-Coefficient (95% CI); 1.42 (0.70, 2.15)). Conclusions Seropositivity for RF or ACPA was associated with IR in this early IP cohort. This association may, in part, explain why seropositive patients have excess CVD mortality. PMID

  7. Serum carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as potential biomarkers of dietary intake and their relation with incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Norfolk study123

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal S; Cooper, Andrew JM; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Kneale, Catherine K; Mulligan, Angela M; Luben, Robert N; Brage, Soren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stable-isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C, expressed as δ13C) and nitrogen (15N/14N, or δ15N) have been proposed as potential nutritional biomarkers to distinguish between meat, fish, and plant-based foods. Objective: The objective was to investigate dietary correlates of δ13C and δ15N and examine the association of these biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Design: Serum δ13C and δ15N (‰) were measured by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry in a case-cohort study (n = 476 diabetes cases; n = 718 subcohort) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk population-based cohort. We examined dietary (food-frequency questionnaire) correlates of δ13C and δ15N in the subcohort. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Results: Mean (±SD) δ13C and δ15N were −22.8 ± 0.4‰ and 10.2 ± 0.4‰, respectively, and δ13C (r = 0.22) and δ15N (r = 0.20) were positively correlated (P < 0.001) with fish protein intake. Animal protein was not correlated with δ13C but was significantly correlated with δ15N (dairy protein: r = 0.11; meat protein: r = 0.09; terrestrial animal protein: r = 0.12, P ≤ 0.013). δ13C was inversely associated with diabetes in adjusted analyses (HR per tertile: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.83; P-trend < 0.001], whereas δ15N was positively associated (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P-trend = 0.001). Conclusions: The isotope ratios δ13C and δ15N may both serve as potential biomarkers of fish protein intake, whereas only δ15N may reflect broader animal-source protein intake in a European population. The inverse association of δ13C but a positive association of δ15N with incident diabetes should be interpreted in the light of knowledge of dietary intake and may assist in identifying dietary components that are associated with health risks and benefits. PMID:24990425

  8. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. III. Release, persistence and rate of spread of an identifiable strain of myxoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, J. C.; Kerr, P. J.; Simms, N. G.; Hood, G. M.; Pech, R. P.; Robinson, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    An identifiable strain of myxoma virus was introduced into four local populations of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus on the southern tablelands of New South Wales (NSW) and its spread in the presence of other field strains was monitored for 6 months. The main vector in this region was considered to be the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllis cuniculi. Each population of rabbits was of a high density and living in groups of warrens covering areas from 59 to 87 hectares. Rabbits occupying centrally located warrens were inoculated with the virus in late September or early October (spring) and the subsequent appearance of myxomatosis across the sites monitored by trapping, shooting and visual observations. Samples, taken from rabbits with myxomatosis, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that allowed identification of the introduced strain. On all four sites the introduced virus spread from the inoculated rabbits in the centrally located warrens to rabbits in surrounding warrens. On Sites 1 and 3, this spread continued across the entire site persisting for at least 118 and 174 days respectively. On Sites 2 and 4, the virus was detected for 78 and 62 days respectively and the subsequent inability to detect the introduced virus correlated with the appearance of an unrelated field strain. Using three different methods of calculation, rates of spread ranged from 3.7 to 17.8 m d(-1). PMID:12613755

  9. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. III. Release, persistence and rate of spread of an identifiable strain of myxoma virus.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Hood, G M; Pech, R P; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    An identifiable strain of myxoma virus was introduced into four local populations of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus on the southern tablelands of New South Wales (NSW) and its spread in the presence of other field strains was monitored for 6 months. The main vector in this region was considered to be the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllis cuniculi. Each population of rabbits was of a high density and living in groups of warrens covering areas from 59 to 87 hectares. Rabbits occupying centrally located warrens were inoculated with the virus in late September or early October (spring) and the subsequent appearance of myxomatosis across the sites monitored by trapping, shooting and visual observations. Samples, taken from rabbits with myxomatosis, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that allowed identification of the introduced strain. On all four sites the introduced virus spread from the inoculated rabbits in the centrally located warrens to rabbits in surrounding warrens. On Sites 1 and 3, this spread continued across the entire site persisting for at least 118 and 174 days respectively. On Sites 2 and 4, the virus was detected for 78 and 62 days respectively and the subsequent inability to detect the introduced virus correlated with the appearance of an unrelated field strain. Using three different methods of calculation, rates of spread ranged from 3.7 to 17.8 m d(-1).

  10. Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables and meat intakes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-06-01

    Evidence exists that a more acidic diet is detrimental to bone health. Although more precise methods exist for measurement of acid-base balance, urine pH reflects acid-base balance and is readily measurable but has not been related to habitual dietary intake in general populations. The present study investigated the relationship between urine pH and dietary acid-base load (potential renal acid load; PRAL) and its contributory food groups (fruit and vegetables, meats, cereal and dairy foods). There were 22,034 men and women aged 39-78 years living in Norfolk (UK) with casual urine samples and dietary intakes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk FFQ. A sub-study (n 363) compared pH in casual samples and 24 h urine and intakes from a 7 d diary and the FFQ. A more alkaline diet (low PRAL), high fruit and vegetable intake and lower consumption of meat was significantly associated with a more alkaline urine pH before and after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity and smoking habit and also after excluding for urinary protein, glucose, ketones, diagnosed high blood pressure and diuretic medication. In the sub-study the strongest relationship was found between the 24 h urine and the 7 d diary. In conclusion, a more alkaline diet, higher fruit and vegetable and lower meat intake were related to more alkaline urine with a magnitude similar to intervention studies. As urine pH relates to dietary acid-base load its use to monitor change in consumption of fruit and vegetables, in individuals, warrants further investigation.

  11. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water

  12. A composite six bp in-frame deletion in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with the Japanese brindling coat colour in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), classical genetic studies have identified five alleles at the Extension locus: ED (dominant black), ES (steel, weaker version of ED), E (wild type, normal extension of black), eJ(Japanese brindling, mosaic distribution of black and yellow) and e (non-extension of black, yellow/red with white belly). Sequencing almost the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the rabbit MC1R gene, we recently identified two in-frame deletions associated with dominant black (c.280_285del6; alleles ED or ES) and recessive red (c.304_333del30; allele e) coat colours. It remained to characterize the eJallele whose phenotypic effect is similar to the Orange and Sex-linked yellow loci of cat and Syrian hamster. Results We sequenced the whole CDS in 25 rabbits of different coat colours including 10 Japanese and 10 Rhinelander (tricolour) rabbits and identified another 6 bp-in frame deletion flanked by a G > A transition in 5' (c.[124G>A;125_130del6]) that was present in all animals with Japanese brindling coat colour and pattern. These mutations eliminate two amino acids in the first transmembrane domain and, in addition, cause an amino acid substitution at position 44 of the wild type sequence. Genotyping 371 rabbits of 31 breeds with different coat colour this allele (eJ) was present in homozygous state in Japanese, Rhinelander and Dutch tricolour rabbits only (except one albino rabbit). Rabbits with eJ/eJ genotype were non fixed at the non-agouti mutation we previously identified in the ASIP gene. Segregation in F1 and F2 families confirmed the order of dominance already determined by classical genetic experiments with a possible dose effect evident comparing eJ/eJ and eJ/e animals. MC1R mRNA was expressed in black hair skin regions only. Conclusions The c.[124A;125_130del6] allele may be responsible for a MC1R variant determining eumelanin production in the black areas. However, the mechanism determining the presence of both red

  13. How far can we explain the social class differential in respiratory function? A cross-sectional population study of 21,991 men and women from EPIC-Norfolk.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the association between occupational social class and respiratory function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV(1)). We examined the cross sectional relationship between lung function and social class in a population study of 21,991 men and women aged 39-79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993-1997. There was a significant socioeconomic gradient in age adjusted lung function with a difference of 0.37 in mean FEV(1) in men and 0.20 in women, respectively between social class I and V. The age adjusted OR for having poor lung function was 4.13 (95% CI 2.66-6.42) in men and 2.64 (95% CI 1.74-3.99) in women for social class V compared to I. This difference was substantially attenuated after adjustment for height, weight, smoking status, respiratory illness, educational level, living in a deprived area, physical activity and plasma vitamin C levels. There was a strong socioeconomic gradient in respiratory function. In men the gradient appeared to be largely explained by smoking status and height; in women a large part of the gradient was explained by potentially modifiable factors. This suggests that socioeconomic inequalities in respiratory function may be preventable or modifiable and highlights factors for further exploration.

  14. The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-07-14

    Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0-18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1%, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene-diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them.

  15. Plasma vitamin C level, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: the European prospective investigation of cancer--Norfolk prospective study.

    PubMed

    Harding, Anne-Helen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, KayTee; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Forouhi, Nita G

    2008-07-28

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that greater consumption of fruit and vegetables may decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus, but the evidence is limited and inconclusive. Plasma vitamin C level is a good biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake, but, to our knowledge, no prospective studies have examined its association with diabetes risk. This study aims to examine whether fruit and vegetable intake and plasma vitamin C level are associated with the risk of incident type 2 diabetes. We administered a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to men and women from a population-based prospective cohort (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk) study who were aged 40 to 75 years at baseline (1993-1997) when plasma vitamin C level was determined and habitual intake of fruit and vegetables was assessed. During 12 years of follow-up between February 1993 and the end of December 2005, 735 clinically incident cases of diabetes were identified among 21 831 healthy individuals. We report the odds ratios of diabetes associated with sex-specific quintiles of fruit and vegetable intake and of plasma vitamin C levels. A strong inverse association was found between plasma vitamin C level and diabetes risk. The odds ratio of diabetes in the top quintile of plasma vitamin C was 0.38 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.52) in a model adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables. In a similarly adjusted model, the odds ratio of diabetes in the top quintile of fruit and vegetable consumption was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-1.00). Higher plasma vitamin C level and, to a lesser degree, fruit and vegetable intake were associated with a substantially decreased risk of diabetes. Our findings highlight a potentially important public health message on the benefits of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables for the prevention of diabetes.

  16. Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, M A H; Mulligan, A A; Welch, A A; Bhaniani, A; Luben, R N; Khaw, K-T

    2015-12-01

    Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have varying influences on health. We calculated TNI for vitamins A, D and E, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and assessed associations with the respective blood concentrations. Seven-day diet diaries and blood samples were taken from two subsets of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort (age range 39-79 years; n = 1400 for vitamin D; n = 6656 for remaining nutrients). TNI was calculated for the subgroups: nonsupplement users, those consuming the nutrient in supplement form and those consuming a supplement without this nutrient. CLO-related nutrients were supplemented by 15%-33%, which approximately doubled median intakes. Almost everyone in the supplement + vitamin A group reached the estimated average requirement; however, guideline levels were likely to be exceeded. Partial correlations between intake of vitamins A and D and biomarkers were low and modestly strengthened by the inclusion of supplement sources (correlation = 0.01-0.13). Correlations between biomarker and TNI of vitamin E and EPA+DHA were in the range 0.40-0.46; however, vitamin E exceeding food intake resulted in attenuated coefficients. Linear associations between food or TNI EPA+DHA and plasma were weak but consistent across subgroups. CLO-related nutrients contribute substantially to nutrient intake, with a risk of over-consumption. Apart from EPA+DHA, biomarker data suggest that CLO-related nutrients in supplements are not linearly associated with vitamin status. © 2014 Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.

  17. Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lentjes, M A H; Mulligan, A A; Welch, A A; Bhaniani, A; Luben, R N; Khaw, K–T

    2015-01-01

    Background Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have varying influences on health. We calculated TNI for vitamins A, D and E, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and assessed associations with the respective blood concentrations. Methods Seven-day diet diaries and blood samples were taken from two subsets of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort (age range 39–79 years; n = 1400 for vitamin D; n = 6656 for remaining nutrients). TNI was calculated for the subgroups: nonsupplement users, those consuming the nutrient in supplement form and those consuming a supplement without this nutrient. Results CLO-related nutrients were supplemented by 15%–33%, which approximately doubled median intakes. Almost everyone in the supplement + vitamin A group reached the estimated average requirement; however, guideline levels were likely to be exceeded. Partial correlations between intake of vitamins A and D and biomarkers were low and modestly strengthened by the inclusion of supplement sources (correlation = 0.01–0.13). Correlations between biomarker and TNI of vitamin E and EPA+DHA were in the range 0.40–0.46; however, vitamin E exceeding food intake resulted in attenuated coefficients. Linear associations between food or TNI EPA+DHA and plasma were weak but consistent across subgroups. Conclusions CLO-related nutrients contribute substantially to nutrient intake, with a risk of over-consumption. Apart from EPA+DHA, biomarker data suggest that CLO-related nutrients in supplements are not linearly associated with vitamin status. PMID:25228113

  18. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between dietary and plasma vitamin C, heel bone ultrasound, and fracture risk in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Finck, Henriette; Hart, Andrew R; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Jennings, Amy; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Welch, Ailsa A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin C sufficiency may help prevent osteoporosis and fractures by mediating osteoclastogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and bone collagen synthesis. We determined whether dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of vitamin C were associated with a heel ultrasound and hip and spine fracture risks in older men and women. Participants were recruited from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk study with 7-d diet diary estimates of vitamin C intake and plasma concentrations. A random subset (4000 of 25,639 subjects) was available for the cross-sectional (ultrasound) study of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and velocity of sound (VOS), which were determined during the second health examination. The prospective (fracture) study was a case-cohort sample of all participants with a fracture up to March 2009 and the random subset (n = 5319). ANCOVA-determined associations between quintiles of vitamin C intake and plasma status with adjusted BUA and VOS and adjusted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional HRs were calculated for fracture risk. Women were 58% of the population (39-79 y old), and the median follow-up was 12.6 y (range: 0-16 y). Positive associations across all quintiles of vitamin C intake but not plasma status were significant for VOS in men (β = 2.47 m/s, P = 0.008) and BUA in women (β = 0.82 dB/MHz, P = 0.004). Vitamin C intake was not associated with fracture risk, but there was an inverse association with plasma concentrations in men, with quintile 4 having significantly lower risks of hip fractures (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.80) and spine fractures (HR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.69) than quintile 1. Higher vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher heel ultrasound measures in men and women, and higher plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly associated with reduced fracture risk in men only. Our findings that vitamin C intake and status were inconsistently associated with bone health variables suggest that

  19. Association of High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Versus Apolipoprotein A-I With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk Prospective Population Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and the Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Bochem, Andrea E; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Mora, Samia; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Ballantyne, Christie M; Ridker, Paul M; Sun, Wensheng; Barter, Philip J; Tall, Alan R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hovingh, G Kees

    2017-08-03

    The contribution of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk stratification over and above high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is unclear. We studied the associations between plasma levels of HDL-C and apoA-I, either alone or combined, with risk of CHD events and cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy men and women. HDL-C and apoA-I levels were measured among 17 661 participants of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hazard ratios for CHD events and distributions of risk factors were calculated by quartiles of HDL-C and apoA-I. Results were validated using data from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) and WHS (Women's Health Study) cohorts, comprising 15 494 and 27 552 individuals, respectively. In EPIC-Norfolk, both HDL-C and apoA-I quartiles were strongly and inversely associated with CHD risk. Within HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were not associated with lower CHD risk; in fact, CHD risk was higher within some HDL-C quartiles. ApoA-I levels were associated with higher levels of CHD risk factors: higher body mass index, HbA1c, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein, within fixed HDL-C quartiles. In contrast, HDL-C levels were consistently inversely associated with overall CHD risk and CHD risk factors within apoA-I quartiles (P<0.001). These findings were validated in the ARIC and WHS cohorts. Our findings demonstrate that apoA-I levels do not offer predictive information over and above HDL-C. In fact, within some HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were associated with higher risk of CHD events, possibly because of the unexpected higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in association with higher apoA-I levels. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000479. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Environmental Studies for the Proposed Norfolk Harbor Deepening and Proposal Project within the Norfolk District.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-31

    importance of foraminifera- as a food source (Buzas, 1978). Biomass has not previously been determined for any part of the Chesapeake Bay system...contributions of biomass from a large foraminiferal standing . . crop to the food source of the area. "- .,’. --𔃼 p- ". ° .,’ ° . 19 ---- ." .... ’. References

  1. Accounting Procedures at Defense Finance and Accounting Service Operating Location Norfolk and the Norfolk Naval Shipyard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in account balances ; and footnote any deviations from accounting policy on its financial statements. The Navy stated it will ensure consistent...the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA); and prepares the Department of the Navy Industrial Business Information System trial balances , which are...preparing the NNSY Financial and Operating Statements. The general ledger balances were also submitted to the DFAS Cleveland Center for inclusion in

  2. Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; Shakya-Shrestha, Subodha; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-11-01

    Intakes of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for health. Because fish is the major source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), non-fish-eaters may have suboptimal n-3 PUFA status, although the importance of the conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is debated. The objective was to determine intakes, food sources, and status of n-3 PUFAs according to dietary habit (fish-eaters and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, or vegans) and estimated conversion between dietary ALA and circulating long-chain n-3 PUFAs. This study included 14,422 men and women aged 39-78 y from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk cohort with 7-d diary data and a substudy in 4902 individuals with plasma phospholipid fatty acid measures. Intakes and status of n-3 PUFAs were measured, and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of ALA to circulating n-3 PUFAs was calculated. Most of the dietary intake of EPA and DHA was supplied by fish; however, meat was the major source in meat-eaters, and spreading fats, soups, and sauces were the major sources in vegetarians. Total n-3 PUFA intakes in non-fish-eaters were 57-80% of those in fish-eaters, but status differences were considerably smaller [corrected]. The estimated product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in women than in men and greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters. Substantial differences in intakes and in sources of n-3 PUFAs existed between the dietary-habit groups, but the differences in status were smaller than expected, possibly because the product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters, potentially indicating increased estimated conversion of ALA. If intervention studies were to confirm these findings, it could have implications for fish requirements.

  3. Coccidiosis of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in France.

    PubMed

    Grès, V; Voza, T; Chabaud, A; Landau, I

    2003-03-01

    In 1998-1999 a survey of coccidiosis in wild rabbits was carried out in six different localities in France. About five individuals were caught monthly in each locality and a total of 254 wild rabbits was examined. Ten species of Coccidio were identified: Eimeria perforans, E. flavescens, E. piriformis, E. exigua, E. media, E. magna, E. coecicola, E. stiedai, E. roobroucki, E. intestinalis. Intensity of infection in young individuals was higher than in adults. Intensity was highest in winter but, as there are no young rabbits in winter, in young individuals it was higher in spring and autumn than in summer. Intensities were higher in the northern rather than in southern localities. Ranking of prevalence was remarkably stable, in contrast to the variability of the parasitic load. The equilibrium between congeneric species of rabbit coccidia (stable prevalence rank, variable parasitic load) is thought to be probably the consequence of the opportunistic feeding habits of rabbits.

  4. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-02-26

    Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use of toxic bait containing the anticoagulant pindone. Towards increased certainty in evaluating the animal welfare impacts of pindone poisoning in rabbits, we recorded behavioral and post-mortem data from rabbits which ingested lethal quantities of pindone bait in a laboratory trial. Pindone poisoning in rabbits resulted in welfare compromise, primarily through functional impairments related to internal haemorrhage over a maximum duration of 7 days. Applying this data to a formal assessment framework for ranking animal welfare impacts indicated that pindone had relatively high severity and also duration of welfare impacts in comparison to other rabbit control methods.

  5. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The nature and duration of the effects of pindone poisoning in rabbits were evaluated through observational monitoring of affected animals and necropsy. Using the resulting data in a formal assessment framework, the welfare impacts of pindone poisoning were ranked as relatively higher than other vertebrate toxic agents currently used for rabbit control. Abstract Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use of toxic bait containing the anticoagulant pindone. Towards increased certainty in evaluating the animal welfare impacts of pindone poisoning in rabbits, we recorded behavioral and post-mortem data from rabbits which ingested lethal quantities of pindone bait in a laboratory trial. Pindone poisoning in rabbits resulted in welfare compromise, primarily through functional impairments related to internal haemorrhage over a maximum duration of 7 days. Applying this data to a formal assessment framework for ranking animal welfare impacts indicated that pindone had relatively high severity and also duration of welfare impacts in comparison to other rabbit control methods. PMID:26927192

  6. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    PubMed

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  7. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (P<0.05). Rabbits as prey animals hide their illness, which cause difficulties to owners to recognise health problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Copper toxicosis in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, C J; Kim, D Y; Hanks, B C; Evans, T J

    2013-11-01

    Six 12- to 14-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were diagnosed with copper toxicosis. These rabbits were part of a group of 110 purchased and shipped overnight for research purposes. On arrival, the group experienced an abrupt diet change. Eight died over 3 weeks and 6 were submitted for postmortem examination. Microscopic findings included severe centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular necrosis with rhodanine stain-positive copper granules in the remaining hepatocytes. Mild periportal fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, and splenic erythrophagocytosis were also observed. Hepatic copper concentrations were elevated, ranging from 319 to 997 ppm. Clinical disease was not previously observed in younger rabbits gradually transitioned from the supplier's copper-supplemented diet. Copper toxicosis likely occurred in these rabbits from a combination of (1) increased duration of copper supplementation leading to increased hepatocellular stores and (2) stress leading to anorexia and release of hepatocellular copper stores similar to chronic copper toxicosis as described in sheep.

  9. Outbreak of sarcoptic mange and malasseziasis in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of combined Sarcoptes and Malassezia spp. infection was diagnosed in a rabbitry. About 20 (4%) of 500 rabbits were affected. Two 6- to 8-month-old female Holland Lops rabbits were submitted to the Tifton Diagnostic & Investigational Laboratory at The University of Georgia for complete necropsy. Gross lesions consisted of marked multifocal areas of alopecia, crusting, and dermatitis around the eye and on ears, nose, lips, neck, abdomen, feet, and external genitalia. Histologic examination of the skin revealed epidermal acanthosis with marked parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and cross sections of embedded mites consistent with Sarcoptes sp. and budding yeasts consistent with Malassezia sp. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first case report of combined Sarcoptes and Malassezia spp. infection in rabbits.

  10. Ossifying fibroma in a miniature rex rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Whitten, K A; Popielarczyk, M M; Belote, D A; McLeod, G C; Mense, M G

    2006-01-01

    In humans and animals, ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm that most frequently affects the mandible, often resulting in cosmetic deformities and malocclusion. It is considered rare in animals and most frequently affects young horses. A surgical biopsy of a solitary mass located beneath the gingiva in the right maxillary region, which had overgrown teeth and expanded the adjacent hard palate from a 6-year-old miniature Rex rabbit was submitted for light microscopic examination. The submitted incisional biopsy specimen was pale pink, firm, and nodular. Histopathologically, the neoplasm was composed of fibroblastic cells separated by abundant collagen. The neoplastic cells were interwoven with osteoblasts surrounding islands of mineralized, bony matrix containing few, widely spaced, often empty, lacunae. Minimal inflammation was present. Based on the histopathologic features, the tumor was diagnosed as an ossifying fibroma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ossifying fibroma in a rabbit.

  11. Multiple Complex Congenital Malformations in a Rabbit Kit (Oryctolagus cuniculi)

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jennifer L; Peng, Xuwen; Baccon, Jennifer; Cooper, Timothy K

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malformations may occur during early embryogenesis in cases of genetic abnormalities or various environmental factors. Affected subjects most often have only one or 2 abnormalities; subjects rarely have several unrelated congenital defects. Here we describe a case of a stillborn New Zealand white rabbit with multiple complex congenital malformations, including synophthalmia, holoprosencephaly, gastroschisis, and a supernumerary hindlimb, among other anomalies. There was no historical exposure to teratogens or other known environmental causes. Although not confirmed, this case was most likely a rare spontaneous genetic event. PMID:24209970

  12. Cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Ritter, J M; von Bomhard, W; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Kiupel, M

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous lymphoma is a common skin neoplasm of pet rabbits in Europe but is rarely reported in pet rabbits in North America. These neoplasms have not been previously characterized, nor has the cause for the apparent predilection for cutaneous lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with North American pet rabbits been investigated. In this retrospective study, the authors morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized 25 cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits according to the World Health Organization classification. Tumors were classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas, with 14 lymphomas exhibiting a centroblastic/centrocytic subtype and 11 tumors exhibiting a T cell-rich B cell subtype. To investigate a potential viral etiology of these lymphomas, 3 diffuse large B cell and 3 T cell-rich B cell lymphomas were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction for retroviral and herpesviral genes. Neither virus was detected. In contrast to other domestic animals, cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits were highly pleomorphic and frequently contained multinucleated giant cells. Unexpectedly, the second most common subtype was T cell-rich B cell lymphoma, a subtype that is rare in species other than horses. Based on a limited number of samples, there was no support for a viral etiology that would explain the higher incidence of lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with American pet rabbits. Further investigation into genetic and extrinsic factors associated with the development of these tumors is warranted.

  13. Geophysics- and geochemistry-based assessment of the geochemical characteristics and groundwater-flow system of the U.S. part of the Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas, 2010–12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teeple, Andrew P.

    2017-06-16

    One of the largest rechargeable groundwater systems by total available volume in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo Basin (hereinafter referred to as the “Rio Grande”) region of the United States and Mexico, the Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, supplies water for irrigation as well as for cities of El Paso, Texas; Las Cruces, New Mexico; and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation assessed the groundwater resources in the Mesilla Basin and surrounding areas in Doña Ana County, N. Mex., and El Paso County, Tex., by using a combination of geophysical and geochemical methods. The study area consists of approximately 1,400 square miles in Doña Ana County, N. Mex., and 100 square miles in El Paso County, Tex. The Mesilla Basin composes most of the study area and can be divided into three parts: the Mesilla Valley, the West Mesa, and the East Bench. The Mesilla Valley is the part of the Mesilla Basin that was incised by the Rio Grande between Selden Canyon to the north and by a narrow valley (about 4 miles wide) to the southeast near El Paso, Tex., named the Paso del Norte, which is sometimes referred to in the literature as the “El Paso Narrows.”Previously published geophysical data for the study area were compiled and these data were augmented by collecting additional geophysical and geochemical data. Geophysical resistivity measurements from previously published helicopter frequency domain electromagnetic data, previously published direct-current resistivity soundings, and newly collected (2012) time-domain electromagnetic soundings were used in the study to detect spatial changes in the electrical properties of the subsurface, which reflect changes that occur within the hydrogeology. The geochemistry of the groundwater system was evaluated by analyzing groundwater samples collected in November 2010 for physicochemical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, pesticides

  14. Fatty acids measured in plasma and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipids and derived by food-frequency questionnaire and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: a pilot study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinal S; Sharp, Stephen J; Jansen, Eugene; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiologic evidence for the association between types of fatty acid and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent. This may in part be due to the limitations of fatty acid measurement methods. The objective was to use 3 different measures of fatty acid to estimate the prospective association between fatty acid composition and development of incident diabetes. We analyzed 199 cases of clinically incident diabetes and 184 noncases aged 40-79 y at baseline in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk study. Fatty acids were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and measured in plasma phospholipid (P-FA) and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipid (Ery-FA) fractions by gas chromatography. There were stronger associations with diabetes risk with the use of objectively measured fatty acids (P-FA and Ery-FA) than with the FFQ in analyses adjusted for age, sex, and potential confounders. Positive associations with diabetes were greater in magnitude with the use of P-FA than with Ery-FA (highest:lowest tertiles): for example, the palmitic acid odds ratios (ORs) were 2.47 (95% CI: 1.37, 4.46) and 1.96 (95% CI: 1.10, 3.49), respectively. Inverse associations with diabetes were also stronger with the use of P-FA than with Ery-FA: for example, the OR for linoleic acid was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.91) compared with 0.77 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.37), respectively. The objective measurement of fatty acids with the use of either P-FA or Ery-FA identifies important associations with diabetes incidence that may be missed when assessed by FFQ. Fatty acids measured in P-FA appear to be more strongly associated with diabetes incidence. These findings endorse the use of objective measurement of fatty acids for nutritional-epidemiologic studies, and the apparently stronger findings for the plasma fraction should be confirmed in larger studies and in different populations.

  15. Repair Aircraft Parking Apron at Naval Station Norfolk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    officials stated that the approval chain for DD Form 1391 understood FOD operational risks, so they did not detail FOD -related matters. They also stated that...Acronyms CIM Chevron Industrial Membrane FOD Foreign Object Debris HPA Heliport Apron IG Inspector General NAVFAC Naval...with pavement condition indexes at or below the specified values or where foreign object debris ( FOD )* is in the immediate or foreseeable future. The

  16. The Implementation of CRM at FISC Norfolk Detachment Philadelphia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    in the Pre-Negotiation and Post-Negotiation Process ..........35 C. DOES CRM RELATE TO THE FISC CORPORATE MISSION STATEMENT AND TO THE FEDERAL...1 I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND The continuing trend of Government downsizing and the shrinking DOD dollar, Navy contract commands are...Customer Relations Management can also be viewed as a business philosophy, as a guide to direct the efforts of a corporate entity towards a goal

  17. Summary of Meteorological Observations, Surface (SMOS), Norfolk, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    rEaL r’ fEIK ew’ t 1erJc1.*,Y, ttnrc-at i r t-o 1xi. : me:- .:tage I’, e::o.C-t 1 * %2--c ndl .ct o)f Saute : fur coon 1f Sne ahoy" present𔃻 tie extre... MEAN * .1 * * * * " TOTAL OBS . -’i i ’Q’ b " . . - - 4..- SMOS -I - t w- - -" • . - - - -" K I’ NAVAL WEATHER SERVICE DETACHMENT EXTREME VALUES...ISA ..-- -S.-’ ! Tf SURFACE WINDS 4 "PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) -- Co,:, o " ’ SPEED MEAN (KNTS

  18. Underwater Facilities Inspections and Assessments at Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    0" to 3" long. This spalling is located in the area of mean low water and is cosmetic with no structural significance. * j4) A cursory inspection of...concrete, and rebars should be cleaned, if there is significant loss of metal area, they should be re- placed. The piles that have not been repaired...described as cosmetic spalling. 2) 24% of the piles exhibited hairline crickinq in the tidal zone on one or more faces. 3) A cursory inspection of the

  19. Macrobenthic Communities of the Norfolk Disposal Site. II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    reliable estimate of the macrofaunal community. Calculations were based on the following formula : 3 6- -) N ts) 2i’ Dx • where: s standard deviation of...were determined using the formulae of Folk (1974). The epibenthic community was described from 10 minute trawl * samples taken at the North, South...Benedict Drilonereis app. Eteone heteropoda Hartman Eteone lactea Claparede ~Eeone log (FabriCiUs) Eumida sanguinea (Oersted) Exogene hebes (Webster

  20. Macrobenthic Communities of the Norfolk Disposal Site. I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Calculations were based upon the following = ° formula : \\Dx ) where: s = standard deviation of the prelimianry sample, t = the tabulated t value at the 0.05...were determined graphically using the formulae of Folk (1974). The epibenthic community was described from 10 minute trawl samples taken at the North...Hartman Eteone lactea Claparede Eteone longa (Fabricius) Eu-mida -sane uinea (Oersted) Exogene he bes (Webster and Benedict) Glycera ameiTcana Leidy

  1. Navy settles environmental violations at Naval Station Norfolk

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA ( May 6, 2015) - A settlement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Navy will help reduce potentially harmful discharges of ozone-depleting substances and ensure the safe storage and disposal of hazardous waste at th

  2. Water Quality Monitoring at Dam Neck and Norfolk Disposal Sites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    withdrawn from the go-flo bottles and nitrite (N0 2 -N), nitrate (N03-N), ammonia (NH3-N), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), orthophosphates (OP04), total...by the persulfate method to oxidize all forms of phosphorous to the orthcphosphate form (APHA, 1975). Total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonia samples...nitrite ( NO2-N) 2(ug/), d) nitrate (N03 -N) mg/-IxO- 2) e) ammonia (NH3-N) (mg/i., X10-2 ) and f) Kjeldahl nitrogen (TK N) (mg/1x1O1 ). 4. 44 V o TOTAL P

  3. Water Quality Monitoring at the Norfolk Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    nitrate (NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), orthophosphates (OPO4) total phosphorus (TP) chemi-IP’ ~ -% cal oxygen demand (COD), pH, turbidity, suspended...mg/i x 10-), e) Ammonia (N..N), (mg/A x 102), f) Kjeldhal Nitrogen (TKN) Mg/ x 10-1) .......................................... 18 5 Chlorophyll and...to oxidize all forms of phosphorous to the ortho phosphate form (APHA, 1975). Total kjeldahl nitro- gen and ammonia samples were steam distilled and

  4. 78 FR 45495 - Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...; cut potential hazard trees along private property, roads, and other infrastructure; and regenerate... this area following extensive tree mortality caused by epidemic levels of spruce beetles. Actions taken to meet these goals would include: (1) Harvesting dead and dying trees to provide wood...

  5. Physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, May 1994 through May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick; Walton-Day, Katherine

    1997-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir receives drainage of low-pH, metal-enriched water from mineralized areas, including the Summitville Mine, within the AlamosaRiver Basin. Drainage from the Summitville Mine has contributed a substantial part of the metal load to Terrace Reservoir. From May 1994 through May 1995, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir.Terrace Reservoir was thermally stratified from about mid-May through August 1994. Thermal stratification was absent from September\\x111994through March 1995. During periods of stratification, underflow of the Alamosa River was predominant, and residence times of the underflow were shortened by 40 to 75\\x11percent of the theoretical residence times for a well-mixed reservoir. Transport and deposition of suspended solids in Terrace Reservoir varied spatially and temporally. Most of the suspended solids were deposited in Terrace Reservoir. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reservoir varied little spatially or temporally and generally was within a few tenths of the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the inflow. The pH of water in the reservoir generally ranged from about 4.0 to about 7.0, depending on date, depth, and location. The largest pH values were measured during May. A markeddecrease of about 1.5\\x11pH units occurred at site T5 in the reservoir about mid-June. The pH of the reservoir remained at or below 5.5 from mid-June through November. Dissolved-metal concentrations varied spatially and temporally in response to several factors, which included inflow characteristics, reservoir stratification and mixing, inflow-routing and flow-through patterns, residence times, sedimentation, dissolved oxygen, and pH.Inflow chemistry is the dominant controlling factor of metal chemistry within Terrace Reservoir.During periods of stratification, large vertical variations in metal concentrations occurred. The highest metal concentrations in the reservoir generally were measured in the hypolimnion between June and August. During June, epilimnetic water of the reservoir had pH values greater than 6.0, and metal concentrations were lower than hypolimnetic concentrations. In the hypolimnion, pH values were less than 5.5. The difference between the chemistry of the epilimnion and the hypolimnion was due to differences in flow routing and residence times of water in those respective layers. The dissolved-metal concentrations were larger during July and August than during June.During September, small vertical variations in metalconcentrations occurred, and the dissolved-metal concentrations were nearly equivalent to the average August metal concentrations, indicatingthat the metal concentrations measured during September resulted largely from reservoir mixing.During March, the largest metal concentrationsoccurred in the epilimnion, where pH was about 5.5; in the hypolimnion, where the pH was about 6.0, dissolved-metal concentrations were substantially lower and reflected inflow concentrations.

  6. 77 FR 43609 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Conservation District; Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, Mineral, Rio Grande, and Saguache Counties; the..., Conejos, Costilla, Mineral, Rio Grande, and Saguache Counties. The plan area boundary follows the lower...

  7. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  8. Timing and Cue Competition in Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits were classically conditioned using compounds of tone and light conditioned stimuli (CSs) presented with either simultaneous onsets (Experiment 1) or serial onsets (Experiment 2) in a delay conditioning paradigm. Training with the simultaneous compound reduced the likelihood of a conditioned response (CR) to the individual CSs ("mutual…

  9. Arteries of the brain in wild European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Brudnicki, Adam; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Wach, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research into the pattern and variation of brain arteries in wild rabbit involved 43 brains. The main source of blood supply to the brain in rabbit are vertebral arteries and the basilar artery, formed as a result of their anastomosis, as well as internal carotid arteries the branches of which form the arterial circle of the brain. Variation in descent concerns mostly the pattern of descent of middle cerebral arteries, in 36.5% they were multiple vessels. The caudal communicating arteries in wild rabbit constituted a symmetrical anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and caudal cerebral arteries. They stabilized an even blood supply to all parts of the brain. The caudal cerebral arteries constituted the terminal branches of the basilar artery. A comparison of the blood supply to the brain in wild rabbit and domestic rabbit described by WILAND (1968) revealed lower variation in the arteries in the wild form than in the domestic rabbit.

  10. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    PubMed

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  11. Seasonal dynamics of ixodid ticks on wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (Leporidae) from Central Spain.

    PubMed

    González, J; Valcárcel, F; Pérez-Sánchez, J L; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-11-01

    Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease and Myxomatosis caused a decline in the rabbit population in the second half of the last century. Despite some recovery, the risk of vector-borne disease is present and thus the importance of controlling vector populations. In the current study, we describe the ixodid tick fauna in wild rabbit in a natural reserve in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) during the course of two 3-year periods (2007-2009 and 2012-2014). Of all the ticks collected on average 72.5 % were larvae, 24.4 % nymphs and 3.1 % adults, although the percentage varied monthly. Seven tick species were identified: Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch (Parasitic indicator [PI] = number of ticks per examined rabbit = 96.47), Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado (PI = 47.37), Haemaphysalis hispanica Gil Collado (PI = 12.15), Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado (PI = 0.65), R. bursa Canestrini and Fanzago (PI = 0.18), R. sanguineus Latreille (PI = 0.11), Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer (PI = 0.01). In spring and summer, most abundant were larvae of H. lusitanicum, followed by immature stages of R. pusillus and Ha. hispanica. In autumn, the main tick species were nymphs of I. ventalloi whereas in winter adults of Ha. hispanica were more numerous. Rhipicephalus pusillus was present all year long, although not always in high percentage. PI of other species (R. bursa, R. sanguineus and D. marginatus) were too low to be representative. The seasonal dynamics of ticks on wild rabbit defined in this study could be useful to design species-specific control strategies.

  12. Patterns of parasite aggregation in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Boag, B; Lello, J; Fenton, A; Tompkins, D M; Hudson, P J

    2001-11-01

    Understanding the factors controlling the distribution of parasites within their host population is fundamental to the wider understanding of parasite epidemiology and ecology. To explore changes in parasite aggregation, Taylor's power law was used to examine the distributions of five gut helminths of the wild rabbit. Aggregation was found to be a dynamic process that varied with year, season, host sex, age class, and myxomatosis. Yearly and seasonal changes are thought, in the main, to be the result of variations in weather conditions acting upon infectious stages (or intermediate hosts). Evidence in support of this was the comparatively low degree of fluctuation in the aggregation of the pinworm, Passalurus ambiguus, as the infectious stage of this parasite is likely to be less susceptible to environmental variation. Host age had a marked effect on the level of aggregation of all parasites, but this effect varied between parasite species. P. ambiguus, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Cittotaenia denticulata aggregation were lower in adult than juvenile rabbits whilst Graphidium strigosum and Mosgovoyia pectinata aggregation tended to increase with age. Host immunity is thought to be responsible for these differences. Differences in aggregation for different parasites were also seen when the rabbit population was split into males and females. Myxomatosis had a marked effect on helminth distribution with substantially less aggregation in rabbits showing clinical signs of the disease.

  13. Morphological features of coronary plaques in WHHLMI rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satoshi; Koike, Tomonari; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Ying, Yu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asada, Yuji; Shiomi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine their suitability for studies on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the features of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, a spontaneous animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Coronary segments of the hearts of 187 WHHLMI rabbits (10–29 months old) were sectioned serially and stained histopathologically and immunohistologically. Progression of coronary lesions was prominent in rabbits that had died suddenly. The degree of coronary lesions of females was higher than that of males. Various types of atherosclerotic lesions were observed in the coronary arteries, such as plaques with a large lipid core covered by a thin fibrous cap, fatty streaks, early and advanced fibroatheromas, fibrous lesions, and advanced lesions with calcium accumulation and the vasa vasorum. In rabbits that had died suddenly, the frequencies of fibroatheromas or advanced lesions were higher than those of rabbits euthanized. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-positive macrophages were detected in gaps among endothelial cells at the plaque surface, beneath the fibrous cap of thin-capped fibroatheromas, and at the bottom of the intimal plaques in which the tunica media was attenuated. Immunohistological results suggest that MMP-positive macrophages are involved in the initiation, progression, and destabilization of coronary plaques, in addition to vascular remodeling, even in WHHLMI rabbits. In conclusion, coronary lesions in WHHLMI rabbits resemble human atherosclerotic lesions, and thus, the WHHLMI rabbit is a suitable animal model for studies on human coronary plaques. PMID:28025424

  14. Morphological features of coronary plaques in WHHLMI rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Satoshi; Koike, Tomonari; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Ying, Yu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asada, Yuji; Shiomi, Masashi

    2017-05-03

    In order to examine their suitability for studies on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the features of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, a spontaneous animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Coronary segments of the hearts of 187 WHHLMI rabbits (10-29 months old) were sectioned serially and stained histopathologically and immunohistologically. Progression of coronary lesions was prominent in rabbits that had died suddenly. The degree of coronary lesions of females was higher than that of males. Various types of atherosclerotic lesions were observed in the coronary arteries, such as plaques with a large lipid core covered by a thin fibrous cap, fatty streaks, early and advanced fibroatheromas, fibrous lesions, and advanced lesions with calcium accumulation and the vasa vasorum. In rabbits that had died suddenly, the frequencies of fibroatheromas or advanced lesions were higher than those of rabbits euthanized. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-positive macrophages were detected in gaps among endothelial cells at the plaque surface, beneath the fibrous cap of thin-capped fibroatheromas, and at the bottom of the intimal plaques in which the tunica media was attenuated. Immunohistological results suggest that MMP-positive macrophages are involved in the initiation, progression, and destabilization of coronary plaques, in addition to vascular remodeling, even in WHHLMI rabbits. In conclusion, coronary lesions in WHHLMI rabbits resemble human atherosclerotic lesions, and thus, the WHHLMI rabbit is a suitable animal model for studies on human coronary plaques.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Jiang, Jing; Cai, Ya-Nan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Xu, Peng; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan

    2016-02-01

    A study of 426 rabbits from 3 cities in Jilin province (Changchun City and Jilin City) and Liaoning province (Shenyang City) was conducted between May and June 2015. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in rabbits was 0.94% (4/426), with 0% (0/116), 1.72% (3/174), and 0.74% (1/136) in Jilin, Changchun, and Shenyang City, respectively. Only 3 farms (farm 1 and farm 3 in Changchun City, farm 8 in Shenyang City) were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi. Moreover, rabbits of more than 6 months (1.72%) had the highest E. bieneusi prevalence, followed by rabbits of 4-6 months (1.26%), 2-3 months (0.58%), and less than 1 month (0%). Analysis of ITS gene of E. bieneusi suggested that all 4 E. bieneusi isolates were genotype D, and were classified as group 1a. The present results first demonstrated the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in domestic rabbits in China. Effective control measures should be implemented to prevent E. bieneusi infection in domestic rabbits, other animals, and humans.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and safety of ceftiofur crystalline free acid in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Gardhouse, Sara; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Cox, Sherry; Kass, Philip H; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Byrne, Barbara A; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects following SC administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) in New Zealand White rabbits. ANIMALS 6 adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES Each rabbit was administered 40 mg of CCFA/kg SC. A blood sample was obtained immediately before (0 minutes), at 5 and 30 minutes after, and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 95, 120, 144, and 168 hours after administration, and plasma concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents (CFAE) were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. For each rabbit, body weight, food consumption, fecal output, and injection site were monitored. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for 293 bacterial isolates from rabbit clinical samples were determined. RESULTS Mean ± SD peak plasma concentration of CFAE and time to maximum plasma concentration were 33.13 ± 10.15 μg/mL and 1.75 ± 0.42 hours, respectively. The mean terminal half-life of CFAE was 42.6 ± 5.2 hours. Plasma CFAE concentration was > 4 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours and > 1 μg/mL for at least 72 hours after CCFA administration. An apparently nonpainful subcutaneous nodule developed at the injection site in 3 of 6 rabbits. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that CCFA (40 mg/kg) could be administered SC every 24 to 72 hours to New Zealand White rabbits to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Single-dose administration of CCFA resulted in minimal adverse effects. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effects of repeated CCFA administration in New Zealand White rabbits.

  17. Oral Transmucosal Detomidine Gel in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Williams, Morika D; Long, C Tyler; Durrant, Jessica R; McKeon, Gabriel P; Shive, Heather R; Griffith, Emily H; Messenger, Kristen M; Fish, Richard E

    2017-07-01

    Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of detomidine gel as an alternative to injectable sedation in rabbits. Eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits each received 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg OTM detomidine gel. Physiologic parameters and sedation scores (SS) were assessed at 10-min intervals from before administration until 100 min afterward. Histopathology of cardiac tissue was scored through 12 d after dosing. Gel administration increased the SS in all rabbits, but none of the animals developed clinically effective sedation (SS of 10 or greater, based on 5 reflex responses on a 3- or 4-point scale). The SS did not differ among dosage groups, and the time-dose interaction was not statistically significant. Heart rate decreased rapidly in all rabbits, with no difference among dosage groups, and there was no effect of time or dosage on peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Minimal to mild degenerative changes were seen in the myocardium of all treated rabbits, but myocyte necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and mural thrombi-reported previously in rabbits that had received parenteral detomidine-did not occur. OTM detomidine gel was safely and easily administered to rabbits, but the duration and level of sedation were unpredictable. The use of OTM detomidine as a sole agent to facilitate handling and restraint of rabbits does not offer advantages over existing parenteral regimens.

  18. Spontaneous fatal Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis in two domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    de Matos, Ricardo; Russell, Duncan; Van Alstine, William; Miller, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Despite the particular susceptibility of the rabbit to experimental infection with Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) and the high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, reports of natural infection in pet rabbits are rare. The current report describes 2 cases of HHV encephalitis in pet rabbits in North America. Antemortem clinical signs included seizures, ptyalism, and muscle tremors. Results of complete blood cell count and plasma biochemistry panel were unremarkable except for a mild leukocytosis in both cases. Both rabbits died after a short period of hospitalization. Rabbit 1 presented mild optic chiasm hemorrhage on gross examination, while rabbit 2 had no gross lesions. Histologic findings for both cases included lymphocytic and/or lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with necrosis and the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of affected brain tissue using primers specific for Human herpesvirus 1 and 2 confirmed diagnosis of HHV encephalitis for rabbit 1. Immunohistochemical staining (poly- and monoclonal) and PCR analysis using primers specific to HHV-1 confirmed the diagnosis of HHV-1 encephalitis for rabbit 2. The owner of rabbit 2 was suspected to be the source of infection due to close contact during an episode of herpes labialis. Given the high susceptibility of rabbits to experimental HHV-1, high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, and severity of clinical disease in this species, clinician awareness and client education is important for disease prevention. Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rabbits with neurologic disease.

  19. Efficacy of garlic extract on hepatic coccidiosis in infected rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): histological and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Toulah, Fawzia H; Al-Rawi, Maisaa M

    2007-12-01

    The rabbits were divided into three groups, of 12 rabbits each. G1 was the (non-infected non-treated) as control, G2 was the (infected-non treated), and G3 was the (infected and treated) rabbits. Each rabbit in the infected groups were given (10(3)) sporuleted oocysts of Eimeria stiedae per rabbit after forty five days exactly. Faecal sample of rabbits from each group were examined each day post infection till oocysts appeared in faeces. The treatment was given by using suitable dosage of garlic according to body weight. After 15, 21, 28, & 35 days post-treatment faecal oocysts were output. Biochemical parameters as serum liver function (ALT, AST, GGT & ALP) that denoted the he-patic cells injury. The results showed a significant differences in the mean values of oocysts shedding and their mean number in bile ducts between Gs 2 &3 from the 15th day post infection (PI) (mean +/-SD:40.33 +/- 16.72 & 25.17 +/- .56 respectively) till the experimental end on the 35th day (55.75 +/- 19.79 & 0.94 +/- 1.43 respectively). The histopathological alterations were in liver of G2 at the experimental end. Coccidiosis in G2 induced histopathological alterations in liver tissue, marked cytoplasmic vacuolations in hepatocytes with clear signs of karyolysis, and dilatation of sinusoids with increase in Kupffer cells. Leukocytic infiltration around congested blood vessels was noticed. Efficacy of garlic on E. stiedae in infected Gs was resident. The liver of G3 regained almost normal appearance compared to control.

  20. Anti-coccidial effect of Commiphora molmol in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.).

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Hanadi B; Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora monlmol Engler (Family: Burceraceae) known as Myrrh and the commercial extract known as Mirazid as a treatment against hepatic coccidiosis induced by the parasite Eimeria stiedae in domestic rabbits. Rabbits were infected with 1000 parasite sporulated oocysts and subjected to two treatment regimens, using crude myrrh suspension and the oleo-resin extract, mirazid, each administered at 500 mg/kg rabbit body weight. Treatments of infected rabbits resulted in significant reduction of the mean oocyst numbers in rabbit faeces by 52.38% in the crude-treated rabbits and by 90.90% mirazid-treated rabbits, compared to the untreated infected rabbits at day 21 post-infection (pi). At day 28 pi no oocysts parasite were observed in the faeces of rabbits. Both treatments resulted in significant recovery of infected rabbits from all symptoms of infection compared to the untreated infected group and healthy control groups. Histopathological examination of liver showed remarkable improvement in all histopathological parameters in G5 and G8 compared with the infected untreated G2. These included an almost complete healing of the hemorrhagic tissue and partial healing of the endothelial lining and hepatocytes encircling the central vein, the hepatocytes laminate regained their original radial shape and disappearance of fat vacuoles from the tissue and remarkable reduction in lymphocytes infiltration, decreased hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with significant decreasing of the parasite stage numbers. Results also indicate that mirazid was more effective than crude myrrh, probably due to higher content of purified active ingredients.

  1. Cyclosporine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Sherrie M; Sharma, Prachi; Taylor, Douglas; Mook, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    A high incidence of gingival overgrowth occurred in a group of New Zealand White rabbits receiving daily cyclosporine (15 mg/kg IM) while on a retinoblastoma study. Over the course of 2 mo, rabbits presented with clinical signs of ptyalism (4 of 18 rabbits), inappetence (3 of 18), or both (3 of 18); facial dermatitis and erythema occurred secondary to ptyalism. Reducing the dose of cyclosporine to 10 mg/kg led to complete resolution of clinical signs in all but 2 rabbits, which then received azithromycin (62.5 mg PO once daily for 7 d), a common treatment for cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth in other species. After dose reduction and azithromycin treatment, clinical signs resolved and did not reoccur for the remainder of the study. Fourteen rabbits were necropsied at the end of the study, and gingival width was measured. Although some rabbits were clinically normal, the gingiva in all rabbits was grossly thickened. Rabbits on cyclosporine had molar gingiva that was significantly thicker (4.8 mm) than controls (2.5 mm) not treated with cyclosporine. Histologic analysis of the gingiva revealed mild to moderate gingival epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and mild inflammation. Gingival overgrowth is a known side effect of cyclosporine administration in other species but, to our knowledge, this report is the first description of the condition in rabbits. Because rabbits frequently are used in studies that involve systemic cyclosporine administration, clinicians are advised to include this possibility in their differential list for cases involving hypersalivation, facial dermatitis, or inappetence in rabbits. PMID:19712576

  2. Classification and Epidemiology of Mammary Tumours in Pet Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Baum, B; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2015-05-01

    Mammary tumours are common in pet rabbits; however, published studies are predominantly derived from laboratory and meat rabbits. This study reports basic data on type and location of 119 separate tumours from 109 pet rabbits. The animals were aged 2-14 years (mean 5.5 years) and all 90 rabbits of known gender were female. Cranial and caudal mammary glands were affected equally. The majority of lesions (n = 105) were classified as carcinomas with 32 tubular, 16 papillary, 12 tubulopapillary, 11 solid, nine adenosquamous, nine comedo type, five complex, four ductal, three cribriform, three anaplastic and one spindle -cell carcinoma. Twelve percent of the lesions were benign, with eight intraductal papillary adenomas, three simple tubular adenomas and one complex adenoma. One non-neoplastic lesion was found in the form of cystic duct ectasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Timing and Cue Competition in Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits were classically conditioned using compounds of tone and light conditioned stimuli (CSs) presented with either simultaneous onsets (Experiment 1) or serial onsets (Experiment 2) in a delay conditioning paradigm. Training with the simultaneous compound reduced the likelihood of a conditioned response (CR) to the individual CSs ("mutual…

  4. Influence of diet on calcium metabolism, tissue calcification and urinary sludge in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Burger, B; Liesegang, A; Del Chicca, F; Kaufmann-Bart, M; Riond, B; Hässig, M; Hatt, J-M

    2012-10-01

    Rabbits absorb more calcium (Ca) from their diet than they require, and excrete surplus via urine, which therefore contains a typical 'sludge'. This makes rabbits susceptible to Ca-containing uroliths. But given the Ca content of diets of free-ranging specimens, and the limited reports of urinary sludge and Ca contents in free-ranging lagomorphs, we can suspect that rabbits are naturally adapted to high urinary Ca loads. We fed four groups of New Zealand hybrid rabbits [n = 28, age at start 5-6 weeks) pelleted diets consisting of lucerne hay only (L, Ca 2.32% dry matter (DM)], lucerne:oats 1:1 (LG, Ca 1.36%), grass hay only (G, Ca 1.04%), or grass:oats 1:1 (GG, 0.83%) for 25 weeks, with water available ad libitum. Diets were not supplemented with Ca, phosphorus, or vitamin D. Rabbits on diets LG and GG had lower food and water intakes, lower faeces and urine output, grew faster and had higher body mass at slaughter (mainly attributable to adipose tissue). Apparent Ca digestibility decreased in the order L-LG-G/GG. Rabbits on L had larger and heavier kidneys, more urinary sediment at sonography, and a higher urinary Ca content than the other groups. No animal showed signs of urolithiasis/calcinosis at X-ray, sonography, or gross pathology. Kidney/aorta histology only sporadically indicated Ca deposits, with no systematic difference between groups. Under the conditions of the experiment, dietary Ca loads in legume hay do not appear problematic for rabbits, and other factors, such as water supply and level of activity may be important contributors to urolithiasis development in veterinary patients. However, due to the lower Ca content of grass hay, the significantly lower degree of urinary sludge formation, and the significantly higher water intake related with grass hay feeding, grass hay-dominated diets are to be recommended for rabbits in which urolithiasis prevention is an issue. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A Model for Clinical Evaluation of Perioperative Analgesia in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Lara A; Blaze, Cheryl A; Linder, Deborah E; Andrutis, Karl A; Karas, Alicia Z

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of pain in rabbits is challenging, and studies of effective surgical analgesia are lacking for this species. Seeking potential indicators of postoperative pain, we performed ovariohysterectomy and telemeter placement as a form of moderate surgical injury in 20 female rabbits. Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (5 per group): buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d); fentanyl (25-μg patch placed 24 h preoperatively); ketoprofen (1 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), and control (no treatment given). Various physiologic and behavioral variables were recorded by blinded observers, including food and water consumption, fecal output, and remotely recorded behaviors during daily exercise in 1.2 × 1.8 m floor pens. Compared with preoperative values, significant declines occurred in: food consumption (days 1 to 7), water consumption (days 1 to 4), fecal output (days 1 to 2), mean travel distance, and rearing (days 1 to 3 and day 7). No single treatment proved significantly better than another. Our results demonstrate substantial inappetance and reduction of normal activity levels in rabbits after surgery. Although results from rabbits treated with empirical doses (those typically recommended) of analgesics did not appear substantially better than those from the untreated control group, comparison of other doses and multimodal analgesic techniques by using these behavioral monitoring strategies may prove useful in future studies aimed at optimizing postoperative analgesia in rabbits. PMID:21205451

  6. Cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Jean, Sherrie M; Sharma, Prachi; Taylor, Douglas; Mook, Deborah

    2009-08-01

    A high incidence of gingival overgrowth occurred in a group of New Zealand White rabbits receiving daily cyclosporine (15 mg/kg IM) while on a retinoblastoma study. Over the course of 2 mo, rabbits presented with clinical signs of ptyalism (4 of 18 rabbits), inappetence (3 of 18), or both (3 of 18); facial dermatitis and erythema occurred secondary to ptyalism. Reducing the dose of cyclosporine to 10 mg/kg led to complete resolution of clinical signs in all but 2 rabbits, which then received azithromycin (62.5 mg PO once daily for 7 d), a common treatment for cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth in other species. After dose reduction and azithromycin treatment, clinical signs resolved and did not reoccur for the remainder of the study. Fourteen rabbits were necropsied at the end of the study, and gingival width was measured. Although some rabbits were clinically normal, the gingiva in all rabbits was grossly thickened. Rabbits on cyclosporine had molar gingiva that was significantly thicker (4.8 mm) than controls (2.5 mm) not treated with cyclosporine. Histologic analysis of the gingiva revealed mild to moderate gingival epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and mild inflammation. Gingival overgrowth is a known side effect of cyclosporine administration in other species but, to our knowledge, this report is the first description of the condition in rabbits. Because rabbits frequently are used in studies that involve systemic cyclosporine administration, clinicians are advised to include this possibility in their differential list for cases involving hypersalivation, facial dermatitis, or inappetence in rabbits.

  7. The effect of excluding ungulates on the abundance of ixodid ticks on wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2017-08-24

    Tick abundance depends heavily on host density, so reducing access to the host should reduce tick populations in a determined area. In this study we compared the Parasitic Index (PI = average number of ticks per rabbit) of two wild rabbit populations separated 16 years ago by a fence keeping ungulates from moving freely. Two areas were selected (closed and open) wherein 50 wild rabbits per area were sampled for ticks. The PI in the open area (PI = 989.62) was significantly higher than in the closed area (PI = 515.40). Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch was globally the most abundant species, followed by Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis hispanica Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. Latreille and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado. Differences between areas varied depending on the species. The number of H. hispanica, R. bursa and R. pusillus were significantly more abundant on rabbits in the closed area, whereas H. lusitanicum predominated in the open area. Ungulates in the open area may have played an important role as the main or alternative host for ticks and/or drawing some tick species away from rabbits. In the closed area other reasons such as inter-specific competition could have influenced the tick abundance. These results show a clear reduction in tick abundance for at least 16 years as well as influenced species distribution.

  8. Photoperiodic regulation of seasonal testicular regression in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Boyd, I L

    1986-07-01

    Adult male wild rabbits were exposed to artificial daylengths of 8L:16D, 13L:11D or 20L:4D after being taken from the wild during September, when testicular size was minimal. In all groups the testes grew and those in 20L:4D grew more quickly than did those in 8L:16D or 13L:11D. Rabbits kept in the 3 daylength treatments for the whole study maintained enlarged testes after the initial growth phase. The testes of rabbits transferred to 13L:11D after 8 weeks in 20L:4D did not regress. A similar transfer after 16 weeks in 20L:4D resulted in testicular regression (P less than 0.01) followed by moult, and then testicular regrowth 9 weeks after the change of daylength. No regression occurred at this time in the control group kept in 20L:4D throughout the study. Plasma FSH concentration increased at the beginning of the study and was elevated during the initial period of testicular growth. Values then declined after the asymptote of testicular weight was reached. Plasma testosterone and LH concentrations did not change significantly throughout the study. The results showed that reproductive regression in wild rabbits can be induced by a reduction in the daylength, but that the potency of this reduction is dependent upon previous experience of daylength.

  9. Solexa-Sequencing Based Transcriptome Study of Plaice Skin Phenotype in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lei; Liu, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Xiao, Chenwen; Ji, Quanan; Bao, Guolian; Wu, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Fur is an important genetically-determined characteristic of domestic rabbits; rabbit furs are of great economic value. We used the Solexa sequencing technology to assess gene expression in skin tissues from full-sib Rex rabbits of different phenotypes in order to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with fur determination. Methodology/Principal Findings Transcriptome analysis included de novo assembly, gene function identification, and gene function classification and enrichment. We obtained 74,032,912 and 71,126,891 short reads of 100 nt, which were assembled into 377,618 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (N50=680 nt). Based on BLAST results with known proteins, 50,228 sequences were identified at a cut-off E-value ≥ 10-5. Using Blast to Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), we obtained several genes with important protein functions. A total of 308 differentially expressed genes were obtained by transcriptome analysis of plaice and un-plaice phenotype animals; 209 additional differentially expressed genes were not found in any database. These genes included 49 that were only expressed in plaice skin rabbits. The novel genes may play important roles during skin growth and development. In addition, 99 known differentially expressed genes were assigned to PI3K-Akt signaling, focal adhesion, and ECM-receptor interactin, among others. Growth factors play a role in skin growth and development by regulating these signaling pathways. We confirmed the altered expression levels of seven target genes by qRT-PCR. And chosen a key gene for SNP to found the differentially between plaice and un-plaice phenotypes rabbit. Conclusions/Significance The rabbit transcriptome profiling data provide new insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying rabbit skin growth and development. PMID:25955442

  10. Gene Expression Profiling Analysis Reveals Fur Development in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bohao; Chen, Yang; Yan, Xiaorong; Hao, Ye; Zhu, Jie; Weng, Qiiaoqing; Wu, Xinsheng

    2017-08-29

    Fur is an important economic trait in rabbits. The identification of genes that influence fur development and knowledge regarding the actions of these genes provides useful tools for improving fur quality. However, the mechanism of fur development is unclear. To obtain candidate genes related to fur development, the transcriptomes of tissues from backs and bellies of Chinchilla rex rabbits were compared. Of the genes analyzed, 336 showed altered expression in the two groups (285 upregulated and 51 downregulated), P≤0.05, fold-change≥2 or ≤0.5). Using GO and KEGG to obtain gene classes that were differentially enriched, we found several genes to be involved in many important biological processes. In addition, we identified several signaling pathways involved in fur development, including the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, revealing mechanisms of skin and hair follicle development, and epidermal cell and keratinocytes differentiation. The obtained rabbit transcriptome and differentially expressed gene profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information for SFRP2, FRZB, CACNG1, SLC25A4 and SLC16A3. To validate the RNA-seq data, the expression levels of eight differentially expressed genes involved in fur development were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of rabbit transcriptomic profiling provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of fur development.

  11. Solexa-Sequencing Based Transcriptome Study of Plaice Skin Phenotype in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Liu, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Xiao, Chenwen; Ji, Quanan; Bao, Guolian; Wu, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    Fur is an important genetically-determined characteristic of domestic rabbits; rabbit furs are of great economic value. We used the Solexa sequencing technology to assess gene expression in skin tissues from full-sib Rex rabbits of different phenotypes in order to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with fur determination. Transcriptome analysis included de novo assembly, gene function identification, and gene function classification and enrichment. We obtained 74,032,912 and 71,126,891 short reads of 100 nt, which were assembled into 377,618 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (N50=680 nt). Based on BLAST results with known proteins, 50,228 sequences were identified at a cut-off E-value ≥ 10-5. Using Blast to Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), we obtained several genes with important protein functions. A total of 308 differentially expressed genes were obtained by transcriptome analysis of plaice and un-plaice phenotype animals; 209 additional differentially expressed genes were not found in any database. These genes included 49 that were only expressed in plaice skin rabbits. The novel genes may play important roles during skin growth and development. In addition, 99 known differentially expressed genes were assigned to PI3K-Akt signaling, focal adhesion, and ECM-receptor interactin, among others. Growth factors play a role in skin growth and development by regulating these signaling pathways. We confirmed the altered expression levels of seven target genes by qRT-PCR. And chosen a key gene for SNP to found the differentially between plaice and un-plaice phenotypes rabbit. The rabbit transcriptome profiling data provide new insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying rabbit skin growth and development.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Jiang, Jing; Cai, Ya-Nan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Xu, Peng; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan

    2016-01-01

    A study of 426 rabbits from 3 cities in Jilin province (Changchun City and Jilin City) and Liaoning province (Shenyang City) was conducted between May and June 2015. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in rabbits was 0.94% (4/426), with 0% (0/116), 1.72% (3/174), and 0.74% (1/136) in Jilin, Changchun, and Shenyang City, respectively. Only 3 farms (farm 1 and farm 3 in Changchun City, farm 8 in Shenyang City) were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi. Moreover, rabbits of more than 6 months (1.72%) had the highest E. bieneusi prevalence, followed by rabbits of 4-6 months (1.26%), 2-3 months (0.58%), and less than 1 month (0%). Analysis of ITS gene of E. bieneusi suggested that all 4 E. bieneusi isolates were genotype D, and were classified as group 1a. The present results first demonstrated the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in domestic rabbits in China. Effective control measures should be implemented to prevent E. bieneusi infection in domestic rabbits, other animals, and humans. PMID:26951984

  13. Evaluation of the thermal effects of prenatal ultrasound on hematological analysis of young Oryctolagus Cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    ISA, Iza Nurzawani Che; DOM, Sulaiman Md

    2016-01-01

    Elevated temperatures can induce changes in red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) and platelet (PLT) counts. Ultrasound heating during obstetric scans has the potential to increase body temperature owing to the phenomenon of absorption. We conducted a study to determine the thermal effects of prenatal ultrasound on RBCs, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), WBCs and PLTs in young rabbits. We selected 69 rabbits that were 1 month of age and 73 that were 5 months of age, and allocated them to four groups. The control group consisted of four pregnant does that were allowed to have a full term delivery without any ultrasound exposure. The experimental groups were subjected to one-time ultrasound exposure for 30, 60 and 90 min in the middle of each gestational stage accordingly. RBCs and Hb showed significant reductions in the experimental groups of 1- and 5-month-old rabbits (P<0.05). In addition, WBCs and PLTs yielded significant differences in the 1-month group that were not observed in the 5-month group (P>0.05). The highest values recorded were those of the WBCs of 1-month-old subjects that received 90 min of exposure at the second stage of gestation. The PLTs were the lowest values recorded in 1-month-old subjects following 90 min of ultrasound exposure at the third stage of gestation. These findings suggest that hematological fluctuations during the early stages of postnatal life persisted until 1 month of age and recovered thereafter, as the subjects progressed into adulthood. Therefore, ultrasound heating can cause significant, yet reversible effects on the hematological parameters of rabbits. PMID:27211519

  14. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Norfolk Brook Dam (CT 00485), Housatonic River, Norfolk, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Haestad, Inc. under a letter of October 28, 1980, .- from William E. Hodgson, Jr ., Colonel, Corps of Engineers. Contract L No. DACW33-81-0005 has been...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRAWING NO SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE CN-4O8-RENGINEERING & WATERSHED PLANNING UNIT SHEET 1 OF UPPER DARSY , PENNSYLVANIA N...o -d * WOODCRE Ul NOFL ROK/ ~ A; ’’l ---- -I- -’- - 0 L IT0,7 - - LOATO OF~ R*AL HASA- N ~ LIMIT OF POTN IALF * /Irc4S 0 FLOODIN (TYP) JR I M- , I 1

  15. Geologic map of the Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico, and Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle is located in the south-central part of the San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico, in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, and contains deposits that record volcanic, tectonic, and associated alluvial and colluvial processes over the past four million years. Ute Mountain has the distinction of being one of the largest intermediate composition eruptive centers of the Taos Plateau, a largely volcanic tableland occupying the southern portion of the San Luis Basin. Ute Mountain rises to an elevation in excess of 3,000 m, nearly 700 m above the basaltic plateau at its base, and is characterized by three distinct phases of Pliocene eruptive activity recorded in the stratigraphy exposed on the flanks of the mountain and in the Rio Grande gorge. Unconformably overlain by largely flat-lying lava flows of Servilleta Basalt, the area surrounding Ute Mountain records a westward thickening of basin-fill volcanic deposits interstratified in the subsurface with Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary deposits derived from older Tertiary and Precambrian sources to the east. Superimposed on this volcanic stratigraphy are alluvial and colluvial deposits derived from the flanks of Ute Mountain and more distally-derived alluvium from the uplifted Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the east, that record a complex temporal and stratigraphic succession of Quaternary basin deposition and erosion. Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens. These poorly exposed fault scarps cutting lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2) the relative youth of the deposits has resulted in only modest displacements on most faults, and (3) some of the faults may have significant strike-slip components that do not result in large vertical offsets that are readily apparent in offset of sub-horizontal contacts. Those faults characterized as “certain” either have distinct offset of map units or had slip planes that were directly observed in the field. Lineaments defined from magnetic anomalies form an additional constraint on potential fault locations and are indicated as such on the map sheet.

  16. Assessment of metal transport into and out of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, April 1994 through March 1995; interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Sheryl; Edelmann, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir is the primary source of water for crops and livestock in the southwestern part of the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado. Mining activities have occurred in the basin for more than 100 years, and substantial mining of gold has occurred intermittently at the Summitville Mine.Historically, the Summitville Mine site has produced highly acidic, metal-enriched water that drained from the mine site into Wightman Fork and flowed to the Alamosa River and Terrace Reservoir. In 1994, a study was begun as part of risk-assessment and remediation efforts and to evaluate metal transport into and out of Terrace Reservoir. During the study period, the pH immediately upstream from Terrace Reservoir ranged from 4.3 to 7.8. The highest pH occurred during the pre-peak snowmelt period; the lowest pH occurred during storm runoff during summer. Downstream from Terrace Reservoir, the pH ranged from 4.6 to 7.6. The highest pH occurred during the pre-peak snowmelt period, and the lowest pH occurred during summer in mid-July. A comparison of the streamflow hydrographs upstream and downstream from Terrace Reservoir indicated that there was only a small difference between the annual volume of water that entered the reservoir and the annual volume of water that was released from the reservoir. Large spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of the metals of concern occurred during the study.The median and maximum concentrations of dissolved and total aluminum, iron, copper, cadmium, manganese, and zinc were larger upstream from the reservoir than downstream from the reservoir. The largest concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, copper, cadmium, manganese, and zinc generally occurred between mid-June and November. Throughout the study, aluminum was transported into the reservoir predominantly in the particulate or suspended form. Downstream from the reservoir, the suspended-aluminum fraction was predominant only during the pre-peak snowmelt and peak snowmelt periods. The temporal variations in the percentage of dissolved and suspended fraction of iron and copper downstream from Terrace Reservoir were similar to the temporal variations that occurred upstream from the reservoir. During the study period, cadmium, manganese, and zinc generally were transported into and out of the reservoir predominantly in the dissolved form. Metal loads varied considerably as a result of changes in streamflow or changes in metal concentrations, or both. The largest daily loads of aluminum, iron, and manganese were transported into and out of Terrace Reservoir during the peak snowmelt period.The reservoir was a sink for an estimated 294 tons of aluminum and 596 tons of iron. However, about 68.5 tons of total aluminum and about 194 tons of total iron were transported out of the reservoir during the study period. During the study period, about 22\\x11tons of total copper remained in the reservoir, and 39 tons was transported downstream from the reservoir. About 47 tons of total manganese and 18 tons of total-zinc loads were transported out of the reservoir; the reservoir was a sink for only a small fraction of total-manganese and -zinc.

  17. Physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, May 1994 through May 1995; interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick; Walton-Day, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir receives drainage of low-pH, metal-enriched water from mineralized areas, including the Summitville Mine, within the AlamosaRiver Basin. Drainage from the Summitville Mine has contributed a substantial part of the metal load to Terrace Reservoir. From May 1994 through May 1995, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir.Terrace Reservoir was thermally stratified from about mid-May through August 1994. Thermal stratification was absent from September\\x111994through March 1995. During periods of stratification, underflow of the Alamosa River was predominant, and residence times of the underflow were shortened by 40 to 75\\x11percent of the theoretical residence times for a well-mixed reservoir. Transport and deposition of suspended solids in Terrace Reservoir varied spatially and temporally. Most of the suspended solids were deposited in Terrace Reservoir. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reservoir varied little spatially or temporally and generally was within a few tenths of the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the inflow. The pH of water in the reservoir generally ranged from about 4.0 to about 7.0, depending on date, depth, and location. The largest pH values were measured during May. A markeddecrease of about 1.5\\x11pH units occurred at site T5 in the reservoir about mid-June. The pH of the reservoir remained at or below 5.5 from mid-June through November. Dissolved-metal concentrations varied spatially and temporally in response to several factors, which included inflow characteristics, reservoir stratification and mixing, inflow-routing and flow-through patterns, residence times, sedimentation, dissolved oxygen, and pH.Inflow chemistry is the dominant controlling factor of metal chemistry within Terrace Reservoir.During periods of stratification, large vertical variations in metal concentrations occurred. The highest metal concentrations in the reservoir generally were measured in the hypolimnion between June and August. During June, epilimnetic water of the reservoir had pH values greater than 6.0, and metal concentrations were lower than hypolimnetic concentrations. In the hypolimnion, pH values were less than 5.5. The difference between the chemistry of the epilimnion and the hypolimnion was due to differences in flow routing and residence times of water in those respective layers. The dissolved-metal concentrations were larger during July and August than during June.During September, small vertical variations in metalconcentrations occurred, and the dissolved-metal concentrations were nearly equivalent to the average August metal concentrations, indicatingthat the metal concentrations measured during September resulted largely from reservoir mixing.During March, the largest metal concentrationsoccurred in the epilimnion, where pH was about 5.5; in the hypolimnion, where the pH was about 6.0, dissolved-metal concentrations were substantially lower and reflected inflow concentrations.

  18. GOES Satellite Data Validation Via Hand-held 4 LED Sun Photometer at Norfolk State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Arthur, Jr.; Jackson, Tyrone; Reynolds, Kevin; Davidson, Cassy; Coope-Pabis, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Sun photometry is a passive means of measuring a quantity of light radiation. The GIFTS- IOMI/GLOBE Water Vapor/Haze Sun photometer contains four light emitting diodes (LEDs), which are used to convert photocurrent to voltage. The intensity of the incoming and outgoing radiation as detected on the Earth s surface can be affected by aerosols and gases in the atmosphere. The focus of this research is primarily on aerosol and water vapor particles that absorb and reemit energy. Two LEDs in the photometer correspond to light scattered at 530 nm (green spectrum) and 620 nm (red spectrum). They collect data pertaining to aerosols that scatter light. The other two LEDs detect the light scattered by water vapor at wavelengths of 820 nm and 920 nm. The water vapor measurements will be compared to data collected by the Geostationary Observation Environmental Satellite (GOES). Before a comparison can be made, the extraterrestrial constant (ET), which is intrinsic to each sun photometer, must be measured. This paper will present determination of the ET constant, from which the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) can be computed for comparison to the GOES satellite to ascertain the reliability of the sun photometer.

  19. Simulators III; Proceedings of the Conference, Norfolk, VA, Mar. 10-12, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Bruce T.

    Theoretical and applied research projects and applications of simulators for training, systems evaluation and on-line process monitoring are explored. The use of workstations at NASA Goddard to study graphics-based control room operations and monitor space missions is described. Problems encountered in the development and display of databases and the design of visual scenes for training simulations are delineated, and Naval Training Systems Center usage of simulators to investigate training techniques, simulator capabilities, and aids to pilots performing carrier landings is summarized. A study performed by the USAF to assess the relative effectiveness of alternate display simulations for F-16 maintenance training is delineated. Finally, a Boeing project which involved refurbishing an older simulator to serve as a training device for aircrew on a modernized KC-135R aircraft is detailed.

  20. Effects of Polyacrylamide and Organic Matter on Microbes associated to Soil Aggregation of Norfolk Loamy Sand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyacrylamide (PAM, anionic formulation of molecular size 12 MDa and 35% charge density) has been reported to increase aggregation and improve soil physical properties in United States southeastern Coastal Plain loamy sand soils, but nothing is known about the effects of PAM on microbes associated ...

  1. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Proposed Rules] [Page 79726] [FR Doc No: 2013-31291] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 290..., Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc. 2013-31291 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4915-01-P...

  2. 78 FR 66801 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in St. Joseph County, Ind.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by November 8, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board...

  3. 78 FR 67216 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lake County, Ind.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) at (202) 245-0305. [Assistance for the hearing impaired is... assessment (EA) (or environmental impact statement (EIS), if necessary) prepared by OEA will be served upon... interested persons may contact OEA to obtain a copy of the EA (or EIS). EAs in these abandonment proceedings...

  4. 78 FR 11733 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Calhoun County, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the exemption's effective date. See... historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by February 22, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington...

  5. 78 FR 48931 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by August 16, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room...

  6. 78 FR 49603 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marengo County, Ala

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by August 19, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room...

  7. 77 FR 55898 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Beaufort County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an... to OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington, DC 20423-0001) or by calling OEA at (202...

  8. 76 FR 82348 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marietta, Lancaster County, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by January 6, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface...

  9. 78 FR 57681 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial assistance (OFA) has been received, this...., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037. If the verified notice contains false or misleading information, the... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  10. Proceedings of NECC/2 National Educational Computing Conference 1980 (Norfolk, Virginia, June 23-25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Diana, Ed.; Collison, Beth, Ed.

    This proceedings, which includes 52 papers and abstracts of 13 invited and nine tutorial sessions, provides an overview of the current status of computer usage in education and offers substantive forecasts for academic computing. Papers are presented under the following headings: Business--Economics, Tools and Techniques for Instruction, Computers…

  11. 78 FR 76382 - Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Norfolk International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ..., Airports Division AEA-610, Federal Aviation Administration, Eastern Region, 1 Aviation Plaza, Jamaica, New...: Policies and Procedures. Issued in Jamaica, New York, on December 5, 2013. Debbie Roth, Manager, Airports...

  12. Executive summary. EEAP, Norfolk District, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. (Boiler/chiller). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program conducted by Roy F. Weston, Inc. at the Aberdeen and Edgewood Areas of Aberdeen Proving Grounds under Contract No. DACA-65-84-C-0105. The study includes evaluation of boiler and chiller plant performance by tests, identification and analysis of specific efficiency improvements, evaluation of existing equipment condition and maintenance procedures, and project development and documentation preparation.

  13. Simulation in Ada; Proceedings of the Eastern Simulation Conference, Norfolk, VA, March 3-8, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, B.; Lomow, G.; Trybul, T.

    1985-01-01

    The development of ADA compilers in 1984 reached a stage that now permits the implementation of ADA-language-based simulators which can handle large programs. The conference covered topics such as automated Ada-based methodology simulator program development. Attention was also given to implementing a simulator as a set of Ada tasks and testing software for Ada language discrete simulation models. Attempts at developing a moving target, distributed, real-time simulation using Ada for studying jet engine performance are described. Finally, techniques for simulating parallel computational processes for optical control problems are contrasted with sequential optimization process performance.

  14. Marine Environmental Planning Guide for the Hampton Roads/Norfolk Operating Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    139 f. Saprotrophs ............................................... 140 g. Detritus-feeders and demersal scavengers .................. 141...hazard if consumed by humans. f. Saprotrophs --The distribution, abundance, and activity of marine bacteria and their biodegradation role in the marine

  15. 77 FR 47922 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... milepost WG23.6 at Pemberton, W. Va., a distance of approximately 11.6 miles. The transaction is scheduled to be consummated on August 25, 2012, the effective date of the exemption (30 days after...

  16. Acoustic Modal Patterns and Striations (AMPS) experiment G-325, Norfolk Public Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Joy W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe how high school students with the guidance of volunteer mentors were able to successfully complete an acoustics space experiment. Some of the NORSTAR program strategies used to effectively accomplish this goal will be discussed. The experiment and present status of results will be explained.

  17. Health-Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-195-1768, Dale Electronics, Incorporated, Norfolk, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation was made of exposure to butyl cellosolve, epichlorohydrin, nickel, chromium, antimony, and total particulates for workers in an electronic resistor manufacturing process. No exposure to butyl cellosolve was detected among liquid coaters and no epichlorohydrin was detected in the process area air samples. No exposure to nickel or chromium was detected among mechanical-grinding spirallers. One laser spiraller was exposed to 8 micrograms/m/sup 3/ of nickel and 8 microg/m/sup 3/ chromium. Trace amounts of nickel were noted in the breathing zones of one plating lab worker and one calibrator. Total particulate exposures ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/m/sup 3/. The author concludes that there were no known overexposures to contaminants at this facility and recommends further checking.

  18. Nanostructured materials for multifunctional applications under NSF-CREST research at Norfolk State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Mundle, R.; Zhang, K.; Holloway, T.; Amponsah, O.; Biswal, D.; Konda, R.; White, C.; Dondapati, H.; Santiago, K.; Birdsong, T.; Arslan, M.; Peeples, B.; Shaw, D.; Smak, J.; Samataray, C.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of CoFe2O4 have been synthesized under an applied magnetic field through a co-precipitation method followed by thermal treatments at different temperatures, producing nanoparticles of varying size. The magnetic behavior of these nanoparticles of varying size was investigated. As-grown nanoparticles demonstrate superparamagnetism above the blocking temperature, which is dependent on the particle size. The anomalous magnetic behavior is attributed to the preferred Co ions and vacancies arrangements when the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized under applied magnetic field. Furthermore, this magnetic property is strongly dependent on the high temperature heat treatments, which produce Co ions and vacancies disorder. We performed the fabrication of condensed and mesoporous silica coated CoFe2O4 magnetic nanocomposites. The CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles were encapsulated with well-defined silica layer. The mesopores in the shell were fabricated as a consequence of removal of organic group of the precursor through annealing. The NiO nanoparticles were loaded into the mesoporous silica. The mesoporous silica coated magnetic nanostructure loaded with NiO as a final product may have potential use in the field of biomedical applications. Growth mechanism of ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO seed layer investigated by electric and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Both electric and Kelvin force probe microscopy was used to investigate the surface potentials on the ZnO seed layer, which shows a remarkable dependence on the annealing temperature. The optimum temperature for the growth of nanorod arrays normal to the surface was found to be at 600 °C, which is in the range of right surface potentials and energy measured between 500 °C and 700 °C. We demonstrated from both EFM and Kelvin force probe microscopy studies that surface potential controls the growth of ZnO nanorods. This study will provide important understanding of growth of other nanostructures. ZnO nanolayers were also grown by atomic layer deposition techniques. These nanolayers of ZnO demonstrate remarkable optical and electrical properties. These nanolayers were patterned by the Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) technique. A major goal of nanotechnology is to couple the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures with conventional lithography, using either or both bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods, that would enable us to register individual molecular nanostructures onto the functional devices. However, combining the nanofabrication technique with high resolution Electron Beam Lithography, we can achieve 3D bimolecular or/and DNA origami that will be able to identify nucleic acid sequences, antigen targets, and other molecules, as for a perfect nano-biosensor. We have explored some of the nanopatterning using EBL in order to fabricate biomolecule sensing on a single chip with sub nm pitch. The applications are not limited for the bioactivity, but for enhancing immunoreactions, cell culture dishes, and tissue engineering applications.

  19. 76 FR 27967 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean... action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Shore Thing and... temporary safety zone on specified waters of the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach...

  20. 76 FR 38300 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach... necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Shore Thing and Independence Day... for immediate action, the restriction of vessel traffic is necessary to protect life, property and...

  1. Television Viewing and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: Prospective Associations and Mediation Analysis in the EPIC Norfolk Study

    PubMed Central

    Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Besson, Hervé; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Background Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal) cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0), free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998–2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years). Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.08; 2,620 cases), non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.09; 2,134 cases), and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03–1.13; 940 cases), independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. Conclusions These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary) behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered. PMID:21647437

  2. Artificial recharge to a freshwater-sensitive brackish-water sand aquifer, Norfolk, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Donald L.; Silvey, William Dudley

    1977-01-01

    Fresh water was injected into a brackish-water sand for storage and retrieval. The initial injection rate of 400 gpm decreased to 70 gpm during test 3. The specific capacity of the well decreased also, from 15.4 to 0.93 gpm. Current-meter surveys indicated uniform reduction in hydraulic conductivity of all contributing zones in the aquifer. Hydraulic and chemical data indicate this was caused by dispersion of the interstitial clay upon introduction of the calcium bicarbonate water into the sodium chloride bearing sand aquifer. The clay dispersion also caused particulate rearrangement and clogging of well screen. A pre-flush of 0.2 N calcium chloride solution injected in front of the fresh water at the start of test 4 stabilized the clay. However, it did not reverse the particulate clogging that permanently reduced permeability and caused sanding during redevelopment. Clogging can be prevented by stabilization of the clay using commercially available trivalent aluminum compounds. Test 1 and test 2 showed that 85 percent of the water injected can be recovered, and the water meets U.S. Public Health Standards. Storage of fresh water in a brackish-water aquifer appears feasible provided proper control measures are used. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. 77 FR 74739 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... petition alleges that, beginning in 2009, APCO began removing trees and erecting electrical transmission.... 554(e) and 49 U.S.C. 721 to issue a declaratory order to eliminate a controversy or remove uncertainty. The Interstate Commerce Act, as revised by the ICC Termination Act of 1995, vests in the Board broad...

  4. 76 FR 24084 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE) over a portion of NSR's line of railroad between...

  5. 75 FR 34530 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE), between Lock Haven and Driftwood, Pa., from...

  6. 77 FR 18881 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE), between Lock Haven, Pa. (milepost BR 194.2) and...

  7. Air Leakage Measurements in Navy Family Housing Units at Norfolk, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    80-4233), Prepared for Naval Construction Battalion Center (1980). 17. Lagus, P.L., "Air Leakage Measurements in Support of the Johns Manville Corporation...in the Advanced Energy Utilization Test Bed, Pt. Hueneme, California," Systems, Science and Software Report (SSS-R-78-3533), Prepared for Johns ... Manville Corporation (1978). 18. Weidt, J.L., J. Weidt, S. Selkowitz, "Field Air Leakage of Newly Installed Residential Windows," Proceedings of ASHRAE

  8. U.S. Coast Guard, Maintenance and Logistics Command-Atlantic, Norfolk, VA. Best Manufacturing Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-29

    by identifying, researching, and promoting exceptional manufacturing practices, methods, and procedures in design, test, production, facilities...nating non value-added tasks and acts as a catalyst for implementing new technologies to improve its mission to "Keep Coast Guard units and personnel in ...This continual updating process ultimately ensures the accuracy of the new estimates. In addition, the process helps ensure that contracting personnel

  9. Important Meroplankton of the Lower Chesapeake Bay and Proposed Norfolk Disposal Site. II. Crustaceans and Ichthyoplankton.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    August and September, and were dominated by P. ostreum. The fiddler crab (Uca spp.) was observed in both neuston and oblique tows (Figs. A7 and A8...npcesuary an idenrtify by blOck number) Meroplankton which move through the area in ecological significant numbers are: blue crab larvae, Bay anchovy...included in tables or *~ figures. Results of blue crab , rock crab and oyster larvae abundances were detailed in another report and are not included (Butt et

  10. 77 FR 27857 - Columbus & Chattahoochee Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... operate 25.50 miles of rail line consisting of two segments: (1) Between milepost S 292.8 near Girard, Ala., and milepost S 303.9 near Nuckols, Ala., a distance of 11.10 miles; and (2) between milepost NU 0 near Nuckols and milepost NU 14.4 near Mahrt, Ala., a distance of 14.40 miles (collectively, the line)....

  11. 76 FR 70345 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ..., the drawbridge may remain in the closed position on specific dates and times to facilitate laying new... operating regulations set out in 33 CFR 117.1007(a) to facilitate laying new rail. Under the current... of 6 feet above mean high water. To facilitate laying new rail, the drawbridge will be maintained...

  12. 77 FR 74586 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... in the docket are part of docket USCG-2012-1052 and are available online at www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2012-1052 in the ``Search'' box and then clicking ``Search''. They are also available for...

  13. Control of Dental Amalgam in Wastewater at the Naval Dental Clinic, Norfolk, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Rebulations ....................................................... 1 3 3.2 Hazardous Waste Regulations ............................................. 14...infectious and hazardous waste regulations and their application in this situation. 3. Perform a literature search to identify and evaluate potential...regulations are based on and 0 have primarily the same requirements as RCRA, a detailed discussion of them is not included. * 3.2 Hazardous Waste Regulations Any

  14. GOES Satellite Data Validation Via Hand-held 4 LED Sun Photometer at Norfolk State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Arthur, Jr.; Jackson, Tyrone; Reynolds, Kevin; Davidson, Cassy; Coope-Pabis, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Sun photometry is a passive means of measuring a quantity of light radiation. The GIFTS- IOMI/GLOBE Water Vapor/Haze Sun photometer contains four light emitting diodes (LEDs), which are used to convert photocurrent to voltage. The intensity of the incoming and outgoing radiation as detected on the Earth s surface can be affected by aerosols and gases in the atmosphere. The focus of this research is primarily on aerosol and water vapor particles that absorb and reemit energy. Two LEDs in the photometer correspond to light scattered at 530 nm (green spectrum) and 620 nm (red spectrum). They collect data pertaining to aerosols that scatter light. The other two LEDs detect the light scattered by water vapor at wavelengths of 820 nm and 920 nm. The water vapor measurements will be compared to data collected by the Geostationary Observation Environmental Satellite (GOES). Before a comparison can be made, the extraterrestrial constant (ET), which is intrinsic to each sun photometer, must be measured. This paper will present determination of the ET constant, from which the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) can be computed for comparison to the GOES satellite to ascertain the reliability of the sun photometer.

  15. 76 FR 56874 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company, Pennsylvania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Line Connecting Track), between milepost 0.0 at Nice and milepost 0.7 at Wayne, (3) overhead trackage rights on a portion of the Ninth Street Branch between milepost QA 5.1 at Wayne and milepost QAJ 6.7 at... on Louis E. Gitomer, 600 Baltimore Ave., Suite 301, Towson, MD 21204. ] Board decisions and...

  16. 75 FR 9557 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ..., relieving vehicular traffic congestion during the weekday daytime hours, while still providing for the... experienced increased back-ups, delays, and congestion due to the increase in traffic. The NPRM would allow... anticipated a decrease in traffic congestion during the daylight hours. Concurrent with the publication of...

  17. 75 FR 47461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... vehicular traffic congestion while still providing for the reasonable needs of navigation. DATES: This rule... traffic congestion during the daylight hours. Concurrent with the publication of the Notice of Proposed... that caused vehicular traffic congestion. The unscheduled openings were provided for Government...

  18. 78 FR 21006 - Consolidated Rail Corporation, CSX Transportation, Inc., and Norfolk Southern Railway Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...--Discontinuance Exemptions--in Monmouth County, N.J. On March 19, 2013, Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail... railroad extending from milepost 19.30 to milepost 24.40 , in Monmouth County, N.J. The line traverses...

  19. 78 FR 21006 - Consolidated Rail Corporation, CSX Transportation, Inc., and Norfolk Southern Railway Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Company--Discontinuance Exemptions--In Middlesex County, N.J. On March 19, 2013, Consolidated Rail...-mile line of railroad extending from milepost 0.77 to milepost 3.00 in Middlesex County, N.J. The line...

  20. Norfolk Harbor and Channels Deepening Study. Report 1. Physical Model Results. Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Susquehanna River Valley to form the bay. Sedimentation from the tributaries as well as erosion of the banks has contributed to maintaining the bay’s broad... Anacostia River 1,663 532 10 Potomac River 21,997 7,699 11 Patuxent River 2,517 88l 12 Severn River 660 23i 13 Patapsco River 1,751 613 14 Gunpowder River ...Chesapeake Bay system with the vast majority being located near the project area in the lower bay anti James River areas. A 2-1/2-year weekly stepped

  1. 77 FR 52599 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    .... These delays were unpredictable for motorists, and will continue to increase with population growth and... approaches still experience back-ups, delays, and congestion, due to increased traffic and population. The Hampton Roads Planning District Commission projected a population growth of 31% by 2034. This continued...

  2. Development of the Lacrimal Apparatus in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Its Potential Role as an Animal Model for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rehorek, S. J.; Holland, J. R.; Johnson, J. L.; Caprez, J. M.; Cray, J.; Mooney, M. P.; Hillenius, W. J.; Smith, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits have been proposed as a model organism for the human lacrimal apparatus (LA), including the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), based principally on comparative studies of adult morphology; however, little is known about its development. The NLD first appears as an incomplete primordium in the subcutaneous region of the primordial eyelid and subsequently elongates to reach the naris. One posterior and three anterior orbital glands are present fetally although one of the anterior glands is soon lost. The NLD follows a tortuous path and passes through a bony canal consisting of lacrimal, maxilla, and maxilloturbinal bones at different regions. Although early developmental similarities exist to haplorhine primates, the narial opening of the NLD resembles strepsirrhines. This distinction, along with the ductal and glandular differences at the orbital end of the NLD, indicates that rabbits may be a poor model for LA drainage in primates, specifically humans. PMID:22567296

  3. Use of arterial blood gas analysis as a superior method for evaluating respiratory function in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Benato, L; Shaw, D J; Self, I; Meredith, A

    A retrospective study compared invasive (arterial blood gas analysis) and non-invasive (capnography and pulse oximetry) methods of monitoring respiratory function in conscious rabbits. Arterial samples from 50 healthy dwarf lop rabbits, presenting for routine surgical neutering, were analysed on a point-of-care blood gas analysis machine. Reference intervals were obtained for pH (7.35-7.54), PaCO2 (mm Hg) (25.29-40.37), PaO2 (mm Hg) (50.3-98.2), base excess (mmol/l) (6.7-6.5), HCO3 (mmol/l) (17.96-29.41), TCO2 (mmol/l) (18.9-30.5). SaO2 (per cent) (88.8-98.0), Na (mmol/l) (137.6-145.2), K (mmol/l) (3.28-4.87), iCal (mmol/l) (1.64-1.94), glucose (mmol/l) (6.23-10.53), haematocrit (per cent) (23.3-40.2) and haemoglobin (mg/dl) (7.91-13.63). Pulse oximetry (SPO2) and capnography (ETCO2) readings were taken concurrently. There was no statistically significant relationship between SPO2 and SaO2 with a mean difference between SPO2 and SaO2 of 8.22 per cent. There was a statistically significant relationship between ETCO2 vs PaCO2, but a wide range of ETCO2 values were observed for a given PaCO2. The mean difference between these was 16.16 mm Hg. The study has provided reference intervals for arterial blood gas analysis in rabbits and demonstrated that capnography and pulse oximetry readings should not be relied upon in conscious rabbits as a guide to ventilation and oxygenation.

  4. Hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with Psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. Affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. Among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better utilize sick animal behavior as a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods Rabbits were infested placing mites in the ear conduct. We characterized changes in exploratory behavior and scent marking evoked by acute (1-9 days) and chronic (25-33 days) experimental infestation. Behavior was recorded during ten minutes while the animals were in a 120 cm × 120 cm open field arena divided into 9 squares. Serum cortisol was measured individually using radioimmunoassay kits. Locomotor activity, chinning, rearing and body weight were compared using a Friedman test, the effect of treatment (infested versus non-infested) across time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and the Pearson test was used to determine whether chinning and ambulation scores were significantly correlated. Serum cortisol levels and food consumption were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and body temperature was analyzed with an ANOVA test. Results We observed a significant decrease in rearing behavior as early as two days post-infestation, while chinning and locomotor activity were significantly decreased four days post-infestation. Chronic infestation was associated with decreased food intake, significant weight loss, and a trend toward increased serum cortisol levels, while no changes were observed in body temperature. Conclusions The presence of visible lesions within the ear canal is commonly used to detect mite infestation in rabbits, but this is possible only after chronic infestation. The behaviors described here may be a useful and economic tool in guiding the early diagnosis of parasitic infestation by P. cuniculi, allowing for early treatment and the application of control measures before significant weight loss occurs, thereby avoiding economic losses. PMID:24354923

  5. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci and Escherichia coli isolates from European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Nicholas; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Radhouani, Hajer; Rodrigues, Jorge; Poeta, Patrícia

    2010-09-15

    A total of 44 Escherichia coli and 64 enterococci recovered from 77 intestinal samples of wild European rabbits in Portugal were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobial agents. Resistance in E. coli isolates was observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, streptomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. None of the E. coli isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The bla(TEM), aadA, aac(3)-II, tet(A) and/or tet(B), and the catA genes were demonstrated in all ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates respectively, and the sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 genes in 4 of 5 sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistant isolates. Of the enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent detected species (39 isolates), followed by E. faecium (21 isolates) and E. hirae (4 isolates). More than one-fourth (29.7%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 20.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 14.1% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 10.9% were resistant to high-level-kanamycin. Lower level of resistance (<10%) was detected for ampicillin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and high-level-gentamicin, -streptomycin. No vancomycin-resistance was detected in the enterococci isolates. Resistance genes detected included aac(6')-aph(2''), ant(6)-Ia, tet(M) and/or tet(L) in all gentamicin, streptomycin and tetracycline-resistant isolates respectively. The aph(3')-IIIa gene was detected in 6 of 7 kanamycin-resistant isolates, the erm(B) gene in 11 of 13 erythromycin-resistant isolates and the vat(D) gene in the quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolate. This survey showed that faecal bacteria such as E. coli and enterococci of wild rabbits could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  6. Multiple Extrauterine Pregnancy with Early and Near Full-Term Mummified Fetuses in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo; Tena-Betancourt, Carlos A; Zúniga-Muñoz, Alejandra M; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Extrauterine pregnancy (EP) is infrequent in mammalian species and occurs when fertilized ova implant and develop outside the uterus. A common outcome is abdominal pregnancy resulting in mummified fetuses (lithopedia). Here we describe an unusual case of abdominal pregnancy with early and near full-term lithopedia. Macroscopic findings supported the diagnosis of lithopedia with distinct age differences and facilitated further characterization of primary ectopia and risk factors leading to this occurrence. PMID:24602549

  7. Pathologic fracture of the femur due to endometrial adenocarcinoma metastasis in a female pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculi).

    PubMed

    Haist, Verena; Hirschfeld, Simon Gonzales; Mallig, Carolin; Fehr, Michael; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical, pathomorphological and histopathological findings in a 12-year-old female pet rabbit with a pathologic fracture of the femur due to a metastasising endometrial adenocarcinoma. The animal was presented due to a history of right hindlimb lameness and inappetence. A fracture of the right femur with adjacent lyric bone lesions was detected by clinical and X-ray examination. Necropsy and histopathology revealed an endometrial adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the right femoral bone, resulting in the pathologic fracture. In both locations, tumour cells were immunohistochemically positive for pan-cytokeratin. Additionally, the animal suffered from an Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection which manifested itself in a multifocal granulomatous encephalitis and bilateral chronic inflammatory lesions in the kidneys.The report shows that in case of bone fractures in female pet rabbits the possibility of a pathologic fracture due to metastasising endometrial adenocarcinoma has to be considered.

  8. Experimental infection of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Brucella suis biovar 1 isolated from wild hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Fort, Marcelo; Baldone, Valeria; Fuchs, Lumila; Giménez, Hugo; Rojas, María; Breccia, Javier D; Oyhenart, Jorge

    2012-05-04

    Brucella suis biovar 1 is the causative agent of brucellosis in several domestic and wild animals and it is a common agent of human brucellosis. European hares (Lepus europaeus) have been shown to be infected by B. suis biovar 1 and the transmission to other animals has been suggested. In this work, experimental rabbits (Cuniculus orictolagus) were infected with B. suis biovar 1 isolated from wild hares. Infected rabbits showed high serological response in 2 weeks after discharge and typical granulomatous lesions (2mm diameter) were found in liver, spleen and kidneys after 50 days. B. suis biovar 1 was cultured from the lesion of the organs mentioned above as well as from urine, placenta and fetuses. These data suggest that hares are a potential source for horizontal transmission of B. suis biovar 1 to other mammalians.

  9. Increased virulence of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D.; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. PMID:25146599

  10. Comparison of selamectin and imidacloprid plus permethrin in eliminating Leporacarus gibbus infestation in laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Birke, Leslie L; Molina, Patricia E; Baker, David G; Leonard, Stuart T; Marrero, Luis J; Johnson, Merlin; Simkin, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    A shipment of New Zealand white rabbits was infested with Leporacarus gibbus, a rabbit fur mite. This study compared the effectiveness of selamectin with that of imidocloprid plus permethrin in eliminating the mite infestation. Rabbits were divided into 2 groups, and either selamectin or imidocloprid plus permethrin was applied topically. Visual and microscopic examinations were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, and 27 for 5 sites (the left and right gluteal areas, neck, ventral tail, and abdomen). Mean percentage effectiveness for each treatment was calculated for each time point. Positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of visual examination were determined relative to microscopic assessment. In addition, location prevalence for the mites was determined. Both treatments were 100% effective by day 13, but selamectin was 100% effective by day 3. The positive predictive value of visual examination was 96%, its negative predictive value was 86%, sensitivity was 75%, and specificity was 98%. Parasite burden was most prevalent on the right and left gluteal areas. We conclude that although both imidocloprid plus permethrin and selamectin were effective against L. gibbus, treatment with selamectin more rapidly eliminated the infestation.

  11. Timing in Trace Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus"): Scalar, Nonscalar, and Adaptive Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Using interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 125, 250, and 500 msec in trace conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response, the offset times and durations of conditioned responses (CRs) were collected along with onset and peak latencies. All measures were proportional to the ISI, but only onset and peak latencies conformed to the criterion…

  12. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    PubMed

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  13. A low-virulence Eimeria intestinalis isolate from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China: molecular identification, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tuanyuan; Bao, Guolian; Fu, Yuan; Suo, Xun; Hao, Lili

    2014-03-01

    An Eimeria intestinalis isolated from a rabbit in China was first identified by amplifying the 18S small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene. The size of the amplified fragment was 1521 bp. The 18S SSU RNA gene of the E. intestinalis isolate shared 99% sequence identity with E. intestinalis isolates from France and the Czech Republic, with 100 and 96% coverage, respectively. Then, the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of the E. intestinalis isolate were evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) rabbits. In the pathogenicity assay, SPF rabbits in four groups were infected with 5 × 10(3), 5 × 10(4), 5 × 10(5), and 0 sporulated oocysts, respectively. Clinical signs including diarrhoea, constipation, loss of appetite, and reduction of body weight gain were observed in rabbits inoculated with 5 × 10(4) and 5 × 10(5) oocysts. And one rabbit (25 %) inoculated with 5 × 10(5) oocysts died 15 days after the inoculation. In the immunogenicity assay, SPF rabbits in five groups (named B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5) were immunised with 5 × 10(1), 5 × 10(2), 5 × 10(3), 0, and 0 sporulated oocysts, respectively. All rabbits but the B5 group were challenged with 1 × 10(6) oocysts. After the challenge, no or slight clinical signs were seen in rabbits of the B2 and B3 groups. Compared with the control, a 69.6 and 84.5% reduction of oocyst output was observed in the B2 and B3 groups, respectively. The body weight gain of the two groups was obviously higher than that of the challenge control group. All the results show that the E. intestinalis isolate has low virulence but immunogenicity in rabbit.

  14. Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Saudi Arabia: Light microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected rabbits in Saudi Arabia were described. The prevalence of infection was 75%. Oocysts were ovoid to elliptical and measured 16 × 10 μm. The four dizoic sporocysts were ovoid and measured 7 × 5 μm. Endogenous stages were restricted to the duodenum. Meronts, microgamonts, macrogamonts and young oocysts were recorded and described. PMID:23961159

  15. Timing in Trace Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus"): Scalar, Nonscalar, and Adaptive Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Using interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 125, 250, and 500 msec in trace conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response, the offset times and durations of conditioned responses (CRs) were collected along with onset and peak latencies. All measures were proportional to the ISI, but only onset and peak latencies conformed to the criterion…

  16. Increased virulence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Design and Surgical Approach to Create a Spinal Fusion Model in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Coble, Dondrae; Bertone, Alicia L; Hussein, Hayam Hamaz; Khan, Safdar N

    2017-08-01

    There are several animal models routinely used for study of the spinal fusion process and animal selection largely depends on the scientific question to be answered. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of various animal models used to study spinal fusion and describes the New Zealand White (NSW) rabbit which is the most popular preclinical model to study spinal fusion. We outline critical steps required in planning and performing spinal fusion surgery in this model. This includes determination of the required animal number to obtain statistical significance, an outline of appropriate technique for posterolateral fusion and other components of completing a study. As advances in drug delivery move forward and our understanding of the cascade of gene expression occurring during the fusion process grows, performing and interpreting preclinical animal models will be vital to validating new therapies to enhance spinal fusion.

  18. Use of the n-butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive and the polyglactine thread suture for corneal rhaphy in rabbit (Oryctolagus cunicullus).

    PubMed

    Mota, Francisco Cláudio Dantas; Eurides, Duvaldo; Freitas, Patricia Maria Coletto; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Goulart, Michelle Rodriques; Cunha, Lívia Maria Ferreira; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Franco; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cicatricial repair of perforating cornea in rabbits, by using the N-butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive compared to the 910-polyglactine thread suture through macroscopic and histological assays. Corneas from 18 adult rabbits were perforated and subsequently occluded with N-butyl cyanoacrylate synthetic adhesive (right cornea) or by separated single points using the 910-polyglactine thread (left cornea). The rabbits were divided into groups containing three animals per group. Examination after 7, 15, and 30 days post-operative showed that both the synthetic adhesive and the suture were efficient in the occlusion of the surgical wounds, thus stabilizing the intra-ocular content. The N-butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive was shown to be superior to the 910-polyglactine suture thread with regards to the evolution and the organization of the healing process.

  19. Comparison of Selamectin and Imidacloprid plus Permethrin in Eliminating Leporacarus gibbus Infestation in Laboratory Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Leslie L; Molina, Patricia E; Baker, David G; Leonard, Stuart T; Marrero, Luis J; Johnson, Merlin; Simkin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A shipment of New Zealand white rabbits was infested with Leporacarus gibbus, a rabbit fur mite. This study compared the effectiveness of selamectin with that of imidocloprid plus permethrin in eliminating the mite infestation. Rabbits were divided into 2 groups, and either selamectin or imidocloprid plus permethrin was applied topically. Visual and microscopic examinations were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, and 27 for 5 sites (the left and right gluteal areas, neck, ventral tail, and abdomen). Mean percentage effectiveness for each treatment was calculated for each time point. Positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of visual examination were determined relative to microscopic assessment. In addition, location prevalence for the mites was determined. Both treatments were 100% effective by day 13, but selamectin was 100% effective by day 3. The positive predictive value of visual examination was 96%, its negative predictive value was 86%, sensitivity was 75%, and specificity was 98%. Parasite burden was most prevalent on the right and left gluteal areas. We conclude that although both imidocloprid plus permethrin and selamectin were effective against L. gibbus, treatment with selamectin more rapidly eliminated the infestation. PMID:19930824

  20. Analysis of long-term cognitive-enhancing effects of bryostatin-1 on the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Desheng; Darwish, Deya S; Schreurs, Bernard G; Alkon, Daniel L

    2008-05-01

    Previous work demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC) is implicated in learning and memory. This study investigated whether: (i) PKC activated by bryostatin-1 (Bryo) just before or just after sessions of classical conditioning was capable of enhancing classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response; (ii) improved behavioral performance matched the time course of PKC activation induced by Bryo; and (iii) vitamin E (Vit E) enhanced the efficacy of Bryo. Paired rabbits received daily trace conditioning with a tone conditioned stimulus and a corneal air puff unconditioned stimulus. Unpaired rabbits received the same stimuli but in an explicitly unpaired manner. After trace conditioning, all rabbits received daily delay conditioning, and then tone intensity testing. Rabbits pretreated with 10 microg/kg Bryo every other day before a relatively simple trace conditioning task showed more conditioned responses (CRs) during the first 10 trials of each trace conditioning session and a higher likelihood of a CR on the first trial of each trace conditioning session than rabbits pretreated with the vehicle control. Rabbits either posttreated daily with 10 microg/kg Bryo or pretreated with Vit E and subjected to a difficult trace conditioning task showed increased CRs relative to the vehicle control. Neither Bryo nor Vit E or their combination altered nonassociative responding or altered sensitivity to the conditioned stimulus or unconditioned stimulus. These findings demonstrate Bryo has long-term enhancing effects on classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response.

  1. Ventral rhinotomy in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with an odontogenic abscess and sub-obstructive rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara; Beaufrère, Hugues; Brisson, Brigitte; Laniesse, Delphine; zur Linden, Alex

    2016-01-01

    A rabbit was presented for severe dyspnea and was diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess obstructing the rostral nasopharynx using CT scan and oral endoscopy. The offending tooth was extracted intraorally, but due to persistent dyspnea, an endoscopic-guided ventral rhinotomy was performed. The dyspnea subsequently resolved, but the rabbit died 5 weeks later from a seemingly unrelated cause. PMID:27493289

  2. The helminth parasites of the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and their effect on host condition in Dunas de Mira, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Eira, C; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Vingada, J

    2007-09-01

    The present study focuses on the helminth parasite community of the wild rabbit in a sand dune area in Portugal over a 5-year period. The influence of host sex and year on the composition of the helminth community is assessed, along with the potential effect of the detected helminths on host body condition. The basic structure of the helminth community comprises Mosgovoyia ctenoides, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Nematodiroides zembrae and Passalurus ambiguus. Mean intensities of G. strigosum varied between years. General G. strigosum intensities were also found to vary according to both year and host sex, but not according to the interaction of both factors. When assessing the effect of helminths on rabbit body condition (expressed by the kidney fat index), higher burdens of M. ctenoides, a cestode that presents a relatively large body mass, were found to induce a reduction in rabbit condition.

  3. Ventral rhinotomy in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with an odontogenic abscess and sub-obstructive rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tamara; Beaufrère, Hugues; Brisson, Brigitte; Laniesse, Delphine; Zur Linden, Alex

    2016-08-01

    A rabbit was presented for severe dyspnea and was diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess obstructing the rostral nasopharynx using CT scan and oral endoscopy. The offending tooth was extracted intraorally, but due to persistent dyspnea, an endoscopic-guided ventral rhinotomy was performed. The dyspnea subsequently resolved, but the rabbit died 5 weeks later from a seemingly unrelated cause.

  4. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm.

  5. Comparative study of erythrocyte glycolytic enzymes in man and in two species of Lagomorphae. (Ochotona rufescens rufescens and Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Puget, A; Vergnes, H; Gouarderes, C

    1974-07-01

    The authors made a comparative study of red cell enzyme glycolysis in man and in two species of Lagomorphae, the pika and the rabbit. The activities of the 12 enzymes of Embden-Meyerhoff pathway and of the two dehydrogenases of pentose shunt (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) were determined. Phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase showed quite similar activities in pika erythrocytes and in erythrocytes from human umbilical cord. The levels of these enzymes differed significantly in the pika and in the rabbit. No differences were noted between pyruvate kinases from the rabbit and the neonatal man. The other activities gave values either identical to those found in the adult man or intermediate between the adult and the neonatal man. In the rabbit the levels of glycolitic enzymes were generally lower than in the pika except for lactate dehydrogenase and glycose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Some characteristics of erythrocyte metabolism specific to the pika may account for the differences observed in this species. The influence of red cell age cannot explain the variations observed for no significant reticulocytosis was observed in the circulating blood. The percentages found in the pika and the rabbit were essentially identical at determination.

  6. A frameshift mutation in the melanophilin gene causes the dilute coat colour in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) breeds.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, L; Scotti, E; Allain, D; Dall'olio, S

    2014-04-01

    In rabbit, the dilute locus is determined by a recessive mutated allele (d) that causes the dilution of both eumelanic and pheomelanic pigmentations. In mice, similar phenotypes are determined by mutations in the myosin VA, Rab27a and melanophilin (MLPH) genes. In this study, we investigated the rabbit MLPH gene and showed that a mutation in this gene appears responsible for the dilute coat colour in this species. Checkered Giant F1 families segregating for black and grey (diluted or blue) coat colour were first genotyped for a complex indel in intron 1 of the MLPH gene that was completely associated with the coat colour phenotype (θ = 0.00; LOD = 4.82). Then, we sequenced 6357 bp of the MLPH gene in 18 rabbits of different coat colours, including blue animals. A total of 165 polymorphisms were identified: 137 were in non-coding regions and 28 were in coding exons. One of them was a frameshift deletion in exon 5. Genotyping the half-sib families confirmed the complete cosegregation of this mutation with the blue coat colour. The mutation was analysed in 198 rabbits of 23 breeds. All Blue Vienna and all other blue/grey/ash rabbits in other breeds (Californian, Castor Rex, Checkered Giant, English Spot, Fairy Marburg and Fairy Pearly) were homozygous for this deletion. The identification of MLPH as the responsible gene for the dilute locus in rabbit provides a natural animal model for human Griscelli syndrome type 3 and a new mutant to study the role of this gene on pigmentation. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) myostatin (MSTN) gene is associated with carcass composition traits.

    PubMed

    Sternstein, Ina; Reissmann, Monika; Maj, Dorota; Bieniek, Josef; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed at the identification of genetic variations in the myostatin (MSTN) gene and testing their effects on carcass quality traits. We comparatively sequenced Giant Grey (GG) and New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits that were founders of a cross-bred population. Alignment of our sequence data with the GenBank sequence of the rabbit MSTN gene (Ensembl Gene ID ENSOCUG00000012663) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The two novel SNPs (c.-125T>C, c.373+234G>A) and one known SNP (c.747+34C>T) were subsequently analysed for linkage with carcass composition traits in 363 F2 animals of the cross GG × NZW. Significant linkage was found between c.373+234G>A and nine carcass composition traits (P < 0.05). No significant effects were found for c.-125T>C and c.747+34C>T. Because the linked SNP is located in intron 1 and no genetic variation was found in the coding region, further investigations are necessary to understand the functional effect of the c.373+234G>A variant on the variability of the traits.

  8. Reference intervals for coagulation times using two point-of-care analysers in healthy pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Mentré, V; Bulliot, C; Linsart, A; Ronot, P

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) in healthy rabbits using two different point-of-care analysers (Idexx Coag DX and MS Quick Vet Coag Combo). These intervals would be useful in the diagnosis of coagulopathies and in the determination of coagulation status in critical patients. We are unaware of reports of coagulation values in pet rabbits. Blood samples were analysed from 81 clinically healthy pet rabbits under three years of age (49 females and 32 males). The reference intervals were as follows (non-parametric method for the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo and Box-Cox Robust method for the Idexx Coag DX, p<0.05 limit for statistical significance): PT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 17.2-28.5; PT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 10.0-14.8, aPTT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 103.2-159.2 and aPTT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 104.2-159.1. PT was significantly longer using the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. aPTT was significantly shorter with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. On each type of analyser, there was no significant difference between sexes and blood sampling sites. A significant difference was present for the use or not of anaesthesia with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo analyser. This study on healthy pet rabbits will be useful in point-of-care diagnosis of coagulopathies.

  9. 78 FR 64007 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... objects from site 5CN26, Conejos County, CO. ADDRESSES: Anne Amati, University of Denver Museum of... corrects the control of the human remains and associated funerary objects from site 5CN26, Conejos County...

  10. 75 FR 49022 - San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Petition for a Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... whether the Board's jurisdiction preempts the land use code of Conejos County, Colo. (County) that might... a complaint on May 24, 2010, in County Court, Conejos County, seeking to enjoin operations at the...

  11. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Conejos, Costilla, Rio Grande, and Saguache; all Montana counties except Daniels and Sheridan Counties... 30 June 30. Arizona; California; Nevada; and Utah October 31 June 30. Alaska; Alamosa, Conejos...

  12. 76 FR 6517 - San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Petition for a Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... a.m. (local time), in Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish Hall, 6631 County Road 13, Conejos, Colorado... the Board's jurisdiction preempts the land-use code of Conejos County, Colorado (County) that may... public comments, several entities and individuals filed comments. One such entity, Conejos County Clean...

  13. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... amending the position allocated to a producer from Conejos County. Beginning with the 2013-2014 term of... Conejos or Costilla County. This action is expected to improve Committee representation for producers from... amending the position currently allocated to a producer from Conejos County. Beginning with the 2013-2014...

  14. 77 FR 41147 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    .... Conejos River 69.8 km (43.4 mi). Total stream length being considered for exclusion (including 1,451.5 km... and 69.8 km (43.4 mi) along the Conejos River are being considered for exclusion in the San Luis..., and extends well beyond the two stream segments along the Rio Grande and Conejos Rivers proposed as...

  15. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management of... acres of public lands within Saguache, Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, in...

  16. Calcaneum broadband ultrasound attenuation relates to vegetarian and omnivorous diets differently in men and women: an observation from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) population study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa; Bingham, Sheila; Camus, Joanna; Dalzell, Nichola; Reeve, Jonathan; Day, Nick; Khaw, K T

    2005-06-01

    Vegetarian diets have been suggested to be beneficial for bone health due to increased consumption of plant foods, including soya, or reduced consumption of meat. However, meat may also be beneficial for bone health. The evidence relating diet to bone health is based largely on studies of women, often in those at high risk of osteoporosis. Few studies have investigated dietary inter-relationships in men as well as women from general populations. We examined broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcaneum, using a CUBA clinical instrument, in 6,369 men and 5,379 postmenopausal women. The population was divided into four groups according to vegetarian status and frequency of soya consumption, which was defined by response to a food frequency questionnaire that estimates frequency of consumption of food types over the year prior to completion. Regular soya consumers were defined as those who ate soya products with a frequency of between once a day and once a week. Calcaneum BUA in vegetarian men was significantly lower than omnivores by approximately 6% (5 dB/MHz) and was 15% (13.6 dB/MHz) lower in those who were also regular soya consumers. This difference remained after adjustment for age, height, weight, smoking habit, physical activity, selected foods and nutrients and exclusion of those with a prior history of osteoporosis, fractures or cancer. Calcaneum BUA in omnivorous men with regular soya consumption was not lower than the remaining population. In women, there were no significant differences by usual dietary pattern. This surprising finding indicates that regular soya intake is not associated with better bone indices in vegetarian men. The difference in BUA was not explained by the known common covariates; however, it is possible that other aspects of lifestyle associated with these eating behaviors might explain this observation. Plausible mechanisms exist for our findings; soya contains phytoestrogens, likened to naturally occurring estrogens, and meat has been shown to influence levels of IGF-1 and sex hormone binding globulin, which may be related to bone health. Our findings emphasize the need for further research and investigation into dietary inter-relationships and bone health and the effects of vegetarian status, including consumption of soya-based foods, in men as well as women.

  17. Symposium on Parallel Computational Methods for Large-scale Structural Analysis and Design, 2nd, Norfolk, VA, US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O. (Editor); Housner, Jerrold M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Computing speed is leaping forward by several orders of magnitude each decade. Engineers and scientists gathered at a NASA Langley symposium to discuss these exciting trends as they apply to parallel computational methods for large-scale structural analysis and design. Among the topics discussed were: large-scale static analysis; dynamic, transient, and thermal analysis; domain decomposition (substructuring); and nonlinear and numerical methods.

  18. 78 FR 57682 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Monroe County, Mich.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... there were any, could be rerouted over other lines; (3) no formal complaint filed by a user of rail service on the Line (or by a state or local government entity acting on behalf of such user) regarding... 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial...

  19. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude Latitude 36°50′50.5″ North, longitude 76°18′09.0″ West, and the tip of the channelside pier at the Holiday Inn Marina at latitude 36°50′29.5″ North, longitude... the Elizabeth River, bounded by the shore and a line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude...

  20. 77 FR 58909 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment and Discontinuance of Service Exemption-In Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation... historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by September 28, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington...

  1. 75 FR 64392 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA; Iowa Interstate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... discontinuance on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by October 22, 2010. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface...

  2. 75 FR 56653 - Middletown & New Jersey Railroad, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... under 49 U.S.C. 10902. However, the Board reserves to itself the consideration and disposition of all.... According to M&NJ, the affected interchange point is Campbell Hall, NY. M&NJ certifies that the projected... exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) may be filed at any time. The filing of a petition to revoke will not...

  3. 75 FR 32839 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-The West Tennessee Railroad, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... approximately 118.9 miles of rail line controlled by WTNN, between milepost IC-406.1 near Fulton, Ky., and....DOT.GOV.'' Decided: June 4, 2010. By the Board, Rachel D. Campbell, Director, Office of Proceedings...

  4. Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration: Improvements and Lessons Learned at Craney Island and Southgate Annex, Norfolk, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Bioretention Regional pond Grass Channels Dry swale Level spreader Soils compost amendments Wet swale Underground detention Vegetated Roofs Filtering...micro scale) 15 48 24 8 95 8 8 / 28 $ 43,500 04-SM-1 Dry swale (or bioretention if enough head) 35 33 14 11 93 9 9 / 28 $ 90,800 01-SM-2...filter strip 22 28 17 14 81 22 / 85 $21,500 27-SM-2 Flow to open space/filter strip 22 28 17 14 81 22 / 85 $31,500 35-SM-4 Bioretention 17 28 25 11

  5. 77 FR 44544 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-In, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-In...; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is withdrawing its proposed rule concerning the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in and bridge construction of span placement. The original proposal had a start date of July...

  6. 77 FR 43557 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float- in and bridge construction of span placement. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to...

  7. 77 FR 73541 - Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2012-0642] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth... safety of life on navigable waters during the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float- in and bridge... safety zone in the Gilmerton Bridge Area (77 FR 43557) on September 5-9, 2012. We received no comments on...

  8. 77 FR 75016 - Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in... Federal Register an interim temporary final rule establishing a safety zone around the Gilmerton Bridge... around the Gilmerton Bridge center span barge (77 FR 73541). Inadvertently, this rule included an error...

  9. 77 FR 35900 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float- in and bridge construction of span placement. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to...

  10. An Assessment of the Potential Impacts on Zooplankton and Fish of Ocean Dredged Material at the Norfolk Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-07

    and lowest in fall and winter. Most species had extensive spatial distributions related to water temperature and distance from shore. The importance of...spatial and temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larvae at the disposal site, and in the ocean waters adjacent to...2.1.2 Transport in Coastal Ocean Waters a........so***............ 2-1 2.1.3 Seasonal Stratification .......................... 2-5 2.2 SEDIMENT

  11. 76 FR 65319 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Forsyth County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...) and L-10.0 (near the intersection of Hampton Road and Idols Road in Clemmons), in Forsyth County, N.C... Portion Goshen Branch Between Firth & Ammon, in Bingham & Bonneville Counties, Idaho, 360 I.C.C. 91 (1979... revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer...

  12. An Assessment of the Environmental Impacts from the Discharge of Bilge Water in the Norfolk Naval Station Harbor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    between the metal ion and specific surface sites. The hydrous metal oxides, clays and carbonates were typically the most common [ inorganic adsorbents... Hydrous metal oxides have the greatest affinity for ions because of their charged surface sites and high surface area. Hydrous metal oxides were...often present as coatings on particles such as organic " matter and clays. The dominant hydrous metal oxides in natural systems were the oxides of iron

  13. 75 FR 7537 - Elkhart & Western Railroad Co.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Chicago District). \\1\\ See Pioneer Railcorp and Michigan Southern Railroad Company--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption, STB Finance Docket No. 33941 (STB served Oct. 10, 2000). \\2\\ EWR states that it has... and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to STB Finance Docket No. 35347, must be filed with the...

  14. U.S. Geological Survey National Computer Technology Meeting: Program and Abstracts, Norfolk, Virginia, May 17-22, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Laboratory Information Management System S.L. Turner, O.J. Feist, and J.A. Lewis...and John C. Watson, WRD, Carson City, Nevada 9:30 a.m. - 950 a.m. The Laboratory Information Management System, Sandra L. Turner, Oliver J. Feist...Stephen J. Cauller, and Thomas E. McKallip, WRD, Reston, Virginia The Laboratory Information Management System, Sandra L. Turner, Oliver J. Feist

  15. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Aiken Railway Company, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of... pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35665 must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395...

  16. Understanding 2H/1H systematics of leaf wax n-alkanes in coastal plants at Stiffkey saltmarsh, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Yvette; Dawson, Lorna; Black, Stuart; Andrews, Julian; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2014-03-01

    Interpretation of sedimentary n-alkyl lipid δ2H data is complicated by a limited understanding of factors controlling interspecies variation in biomarker 2H/1H composition. To distinguish between the effects of interrelated environmental, physical and biochemical controls on the hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkyl lipids, we conducted linked δ2H analyses of soil water, xylem water, leaf water and n-alkanes from a range of C3 and C4 plants growing at a UK saltmarsh (i) across multiple sampling sites, (ii) throughout the 2012 growing season, and (iii) at different times of the day. Soil waters varied isotopically by up to 35‰ depending on marsh sub-environment, and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts in δ2H up to a maximum of 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed seasonally by a maximum of 29‰. Leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H, however, consistently varied by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growing season, resulting in an interspecies range in the ɛwax/leaf water values of -79‰ to -227‰. From the discrepancy in the magnitude of these isotopic differences, we conclude that mechanisms driving variation in the 2H/1H composition of leaf water, including (i) spatial changes in soil water 2H/1H, (ii) temporal changes in soil water 2H/1H, (iii) differences in xylem water 2H/1H, and (iv) differences in leaf water evaporative 2H-enrichment due to varied plant life forms, cannot explain the range of n-alkane δ2H values we observed. Results from this study suggests that accurate reconstructions of palaeoclimate regimes from sedimentary n-alkane δ2H require further research to constrain those biological mechanisms influencing species-specific differences in 2H/1H fractionation during lipid biosynthesis, in particular where plants have developed biochemical adaptations to water-stressed conditions. Understanding how these mechanisms interact with environmental conditions will be crucial to ensure accurate interpretation of hydrogen isotope signals from the geological record.

  17. Toward a Theory of Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Distinctiveness: A Case Study of Norfolk State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Andrew Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Research into Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) tends to be repetitive, anecdotal, and derivative. A need exists for new lines of research into these institutions. One way to facilitate this is by using social scientific mechanisms to develop HBCU-specific theoretical models to describe, explain, and predict the full range of…

  18. Proceedings of a National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations (Norfolk, Virginia, October 10-12, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations was initiated in response to concern about the root causes of mental retardation especially in mild forms which tend to be more prevalent and more devastating among persons living in depressed, disrupted, and impoverished environments. Nineteen papers…

  19. 78 FR 18677 - Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE) over NS's line of railroad between milepost BR 194.2, at...

  20. 76 FR 35508 - Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... to Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C. (ABS) over a portion of NSR's line of railroad between...

  1. 76 FR 12224 - Autauga Northern Railroad, L.L.C.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Maplesville, Ala., and milepost MA 171.05, at Autauga Creek, Ala.; and (2) milepost MD 0.00 and milepost MD 2... Creek, and milepost 181.1, at Montgomery, Ala. This transaction is related to a concurrently filed... Class II or Class I rail carrier and will not exceed $5 million. If the verified notice contains...

  2. Commercially Important Meroplankton of the Lower Chesapeake Bay and Proposed Norfolk Disposal Site. I. Blue Crabs, Rock Crabs and Oysters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    and 7 (k) ............ .. 25 5 Abundance (#/m3 ) of Crassostrea virginica from oblique tows (153 u mesh) at the Bay mouth Stations: east of the...f - -f -) - - - - -n -i -) .- -.- Information accumulated over the past seven decades indicates that larvae of Crassostrea virginica migrate in...O7Wcommercial importance such as oysters ( Crassostrea vir_.inica), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and possibly, the rock crab (Cancer irroratus). A

  3. Fatigue is associated with excess mortality in the general population: results from the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Basu, Neil; Yang, Xingzi; Luben, Robert N; Whibley, Daniel; Macfarlane, Gary J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Myint, Phyo Kyaw

    2016-08-20

    Significant fatigue is a frequent reason for seeking medical advice in the general population. Patients, however, commonly feel their complaint is ignored. This situation may be because clinicians perceive fatigue to be benign, unrelated to traditional biomedical outcomes such as premature mortality. The present study aimed to investigate whether an association between significant fatigue and mortality actually exists, and, if so, to identify potential mechanisms of this association. A population-based cohort of 18,101 men and women aged 40-79 years who completed a measure of fatigue (Short Form 36 vitality domain, SF36-VT) in addition to providing information on possible confounding factors (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, smoking, education level, alcohol consumption, social class, depression, bodily pain, diabetes, use of β blockers, physical activity and diet) and mechanisms (haemoglobin, C-reactive protein and thyroid function) were followed up prospectively for up to 20 years. Mortality from all causes, cancer and cardiovascular disease was ascertained using death certification linkage with the UK Office of National Statistics. During 300,322 person years of follow-up (mean 16.6 years), 4397 deaths occurred. After adjusting for confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 1.40 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.56) for those reporting the highest fatigue (bottom SF36-VT quartile) compared with those reporting the lowest fatigue (top SF36-VT quartile). This significant association was specifically observed for those deaths related to cardiovascular disease (HR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.18-1.78) but not cancer (HR 1.09, 95 % CI 0.90-1.32). Of the considered mechanisms, thyroid function was most notable for attenuating this association. The risk of all-cause mortality, however, remained significant even after considering all putative confounders and mechanisms (HR 1.26, 95 % CI 1.10-1.45). High levels of fatigue are associated with excess mortality in the general population. This commonly dismissed symptom demands greater evaluation and should not automatically be considered benign.

  4. Newcomers health in Brantford and the counties of Brant, Haldimand and Norfolk: perspectives of newcomers and service providers.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bharati

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian government's plan to support a balanced distribution of immigrants throughout the nation has contributed to newcomers' dispersion to small town communities and rural areas. However, very little work has examined the health experiences of immigrants settling in smaller urban and rural regions. Even less literature exists on the perspectives of service providers working with newcomers in Canada's urban-rural communities. This paper focuses on a part of a larger Community-based study on 'Newcomer Settlement and Integration in Education, Training, Employment, Health and Social Support' in Brantford--a middle-sized urban/rural region in Ontario, Canada--and discusses the findings in the health domain. Data were generated from 212 service providers and 237 newcomers using both qualitative and quantitative research tools. Newcomers identified several barriers in accessing mental and/or physical health services including lack of culturally appropriate services and discrimination. The striking differences between newcomers' and service providers' responses to the survey questionnaires bring to light cultural variations between the newcomers' and the service providers' perceptions of 'health'. The findings reinforce the need for including newcomers in developing more inclusive and culturally-appropriate health services and programs.

  5. Life stress, emotional health, and mean telomere length in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Surtees, Paul G; Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Pooley, Karen A; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the association between psychological stress, emotional health, and relative mean telomere length in an ethnically homogeneous population of 4,441 women, aged 41-80 years. Mean telomere length was measured using high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Social adversity exposure and emotional health were assessed through questionnaire and covariates through direct measurement and questionnaire. This study found evidence that adverse experiences during childhood may be associated with shorter telomere length. This finding remained after covariate adjustment and showed evidence of a dose-response relationship with increasing number of reported childhood difficulties associated with decreasing relative mean telomere length. No associations were observed for any of the other summary measures of social adversity and emotional health considered. These results extend and provide support for some previous findings concerning the association of adverse experience and emotional health histories with shorter telomere length in adulthood. Replication of these findings in longitudinal studies is now essential.

  6. 78 FR 46412 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Henry County, Ind.; C&NC Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Southern Railway Company (NSR) and C&NC Railroad Corporation (CNUR) (collectively, applicants) have jointly... Discontinuances of Service for NSR to abandon, and for CNUR to discontinue service over, approximately 0.88 miles...

  7. 78 FR 15119 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... the temporary trackage rights is to allow ISRR to bridge loaded and empty coal trains between a customer at Enosville and ISRR's tracks at Oakland City Junction, for further movement over ISRR's line to... automatically stay the transaction. Petitions for stay must be filed no later than March 15, 2013 (at least...

  8. 75 FR 516 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Petition for Exemption-in Baltimore City and Baltimore County, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... addressed in the final decision. The line does not contain federally granted rights-of-way. Any... that it does not have a sufficient property interest in the right-of-way that NSR could convey to a third party for additional public use. NSR therefore claims that the Line's right-of-way property is not...

  9. 75 FR 516 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Petition for Exemption-in Baltimore City and Baltimore County, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... will be addressed in the final decision. The line does not contain Federally granted rights-of-way. Any... it does not have a sufficient property interest in the right-of-way that NSR could convey to a third party for additional public use. NSR therefore claims that the Line's right-of-way property is not...

  10. Chirp seismic-reflection data from the Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk Canyons, U.S. mid-Atlantic margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obelcz, Jeffrey B.; Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Worley, Charles R.; Moore, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of high-resolution geophysical surveys between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank have been conducted by federal, state, and academic institutions since the turn of the century. A major goal of these surveys is providing a continuous view of bathymetry and shallow stratigraphy at the shelf edge in order to assess levels of geological activity during the current sea level highstand. In 2012, chirp seismic-reflection data was collected by the U.S. Geologial Survey aboard the motor vessel Tiki XIV near three United States mid-Atlantic margin submarine canyons. These data can be used to further our understanding of passive continental margin processes during the Holocene, as well as providing valuable information regarding potential submarine geohazards.

  11. 50th Annual Fuze Conference Sessions 3 and 4 Held in Norfolk, Virginia on May 9-11, 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-11

    NOL-130 Lead-based components replaced Initiator Mix Composition Antimony TrisulfideAntimony Trisulfide Barium NitrateBarium Nitrate TetraceneTetracene...Cyanuric Triazide Lead Styphnate Lead Azide NOL-130GNOL-130 Transfer Charge Replacements Replacing the transfer charge will eliminate rest of the

  12. Dietary intake of carbohydrates and risk of type 2 diabetes: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Luben, Robert N; Powell, Natasha; Bhaniani, Amit; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-28

    In the present study, we investigated the association between dietary intake of carbohydrates and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Incident cases of diabetes (n 749) were identified and compared with a randomly selected subcohort of 3496 participants aged 40-79 years. For dietary assessment, we used 7 d food diaries administered at baseline. We carried out modified Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and compared results obtained from the different methods of adjustment for total energy intake. Dietary intakes of total carbohydrates, starch, sucrose, lactose or maltose were not significantly related to diabetes risk after adjustment for confounders. However, in the residual method for energy adjustment, intakes of fructose and glucose were inversely related to diabetes risk. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of diabetes comparing the extreme quintiles of intake were 0·79 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·07; P for trend = 0·03) for glucose and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·83; P for trend = 0·01) for fructose. In the nutrient density method, only fructose was inversely related to diabetes risk (HR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·88). The replacement of 5 % energy intake from SFA with an isoenergetic amount of fructose was associated with a 30 % lower diabetes risk (HR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·96). Results of the standard and energy partition methods were similar to those of the residual method. These prospective findings suggest that the intakes of starch and sucrose are not associated, but that those of fructose and glucose are inversely associated with diabetes risk. Whether the inverse associations with fructose and glucose reflect the effect of substitution of these carbohydrate subtypes with other nutrients (i.e. SFA), their net higher intake or other nutrients associated with their intake remains to be established through further investigation.

  13. Norfolk Lake Highway Bridges, Baxter County, Arkansas, White River and Tributaries, North Fork River, Arkansas Foundation Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    62. 33 View northwest at airlifting in south socket and core drilling in north socket of Pier 8 , Highway 62. 34 View west-southwest at television...OF DRILLER - 4 TOTAL MUbl CORE SOlES Don Uchtman 19. ELEVATION~ of Water -5- tI . 7A2 _______ 11// 8 DAT1/1 𔃺/ 8 1 Boring ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , MehdRvrftr KC1... CORE 50215S Don Uchtuan ’ ~~ fWtr543.59’ 12-04-82 GDIRCTION OF ’OLE *.ft6 DAT 001E ..... ... ~ 0*7 UOE 12-4-81 12- 8 -81

  14. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia. Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Commercially Available Environmental 15 Control Processes Exhibit 10 Integrated Combined Cycle Performance Summary 16 Exhibit 11 Integrated Coal...currently available equipment and process technology serves as the basic scheme assessed. I CONCLUSIONS This Summary presents the elements of the study...SELECTED CANDIDATE INDUSTRIES Process Average Potential Potential Energy Electric Oil Net Requirements Demand (kW) Units Savings Enerqy Savings

  15. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    applicability to this phase of environmen- tal control in the gasification/combined cycle system: • Physical Solvent Processes : - Rectisol - Selexol ...at SPNC 1-9 1.3 Coal Availability 1-22 1.4 References 1-24 2.0 GASIFICATION PROCESSES 2-1 2.1 General Processes 2-2 1 2.2 Commercially Available...Gasifiers 2-14 2.3 Process Comparisons 2-18 1 2.4 References 2-31 3.0 COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE 3-1 3.1 Combined Cycle Configuration 3-1 3.2 Cycle

  16. 77 FR 22389 - State of Michigan Department of Transportation-Acquisition Exemption-Certain Assets of Norfolk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ..., irrevocable, perpetual, assignable, divisible, licensable and transferable freight operations easement to provide freight rail service on the line.\\1\\ \\1\\ A motion to dismiss this notice of exemption on the... this notice of exemption. MDOT requests that the Board give expedited consideration to the motion...

  17. Scent marking by the male domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is stimulated by an object's novelty and its specific visual or tactile characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Hernández Decasa, D M; Beyer Ruiz, M E; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2010-03-05

    "Chinning" is a stereotyped scent marking behavior of domestic rabbits, in which the animal rubs the underside of its chin against objects in order to deposit scent gland secretions. Although the long-term maintenance of chinning requires circulating gonadal steroids, little is known about the acute regulation of this behavior. To define specific environmental stimuli that engage the chinning motor pattern, male rabbits were placed into an open field arena containing markable objects ("standard" bricks, "tall" bricks, or polished onyx spheres), observed for 30 min, returned to the home cage for 5 min, and then placed in the open field arena for another 30 min. During the 5 min interim: (1) the location of the open field or the spatial orientation of the objects within it were changed, (2) the olfactory or (3) visual characteristics of the objects were changed; or (4) no changes were made. Chinning and ambulation habituated to each type of object across the first 30 min, and bricks elicited more chinning than polished onyx spheres. In the second 30 min test, chinning was re-stimulated only when the original objects were replaced by visually different ones that had preferred characteristics. Ambulatory behavior was increased by changing the location of the open field arena, while modifying the olfactory characteristics of the objects had no effect on chinning or ambulation. These results indicate that scent marking is stimulated by object novelty and by the visual and/or tactile characteristics of the objects being marked. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clozapine and glycinamide prevent MK-801-induced deficits in the novel object recognition (NOR) test in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Basurto, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Studies in humans indicate that acute administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, provokes schizophrenic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers, and exacerbates existing symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. These and other findings suggest that NMDA receptor hypofunction might participate in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and have prompted the development of rodent pharmacological models for this disorder based on acute or subchronic treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists, as well as the development of novel pharmacotherapies based on increasing extrasynaptic glycine concentrations. In the present study, we tested whether acute hyperlocomotory behavior and/or deficits in the novel object recognition (NOR) task, induced in male rabbits by the acute subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of MK-801 (0.025 and 0.037 mg/kg s.c., respectively), were prevented by prior administration of the atypcial antipsychotic, clozapine (0.2mg/kg, s.c.), or the glycine pro-drug glycinamide (56 mg/kg, s.c.). We found that clozapine fully prevented the MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion, and both clozapine and glycinamide prevented MK-801-induced deficits in the NOR task. The present results show that MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in the NOR task in the domestic rabbit demonstrate predictive validity as an alternative animal model for symptoms of schizophrenia. Moreover, these results indicate that glycinamide should be investigated in pre-clinical models of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders, where augmentation of extrasynaptic glycine concentrations may have therapeutic utility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations.

    PubMed

    Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Letty, Jérôme; Fouchet, David; Aubineau, Jacky; Berger, Francis; Léonard, Yves; Roobrouck, Alain; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Peralta, Brigitte; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-03-04

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen.

  20. Effect of topical immunomodulatory interleukin 1 receptor antagonist therapy on corneal healing in New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) after photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Brett W; Panday, Vasudha; Caldwell, Matthew; Scribbick, Frank; Reilly, Charles D

    2011-07-01

    To compare topical interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) to steroid treatment following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbit eyes. Our study is a randomized, investigator-masked study that was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Following standard PRK, 48 eyes of 24 rabbits were divided into 5 arms: 4 treatment arms and 1 control arm. The right eye of each rabbit served as the treatment eye, and the left eye served as a control. Eyes in treatment arms were randomized to receive either fluorometholone, 0.1%, 4 times a day (Falcon, Fort Worth, Texas), or 2.5, 1.25, or 0.25 mg of IL-1ra 4 times a day. Control eyes received only moxifloxacin hydrochloride, 0.5% (Vigamox; Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas), and a solution of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.4%, and propylene glycol, 0.3% (Systane; Alcon), 4 times a day. Primary outcome measures included weekly evaluation of subjective haze formation and time to corneal reepithelization with clinic examinations, objective haze formation using Pentacam technology (Oculus, Lynnwood, Washington), as well as histological examination for haze thickness 7 weeks after PRK. There was no difference among treatment groups in time to reepithelization. The IL-1ra treatment groups showed a statistically significant reduction in haze formation (P < .001, determined by repeated-measures analysis of variance) on corneal evaluation using the Pentacam 3 weeks after PRK compared with the control group. This effect was comparable to that in the steroid treatment group. There was also a statistically significant effect of the treatment on subjective haze evaluation at weeks 4 and 5 (P < .05, determined by repeated-measures analysis of variance), but this effect lost statistical significance when the steroid group was excluded from the evaluation. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in histologic evaluation of haze thickness among treatment groups (P = .997). Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy and adverse effect profile of topical IL-1ra in human eyes. IL-1ra therapy may be an alternative to steroid treatment following PRK.

  1. Isolates of Encephalitozoon cuniculi from farmed blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) from Norway differ from isolates from Swiss domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Mathis, A; Akerstedt, J; Tharaldsen, J; Odegaard, O; Deplazes, P

    1996-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi has a wide host range among mammals, but whether it represents a homogeneous species is a subject of controversy. We have isolated, cultivated (in human MRC-5 cells) and, for the first time, characterized by immunological and molecular biological methods four isolates of E. cuniculi from Norwegian blue foxes with a history of encephalitozoonosis. The isolates were compared with nine isolates from domestic rabbits from Switzerland. Two E. cuniculi subtypes were identified according to their host species. A 5'-GTTT-3' tetranucleotide repeat was present twice in the rDNA intergenic spacer in all isolates from foxes as opposed to three times in all isolates from rabbits. Furthermore, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed one polymorphic band among the subtypes, and Western-blot analysis using serum from an infected fox discriminated between the two subtypes on the basis of their banding patterns in the ranges of 31-33 and 38-40 kDa. The 5'-GTTT-3' tetranucleotide repeat is a valuable genetic marker for these two subtypes of E. cuniculi and will be of use in continued studies on the molecular epidemiology of this parasite.

  2. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, J. C.; Kerr, P. J.; Simms, N. G.; Robinson, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release. PMID:12613753

  3. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release.

  4. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, J. W.; Shepherd, R. C.; Nolan, I. F.

    1978-01-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season. PMID:701788

  5. Myxomatosis: the virulence of field strains of myxoma virus in a population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) with high resistance to myxomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1975-01-01

    The virulence of field strains of myxoma virus is increasing in the Mallee region of Victoria where the resistance of the rabbit to myxomatosis is high. This suggests that the climax association will be a moderately severe disease. PMID:1056963

  6. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sobey, W. R.; Conolly, D.

    1975-01-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions. PMID:1054058

  7. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen. PMID:24589193

  8. Myxomatosis. The effect of age upon survival of wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with a degree of genetic resistance and unselected domestic rabbits infected with myxoma virus

    PubMed Central

    Sobey, W. R.; Conolly, Dorothy; Haycock, P.; Edmonds, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    The response of wild and domestic rabbits with a degree of genetic resistance to myxomatosis has been shown to be markedly affected by the age at which they were infected with a virulent strain of the virus. The response, in terms of mean survival time and percentage survival, fell with increasing age from 10 to 30 weeks with little change thereafter. PMID:5267123

  9. Effects of Multimodal Analgesia with Low-Dose Buprenorphine and Meloxicam on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites after Surgery in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Goldschlager, Gregg B; Gillespie, Virginia L; Palme, Rupert; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of rabbits as companion animals and models for biomedical research, rabbits have not been extensively studied to identify an efficacious postsurgical analgesic that does not cause systemic complications. The synergy of NSAID and systemic opioids is well-documented, and their combined use reduces the amount of either drug required for adequate analgesia. We measured fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in rabbits after a minimally invasive vascular cut-down procedure. Rabbits received buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), buprenorphine–meloxicam (0.01 mg/kg–0.1 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), or a single dose of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.5 mL) infused locally at the incision site. By day 3 after surgery, buprenorphine, meloxicam, and bupivacaine groups showed elevated FCM levels, which continued to rise until day 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by day 28. In the buprenorphine–meloxicam group, FCM was relatively unchanged until day 3, when treatment was discontinued, and then began to rise. Rabbits in the buprenorphine–meloxicam group gained more weight over the 28-d study than did those in the other 3 treatment groups. This study shows that in rabbits low-dose buprenorphine administered with meloxicam effectively mitigates the FCM response that develops after surgery without the adverse effects associated with higher doses. PMID:24041213

  10. The KIT Gene Is Associated with the English Spotting Coat Color Locus and Congenital Megacolon in Checkered Giant Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Fontanesi, Luca; Vargiolu, Manuela; Scotti, Emilio; Latorre, Rocco; Faussone Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Asti, Martina; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Romeo, Giovanni; Clavenzani, Paolo; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The English spotting coat color locus in rabbits, also known as Dominant white spotting locus, is determined by an incompletely dominant allele (En). Rabbits homozygous for the recessive wild-type allele (en/en) are self-colored, heterozygous En/en rabbits are normally spotted, and homozygous En/En animals are almost completely white. Compared to vital en/en and En/en rabbits, En/En animals are subvital because of a dilated (“mega”) cecum and ascending colon. In this study, we investigated the role of the KIT gene as a candidate for the English spotting locus in Checkered Giant rabbits and characterized the abnormalities affecting enteric neurons and c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the megacolon of En/En rabbits. Twenty-one litters were obtained by crossing three Checkered Giant bucks (En/en) with nine Checkered Giant (En/en) and two en/en does, producing a total of 138 F1 and backcrossed rabbits. Resequencing all coding exons and portions of non-coding regions of the KIT gene in 28 rabbits of different breeds identified 98 polymorphisms. A single nucleotide polymorphism genotyped in all F1 families showed complete cosegregation with the English spotting coat color phenotype (θ = 0.00 LOD  = 75.56). KIT gene expression in cecum and colon specimens of En/En (pathological) rabbits was 5–10% of that of en/en (control) rabbits. En/En rabbits showed reduced and altered c-kit immunolabelled ICC compared to en/en controls. Morphometric data on whole mounts of the ascending colon showed a significant decrease of HuC/D (P<0.05) and substance P (P<0.01) immunoreactive neurons in En/En vs. en/en. Electron microscopy analysis showed neuronal and ICC abnormalities in En/En tissues. The En/En rabbit model shows neuro-ICC changes reminiscent of the human non-aganglionic megacolon. This rabbit model may provide a better understanding of the molecular abnormalities underlying conditions associated with non-aganglionic megacolon. PMID:24736498

  11. Effects of multimodal analgesia with LowDose buprenorphine and meloxicam on fecal glucocorticoid metabolites after surgery in New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Goldschlager, Gregg B; Gillespie, Virginia L; Palme, Rupert; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of rabbits as companion animals and models for biomedical research, rabbits have not been extensively studied to identify an efficacious postsurgical analgesic that does not cause systemic complications. The synergy of NSAID and systemic opioids is well-documented, and their combined use reduces the amount of either drug required for adequate analgesia. We measured fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in rabbits after a minimally invasive vascular cut-down procedure. Rabbits received buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), buprenorphine-meloxicam (0.01 mg/kg-0.1 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), or a single dose of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.5 mL) infused locally at the incision site. By day 3 after surgery, buprenorphine, meloxicam, and bupivacaine groups showed elevated FCM levels, which continued to rise until day 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by day 28. In the buprenorphine-meloxicam group, FCM was relatively unchanged until day 3, when treatment was discontinued, and then began to rise. Rabbits in the buprenorphine-meloxicam group gained more weight over the 28-d study than did those in the other 3 treatment groups. This study shows that in rabbits low-dose buprenorphine administered with meloxicam effectively mitigates the FCM response that develops after surgery without the adverse effects associated with higher doses.

  12. [Species from genus Eimeria observed in domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces raised at the Municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Adriana J; Mayen, Friederike L; de Oliveira, Francisco C R

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to identify species of the genus Eimeria from eleven rabbit meat breeders from Campos dos Goytacazes. Fecal samples were collected from rabbits with different health conditions and consintence of feces. The following species of Eimeria were identified: E. perforans; E. magna; E. coecicola; E. irresidua; E. media; E. flavescens; E. nagpurensis; E. intestinalis, E. exigua and E. stiedae. Parasites from this genus were detected in 81.82% (9) of the rabbit meat production sites, regardless of the management and hygiene conditions. In all cases the infection was always caused from more than one species of Eimeria.

  13. Post-mortem changes in the concentration of lactic acid, phosphates and pH in the muscles of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) according to the perimortal situation.

    PubMed

    Mačanga, Ján; Koréneková, Beáta; Nagy, Jozef; Marcinčák, Slavomir; Popelka, Peter; Kožárová, Ivona; Korének, Marián

    2011-08-01

    In this study changes in the concentrations of lactate, phosphates, and pH values of water extracts of muscles of transported and hunted rabbits during ripening were determined. Concentrations of lactate were higher in the muscles of hunted rabbits. The highest differences were obtained 24h after kill/hunt. Concentrations of lactate in the muscles of hunted rabbits were decreasing, while in the muscles of transported rabbits we observed it to increase in the 7th day and then decrease in the 14th day. Higher concentrations of phosphates were found in the muscles of transported wild rabbits. During the ripening process concentrations of phosphates were decreasing in muscles of both groups. Muscles of hunted rabbits had lower pH values during the whole ripening process. Our research showed that concentrations of lactate, phosphates and pH value post-mortem depended on the perimortal situations.

  14. A case of Tinea nigra associated to a bite from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae): the role of dermoscopy in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Filho, Vidal

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas.

  15. Myxomatosis: the virulence of field strains of myxoma virus in a population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) with high resistance to myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1975-06-01

    The virulence of field strains of myxoma virus is increasing in the Mallee region of Victoria where the resistance of the rabbit to myxomatosis is high. This suggests that the climax association will be a moderately severe disease.

  16. Myxomatosis. The effect of age upon survival of wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with a degree of genetic resistance and unselected domestic rabbits infected with myxoma virus.

    PubMed

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D; Haycockp; Edmonds, J W

    1970-03-01

    The response of wild and domestic rabbits with a degree of genetic resistance to myxomatosis has been shown to be markedly affected by the age at which they were infected with a virulent strain of the virus. The response, in terms of mean survival time and percentage survival, fell with increasing age from 10 to 30 weeks with little change thereafter.

  17. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, J W; Shepherd, R C; Nolan, I F

    1978-10-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season.

  18. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    PubMed

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D

    1975-02-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions.

  19. A case of Tinea nigra associated to a bite from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae): the role of dermoscopy in diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas. PMID:24626667

  20. Control of Hyalomma lusitanicum (Acari: Ixodidade) Ticks Infesting Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) Using the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hyocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    González, J; Valcárcel, F; Pérez-Sánchez, J L; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Cutuli, M T; Olmeda, A S

    2016-11-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely used to control arthropods not just in agricultural settings but also in Veterinary Medicine and Public Health. These products have been employed to control tick populations and tick-borne diseases. The effectiveness of these control measures not only depends on the fungi, but also on the tick species and environmental conditions. In Mesomediterranean areas, tick species are adapted to extreme climatic conditions and it is therefore especially important to develop suitable tick control strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new method of tick control which entails the application of a commercial strain of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo, Vuillemin) on wild rabbit burrows under field conditions. Aqueous solutions of the product were applied using a mist blower sprayer into 1,717 burrows. Two trials were performed, one in spring and the other in summer. The parasitic index (PI) was calculated for 10 rabbits per treatment per time point on day +30, +60, and +90 posttreatment and efficiency was calculated by comparing the PI for ticks in treated and untreated rabbits. A total of 20,234 ixodid ticks were collected. Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, 1844 was the most abundant tick feeding on rabbits. Treatment significantly reduced the PI in spring (by 78.63% and 63.28% on day +30 and +60, respectively; P < 0.05), but appeared to be less effective in summer, with a marginally significant tick reduction of 35.72% on day +30 (P = 0.05). Results suggest that the efficacy of applications inside burrows could be temperature-dependent and that such applications could be an economic alternative to rabbit tick control during at least two months using a diluted solution of B. bassiana conidia. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.