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Sample records for conference tokyo japan

  1. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  2. Trends in Physics Education. Proceedings of the International Conference (Tokyo, Japan, August 24-29, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimoda, Koichi, Ed.; Ryu, Tae, Ed.

    Organized by the International Commission on Physics Education (ICPE) and the Physics Education Society of Japan, the conference reported here, the first of its kind held in Asia, was designed to inform teachers of results of prior ICPE conferences as well as to explore desirable directions for physics education, and was attended by nearly 450…

  3. Landsat View: Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Tokyo is the world’s largest metropolitan region, home to nearly 37 million people. During the past two decades, Tokyo’s population has grown by more than 7 million. The city’s growth has continued despite Japan’s overall stagnating population, mainly due to a continued trend of centralization—citizens moving out of the country and into the city. Landsat 4 collected this first false-color image of Tokyo on Feb. 2, 1989. The upper half of Tokyo Bay is the large water body visible in a dark blue. In the middle of the image, central Tokyo appears a deep purple just north of the bay. Twenty-two years later, Landsat 5, captured this second image of Tokyo on April 5, 2011. The urban reaches of metropolitan Tokyo have grown in both distance and density, as seen where the green color of vegetation has turned to pink and purple shades of urbanization. A major expansion of Tokyo’s Haneda Airport, can be seen south of the city, on land built out into the bay. The constant circular spot of green in the dense city-center, visible on both images, is the Tokyo Imperial Palace and its gardens. (Landsat 5 TM Bands 7,4,2) ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing

  4. Proceedings of the Asian Reading Conference (Tokyo, Japan, August 3-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Reading Association, Tokyo.

    This proceedings of the 1993 Asian Reading Conference contains the following 20 papers: "Adverse Effects of Lower Cognitive Processing Capacity on Achievement: What Can We Do?" (James M. Furukawa); "The Impact of Foreign Language Literacy on Higher Education in Thailand" (Uthai Piromruen); "Reading Achievement of Students…

  5. GLOBECOM '87 - Global Telecommunications Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 15-18, 1987, Conference Record. Volumes 1, 2, & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on global telecommunications discusses topics in the fields of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) technology field trial planning and results to date, motion video coding, ISDN networking, future network communications security, flexible and intelligent voice/data networks, Asian and Pacific lightwave and radio systems, subscriber radio systems, the performance of distributed systems, signal processing theory, satellite communications modulation and coding, and terminals for the handicapped. Also discussed are knowledge-based technologies for communications systems, future satellite transmissions, high quality image services, novel digital signal processors, broadband network access interface, traffic engineering for ISDN design and planning, telecommunications software, coherent optical communications, multimedia terminal systems, advanced speed coding, portable and mobile radio communications, multi-Gbit/second lightwave transmission systems, enhanced capability digital terminals, communications network reliability, advanced antimultipath fading techniques, undersea lightwave transmission, image coding, modulation and synchronization, adaptive signal processing, integrated optical devices, VLSI technologies for ISDN, field performance of packet switching, CSMA protocols, optical transport system architectures for broadband ISDN, mobile satellite communications, indoor wireless communication, echo cancellation in communications, and distributed network algorithms.

  6. The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13), Tokyo, 2013.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2014-11-24

    The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13) was held from September 8-11, 2013 in Tokyo, Japan chaired by Noriaki Emoto, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Japan, and Takashi Miyauchi, University of Tsukuba, Japan and held on the Tokyo Campus of Tsukuba University. The International Conferences on Endothelin were launched in December of 1988 shortly after the discovery of endothelin and organized by Sir John Vane, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982, as the Conference Chair at The William Harvey Research Institute, London. Since then, the conference has been held every two years alternating between North America, Europe and Asia. In 2013, the conference was again held in Asia and also marked the 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin at University of Tsukuba. The 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin was celebrated by almost 300 attendees from 25 different countries, the largest number of delegates in the recent history of the conference. Conference delegates who traveled to Japan were from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korean Republic, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and from Vietnam. In this article we summarize the conference highlights, its speakers, and some of the festivities related to the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin.

  7. Urban climate in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Fujibe, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Long-term climate changes related with urbanization in Tokyo, Japan, and recent temperature and heavy rainfall distribution in the Tokyo metropolitan area are reviewed. A relatively high temperature increase in annual mean temperature at the rate of 3.0°C/century was detected in Tokyo for the period 1901-2015. Some observational evidence showed the existence of both thermal and mechanical effects of urbanization on recent heavy rainfall occurrences, and modeling studies also support precipitation enhancement. Urban influences were recognized in other climatological elements, such as number of fog days, relative humidity, and wind circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Global warming and urbanization affect springwater temperatures in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, H.

    2014-02-01

    Due to global warming and urbanization, air temperature in Tokyo has risen 1.6 degrees in the past 30-40 years which has also affected springwater temperatures. From 2005, we have proceeded with the observations of springs in Tokyo metropolis, Japan which had been conducted by Environment of Tokyo from the end of the 1980s to 2001. In the rainy season (October) and dry season (February), we have observed springwater temperatures in 25 springs. The field surveys have revealed that most springwater temperatures has steadly risen in the past 30 years. As of February 2013, water temperatures of 19/11 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season. As of February 2006, water temperatures of 10/13 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season, i.e., 9/2 springs have acquired/lost the significance as of February 2013. One possible reason is the recent hot summer/cold winter in Tokyo.

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, 2001 [and] Presentation Materials (9th, Tokyo, Japan, October 24-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyama, Keizo, Ed.; Gotoda, Hironobu, Ed.

    The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative has helped to create a community of people united in the common purpose of promoting cross-disciplinary resource discovery. DC-2001, the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2001, is the first annual Dublin Core meeting in Asia, recognizing the growth of activities in the Asian…

  10. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo... Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum'') on February 18-19 in Tokyo, Japan. The Fukushima Recovery Forum will be a venue for U.S. firms to hear from Japanese Ministries and commissioning...

  11. Homelessness and Cognitive Impairment: An Exploratory Study in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Pluck, G; Nakakarumai, M; Sato, Y

    2015-09-01

    Homelessness has frequently been associated with neuropsychological impairment. This has been observed using general screening tests for dementia as well as tests of more focal abilities, particularly executive function. Most studies have been of homeless individuals from North America with none reported from Japan. In this exploratory study we interviewed a sample of 16 homeless adults from Tokyo, Japan, and performed tests of cognitive function, assessed head injury, addictive behaviours (drug use, gambling, alcohol abuse), and recorded details of homelessness history. The cognitive examination involved the Japanese Adult Reading Test to estimate premorbid intelligence quotient, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to measure frontal lobe-related cognitive function, and the Mini-Mental State Examination to measure global cognitive impairment associated with dementia. Among the 16 homeless individuals, 7 (44%) displayed global cognitive impairment. In addition, executive function tended to be poor. In contrast, estimated premorbid intelligence quotient was within the normal range. Substance abuse in general was not at a level to cause clinical concern, although a high level of pathological gambling was observed. There were no associations between cognitive function and clinical and addictive behaviour variables, although associations were noted between cognitive scores and time spent homeless. The results suggest high levels of neuropsychological impairment in this sample of homeless adults in Japan. Furthermore, cognitive impairment is acquired rather than developmental in origin, and is proportional to the length of time spent homeless.

  12. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  13. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  14. Mobile Learning for Expanding Educational Opportunities Workshop Report (Tokyo, Japan, May 16-20, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meleisea, Ellie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The International Workshop on Mobile Learning for Expanding Educational Opportunities was held 16-20 May 2005 in Tokyo, Japan. Jointly organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) and UNESCO, speakers came from both the private and public sector. The key objective was to highlight the benefits of m-learning; and to provide specific…

  15. Dissolved platinum in rainwater, river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ferrer i Santos, Antoni; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Platinum, among the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in various products such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Consequently, the concentration of Pt in urban aquatic environments might be increasing. However, little is known about the distributions and geochemical cycles of Pt in aquatic environments because its overall concentration remains low. In this study, we examined dissolved Pt in river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay (Iwate Prefecture, Japan) and rainwater in the Tokyo area. To determine sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt, we used isotope-dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. We observed seasonal variation in the dissolved Pt concentrations in Tokyo rainwater in 2002; higher concentrations were found from January to March, which might be related to the pH of rainwaters. At the source of the Arakawa River in the greater Tokyo area, the dissolved Pt concentration was found to be similar to that in rainwater. Further downstream, the dissolved Pt concentration increased sharply, which seemingly reflects the anthropogenic input of Pt into the river. In a rural area in Japan (Otsuchi Bay), the dissolved Pt concentrations were lower than in Tokyo Bay. In this area, a sharp increase in dissolved Pt concentrations was observed in a high salinity region. Contrasting Pt distribution patterns between urban and rural areas indicate that strong anthropogenic Pt sources exist in urban estuaries and that geochemical processes within estuaries affect the Pt distribution.

  16. Tale of Three Cities: Elsinore--Montreal--Tokyo. The Influence of Three UNESCO World Conferences upon the Development of Adult Education. Landmarks and New Horizons in Continuing Education Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, James Robbins

    The three cities of Elsinore, Denmark; Montreal, Canada; and Tokyo, Japan share in common one event--they were the scenes successively in 1949, 1960, and 1972 of three World Conferences on Adult Education under UNESCO sponsorship. The 1949 Elsinore Conference, with representatives from 27 countries, focused on education for workers and for work,…

  17. Using a Mobile Phone Tour to Visit the Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arita-Kikutani, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Japanese mobile phones are increasingly being used as multimedia players. In response to this, some museums in Japan have introduced mobile phone audiovisual guides. This paper presents a trial run of a cross-institutional mobile phone audiovisual guide tour at Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan.…

  18. Using a Mobile Phone Tour to Visit the Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arita-Kikutani, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Japanese mobile phones are increasingly being used as multimedia players. In response to this, some museums in Japan have introduced mobile phone audiovisual guides. This paper presents a trial run of a cross-institutional mobile phone audiovisual guide tour at Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan.…

  19. Social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kido, Yoshifumi; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuki; Chiba, Rie; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Living in a community with high social capital might lead to lower stigma towards people with mental illness. We examined the association between social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in the community of Tokyo, Japan. A random sample of 2,000 community residents was selected and surveyed. Data from 516 respondents were analyzed. In this study, two individual-based social capital variables were significantly and negatively associated with the stigma score, while area-based social capital was not significantly associated with the stigma score. Social capital, particularly reciprocity/norm of cooperation and trust in the community, may be associated with lower stigma.

  20. Prevalence of avian haemosporidia among injured wild birds in Tokyo and environs, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inumaru, Mizue; Murata, Koichi; Sato, Yukita

    2017-12-01

    Avian haemosporidia have been reported in various birds of Japan, which is part of the East Asian-Australian flyway and is an important stopover site for migratory birds potentially carrying new pathogens from other areas. We investigated the prevalence of avian malaria in injured wild birds, rescued in Tokyo and surrounding areas. We also evaluated the effects of migration by examining the prevalence of avian malaria for each migratory status. 475 birds of 80 species were sampled from four facilities. All samples were examined for haemosporidian infection via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene. 100 birds (21.1%) of 43 species were PCR positive for avian haemosporidia. Prevalence in wintering birds, migratory breeders, and resident birds was 46.0%, 19.3%, 17.3% respectively. There was a bias in wintering birds due to Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) and Anseriformes. In wintering birds, lineages which are likely to be transmitted by Culiseta sp. in Northern Japan and lineages from resident species of Northern Japan or continental Asia were found, suggesting that wintering birds are mainly infected at their breeding sites. Meanwhile, there were numerous lineages found from resident and migratory breeders, suggesting that they are transmitted in Japan, some possibly unique to Japan. Although there are limits in studying rescued birds, rehabilitation facilities make sampling of difficult-to-catch migratory species possible and also allow for long-term monitoring within areas.

  1. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the 2012-2013 epidemics in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Shimatani, Naotaka; Katow, Shigetaka; Takahashi, Takuri; Hori, Narumi

    2015-01-01

    A large rubella outbreak has been observed since June 2012 in Tokyo, Japan, and a rapid increase in the number of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases have also been reported in Japan since October 2012. All the clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed rubella cases reported in Tokyo from January 2012 to December 2013 and all the laboratory-confirmed CRS cases from January 2012 to March 2014 were analyzed. In total, 4,116 rubella cases were reported in Tokyo. Of these, 77.2% (n=3,176) were male; the highest number of cases occurred in males aged 35-39 years and in females aged 20-24 years. Complications included arthralgia/arthritis (19.4%), thrombocytopenic purpura (0.5%), hepatic dysfunction (0.3%), and encephalitis (0.1%). The circulating rubella virus in Tokyo was genotype 2B. The most possible site of transmission was the workplace. Because of the rubella epidemic, 16 CRS cases were reported in Tokyo from March 2013 to February 2014. Domestic infection with rubella was proven for all mothers of 16 cases. This situation suggests that Japan is still working to achieve rubella elimination.

  3. Histologic changes in thyroid glands from great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Tokyo Bay, Japan: possible association with environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Saita, E; Hayama, S; Kajigaya, H; Yoneda, K; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    2004-10-01

    We compared morphologic changes in thyroid glands of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from the Tokyo Bay and Lake Biwa areas in Japan with presence of residues of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs). Prominent morphologic changes in thyroid glands included increased density of small follicles and increased number of epithelial cells surrounding follicular lumens. The extent of morphologic changes in the thyroid gland was higher in cormorants captured from Tokyo Bay than in those captured from Lake Biwa. Increased thyroid change in cormorants from the Tokyo Bay area was associated with significantly higher levels of PCDFs and Co-PCBs. Thus, we suggest that morphologic changes in thyroid glands from the cormorants are associated with increased levels of dioxin contamination in Japan.

  4. Distribution and identification of airborne fungi in railway stations in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tamami; Kyotani, Takashi; Ushiogi, Tomoyoshi; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Lee, Hunjun; Hayakawa, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The current study was performed to (1) understand the distribution of airborne fungi culturable on dichloran-glycerol agar (DG18) media over a one-year monitoring period, (2) identify the types of airborne fungi collected, and (3) compare and contrast under- and above-ground spaces, in two railway stations in Tokyo, Japan. Measurements of airborne fungi were taken at stations A and B located in Tokyo. Station A had under- and above-ground concourses and platforms whereas station B had spaces only above-ground. Airborne fungi at each measurement position were collected with an air sampler on DG18 media. After cultivation of the sample plates, the number of fungi colonies was counted on each agar plate. In station A, the underground platform was characterized as (1) having the highest humidity and (2) a high concentration of airborne fungi, with (3) a high proportion of non-sporulating fungi (NSF) and Aspergillus versicolor. There was a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of airborne particles and fungi in station A. Common aspects of the two stations were (1) that fungi were mostly detected in autumn, and (2) there was no correlation between the humidity and concentration of fungi throughout the year. The results of this study indicate that the distribution and composition of fungi differ depending on the structure of the station.

  5. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)).

  6. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  7. Diesel vehicle emission and death rates in Tokyo, Japan: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kaneda, Mariko; Takao, Soshi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Evidence linking air pollution with adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes is accumulating. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate whether vehicle emission control improves public health. We thus evaluated the effect of a diesel emission control law on mortality rates in 23 wards of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. We obtained daily counts of mortality and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) from April 2003 to December 2008. Time-series and interrupted time-series analysis were employed to analyze the data in two periods: prior to the introduction of tighter restrictions (April 2003 to March 2006) and after the enforcement (April 2006 to December 2008). Concentrations of air pollutants gradually decreased during the study period: from 36.3 ppb (NO(2)) and 22.8 μg/m(3) (PM(2.5)) to 32.1 ppb and 20.3 μg/m(3), respectively. Air pollutants were positively associated with circulatory and pulmonary disease mortality, especially cerebrovascular disease. Each same-day PM(2.5) increase of 10 μg/m(3) was associated with a 1.3% increase in cerebrovascular mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.2-2.4). Rate ratios were attenuated after the enforcement in most of the outcomes, probably due to reduced toxicity of the pollutants. In the crude interrupted time-series analysis, reductions of standardized mortality rates after the enforcement were the greatest in high traffic areas. Even after adjustment of longer-time trend, mortality rate from cerebrovascular disease was reduced by 8.50% (p<.001) with dose-response relationship. However, the declines in other cause-specific mortality became equivocal. This natural experiment in Tokyo suggests that emission controls improved air quality. Although suggestive, further data are needed to conclusively demonstrate an impact on mortality rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring the inequalities in radiotherapy health resources in Japan: comparison of the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Narumi, Masakazu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Aoki, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and compare the geographical inequalities in radiotherapy health resources between the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts of Japan. The numbers of radiotherapy facilities, radiologists, and radiological technologists were used to represent radiotherapy health resources. The target areas were 11 prefectures in the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts. The Gini coefficient (GC) was used to measure inequalities in health resources in relation to the population and area of each secondary medical care zone. Correlation analysis was performed to clarify the relation between the GC and the all-cancer mortality rate per 100,000 people. The mean population and area GCs of Yamagata Prefecture were the smallest, whereas the mean population GC of Tokyo and the mean area GC of Hokkaido were the largest. The mean GCs of radiotherapy facilities and radiological technologists were higher in the Tokyo district than in the Hokkaido-Tohoku district. No significant correlation was found between GC and cancer mortality. Geographical inequalities in radiotherapy health resources tended to be larger in the Tokyo district than in the Hokkaido-Tohoku district. It is expected that the radiotherapy system will be substantially improved by the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs.

  9. Prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and osaka after the great East Japan earthquake: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Akahane, Manabu; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Sano, Tomomi; Jojima, Noriko; Bando, Harumi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2013-01-18

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Tokyo and Osaka, which are located 375 km and 750 km, respectively, from the epicenter, experienced tremors of 5.0 lower and 3.0 seismic intensity on the Japan Meteorological Agency scale. The Great East Japan Earthquake was the fourth largest earthquake in the world and was accompanied by a radioactive leak at a nuclear power plant and a tsunami. In the aftermath of a disaster, some affected individuals presented to mental health facilities with acute stress disorder (ASD) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have addressed mental stress problems other than ASD or PTSD among the general public immediately after a disaster. Further, the effects of such a disaster on residents living at considerable distances from the most severely affected area have not been examined. This study aimed to prospectively analyze the effect of a major earthquake on the prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and Osaka. A prospective online questionnaire study was conducted in Tokyo and Osaka from January 20 to April 30, 2011. An Internet-based questionnaire, intended to be completed daily for a period of 101 days, was used to collect the data. All of the study participants lived in Tokyo or Osaka and were Consumers' Co-operative Union (CO-OP) members who used an Internet-based food-ordering system. The presence or absence of insomnia was determined before and after the earthquake. These data were compared after stratification for the region and participants' age. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression and a generalized estimating equation. This study was conducted with the assistance of the Japanese CO-OP. The prevalence of insomnia among adults and minors in Tokyo and adults in Osaka increased significantly after the earthquake. No such increase was observed among minors in Osaka. The overall adjusted odds ratios for the risk of insomnia post-earthquake versus pre

  10. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Miyahara, Masaya; Fujii, Kazushi; Machiyama, Asako; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year. PMID:28848519

  11. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  12. Geochemical and stable isotope characteristics of urban heavy rain in the downtown of Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Ryunosuke; Okochi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Hiroko; Katsumi, Naoya; Asai, Daisuke; Nakano, Takanori

    2017-09-01

    In order to make clear the impact of air pollution on the formation of sudden and locally-distributed heavy rain in urban area (hereafter Urban Heavy Rain: UHR), we analyzed inorganic ion concentration and stable isotope ratio of water (δD and δ18O) in rainwater. Rainwater samples were collected in Shinjuku, which is a representative downtown of Tokyo, Japan, during four years from October 2012 to December 2015. The concentration and wet deposition fluxes of acidic components (H+, NH4+, NO3-, and nss-SO42 -) in UHR were especially higher than those in other types of rain events, i.e. normal rain, typhoon heavy rain, and frontal heavy rain. UHR had distinctly lower stable isotope ratios than those in other urban rains with same rainfall amount and summer precipitation systems. There was a high negative correlation between δ18O and the distances from the sampling point to the formation area of UHR within 10 km, while there were high positive correlations between δ18O and the concentration of acidic components in UHR. These findings indicate that UHR could effectively scavenge acidic substances within cloud and suggest the use of stable isotope ratios as tracers of an urban heavy rain's water and in-cloud scavenging process.

  13. Tokyo story. A British nurse is setting up an infection control service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Michael

    Tokyo is an amazing capital city, just as you would expect: tall buildings, bright lights, overcrowded and fast paced. Japan was a bit of a culture shock at first, but things have settled down since I learned a few key Japanese phrases for such questions as 'Can I have... ?' and 'Where is... ?' There are many places to visit in this city of almost 15 million people. Getting around is straightforward, as there is an efficient underground system with the station names in English as well as Japanese. The trains are on time and fully air-conditioned, but during rush hours it can get very uncomfortable with so many people squashed inside the carriages. The food ranges from inexpensive pavement cafes serving batter-fried octopus to exclusive sushi restaurants. Every type of food is available in the many restaurants, but I enjoy trying traditional Japanese dishes. The food is always fresh, well presented and tasty. Some of the more unusual dishes include raw horse, raw eggs, sea urchins and live fish. I have been taken to a karaoke bar by my work colleagues and it was great, but very different from what I had expected. You only sing to the people you are with and there are a number of rooms in the bar, depending on how many of you there are, which reduces the public humiliation factor.

  14. Leaving the street and reconstructing lives: impact of DOTS in empowering homeless people in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, L; Sato, N; Ngamvithayapong-Yanai, J; Ishikawa, N

    2013-07-01

    Since 2000, the Public Health Centre (PHC) in Shinjuku, an area of Tokyo with one of the largest homeless populations in Japan, has been implementing PHC-based DOTS treatment for homeless tuberculosis (TB) patients, with much epidemiological success. Anecdotal evidence indicates that homeless patients treated under DOTS have experienced various positive changes. However, this experience has not yet been systematically analysed. To explore the changes experienced by homeless TB patients, and to discuss the possible role of PHC-based DOTS treatment in effecting these changes. A qualitative study via in-depth interviews with 18 ex-homeless patients who completed DOTS-based treatment at Shinjuku City PHC. The data were analysed using the interpretive content analysis method. The various changes experienced by the participants were categorised into five sub-categories of empowerment, including improved mental health and interpersonal relationships. Some of these changes were attributable to the participants undergoing PHC-based DOTS, which, by addressing their various emotional needs, helped to trigger patient empowerment. Based on our findings, a model of empowerment using PHC-based DOTS was constructed. PHC-based DOTS not only successfully controlled TB, it also empowered homeless patients by addressing their emotional needs. The interpersonal skills of the nurses played a critical role in this process.

  15. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Miyahara, Masaya; Fujii, Kazushi; Machiyama, Asako; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  16. Characteristics of Sudden Bath-Related Death Investigated by Medical Examiners in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Methods Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Results Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). Conclusions The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced. PMID:25503827

  17. Characteristics of sudden bath-related death investigated by medical examiners in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced.

  18. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  19. Energy engineering analysis program, FY87 energy survey of designated US Army Garrison, Honshu Buildings 1 8, Tokyo, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1988-09-01

    Introduction/Background: This study includes a complete energy audit and analysis for Buildings 1 and 8 at the Alaska Press Center, Tokyo, Japan. Building 1 is a six story, 54,200 square foot building which contains administrative offices on the first through third floor, and bachelors` enlisted quarters and officers quarters on the fourth through sixth floor. Building 8 is a four story, 91,000 square foot building which houses the offices, printing, and press operations of the newspaper, `Pacific Stars and Stripes`.

  20. Trophic dilution of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in the pelagic marine food web of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Powell, David E; Suganuma, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Keiji; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Ninomiya, Kouzo; Matsumura, Kozaburo; Omura, Naoki; Ushioka, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS), specifically octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), were evaluated in the pelagic marine food web of Tokyo Bay, Japan. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners that are "legacy" chemicals known to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms and biomagnify across aquatic food webs were used as a benchmark chemical (CB-180) to calibrate the sampled food web and as a reference chemical (CB-153) to validate the results. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated from slopes of ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression models and slopes of bootstrap regression models, which were used as robust alternatives to the OLS models. Various regression models were developed that incorporated benchmarking to control bias associated with experimental design, food web dynamics, and trophic level structure. There was no evidence from any of the regression models to suggest biomagnification of cVMS in Tokyo Bay. Rather, the regression models indicated that trophic dilution of cVMS, not trophic magnification, occurred across the sampled food web. Comparison of results for Tokyo Bay to results from other studies indicated that bioaccumulation of cVMS was not related to type of food web (pelagic vs demersal), environment (marine vs freshwater), species composition, or location. Rather, results suggested that differences between study areas was likely related to food web dynamics and variable conditions of exposure resulting from non-uniform patterns of organism movement across spatial concentration gradients.

  1. Variations of 129I in the atmospheric fallout of Tokyo, Japan: 1963-2003.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Yuka; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric fallout samples collected from Tokyo between 1963 and 2003 were analyzed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in order to determine (129)I/(127)I ratios and to examine the deposition rate of (129)I and its secular variation in Tokyo. The (129)I/(127)I ratios in the atmosphere during 1963-1977 ranged from 1 × 10(-8) to 2 × 10(-8). This is roughly 4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-atomic levels, possibly due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The calculated monthly atmospheric deposition rates of (129)I differed from those produced by nuclear fallout of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, indicating that the variations in (129)I deposition are not influenced exclusively by either nuclear bomb testing or by the Chernobyl accident. After 1978, high (129)I depositions (up to 0.13 mBq/m(2)/month) were observed. The (129)I depositions started to increase markedly at the latter half of the 1970s. The secular variation of the estimated annual (129)I deposition in Tokyo showed a close relationship between the annual atmospheric discharge of (129)I from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. Therefore, the atmospheric fallout collected from Tokyo after the late 1970s is influenced primary by the (129)I discharge from the Tokai Reprocessing plant.

  2. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    comparison of this map with a published map of the damage-ratio of wooden houses that were destroyed during the Kanto earthquake in 1923, shows a remarkable relation between zones of maximum destruction and the occurrence of the so-called 'zero' muds, the latter representing the sediments most sensitive for ground motion amplification. Our results show that the 3D geological voxel modelling approach presented here is able to make a spatial analysis of earth quake damage sensitivity in the Tokyo Lowland. This makes our workflow also is a promising tool for seismic hazard assessments in other areas in Japan were detailed insights in earth quake damage from historical records are absent.

  3. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NAKAMA, Akiko; NISHINO, Yukari; FUKUI, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; KAI, Akemi; SADAMASU, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000–2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006–2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3–1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low. PMID:27000951

  4. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born and Japan-born residents in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Kato-Miyazawa, M; Miyoshi-Akiyama, T; Kanno, Y; Takasaki, J; Kirikae, T; Kobayashi, N

    2015-03-01

    Sequences of the full genomes of 259 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtained from foreign-born and Japan-born patients in Tokyo, Japan, were determined, and a phylogenetic tree constructed by concatenated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences. The 259 isolates were clustered into four clades: Lineage 2 (East Asian or "Beijing" genotype; n = 182, 70.3%), Lineage 4 (Euro-American, n = 46, 17.8%), Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic, n = 23, 8.9%), and Lineage 3 (East African-Indian, n = 8, 3.1%). Of the 259, 36 (13.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. There was no multi-drug-resistant isolate. Drug resistance was greater for the strains in Lineage 2 than the non-Lineage 2. The proportion of Lineage 2 isolates was significantly smaller in foreign-born (n = 43/91, 47.3%) than in Japan-born (n = 139/168, 82.7%) patients, whereas the proportion of Lineage 1 isolates was significantly larger in foreign-born (n = 19/91, 20.9%) than in Japan-born (n = 4/168, 2.4%) patients. We also found eight SNPs specific to the typical Beijing sub-genotype in Lineage 2, including 4 non-synonymous SNPs. Of the 259 isolates, 244 had strain-specific SNP(s) and small (1-30-bp) insertions and deletions (indels). The numbers of strain-specific SNPs and indels per isolate were significantly larger from foreign-born (median 89, range 0-520) than from Japan-born (median 23, range 0-415) (p 3.66E-15) patients. These results suggested that M. tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born patients had more genetic diversity than those from Japan-born patients.

  5. Distribution characteristics of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay watershed in Japan: Analysis of surface waters by purge and trap method.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuichi; Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-15

    Surface waters including river water and effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were collected from Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs), i.e., D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5 by an optimized purge and trap extraction method. The total concentrations of seven VMSs (ΣVMS) in river water ranged from <4.9 to 1700ng/L (mean: 220ng/L). The individual mean concentrations of cyclic VMSs in surface waters were; 10ng/L for D3, 13ng/L for D4, 180ng/L for D5, and 18ng/L for D6. The concentrations of ΣVMS determined in STP effluents varied widely from 99 to 2500ng/L and the individual mean concentrations were 21ng/L for D3, 27ng/L for D4, 540ng/L for D5, and 45ng/L for D6. D5, which is widely used in personal-care products, was found to be the most abundant compound in both river water and STP effluent. Linear VMSs were detected at much lower frequency and concentrations than those of cyclic VMSs. The measured concentrations of D4 were below the no-observed effect concentration (NOEC). The annual emission of ΣVMS through STPs into Tokyo Bay watershed was estimated at 2300kg. Our results indicate widespread distribution of VMSs in Tokyo Bay watershed and the influence of domestic wastewater discharges as a source of VMSs in the aquatic environment.

  6. The impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on mandatory psychiatric emergency hospitalizations in Tokyo: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, A; Aoki, Y; Harima, H

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the eastern part of Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.0 quake. About 20 000 people were killed or weremissing, and a nuclear crisis followed. In Tokyo, people were indirectly exposed to the earthquake and nuclear crisis by TV broadcast. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential effect of the series of catastrophes on psychiatric emergency hospitalizations in Tokyo. Clinical records of patients who were mandatorily admitted to Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital by law because of urgent risk to self or others were reviewed. Records regarding the 2 years of investigation, which include the 6 months after the earthquake, were reviewed. The six months after the earthquake were compared with the eighteen months before the earthquake in clinical and demographic data using independent t-tests or χ2 tests. During the 6 months before and after the earthquake, 97 and 127 people were mandatorily admitted. χ2 Tests demonstrated a significant increase in the number of patients after the earthquake (P=0.045), attributable to the significant increase in the number of patients with schizophrenia after the earthquake (P=0.011, 32 vs 56), whereas there were no significant differences in the number of patients with other diagnoses between those two periods. Independent t-tests revealed that patients admitted after the earthquake had marginally significantly shorter periods of education compared with those admitted before the earthquake (13.78 vs 12.82 years, P=0.084). This work suggests that patients with schizophrenia were more sensitive to indirect exposure to the earthquake and that a shorter period of education was a potential risk factor. PMID:23032944

  7. Relationship of PCDD/F and Co-PCB concentrations in breast milk with infant birthweights in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tajimi, Morihiro; Uehara, Ritei; Watanabe, Makoto; Oki, Izumi; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2005-10-01

    To observe how PCDD/F and Co-PCB concentrations in breast milk relate to infant birthweights in Tokyo, Japan. Breast milk samples were collected from 240 mothers (aged 25-34years old) residing in Tokyo to measure the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs; 14 congeners), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs; 15 congeners), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs; 12 congeners) in the breast milk fat. Individual milk samples (about 50ml) were obtained 30days after delivery, between the months of June and September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship of the infant birthweights with the PCDD/F and Co-PCB concentrations was observed. The birthweights were negatively correlated the concentrations of many of the PCDD/F and Co-PCB congeners, with the mean toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of the Co-PCBs, and with the sum of the PCDD, PCDF and Co-PCBs, although their correlation coefficients were less than 0.200. Multiple regression analysis showed octachlorodioxin was statistically significant explanatory variate. There were slight relationship between the dioxins levels of breast milk and the birthweights of the infants.

  8. Effects of subsurface structures of source regions on long-period ground motions observed in the Tokyo Bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, Tomiichi

    2017-05-01

    We compared the long-period ground motion observed in the Tokyo Bay area during two shallow M6.7 earthquakes that occurred in northern Nagano Prefecture, Japan, on March 12, 2011, and November 22, 2014. The magnitudes, focal depths, and source mechanisms of these events were almost identical, but their seismograms were quite different. Significant long-period later arrivals with a predominant period of 5 s were recognized in the velocity traces of the 2011 event, but there were no such remarkable later arrivals in the 2014 event traces. The ground motions at stations located outside the basin area were studied as incident waves to the Kanto Basin. A large wave packet with a predominant period of 5 s was recognized in the velocity traces of the 2011 event, but there was no significant wave packet in the 2014 event traces. Based on particle motion, this wave packet was hypothesized to be a Rayleigh wave. The source regions of the two events have quite different subsurface structures. The different characteristics in long-period ground motion in the Tokyo Bay area during the two events were due to different Rayleigh wave excitations in the source regions.

  9. Partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Lam, Paul K S; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-15

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C < or = 7) were found exclusively in pore water, while long-chain PFCAs (C > or = 11) were found only in sediment The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment The maximum SigmaPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm(-2) yr(-1). Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  10. Degradation of 17β-Estradiol by a Gram-Negative Bacterium Isolated from Activated Sludge in a Sewage Treatment Plant in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Satomi, Masataka; Ushio-Sata, Noriko; Morita, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    A 17β-estradiol (E2)-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge in a sewage treatment plant in Tokyo, Japan. The isolate was suggested to be a new Novosphingobium species. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the metabolites of E2 degradation suggested that no toxic products accumulated in the culture medium. PMID:11916733

  11. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  12. Redefining The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Tokyo’s National Defense Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    own Governors, must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives. JAMES MADISON to W, T. BARRY August 4, 1822 REDEFINING THE U.S.-JAPAN...SDF facilities for such purposes as Waining centers and advance depots for materials and equipment for peacekeeping operations, and supply by Japan of

  13. Dioxin-like compounds in pine needles around Tokyo Bay, Japan in 1999.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Nobuyasu; Horii, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Falandysz, Jerzy; Bochentin, Ilona; Orlikowska, Anna; Puzyn, Tomasz; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2004-04-01

    Pine needle samples collected at ten spatially distant sites around Tokyo Bay in 1999 indicated a widespread lower troposphere pollution with ultra-trace dioxin-like compounds such as chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), non-ortho- and mono-ortho-chlorobiphenyls (pPCBs), and -naphthalenes (PCNs). Elevated concentration of planar PCBs and the total PCNs were found at the sites which are located innermost to the Bay, suggesting the regional importance of the evaporative nature of the source of pollution by those compounds over this vast area. The concentrations and profiles for PCDDs and PCDFs remained largely uniform. An exception was the site near the town of Tateyama in the Chiba Prefecture, which is the southernmost but also relatively separate from the inner Bay. The site near Tateyama showed somehow background contamination with all compound groups and highly different profiles of PCNs. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the data matrix has revealed that around the Tokyo Bay, apart from the evaporative emission sources for PCNs and PCBs, combustion related processes also play an important role as sources of the ambient air contamination not only with PCDDs/Fs but also with chloronaphthalenes and planar chlorobiphenyls.

  14. Trends of second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Japan: a multicenter study in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Kawai, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kurihara, Naoto; Ito, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Omata, Fumio; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Torii, Akira; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the eradication rate of first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) has been decreasing because of a high prevalence of CAM resistance. A possible decrease of the eradication rate for second-line therapy with a PPI, AMPC and metronidazole (MNZ) is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the trends in second-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Japan. We accumulated data retrospectively on patients administered second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori with a PPI, AMPC, and MNZ for 1 week after failure of first-line eradication therapy with a PPI, AMPC and CAM at 15 facilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan from 2007 to 2011. Trends for second-line eradication rates in modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were investigated. Second-line eradication rates were categorized by three PPIs (rabeprazole (RPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OMZ)) and evaluated. We accumulated data on 1373 patients. The overall second-line eradication rate was 92.4%. Second-line eradication rates in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were 97.7, 90.6, 94.5, 91.8 and 91.8%, respectively, with no significant trends revealed. Second-line eradication rates categorized by three PPIs for the entire 5-year period were 91.6, 93.4 and 92.4% (RPZ, LPZ and OPZ, respectively) with no significant differences among the three PPIs. From 2007 to 2011, there were no significant trends in the second-line eradication rates and the rates remained consistently high. From the viewpoint of high prevalence of CAM resistance in Japan, triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and MNZ may be a better strategy for first-line therapy compared to triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and CAM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A century of modern dental education in Japan: the history of the Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, N

    1993-11-01

    At the end of the revolution against the Tokugawa Shogun in 1868, the new Meiji government introduce Western medicine and science into Japan. Dental education, however, was neglected by the new regime. Dr. Kisai Takayama, a Samurai warrior turned dentist, realized this and established the first dental school in Japan in 1890. Meeting a definite need, the school expanded several times and introduced into the country standards which raised Japanese dental education to the level of that in the Western world. In 1990, the hundredth anniversary celebration of the school was held, following the completion of the school's magnificent new campus in 1981 and a new headquarters building in 1990.

  16. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  17. Outline of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquakes and lessons for a large urban earthquake in Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.

    2016-12-01

    A series of devastating earthquakes hit Kumamoto districts in Kyushu, Japan, in April, 2016. The M6.5 event occurred at 21:26 on April 14th (JST) and, 28 hours later, the M7.3 event occurred at 01:25 on April 17th (JST) at almost the same location with a depth of 10 km. The both earthquakes were felt with a seismic intensity of 7 in Japan Metrological Agency (JMA) scale at Mashiki Town. The intensity of 7 is the highest level by definition. Very strong accelerations are observed by the M6.5 event with 1,580 gal at KiK-net Mashiki station and 1,791 gal by the M7.3 event at Ohtsu City station. As a result, more than 8,000 houses are totally collapsed, 26,000 are heavily collapsed, and 120,000 are partially damaged. There are 49 people directly killed and 32 are indirectly killed by the quakes. The most important lesson from the Kumamoto earthquake is that a very strong ground motion may hit immediately after the first large event, say in a few days. This has serious impact to a house damaged by the first large quake. In the 2016 Kumamoto sequence there are also many strong aftershocks including 4 M5.8-5.9 events till April 18th. More than 180,000 people, at most, took shelter because of scaring many strong aftershocks. I will discuss both natural and human aspects of the Kumamoto earthquake disaster by the in-land shallow large earthquakes suggesting lessons for the large Metropolitan Earthquakes in Tokyo, Japan.

  18. [Socioeconomic factors for tuberculosis in Tokyo, Japan--unemployment, overcrowding, poverty, and migrants].

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    We investigated selected socioeconomic variables for incidence of tuberculosis and its rate of changes that might be relevant for the design of appropriate prevention and control programs. Retrospective ecological analysis was done to examine the association between eight socioeconomic measures from the 1992 census and both the average rate and the rate of change of standardized annual notification rates for tuberculosis from 1988 to 1997 for each of the 23 wards in Tokyo. Multivariate analysis identified the proportion of households with livelihood aid (p < 0.001), number of public bath per 100,000 person (p < 0.001), population density (p = 0.012), and proportion of households below standard house space (p = 0.024) as variables positively associated with average tuberculosis notification rates. The rate of change was negatively correlated with three variables: proportion of owner occupied households (p = 0.001), number of tatami (living space) per capita (p = 0.021), proportion of households with livelihood aid (p = 0.038). The results showed there were certain clear socioeconomic risk factors in tuberculosis transmission, and that it might be possible to investigate the relation between the rate of change and each socioeconomic risk factor effectively with this method.

  19. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004).

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi; Kanai, Yutaka; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend.

  20. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Tokyo, Japan from 1989 to 2013: a retrospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Atsumi; Konishi, Kaoru; Hasegawa, Satomi; Anazawa, Akira; Onishi, Toshikazu; Ono, Makoto; Morio, Tomohiro; Kitagawa, Teruo; Kashimada, Kenichi

    2015-12-15

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cause life-threatening adrenal crisis. It also affects fetal sex development and can result in incorrect sex assignment at birth. In 1989, a newborn screening program for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was introduced in Tokyo. Here we present the results of this screening program in order to clarify the efficiency of CAH screening and the incidence of CAH in Japan. From 1989 to 2013, a total of 2,105,108 infants were screened for CAH. The cutoff level for diagnosis of CAH was adjusted for gestational age and birth weight. A total of 410 infants were judged positive, and of these, 106 patients were diagnosed with CAH, indicating a positive predictive value (PPV) of 25.8 %. Of the 106 patients, 94 (88.7 %) were diagnosed with 21-OHD. Of these 94 patients, 73 were diagnosed with the salt wasting form, 14 with the simple virilising form and 7 with the nonclassical form (NC21OHD). The mean birth weight and gestational age were 3192 ± 385 g and 38.9 ± 1.38 weeks. 11 out of 44 female patients were assigned as female according to their screening result. These data suggest that the newborn screening in Tokyo was effective, especially for sex assignment and preventing fatal adrenal crisis. The incidence of CAH was similar to that measured in previous Japanese screening studies, and it was also similar to that of western countries. The incidence of NC21OHD in Japan in the present study was lower than that in western countries as previous studies reported. The screening program achieved higher PPV than previous CAH screening studies, which might be due to the use of variable cutoffs according to gestational age and birth weight. However, most of the neonates born at 37 weeks or less that were referred to hospital were false-positives. Further changes are needed to reduce the number of false positive preterm neonates.

  1. Population-level ecological risk assessment of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) around Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Masunaga, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    Assessment of population-level ecological risk posed by planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PCAHs; including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxintike polychlorinated biphenyls) in sediment of Tokyo Bay (Japan) and rivers via fish ingestion to the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population was conducted by means of a probabilistic approach. Population decline risk was used as an indicator of population-level effects and compared with other indicators of effects. The increment of egg mortality risk posed by current p-PCAH levels was estimated to be 11.7%. This risk was interpreted in terms of both the increase of the risk of population decline in a 10-year period on a recently abundant cormorant population, and the reduction in population growth rate (r). Population decline risks of 20% and below were estimated to be 16% for the reference population and 32% for the exposed population, whereas the reduction in r was estimated to be 10%. The risk expressed in terms of population viability is a more susceptible measure and a more easily understandable indicator than both egg mortality risk as an individual-level risk and the reduction in r. Translating the effects due to pollutants into the risk on population viability will make ecological risk assessment more conductive to risk management.

  2. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Multi-aquifer pumping test to determine cutoff wall length for groundwater flow control during site excavation in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Noriharu; Kohsaka, Nobuaki; Ishikawa, Akira

    2008-08-01

    Multi-aquifer pumping tests, using a multi-screen pumping well and multi-level piezometers, were carried out for groundwater flow control in a large-scale excavation site in Tokyo, Japan. The site was underlain by multi-layered confined aquifers. In the tests, pumping was carried out using a multi-aquifer pumping well in which a screen depth was chosen arbitrarily. Changes in groundwater pressure heads in each aquifer were measured at each screen position of the multi-aquifer pumping well. Hydraulic conductivity ( K) and specific storage ( S s) of not only aquifers, but also for low permeability layers between the aquifers, were estimated using the Cooper-Jacob method, and calibrated by a finite element method (FEM) groundwater model. Four different cutoff wall lengths were assumed for final excavation depth, and correlations among wall length, pumping discharge and drawdown at the back of the cutoff wall were obtained from simulations using the K and S s parameters in the FEM model. Then, the most suitable wall length was selected based on the simulated correlations considering environmental condition, construction period and cost of the cutoff wall.

  4. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism, Osaka, Japan, 15 19 August 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Zenji; Tsunetsugu, Hirokazu; Kawamura, H.

    2007-04-01

    of the HFM 2006 conference. The aim of these proceedings is to provide a scientific record of some of the topics that were presented at the conference. It contains 91 articles from the presentations given at the conference. All articles have been refereed by experts in the field. I am sure that the reader will enjoy these contributions and learn a lot from them. In view of the rapid growth of the field, it has been decided at the conference that the next HFM conference will be held in two years, in 2008, in the city of Braunshweig, Germany. References Gingras M (ed) 2000 Can. J. Phys. 79 1283-1597 Stewart R (ed) 2004 J. Phys.:Condens. Matter 16 S553-S922 group photo Group photograph Finally, on behalf of the HFM 2006 Organizing Committee, I wish to deeply thank all the people who generously helped us in organizing and running the HFM 2006 conference. Committee Members International Advisory Committee Y Ajiro,Japan A Harrison, Great Britain S Bramwell, Great Britain R Kremer, Germany C Broholm, United States C Lacroix, France I Campbell, France F Mila, Switzerland B Gaulin, Canada A Ramirez, United States M Gingras, Canada K Ueda, Japan Organizing Committee Hikaru Kawamura (Osaka, chairman) Hitoshi Ohta (Kobe, secretary) Satoru Maegawa (Kyoto, program) Zenji Hiroi (Tokyo, publication) Hirokazu Tsunetsugu (Kyoto, program and publication) Toshifumi Taniguchi (Osaka, local) Susumu Okubo (Kobe, homepage) Hajime Yoshino (Osaka, local) organising committee Organising committee: from left to right, H Yoshino, S Okubo, S Maegawa, H Kawamura, H Ohta, Z Hiroi, T Taniguchi, H Tsunetsugu.

  5. [EFFECT OF EDUCATIONAL LEAFLETS ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TO TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HOMELESS PERSONS IN TOKYO, JAPAN].

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, Lisa; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Watabe, Hiroyuki; Kaguraoka, Sumi; Kubota, Yuka; Sakakibara, Marie; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2015-08-01

    Delay in seeking care is one of the critical issues in tuberculosis (TB) control among homeless persons in Japan. Yet knowledge of and attitude towards TB among homeless persons have remained unclear and limited efforts have been made to disseminate information related to TB among homeless persons. To evaluate the effect of TB leaflets, produced and distributed to homeless persons by a group of ex-homeless TB patients, and to understand what homeless persons know about TB. Self-administered questionnaire was conducted among homeless persons before and after distribution of the TB leaflets. Changes in the responses to each question were also subjected to principal component analysis to group questions into types according to response patterns and identify constructs of TB-related knowledge. Results of 88 participants were analyzed. TB knowledge score related to risks and symptoms significantly improved after the intervention (from 54.3% to 70.6%, p < 0.05), while knowledge on treatment cost did not. Two components were identified, namely, the "improvement in TB impression" and "improvement in TB knowledge". TB leaflets were effective in improving certain aspects of TB knowledge. However, its effect on knowledge regarding treatment cost, which may be crucial in improving delay, was limited and thus the messages need to be revised.

  6. Injury Patterns After the Landslide Disaster in Oshima, Tokyo, Japan on October 16, 2013.

    PubMed

    Homma, Yasuhiro; Watari, Taiji; Baba, Tomonori; Suzuki, Misako; Shimizu, Tadanori; Fujii, Yuji; Takazawa, Yuji; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Landslides represent a frequent and threatening natural disaster. The aim of this study was to investigate the injury patterns observed after a landslide and to discuss how to minimize the damage caused by a landslide disaster. A landslide occurred on Oshima Island, Japan, on October 16, 2013. A total of 49 victims with landslide-related injuries were identified and analyzed. The patients ranged in age from 5 to 89 years with an average age of 61.0±19.3 years. Of all patients, 69.4% were triaged as black. Of 15 patients who were treated in the nearest hospital (the only hospital on the island), 8 were triaged as red and yellow with severe chest or pelvic injury and a high Injury Severity Score (average score, 25.6; range, 4-45). Of these, 75% had chest injury and 75% had pelvic injury. The percentage of chest and/or pelvic injury was 100% in patients triaged as red or yellow. Traumatic asphyxia was diagnosed in 62.5% of these patients. Compression of the trunk was the main injury in patients triaged as red or yellow after this landslide disaster. Evacuation in advance, the rapid launch of emergency medical support, and knowledge of this specific injury pattern are essential to minimize the potential damage resulting from landslide disasters.

  7. Detection of Enteric Viruses in Fecal Specimens from Nonbacterial Foodborne Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Tokyo, Japan between 1966 and 1983.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohji; Nagano, Miyuki; Kimoto, Kana; Somura, Yoshiko; Akiba, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Yukinao; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2017-03-24

    We investigated the prevalence of 5 enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], sapovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus) in archived stool specimens collected from 70 foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Tokyo, Japan, which occurred from 1966 to 1983, and genetically characterized these viruses. NoV was detected in 48 (68.6%) outbreaks, while SaV, group C rotavirus (RVC), and astrovirus were detected in 1 (1.4%) outbreak each. Based on the partial capsid sequences, the detected NoVs were classified into the following genotypes: 9 in genogroup I (GI; GI.1-6, GI.8, GI.9, and GI.NA), 13 GII (GII.1-9, GII.13, GII.16, GII.17, and GII.22), and one in GIV. The oldest NoV outbreaks occurred in 1966. No predominant genotype was found. One strain, classified as GI. NA based on the N/S region sequence, was subsequently classified as GI.8 based on the complete VP1 sequence. Nine types of recombinant NoV sequences, including 7 unreported combinations, were identified. Further genetic characterization of NoV GII.17 and GII.4 demonstrated that the NoV GII.17 strains detected from 1970 to 1982 clustered independently from previously reported NoV GII.17 strains. Phylogenetic analysis, using the complete VP1 region and the P2 domain, demonstrated that NoV GII.4 strains collected between 1975 and 1980 clustered with archival strains collected in the USA in the mid-1970s. In contrast, a NoV GII.4 strain collected in 1983 formed an independent branch from reference strains collected in the mid-1970s to 2012.

  8. Comparison of plasma levels of obesity-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Le Marchand, Loïc; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Miyajima, Nelson Tomio; Sharma, Sangita; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Although Japanese in Japan and the USA are high-risk populations for colorectal cancer, the prevalence of obesity, one of the established risk factors for this disease, is low in these populations compared with other high-risk populations. To understand this inconsistency, we compared plasma obesity-related biomarkers in cross-sectional studies carried out in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii. We measured plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, C-peptide, adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 by immunoassay and total C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides using a clinical chemistry autoanalyzer. A total of 299 participants were included in the present analysis, comprising 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. We found significantly lower plasma levels of C-peptide and IGF-I in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans, and lower levels of leptin and triglycerides and higher levels of adiponectin, IGFBP-3, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Japanese in Tokyo than in the other two populations. We also observed a significantly higher plasma IGFBP-1 level in Japanese Brazilians, and lower plasma levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in Japanese Americans than in the other two populations. We observed significant differences in obesity-related biomarkers between the three Japanese populations. If our results are confirmed, the risk of colorectal cancer predicted on the basis of these biomarkers would be lowest for Japanese in Tokyo, followed by Japanese Brazilians and Japanese Americans.

  9. Comparison of plasma levels of obesity-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA

    PubMed Central

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Franke, Adrian A.; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Miyajima, Nelson Tomio; Sharma, Sangita; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Although Japanese in Japan and the USA are high-risk populations for colorectal cancer, the prevalence of obesity, one of the established risk factors for this disease, is low in these populations compared with other high-risk populations. To understand this inconsistency, we compared plasma obesity-related biomarkers in cross-sectional studies carried out in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii. We measured plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, C-peptide, adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 by immunoassay and total C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides using a clinical chemistry autoanalyzer. A total of 299 participants were included in the present analysis, comprising 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. We found significantly lower plasma levels of C-peptide and IGF-I in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans, and lower levels of leptin and triglycerides and higher levels of adiponectin, IGFBP-3, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Japanese in Tokyo than in the other two populations. We also observed a significantly higher plasma IGFBP-1 level in Japanese Brazilians, and lower plasma levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in Japanese Americans than in the other two populations. We observed significant differences in obesity-related biomarkers between the three Japanese populations. If our results are confirmed, the risk of colorectal cancer predicted on the basis of these biomarkers would be lowest for Japanese in Tokyo, followed by Japanese Brazilians and Japanese Americans. PMID:25714650

  10. Characterization of Pollen Dispersion in the Neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the Spring of 2005 and 2006

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ohno, Hideki; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kizaki, Takako; Yoshizumi, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham’s pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women’s University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm−2 day−1 on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm−2 day−1 on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm−2 for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm−2 for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15–16 March 2005 and on 14–15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it

  11. Seismic wavefield imaging in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, based on the replica exchange Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Masayuki; Nagao, Hiromichi; Nagata, Kenji; Ito, Shin-ichi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hori, Muneo; Hirata, Naoshi

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes sometimes cause serious disasters not only directly by ground motion itself but also secondarily by infrastructure damage, particularly in densely populated urban areas. To reduce these secondary disasters, it is important to rapidly evaluate seismic hazards by analyzing the seismic responses of individual structures due to the input ground motions. Such input motions are estimated utilizing an array of seismometers that are distributed more sparsely than the structures. We propose a methodology that integrates physics-based and data-driven approaches in order to obtain the seismic wavefield to be input into seismic response analysis. This study adopts the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which is one of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, for the estimation of the seismic wavefield together with one-dimensional local subsurface structure and source information. Numerical tests show that the REMC method is able to search the parameters related to the source and the local subsurface structure in broader parameter space than the Metropolis method, which is an ordinary MCMC method. The REMC method well reproduces the seismic wavefield consistent with the true one. In contrast, the ordinary kriging, which is a classical data-driven interpolation method for spatial data, is hardly able to reproduce the true wavefield even at low frequencies. This indicates that it is essential to take both physics-based and data-driven approaches into consideration for seismic wavefield imaging. Then the REMC method is applied to the actual waveforms observed by a dense seismic array MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), in which 296 accelerometers are continuously in operation with several kilometer intervals in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The estimated wavefield within a frequency band of 0.10-0.20 Hz is absolutely consistent with the observed waveforms. Further investigation suggests that the seismic wavefield is successfully

  12. Biting Density and Distribution of Aedes albopictus during the September 2014 Outbreak of Dengue Fever in Yoyogi Park and the Vicinity of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Ogawa, Kohei; Itokawa, Kentaro; Komagata, Osamu; Sasaki, Toshinori; Isawa, Haruhiko; Tomita, Takashi; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    A total of 160 autochthonous dengue cases transmitted by Aedes albopictus were reported between August and October of 2014 in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. Ae. albopictus is a medically important vector of dengue virus, which has expanded its geographic distribution in temperate regions. Understanding the distribution and biting density of Ae. albopictus during the 2014 dengue outbreak in Tokyo is important to evaluate the epidemic risks of dengue fever in other highly populated cities in Europe and Asia. Of the 160 patients, 134 visited the same park (Yoyogi Park) located in central Tokyo. Mosquitoes infected with dengue virus were collected from this park, suggesting that it was the exclusive location for the transmission of dengue. This study aimed to collect referential data to estimate the transmission threshold of dengue virus in terms of biting density of Ae. albopictus and determined high transmission risk areas of dengue virus in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity. The overall mean density of biting Ae. albopictus (7.13/man/8 min) was sufficiently high for successful transmission of dengue virus, and areas with biting densities higher than the overall mean density were classified as high risk areas for the transmission of dengue virus in Yoyogi Park.

  13. Stochastic characterization of the onset of and recovery from hypoxia in Tokyo Bay, Japan: Derived distribution analysis based on “strong wind” events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Keisuke; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sato, Chizuru; Furukawa, Keita

    2010-12-01

    This paper uses derived distribution analysis to explore the process controls of the onset of and recovery from hypoxic conditions in Tokyo Bay, Japan. A conceptual, lumped model of dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics in Tokyo Bay is proposed and, through comparison with a three-dimensional simulation model, is verified to have sufficient accuracy for the prediction of the onset of and recovery from hypoxia. This conceptual DO model was implemented in continuous simulation mode, with 14 years of wind data and data on streamflow entering the Tokyo Bay, and was used to identify and quantify the various process controls of the onset of and recovery from hypoxia. The underlying process controls were identified to be streamflow discharge, as well as duration and strength of both northeast "positive" winds and southwest "negative" winds. The analysis helped to isolate, in particular, the potential for rapid and strong recovery from hypoxia due to "strong negative winds", (i.e., negative winds that exceed a wind speed threshold of 10 m s-1) and the critical roles of the duration of these strong winds and the antecedent DO concentration on the strength of DO recovery. Motivated by these results, derived distribution analysis is adopted to predict the strength of DO recovery during periods of strong winds, using a simplified model of DO recovery, focused on isolated strong winds, that explicitly captures the effects of both wind duration and antecedent DO concentration.

  14. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999–2001 and 2009–2011 in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999–2001 and 2009–2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999–2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs) and 2009–2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs). T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher’s exact test, and significance was indicated at P < 0.05. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in cats was 5.6% (13 of 233) in 1999–2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104) in 2009–2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219) and 1.9% (2 of 106), respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P < 0.05). These results reveal that there has been little change in the feline and canine seroprevalence over the past decade, indicating that the risk of T. gondii exposure for cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state. PMID:26284780

  15. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999-2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs) and 2009-2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs). T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher's exact test, and significance was indicated at P < 0.05. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in cats was 5.6% (13 of 233) in 1999-2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104) in 2009-2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219) and 1.9% (2 of 106), respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P < 0.05). These results reveal that there has been little change in the feline and canine seroprevalence over the past decade, indicating that the risk of T. gondii exposure for cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state.

  16. Determination of rare earth elements (REES) in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected in Tokyo, Japan, and a positive anomaly of europium and terbium.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Suzuki, Tatsunosuke; Furuta, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in airborne particulate matter (APM) was conducted, and the distribution pattern of atmospheric REEs was evaluated in this study. The APM was collected in the center of Tokyo, Japan, where serious air pollution is always of concern. A cellulose acetate membrane filter was used to collect the APM because Ba and REEs contamination is lower than that in a quartz glass fiber filter. The REEs measurement was conducted by ICP-MS after the digestion of the APM by a microwave acid digestion procedure. The standard reference material (SRM) of NIST 1648 urban particulate matter was used to validate the accuracy of the analytical method. The analytical results for SRM well agreed with those of the reference and reported values. Consequently, the analytical method established in this study was applied to the determination of REEs in APM collected in Tokyo, Japan. The obtained REEs distribution pattern in the APM showed a positive anomaly of Tb and Eu. The La/Sm ratio, which is considered to be as a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect, in size-classified APM showed a high degree of the anthropogenic effect in fine APM with a diameter of <1.1 µm. Emission sources of Tb, Eu and other REEs are discussed.

  17. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  19. Current developments and clinical applications of bubble technology in Japan: a report from 85th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Japan Society of Ultrasonic in Medicine, Tokyo, 25-27 May, 2012.

    PubMed

    Achmad, Arifudin; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2013-06-01

    The potentials of bubble technology in ultrasound has been investigated thoroughly in the last decade. Japan has entered as one of the leaders in bubble technology in ultrasound since Sonazoid (Daiichi Sankyo & GE Healthcare) was marketed in 2007. The 85th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine held in Tokyo from May 25 to 27, 2012 is where researchers and clinicians from all over Japan presented recent advances and new developments in ultrasound in both the medical and the engineering aspects of this science. Even though bubble technology was originally developed simply to improve the conventional ultrasound imaging, recent discoveries have opened up powerful emerging applications. Bubble technology is the particular topic to be reviewed in this report, including its mechanical advances for molecular imaging, drug/gene delivery device and sonoporation up to its current clinical application for liver cancers and other liver, gastrointestinal, kidney and breast diseases.

  20. Heavy metal concentration of river sediment in the light of the environmental quality standard value of Japan from the river in and around the Tokyo Japan: A case study at the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2008-12-01

    The river sediment is basically composed of clastic materials derived from the surface of the Earth. Purpose of our study is clarify the quantitative estimation of ratio of influence given to river sediment of nature and human activity by using of heavy metals. We show the geochemical and geological characteristics of stream sediments from the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara Rivers that flow in Tokyo bay, Japan. We show research results of the degree of contamination in above four rivers that are the relativery polluted river in Japan. Sediment samples collected from various points along the upper and lower streams were subjected to content analysis and elution analysis (using liquate (flow) out test) on the heavy metals like Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As and Hg from the river sediment for the purpose of environment assessment. Content of Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As, and Hg except Pb was above the environmental quality limit in few locations of the Tsurumi river. However, in the down-river part (mouth region) Pb-concentration was 10 times higher than at the source regions as the result of human impact; for Hg the same tendency was detected at the all rivers. This study is the first research that investigated river sediment in the light of the envirnomental quality standard in Tokyo area, Japan.

  1. Estimation of 1999-2004 dietary daily intake of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs by a total diet study in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Takeo; Ushio, Fusao; Kikutani, Norihisa; Saitoh, Yuki; Yamaki, Yumiko; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Horii, Shozo; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Ibe, Akihiro

    2006-07-01

    A study of the dietary intake of dioxins, consisting of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) through foods retailed in the metropolitan Tokyo area from 1999 to 2004 was carried out by the total diet-market basket method on the basis of food classification (14 groups) and the data on food consumption in the Tokyo region obtained from the Japan Nutrition Survey. The daily intake of dioxins per kg of body weight for a 50 kg average adult body was 2.18 pg TEQ/kg/day in 1999, 1.87 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2000, 1.25 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2001, 1.60 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2002 and 2003 and 1.55 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2004, respectively. These amounts were less than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 4 pg TEQ/kg/day for dioxins established in Japan. The dioxins taken daily through fish and shellfish (group 10) accounted for more than 50% of sum WHO-TEQs. In addition, more than 90% of the daily intake of dioxins was taken through fish and shellfish (group 10), meat and eggs (group 11), milk and dairy products (group 12). Also, this study clearly showed that the ratio of dioxin-like PCBs in the daily intake of dioxins was increasing yearly because the reduction rate of dioxin-like PCBs was lower than that of PCDDs and PCDFs in foods.

  2. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  3. Factors Affecting Initial Intimate Partner Violence-Specific Health Care Seeking in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Bybee, Deborah; Yoshihama, Mieko

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the factors affecting a women's initial intimate partner violence (IPV)-specific health care seeking event which refers to the first health care seeking as a result of IPV in a lifetime. Data were collected using the Life History Calendar method in the Tokyo metropolitan area from 101 women who had experienced IPV. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess the time to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. IPV-related injury was the most significant factor associated with increased likelihood of seeking IPV-specific health care seeking for the first time. In the presence of a strong effect of formal help seeking, physical and sexual IPV were no longer significantly related to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. The results suggest some victims of IPV may not seek health care unless they get injured. The timing of receiving health care would be important to ensure the health and safety of victims.

  4. Future projections of labor hours based on WBGT for Tokyo and Osaka, Japan, using multi-period ensemble dynamical downscale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki-Parker, Asuka; Kusaka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Following the heatstroke prevention guideline by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, "safe hours" for heavy and light labor are estimated based on hourly wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) obtained from the three-member ensemble multi-period (the 2000s, 2030s, 2050s, 2070s, and 2090s) climate projections using dynamical downscaling approach. Our target cities are Tokyo and Osaka, Japan. The results show that most of the current climate daytime hours are "light labor safe,", but these hours are projected to decrease by 30-40 % by the end of the twenty-first century. A 60-80 % reduction is projected for heavy labor hours, resulting in less than 2 hours available for safe performance of heavy labor. The number of "heavy labor restricted days" (days with minimum daytime WBGT exceeding the safe level threshold for heavy labor) is projected to increase from ~5 days in the 2000s to nearly two-thirds of the days in August in the 2090s.

  5. Responses of two tall buildings in Tokyo, Japan, before, during, and after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hisada, Yoshiuaki; Omrani, Roshanak; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated significant long duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of tall buildings at several hundred km from the epicenter of the main shock and other events show tall buildings were affected by long-period motions of events at distant sources. This study presents behavioral aspects of 29-story and 30-story neighboring buildings in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from records retrieved from a sparse array of accelerometers deployed in the superstructures, at ground and 100 m below the ground level over a time interval covering before, during, and after the main shock. Such long-period effects are common in several regions of Japan as well as in the United States and in other seismically active countries. Permanent shifts in fundamental frequencies are observed. Drift ratios indicate possible structural nonlinear behavior occurred during the main shock. The need to consider risks to built environments from distant sources, including those in neighboring countries, is emphasized.

  6. Long term effects of exposure to automobile exhaust on the pulmonary function of female adults in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, K; Shima, M; Nitta, Y; Adachi, M

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the chronic effects of air pollution caused mainly by automobiles in healthy adult females. Methods: Respiratory symptoms were investigated in 5682 adult females who had lived in the Tokyo metropolitan area for three years or more in 1987; 733 of them were subjected to pulmonary function tests over eight years from 1987 to 1994. The subjects were divided into three groups by the level of air pollution they were exposed to during the study period. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were the highest in group 1, and the lowest in group 3. Results: The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 3, except for wheezing. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences in persistent phlegm and breathlessness. The subjects selected for the analysis of pulmonary function were 94, 210, and 102 females in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The annual mean change of FEV1 in group 1 was the largest (-0.020 l/y), followed by that in group 2 (-0.015 l/y), and that in group 3 (-0.009 l/y). Testing for trends showed a significant larger decrease of FEV1 with the increase in the level of air pollution. Conclusions: The subjects living in areas with high levels of air pollution showed higher prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and a larger decrease of FEV1 compared with those living in areas with low levels of air pollution. Since the traffic density is larger in areas with high air pollution, the differences among the groups may reflect the effect of air pollution attributable to particulate matter found in automobile exhaust. PMID:15031394

  7. Scavenging of PM2.5 by precipitation and the effects of precipitation pattern changes on health risks related to PM2.5 in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Michio; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm; PM2.5) poses risks to human health. While precipitation is the main process for decreasing ambient pollutant concentrations, scavenging of PM2.5 by precipitation remains to be investigated. Here we formulated the processes of PM2.5 scavenging by precipitation from observed PM2.5 concentrations ([PM2.5]) and precipitation intensities. Then we analyzed how changes in precipitation patterns would affect health risks related to PM2.5 on the basis of a Monte Carlo simulation. Tokyo, the capital of Japan, was selected as the target for this study because of its social significance. We found that [PM2.5] decreased significantly through scavenging of PM2.5 from the atmosphere by precipitation. In contrast, we found no significant correlation between reduction of [PM2.5] and precipitation intensity. Our model for estimating the reduction of PM2.5 and the Monte Carlo simulation showed good agreement with observations. Among various changes in potential precipitation patterns, changes in the arithmetic mean of the number of events and/or in precipitation duration were more influential on reduction of [PM2.5] than changes in their standard deviations. Health risks due to PM2.5 will increase with decreases in precipitation duration and occurrence.

  8. Studying Classroom Teaching as a Medium for Professional Development: Proceedings of a U.S.-Japan Workshop (9th, Tokyo/Makuhari, Japan, July 31-August 6, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Hyman, Ed.; Usiskin, Zalman P., Ed.; Burrill, Gail, Ed.

    The Ninth International Congress on Mathematics Education (ICME-9) held in Makuhari, Japan, in August 2000 provided a unique opportunity for the Mathematical Sciences Education Board and the U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruction. Together with educators from the Japanese mathematical community, they hosted a workshop on teacher…

  9. Seasonal Variation in the Food Habits of the Eurasian Harvest Mouse (Micromys minutus) from Western Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamao, Kanako; Ishiwaka, Reiko; Murakami, Masaru; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2016-12-01

    A previous quantitative analysis of the food composition of the Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) in Japan showed that it is insectivorous and granivorous. This supports the expectation that such a small mammal requires highly nutritious foods. Other studies have analyzed the feces of harvest mice, but these were only collected during winter in order to minimize disturbance of the animals. In the present study, we collected samples from all four seasons in order to understand changes in diet throughout the year. Results showed apparent seasonal differences in the diet of harvest mice. Insects accounted for ca. 30% of the diet in summer and autumn and seeds increased from 27% in winter to 50% in spring, suggesting the insectivorous nature of the harvest mouse in summer and autumn and graminivorous nature in winter and spring. These results strongly suggest that the harvest mouse is an opportunistic feeder. It has previously been thought that the harvest mice capture insects in the stalk zone of tall grassland community, but here, DNA analysis shows that harvest mice feed on ground-dwelling invertebrates, such as pill bugs (Armadillidium sp.) and carrion beetles (Calosilpha sp. or Ptomascopus sp.). This suggests that the harvest mouse goes down to the ground to feed on them.

  10. Fine-Scale Genetic Differentiation in a Salamander Hynobius tokyoensis Living in Fragmented Urban Habitats in and Around Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Kusano, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Fumio

    2016-10-01

    Salamanders are expected to differentiate genetically among local populations due to their low dispersal ability, and are potentially susceptible to loss of genetic diversity if the population is isolated by habitat fragmentation. The salamander Hynobius tokyoensis is a lowland lentic breeder and endemic to a narrow area of central Japan. In this urban area, H. tokyoensis habitats are extensively fragmented and several populations are threatened with extinction, but information on genetic divergence and loss of genetic diversity is scarce. We performed mitochondrial (cyt b) and microsatellite (five loci) DNA analyses of 815 individuals from 46 populations in 12 regions across their entire distribution range. As a result, populations were clearly separated into northern and southern groups, and genetic differentiation among the 12 regions was also evident. Regional differentiation appears to be affected by a complex geographical history, but the genetic diversity of each population may have also been affected by recent habitat fragmentation. There were positive correlations between the mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA diversities. Some populations have lost genetic diversity in both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNAs; all such populations were at the peripheral edges of the species distribution range. Thus, even in attempts to restore genetic diversity in a small population by the transfer of outside individuals, efforts must be made to avoid genetic pollution.

  11. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances. Proceedings of the U.S./Japan Experts Meeting (8th) Held at Tokyo, Japan on 8-10 November 1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    and Harbour Bureau, City of Osaka, Japan 1130-1200 N. E . Parker, "Constructive Use of Dredged Sand," Coastal Engi- neering Research Center, Corps of...was designed to test and evaluate the hypothesis that sand "dredged from a coastal inlet and placed seaward of the surf zone will effectively...placed was distributed by littoral processes. The 1978 experiment was designed to test and evaluate the effects of increased pla’cement depth on

  12. The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

  13. Japan - UK Conference: Trends in Physics and Chemistry Education in Secondary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    This conference, held in Tokyo between 3-5 April 1998, was the most recent product of a now longstanding involvement between British and Japanese physics teachers which has grown out of a personal friendship between Brenda Jennison (Cambridge University and Vice Chair of the Education Group) and Tae Ryu (Sophia University). For a number of years British teachers have hosted Japanese counterparts at the annual ASE meetings and in visits to schools following the conference. For this conference a team of four physicists, Brenda Jennison, lan Lawrence (King's School Worcester), Philip Britton (Leeds Grammar School) and Phil Scott (University of Leeds) travelled to Japan to contribute to a conference and visit schools and University Departments. Feelings on reading a conference report can too often resemble the experience of being shown a friend's holiday snaps. They are clearly very interesting but equally clearly your friend is enjoying it more than you are, because the snaps are rekindling memories and thoughts. This set of reflections is an attempt to report on just four of those memories and thoughts rather than describe the pictures. Why organize an international conference? The conference was an event that almost took more months of tireless organization than it lasted in hours. It was conceived and brought to fruition amongst a welter of e-mail communications between Brenda Jennison, Tae Ryu and Maurice Jenkins of the British Council, who sponsored the event. Given this immense organizational task, just why did we bother? What can be gained by holding such an international event? The significant benefit of discussing issues between two cultures is clarifying which are the issues that are intrinsically due to the nature of physics teaching rather than the extrinsic effects of educational systems and customs. Unsurprisingly pupil motivation, pupil numbers, relevance, `up-to-date-ness' and the role of mathematics emerged as concerns in both cultures. Also there are

  14. Mixing States of Light-absorbing Particles Measured Using a Transmission Electron Microscope and a Single-particle Soot Photometer in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, K.; Moteki, N.; Kondo, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as carbonaceous particles and iron-oxide influence the climate through absorbing sunlight. The abundances and mixing states of these aerosol particles affect their optical properties. This study examines the changes in the mixing states and abundance of strongly light-absorbing carbonaceous particles and iron-oxide particles by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-particle soot photometer (SP2) in Tokyo, Japan during August, 2012. TEM and SP2 use fundamentally different detection techniques for the same light-absorbing particles. TEM allows characterization of the morphological, chemical, and structural features of individual particles, whereas SP2 optically measures the number, size, and mixing states of black carbon (BC) and the abundances of iron-oxide particles. A comparison of the results obtained using these two techniques indicates that 1) the peaks of high soot (nanosphere soot (ns-soot)) concentration periods agree with those of the BC concentrations determined by SP2 and 2) the high Fe-bearing particle fraction periods measured by TEM agree with that of high number concentrations of iron-oxide particles measured using SP2 during the first half of the observation campaign. The results also show that the changes in the ns-soot/BC mixing states primarily correlate with the air mass sources, wind speed, precipitation, and photochemical processes. Nano-sized, aggregated, iron-oxide particles mixed with other particles were commonly observed by using TEM during the high-iron-oxide particle periods. We conclude that the morphologically and optically defined ns-soot and BC, respectively, are essentially the same substance and that their mixing states are generally consistent across the techniques. Our results will improve the understanding of the atmospheric light-absorbing aerosols and will help to reduce uncertainty in aerosol effect on climate.

  15. Mixing states of light-absorbing particles measured using a transmission electron microscope and a single-particle soot photometer in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kouji; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Yutaka; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2016-08-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as carbonaceous particles influence the climate through absorbing sunlight. The mixing states of these aerosol particles affect their optical properties. This study examines the changes in the mixing states and abundance of strongly light absorbing carbonaceous particles by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-particle soot photometer (SP2), as well as of iron oxide particles, in Tokyo, Japan. TEM and SP2 use fundamentally different detection techniques for the same light-absorbing particles. TEM allows characterization of the morphological, chemical, and structural features of individual particles, whereas SP2 optically measures the number, size, and mixing states of black carbon (BC). A comparison of the results obtained using these two techniques indicates that the peaks of high soot (nanosphere soot (ns-soot)) concentration periods agree with those of the BC concentrations determined by SP2 and that the high Fe-bearing particle fraction periods measured by TEM agree with that of high number concentrations of iron oxide particles measured using SP2 during the first half of the observation campaign. The results also show that the changes in the ns-soot/BC mixing states primarily correlate with the air mass sources, wind speed, precipitation, and photochemical processes. Nano-sized, aggregated, iron oxide particles mixed with other particles were commonly observed by using TEM during the high iron oxide particle periods. We conclude that although further quantitative comparison between TEM and SP2 data will be needed, the morphologically and optically defined ns-soot and BC, respectively, are essentially the same substance and that their mixing states are generally consistent across the techniques.

  16. Living conditions, ability to seek medical treatment, and awareness of health conditions and healthcare options among homeless persons in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Toda, Ryouhei; Shiraishi, Tomonobu; Toyoda, Hirokuni; Toyozawa, Hideyasu; Kamioka, Yasuaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shimada, Naoki; Shirasawa, Takako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2011-12-01

    Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate: 36.7%). With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen). The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively). This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable), respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1%) and "public offices" (33.3%). Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1)). Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  17. ASTER Images Tokyo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the city of Tokyo was acquired on March 22, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image covers an area 60 km wide and 75 km long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. It shows part of the Tokyo metropolitan area extending south to Yokohama; included are the Ginza District, Haneda airport and the Imperial Palace. To the west, Tokyo is hemmed in by mountains, covered with forests (displayed in red); on the southeast, Tokyo Bay is one of the world's great harbors.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  18. ASTER Images Tokyo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the city of Tokyo was acquired on March 22, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image covers an area 60 km wide and 75 km long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. It shows part of the Tokyo metropolitan area extending south to Yokohama; included are the Ginza District, Haneda airport and the Imperial Palace. To the west, Tokyo is hemmed in by mountains, covered with forests (displayed in red); on the southeast, Tokyo Bay is one of the world's great harbors.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  19. Correlation coefficients between the dioxin levels in mother's milk and the distances to the nearest waste incinerator which was the largest source of dioxins from each mother's place of residence in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tajimi, M; Uehara, R; Watanabe, M; Oki, I; Ojima, T; Nakamura, Y

    2005-12-01

    To observe the relationship between the PCDD/F and Co-PCB levels in samples of human breast milk and nearby waste incinerators in Tokyo, Japan. Breast milk was taken from 240 mothers residing in Tokyo, Japan to measure and analyze the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs; 14 congeners), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs; 15 congeners), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs; 12 congeners) contained in the fat. Individual milk samples (about 50 ml) were obtained from the mothers 30 days after delivery, between the months of June and September in 1999 and 2000. A map of Tokyo was used to measure the distances between each mother's place of residence and the closest public and industrial waste incinerators. The distances to the nearest waste incinerators bore no apparent correlations with the congeners of PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs. The distances were also uncorrelated with the mean toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of PCDD/Fs (the sum of PCDDs and PCDFs), Co-PCBs, and the total PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs. Although waste incinerators were the largest source of dioxins in Japan at the time of the study, the dioxins levels of mother's milk bore no apparent relationships with the distances between the mothers' domiciles and the nearest waste incinerators. In this study, several meaningful factors were not taken into account, namely, the wind direction, the level of dioxin emitted from each incinerator, the level of environmental pollution of dioxins, and the average time the mothers stayed at home each day. A full understanding of these points awaits future studies.

  20. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan; São Paulo, Brazil; and Hawaii, USA

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A.; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Miyajima, Nelson Tomio; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between populations. Methods Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in a comparative case-control study of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Results Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans than in Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. Plasma total carotenoids level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared to mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/mL), p for difference was 0.03 for Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/mL) and <0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/mL). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 levels in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Conclusion Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may contribute to the slower pace of increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population following migration. PMID:25633435

  1. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson S; Miyajima, Nelson T; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between the populations. Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in comparative case-control studies of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene levels, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans compared with Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. The plasma total carotenoid level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared with the mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/ml), P for difference was 0.03 among Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/ml) and less than 0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/ml). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may have contributed to the slower pace of the increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population after migration.

  2. PREFACE: International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50 Conference was held in Odaiba, Tokyo, on 26-31 July 2009. About 480 scientists from 24 countries attended the conference and 464 papers, including 3 plenary lectures, 39 invited talks, and 156 oral presentations, were presented. It is my great pleasure to present this proceedings volume, which is based on the high quality scientific works presented at the conference. The International AIRAPT conference has been held every two years in various countries around the world since 1965, while High Pressure Conference of Japan (HPCJ) has been held annually since 1959 in various Japanese cities. Pressure is a fundamental parameter to control the property of matter. As a result, both AIRAPT and HPCJ have become highly multidisciplinary, and cover Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Biosciences, Food Science, and Technology. Although each discipline has a unique target, they all have high-pressure research in common. This proceedings volume includes about 200 papers of state-of-the-art studies from numerous fields. I hope this proceedings volume provides excellent pieces of information in various fields to further advance high-pressure research. Conference logo Takehiko Yagi Conference Chairman Institute for Solid State Physics The University of Tokyo 7 December 2009 Conference photograph Participants at the conference venue, Tokyo International Exchange Center, Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan. Editor in Chief TAKEMURA Kenichi National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Editorial board Tadashi KONDO Osaka University, Japan Hitoshi MATSUKI The University of Tokushima, Japan Nobuyuki MATUBAYASI Kyoto University, Japan Yoshihisa MORI Okayama University of Science, Japan Osamu OHTAKA Osaka University, Japan Chihiro SEKINE Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan

  3. A Case Study of Governance at Rikkyo University in Tokyo, Japan: Implications for the Reform of Japanese Higher Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barretta, Mary Jane Trout

    A 1985-1986 case study of governance conducted at Rikkyo University, a private university in Tokyo, is considered, along with weaknesses in the organizational framework of governance and how these organizational weaknesses are linked to problems in reforming Japanese higher education. The governance structure provides that each college of a…

  4. Asia-Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 16-20, 1992, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics discussed include the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Station, and space activities in the Pacific Rim region. Possible future space missions are also examined, with particular attention given to medium-term and long-term perspectives in the ESA scientific program, projected lunar and planetary missions in the Japanese space program, and post-Cold War international cooperation in planetary exploration. Also presented are workshops on such topics as the future space transportation system, JERS-1 and ERS-1, and cover change and disaster mitigation, polar stratospheric ozone, and Space Station utilization.

  5. The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Thomas, Ed.

    The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing:…

  6. Responses of a tall building with U.S. code-type instrumentation in Tokyo, Japan, to events before, during and after the Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Kashima, Toshihide; Ghahari, S. Farid; Abazarsa, Fariba; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated long-duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected tall buildings in urban areas several hundred kilometers from the epicenter of the main shock. Recorded responses show that tall buildings were affected by long-period motions. This study presents the behavior and performance of a 37-story building in the Tsukuda area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from modal analyses of records retrieved for a time interval covering a few days before, during, and for several months after the main shock. The U.S. “code-type” array comprises three triaxial accelerometers deployed at three levels in the superstructure. Such a sparse array in a tall structure limits a reliable assessment, because its performance must be based on only the average drift ratios. Based on the inferred values of this parameter, the subject building was not structurally damaged.

  7. [Expertise level of occupational health physician, implementation of occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS) and occupational safety and health activity level in Japan in the companies listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange first section].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yukiko; Kameda, Takashi; Shirakawa, Chie; Nagata, Tomohisa; Zama, Satoko; Kayashima, Koutarou; Kobayashi, Yuuichi; Mori, Koji

    2007-12-01

    By enforcement of the revised Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law on April, 2006, the implementation of OSHMS seems to be expanding and encouraged. In OSHMS of Japan, however, the occupational health aspects have not been put into operated, while only occupational safety aspects have been prioritized. To clarify the issues to deploy OSHMS with occupational health aspects, we conducted a mail survey of 1,581 companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Market First Section in December, 2004. The effective responses were 267 (16.9%). The number of companies which had installed OSHMS, those that planned to install OSHMS and those had no plan for OSHMS were 62 (23.2%), 82 (30.7%) and 123 (46.1%), respectively. Only 12 companies include the complete OH activities in the installed OSHMS. A significant relationship was observed among expertise of OH physicians, actual role and responsibility of OH physicians, installation of OSHMS and OH services quality level. To deploy OSHMS well-balanced for health and safety aspects in present Japan, it was suggested that the education regarding OH operation in OSHMS was necessary to the person in charge of OSHMS in each company, and the participation by OH physicians to operate OSHMS, especially OH physicians with expertise, was essential.

  8. Computers in Education: An Outline of Country Experiences. Report of the Asian Seminar on Educational Technology (3rd, Tokyo, Japan, September 26-October 2, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Selected country papers included in this collection focus on applications of computers in the educational systems of Australia, China, India, Japan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Information for the city of Singapore is also provided. The reports for each country and Singapore include: (1) background information on the development of…

  9. EFFECTS OF LONG-TIME COMMUTING AND LONG-HOUR WORKING ON LIFESTYLE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TOKYO, JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Marino; Hara, Akiko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-time commuting and long-hour working on lifestyle including sleeping, physical exercise, breakfast, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 146 school teachers in Tokyo. The binary associations of commuting time and working hours with lifestyle, mental stress measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stress coping measured by the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scores were examined. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Our results indicated that the mean commuting time and working hours per week of the respondents were 42.1 (SD 22.5) minutes and 50.4 (SD 8.6) hours, respectively. Longer commuting time was significantly associated with shorter working hours (p = 0.023), less physical exercise (p < 0.001) and shorter sleeping hours (p = 0.001). Longer working hours were significantly associated with more frequent working on holidays (p = 0.001), higher SOC scores (p = 0.001) and more smoking (p = 0.028). The negative association between GHQ and SOC scores was also significant (p < 0.001). Our findings revealed that long-time commuters were more likely to sleep less, exercise less and work less long. Long-hour workers were more likely to commute shorter, work on holidays more frequently, smoke more and their stress coping potentials were higher. Some kinds of strategies are required to improve the healthy lifestyle for long-time com- muters or long-hour workers. Key words: stress; stress coping; general health questionnaire; sense of coherence

  10. The United States and Japan. A Wingspread Conference of Editors from Japan and the United States (Racine, Wisconsin, November 2-5, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Millard C.

    The purpose of this conference of news executives from Japan and the United States was to exchange views on the relationship of the two nations and to identify areas of common concern. In general, it was agreed that the two nations are getting along very well despite their cultural differences. The first session dealt with the U.S. role in Asia.…

  11. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-19

    Bonds 57 Australian Tianium Contract 53 Grants to Mongolia 50 Light-Controlling Glass 58 Host Computer Models 53 New Cancer-Heating Device 53 - b...6 million yen vli) Development studies: increase from 252 to 281 studies: measures to pre- vent desertification (150 million yen); measures for...Tokyo KYODO in English 0357 GMT 25 Jan 85 OW] GRANTS TO MONGOLIA —Tokyo, 25 Jan (KYODO)—Japan will extend grants totaling 16 million yen (63,000 dollars

  12. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus based on culture and PCR in inpatients at a tertiary care center in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ohta, Shoichi; Yukioka, Tetsuo

    2012-10-01

    We investigated active screening for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on admission and weekly follow-up surveillance after admission to a tertiary care center (TCC) between June 2007 and 31 December 2007. Eleven percent (30/267) of patients were found to be positive for MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or culture on admission; 5% (12/267) became positive during the TCC stay. The major primary diagnoses in MRSA-positive patients were pneumonia and cerebrovascular diseases. Twenty-two (52%) of 42 patients were found to be MRSA positive by both PCR and culture, compared with 19 (45%) of 42 who were PCR positive and culture negative. These findings suggest that active surveillance with PCR is highly sensitive and useful for the detection of MRSA colonization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of active surveillance of MRSA by PCR and bacterial culture in critically ill inpatients in Japan.

  13. Water flow pathway and the organic carbon discharge during rain storm events in a coniferous forested head watershed, Tokyo, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriizumi, Mihoko; Terajima, Tomomi

    2010-05-01

    The current intense discussion of the green house effect, that has been one of the main focuses on the carbon cycle in environmental systems of the earth, seems to be weakened the importance related to the effect of carbonic materials on substance movement in the aquatic environments; though it has just begun to be referred recently. Because dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in stream flows believes to play a main role of the carbon cycle in the fresh water environment, seasonal changes in DOC discharge were investigated in catchments with various scale and land use, especially in forested catchments which are one of the important sources of DOC. In order to understand the fundamental characteristics of the discharge of dissolved organic materials, stream flows, DOC, and fulvic acid like materials (FA) included in stream flows were measured in a coniferous forested head watershed. The watershed is located at the southeast edge of the Kanto mountain and is 40 km west of Tokyo with the elevation from 720 to 820 m and mean slope gradient of 38 degrees. Geology of the watershed is underlain by the sequence of mud and sand stones in Jurassic and the soil in the watershed is Cambisol (Inceptisols). The watershed composes of a dense cypress and cedar forest of 45 years old with poor understory vegetation. Observations were carried out for 6 rain storms of which the total precipitations ranged between 16.2 and 117.4 mm. The magnitude of the storms was classified into small, middle, and big events on the basis of the total precipitation of around 20, 40, and more than 70 mm. Stream flows were collected during the storm events by 1 hour interval and were passed through the 0.45 μm filters, and then the DOC concentrations in the flows were measured with a total organic carbon analyzer. The relative concentrations of fulvic acid (FA) in the flows were monitored with three dimensional excitations emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, because fulvic acid shows distinctive

  14. ASTER Images Tokyo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-26

    This image of the city of Tokyo was acquired on March 22, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. This false color infrared image covers an area 60 km wide and 75 km long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. It shows part of the Tokyo metropolitan area extending south to Yokohama; included are the Ginza District, Haneda airport and the Imperial Palace. To the west, Tokyo is hemmed in by mountains, covered with forests (displayed in red); on the southeast, Tokyo Bay is one of the world's great harbors. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02607

  15. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  16. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  17. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  18. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  19. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of School Libraries: Comparisons from Tokyo and Honolulu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuriko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses and compares results of a survey of teacher's perceptions of school libraries in Tokyo, Japan and in Honolulu, Hawaii that showed differences in policies, availability of trained school library personnel, and in the nature of school library development. Copies of the questionnaires used are appended. (Author/LRW)

  1. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  2. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  3. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  4. XVth World Conference of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, Makuhari, Japan, 20-25 August 1995. Conference report.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S

    1995-09-01

    This article briefly highlights information provided by speakers at the World Conference of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education. The conference took place during August 1995, in Makuhari, Japan. One paper focused on health education in Japan, which would not be suitable for health promotion efforts in South Africa. Another paper focused on intersectoral efforts for health, policy, and networking. This paper addressed an issue important for all countries; the need for better communication among people working in health fields and improved outreach. A paper focusing on strengthening community action was presented. South Africa, as well as Japan, must work to involve communities in health service management. The author found that the paper on policy, practice, and research for health promotion and education was relevant to South Africa. Policymakers and practitioners tend to rely on precedence, intuition, personal experience, and political experience. Academic research funding does not support research that is relevant to policymakers and practitioners. The papers on healthy cities research were stimulating and had practical input. The proposed model involved a 3-phase and 14-step process of choosing a topic for an intervention, analyzing the intervention's political environment, and planning the political aspects of intervention. Another model of intersectoral action was spiral shaped and centered problem definition, direction setting, and structuring between networking and interorganizational relations. Four papers from Botswana focused on reproductive health. Other papers focused on teenage pregnancy.

  5. National Strategies and Regional Co-Operation for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Regional Conference on Higher Education (Tokyo, Japan, 8-10 July 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This collection of papers begins with a preface by Victor Ordenez, followed by opening speeches by Federico Mayor, Tetsuo Misumi, Heitor Gurgulino de Souze, and Wichit Srisa-an, and a keynote address by Takashi Kosugi. Three working papers include: "The University of the Future" (Edgardo J. Angara); "Institutional Challenges,…

  6. National Strategies and Regional Co-Operation for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Regional Conference on Higher Education (Tokyo, Japan, 8-10 July 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This collection of papers begins with a preface by Victor Ordenez, followed by opening speeches by Federico Mayor, Tetsuo Misumi, Heitor Gurgulino de Souze, and Wichit Srisa-an, and a keynote address by Takashi Kosugi. Three working papers include: "The University of the Future" (Edgardo J. Angara); "Institutional Challenges,…

  7. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  8. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  9. Japan Studies through the Lenses of Different Disciplines: First Yearbook of the Japan Studies Association. [Papers from the Japan Studies Association Annual Conference (San Diego, California, 1995)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This yearbook presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The yearbook represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among five thematic…

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese astronauts and other personnel in the Space Station Processing Facility observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese astronauts and other personnel in the Space Station Processing Facility observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Takao Doi, an astronaut with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), watches the sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). NASDA developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Takao Doi, an astronaut with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), watches the sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). NASDA developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Japanaese astronauts and personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Japanaese astronauts and personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Members of the STS-114 crew take a look at the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Members of the STS-114 crew take a look at the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  15. Joint Japan/U.S. Conference on Adaptive Structures, 2nd, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 12-14, 1991, Collection of Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji (Editor); Wada, Ben K. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses the development status of adaptive structures in Europe and in Japan, the 'Cosmo-Lab' structures/robotics cooperation concept, active-adhesion concepts for in-orbit structural assembly, adaptively controlled truss structures, object-oriented modeling in structural analysis, the control effectiveness and energy efficiency of an active mass damper, a space truss with experimental tendon control, and piezoelectric actuator-based space trusses. Also discussed is the control of resonant frequencies in adaptive structures through prestressing, active control of vortex-excited vibrations of flexible cylindrical structures, shape adjustment of a flexible space antenna reflector, the SDIO Adaptive Structures Program, optimal trajectories of iterative manipulation for space robots, a docking device as an adaptive structure, shape-memory polymers and their hybrid composites, and fuzzy control methods for structural dynamics.

  16. Joint Japan/U.S. Conference on Adaptive Structures, 2nd, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 12-14, 1991, Collection of Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji; Wada, Ben K.

    The present conference discusses the development status of adaptive structures in Europe and in Japan, the 'Cosmo-Lab' structures/robotics cooperation concept, active-adhesion concepts for in-orbit structural assembly, adaptively controlled truss structures, object-oriented modeling in structural analysis, the control effectiveness and energy efficiency of an active mass damper, a space truss with experimental tendon control, and piezoelectric actuator-based space trusses. Also discussed is the control of resonant frequencies in adaptive structures through prestressing, active control of vortex-excited vibrations of flexible cylindrical structures, shape adjustment of a flexible space antenna reflector, the SDIO Adaptive Structures Program, optimal trajectories of iterative manipulation for space robots, a docking device as an adaptive structure, shape-memory polymers and their hybrid composites, and fuzzy control methods for structural dynamics. (For individual items see A93-31227 to A93-31265)

  17. Astrometry course at University of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, T.

    2008-07-01

    The astrometry course at Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, is reviewed as an example of educational efforts for top-class students, the possible candidates of professional astronomers, in Japan. The method of teaching is unique in the sense that it gives lectures by using incomplete text books both as MS Powerpoint slides posted at a web site, http://chiron.mtk.nao.ac.jp/~toshio/education.html, and as printed materials in the form of self-study notebooks. Also there are self-study notebooks on the related issues; the courses of relativistic astrometry, of rotational motions, of numerical astronomy, and of orbital motions, the last of which is under development.

  18. "US-JAPAN CONFERENCE: INFLAMMATION, DIABETES AND CANCER" held at the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Lin, Ren-Jang; Jove, Richard

    2011-12-01

    The conference was held to facilitate research collaborations between US and Japan scientists, and to commemorate the rich history of the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope (COH) research contributed by many Japanese doctors. Most noticeable is Dr. Ryojun Kinoshita, an internationally renowned oncologist who built the first research team at the campus of COH Medical Center in 1952. The conference received enthusiastic support from Junichi Ihara, Consul General of Japan, Los Angeles. During the two day conference, seven scientists from Japan, six scientists from Southern California, and six scientists from COH presented various aspects of cancer and diabetes research which included nuclear receptor regulation, DNA base and chromatin modifications, cancer glycosylation, circadian clock, cell polarity, tumorigenesis, micro and small RNA therapies, genomics, epigenetics, and signaling.

  19. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    prayer at the Yasukuni Shinto Shrine in downtown Tokyo, which is dedicated to Japan’s many war dead. The visit, on the occasion of the shrine’s...Visits Yasukini Shrine for War Dead (KYODO, 22 Apr 85) 4 Atlantic Institute Holds Heated Security Debate (KYODO, 19 Apr 85) 5 Disaster...between him and Kakuei Tanaka. 12930 CSO: 4105/198 JPRS-JAR-85-014 24 May 1985 POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL NAKASONE VISITS YASUKINI SHRINE FOR

  20. Potential for rooftop photovoltaics in Tokyo to replace nuclear capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, B. L.; Smith, T. A.; Deinert, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japan’s nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity, there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan provided more than just base-load by storing energy in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems, which was then released to provide some peaking capacity. If this storage were instead coupled to current generation rooftop solar systems in Tokyo, the combined system could help to meet peak requirements while at the same time providing ˜26.5% of the electricity Tokyo used to get from nuclear output, and do so 91% of the time. Data from a study of rooftop space and a 34 yr data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with 5.6 times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO’s nuclear capacity.

  1. University Reforms and Academic Governance: Reports of the 2000 Three-Nation Workshop on Academic Governance (Tokyo, Japan, February 24-25, 2000). RIHE International Publication Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira, Ed.

    This report contains papers presented at the Three-Nation Workshop on Academic Governance by participants from the United States, Switzerland, and Japan. These papers are based on comparative studies of a survey topic originally developed in Japan. The papers are: (1) "Comparative Study of Academic Governance: Its Purpose and Framework"…

  2. New development of the University of Tokyo teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    This paper is introducing the evolution and present situation of health facility design in Japan. Statistical international comparative study in terms of historical, cultural, geographical and socio-economical overview as well as demographic and epidemic health issues in addition to the brief review of the past, present and future of these issues are discussed. Moreover, design characteristics of contemporary Japanese general hospitals in the forms of eight nick names are presented, mainly introducing the University of Tokyo Teaching Hospital, as a case study, which is regarded as one of the most recent redevelopment of tertiary teaching hospital projects in Japan.

  3. International Conference on Vocational Guidance (6th, Hyogo, Japan, November 2-4, 1988). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashiya Univ., Hyogo (Japan).

    This conference report contains the following papers: "Keynote Address" (Fukuyama); "Predictions Regarding the Nature and Significance of Vocational Guidance during the 21st Century in the United States" (Hoyt); "The Changing Workforce and Vocational Guidance" (Inaba); "The 6th International Conference on…

  4. The Tokyo Declaration: toward a global partnership in population and development.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    Population is a global issue which greatly affects the social, economic, and cultural development of all nations. Since population factors play a decisive role in all human endeavors, especially in safeguarding the environment and pursuing sustainable development, they are of vital concern to both developed and developing countries. More is known now than ever before about what is needed to slow population growth, alleviate poverty, enhance women's status, combat gender inequalities, abolish illiteracy, and reduce infant, child, and maternal mortality. A strong political commitment and the mobilization of popular support for effective action are called for. Almost all developing countries have national population policies and programs aimed at integrating population into development strategies and meeting the rapidly increasing demand for family planning information and services. Participants of the Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development in Tokyo, Japan, January 26-27, 1994, issued a declaration under the auspices of the UN Population Fund, the United Nations University, and the Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The text of the declaration is presented in sections on population and sustainable development, women's role in decision making, reproductive health and family planning, population distribution and migration, South-South cooperation, from commitment to action, the 1994 International Conference of Population and Development, resource mobilization, and a call to action.

  5. 1993 JSES (Japan Solar Energy Society)/JWEA (Japa n Wind Energy Association) Joint Conference and 1993 Japan-Korea Joint Conference on Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 JSES/JWEA Joint Conference was held on December 9 and 10, 1993. As for solar cells, reports are made on performance of a-Si photovoltaic modules, heightening efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar cells, and solar cell/capacitor combined devices. As to solar concentration of solar cells, compound elliptic lens and characteristics of cone type concentrators are reported. With regard to the photovoltaic power generation system, described are results of solar house operation and eco energy house power generation. Relating to heat storage, mentioned are a design method of the seasonal thermal storage system using water as a medium and the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system. As to heat pumps, the paper states an analysis of an exothermic reactor on the solar chemical heat pump system, and a hybrid heat pump system using panels with photovoltaic modules as evaporator. In addition, a wind powered generation system for weather observation robot, and a floating wave power device are described.

  6. Issues in Education in Asia and the Pacific: An International Perspective. OECD Documents. Conference Proceedings (Hiroshima, Japan, October 7-9, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Phillip; Renwick, William

    This document reports on the first international conference in Japan in October 1992 to open up a dialogue among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the Dynamic Asian Economies (DAEs) of Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Singapore. Experts from each of the DAEs attended the…

  7. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Seven: Testing and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    This section contains conference papers on testing and evaluation in second language teaching. They include: "English Language Entrance Examinations in Japan: Problems and Solutions" (James Dean Brown); "Reliability and a Learner Style Questionnaire" (Dale T. Griffee); "Does It Work?" Evaluating Language Learning Tasks" (Rod Ellis); "Communicative…

  8. Mathematics Education. Selected Papers from the Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications. (15th, Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hida, Takeyuki; Shimizu, Akinobu

    This volume contains the papers and comments from the Workshop on Mathematics Education, a special session of the 15th Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications, held in Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985. Topics covered include: (1) probability; (2) statistics; (3) deviation; (4) Japanese mathematics curriculum; (5) statistical…

  9. Mathematics Education. Selected Papers from the Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications. (15th, Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hida, Takeyuki; Shimizu, Akinobu

    This volume contains the papers and comments from the Workshop on Mathematics Education, a special session of the 15th Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications, held in Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985. Topics covered include: (1) probability; (2) statistics; (3) deviation; (4) Japanese mathematics curriculum; (5) statistical…

  10. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  11. Joint Study on Some Major Developments in Elementary School Curriculum in Asian and Pacific Countries: Research Design. Report of a Regional Workshop (Tokyo, Japan, February 28-March 15, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A basic framework for undertaking a study of elementary curricula in Pacific and Asian countries is presented. The material, which emerged from a regional workshop, is divided into two sections. A chart in section 1 summarizes major features of elementary school curricula in Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand,…

  12. A Study on Some Critical Aspects of Secondary Education in the Countries of Asia and the Pacific. Research Proposal. Report of a Regional Workshop (1st, Tokyo, Japan, June 17-July 10, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A regional workshop on "The Study of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific" was attended by 18 participants from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Western Samoa. The major objective of the…

  13. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014.

  14. PREFACE: The Irago Conference 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    The Irago Conference 2012 - 360 degree outlook on critical scientific and technological challenges for a sustainable society Organized by the Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS) at Toyohashi University of Technology, the Irago Conference, held recently (15-16 November) in Aichi, Japan, aimed to enhance mutual understanding between scientists, engineers and policymakers. Over 180 participants tackled topics ranging from energy and natural resources to public health and disaster prevention. The 360-degree outlook of the conference impressed speakers and guests. ''This conference has been extremely informative,'' noted Robert Gellar from the University of Tokyo. ''A unique conference with experts from a range of backgrounds,'' agreed Uracha Ruktanonchai from the National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC) in Thailand. Similarly, G P Li, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of California Irvine commented that he had been ''able to think the unthinkable'' as a range of topics came together. The conference was streamed live on Ustream to ensure that researchers from across the world could benefit from thought-provoking presentations examining global issues such as energy, disaster mitigation and nanotechnology. ''This was wonderful,'' said Oussama Khatib from Stanford University, ''A good recipe of speakers from such a range of backgrounds.'' Manuscripts submitted to the organizers were peer-reviewed, and the papers in this proceedings were accepted for Journal of Physics: Conference Series. In addition to the formal speaker programme, graduate-student sessions provided a platform for graduate students to describe their latest findings as oral presentations. A series of excursions to relevant locations, such as the Tahara megasolar region under construction and a local car-manufacturing factory, gave participants the opportunity to further consider practical applications of their research in industry

  15. Niobium Production at Tokyo Denkai

    SciTech Connect

    Umezawa, Hiroaki

    2011-03-31

    In recent years, single-crystal/large-grain niobium has received much attention. It has the following advantages: rolling-annealing is unnecessary, and superconducting cavities made from large-grain niobium discs may not require electropolishing. However, to obtain a large-grain disc, an ingot must be sliced using a saw and finished smooth by using a lathe. Slicing a disc takes several hours and produces niobium shavings. KEK, Tokyo Denkai, and TKX Corporation have developed a new niobium ingot slicing technique, and Tokyo Denkai has installed the slicing machine. This study describes the new ingot slicing technology, which ensures state-of-the-art productivity for the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity material industry.

  16. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.

    2006-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Unlike California's seismic environment of shallow and largely strike-slip faults, Tokyo lies 200 km from a triple junction with two subduction zones, and 80 km from a front of active volcanoes. Further, some of the region's megathust faults are seismically coupled, some undergo episodic slip events, and others appear to be permanently aseismic. To reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates, and estimate their earthquake frequency, we analyzed the 7,000-yr record of seventeen M~8 shocks preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits, and 150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years from Japan's GeoNet array. We also digitized 10,000 observations of historical shaking recorded over the past 400 years, and examined 300,000 earthquakes registered by the dense NIED/JMA network in a 3D geographic information system. In a principal departure from previous work, we propose that a 100-km-wide, 25-km-thick dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and argue that the this fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior, including the damaging 1855 M~7.1 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, we estimate that events with magnitude and location similar to the Ansei-Edo event have a 20% likelihood in an average 30-yr period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for great M~7.9 megathrust shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is just 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (~0.9 g peak ground acceleration) in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ~30%, and the annual probability is 1.3%.

  17. The Workshop for the Promotion and Development of the UNESCO Co-Action Learning Center Programme (2nd, Nagoya and Tokyo, Japan, September 1-8, 1993). World Terakoya Movement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan, Tokyo.

    This document provides summaries of conference papers and discussions at a workshop focused on improving the quality of literacy education in developing countries. The workshop was attended by 20 project leaders and observers from 11 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Costa Rica, India, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and…

  18. Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

  19. Preparing Teachers for Japan's Classrooms. Fastback 394.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Edward R.

    This volume reviews the development of teacher education in Japan from 1868 to the present. The first section examines teacher education in Japan from 1868 to 1945, covering the development of normal schools; the Tokyo Normal School, Japan's first modern teacher education institute, founded in 1872; conservative reaction during the 1880s and the…

  20. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-20

    ;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

  1. Mutagenicities of Bangkok and Tokyo river waters.

    PubMed

    Kusamran, W R; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A; Tepsuwan, A; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1994-11-01

    Samples of water from the Chao Phraya river and some connected canals in Bangkok, Thailand, and from the Sumida and Ara rivers in Tokyo, Japan, were tested for mutagenicity using blue rayon to adsorb the mutagens. The samples from the Chao Phraya river and connected canals at sites located 50-150 km from the river mouth taken in May 1993 showed a mutagenicity of 87-1213 revertants per 0.05 g blue rayon extract towards S. typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples from most sites taken in December 1993, which follows the rainy season, showed a lower mutagenicity than those taken in May, possibly due to dilution by the larger volume of water in the river and canals in December. Water samples from the Sumida river were collected in July 1993 and February 1994, and those from the Ara river in January 1994. Mutagenicity of samples from all sites of the Sumida and Ara rivers, which were located 2-30 and 2-20 km, respectively, from the river mouth was also clearly detected in the presence of S9 mix and did not differ much, being 155-748 revertants of YG1024 per 0.05 g blue rayon extract. These results demonstrated that the water in all three rivers contained some frameshift mutagens.

  2. Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Sheng Ng, Chris Fook; Konishi, Shoko; Koyanagi, Ai; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to <100 grains per cm(2) was associated with an approximately 50% increase in the odds for suicide (e.g. 30 to <50 grains per cm(2): odds ratio 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.076-2.303, p=0.020). The estimates remained fairly stable after adjusting for air pollutants and after varying the cut-points that defined the pollen levels. Our results indicate that pollen is associated with female suicide mortality in Tokyo.

  3. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  4. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  5. Factor analysis on implementation of domiciliary dental care in Metropolitan Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Maki, Yoshinobu; Takano, Naohisa; Ishii, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The need for domiciliary dental care has increased with the aging of Japanese society. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Dental Association conducted a survey of dental institutions within Tokyo in order to clarify which factors influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care by dental institutions. The proportion was significantly higher in (1) dentists in their 50s or older, (2) those working in cooperation with primary care physicians, (3) those providing dysphagia rehabilitation, (4) those who give information on prevention of aspiration pneumonia, (5) those who attended training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care, and (6) those who attended training workshops and seminars provided by the Tokyo Dental Association in 2010. In the logistic regression analysis, a significant odds ratio was obtained for the same items, excluding age. Attendance at training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care had the highest odds ratio. Those who attended any kind of training course implemented domiciliary dental care significantly more often. Training conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with Disabilities, Tokyo Dental Association, and local dental associations showed a significant odds ratio, with the highest by the Tokyo Dental Association. Traditionally, education on domiciliary dental care in the elderly is not provided at the college level. The present results indicate the importance of educating students with regard to the unique challenges such work poses. Attending seminars hosted by the Tokyo Dental Association also significantly influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care. This seems to be an important result, suggesting the effectiveness of training provided by dental associations with regard to the promotion of domiciliary dental care. This indicates the need for dental associations to provide such training throughout Japan.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The JEM Pressurized Module is seen in the hold of the ship that carried it from Japan. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) built the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, Japan’s primary contribution to the space station, to be delivered to KSC. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional shirt-sleeve environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes two logistics modules, an exposed pallet for space environment experiments and a robotic manipulator system that are still under construction in Japan. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three space shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The JEM Pressurized Module is seen in the hold of the ship that carried it from Japan. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) built the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, Japan’s primary contribution to the space station, to be delivered to KSC. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional shirt-sleeve environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes two logistics modules, an exposed pallet for space environment experiments and a robotic manipulator system that are still under construction in Japan. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three space shuttle missions.

  7. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraki, Koji; Takeyama, Shojiro

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) held in Fukuoka, Japan, from 1-6 August 2010. This conference was mainly sponsored by the Tokyo University-'Horiba International fund', which was donated by Dr Masao Horiba, the founder of Horiba Ltd. The scientific program of HMF-19 consisted of 37 invited talks, 24 contributed talks, and 83 posters, which is available from the conference homepage http://www.hmf19.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this volume has been independently reviewed. The Editor is very grateful to all the reviewers for their quick responses and helpful reports and to all the authors for their submissions and patience for the delay in the editorial process. Finally, the Editor would like to express his sincere gratitude to all the individuals involved in the conference organization and all the attendees, who made this conference so successful. Koji Muraki Conference photograph Committees Chair Conference chairS Takeyama(ISSP-UT) Conference secretary T Machida (IIS-UT) Program chair K Muraki (NTT) Local organizing chair K Oto (Chiba Univ.) Advisory Committee International Domestic L Brey (ES) T Ando (TIT) Z H Chen (CN) Y Hirayama (Tohoku Univ.) S Das Sarma (US) G Kido (NIMS) L Eaves (GB) N Miura (JP) J P Eisenstein (US) J Nitta (Tohoku Univ.) K Ensslin (CH) T Takamasu (NIMS) J Furdyna (US) G M Gusev (BR) I Kukushkin (RU) Z D Kvon (RU) G Landwehr (DE) J C Maan (NL) A H MacDonald (US) N F Oliveira Jr (BR) A Pinczuk (US) J C Portal (FR) A Sachrajda (CA) M K Sanyal(IN) R Stepniewski(PL) Program Committee Chair: K Muraki(NTT) International Domestic G Bauer (AU) H Ajiki (Osaka Univ.) G Boebinger (US) H Aoki (Hongo, UT) S Ivanov (RU) K Nomura (RIKEN) K von Klitzing (DE) T Okamoto (Hongo, UT) R Nicholas (GB) T Osada (ISSP-UT ) M Potemski (FR) N Studart (BR) U Zeitler (NL

  8. Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

  9. Ambient air pollution and suicide in Tokyo, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Stickley, Andrew; Konishi, Shoko; Watanabe, Chiho

    2016-09-01

    Some evidence suggests an association may exist between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. However, this relation has been little studied to date. The current study examined the association in Tokyo, Japan. Suicide mortality data for Tokyo for the 11-year period 2001-2011 were obtained together with data on four air pollutants: fine particulate matter (PM2.5), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A time-stratified case-crossover study design was used to examine the daily association between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 29,939 suicide deaths. In stratified analyses an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the same-day concentration of NO2 was linked to increased suicide mortality among those aged under 30 (percentage change: 6.73%, 95% CI: 0.69-13.12%). An IQR increase in PM2.5 and SO2 was associated with a 10.55% (95% CI: 2.05-19.75%) and 11.47% (95% CI: 3.60-19.93%) increase, respectively, in suicide mortality among widowed individuals for mean exposure on the first four days (average lags 0-3). Positive associations were observed for the air pollutants in the summer although associations were reversed in autumn. We relied on monitoring data to approximate individual exposure to air pollutants. Higher levels of air pollution are associated with increased suicide mortality in some population subgroups in Tokyo. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking air pollutants and suicide in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior…

  11. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior…

  12. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Applications of Physics in Financial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayasu, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Takayasu, H.

    2010-04-01

    This volume contains contributed papers from the 7th international conference on 'Applications of Physics in Financial Analysis (APFA)' held at Tokyo on 1-5 March 2009. The conference was organized jointly by Tokyo Institute of Technology and Hitotsubashi University with support from the Research Institute of Economy, Trade, and Industry (RIETI), Physical Society of Japan, Japanese Economic Association, Information Processing Society of Japan, Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, and Japan Association for Evolutionary Economics. The first APFA conference (APFA1) was held in 1999 at Dublin, followed by APFA2 at Liege in 2000, APFA3 at London in 2001, APFA4 at Warsaw in 2003, APFA5 at Torino in 2006, and APFA6 at Lisbon in 2007. The 7th APFA conference, which is the first meeting held outside Europe, was attended by 223 researchers in physics and economics from 23 countries world-wide. In keeping with past APFA conferences, we paid special attention to issues in financial markets, which turned out to be very timely. The conference was held in March 2009, in the middle of the global financial crisis that originally started in the US and spread quickly to every corner of the world. The topic of the conference is 'New Approaches to the Analysis of Large Scale Business and Economic data'. The rapid development of information and communication technology has enabled financial/non-financial firms to keep detailed records of their business activities in the form of, for example, tick-by-tick data in financial markets, point-of-sale (POS) data on individual household's purchasing activity, and interfirm network data describing relationships among firms in terms of suppliers/customers transactions and ownerships. This growth in the scope and amount of business data available to researchers has led to a far-reaching expansion in research possibilities. Researchers not only in social sciences but also in physics, mathematics, and information sciences have recently

  13. Japan-Russia Pediatric Society.

    PubMed

    Nihei, K; Thunemathu, Y; Kobayashi, N

    1993-12-01

    In March 1990, medical interchange between Japan and the Soviet Union began with a letter from the local health bureau of Khabarovsk. We visited Khabarovsk three times and Kamchatka once, and saw many hospitals and patients. Russian doctors of pediatrics visited Japan. Medical information was exchanged and discussed. The Japan-Russia Pediatric Society was established to perform interchange of medical information, technology and staff such as doctors, nurses and technicians between Japan and Russia, especially the Far East district of Russia. The Society meeting has been held three times: Tokyo (1991), Khabarovsk (1992) and Niigata (1993). It is necessary to continue the interchange between the two countries.

  14. Highlights of interventions at meeting for 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    The Preparatory Committee for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt (September 5-14, 1994), has received recommendations for the conference's final document from various population and development organizations. UNFPA's Executive Director, who serves as Secretary-General of this Conference, recommends that the document should list goals for all countries to achieve over 20 years, particularly a goal of dedicating 20% of public sector expenditures to social programs. She also calls for developing countries to reach levels of developed countries in maternal and infant mortality, life expectancy, education, gender equality, and access to the entire spectrum of family planning services. The Conference should affirm reproductive rights. Population activities of official development assistance should increase from 1.5% to 4%. Representatives from other groups and/or countries echo her concerns, but some want to accord more emphasis to other issues as well, including development, demographic aging, employment, the disabled, and poverty. The Japanese representative informs the Committee that the Government of Japan, UNFPA, and the United Nations University are sponsoring an international conference on global population issues in Tokyo during the summer of 1994. The Nepalese representative hopes the Conference recommendations will be practical, affordable, and appropriate to the objectives of developing countries. The Pakistani representative wants the Cairo Conference to build on the Bucharest and Mexico City Conferences and on the UN Conference on Environment and Development rather than renegotiating them.

  15. Mt. Fuji, Honshu, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-10-14

    STS002-09-390 (12-14 Nov. 1981) --- Honshu Island, Japan, and its snow-covered Fuji-San or Fuji-Yama volcano are the features of this 70mm frame. The volcano peak is 12,400 feet tall. The western suburbs of Tokyo are at right edge of the photograph. Isu Peninsula is at the bottom, separating the Suruga and Sagami Bay. Other large cities include Yokohama, Kozu, Shizuoka, Namazu and Odawara. Photo credit: NASA

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 7th Artificial Intelligence Symposium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-14

    294030 JPRS-JST-88-020 14 SEPTEMBER 1988 ■■■■■I ■■■■■fl FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE , JPRS Report— Science & Technology Japan...INSPECTED 6 SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 JPRS-JST-88-020 14 SEPTEMBER 1988 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JAPAN 7th ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYMPOSIUM...43063809a Tokyo DAINANAKAI CHISHIKI KOGAKU SYMPOSIUM in Japanese 22-23 Mar 88 pp 1-6 [Article by Shigenbu Kobayashi, Tokyo Institute of Technology , and

  17. Classification of M~7 earthquakes in Tokyo Metropolitan area since 1885 - The 1894 Meiji Tokyo and 1895 Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquakes -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotani, S.; Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.

    2011-12-01

    S-P times on old seismograms and seismic intensity distributions indicate that the 1894 Meiji Tokyo earthquake (M7.0) occurred within the subducting Philippine Sea plate (PHS), while the 1895 Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake (M7.2) was deeper and occurred within the subducting Pacific plate (PAC). The Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in a tectonically complex region; the PHS subducts from south, while the PAC subducts from east below PHS. Thus, various types of earthquakes occur in this region. They are classified into: shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS or PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. The probability of large earthquakes with magnitude (M)~7 is high; Earthquake Research Committee in Japan calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the fact that five M~7 earthquakes (the 1894 Meiji Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu, 1922 Uraga Channel, and 1987 Chiba-ken Toho-oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of these earthquakes except for the 1987 earthquake are not well known due to low quality of data. It is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes. Seismometer observations started around 1880 in Japan. For both the 1894 and 1895 earthquakes, the disk-type seismograph had been used at the University of Tokyo and the drum-type seismograph had been used at Central Meteorological Observatory (CMO) stations of Tokyo and Utsunomiya. We digitized those records and restored those from Circular to Cartesian coordinates, although their instrumental responses are not known. Furthermore, because the arm of disk-type seismograph was triggered by the first motion of earthquake, the P-wave first motion might be missed. As a result, S-P times read from multiple instruments at the same location (e.g., University of Tokyo campus) are variable. The Meiji Tokyo earthquake occurred

  18. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  19. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  20. Leptospirosis infection in a homeless patient in December in Tokyo: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, You Me; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki

    2015-09-16

    We report a case of severe leptospirosis that occurred during winter in Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Leptospirosis is endemic in tropical regions and extremely rare in the urban areas of Japan. Only six new cases were reported in Tokyo in 2014. Most leptospirosis cases reported in urban areas of Japan were a result of occupational hazards, and there is no previous report of leptospirosis in a homeless patient in Tokyo. We believe this report could provide a widened perspective about the clinical presentation and epidemiology of leptospirosis in Japan. Our patient was a 73-year-old Asian man. He had been homeless for over 10 years, with exposure to rodents and their excrement in parks and on the streets. He presented with fever and severe inflammatory response, satisfying the diagnostic criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Laboratory findings showed multiple-organ dysfunction, including renal failure, liver failure with increased total bilirubin level, and coagulopathy with decreased platelets. We suspected leptospirosis on the basis of these clinical findings. The diagnosis was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction first, and paired antibody titers on day 9, in the recovery period, showed positive results for three species. Our patient's case suggests that even patients without a history of traveling abroad or exposure to freshwater can develop leptospirosis in winter in urban areas in Japan. If a patient has symptoms like fever, calf pain and MOF; as a differential diagnosis we should rule outthe Leptospirosis. From the perspective of sensitivity, specificity, and clinical convenience, polymerase chain reaction could be the preferred diagnostic tool of choice.

  1. JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

    This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine…

  2. On JALT 2000--Towards the New Millennium. Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching & Learning and Educational Materials Expo (26th, Shizuoka City, Japan, November 2-5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert, Ed.; van Troyer, Gene, Ed.; Lane, Keith, Ed.; Swanson, Malcom, Ed.

    These conference proceedings address the following six topics: (1) "Change and the Future" (e.g., English language education in Japan, sociolinguistics in Hong Kong, and Esperanto); (2) "Children and Language Education" (e.g. a short-term language immersion case study, virtual classrooms for bilingual students, and the role of…

  3. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  4. Little Tokyo: Yet Another Chapter of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Dwight

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history and current status of the long-time Southern California community base of Japanese Americans, Los Angeles' Little Tokyo district. Focuses on the role that Los Angeles' urban renewal agency, the Community Redevelopment Agency, has played in that community. (Author/JM)

  5. Little Tokyo: Yet Another Chapter of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Dwight

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history and current status of the long-time Southern California community base of Japanese Americans, Los Angeles' Little Tokyo district. Focuses on the role that Los Angeles' urban renewal agency, the Community Redevelopment Agency, has played in that community. (Author/JM)

  6. High degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the Japanease common toad Bufo japonicus in urban Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hase, Kazuko; Shimada, Masakazu; Nikoh, Naruo

    2012-10-01

    The Japanese common toad Bufo japonicus is widely distributed across mainland Japan and is classified into two subspecies, B. japonicus japonicus and B. japonicus formosus, in the western and eastern regions, respectively. To investigate the genetic diversity of B. japonicus at the breeding pond (local population) level, we sequenced 831 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) from 75 individuals collected from nine ponds in urban Tokyo and the surrounding area. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed high mtDNA haplotype diversity (Hd, 0.716 (mean) ± 0.230 (SD)) within local populations (breeding ponds). Most local populations had multiple haplotypes of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene, and seven of the 18 haplotypes were identified in two or more local populations. These results indicate that mitochondrial gene flow had occurred across different breeding sites. We also identified five haplotypes that belonged to the western clade and correspond to B. japonicus japonicus. Our results provide genetic evidence that B. japonicus japonicus was introduced artificially from Western Japan to Tokyo, where it occupied the natural habitat of B. japonicus formosus. The urban Tokyo area was found to represent an admixed population consisting of both native and non-native B. japonicus subspecies.

  7. [How do we cure the medical divide between northern Tohoku district and Tokyo?].

    PubMed

    Fukaura, Hikoaki

    2010-11-01

    What is required to provide high quality medical service to anybody, anytime and anywhere? We have investigated health care in neurology as provided by national health insurance in Aomori, Akita and Iwate prefectures compared to health care in Tokyo. We have conducted hearing surveillance to patients and doctors. Most of the patients have to drive to hospital for more than 100 kms as there is no licensed neurologist in their neighborhood and public transportation is poor. There are only a few medical facilities that can satisfy their needs even in prefectural cities. Neurologists who work alone at general hospitals face difficulties as they cannot consult with other neurologist about diagnosis and treatment and have rare opportunity to attend academic conferences. A licensed neurologist at northern Tohoku district has to be in charge of a half of Tokyo 23 districts area and twice as many people as Tokyo. We have concluded that medical divide due to the more or less of quantity of selection exists between northern Tohoku and Tokyo. How do we cure this medical divide? Creating a new framework of patients transporting system, increasing the number of doctors who work at general hospitals and opening satellite clinics at regional towns should be considered.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 89 Sairas Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-JST-90-039 21 AUGUST 1990 FOREIGNJ BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report- Science & Technology Japan 89 SAIRAS SYMPOSIUM 199802O3 312 pixD...DTIC QUALIT ]INS13 MMED a JPRS-JST-90-039 21 AUGUST 1990 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JAPAN 89 SAIRAS SYMPOSIUM 906C0047 Tokyo SAIRAS 89 PROCEEDINGS in...Laboratory, STA, National Space Development Agency of Japan, and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science .] CONTENTS Japan/U.S.A. Sessions Program

  9. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  10. Current Status And Future Plan For RRR Grade Niobium Production In Tokyo Denkai

    SciTech Connect

    Umezawa, Hiroaki

    2007-08-09

    Tokyo Denkai is a high-purity tantalum and niobium supplier in Japan. It started niobium production in 1968. Niobium items, such as sheets, rods, and tubes, are provided as superconducting cavity material for the world's accelerator projects. Tokyo Denkai has five EB (Electron Beam) Melting Furnaces and in the future, will install two more. One existing EB furnace, which has a melting power of 400 KW, is currently used only for niobium production. Because the furnace is not sufficient to melt a 270-mm diameter ingot, which is required for the L-Band Single Crystal half-cell, starting from July 2007 we will melt large-diameter ingots with a 1200-KW EB furnace. This paper provides information on our niobium production capacity and future investment plan to meet the large demands of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project.

  11. International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection: a web-based study on the global diffusion of laparoscopic liver surgery prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-10-01

    The technique of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been greatly improved since the first international consensus conference. Our aim was to evaluate the worldwide spread of LLR prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan (4-6 October 2014). The International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver resection was designed to assess dissemination of LLR, indications, and the surgical techniques. The anonymous questionnaire was e-mailed to liver surgeons worldwide. A total of 448 liver surgeons responded to the survey. The peak age range of surgeons performing LLR was 41-50 years. Japan had by far the largest number of respondents (n = 223), followed by the US (n = 38) and France (n = 20). In Japan, the majority of surgeons performing LLR belonged to community hospitals, where LLR has been increasingly used since its implementation in 2009 or later, comprising up to 40% of all liver resection cases. In contrast, in North America and Europe, LLR was mostly performed at academic medical centers. LLR has undergone global dissemination after the first international consensus conference in 2008. Japan has experienced unparalleled, explosive diffusion characterized by the adoption of LLR at middle-tier, regional institutions.

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Inverse Problems 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Yiu-Chung; Ling, Leevan

    2011-03-01

    Following the first International Conference on Inverse Problems - Recent Theoretical Development and Numerical Approaches held at the City University of Hong Kong in 2002, the fifth International Conference was held again at the City University during December 13-17, 2010. This fifth conference was jointly organized by Professor Yiu-Chung Hon (Co-Chair, City University of Hong Kong, HKSAR), Dr Leevan Ling (Co-Chair, Hong Kong Baptist University, HKSAR), Professor Jin Cheng (Fudan University, China), Professor June-Yub Lee (Ewha Womans University, South Korea), Professor Gui-Rong Liu (University of Cincinnati, USA), Professor Jenn-Nan Wang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan), and Professor Masahiro Yamamoto (The University of Tokyo, Japan). It was agreed to alternate holding the conference among the above places (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) once every two years. The next conference has been scheduled to be held at the Southeast University (Nanjing, China) in 2012. The purpose of this series of conferences is to establish a strong collaborative link among the universities of the Asian-Pacific regions and worldwide leading researchers in inverse problems. The conference addressed both theoretical (mathematics), applied (engineering) and developmental aspects of inverse problems. The conference was intended to nurture Asian-American-European collaborations in the evolving interdisciplinary areas and it was envisioned that the conference would lead to long-term commitments and collaborations among the participating countries and researchers. There was a total of more than 100 participants. A call for the submission of papers was sent out after the conference, and a total of 19 papers were finally accepted for publication in this proceedings. The papers included in the proceedings cover a wide scope, which reflects the current flourishing theoretical and numerical research into inverse problems. Finally, as the co-chairs of the Inverse Problems

  13. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005 Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mio, N.

    2006-04-01

    This issue is published as the Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, held on 20-24 June 2005 at Bankoku Shinryoukan in Okinawa, Japan. Since the first Amaldi conference was held in Frascati in 1994, eleven years have passed and the scale of the conference has grown with the increasing activity in the field of gravitational waves. As the centenary celebration of Einstein's 'miracle year', 2005 was called 'World Year of Physics'. Among his breakthroughs published in 1905, the special theory of relativity is recognized as the most significant revolution in physics, completely changing our views concerning time and space. Ten years later, Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity, by which he predicted the existence of gravitational waves (GWs). At that time, it was only a dream to observe a GW because its effect was so small. Efforts to detect GWs, pioneered by Weber, have continued for almost 40 years, yet their detection remained a dream. However, the presentations at this conference have convinced us that it is no longer a dream. The GW detector projects have made extraordinary advances; in particular, the significant sensitivity improvement of LIGO and the completion of the VIRGO detector mark the beginning of the new era of GW physics. Firm developments in theories and source estimations were also reported. In particular, the data analysis session was very active and various discussions were held. Elaborate experimental techniques were presented, some of them already achieving the requirements for the next generation of detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and LCGT. In addition to the earth-based detectors, many presentations concerning space detectors were contributed; they indicated that space would become the new stage for GW physics and astronomy. This issue brings together the papers which were presented at this exciting conference. The proceedings comprise two volumes; the largest part is published as a volume of

  14. Tokyo terror and chemical arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The nerve gas attack in the Tokyo subway underscores the extreme vulnerability of urban society to terrorist attacks. The best defense is improved intelligence of potential terrorists and domestic laws permitting pre-emptive action when there is probable cause. If the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) were in force, all 159 signatories would be required to have such laws. The author examies the threat and provides some political insights.

  15. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)’s pressurized module is inside the Space Station Processing Facility. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-06

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)’s pressurized module is inside the Space Station Processing Facility. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, overhead cranes are removed from the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module now on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, overhead cranes are removed from the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module now on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is exposed after removal of the lid of its shipping container. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is exposed after removal of the lid of its shipping container. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module past other ISS elements to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module past other ISS elements to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister (lower right), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister (lower right), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved toward a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved toward a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the lid is removed from the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the lid is removed from the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane is attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane is attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved past other ISS elements in the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved past other ISS elements in the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is lowered onto a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is lowered onto a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare to remove the lid of the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare to remove the lid of the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers check the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers check the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is ready to be lifted out of the shipping canister and transferred to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is ready to be lifted out of the shipping canister and transferred to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility attach an overhead crane to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility attach an overhead crane to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane lifts the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane lifts the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane begins to lift the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane begins to lift the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  13. Research on the Multiple-Choice Test Item in Japan: Toward the Validation of Mathematical Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Director, Miss Eunice Mohri , and other ONR/Tokyo staff members for providing me with office space and services, taking me to JICST, and helping me in...12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro-ku Tokyo 152, Japan Dr. Hideo Fujiwara Phone: (06) 877-5111 DepartmenL of Electronic Engineering Faculty of Engineering Osaka

  14. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Mikkel B.; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  15. Terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

    2003-01-01

    Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

  16. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  17. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-11-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  18. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  19. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozkurt, S.B.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.

    2007-01-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  20. Seasonal variations in concentration and lability of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay. On average, recalcitrant DOC (RDOC), as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation, accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. Bioavailable DOC (BDOC) concentrations, defined as DOC minus RDOC, were lower than RDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than in autumn and winter because of freshwater input and biological production. The relative concentration of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open-oceanic waters was estimated to be 8-10, 21-32, and 59-69%, respectively, based on multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33 and 74% at freshwater sites and 39 and 76% in Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of STP effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported mostly RDOC to the open ocean because of the remineralization of BDOC.

  1. Seasonal variations in concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay to evaluate the significance of DOC degradation for the carbon budget in coastal waters and carbon export to the open ocean. Recalcitrant DOC (RDOC) was differentiated from bioavailable DOC (BDOC) as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation. On average, RDOC accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. RDOC concentrations were higher than BDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than during autumn and winter. The relative abundance of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open oceanic waters was estimated to be 9%, 33%, and 58%, respectively, by multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33% and 74% at freshwater sites and 39% and 76% at Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of sewage treatment plant effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported DOC, mostly RDOC, to the open ocean because of remineralization of BDOC.

  2. Modeling and predicting urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area based on cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  3. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma at the University of Tokyo Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Junichi; Akamastu, Nobuhisa; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an established treatment not only for those with end-stage liver disease but for those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing in cirrhotic liver. The aim of this study was to present a single-center experience of LDLT for HCC at the University of Tokyo Hospital, Japan. Methods Among 573 liver transplant recipients from January 1996 until the end of 2015, 139 patients have been indicated LDLT for the treatment of HCC, and were the subjects of the present study. We use the expanded criteria for HCC as follows; the number of tumor should be five or less, and the maximum diameter of the tumor should be 5 cm or less, without the distant metastasis nor the vascular invasion (Tokyo criteria, 5-5 rule). We also focused on the identification of the incidental intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined hepatocellular carcinoma/cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) in liver explants. Results The overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence-free and patient survival rates were 95%, 91%, and 91%, 91%, and 80%, 78%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative recurrence rate was 5%, 6%, and 6% for within Milan, 0%, 8%, and 8% for beyond Milan/within Tokyo, and 33%, 50%, and 50% for beyond Tokyo, respectively, demonstrating the significantly impaired outcome of those beyond Tokyo criteria (P<0.001). The high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) value (≥400 ng/mL), the high des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) value (≥200 mAU/mL) and beyond the Tokyo criteria were proved to be significant predictors for the HCC recurrence, but the size or the type of the partial graft was not associated. Incidental ICC and cHCC-CC were found in one and two patients, respectively, with the size of less than 2 cm in all cases. ICC was not detected in preoperative evaluation but cHCC-CCs were misdiagnosed as HCC preoperatively. All three patients were alive without recurrence with a follow-up period of 2 to 14 years. Conclusions The present results

  4. (US-Japan cooperative program on neutron scattering)

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, R.M.

    1990-06-11

    The traveler participated in a meeting on May 22, 1990, at JAERI Headquarters, Tokyo, Japan, to discuss methods of arranging for JAERI participation in the design of the ANS. On May 23, 1990, while at Tokai Research Establishment, Tokai, Japan, he toured the new JRR-3 reactor and attended the Steering Committee Meeting at which plans and budgets for the US-Japan Cooperative Program on Neutron Scattering were discussed and approved.

  5. Creating the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Medals from Electronic Scrap: Sustainability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, Alexandra M.; Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Olympic Games, which are to be held in Tokyo, Japan, it has been proposed that recycled metal from electronic waste should be used to create the gold, silver, and bronze medals that will be awarded to athletes from around the world. This work is aimed at exploring the feasibility of this goal, quantifying the required electronic waste, identifying the limiting material constraints, and addressing a selection of sustainability metrics. The results show that 2.5-13.8% of Japan's available electronic waste would be required to create the medals, depending on the composition of the collected electronics and the processing yields. The environmental benefits from this venture are identified as being a savings of approximately 4.5-5.1 TJ of energy, which is equivalent to CO2 emissions reductions of approximately 420 metric tons. Additionally, qualitative potential benefits to environment, human health, economic recovery of valuable materials, and supply stability are considered.

  6. Creating the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Medals from Electronic Scrap: Sustainability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, Alexandra M.; Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2017-07-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Olympic Games, which are to be held in Tokyo, Japan, it has been proposed that recycled metal from electronic waste should be used to create the gold, silver, and bronze medals that will be awarded to athletes from around the world. This work is aimed at exploring the feasibility of this goal, quantifying the required electronic waste, identifying the limiting material constraints, and addressing a selection of sustainability metrics. The results show that 2.5-13.8% of Japan's available electronic waste would be required to create the medals, depending on the composition of the collected electronics and the processing yields. The environmental benefits from this venture are identified as being a savings of approximately 4.5-5.1 TJ of energy, which is equivalent to CO2 emissions reductions of approximately 420 metric tons. Additionally, qualitative potential benefits to environment, human health, economic recovery of valuable materials, and supply stability are considered.

  7. Characteristics of power demand in Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Meguro, Kimiro; Yamazaki, Fumio; Katayama, Tsuneo; Soejima, Michiyo

    1995-12-31

    Modern societies suffer functional damage due to power outage when natural disasters strike. As the first step for developing a new methodology for estimating the effects of power outage on city functions considering the characteristics of the area, and time and duration of outage, a database is made which consists of regional characteristics and electric power demand in the Tokyo metropolis using geographic information system (GIS). Power demand is examined as a function of time, season and region. With a statistical technique, four elemental load curves of residential, office, industrial and entertainment components are calculated. Assuming that every load curve is a combination of the four elemental curves, the contribution rate of the four elements in each area is calculated. Then the areas could be classified based on the contribution rate.

  8. [An outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus in Tokyo 1914: a study on the prevention of epidemics].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mikio

    2002-12-01

    In 1914, the third year of the Taisho era, a period of democracy and prosperity of Japan, Tokyo was attached by an outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus. The number of patients was 4,119 and number of deaths was 778 (mortality rate of 18.9%) in Tokyo and 7,309 patients had been suffering from typhus fever that year in Japan. Many possible causes of the outbreak were suspected by the Health Authority of the Home Office, but these were not confirmed. One of the most likely reasons is the poor and congested living conditions of seasonal construction workers. Laborers had moved from the northwest region of Japan where typhus fever had developed occasionally in those days. Some of the laborers probably brought pathogenic germs with lice. The main preventive method for epidemic louse-borne typhus was isolation of patients and disinfecting of the areas. Kitasato Shibasaburou proposed the improvement of residential conditions of workers to prevent the prevalence of disease, but the proposal was not accepted because of financial reasons of the government. Recurrence of the outbreak did not occur in the following years. However, a huge outbreak of typhus fever with 32,366 patients and 3,351 deaths, was documented in 1946, amidst the disordered conditions of Japan after World War II.

  9. Conference Proceedings for Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (8th) held in Monterey, California on January 29 - 31 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    of Sdence a Technoloy, Seoul, Moshe Tur Korea and Stanford University, Stanford, CA Tel Aviv Uriversity, Tel Aviv, Israel Kiyoshi Kurosawa Eric Udd...Power Apparatus, K. Kurosawa , and W. Watanabe, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan...References 1. K. KrAkenes and K. Bltekjar, "Sagnac interferometer for underwater sound detection: noise properties", Opt. Lett., 14, 1152 (1989) 2. M. Tur

  10. Towards Formulating Goals, Aims, and Objectives of Secondary Education for the Twenty-First Century. Final Report of a Regional Seminar on Goals, Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, October 16-31, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A regional seminar examined and defined the goals of secondary education in countries of the Asia and Pacific region seminar; it also analyzed causes for changes in secondary education goals and emerging trends. A total of 20 participants from the following countries--Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New…

  11. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies (ICCHT 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The Kyoto protocol has initiated a pledge from almost all developing and developed countries to be committed to reducing CO2 emissions. Development of new renewable energy technologies are also of interest in this conference. Greenhouse gases have contributed to global warming and other man-made disasters. Cooling and Heating communities also have responsibilities towards the commitment of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, depleting natural resources also act as a threat to the Cooling and Heating industries, causing them to develop highly efficient equipment and innovative technologies. The 1st International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies was held in Hanoi Vietnam (Jan. 2005). Whereas the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th ICCHT conferences were held in Dalian, China (Jul. 2006), Tokyo, Japan (Jul. 2007), Jinhae, Korea (Oct. 2008) and Bandung, Indonesia (Dec. 2010) respectively. The 6th International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies (ICCTH2012) was held in Xi'an in China on November 9-12, 2012. It is our pleasure to welcome you to the 7th International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies (ICCTH2014) on 4th - 6th November 2014 at the Grand Dorsett Subang Hotel, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia The Theme of the Conference is ''Sustainability and Innovation in Heating & Cooling Technologies''. The sub-themes are:- • CO2 Reduction and Low Carbon Technologies • HVAC System and Natural Ventilation • Energy & Alternative Energy • Computational Fluid Dynamics • Low Temperature & Refrigeration Engineering In conjunction with the Conference, an Exhibition will be organized as an integral part of the Conference. Project experiences, product solutions, new applications and state-of-the art information will be highlighted.

  12. Groundwater pollution by perfluorinated surfactants in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Kuroda, Keisuke; Sato, Nobuyuki; Fukushi, Tetsuo; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-05-15

    Perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in groundwater were analyzed to reveal their distribution and sources. Sixteen groundwater and spring samples were collected from the Tokyo metropolitan area, and nine PFSs, including perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A column test using artificial street runoff was also performed to study their behavior. PFSs were detected in all groundwater samples, some at concentrations comparable to those in wastewater and street runoff, suggesting widespread contamination of groundwater by PFSs. In particular, PFOS -was more abundant in groundwater than in rivers, wastewater, and street runoff. This was attributed to its production from the degradation of its precursors, as supported by the column test. The occurrence of short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in groundwater was also consistent with the results of the column test, showing that limited amounts of short-chain PFCAs were removed by soil, as the efficiency of removal increased with the chain length. We evaluated the contributions of PFCAs from wastewater and surface runoff to groundwater by using two indicators, the long/(short + long) ratio and the even(even + odd) ratio. Both ratios showed good agreement in their calculated contributions in heavily contaminated groundwater where breakthroughs likely occurred. Wastewater and surface runoff contributed to 54-86% and 16-46% of PFCAs, respectively, in groundwater.

  13. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, By Keishin

    2017-08-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  14. Carbonaceous aerosol and its characteristics observed in Tokyo and south Kanto region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoura, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Mizohata, Akira; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Due to enforcing vehicle emission reduction requirements in Japan, particulate matter (PM) concentration, especially elemental carbon (EC) concentration in roadside atmosphere, obviously decreased in the last decade. In spite of the previous vehicle emission reduction, EC concentration was not shown a clear decrease, recently. To achieve the PM2.5 environmental standard, measurements based on emission source contribution are desirable. However, source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol was ambiguous because chemical components are complicated, and the components change through photochemical reaction. The goal of this study is to determine source apportionment for carbonaceous aerosols. Examination of PM2.5 was performed in south Kanto including Tokyo in the summer of 2008 and the winter of 2009. Emissions from the industrial area around Tokyo Bay and the agricultural northern area showed transportation and accumulation due to the seasonal prevailing wind. The emissions formed a geographical distribution due to photochemical reactions. The characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol were obtained using carbon profile analysis and carbon isotope analysis, including the source information such as fossil fuel emission origin, vegetation origin, and combustion product, photochemical reaction product, etc. Soot-EC was found as a substance with fossil fuel origin which did not contain biomass combustion matter, and since it is stable, there was no observed difference by site and a uniform concentration was observed in winter. It became apparent from the carbon isotope analysis using 14C that the carbon from the biomass origin involved 29% in total carbon in the summer, and 48% in winter even at Kudan of central Tokyo.

  15. Three-dimensional behaviour of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Itsushi; Wakamatsu, Shinji; Suzuki, Makoto; Ogawa, Yasushi

    The spatial distribution and transport process of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan were investigated from 31 July to 2 August 1979. In the experiment, the vertical profiles of pollutants were observed using four instrumented aircraft. This paper mainly considers the transport process of the polluted air mass using three-dimensional trajectory analysis in which the wind field was determined by objective analysis techniques from pilot-balloon observation data. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area the sea-land breeze circulation is an important factor in photochemical oxidant formation inland when the geostrophic wind is weak. The night-time radiation inversion which persists into the early morning prevents the dispersion of primary pollutants emitted from the big coastal industrial zones around Tokyo Bay. These pollutants are then advected by the land breeze to the Sagami Bay area which acts as storage tank. Conversion of such pollutants results in a high O 3 air mass inland with the penetration of the sea breeze. The sea breeze layer is thermally stable and inhibits vertical mixing of NO x. On the other hand, at the front of the sea breeze zone, a highly turbulent area transports the NO x to 1000-1500 m above mean sea level. Polluted air masses, with O 3 concentration exceeding 100 ppb, were observed at 500-1000 m on both 31 July and 1 August 1979. The maximum O 3 concentration on the 2nd day exceeded that on the 1st day. These high O 3 air masses contained aged pollutant and were entrained into the mixing layer as the depth of the mixing layer increased. This accelerated the formation rate of secondary pollutants. These early morning, high O 3 concentrations, and the storage capacity of the Sagami Bay area, are important factors in the time scale of air pollution phenomena in this region.

  16. Past Its Prime? The Future of the U.S.-Japan Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    the 16DDH ships. The ASDF is buying Joint Direct Attack Munitions for its F-2 fighter-bombers to create a precision deep strike capability as well as...author in Tokyo in early 2003. 31 Menon, p. 1. 22 23 GLOSSARY 16DDH New class of small aircraft carrier (Japan) ASDF Air Self Defense Forces (Japan

  17. Acknowledgments - OOTR Annual Conference 2012 Proceedings.

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu

    2013-01-19

    independence Session 2 - Prevention of oncological diseases Session 3 - Cancer stem cell and innovative therapeutics Session 4 - Advances in endothelial biology and cancer biology Session 5 - Antiangiogenesis update Session 6 - Predictive biomarkers and novel therapeutics Session 7 - Prevention of oncological diseases I would also like to express my gratitude to the three guest editors of the OOTR proceedings: Dr Shigehira Saji of the Target Therapy Oncology Department, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University; Dr Kiyotsugu Yoshikawa of the Innovation Center, Laboratory for Malignancy Control Research, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, and Dr Katsumasa Kuroi, Deputy-Director, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital. Their selfless assistance is much appreciated. I would like to thank the sponsors of the OOTR 8th Annual Conference for providing us with the means to make the conference a success: the Kyoto Prefecture, the Osaka Community Foundation, the Novartis Foundation (Japan), plus the many other pharmaceutical companies, charitable foundations and private businesses who have offered us their generous support.

  18. Mental Health Problems among Undergraduates in Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto after the March 11 Tohoku Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Motoya, Ryo; Sasagawa, Satoko; Takahashi, Takahito; Okajima, Isa; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Essau, Cecilia A

    2015-06-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated the Tohoku region, which led to a tsunami and a nuclear disaster. While these three disasters caused tremendous physical damage, their psychological impact remains unclear. The present study evaluated traumatic responses, internalizing (i.e., anxiety and depression), and externalizing (i.e., anger) symptoms among Japanese young people in the immediate aftermath and 2.5 years later. A total of 435 undergraduates were recruited from universities in three differentially exposed regions: Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto. They completed a set of questionnaires retrospectively (i.e., September to December 2013) to measure their traumatic responses, anxiety and depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and anger immediately after the disaster and 2.5 years later. Participants in Tokyo had the highest level of traumatic response and internalizing symptoms immediately after the earthquake, whereas those in Fukushima had significantly higher levels of trait anger, anger-in (holding one's anger in), and anger-out (expressing one's anger externally). In Kyoto, the levels of anxiety and depression after 2.5 years were significantly higher than they were immediately after the disasters. In conclusion, anger symptoms were high among young people who lived at or near the center of the disasters, while anxiety and depression were high among those who lived far away from the disasters. These findings suggest the importance of providing mental health services to young people who did not live near the disaster area as well as to those living in the directly affected area.

  19. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 1: Community emergency response.

    PubMed

    Okumura, T; Suzuki, K; Fukuda, A; Kohama, A; Takasu, N; Ishimatsu, S; Hinohara, S

    1998-06-01

    The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the second documented incident of nerve gas poisoning in Japan. Prior to the Tokyo subway sarin attack, there had never been such a large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas in peacetime history. This article provides details related to how the community emergency medical services (EMS) system responded from the viewpoint of disaster management, the problems encountered, and how they were addressed. The authors' assessment was that if EMTs, under Japanese law, had been allowed to maintain an airway with an endotracheal tube or use a laryngeal mask airway without physician oversight, more patients might have been saved during this chemical exposure disaster. Given current legal restrictions, advanced airway control at the scene will require that doctors become more actively involved in out-of-hospital treatment. Other recommendations are: 1) that integration and cooperation of concerned organizations be established through disaster drills; 2) that poison information centers act as regional mediators of all toxicologic information; 3) that a real-time, multidirectional communication system be established; 4) that multiple channels of communication be available for disaster care; 5) that public organizations have access to mobile decontamination facilities; and 6) that respiratory protection and chemical-resistant suits with gloves and boots be available for out-of-hospital providers during chemical disasters.

  20. Influence of Surface-Based Stable Layer Development on Asian Dust Behaviour Over Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Iwai, Hironori; Ishii, Shoken; Yasui, Motoaki; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Mizutani, Kohei

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between local meteorological fields and the behaviour of airborne Asian dust that arrived in the Tokyo metropolitan area on 1 April 2007 with the passage of a synoptic-scale cold front has been investigated through Doppler lidar observations, experiments using a regional atmospheric numerical model, and analyses of surface and upper-air meteorological observations. Results of the Doppler lidar observations showed that the Asian dust passed above the metropolitan area with strong south-westerly winds with speeds of 15-26 m s-1. Meteorological fields reproduced by the numerical experiments showed the development of a surface-based stable layer in the metropolitan area caused by nocturnal radiational cooling near the ground surface and south-westerly warm air advection at upper levels. The blocking effect of the mountainous region located to the west of the metropolitan area induced an area of stagnant air inside the metropolitan area and promoted the stable layer development. Although strong downdrafts prevailed in the upper air, the airborne Asian dust did not spread to the ground when the stable layer was formed. These results strongly indicate that the developed stable layer prevented strong downdrafts from spreading to the ground, acting as an obstacle to the transport of the Asian dust particles from the upper air towards the ground. This is considered to be one of the main causes of the low appearance frequency of Asian dust phenomena near the ground in the Tokyo metropolitan area and eastern Japan.

  1. Johannes Ludwig Janson, professor of veterinary medicine in Tokyo in 1880-1902 - contribution to German-Japanese medical relations, part IV.

    PubMed

    Kast, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Among the German pioneers of Western medicine in Japan (8, 12) during the Meiji period (1868-1912), veterinary officer Johannes Ludwig Janson (1849-1914) was one of the most important figures. He arrived in Tokyo in October 1880 and taught at the Veterinary School in Komaba. During his tenure, the school in Komaba was integrated into the School of Agriculture of the Imperial University of Tokyo. Numerous of his graduates occupied high public offices. Among his publications, those about domestic animals and veterinary medicine in Japan deserve special attention. He married a Japanese girl and continued teaching in Komaba until 1902. He found his last resting place in Kagoshima, the native place of his wife. To this day, the Japanese consider Janson the founder of modern veterinary medicine in their country.

  2. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  3. Mass psychogenic systemic illness in school children in relation to the Tokyo photochemical smog

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Honma, T.

    1986-05-01

    To clarify the pathogenic mechanism of epidemics with acute systemic neurobehavioral illness associated with photochemical air pollution in Japan, we re-examined our past records in sixteen junior high school children, and compared them with major epidemics that occurred in 1970-1972 during which time Japanese society faced a new and unusual type of air pollution (Tokyo smog). Dysfunction of alveolar-arterial gas exchange, together with respiratory alkalosis, was newly found in these children, who suffered from chest discomfort, ocular irritation, emotional distress, tetany, and unconsciousness. It was concluded that anxiety reaction, precipitated by the physical effects of photochemical oxidants and athletic performance, possibly led to many outbreaks of mass psychogenic systemic illness (hyperventilation syndrome) among school children.

  4. Alexithymic traits as predictors of difficulties with adjustment in an outpatient cohort of expatriates in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, I; Berger, D; Wogan, J; Kuboki, T

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether alexithymic characteristics, which are thought to be related to poor coping with stress, would be associated with variables thought to reflect adjustment to life abroad. The subjects were 56 expatriates living in Tokyo, Japan. The Expatriate Adaptation Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Social Support Questionnaire of the Stress and Coping Inventory were given to the subjects. Scores on alexithymia were significantly associated with dissatisfaction with life abroad, higher satisfaction with life in one's home country prior to departure, and higher ratings on the perception of poor social support. An alexithymia variable, difficulty identifying feelings, was a significant predictor of dissatisfaction with life abroad and satisfaction with life in the home country. The results suggest that, because alexithymia was associated with lower satisfaction with life abroad and higher satisfaction in the home country prior to departure, it may be a predictor of adjustment difficulties when individuals live abroad. Empirical confirmation is needed.

  5. Japan’s Search for Strategic Vision: The Contemporary Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-25

    Japan relations. 69 Sharing this anxiety over American opinion were Yukio Okamoto, then with the Foreign Ministry, who feared that American mistrust...76 The unusually harsh words bore the stamp of the study’s principal author, noted Tokyo University political scientist Seizaburo Sato . On another...occasion, Sato told an interviewer that there have always been ups and downs in the image of the United States in Japan. But there is a growing concern

  6. Intra-Cultural Variation in Child Care Practices in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    This study, comprising three sub-studies, aims to examine how child-rearing practices vary according to different social circumstances in Japan. By comparing teacher-child interaction at mealtimes in day care centres both on an isolated small island located in Okinawa prefecture, Tarama, and in a large industrialised city, Tokyo, the following was…

  7. Intra-Cultural Variation in Child Care Practices in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    This study, comprising three sub-studies, aims to examine how child-rearing practices vary according to different social circumstances in Japan. By comparing teacher-child interaction at mealtimes in day care centres both on an isolated small island located in Okinawa prefecture, Tarama, and in a large industrialised city, Tokyo, the following was…

  8. Women's Studies, Higher Education, and Feminist Educators in Japan Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Helen Rippier

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the backgrounds and current status of Women's Studies in Japan today. Research on which it is based was conducted while the author was visiting scholar and guest lecturer in Women's Studies at Toyo University in Tokyo in spring and summer 1984. (Author)

  9. Local Public Finance in Japan; Urban Affairs Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ursula

    The three largest cities in Japan--Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya--are used to examine the financial situation of Japanese urban areas. The 1949 Shoup Mission findings and recommendations are reviewed. Demographic data and information on the administrative and the fiscal organization of Japanese cities during the past three decades are presented. Details…

  10. Culture and Unrealistic Expectations Challenge American Campuses in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Examines difficulties faced by American university branches in Japan. Notes that 30 institutions developed programs offering American-style college education during the 1980s and 1990s but that only five have survived, due primarily to culture clashes. Focuses on experiences of the Temple University branch in Tokyo, which survives, and Minnesota…

  11. Development of celestial mechanics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Y.

    1998-08-01

    In this article, a brief history of Japanese astronomy before the Meiji restoration is described at the beginning. Then the development of celestial mechanics research in Japan after the Meiji is traced until the 1950s by describing, particularly, the careers and works of H. Terao, K. Hirayama and Y. Hagihara, the three consecutive professors of celestial mechanics at Tokyo University, as well as those by their students.

  12. Development of celestial mechanics in Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Yoshihide

    1998-08-01

    In this article, a brief history of Japanese astronomy before the Meiji restoration is described at the beginning. Then the development of celestial mechanics research in Japan after the Meiji is traced until the 1950s by describing, particularly, the careers and works of H. Terao, K. Hirayama and Y. Hagihara, the three consecutive professors of celestial mechanics at Tokyo University, as well as those by their students.

  13. Japan taxis already on LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, K.D.

    1980-09-15

    Most of Japan's taxi fleet has been using liquefied propane or butane gas for more than a decade. About 45,000 taxis in Tokyo, logging an average of approx. 75,000 mi/yr, use LPG because of significant (50%) savings on fuel costs. LPG use requires good engineering of the vehicle and rigorous maintenance, including a mandatory change of gas tanks every two years. Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co. is planning to fuel its fleet of automotive vehicles with natural gas.

  14. Sharing expertise. Japan.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) contracted JOICFP to organize and implement the Population/Reproductive Health Course of the JICA Prospective Expert Training Program, held in Japan and Nepal from November 17 to December 19. The course was attended by seven experts, all co-medicals except for an IEC expert and a medical economic expert. This was the fourth such course and the third one organized and managed by JOICFP. It was conducted as part of Japanese official development assistance activities under the Global Issues Initiative (GII) on Population and AIDS. The course is designed to train Japanese technical experts in providing technical cooperation in Japanese government projects in developing countries. Four of the five participant's of the previous year's course are now working in developing countries in JICA-related projects. Two participants of the 1997 course had received overseas assignments by the end of the course. In Tokyo, participants were given an overview of international population, reproductive health, and bilateral assistance, as well as Japan's experience in family planning and maternal-child health. The team then went upon a 2-week study tour in Nepal. Noting that most of the trainees were women, participants suggested that more men be trained in future courses.

  15. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  16. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey)

    PubMed Central

    Kanata, Sho; Koike, Shinsuke; Ando, Shuntaro; Nishida, Atsushi; Usami, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Syudo; Morimoto, Yuko; Toriyama, Rie; Fujikawa, Shinya; Sugimoto, Noriko; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Background Enuresis (9% at age 9.5) negatively affects children’s psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age) is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old) and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS), a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children’s enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention. Results The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD) = 3.8 (2.3), non-enuretic: M (SD) = 3.0 (2.1), Hedge’s g = 0.39, p < .001). This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), low birth weight and parents’ education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028–.080], p < .001). Conclusions Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention. PMID:27414399

  17. [Neurology in Japan before World War II].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Modern Western medicine was introduced into Japan by a Dutch doctor Pompe van Meerdervoort in 1855. A German physician EOE von Balz devoted himself to educating medicine at Tokyo Medical School, the predecessor of the present University of Tokyo for 25 years. Hiroshi Kawahara and Kinnosuke Miura, pioneers of Japan Neurology, received their education by him. Kawahara first described X-linked bulvo-spinal muscular atrophy, and published the first Japanese textbook of clinical neurology in 1897. In 1902, Miura and others founded the Japanese Society of Neuro-Psychiatry, the forerunner of the present " Japanese Society of Neurology ". Both Seizo Katsunuma, Professor of Nagoya University, and Junnjiro Kato, Professor of Tohoku University, succeeded Miura's neurology. Miura investigated into the cause of beriberi, but ended in failure. Hasegawa's proposal at the Diet in 1894 that the Japan Government should found an independent department of neurology in the University of Tokyo was unfortunately rejected. There was no foundation of independent institute, department and clinic of neurology before World War II. Consequently Japanese neurology was on the ebb at that time.

  18. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The first volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education includes plenary addresses, plenary panel discussions, research forum, project groups, discussion groups, short oral communications, and poster presentations. (ASK)

  19. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  20. Posture Plus - A Standing CJTF Headquarters for the U.S.-Japan Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Ground Self Defense Force (GSDF), and Air Self Defense Force ( ASDF ).30 According to Bates Gill, an Asia security expert at the Center for Strategic and...in structure and capabilities of the MSDF, GSDF, and ASDF indicate that Japan is willing to take on a more ardent role, not only in their own defense...Affairs of Japan, The Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation, (Tokyo, 1997), 2. 37 Japanese Defense Agency, 163. 38 Ibid. 11 The ASDF has

  1. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Conference (6th, Hiroshima, Japan, September 27-October 4, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Pacific region countries reported on their 1982 cooperative activities in education, including exchange and curriculum development projects, aimed at improving intercultural understanding. The first part of the report describes what happened at the sessions; the second part contains the appendices. Various countries--Australia, Canada, Japan, New…

  2. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Conference (6th, Hiroshima, Japan, September 27-October 4, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Pacific region countries reported on their 1982 cooperative activities in education, including exchange and curriculum development projects, aimed at improving intercultural understanding. The first part of the report describes what happened at the sessions; the second part contains the appendices. Various countries--Australia, Canada, Japan, New…

  3. Comparative Labor Market Policies of Japan, West Germany, United Kingdom, France, Australia. Conference Proceedings of the National Council on Employment Policy (Washington, DC, April 25, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Howard, Ed.

    These five papers underscore the fact that the labor market policies of Japan, West Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia are similar in many ways. The papers are "Japanese Labor Market Policies" (Koji Taira), "The Labor Market Policies of West Germany" (Deborah R. Cichon), "The Management of the U.K. Labour…

  4. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-04-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  5. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in the Tokyo area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-08-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  6. Seasonal models of herpangina and hand-foot-mouth disease to simulate annual fluctuations in urban warming in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Shindo, Nahoko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2003-04-01

    In order to investigate the effects of global warming, we attempted to establish seasonal models to predict fluctuations in rates of herpangina (HA) and hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with weather conditions and calendar months in Tokyo, Japan. Surveillance data tracking HA/HFMD incidences in Tokyo was retrieved from the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report, published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. From the Meteorological Agency, we obtained data for 54 weather condition parameters. The annual fluctuations in reported HA cases comprising start, peak, and end weeks almost exactly matched the model, although peak levels for each fluctuation did not always match in HFMD. Furthermore, for the HA model, 88% of the variations among observed HA cases were explained by the linear relationship with the seasonal parameters investigated, which was higher than the 64% observed for the HFMD model. The HA and HFMD models were applied to data from the years 1999 to 2002, and demonstrated correlations of 86% and 64%, respectively. These models predicted that warmer climate conditions would lead to an increased number of HA and HFMD cases. These results suggest that our seasonal models may quantify the dependency of infectious diseases on seasonal parameters and simulate the impact of global warming.

  7. Development of magnetically levitated high speed transport system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Kazuo

    1996-07-01

    In Japan, huge passenger traffic moves through the Tokyo-Osaka corridor and the demand is mounting on one more high speed line besides the Tokaido Shinkansen. A magnetically levitated vehicle (JR Maglev) using superconducting magnets has been developed for the Tokyo-Osaka superspeed express. JR Maglev has many advantages over conventional rail systems. This paper describes the necessity of one more high speed line in this corridor, the reason the author chose Maglev, the scheme of this system, history of the development and outline of the new Yamanashi test line project.

  8. A significant net sink for CO2 in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Maeda, Yosaku; Kanda, Jota

    2017-03-01

    Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay. Here we show a comprehensive scheme with a border where air-sea CO2 flux was ±0 between nearshore waters emitting CO2 and offshore waters absorbing CO2. The border in Tokyo Bay was extremely shifted toward the land-side. The shift is characteristic of highly urbanized coastal waters with an extensive sewage treatment system in the catchment area. Because highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide are expected to quadruple by 2050, coastal waters such as Tokyo Bay are expected to increase as well. Through extrapolation of Tokyo Bay data, CO2 emission from global estuaries would be expected to decrease roughly from the current 0.074 PgC year‑1 to 0.014 PgC year‑1 in 2050.

  9. International Family Profiles and Parental School Choice in Tokyo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Willis, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of being an "international" citizen is one that describes an increasing number of people worldwide. This has implications for the educational experiences of many students, which can be reflected in the school choices made by their parents. As part of this study, "international" parents residing in Tokyo were…

  10. A significant net sink for CO2 in Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Atsushi; Maeda, Yosaku; Kanda, Jota

    2017-03-13

    Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay. Here we show a comprehensive scheme with a border where air-sea CO2 flux was ±0 between nearshore waters emitting CO2 and offshore waters absorbing CO2. The border in Tokyo Bay was extremely shifted toward the land-side. The shift is characteristic of highly urbanized coastal waters with an extensive sewage treatment system in the catchment area. Because highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide are expected to quadruple by 2050, coastal waters such as Tokyo Bay are expected to increase as well. Through extrapolation of Tokyo Bay data, CO2 emission from global estuaries would be expected to decrease roughly from the current 0.074 PgC year(-1) to 0.014 PgC year(-1) in 2050.

  11. A significant net sink for CO2 in Tokyo Bay

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Atsushi; Maeda, Yosaku; Kanda, Jota

    2017-01-01

    Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay. Here we show a comprehensive scheme with a border where air-sea CO2 flux was ±0 between nearshore waters emitting CO2 and offshore waters absorbing CO2. The border in Tokyo Bay was extremely shifted toward the land-side. The shift is characteristic of highly urbanized coastal waters with an extensive sewage treatment system in the catchment area. Because highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide are expected to quadruple by 2050, coastal waters such as Tokyo Bay are expected to increase as well. Through extrapolation of Tokyo Bay data, CO2 emission from global estuaries would be expected to decrease roughly from the current 0.074 PgC year−1 to 0.014 PgC year−1 in 2050. PMID:28287153

  12. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  13. Meteorologists from the University of Tokyo: Their Exodus to the United States Following World War II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John M.

    1993-07-01

    The emigration of 11 young Japanese meteorologists to the United States following World War II is investigated. Their move is examined with the benefit of a historical backdrop that includes a study of the socioeconomic conditions in Japan and the education that they received at the University of Tokyo. Oral histories and letters of reminiscence from these scientists are used with standard source material to reconstruct the conditions of postwar Japan. The principal results of the study are that 1) these scientists were among the intellectual elite, because of the rigorous screening process in the Japanese educational system; 2) their scientific education was fundamentally grounded in traditional physics and a wide range of geophysical sciences; 3) they all experienced austere living conditions and poor job prospects in the war-torn Japanese economy; and 4) they made a strong scientific connection with U.S. researchers in the areas of numerical experimentation and numerical weather prediction, which facilitated their move to the United States.

  14. Evolution from education to practical use in University of Tokyo's nano-satellite activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Sako, Nobutada; Sahara, Hironori; Nakamura, Yuya; Eishima, Takashi; Komatsu, Mitsuhito

    2010-04-01

    The paper overviews recent nano-satellite development activities of University of Tokyo, Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory (ISSL). Development of real satellites and actually launching them provides excellent materials for space engineering education as well as project management, which is rather difficult to teach in usual class lectures. In addition, it may lead to a new way of space development with its cheap and quick access to space. Two educational CubeSats were launched successfully in 2003 and 2005, and they have been surviving in space more than 5 years, which showed that the COTS (commercial off the shelf) can be reliably used in space if the system is designed appropriately. Based on the experiences and technologies obtained in CubeSat projects, ISSL initiated practical applications of nano-satellite, starting with PRISM, 8 kg remote sensing satellite aiming for 30 m ground resolution and Nano-JASMINE, 20 kg astrometry satellite, which will be launched in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In order to support these kinds of student-oriented activities in Japan, University Space Engineering Consortium (UNISEC) was founded in 2002 by the author's group, which has had large effect of further facilitating students' space-related activities in Japan. Significance and history of such activities are reviewed briefly, followed by the objectives and future vision of such nano-satellite activities.

  15. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The second volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "What you see is what you get: The influence of visualization on the perception of data structures" (Dan Aharoni); (2) "Exploring the transparency of graphs and graphing"…

  16. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The fourth volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "What are essential to apply the 'discovery' function of proof in lower secondary school mathematics?" (Mikio Miyazaki); (2) "The anatomy of an 'open' mathematics lesson"…

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (17th, Tsukuba, Japan, July 18-23, 1993). Volumes I-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirabayashi, Ichiei, Ed.; And Others

    The Proceedings of PME-XVII has been published in three volumes because of the large number of papers presented at the conference. Volume I contains a brief Plenary Panel report, 4 full-scale Plenary Addresses, the brief reports of 10 Working Groups and 4 Discussion Groups, and a total of 23 Research Reports grouped under 4 themes. Volume II…

  18. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The third volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "Mathematics classrooms functioning as communities of inquiry: Possibilities and constraints for changing practice" (Susie Groves, Brian Doig, and Laurance Splitter); (2)…

  19. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Two: Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ian; And Others

    Texts of conference papers and summaries of colloquia on second language curriculum design are presented, including: "Competency Assessment in Curriculum Renewal" (summary of session with Ian Harrison, Francis Johnson, Christopher Candlin, Anthony Green, David Nunan, Charles Smith); "The Evolving of a Curriculum" (Hiroshi Abe,…

  20. On JALT96: Crossing Borders. Proceedings of the Annual JALT International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning (23rd, Hiroshima, Japan, November 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Steve, Ed.; Rule, Peggy, Ed.; Sugino, Toshiko, Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on language teaching/learning are presented by topic and grouped under seven sections. An introductory section contains two papers on cultural diversity and world English. The second section, on teacher development, contains papers on these topics: teacher development and socialization; teachers' responses…

  1. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Five: Bilingualism and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Laurel; And Others

    Conference papers on bilingualism and children are presented, including: "The Nurture and Nature of Bilingual Acquisition" (Laurel Kamada, Liu Xing-Ying, Willeta Silva, Mary Goebel Noguchi); "Early English Acquisition in the EFL Situation" (Soo-Woong Ahn); "Age Factors and Language Proficiency in Child SLA" (Kazuko Yumoto); and "Development of…

  2. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Six: In the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    Texts of conference papers and summaries of colloquia on classroom environment and interaction in second language teaching are presented, including: "Fluency Development" (James Dean Brown); "Learner Development: Three Designs" (in Japanese) (Hiroko Naito, Yoshitake Tonia, Takao Kinugawa, Morio Hamada); "Desirable Japanese Teachers and Classroom…

  3. CHAIRMEN'S FOREWORD: The Seventh International Conference on New Phenomena in Mesoscopic Structures & The Fifth International Conference on Surfaces and Interfaces of Mesoscopic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Yoshinobu; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2006-05-01

    , non-equilibrium transport, instabilities, nano-electro-mechanical systems, mesoscopic Josephson effects, phase coherence and breaking, and the Kondo effect •Systems of nanodevices: Quantum cellular automata, systolic SET processors, quantum neural nets, adaptive effects in circuits, and molecular circuits •Nanomaterials: nanotubes, nanowires, organic and molecular materials, self-assembled nano wires, and organic devices •Nanobioelectronics: electronic properties of biological structures on the nanoscale. This year's conference was organized by Prof Stephen Goodnick, Arizona State University, and Prof Yoshinobu Aoyagi, Tokyo Institute of Technology. The conference benefited from 14 invited speakers, whose topics spanned the above list, and a total of 97 registered attendees. The largest contingent was from Japan, followed closely by the US. In total, there were 49 from Japan, 31 fiom the US, and 17 from Europe. The organizers want to especially thank the sponsors for the meeting: The Office of Naval Research, the Army Research Office, and Arizona State University on the US side, and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, through their 151 Committee, on the Japanese side. PROGRAM COMMITTEE •Prof Gerhard Abstreiter, Technical University of Munich •Prof Tsuneya Ando, Tokyo Institute of Technology •Prof John Barker, University of Glasgow •Prof Jonathan Bird, the University at Buffalo •Prof Robert Blick, University of Wisconsin •Prof David Ferry, Chair, Arizona State University •Dr Yoshiro Hirayama, NTT Basic Research Laboratories •Dr Koji Ishibashi, RIKEN •Prof Carlo Jacoboni, University of Modena •Prof David Janes, Purdue University •Prof Friedl Kuchar, University of Leoben •Prof K. Matsumoto, Osaka University •Prof Wolfgang Porod, Notre Dame University •Prof Michiharu Tabe, Shizuoka University •Prof Joachim Wolter, Eindhoven Institute of Technology •Prof Lukas Worschech, University of Würzburg •Dr Naoki Yokoyama, Fujitsu

  4. Japan Report, No. 184.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-10

    Iraw war escalated further. Speaking at a press conference, Tokio Nagayama, president of Petroleum As- sociation of Japan and also president of...figures were 41.0 percent and 31.8 percent respectively. This tendency is stronger among blue -collar 31 workers than white-collar workers. It would...respectively.) Furthermore, in a great majority of the workshop groups, whether it be blue collar or white collar jobs, a large number of

  5. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center.

  6. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this. Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11166

  8. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Yoshinori Yoshimura, a respresentative from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. [Identification of Psychotropic Drugs Attributed to Fatal Overdose--A Case-control Study by Data from the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office and Prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Suzuki, Hideto; Takeshima, Tadashi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2016-01-01

    Drug overdose is a serious public health issue and fatal cases have been reported from various fields of medicine. This case-control analysis assessed the comparison between fatal overdose cases in the special wards of Tokyo Metropolitan area and prescribed psychotropic drugs in Tokyo in 2009-2010. It was suggested that the prescribed drugs serve as a direct cause of death in overdose cases. Furthermore, pentobarbital calcium, chlorpromazine-promethazine-phenobarbital, levomepromazine and flunitrazepam were identified as drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose. It is encouraged to prudently verify the intended application and usage of such psychotropic drugs in each case upon their prescription. This is the first study in Japan to identify psychotropic drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose by case-control study.

  11. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  12. Lead pollution in Tokyo--the pigeon reflects its amelioration

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, G.; Seki, H.; Minowa, K.; Ohsawa, M.; Mizoguchi, I; Sugimori, F.

    1981-10-01

    To monitor lead pollution in the Tokyo metropolitan area, we checked the feral pigeon Columba livia var. blood lead levels and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities (ALA-D) of the erythrocytes over the period from 1971 to 1980. The pigeons gave much more magnified pictures of lead pollution than atmospheric lead concentrations indicated, even after addition of tetraethyl lead to the regular gasoline was totally banned in 1975. Since the biological half-life of lead in the pigeon was determined to be relatively short, this was considered mainly due to their habit of ingesting gizzard stones polluted with lead. The amelioration of lead pollution, reflected in the pigeons in downtown Tokyo, was observed with a few years of lag time after the improvement of the atmospheric lead concentration was first noted.

  13. Report from the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimoto, Shigeo; Adachi, Jun; Baker, Thomas; Weibel, Stuart

    This paper describes the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2001 (DC-2001), the ninth major workshop of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), which was held in Tokyo in October 2001. DC-2001 was a week-long event that included both a workshop and a conference. In the tradition of previous events, the workshop…

  14. Director-General's Report on the Third International Conference on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Third International Conference on Adult Education in the context of live-long education was held in Tokyo from July 25 to August 7, 1972. Those attending the Conference examined the following topics: main trends in adult education during the last ten years; adult education as a factor in the democratization of education and in economic, social…

  15. Applicability of the prehospital termination of resuscitation rule in an area dense with hospitals in Tokyo: a single-center, retrospective, observational study: is the pre hospital TOR rule applicable in Tokyo?

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tatsuma; Ohashi, Naoko; Matsubara, Takehiro; Doi, Kent; Gunshin, Masataka; Ishii, Takeshi; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether the prehospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) rule is applicable in specific situations such as in areas extremely dense with hospitals. The objective of the study is to assess whether the prehospital TOR rule is applicable in the emergency medical services system in Japan, specifically, in an area dense with hospitals in Tokyo. This study was a retrospective, observational analysis of a cohort of adult out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCA) patients who were transported to the University of Tokyo Hospital from April 1, 2009, to March 31, 2011. During the study period, 189 adult OHCA patients were enrolled. Of the 189 patients, 108 patients met the prehospital TOR rule. The outcomes were significantly worse in the prehospital TOR rule-positive group than in the prehospital TOR-negative group, with 0.9% vs 11.1% of patients, respectively, surviving until discharge (relative risk [RR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.21; P = .0020) and 0.0% vs 7.4% of patients, respectively, discharged with a favorable neurologic outcome (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15; P = .0040). The prehospital TOR rule had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.1% (95% CI, 96.3-99.8) and a specificity of 90.0% (95% CI, 60.5-98.2) for death and a PPV of 100.0% (95% CI, 97.9-100.0) and a specificity of 100.0% (95% CI, 61.7-100.0) for an unfavorable neurologic outcome. This study suggested that the prehospital TOR rule predicted unfavorable outcomes even in an area dense with hospitals in Tokyo and might be helpful for identifying the OHCA patients for whom resuscitation efforts would be fruitless. © 2013.

  16. The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m telescope: project overview and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, T.; Sako, S.; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, T.; Kato, N.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Koshida, S.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Garay, G.

    2016-07-01

    The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory Project is to construct a 6.5m infrared telescope at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640m altitude) in northern Chile, promoted by the University of Tokyo. Thanks to the dry climate (PWV 0.5mm) and the high altitude, it will achieve excellent performance in the NIR to MIR wavelengths. The telescope has two Nasmyth foci where the facility instruments are installed and two folded-Cassegrain foci for carry-in instruments. All these four foci can be switched by rotating a tertiary mirror. The final focal ratio is 12.2 and the telescope foci have large field-of-view of 25° in diameter. We adopted the 6.5m light-weighted borosilicate honeycomb primary mirror and its support system that are developed by Steward Observatory Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab. The dome enclosure has the shape of carousel, and large ventilation windows with shutters control the wind to flush heat inside the dome. The operation building with control room, aluminizing chamber and maintenance facilities is located at the side of the dome. Two cameras, SWIMS for spectroscopy and imaging in the near-infrared and MIMIZUKU in the mid-infrared, are being developed as the first-generation facility instruments. The operation of the telescope will be remotely carried out from a base facility at San Pedro de Atacama, 50km away from the summit. The construction of the telescope is now underway. Fabrication of the telescope mount has almost finished, and the pre-assembly has been carried out in Japan. The primary, secondary, and tertiary mirrors and their cells have been also fabricated, as well as their cells and support systems. Fabrication of the enclosure is now underway, and their pre-assembly in Japan will be carried out in 2016. Construction of the base facility at San Pedro de Atacama has been already completed in 2014, and operated for the activities in Atacama. The telescope is now scheduled to see the first light at the beginning of 2018.

  17. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  18. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Dobacewski (Warsaw, Poland) G Dracoulis (ANU, Australia) S J Freedman (LBL, USA) M Hass (Weizmann Institute, Israel) M Huyse (Leuven, Belgium) P Jones (Birmingham, UK) D Khao (Hanoi, Vietnam) R Krücken (Munich, Germany) K Langanke (Darmstadt, Germany) C Lister (Argonne, USA) G A Miller (University of Washington, USA) D Morrissey (MSU, USA) T Motobayashi (RIKEN, Japan) S Nagamiya (J-PARC, Japan) W Nazarewicz (ORNL, USA) S Mullins (iThemba, South Africa) T Nakamura (Tokyo, Japan) P Roussel Chomaz (GANIL, France) R Ribas (Sao Paolo, Brazil) M Vanderhaeghen (Mainz, Germany) U Wiedner (Uppsala, Sweden) F Xu (Peking University, China) Q Zhao (IHEP, Bejing) W Zajc (Columbia, USA)

  19. Classification of magnitude 7 earthquakes which occurred after 1885 in Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Nishiyama, A.

    2010-12-01

    Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in tectonically complex region; both the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are subducting from east and south, respectively, beneath the Kanto region. As a result, various types of earthquakes occur in this region; i.e., shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS, within PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. Among these, the largest earthquakes are Kanto earthquakes (M~8) occurring between the continental plate and PHS. The average recurrence interval is estimated to be 200 - 400 years (Earthq. Res. Comm., 2004), and hence, urgency of the next Kanto earthquake is thought to be low considering the lapse time (~87 yrs.) from the most recent Kanto earthquake in 1923. However, urgency of the other types of earthquakes with M~7 is high; Earthq. Res. Comm. (2004) calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the facts that five M~7 earthquakes (i.e., the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu, 1922 Uraga channel and 1987 Chiba-Ken Toho-Oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of earthquakes are not well known especially for the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo and 1895 Ibaragi-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes due to low quality of data. Thus, it is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes and to estimate their occurrence frequency. Ishibe et al. (2009a, 2009b) compiled previous studies and data for these five earthquakes. In this study, we report the preliminary result of focal depth and mechanism for the 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes. The epicenter of the 1895 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquake (M 7.2; Utsu, 1979) is discussed by various studies (e.g., Usami, 1973; Ishibashi, 1975; Katsumata, 1975; Utsu, 1979). However, few studies have discussed the hypocentral depth. The hypocentral depth is estimated to be 75 ~ 85 km using S-P time at Tokyo

  20. Atmospheric fallout of (129)I in Japan before the Fukushima accident: regional and global contributions (1963-2005).

    PubMed

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-06

    Atmospheric (129)I deposition was studied in different locations of Japan (Akita, Tsukuba, Tokyo, and Ishigaki Island) with samples collected between 1963 and 2005 in order to understand the distribution and sources of this nuclide and provide a reference deposition level prior to the Fukushima accident. Over this time period, the deposition pattern of (129)I in Tsukuba and Tokyo (on the Pacific side) differed from that of Akita (on the Japan Sea side). The primary source of deposition in Tsukuba and Tokyo is related to the (129)I discharge from domestic reprocessing in Tokai-mura. In contrast, the time-series pattern of deposition in Akita seems to have been influenced by (129)I discharges from reprocessing facilities in Europe and the transport of this radionuclide by westerly winds to coastlines of the Japan Sea. The (129)I deposition in Ishigaki (one of the southernmost islands in Japan) is influenced primarily by oceanic air masses (easterly winds), and deposition was 1 order of magnitude lower than that observed in Tsukuba and Tokyo. Cumulative (129)I deposition in Tokyo before the Fukushima accident was estimated at 13 mBq/m(2). The results of this study on deposition contribute to understanding the deposition levels of (129)I prior to the accident.

  1. [Two research projects on infectious diseases conducted in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana by Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Ido, Eiji; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ghana-Tokyo Medical and Dental University Research Collaboration Center has been established since 2008 when our Program was chosen together with the Program in the Philippines proposed by Tohoku University as an additional small-scale research center of the Overseas Research Program on Emerging and Reemerging Diseases that is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government and started in 2005. This 5-year government-supported Program has changed its name to develop into a more active world-level program called Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) and entered the second 5-year phase in 2010, and our Program is playing an important role among other research centers located in Asia and Africa. Currently, two research projects are carried out in parallel in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research by Tokyo Medical and Dental University: one is a J-GRID project and the other is the one of Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) which is a joint project between Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This special article is describing what these two projects are all about.

  2. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    our conference. The social program is an important aspect of any conference and the PowerMEMS 2013 banquet will be held in the Science Museum. This provides a fantastic opportunity to network whilst viewing some of the fundamental engineering innovations that have ultimately bought us all here today. There is a long list of individuals we would like to thank for their support in organising PowerMEMS 2013. Once again the TPC, chaired by Eric Yeatman and Douglas Paul, have given us their valuable time and effort in reviewing abstracts. The PowerMEMS School chairs Einar Halvorsen and Shad Roundy and the expert speakers made the School possible. The local organising committee, led by Alwyn Elliott, have provided us with invaluable assistance in making PowerMEMS 2013 happen. The financial support from Imperial College London, the University of Southampton and conference sponsors has also been gratefully appreciated. Finally, we would like to thank you all for attending and helping in making PowerMEMS 2013 a success. We wish you a productive and enjoyable conference and a wonderful stay in London. Paul Mitcheson and Steve Beeby CONFERENCE OFFICIALS Conference Co-Chairs Stephen Beeby, University of Southampton, UK Paul Mitcheson, Imperial College London, UK Technical Program Committee Co-Chairs Douglas Paul, University of Glasgow, UK Eric Yeatman, Imperial College London, UK PowerMEMS School Co Chairs Einar Halvorsen, Vestfold University College, Norway Shad Roundy, University of Utah, USA Local Organising Committee Chair Alwyn Elliott, Imperial College London, UK International Steering Committee Mark Allen, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA Steve Beeby, University of Southampton, UK Young-Ho Cho, KAIST, South Korea Alan Epstein, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Masayoshi Esashi, Tohoku University, Japan Luc Fréchette, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada Reza Ghodssi, University of Maryland, USA Hiroki Kuwano, Tohoku University, Japan Jeff Lang, Massachusetts

  3. Pre-flight performance and radiation hardness of the Tokyo Tech pico-satellite Cute-1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotoku, J.; Kataoka, J.; Kuramoto, Y.; Tsubuku, Y.; Yatsu, Y.; Sato, R.; Ikagawa, T.; Saito, T.; Kawai, N.; Konoue, K.; Miyashita, N.; Iai, M.; Omagari, K.; Kashiwa, M.; Yabe, H.; Imai, K.; Miyamoto; Fujiwara, K.; Masumoto, S.; Usuda, T.; Iljic, T.; Konda, A.; Sugita, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Matsuura, D.; Sagami, T.; Kajiwara, S.; Funaki, Y.; Matsunaga, S.; Shima, T.; Kishimoto, S.

    2006-09-01

    The Cute-1.7 was launched successfully in February 2006 as a piggyback satellite of the Astro-F mission. The Cute-1.7 dimensions are 10×10×20cm box with a total mass of 3.6 kg. It is the second pico-satellite to have been developed completely by students of the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.) after the successful launch of the CUTE-I in June 2003. The goals of the Cute-1.7 mission are two-fold: (1) to validate high-performance, commercially available products for the first time in space. We particularly use personal digital assistants (PDAs) as a main computer in orbit (2) to demonstrate new potential uses for small satellites in various space studies, as proposed by the “satellite-core” concept. For the Cute-1.7 mission, we will carry avalanche photo diodes (APDs) as a high-count particle monitor in low-Earth orbit. Here we present details of various ground tests and pre-flight performance of the Cute-1.7 immediately before the launch. Results of the Cute-1.7 mission will provide quick feedback for space applications of APDs in Japan's future X-ray astronomy mission NeXT.

  4. Evaluation of a virtual reality simulation system for porcelain fused to metal crown preparation at Tokyo Medical and Dental University.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hirono; Ikeda, Masaomi; Araki, Koji

    2013-06-01

    The use of virtual reality simulation (VRS) is a new teaching modality in dentistry, and there is scope for further research evaluating its use under different educational programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how VRS with or without instructor feedback influenced students' learning and skills related to porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown preparation. In this study, forty-three dental students in their fifth year of study at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, were randomly divided into three groups: the first group used VRS (DentSim) with the instructor's feedback (DSF) (n=15), the second group used VRS without the instructor's feedback (DS) (n=15), and the third group neither used features of VRS (NDS) (n=13) nor received the instructor's feedback. All the students performed PFM crown preparation under the same setup once a week for four weeks. Total scores, preparation time, and twelve evaluation items were compared among the three groups and four experiments. The total scores of students in the DSF and DS groups were significantly higher than those in the NDS group. The presence of the instructor did not result in significant difference when VRS was used for training, while it shortened the preparation time at early stages. The results of this study suggested that the use of the VRS system improved student training for PFM crown preparation.

  5. Prehospital management of sarin nerve gas terrorism in urban settings: 10 years of progress after the Tokyo subway sarin attack.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Kikuchi, Makiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Stein, Gerald H

    2006-02-01

    Chemical agents have been used previously in wartime on numerous occasions, from World War I to the Gulf War. In 1994 and 1995, sarin nerve gas was used first in peacetime as a weapon of terrorism in Japan. The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the first large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas. A religious cult released sarin gas into subway commuter trains during morning rush hour. Twelve passengers died and about 5500 people were harmed. Sarin is a highly toxic nerve agent that can be fatal within minutes to hours. It causes the clinical syndrome of cholinergic hyperstimulation by inhibition of the crucial enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Therapy of nerve agent toxicity is divided into three categories, decontamination, respiratory support, and antidotes. All of these therapies may be given simultaneously. This article reviews toxicology and management of this acute chemical emergency. To help minimize the possible catastrophic impact on the public, we make several recommendations based on analysis of the Tokyo subway sarin attack and systematically review the current scientific literature.

  6. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    PubMed

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.

  7. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  8. [The growing-up and background of clinical neurology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira

    2002-11-01

    Japan strictly closed the country to foreigners except for the Dutch and Chinese in the days of Tokugawa Regime for about 200 years (1639-1858). During this period, Japanese neurology made a start. In 1774, five Dutch scholars in Edo (Tokyo at present) translated the Dutch version of a German textbook "Anatomische Tabellen". After the Meiji Restoration, Japan was rapidly westernized. The modern neurology was introduced mainly from Germany, France and the United Kingdom into Japan, and exerted a fruitful influence on the subsequent Japanese neurology. Prof. Hiroshi KAWAHARA published the first textbook of neurology (in Japanese) in 1897. Prof. Kinnosuke MIURA founded the first neurological journal in Japan in 1902. These two pioneers in Japanese neurology had their medical education under Prof. Erwin Baelz at the University of Tokyo during the last-eighteenth century.

  9. The origins of scientific psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takasuna, Miki

    2006-01-01

    The origins of scientific psychology in Japan arrived primarily through six routes. First, psychology was imported through translations by Amane Nishi, which resulted in the coining of words such as "psychology," "subject," and "object." Second, psychology arrived in the form of education that was directed by American Christian missionaries. The third route brought psychology through lectures presented at universities (e.g., Masakazu Toyama began lecturing at the University of Tokyo in 1877). The fourth route relates to teacher education: Shuji Izawa and Hideo Takamine introduced psychology as part of the first curriculum at Tokyo Higher Normal School in 1879. The fifth route was created by Japanese philosophers who studied abroad, such as Tetsujiro Inouye. Finally, the sixth and most important avenue involved the introduction of experimental psychology, as well as a formal educational curriculum for psychologists (e.g., Yujiro Motora was the first Japanese to introduce experimental psychology to Japan, where he trained many students). Consequently, the establishment of scientific psychology in Japan was primarily owed to the Japanese scholars who studied abroad in the U.S. and Germany.

  10. Using Conference Submission Data to Uncover Broad Trends in Language Teaching: A Case Study of One Conference over 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference's history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers' conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to…

  11. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-03

    10503« JPRS-JAR-87-001 3 FEBRUARY 1987 Japan Report 19980629 058 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE BTIO QUALITY INSPECTED 6... JAPAN REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL Impact of Miyazawa’s Appointment as Finance Minister (Kenzo Uchida, et al.; ZAIKAI TEMBO, Oct 86...Direct U.S. Investment Discussed (Akio Morita, et? al.; KEIDANREN GEPPO, Sep 86) 30 Japan -PRC Trade Expansion Council Officially Inaugurated

  12. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-30

    172068 JPRS-JAR-85-0 1 0 3 0 April 198 5 Japan Report 19980722 116 »TIC QUALITY SfSPECTED 3 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE...85-010 30 April 19 85 JAPAN REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL Break Up of Tanaka-Nakasone Alliance Anticipated (Taro Maki; SEKAI, Jan 85...minister. It became "When I was prime minister, Japan was isolated in international society," and although at the U.S.- Japan summit talks President Reagan

  13. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-09

    expenditure . He said that he hoped for greater effort on Japan’s part in regard to the defense of Japan itself and its periphery. This means he clearly set...Forces into real combat forces and their unification with U.S. Forces. They dealt with the mounting defense expenditure , which is also connected with...governments of Japan and the United States on "guidelines for Japan -U.S. cooperation on defense " in 1978. Throughout 1984, even Prime Minister Nakasone

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, White Paper on Science & Technology 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    registrations indicate an overall improvement In. quality of patents obtained by Japanese applicants In the United States. (Figure 11) 11 Figure 11 Changes...JPRS-JST-92-005 26 FEBRUARY 1992 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE .JPRS Report- Science & Technology Japan WHITE PAPER ON SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY...JST-92-005 26 FEBRUARY 1992 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JAPAN WHITE PAPER ON SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1991 43070001 Tokyo WHITE PAPER ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

  15. [Increase of poisoning by tropical mushrooms in Japan in recent years].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Gonmori, Kunio

    2009-09-01

    A tropical poisonous mushroom, Chlorophyllum molybdites, invaded into Japan in recent years, and distributed in south-eastern and central part of Japan including 27 Prefectures in 2009; Gunma, Tochigi, Saitama, Ibaraki, Tokyo (including Bonin Islands), Chiba, Shizuoka, Ishikawa, Aichi, Mie, Shiga, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo, Tottori, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Kagawa, Tokushima, Kochi, Ohita, Kumamoto, Kagoshima and Okinawa. Poisoning by this fungus has increased recently (Table 2). Topics on distribution and poisoning by Russula subnigricans and Podostroma cornu-damae briefly discussed.

  16. ['Surgery by the red-haired barbarians'; Dutch physicians in Japan, 1600-1870].

    PubMed

    Veldman, J E

    2001-12-29

    Approximately 400 years ago, Dutch physicians laid the foundations for Western medicine in Japan. Around 1860, Dutch naval surgeons, trainees of the College of Army Surgeons in Utrecht, were to become the founders of the Medical Faculties at the Universities of Nagasaki, Tokyo and Osaka. The earlier Deshima-settlement surgeons Engelbert Kaempfer and Philipp Franz von Siebold played a highly important role in our knowledge of Japan during the 18th and 19th centuries.

  17. [A survey on condition of outpatients at prosthodontics II, University Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, N; Shiozawa, I; Masuda, T; Takei, H; Tsuruta, J; Ogura, N; Hasegawa, S

    1998-06-01

    The number of dental patients who have medical illnesses is increasing at the hospital of the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Although prosthodontic treatments are considered less invasive in all dental treatments, invasive procedures such as tooth extraction may be required occasionally. Therefore, it is necessary to treat patients in consideration of their condition. Under this situation, a clinical survey was conducted by health questionnaires answered by the patients who visited our clinic between October 1992 and March 1997. The number of patients whose illness was heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, nephritic disease, hepatitis, tuberculosis, hemodyscrasia, asthma, epilepsy, and so on during dental treatment was higher than the national average according to the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Dental psychosomatic diseases such as TMD and dental phobia were increased every year. These data reflect the contemporary disease structure in Japan characterized by the spreading of life-style related diseases and increase of neuropsychological and infectious diseases.

  18. Biodosimetry of restoration workers for the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident.

    PubMed

    Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Akiyama, Miho; Kobashi, Gen; Itokawa, Masanari; Akashi, Makoto; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The biological dose of nuclear workers engaged in emergency response tasks at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was estimated in the present study. As the national core center for radiation emergency medical preparedness in Japan, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) received all individuals who were suspected of being overexposed to acute radiation. In the course of health examinations at NIRS, biological dosimetry was performed by the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Twelve individuals were examined from 21 March-1 July 2011. The results indicated that the estimated exposure doses for all individuals were lower than 30 mGy, with the mean value of about 101 mGy. These results by DCA were in accordance with those obtained by physical dosimetry based on personal dosimeter recording assessment. The results corroborate the fact that no acute radiation syndrome was observed among the workers examined.

  19. Seasonal occurrence and interspecific interactions of egg parasitoids of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Japan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep in Tokyo, Japan during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. ...

  20. Computer-Related Attitudes of First and Second Grade Students in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezek, Gerald A.; Miyashita, Keiko

    This paper reports on an exploratory cross-cultural study of the attitudes of first and second grade students toward the use of microcomputers in instruction. Questionnaire responses were compared among three groups: Japanese students in Tokyo, Japan; American students in Sanger, Texas; and Japanese students attending a special school for Japanese…

  1. Verrucostoma, a new genus in the Bionectriaceae from the Bonin Islands, Japan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verrucostoma freycinetiae gen. et sp. nov. collected on dead leaves of Freycinetia boninensis (Pandanaceae) in Hahajima, Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Tokyo, Japan, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by having pale orange perithecia with protuberances around the perithecial ap...

  2. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  3. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  4. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 240 adult nonpatients from Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Noriko; Fuchigami, Yasufumi; Tsugawa, Ritsuko

    2007-01-01

    This article presents Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1995) results for 240 adult nonpatients living in the central area of Tokyo, Japan. Inclusion/exclusion criteria are described. Interrater reliability statistics at the response level are presented along with scores for CS variables.

  5. [Two Outbreaks of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infections in Tokyo and the Characterization of Isolates].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Noriko; Ishitsuka, Rie; Yokoyama, Keiko; Saiki, Dai; Akase, Satoru; Monma, Chie; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of outbreaks caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been very small in Japan, 4 outbreaks were occurred during the 2 years between 2012 and 2013. We describe herein 2 outbreaks which were examined in Tokyo in the present study. Outbreak 1: A total of 39 people (37 high school students and 2 staff) stayed at a hotel in mountain area in Japan had experienced abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever in August, 2012. The Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 18 (64.3%) out of 28 fecal specimens of 28 patients. The infection roots could not be revealed because Y. enterocolitica was not detected from any meals at the hotel or its environment. Outbreak 2: A total of 52 students at a dormitory had diarrhea and fever in April, 2013. The results of the bacteriological and virological examinations of fecal specimens of patients showed that the Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 24 fecal specimens of 21 patients and 3 kitchen staff. We performed bacteriological and virological examination of the stored and preserved foods at the kitchen of the dormitory to reveal the suspect food. For the detection of Y. enterocolitica, food samples. together with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were incubated at 4 degrees C for 21 days. Then, a screening test for Y. enterocolitica using realtime-PCR targeting the ail gene was performed against the PBS culture. One sample (fresh vegetable salad) tested was positive on realtime-PCR. No Y. enterocolitica was isolated on CIN agar from the PBS culture because many bacteria colonies other than Y. enterocolitica appeared on the CIN agar. After the alkaline-treatments of the culture broth or the immunomagnetic beads concentration method using anti-Y. enterocolitica O:8 antibodies, Y. enterocolitica O:8 which was the same serogroup as the patients' isolates was successfully isolated from the PBS culture. The fresh vegetable salad was confirmed as the incrimination food of this outbreak.

  6. Insomnia as a sequela of sarin toxicity several years after exposure in Tokyo subway trains.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Katsumata, Masao; Suzuki, Hiroko; Li, Qing; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Nakadai, Ari; Shimizu, Takako; Hirata, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukiyo

    2005-06-01

    More than 5,000 passengers on Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas "sarin" on March 20, 1995. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sarin exposure on insomnia in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire concerning sleep-related items was distributed to victims of sarin exposure in October and November, 2003. Questionnaires were completed by 161 of the 163 participants (98.8%), who were selected from 1,500 subjects. Among them, the authors selected 75 women 30 to 69 years of age. Control participants were collected from inhabitants living in Maebachi City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. For the younger exposed group (under 50 yr. of age), percentages of poor sleep, difficulty falling asleep, intermittent awakening, early morning awakening, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and insomnia were significantly higher than those for the control group. In contrast, the older exposed group (ages 50 to 69 years) had significantly higher prevalence of poor sleep, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and early morning awakening for the exposed group when compared with the control group. The high prevalence of insomnia and insomnia-related factors for victims especially under 50 years of age suggests a need for research on sleep quality after sarin exposure. Although posttraumatic stress disorder is assumed to be a psychological effect of exposure to a toxic substance, a cause-and-effect relationship has not been established.

  7. Systematic Education of Self-Medication at Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.

    PubMed

    Narui, Koji; Samizo, Kazuo; Inoue, Michiko; Watanabe, Kinzo

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.

  8. Energy Demand and Resources of Japan. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-08-01

    catalyst to a process already incipient, but the Emperor Meiji was the primary driving force behind Japan’s spectacular move into an industrialized...society. Meiji, having overthrown the Tokugawa Shogunate, moved the capital from Imperial Kyoto to commercial Edo .’Tokyo) and was highly 1——im i...electrification process . The 50/60 cycle zones still impede a truly national grid, but have been partially linked by an elaborate frequency conversion station

  9. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    his predecessor, Shinzo Abe , resigned suddenly. Abe’s resignation was preceded by a major electoral defeat in parliamentary elections at the hands...Talks, distance has emerged between Washington and Tokyo. Former Prime Minister Abe rose to prominence based on his hardline position on Pyongyang’s...both Abe and Fukuda substantially warmed Sino-Japanese ties. Although analysts emphasize that geopolitical rivalry between China and Japan is likely to

  10. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, F.

    Scientific ballooning activity in Japan during 2001 and 2002 is presented. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) launched 10 balloons from Sanriku Balloon Center (SBC) located 500 km north of Tokyo in 2001. Six flights were for scientific observations, observations of high energy cosmic electrons, cryogenic sampling of the air at high altitude, an observation of atmospheric ozone distribution, an observation of hard X-ray spectra of solar flare and a sampling of microorganism in the stratosphere. Two balloons made with 3.4 micron polyethylene film, of 30,000 m^3 without exhaust tube and 1,000 m^3 with exhaust tube were successfully flown and reached at altitudes of 50.7 km and 30.8 km respectively. It has been scheduled to launch 10 balloons in 2002 to observe solar flare, NO_2 and O_3 in the atmosphere, low frequency radiation in the environment, and atmospheric ozone density and to sample the air at high altitude. International collaborative balloon observations of cosmic-rays, Galactic infrared radiation and atmospheric ozone density were successfully conducted in USA, India and Spitzbergen, respectively in 2001. Two balloons will be flown from antarctica for the observations of cosmic-ray electrons and for auroral X-rays, respectively in December of 2002.

  11. Global update: Japan.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Doug

    2011-11-01

    Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro.

  12. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  13. International Symposium on Combustion, 15th, Tokyo, Japan, August 25-31, 1974, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies concerned with detonation and pressure wave combustion interaction, fire and explosion research and safety, heterogeneous combustion, flame-flow interactions, kinetics of elementary reactions, pollution control in and by combustion systems, and ignition are presented. Some of the topics covered include critical power density for direct initiation of unconfined gaseous detonations, extinction of laminar diffusion flames for liquid fuels, combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen, flame propagation in small spheres of unconfined and slightly confined flammable mixtures, kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen, production of chemi-ions and formation of CH and CH2 radicals in methane-oxygen and ethylene-oxygen flames, NOx emission characteristics in two-stage combustion, and spherical ignition of oxyhydrogen behind a reflected shock wave. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  14. Numerical Fluid Dynamics Symposium, 5th, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 19-21, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    Various papers on numerical fluid dynamics are presented. Individual topics discussed include: numerical analysis (NA) of shock structure problems, CFD development and a future high-speed computer, simulating vortex motion by 3D method, application of CFD to turbomachine design, numerical simulation (NS) of converging shock waves, NS of unsteady 3D shock wave phenomenon, 5th-order accurate compact upwind scheme, development of a multidimensional upwind scheme, fortified solution algorithm, large-eddy simulation of a bound jet, construction of collision model of diatomic molecules, VSL analysis of nonequilibrium flows around a hypersonic body, NA of chemically nonequilibrium flow, topological transition of flow past some axisymmetric bodies, modeling of scalar transport in free turbulence, a contribution to general application of the vortex method. Also addressed are: vortex simulation of artificial control of mixing layers, 3D motion of vortex filaments, Navier-Stokes simulation of 2D mixing layer, active control of vortex shedding frequency by a jet, direct NS of homogeneous turbulent sheer flow, NA of fuel spray jet by Eulerian method, NS of ignition using a premixed pulsed jet, NS of a scram jet combustor flow, numerical simulation of supersonic flow CO chemical laser, adaptive grid generation using optimal control theory, NS of characteristics of the Stalker tube, imcompressible flow solver using velocity vector and a new variable, unsteady analysis of helicopter rotor.

  15. Contributions to the Acoustic Emission Symposium (5th), Tokyo, Japan, 18-20 November 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    distribution was measured. These distribution curves above the peak amplitude of 30 to 34 pLV x10 2 1 T LT V LS ____ TL S TS USL o2 i/ij E0 2 3 4 5...heavily rolled except in LS oriented specimen. In LS specimen, the energy absorbed increased with increasing rolling ratio and the number of inclusions. In...according to the stress direction; LT and LS , TL and TS and SL and ST, respectively. Within each of the groups, Ea values for the LS and TS

  16. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Chikashi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI2008), held at the University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan from 1-5 September 2008. This series of conferences began in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982 and has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992), Vienna, Austria (1994), Omiya, Japan (1996), Bensheim, Germany (1998), Berkeley, USA (2000), Caen, France (2002), Vilnius, Lithuania (2004) and Belfast, UK (2006). Highly charged ions (HCI), which are defined as highly ionized (i.e. positively charged atomic) ions here, mainly exist in hot plasmas such as the solar corona and fusion plasmas. It is true that its importance in plasma physics has driven researchers to the spectroscopic studies of HCIs, but the spectroscopy of few-electron ions is not only important for plasmas but also interesting for fundamental atomic physics. Electrons moving fast near a heavy nucleus give a suitable system to test the fundamental atomic theory involving relativistic and quantum electro-dynamic effects in a strong field. Also, the huge potential energy of a HCI induces drastic reaction in the interaction with matter. This unique property of HCIs, coupled with the recent development of efficient ion sources, is opening the possibility to utilize them in new technologies in the field such as nano-fabrication, surface analysis, medical physics, and so on. Hence, this conference is recognized as a valuable gathering place for established practitioners and also for newcomers; we exchange information, we are introduced to the subject itself, and to unexpected interfaces with other fields. On 31 August, the day before the opening of HCI2008, we welcomed the delegates at the university's restaurant—and we were greeted with an unusually heavy summer shower! The conference then opened on

  17. Diversification of Women's Employment and Training. ILO/Japan Tripartite Seminar Report (Tokyo, Japan, December 8-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the work of a seminar that focused attention on the occupational segregation of men and women in developing nations in Asia. Chapters I and II give a summary of the seminar proceedings and the full text of its findings. Chapter III is devoted to five resource papers: "Diversification of Women's Occupations: A Regional…

  18. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tsunami Inundation Along Japan's Eastern Coast   ... The extent of inundation from the destructive and deadly tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off ... March 16, 2001 and March 12, 2011 - Before and after tsunami inundation along Japan's eastern coast. project:  ...

  19. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  20. PREFACE: ISEC 2005: The 10th International Superconductive Electronics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalla, Horst

    2006-05-01

    The 10th International Superconductive Electronics Conference took place in Noordwijkerhout in the Netherlands, 5-9 September 2005, not far from the birthplace of superconductivity in Leiden nearly 100 years ago. There have been many reasons to celebrate the 10th ISEC: not only was it the 20th anniversary, but also the achievements since the first conference in Tokyo in 1987 are tremendous. We have seen whole new groups of superconductive materials come into play, such as oxide superconductors with maximum Tc in excess of 100 K, carbon nanotubes, as well as the realization of new digital concepts from saturation logic to the ultra-fast RSFQ-logic. We have learned that superconductors not only show s-wave symmetries in the spatial arrangement of the order parameter, but also that d-wave dependence in oxide superconductors is now well accepted and can even be successfully applied to digital circuits. We are now used to operating SQUIDs in liquid nitrogen; fT sensitivity of SQUID magnetometers is not surprising anymore and can even be reached with oxide-superconductor based SQUIDs. Even frequency discriminating wide-band single photon detection with superconductive devices, and Josephson voltage standards with tens of thousands of junctions, nowadays belong to the daily life of advanced laboratories. ISEC has played a very important role in this development. The first conferences were held in 1987 and 1989 in Tokyo, and subsequently took place in Glasgow (UK), Boulder (USA), Nagoya (Japan), Berlin (Germany), Berkeley (USA), Osaka (Japan), Sydney (Australia), and in 2005 for the first time in the Netherlands. These conferences have provided platforms for the presentation of the research and development results of this community and for the vivid discussion of achievements and strategies for the further development of superconductive electronics. The 10th conference has played a very important role in this context. The results in laboratories show great potential and

  1. PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these

  2. Grid Operation at Tokyo Tier-2 Centre for ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Isobe, Tadaaki; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Ueda, Ikuo

    International Centre for Elementary Particle Physics, the University of Tokyo, has been involved in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid since 2003. After extensive R&D experience of the PC computing farm, disk and tape storage systems, network technology and the integration of these components, it is now operating a regional centre for the ATLAS data analysis. The regional centre includes an ATLAS Tier-2 site which is running the gLite middleware developed by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) project. One of the biggest challenges at the regional centre is efficient data transfer between the Tier-2 site in Tokyo and other sites, in particular the associated Tier-1 site in France, because the large round trip time due to the long distance makes it difficult to transfer data at a high rate. We have been studying to achieve a good performance of the data transfer, and some results of network tests and ATLAS data transfer are described. Hardware and software components and the operational experience are also reported in this article.

  3. The Tokyo subway sarin attack--lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Okumura, T; Hisaoka, T; Yamada, A; Naito, T; Isonuma, H; Okumura, S; Miura, K; Sakurada, M; Maekawa, H; Ishimatsu, S; Takasu, N; Suzuki, K

    2005-09-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin.

  4. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  5. Imaging of Heterogeneous Structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Kurashimo, E.; Kato, A.; Hagiwara, H.; Kasahara, K.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.

    2009-12-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega-thrust earthquakes. The Dai-Dai-Toku Project revealed the geometry of the upper surface of PSP, and estimated a rupture process and a ground motion of the 1923 Kanto earthquake [Sato et al., 2005]. Hagiwara et al. (2006) estimated the velocity structure of Boso peninsula. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the metropolitan Tokyo area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we have carried out a 5-year project since 2007, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Metropolitan Tokyo area. Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) of PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is the dense seismic array observation in metropolitan area, which is called the MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network). In order to obtain the high resolution images of a velocity structure, it is requested to construct a seismic network with a spacing of 2-5 km. The total number of seismic stations of the MeSO-net will be about 400 and will be deployed in 4 years. We deployed the 178 seismic stations, which construct 5 seismic arrays such as Tsukuba-Fujisawa (TF) array etc., by 2008, and we are now deploying the 45 seismic stations in this year. The MeSO-net data are quasi-real-time transferred to the data center at ERI [Kasahara et al., 2007; Nakagawa et al., 2007]. In this study, we applied the tomography to image the heterogeneous structure under the metropolitan Tokyo area. We selected events from the catalogue by Hagiwara et al. (2006) and merged the new event data observed by MeSO-net with these data. Around the Kanto region there are several seismic explorations using active sources were carried out [Sato et al., 2005; Oikawa et al., 2007]. Since these data may improve the

  6. Educational Pico-Satellite Project CUBESAT - University of Tokyo's CUBESAT XI and its Operation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Y.; Sako, N.; Eishima, T.; Ito, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Miyamura, N.

    2002-01-01

    University of Tokyo ISSL (Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory) has been developing a pico-satellite called "CubeSat" as an international joint program. In CubeSat project, 10cm cubic satellites have been developed by several universities and launched to the low-earth orbit altogether by Russian rocket "Dnepr". ISSL has developed "XI" series ([sai]: X-factor Investigator) satellites, and the flight model is already fabricated and ready for delivery. The mission of XI satellite is the on-orbit technology demonstration of the ultra-small satellite bus system with an extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components. XI transmits the Morse beacon and FM packet telemetry which provides the health data of the satellite. Additionally, XI has a CMOS camera which provides 15,000 pixels panchromatic images as an advanced mission. Ground operation is one of the key issues for CubeSats. Now we are promoting international ground station network in which several universities' ground stations connected by internet collaboratively operate university-built small satellites, which enlarges the link opportunity. Collaboration with amateur HAM engineers is also indispensable for search for the satellite or get beacon signal to estimate the satellite orbit. We are now developing operation concept based on these ideas. As the launch is scheduled in this fall, the operation plan will be fixed at the time of this conference. In this presentation the final design of ISSL's CubeSat XI and operation plan will be presented.

  7. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Hoshide, Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko, and NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide, left, answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seated next to him is Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Hoshide, Malenchenko, and NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Reid Wiseman of NASA is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, right, talks as Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, listens, from quarantine behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of their launch with fellow crew mate, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos is seen in quarantine behind glass during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 prime and backup crews: Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Randy Bresnik of NASA, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos, Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and, Mark Vande Hei of NASA pose for group photograph at the conclusion of their crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Rearming Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  16. Abstracts on the International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems (7th) and the International Conference on 1/f Noise (3rd) Held at Montpellier, France on 17-20 May 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-20

    oxide thickness X0 = 2000 A* ; gate metaLLisation :chro-aim;trans conductance gm%5 x 10-6 A/V electron mobl ty tLnV9OO cm2 IV.S. The X ray generator was...with a large number of particles .3 lNork performed while visiting the Tokyo Institute of Technology , * Japan. 1. V. Chuag, Plays. Nov. 3140. 1110...Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology , Japan Qluantum I/f noise is a fundamental fluctuation of elementary cross sections and

  17. Circadian Variation in Suicide Attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed circadian variations in suicide attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985 from records of Ambulance Service of Tokyo. Findings showed significant circadian variation in suicide attempts which seemed to be associated with endogenous rhythms, such as mood, and daily variation in social activities. Established peak time for suicide attempts as…

  18. Circadian Variation in Suicide Attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed circadian variations in suicide attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985 from records of Ambulance Service of Tokyo. Findings showed significant circadian variation in suicide attempts which seemed to be associated with endogenous rhythms, such as mood, and daily variation in social activities. Established peak time for suicide attempts as…

  19. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Industry , says the exhibition of about 70,000 foreign products mainly agricultural goods, household appliances, liquor, confectionaries , industrial ...Fishery Talks Restart (KYODO, 13 Apr 85) 38 Forest Products Industry To Get Government Aid (KYODO, 25 Mar 85) 39 China Asked To Curb Cotton...Customs-Cleared Trade 66 USSR-Japan Fishery Talks 66 Auto Exports 66 Japan, Malaysia Air Service 66 Trade Friction 67 Strategic Aid 67 Trade

  20. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  1. MIPS Standard activities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akisada, M

    1990-01-01

    The Medical Image Processing System (MIPS) plan is a standard plan for the online communication of imaging data in Japan. The ACR-NEMA Standard is not always easy for manufacturers in Japan to comply with. This situation led to the formulation of MIPS Plan Minimum Set-87 (MIPS Standard-87), which uses reciprocal corresponding patterns to ACR-NEMA Standards. The working groups on current and future trends study data collected with a questionnaire in 1985 regarding (1) current technology and (2) its future direction as well as (3) the status of utilization of medical imaging and its data management. In 1986, they engaged in further investigations on the above subjects and presented their views on standardization. Conformance tests have been discussed and the conclusions were published in 1987 and 1988. Protocol conversion between MIPS Standard-87 and ACR-NEMA Standard was also discussed and the conclusions were reported. At the beginning of 1988, validation from medical viewpoints, e.g. the setting of anatomical position codes, was requested by medical members. Each layer of MIPS is compared briefly with the ACR-NEMA Standard. A small picture archiving and communication (PAC) system for three X-ray computer tomography units (X-CTs) has been constructed at the University of Tokyo Hospital. In this implementation, X-CTs and an imaging filing system are successfully connected by MIPS Standard-87. Some problems of MIPS Standard-87 are mentioned.

  2. The Power of Implicit Teaching Practices: Continuities and Discontinuities in Pedagogical Approaches of Deaf and Hearing Preschools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Akiko; Tobin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Meisei Gakuen, a private school for the deaf in Tokyo, is the only school for the deaf in Japan that uses Japanese Sign Language (JSL) as the primary language of instruction and social interaction. We see Meisei as a useful case for bringing out core issues in Japanese deaf and early childhood education, as well as for making larger arguments…

  3. The Power of Implicit Teaching Practices: Continuities and Discontinuities in Pedagogical Approaches of Deaf and Hearing Preschools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Akiko; Tobin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Meisei Gakuen, a private school for the deaf in Tokyo, is the only school for the deaf in Japan that uses Japanese Sign Language (JSL) as the primary language of instruction and social interaction. We see Meisei as a useful case for bringing out core issues in Japanese deaf and early childhood education, as well as for making larger arguments…

  4. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  5. The demographic characteristics of medicolegal death among welfare recipients in Tokyo Metropolis (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2017-04-01

    Background The number of welfare recipients has steadily increased in Japan during recent years, although the number of homeless persons has decreased. Despite there being many reports regarding medicolegal death among homeless persons, medicolegal death among welfare recipients has not been fully investigated. Methods We identified 10,293 individuals who received welfare aid during their lifetime among the 81,867 cases that were examined by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office (2008-2013). We retrospectively compared the proportions of medicolegal death to total population, age, sex, family status, clinical history, and manners/causes of death among non-indigent persons (controls), homeless persons, and welfare recipients. Results A higher proportion of medicolegal death to total population was observed among the welfare recipients, compared with the controls. The welfare recipients (65.5 years) were younger than the controls (68.9 years), and the proportions of male sex and living alone were higher among the welfare recipients. Hypertension and circulatory disease were the leading clinical conditions among the welfare recipients. Death due to disease was the leading manner of death, and circulatory disease was the leading cause of death among the welfare recipients. The proportion of individuals with a long period between death and discovery (which made determining the cause of death difficult) was also higher among the welfare recipients. Conclusion Welfare recipients have a greater risk of sudden death compared with non-indigent persons. Preventive strategies should target middle-aged to elderly men who live alone, and should address their risks of circulatory diseases and solitary death.

  6. Medicolegal death of homeless persons in Tokyo Metropolis over 12 years (1999-2010).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the number of homeless persons in Japan has steadily decreased. However, it is not certain whether unexpected death of the homeless have actually decreased in proportion to decrease in total number of cases. The documentation of medicolegal deaths among homeless persons handled in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office during 1999-2010 were reviewed, and we compared the number and manner/cause of death between cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004. In addition, we compared manner/cause of death between homeless and non-homeless persons. The number of medicolegal deaths of homeless persons remained almost the same during the study period in spite of a marked decrease in the total number of homeless persons after 2004. Age distribution shifted to older after 2004, and a higher proportion of the deceased had longer postmortem periods after 2004. Comparison between the manners/causes of death of the cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004 showed little difference. Disease constituted about 70% of all cases, and causes of death from disease were more various than those of non-homeless persons. Certain specific patterns included a higher proportion of death from circulatory disease in elderly homeless persons and a higher proportion of death from alcohol-related digestive disease and tuberculosis among younger homeless persons. Regarding accidental death, hypothermia was a leading cause of death irrespective of age group. Aging and isolation among homeless persons might contribute to an unchanged number of medicolegal death of them. In addition to measures to address frequent causes of death in each age group, better intervention for isolated homeless persons might be a key factor to prevent unexpected deaths of homeless persons in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference -- Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Chiaki Mukai of Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) speaks to students at the California Science Center during the outreach session of the Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference on May 2, 2001. She flew as a payload specialist on two NASA Space Shuttle missions, STS-65 carrying the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, 1994) and STS-95 (1998).

  8. US-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    books, the growth and increased importance to industry of the annual Lean Manufacturing Conference, and the increased involvement of students in internship to Japan and in lean manufacturing activities.

  9. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 23, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-23

    ;Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (New Uses Bring New Life to Carbon Fiber); Aerospace (Preliminary Results of Microgravity Experiment by TR-1A, MHI Takes Seat on Corporate-Jet Project; Ground Facilities To Launch J-1 Rocket); Automotive Technologies (Japan: JEVA`s 4th Standardization of FY 1995 Reported, Integrated CAD/CAM/CAT System for Body Assembly Jigs); Nuclear Technologies (Monju Breeder-Reactor Accident Breeds Public Distrust); Science and Technology Policy (Japan: JSC Chairman on S&T Issues); Defense Industries (Japan: TRDI`s Organization, Duties Outlined, Japan: Defense Agency Officials Attend Defense Industry Conference, Japan: GSDF Official on Developing Military Technology).

  10. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    apprehensions of Europe and America that China would become closely related with Japan alone and that Japan might monopolize the Chinese market . As a...out of the 300 billion yen, 100 billion yen is supplier’s credit from concerted action by the Ex-Im Bank and the Open Market Bank, 130 billion yen is...to launch production in the U.S. in the belief that Japanese automakers will have to continue some form of export restraints for the American market

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the U.S. Node 2 (center) and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), background right, await a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the International Space Station and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed their laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-27

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the U.S. Node 2 (center) and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), background right, await a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the International Space Station and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed their laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  12. Modelling Psychological Responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Incident

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O.

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11–13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events. PMID:22666380

  13. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  14. [Historical development of modern anatomical education in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2008-12-01

    The medical schools in the beginning of Meiji era were diverse both in the founders and in the way of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organized medical education at the medical school of the university of Tokyo. The anatomical education in the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei who returned from the study in Germany. In 1882 (Meiji 15th), the general rule for medical school was enforced so that the medical schools were practically obliged to employ numbers of graduates of the university of Tokyo. In 1887 (Meiji 20th), the educational system was reformed so that many of the medical schools were closed, and the medical schools were integrated into one university, five national senior high schools and three prefectural ones in addition to four private ones. After that most of anatomical teachers were either graduates of the university of Tokyo or those who studied in the anatomical department of the university. Before 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationality were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books based on the lectures by German teachers at the university of Tokyo were published. The anatomical books after 1887 (Meiji 20th) were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 (Meiji 38th), the original Japanese anatomical books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. At the first meeting of Japanese Association of Anatomists in 1893 (Meiji 26th), the Japanese anatomical teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the university of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomical department.

  15. Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Inhabitants of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Osada, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    A questionnaire-based study was performed in an area of about 16 ha near a main road in Tokyo to elucidate any relations between road traffic noise and the effects of this noise among women living on both sides of the road. Questions concerned annoyance, sleep disturbance, interference with daily activities, health-related symptoms and disease histories. 366 inhabitants were analyzed. Dose-response relationships were found in high reported responses to noisiness, annoyance, dissatisfaction with the nearby environment and interference with listening to TV, conversation and reading. It was also found that the number of high responses to questions increases clearly at noise levels above 70 dB(A),Leq(24h), with regard to interference with thinking and sleep disturbance (waking during the night), fatigue, headache, gastroenteric disorders, loss of appetite, depression and irritation. Furthermore, there was an increase in reports of disease histories with noise above 70 dB(A) for climacteric disturbances, and at noise above 65 dB(A) for deafness, heart disease and hypercholestrolemia. These all suggest that noise may be related to the health status of inhabitants living in areas with heavy road traffic. A noise level of 65 dB(A) or 70 dB(A) inLeq(24h)was the critical point above which respondents indicated increased effects on health and reports of disease increased.

  16. [Discussion of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhong, Ding-Wen; Xu, Da-Zhao; Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Li, Jing; Shu, Fu-Zheng; Liu, Yu-Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jiang

    2012-12-01

    The contents of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Declaration for short) and its effect on development situation, current status, features, opportunities and challenges of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion are introduced, some proposals brought up in the Declaration are analyzed as well. The Declaration summarizes six characteristics of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, including paying great attention to palpation techniques such as pulse and abdominal diagnosis, always selecting response point in the meridian during acupuncture treatment, etc. Also six proposals have been brought up to promote the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, such as being devoted to spread the latest knowledge of acupuncture and moxibustion to medical professionals and the public in order to get correct understanding and proper evaluation, etc. What's more, the Declaration makes a prospection of improving international academic exchange and promoting the globalization of acupuncture and moxibustion and so on. The Declaration is served as a link between past and future in the history and developing process of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, which has a great meaning to the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion. We should have a clear understanding of weakness and strength in the development of acupuncture and moxibustion, seize the opportunity and develop science of acupuncture and moxibustion with our own characteristics, which makes more contribution to development of international acupuncture and moxibustion.

  17. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  18. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  19. Spatial and temporal trends of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments off the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan: A comparison study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Horii, Yuichi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Weifang; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-05-01

    To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, and assess the effectiveness of control measures on the contamination by chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in East Asia, surface and core sediments were sampled from the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan (i.e., Pearl River Delta (PRD), Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay) and analyzed for short-chain (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs). Much higher concentrations of CPs were found in the industrialized PRD than in adjacent Hong Kong waters. Significant correlation between CP concentration and population density in the coastal district of Hong Kong was observed (r(2) = 0.72 for SCCPs and 0.55 for MCCPs, p < 0.05), highlighting the effect of urbanization. By contrast, a relatively lower pollution level of CPs was detected in Tokyo Bay. More long-chain groups within SCCPs in the PRD than in Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay implied the effect of industrialization. Comparison of temporal trends between Hong Kong outer harbor with Tokyo Bay shows the striking difference in historical deposition of CPs under different regulatory situations in China and Japan. For the first time, the declining CP concentrations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls.

  20. The birth of cosmic ray work in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Systematic studies of cosmic rays in Japan were started when the Nishina Laboratory was established in Riken in 1931, after Nishina came back from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. He was already known as an author of Klein-Nishina formula. He spent a great deal of effort to spread modern physics in Japan, inviting Dirac and Heisenberg to give series of lectures at the university of Tokyo, which later established the strong group of theoretical physicists including Yukawa, Tomonaga, Sakata and others. He also spent a great deal of effort in comprehensive studies of cosmic-rays including the precise measurements of the mass of mesons, of the intensity at the deepest underground of 3000 m.w.e., and of other research to be discussed. It is to be noted that the encouragement by the theoretical group of Yukawa, Tomonaga and others stimulated the recovery of the research after World War II in Japan.

  1. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    , as well as two banquets held at the Grand Hotel and Grand Formosa Regent in Taipei. The next CHEP conference will be held in New York, the United States on 21-25 May 2012. We would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan, the EU ACEOLE project, commercial sponsors, and the International Advisory Committee and the Programme Committee members for all their support and help. Special thanks to the Programme Committee members for their careful choice of conference contributions and enormous effort in reviewing and editing about 340 post conference proceedings papers. Simon C Lin CHEP 2010 Conference Chair and Proceedings Editor Taipei, Taiwan November 2011 Track Editors/ Programme Committee Chair Simon C Lin, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Online Computing Track Y H Chang, National Central University, Taiwan Harry Cheung, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Event Processing Track Fabio Cossutti, INFN Trieste, Italy Oliver Gutsche, Fermilab, USA Ryosuke Itoh, KEK, Japan Software Engineering, Data Stores, and Databases Track Marco Cattaneo, CERN, Switzerland Gang Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Stefan Roiser, CERN, Switzerland Distributed Processing and Analysis Track Kai-Feng Chen, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Ulrik Egede, Imperial College London, UK Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Fons Rademakers, CERN, Switzerland Torre Wenaus, BNL, USA Computing Fabrics and Networking Technologies Track Harvey Newman, Caltech, USA Bernd Panzer-Steindel, CERN, Switzerland Antonio Wong, BNL, USA Ian Fisk, Fermilab, USA Niko Neufeld, CERN, Switzerland Grid and Cloud Middleware Track Alberto Di Meglio, CERN, Switzerland Markus Schulz, CERN, Switzerland Collaborative Tools Track Joao Correia Fernandes, CERN, Switzerland Philippe Galvez, Caltech, USA Milos Lokajicek, FZU Prague, Czech Republic International Advisory Committee Chair: Simon C. Lin , Academia Sinica, Taiwan Members: Mohammad Al-Turany , FAIR, Germany Sunanda Banerjee, Fermilab, USA Dario Barberis, CERN

  2. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-14

    bring exchange rates to a more reasonable level. Prime Minister Nakasone told the Diet Wednesday his government intends to make its utmost efforts to... make the Japanese market more accessible to imports. He suggested stepped up capital exports as one way to whittle down Japan’s huge trade surplus...confirming the agreement. In Bangladesh, shallow wells and rivers are the main supply sources of drinkable water . The Bangladesh Government has

  3. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    KYODO, 23 Apr 85)........ 58 PRC Ensuring Ability To Pay for Imports (KYODO, 7 May 85) 59 OECD Official Interviewed on Trade Surplus...Security Council session, claiming the council has failed to denounce Iraq for using chemical weapons against Iran. De Cuellar and Japanese officials...infarction, a loss of blood supply to the brain , and would require two or three months to recover. Tanaka is regarded as Japan’s most powerful

  4. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  5. Japan Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-18

    the government should reduce expenditures for military hardware if it is difficult to hold defense spending within 1 percent of the GNP. Noting... expenditure , as well as a greater contribution to Pacific defense . According to Prior, a conservative parliamentarian and former secretary of state for...Northern Ireland, with Britain’s experience in Asia, it should join with Japan to help the United States with its Asian defense . Japanese Chairman

  6. Outline of geophysical investigations on the great earthquake in the south-west Japan on Dec. 21, 1946

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagata, Takeshi

    1947-01-01

    In in the early morning of Dec. 21, 1946, a great destructive earthquake occurred in southern-western Japan. According to the seismogram obtained in our university, the earthquake motion began at Tokyo from 4 h 20 m 10.4 s on Dec. 21, 1946. The maximum amplitude of NS, EW, and up-down components of the earthquake motion at Tokyo was 12.0 mm, 14.0 mm and 3.0 mm respectively, while the initial motion was composed of 80 μ south, 67 μ west and 20 μ down movements.

  7. Conference Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, W. Warner, Ed.; Beckhard, Richard, Ed.

    This book, written to instruct in the use of a conference as a medium of social intercourse, is divided into four sections. Section I, which contains five articles, deals with factors to be considered in planning a conference. Specific techniques one can employ to improve a conference and several different techniques for evaluating the…

  8. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  9. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov, left, answers a reporter's question as Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of the Japan looks on during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, right, and backup crew member Satoshi Furakawa wave farewell to reporters and family after a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source.

  12. Pharmaceutical chemicals and endocrine disrupters in municipal wastewater in Tokyo and their removal during activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Norihide; Tanishima, Toshikatsu; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Kiri, Kentaro; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-10-01

    We measured six acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), two phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), four amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), three phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A), and three natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol) in 24-h composite samples of influents and secondary effluents collected seasonally from five municipal sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. Aspirin was most abundant in the influent, with an average concentration of 7300 ng/L (n = 16), followed by crotamiton (921 ng/L), ibuprofen (669 ng/L), triclosan (511 ng/L), and diethyltoluamide (503 ng/L). These concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. This can be ascribed to lower consumption of the pharmaceuticals in Japan. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and thymol were removed efficiently during primary + secondary treatment (> 90% efficiency). On the other hand, amide-type pharmaceuticals, ketoprofen, and naproxen showed poor removal (< 50% efficiency), which is probably due to their lower hydrophobicity (logKow < 3). Because of the persistence of crotamiton during secondary treatment, crotamiton was most abundant among the target pharmaceuticals in the effluent. This is the first paper to report ubiquitous occurrence of crotamiton, a scabicide, in sewage. Because crotamiton is used worldwide and it is persistent during secondary treatment, it is a promising molecular marker of sewage and secondary effluent.

  13. Field measurement and modeling of near-bed sediment transport processes with fluid mud layer in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yasuyuki; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ariji, Ryuichi; Yoneyama, Haruo; Shirai, Kazuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Tokyo Bay is one of the estuaries in Japan with a high population of almost 26 million people in the basin area. One of the major concerns for the environment in this water area is the decreasing ecosystem functions including the deterioration of water and sediment qualities caused by various anthropogenic activities. Since the bottom sediments around almost the entire area of the inner bay consist of fine materials with a high organic content, which cause the deterioration of water quality through processes such as hypoxia, an understanding of the fine sediment dynamics in the Bay is crucial for an environmental assessment of the water area. This paper proposes a model for the key processes of fine sediment dynamics, which reflects field data about muddy bed structures and their dynamics obtained during the monitoring campaign in 2007. One of the specific features of the sediment in the Bay at present is the persistent existence of fluid mud layers (water content over 300 %) with a thickness of around a few decimeters, which might be caused by deposition of abundant organic particles due to eutrophication. The present study shows that diffusion flux model delivers quite reliable results for estimating erosion flux from the top of fluid mud layers after calibrating the model parameter against the time series data of vertical flux measured by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter system. This study also derives analytical solutions, based on the Bingham fluid concept, of advection flux in the fluid mud layer on which external shear stress force is applied.

  14. Two long-term slow slip events around Tokyo Bay found by GNSS observation during 1996-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Suguru

    2017-03-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) with durations ranging from days to more than a decade have been observed in plate subduction zones around the world. In the Kanto district in Japan, several SSEs have been identified based on geodetic observations. However, none of these events have had durations largely exceeding a year. In this study, we show that long-term SSEs with durations longer than 3 years occurred before the year 2000 and after 2007 on the upper interface of the Philippine Sea Plate at depths of 30-40 km. The fault model determined by inversion of global navigation satellite system data is located northeast of Tokyo Bay, where a seismic gap and low seismic wave velocities were detected by seismological observations. Moreover, the acceleration periods of the fault slip corresponded well with increases in the background seismicity for shallower earthquakes. The slip history was also temporally correlated with the long-term shear stress changes governed mainly by non-tidal variations in the ocean bottom pressure. However, the predicted slip from the long-term stress change was too small to reproduce the observed slow slips. To prove the causal relationship between the SSEs and the external stress change, more advanced modeling is necessary to confirm whether such a small slip can trigger an SSE.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Securing East Asia’s Future by Rebalancing the U.S.- Japan Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    of focusing on the Asia-Pacific Region.”33 In December 2012, Japan elected the hawkish LDP leader and former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe based on a...platform of economic revival and standing up to an increasingly assertive China.34 As Prime Minister in 2007, Mr. Abe had unsuccessfully attempted...WWII.36 Showing no signs of remorse, in October of 2012 Mr. Abe visited the controversial Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo that honors Japan’s war dead, to

  16. Japan’s Self-Defense Forces: What Dangers to Northeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    and China , many defense intellectuals express concerns about potential trouble if-or, sometimes, when-Japan assumes an active, aggressive international ...Boose and Todd R. Starbuck , both of Carlisle; Colonel Joseph Savittiere and Lieutenant Colonel John Bursley of the Defense Attache Office, Tokyo; and Mr...Before joining the Institute in 1975, Dr. Wilbom taught international relations and political science at James Madison University and Central

  17. Europe, Japan and North America Prepare for Joint Construction of the Giant Radio Telescope "ALMA" in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    our own Galaxy, ALMA will study the morphology, the motions and the chemistry of dust-enshrouded regions where stars and planets are being formed. ALMA will shed light on these optically `dark' celestial regions that carry key information on the origin of the richness of structure in the Universe and clues to the origin of life. ALMA is a merger of three large projects - The Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (LMSA) of Japan - each of which has been endorsed as the top-priority project in their respective astronomical communities. The European and North American projects were merged into ALMA in 1999 and joint design and development of ALMA began at that time. The National Research Council of Canada is participating with the U.S. in the project. With Japan joining the project as a third partner equal with North America and Europe, and with Chile also taking part, ALMA has become one of the first truly global projects in the history of fundamental science. In the agreement signed today, the partners pledge to use their best efforts to obtain full approval and funding for their participation in ALMA. With the schedule planned, the telescope should be in full operation in 2010. Note [1]: This Press Release is issued jointly by ESO for its members plus UK and Spain, by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and by CONICYT in Chile. The embargo period coincides with a Press Conference by the partners in Tokyo (Japan). Links to earlier Press Releases etc. about ALMA are found on the dedicated webpage.

  18. Simulation of instrumental intensities in the Tokyo Metropolitan area using a 3D attenuation structure model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the development of dense seismic networks in Japan has enabled high quality observations of instrumental intensities. However, the distribution of intensities of historical earthquakes can only be retrieved by the damage reports on historical documents. Their epicenter and magnitude can be roughly estimated from the intensity distribution, assuming that seismic intensity decays with distance. This approximation is not always accurate, since the amplitude of short period ground motion decays with focal distance and is affected by the 3D attenuation structure along the path and in addition displays frequency dependence. In order to estimate the location and size of a large historical earthquake, we need to accurately simulate the seismic intensity distribution, accounting for non linear attenuation of seismic waves along the path. The instrumental seismic intensities inside the Kanto basin observed at the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) and Hi-net stations display unusual distribution patterns, with peak intensities observed several km away from the epicenter rather than at the stations closer to it. In order to understand the source of this intensity distribution, we estimated the theoretical instrumental intensities using a 3D attenuation structure and compare it to the observed intensity distribution. We first estimated a 3D attenuation structure using the spectral decay of seismic waves, by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. The obtained model suggests Qs values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin and low Qs values < 300 in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific plate. We then use an ω2 model in order to estimate the source acceleration spectrum of several earthquakes occurring below the Kanto basin at depths ranging 30~80 km. Our simulation shows that earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through the low Qs area inside the

  19. Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, Akito

    2009-10-01

    I will mention some highlights from the history of Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics. Although I have memories of my personal strong ties with many friends in US, I shall rather skip them, and focus on three major collaborative works which have made significant impacts on the developments of nuclear physics. The first one is the INS (Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo) - Berkeley collaboration. As well known, this led to the beginning of Rare Isotope (RI) beam experiments as a global trend and consequently the discovery of neutron halo by Tanihata et al. This Berkeley experiment was inspired by the Japanese Numatron project, which has remained only a plan. The second one would be RHIC. The RHIC is probably one of the most successful products of the INS- Berkeley project at least conceptually. Nagamiya has led US efforts over years, which has produced QGP finally, while he has moved back to Japan before this moment. The third point I would like to mention is the RIKEN Brookhaven Center. This has been supported by T.D. Lee strongly, and has contributed to the developments of spin physics, QGP experiments, Lattice QCD calculation. It also encouraged US young theoreticians by the supportive program with US universities. I now see many active physicists who were under this program. Now we have JUSTIPEN (Japan-US Theory Institute of Physics with Exotic Nuclei) program by DOE through the University of Tennessee. Since the summer of 2007, over fifty physicists including experimentalists have come to Japan for theoretical studies, and many workshops have been organized. Thanks also to its Japanese matching fund EFES(International Research Network on Exotic Femto Systems), a large number of Japanese physicists visited US, having many workshops and collaborations. At the era of RIBF completion and FRIB initialization, the Japan-US collaboration becomes of more significance, and I hope that this workshop and the joint meeting this week will accelerate the

  20. [Recent progress and challenges in investigator-driven clinical development of novel drugs and medical devices at the University of Tokyo Hospital].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Tokyo Hospital, investigator-driven clinical development of novel drugs and medical devices is mainly supported by the Translational Research Center and Clinical Research Support Center. The former supports non-clinical research and the preparation of test materials and the latter supports clinical trials. The Clinical Research Support Center was established in 2010 by the reorganization of the former Clinical Research Center, which was established in 2001. The center adopted International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) as a standard guideline for clinical trials and prepared standard operation procedures and templates for protocols and informed consent documents in 2001 and, thereafter, provided consultation services to researchers for protocol development. In 2010, the service was extended to project management, data management and monitoring to support the credibility of clinical trials. In 2011, The University of Tokyo Hospital was selected by the government as a base for the early and exploratory clinical development of drugs in the fields of psychological and neurological diseases. For this purpose, a phase 1 unit for early phase clinical pharmacology trials is now being built. The center provides training courses for clinical research coordinators and hold seminars for clinical researchers; however, the biggest challenge remains the education and training of medical students who will lead clinical trials in the future.

  1. Assessing change of environmental dynamics by legislation in Japan, using red tide occurrence in Ise Bay as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chika

    2016-01-30

    Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and the Seto Inland Sea are the total pollutant load control target areas in Japan. A significant correlation between the incidence of red tides and water quality has been observed in the Seto Inland Sea (Honjo, 1991). However, while red tides also occur in Ise Bay and Tokyo Bay, similar correlations have not been observed. Hence, it is necessary to understand what factors cause red tides to effectively manage these semi-closed systems. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the dynamics of the Red Tide Index and nitrogen regulation as well as phosphorus regulation, even in Ise Bay where, unlike Tokyo Bay, there are few observation items, by selecting a suitable objective variable. The introduction of a new technique that uses the Red Tide Index has revealed a possibility that the total pollution load control has influenced the dynamics of red tide blooms in Ise Bay.

  2. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    PubMed

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an

  3. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  4. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  5. A review of the history of traumatic stress studies in Japan: from traumatic neurosis to PTSD.

    PubMed

    Goto, Toyomi; Wilson, John P

    2003-07-01

    Based on available literature, this review article investigates traumatic stress studies in Japan from the late 19th century to the present for English speaking audiences. First, traumatic neuroses of war victims, A-bomb survivors, and victims of work-related accidents are discussed. Second, traumatic stress studies of victims of other manmade disasters, such as the sarin gas attacks in Tokyo, domestic violence, and burn injuries. Third, psychological outcomes of natural disaster studies are discussed in relation to social support and help-seeking tendencies of Japan disaster victims.

  6. Perceptions of nuclear and other risks in Japan and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, G.W.; Rosa, E.A.; Kleinhesselink, R.R.; Lowinger, T.C. )

    1993-08-01

    As part of a study of nuclear power development in Japan and the United States, surveys of perceptions of risk toward 30 activities, substances, and technologies have been carried out in the Pacific Northwest and Tokyo, Japan. The results show that people in both countries have the highest level of dread toward nuclear waste disposal, nuclear accidents, and nuclear war, greater even than their dread of crime and AIDS. In addition to comparisons of dread, the paper also discusses similarities and differences between Japanese and American responses for other dimensions of risk perception. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer, left, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, center, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of the Japan listen to a reporter's question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Creamer, Kotov, and Noguchi, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer answers a reporter's question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi answers a reporter's question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov listens to a reporter's question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Japan Biotech Forum: London 2010.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamahi, Asma

    2010-11-01

    The Japan Biotech Forum, held in London, included topics covering new licensing developments in the Japanese pharma and biotech industries. This conference report highlights selected presentations on licensing opportunities from several Japanese companies, including CanBas, LivTech, REGiMMUNE, D Western Therapeutics Institute and Chiome Bioscience. Investigational drugs discussed include CBP-501 (CanBas), LIV-2008 (LivTech), RGI-2001 (REGiMMUNE), IVX-214 (D Western Therapeutics Institute/ Nippon Shinyaku) and anti-Sema 3A (Chiome Bioscience).

  12. Comparative study of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial flora of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, B; Garges, S; Conrad, B; Harding, E E; Colwell, R R; Simidu, U; Taga, N

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of the bacterial flora of the water of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay was undertaken to assess similarities and differences between the autochthonous flora of the two geographical sites and to test the hypothesis that, given similarities in environmental parameters, similar bacterial populations will be found, despite extreme geographic distance between locations. A total of 195 aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay water were examined for 115 biochemical, cultural, morphological, nutritional, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by the methods of numerical taxonomy. From sorted similarity matrices, 77% of the isolates could be grouped into 30 phena and presumptively identified as Acinetobacter-Moraxella, Caulobacter, coryneforms, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. Vibrio and Acinetobacter species were found to be common in the estuarine waters of Chesapeake Bay, whereas Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Caulobacter predominated in Tokyo Bay waters, at the sites sampled in the study. PMID:453838

  13. Linear alkylbenzenes in urban riverine environments in Tokyo: distribution, source, and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, H.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1987-09-01

    The distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LASs) in river sediments, suspended river particles, domestic wastes, and waste effluents around the Tokyo city area was investigated. LABs as well as LASs with alkyl carbon chain lengths in the range from 10 to 14 were found in all environmental samples and LAS-type synthetic detergents examined. These results indicate that LABs are carried into aquatic environments as a result of the use of synthetic detergents around the Tokyo metropolitan area. Further results are (1) LABs in urban river sediments originate predominantly from untreated domestic wastes, final effluents contributing only a minor portion of the LABs in sediments, (2) the isomeric composition of the LABs changes systematically during biodegradation, and (3) the ratio of LAS to LAB decreases as follows: commercial synthetic detergents > suspended particles in domestic wastes > river sediments > Tokyo Bay sediments.

  14. University of Tokyo DIMM: a portable DIMM for site testing at Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Soyano, Takao; Tanaka, Masuo; Kohno, Kotaro; Miyata, Takashi; Takato, Naruhisa; Uraguchi, Fumihiro

    2004-07-01

    University of Tokyo is now planning to construct a new 6.5m telescope on a peak at Chajnantor region of Atacama, Chile. This project is called "Tokyo Atacama Observatory" (TAO), and site testing is now under progress. As a part of this site testing, we have developed a portable DIMM system which is called a "University of Tokyo DIMM" (UT-DIMM) to measure seeing. The system mostly consists of inexpensive commercial products, which are a MEADE 12 inch telescope, a video-rate CCD camera with an electronic shutter, a Linux based PC, and so on. It has thrifty power consumption and can be operated for one whole night only with a single DC-12V battery for an automobile. In this paper, we describe the instrument, report the current status, and explain its future plans.

  15. 77 FR 14528 - Preparation for International Conference on Harmonization Steering Committee and Expert Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Steering Committee and Expert Working Group Meetings in Fukuoka, Japan; Regional Public Meeting AGENCY... Working Group Meetings in Fukuoka, Japan'' to provide information and receive comments on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) as well as the upcoming meetings in Fukuoka, Japan. The topics...

  16. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Biological and Medical Sciences Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Four papers on biological and medical sciences libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Activities and Services of Medical Libraries in Japan--Past, Present, and Future" (Kazuo Urata and Toshinobu Suga, Japan) discusses the inauguration of the Japan Medical Library…

  17. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Geography and Map Library. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Four papers on geography and map libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Generation and Utilization of Maps and Atlases in Japan," by Takashi Morita of Japan, presents an overview of the making and uses of maps and atlases in Japan and concludes that a comprehensive…

  18. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    submitted 227 contributions, which were intensively discussed during day and evening sessions. The scientific program was centered around invited talks from speakers outside the μSR community, who presented lectures on topics where μSR is giving or expected to give significant contributions. The invited speakers, covering various fields of interest, included Radu Coldea (Oxford, Quantum Magnetism), Claude- Henri Delmas (Bordeaux, Electro- and Solid State Chemistry), Dirk Johrendt (Munich, Iron Based Materials), Marc-Henri Julien (Grenoble, Cuprate Superconductors), Manfred Fiebig (Zürich, Multiferroics), Allan MacDonald (Austin, Topological Electronic States), Hidenori Takagi (Stuttgart and Tokyo, Transition Metal Oxides), and Jean-Marc Triscone (Geneva, Oxide Heterostructures). In addition to an overview about status and progress of the existing facilities in Europe, Canada and Japan, future projects and new ideas for μSR facilities in South Korea, China and the USA were presented. A special evening session was held to discuss about muon site and muon states calculations by DFT and other techniques. Several talks and posters can be found on the conference web page www.psi.ch/muSR2014. In a ceremony at the beginning of the conference, Roberto De Renzi from the University of Parma was awarded the 2014 Yamazaki Prize for muon science by the International Society for Muon Spin Spectroscopy (ISMS) for his sustained and exceptional contributions to the development of the muon spin relaxation technique to investigate magnetism and superconductivity and for promoting synergies between μSR and NMR. In the closing session Rob Kie (UBC Vancouver and TRIUMF) very effectively summarized the five days of meeting, while giving an enlightening personal impression. In the same session five best poster prizes were awarded and ISMS gave two prizes to young researchers presenting outstanding work at the conference. The conference organizers also on behalf of the entire μSR community are

  19. A Brief Test of the Tokyo Sokushin VSE-355G3 Strong Motion Velocity Seismometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, Charles R.; Evans, John R.; Yokoi, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    The VSE-355G3 seismometer is a broadband seismometer (called a 'servo velocity meter' by Tokyo Sokushin) with a specified clip level of 2 m/s and a flat response to earth velocity from 0.008 Hertz (Hz) to 70 Hz. Mr. Yokoi and Mr. Kurahashi of Tokyo Sokushin shipped one instrument to the U. S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) for testing in early September 2007. They gave a presentation on this instrument and some of their other products to the authors and others on September 6, 2007. Testing of the VSE-355G3, Serial Number 70520, commenced on Friday, September 7, 2007.

  20. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  1. Japan wields industrial policy to try to become the world leader in environmental technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jubak, J.; D`Amico, M.

    1993-12-31

    From the Shinkansen, the famous Japanese bullet train, it is hard to see much besides the urban and industrial sprawl of twentieth-century Japan. As the rain speeds out of Tokyo, it passes miles of undistinguished houses on narrow, drab streets. Even the few remaining tilled gardens seem dispirited. Mt. Fuji rises out of this techno-industrial plain like a half-remembered woodcut of traditional Japan, the Japan of spring green rice fields, an bunraku puppets, and purple iris against century-old pines. At the right hour, even from the train, the sun seems to guild its peak. Of course, nobody who knows Japan would be surprised to learn that the government is seriously considered a proposal to build a four-story, 500-vehicle parking garage halfway up the slope.

  2. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  3. 77 FR 56909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Tokyo 1955-70: A New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Tokyo 1955-70: A New Avant-Garde... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Tokyo 1955-70: A New Avant-Garde,''...

  4. Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to give on overview of the profile of cardiovascular disease, vascular pathology and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japanese. Compared with the United States and Europe, the higher mortality from stroke and lower mortality from coronary heart disease constitute a unique cardiovascular profile for Japan. A selective review of population-based pathology, trend and prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the characteristics of cardiovascular disease and vascular pathology, trends in the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease, and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease among Japanese adults. Since the 1970s, mortality from coronary heart disease as well as stroke has declined substantially in Japan, probably due to a major decline in blood pressure levels and for men a more recent decline in smoking, in spite of an increase in body mass index and total cholesterol levels. However, the decline in mortality was smaller and plateaued in middle-aged men aged 30-49 in the metropolitan cities of Tokyo and Osaka. The incidence of coronary heart disease has increased among middle-aged men residing in the suburbs of Osaka. As for the associations between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease, higher sodium, lower calcium and lower animal protein content in the diet and for men higher alcohol consumption may account for the higher prevalence of hypertension and higher risk of stroke for Japanese than for western populations. On the other hand, lower saturated fat (meat) and higher n3 polyunsaturated fat (fish) in the Japanese diet may contribute to the lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and lower risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese. Japan is unique among developed countries in that coronary heart disease mortality has been low and has continued to decline, while stroke mortality has declined substantially. However, a recent trend for coronary heart disease incidence to

  5. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section One: Looking Back, Looking Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Andrew; And Others

    Three papers on the outlook for second language teaching and learning introduce the conference on second language curriculum and evaluation. "My Story of Language Teaching" (Andrew Wright) describes a variety of personal and professional experiences in the course of 50 years of language teaching, each highlighting emerging social values…

  6. PREFACE: International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010 (INPC2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, Jens

    2011-09-01

    The International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010 (INPC 2010) was held from 4-9 July in Vancouver, Canada, hosted by TRIUMF, the Canadian National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics. The INPC is the main conference in the field of nuclear physics, endorsed and supported by IUPAP (International Union for Pure and Applied Physics) and held every three years. This year's conference was the 25th in the series and attracted over 750 delegates (150 graduate students) from 43 countries. The conference's hallmark is its breadth in nuclear physics; topics included structure, reactions, astrophysics, hadronic structure, hadrons in nuclei, hot and dense QCD, new accelerators and underground nuclear physics facilities, neutrinos and nuclei, and applications and interdisciplinary research. The conference started with a public lecture 'An Atom from Vancouver' by L Krauss (Arizona), who gave a broad perspective on how nuclear physics is key to a deeper understanding of how the Universe was formed and the birth, life, and death of stars. The conference opened its scientific plenary program with a talk by P Braun-Munzinger (GSI/EMMI Darmstadt) who highlighted the progress that has been made since the last conference in Tokyo 2007. The presentation showcased theoretical and experimental examples from around the world. All topics were well represented by plenary sessions and well attended afternoon parallel sessions where over 250 invited and contributed talks were presented, in addition to over 380 poster presentations. The poster sessions were among the liveliest, with high participation and animated discussions from graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. Many opportunities were found to connect to fellow nuclear physicists across the globe and, particularly for conferences like the INPC which span an entire field, many unexpected links exist, often leading to new discussions or collaborations. Among the scientific highlights were the presentations in the fields of

  7. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  8. Scientists Examine Challenges and Lessons From Japan's Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    A week after the magnitude 9.0 great Tohoku earthquake and the resulting tragic and damaging tsunami of 11 March struck Japan, the ramifications continued, with a series of major aftershocks (as Eos went to press, there had been about 4 dozen with magnitudes greater than 6); the grim search for missing people—the death toll was expected to approximate 10,000; the urgent assistance needed for the more than 400,000 homeless and the 1 million people without water; and the frantic efforts to avert an environmental catastrophe at Japan's damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, about 225 kilometers northeast of Tokyo, where radiation was leaking. The earthquake offshore of Honshu in northeastern Japan (see Figure 1) was a plate boundary rupture along the Japan Trench subduction zone, with the source area of the earthquake estimated at 400-500 kilometers long with a maximum slip of 20 meters, determined through various means including Global Positioning System (GPS) and seismographic data, according to Kenji Satake, professor at the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo. In some places the tsunami may have topped 7 meters—the maximum instrumental measurement at many coastal tide gauges—and some parts of the coastline may have been inundated more than 5 kilometers inland, Satake indicated. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) noted that eyewitnesses reported that the highest tsunami waves were 13 meters high. Satake also noted that continuous GPS stations indicate that the coast near Sendai—which is 130 kilometers west of the earthquake and is the largest city in the Tohoku region of Honshu—moved more than 4 meters horizontally and subsided about 0.8 meter.

  9. First International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics. Section B: Nonlinear Optics, Principles, Materials, Phenomena, and Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Ferroelectrics, 91, 193 (1989). 16. Ch. Bosshard, M . Kiipfer, P. Gfinter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir and M . Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett., 56, 1204 (1990). 17. Ch...Appl. Phys., 72, 4521 (1992). 8. Ch. Bosshard, M . Kiipfer, P. Giinter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir and M . Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett., 56, 1204 (1990). 9...Materials, Phenomena, and Devices Editor: Takayoshi Kobayasbi University of Tokyo, Japan Consultant Editors: M M Labes, A F Garito East European and CIS

  10. The Medical Library and Media Center of Keio University in Tokyo: report on a visit.

    PubMed Central

    Accart, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Medical Library and Media Center at Keio University in Tokyo offers many facilities to its users: access to medical information within a large catalog of monographs and journals, online searching and CD-ROM databases, and a dynamic interlibrary loan service. This article is a report of a professional visit to the library on September 30, 1993. PMID:7703947

  11. Changes in the therapeutic strategy for acute cholecystitis after the Tokyo guidelines were published.

    PubMed

    Asai, Koji; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoaki; Kodama, Hajime; Dotai, Kojiro; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Okamoto, Yasushi; Saida, Yoshihisa; Nagao, Jiro

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) for acute cholecystitis (AC) according to the Tokyo guidelines severity grade, and analyzed the changes in the therapeutic strategy for AC after the Tokyo guidelines were published. A total of 225 patients were enrolled in this study. The therapeutic period was divided into two periods: before and after the publication of the Tokyo guidelines (prior to and including 2007, and from 2008, respectively). Comparing the surgical strategy between ELC and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC), significant differences were found in the length of preoperative hospital stay and total hospital stay for cases of mild AC compared with moderate AC. With conversion to open surgery, postoperative complications including postoperative bile leak were not significantly different. Since ELC was performed significantly more often after publication of the guidelines, preoperative, postoperative, and total hospital stays were significantly shorter in the later period. ELC is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for both mild and moderate AC. The Tokyo guidelines resulted in a significant increase in the performance of ELC and significantly reduced preoperative and total hospital stays without increasing intra- and postoperative complications.

  12. Dissecting Analogical Leveling Quantitatively: The Case of the Innovative Potential Suffix in Tokyo Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Kenjiro

    1993-01-01

    Analogical leveling in progress of a potential suffix in Tokyo Japanese is analyzed within a quantitative model. The phenomenon is shown to be controlled by five factors: sociological variable complex, verb stem length, verb conjugation pattern, the following inflectional form, and embeddedness of the clause containing the suffix. (Contains 70…

  13. Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Yurina; Otaki, Masahiro; Sakura, Osamu

    2007-06-01

    The importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recognized in the modern world. Their contributions to public health have not, however, been well demonstrated by historical data, especially in Asian cities. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. We analysed their development processes statistically to determine what the key elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (Tokyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high infant mortality rate. The main reason for this was the differences in the systems of night-soil transport. We found that the water supply system in itself was not enough to resolve all urban sanitation problems, and appropriate night-soil removal was also crucial. In addition, historical trends and water consumption vary by city, so the appropriate technology and system are also different according to the unique characteristics and needs of each.

  14. Conference Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Since the first IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, March 2002) and the Second Conference (Rio de Janeiro, May 2005), progress has continued in most countries and world regions to attract girls to physics and advance women into leadership roles, and many working groups have formed. The Third Conference (Seoul, October 2008), with 283 attendees from 57 countries, was dedicated to celebrating the physics achievements of women throughout the world, networking toward new international collaborations, building each participant's capacity for career success, and aiding the formation of active regional working groups to advance women in physics. Despite the progress, women remain a small minority of the physics community in most countries.

  15. Evolution of genotoxicity test methods in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sofuni, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of methods to assess genotoxicity of test compounds is thought to be one of the important subjects in The Japanese Environmental and Mutagen Society (JEMS). In 1970, the Ministry of Education of Japan (at that time) organized a research group (Organizer: Y. Tazima, National Institute of Genetics), and started a systematic research on the genotoxic effects induced by chemical substances. Considering the importance of this issue through the outcomes of the research group, JEMS was established in 1972, and President Tazima organized the 1st annual meeting in the August in Tokyo with the participation of experts in this field working in national institutes, universities and others in Japan. The discovery that food additives possessed genotoxic potential triggered various scientific activities in the field of genotoxicity. Another important point was the correlation between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, in which the establishment of the reverse mutation assay played an important role. Other critical factors, such as side effects of drugs, occupational cancer, and environmental pollution due to genotoxic chemicals, emphasized the importance of genotoxicity tests for human safety. The tests performed to assess genotoxicity from 1960s to 1980s will be described to understand that many different genotoxic methodologies were discussed in these periods.

  16. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Michael; Düllmann, Dirk; Rind, Ofer; Wong, Tony

    2012-12-01

    Wisconsin-Madison, United States Günter Duckeck, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany Richard Dubois, SLAC, United States Michael Ernst, BNL, United States Ian Fisk, Fermilab, United States Gonzalo Merino, PIC, Spain John Gordon, STFC-RAL, United Kingdom Volker Gülzow, DESY, Germany Frederic Hemmer, CERN, Switzerland Viatcheslav Ilyin, Moscow State University, Russia Nobuhiko Katayama, KEK, Japan Alexei Klimentov, BNL, United States Simon C. Lin, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Milos Lokajícek, FZU Prague, Czech Republic David Malon, ANL, United States Pere Mato Vila, CERN, Switzerland Mauro Morandin, INFN CNAF, Italy Harvey Newman, Caltech, United States Farid Ould-Saada, University of Oslo, Norway Ruth Pordes, Fermilab, United States Hiroshi Sakamoto, University of Tokyo, Japan Alberto Santoro, UERJ, Brazil Jim Shank, Boston University, United States Dongchul Son, Kyungpook National University, South Korea Reda Tafirout, TRIUMF, Canada Stephen Wolbers, Fermilab, United States Frank Wuerthwein, UCSD, United States

  17. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yaming; Hutton, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This issue contains papers presented at the 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions, HCI2010. The conference was held at Fudan University, Shanghai, 29 August-3 September 2010. HCI is a biannual conference series going back to the very first conference held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. Previous editions in this millennium were held in Berkeley, USA, 2000; Caen, France, 2002; Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004; Belfast, UK, 2006, and Tokyo, Japan, 2008. The physics of highly charged ions, HCIs, is of great interest due to their key role in testing quantum electrodynamics in strong fields, and possible testing of parity non-conservation. However, HCIs also play crucial roles in the physics of hot plasmas, for example those produced in tokamak fusion devices and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Much of the diagnostics of matter under such extreme environments relies very heavily on high quality atomic data of HCIs. The field of x-ray astronomy hinges almost entirely on the use of spectral lines from HCIs to provide information from distant astrophysical plasmas and objects. Given these fundamental interests and the current rapid developments in fusion and x-ray astronomy, it is clear that the physics of HCIs is a rich area of research with strong and important connections to many important subfields of physics. New application areas of HCI physics are also under development: two examples are (a) to provide 13.5 nm—and later half of this wavelength—radiation for lithography and (b) applications in medical research. The need for high quality atomic data of HCIs is as important now as it has ever been. HCI2010 was attended by over 200 scientists from around 20 countries; see the following table. Over 70 of the participants were students, which is very encouraging for the future of HCI related physics. The academic programme was organized based on the suggestions from the International Advisory Board, and consisted of six review lectures

  18. Lithium and other elements in scalp hair of residents of Tokyo Prefecture as investigational predictors of suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Schöpfer, Jutta; Schrauzer, Gerhard N

    2011-12-01

    The high suicide rates in Japan and several reports of inverse associations of suicide rates with the levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water prompted determinations of Li along with other elements in samples of scalp hair of 100 male and 100 female residents of Tokyo Prefecture. In more than half of the samples of both genders, Li levels were below the instrumental detection limit or below or the lower limit of the laboratory reference ranges. Among other elements, the concentrations namely of cobalt were also frequently below the laboratory reference range, suggesting that low circulating levels of vitamin B(12) were common in this study population. As vitamin B(12) deficiency is associated with depression and other psychiatric conditions, and there is evidence of interactions between Li and vitamin B(12), Li deficiency as well as suboptimal vitamin B(12) status must be considered as potential suicide risk factors. In view of its established positive effects on mood and brain function, an adequate supply of selenium (Se) is important as well. Although the analytical results suggested that the Se status of the subjects was generally adequate, as seafood was a major dietary source of Se, much of it was actually sequestered by mercury and only a fraction was bio-available. In addition, the hair samples were found to contain not insignificant levels of As, Cd, Ni, and Pb, arising from the adventitious presence of these elements in foods and the environment. As these elements also interact with Se in vivo and are known to adversely affect mood and behavior, in investigational studies, subjects at risk need to be evaluated also with respect to these elements.

  19. How Did the Dengue Fever Outbreak Progress in Yoyogi Park, Tokyo, in 2014?-Evaluation Based on a Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Shimogawara, Rieko; Fueda, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, an outbreak of autochthonous dengue fever occurred in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity, Tokyo, Japan. In this study, we investigated how the dengue fever outbreak progressed in Yoyogi Park using a mathematical model. This study was limited to the transmission of the dengue virus in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity. We estimated the distributions of the intrinsic incubation period and infection dates on the basis of epidemiological information on the dengue outbreak in 2014. We searched for an assumption that satisfactorily explains the outbreak in 2014 using rough estimates of secondary and tertiary infection cases. We constructed a mathematical model for the transmission of the dengue virus between humans and Aedes albopictus. We carried out 1,000-trial stochastic simulations for all combinations of three kinds of assumption about Ae. albopictus and asymptomatic infection with each of three levels. Simulation results showed that the scale of the outbreak was markedly affected by the daily survival rate of Ae. albopictus. The outbreak involved a small number of secondary infection cases, reached a peak at tertiary infection, and transformed to termination at the fourth infection. Under some assumptions, the daily progress of onset cases was within a range between the 1st-3rd quartiles of 1,000 trials for 87% of dates and within a range between the minimum and maximum for all dates. It is important to execute plans to detect asymptomatic cases and reduce the survival rate of Ae. albopictus to prevent the spread of tertiary infections unless an outbreak is suppressed at the secondary infection stage.

  20. Catheter replacement structure in home medical care settings and regional characteristics in Tokyo and three adjoining prefectures.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takuma; Yoshie, Satoru; Tsuchiya, Rumiko; Kawagoe, Shohei; Hirahara, Satoshi; Iijima, Katsuya; Akahoshi, Toru; Tsuji, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the association between the structure of catheter replacement services in home medical care settings and regional characteristics. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was carried out from August to September 2013. Participants were physicians from 5338 clinics that provided medical care services at home, and nurses from 1619 home-visit nursing stations in Tokyo and three adjoining prefectures. The questionnaire covered catheter replacement (gastrostomy tubes, nasogastric tubes, tracheal cannulas) during home medical care, and the professions of those who replaced urethral catheters for male and female patients. Regions were divided into two groups (higher- and lower-density regions) based on the number of clinics, number of home-visit nursing stations and the ratio of the population aged ≥65 years. The rates of respondents that reported catheter replacement was usually executed, and those who reported catheters were replaced by "physicians in principle" were compared between the groups. Responses were received from 842 clinics (16.3%) and 499 home-visit nursing stations (31.4%). In the higher-density regions, the rate of physicians who reported urethral catheters for male patients were replaced by "physicians in principle" was significantly higher than in the lower-density regions (P < 0.001). In the lower-density regions, the rate of nurses who reported urethral catheters for male patients were replaced by "nurses in principle" was significantly higher compared with the higher-density regions (P < 0.016). In home medical care settings, urethral catheters for male patients are replaced by nurses in regions where physician resources are limited. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 628-636. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  2. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics Held at Tokyo (Japan) on October 6-10 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    of semi-infinite wings 6) may be adopted which demands that:- A.Y. Odaba ~i (BSRA) Mr.Koyama has presented us with a very y 7 as (s,T) (s , I...I Author’s Reply 0//0 ia_. K. Koyama (SRI) i,/ I would like to express thanks to Dr. Odaba j and Prof. Vuini6 for their interest 06i -_and valuable...this point further as it has been such a troublesome one in the past ? We thank Dr. Odaba ~i for his interest * AcostaA.J., FuruvaO., "A Brief Note on

  3. Dissemination and Utilization of Educational Research. Report of a Regional Seminar (Tokyo, Japan, November 9-25, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    Research from 14 Asian and Pacific countries suggests that the outcome of educational research is not sufficiently utilized by educators in those countries. Several recommendations for the development of information exchange were discussed at an educational research seminar. It was recommended that research projects be worthy and be…

  4. Meeting of Experts on Educational Planning in Asia. Final Report. (Tokyo, Japan, November 25-December 1, 1970.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese National Commission for UNESCO, Tokyo.

    This meeting was held to review current educational planning with special reference to problems and difficulties confronting Asian countries, to study steps for better enforceable educational plans for development, and to seek solutions applicable to countries at varying stages of development. Three speeches deal with problems and trends in…

  5. Broadening the Scope for Educational Research. Report of a Regional Seminar (Tokyo, Japan, July 11-20, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The results of a seminar in which representatives from Australia, New Zealand, and eight Asian countries discussed interdisciplinary research in education are presented. Types of interdisciplinary research were identified, and the conditions necessary for its development were examined. The recent impetus toward interdisciplinary research has…

  6. WESTPAC Workshop on Coastal Transport of Pollutants (Tokyo, Japan, March 27-31, 1980). Summary Report. Workshop Report No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Provided is a 4-page summary of the WESTPAC (Western Pacific) Workshop On Coastal Transport of Pollutants and five appendices. Workshop objectives were to review present knowledge of the physical dispersion, accumulation, and transportation of pollutants, and analytical methods and data processing in the Western Pacific Region; identify major…

  7. The Asian Seminar on Educational Technology (4th, Tokyo, Japan, October 10-19, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Council of Educational Technology Centers, Tokyo.

    This report of an international seminar which examined the utilization of advanced educational technology for the promotion of teacher education in the countries of the Asia and Pacific region is divided into six chapters: (1) an introduction providing background information, the purpose and themes of the seminar, and brief descriptions of the…

  8. International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 17th, Tokyo, Japan, May 20-25, 1990, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi

    Various papers on space technology and science are presented. The general topics addressed include: national space programs; propulsion; materials and structure, flight dynamics and astrodynamics; fluid dynamics; thermal environment and thermochemistry; electronic components and devices; computer and data systems; guidance, navigation, and control; robotics; systems engineering. Also discussed are: space transportation systems; spacecraft systems; space station and manned flight; balloons; satellite communications and broadcasting; lunar and planetary exploration; space science; earth observations; space medicine; space biology; microgravity; space industrialization; space law and international cooperation.

  9. WESTPAC Workshop on Coastal Transport of Pollutants (Tokyo, Japan, March 27-31, 1980). Summary Report. Workshop Report No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Provided is a 4-page summary of the WESTPAC (Western Pacific) Workshop On Coastal Transport of Pollutants and five appendices. Workshop objectives were to review present knowledge of the physical dispersion, accumulation, and transportation of pollutants, and analytical methods and data processing in the Western Pacific Region; identify major…

  10. Assessment of Educational Achievement in Asia and the Pacific. Report of a Seminar (Tokyo, Japan, January 20-February 1, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The High Level Seminar on Educational Achievement in Asia and the Pacific was organized in collaboration with the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok, Thailand). The objectives were to exchange information and experiences on educational assessment at the primary and secondary school levels; to review major…

  11. Sustained High Seismicity Rate Beneath Tokyo Associated with after-Slip of the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a broad and unprecedented increase in seismicity in northern Honshu, Japan, including a high occurrence rate of moderate-size earthquakes in and around Tokyo, where five M>7 earthquakes struck in the past 400 years. Immediately after the Tohoku-oki earthquake, the seismicity rate in the Kanto seismic corridor beneath Tokyo jumped ten-fold and then decayed for 6-12 months, after which it steadied at three-to-two times the pre-Tohoku rate (continuous at least until the end of July, 2014). The time series of the seismicity does not fit by a simple Omori-decay formula and not observed in a typical off-fault aftershock sequence. To well explain the rate increase and its unique time dependency, we employ rate and state dependent Coulomb model incorporating not only the coseismic stress step but also stressing rate change. In the model, coseismic static stress changes are calculated onto the nodal planes of 338 pre-mianshock focal mechanisms as proxies for potential nucleation sites. We found ~80% were brought closer to failure by the M=9.0 mainshock and M=7.9 aftershock with the mean increase of 1 bar. We then use the histogram of the stress changes with plausible rate/state parameters to reproduce the seismicity time series following the method of Toda et al. (2012). Because the Kanto seismicity did not decay back to the pre-Tohoku rate, we included a 3-times higher stressing rate after the Tohoku mainshock. The origin of the higher post-Tohoku-oki stressing rate is likely explained by postseismic creep. Both on land GPS data (Ozawa et al., 2012) and repeating earthquakes (Uchida and Matsuzawa, 2013) inferred a significant postseismic after-slip on up-dip extension of the upper Pacific slab. We speculate that gradual stress transfer on deeper plate interface from such a transient shallow postseismic creep is responsible for the unique long-lasting off-fault seismicity beneath Tokyo.

  12. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. An Olympic torch that will be launched with the crew for a four-day visit to the station is seen on the left. The torch will return to Earth with another trio of station residents on Nov. 11 and will be part of the torch relay that ends with the lighting of the flame at the Fisht Stadium in Sochi, Russia Feb. 7 to mark the opening of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA talks, while in quarantine behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. An Olympic torch that will be launched with the crew for a four-day visit to the station is seen next to Mastracchio. The torch will return to Earth with another trio of station residents on Nov. 11 and will be part of the torch relay that ends with the lighting of the flame at the Fisht Stadium in Sochi, Russia Feb. 7 to mark the opening of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. STS-47 Post Flight Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-47 Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour Cmdr. Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Cmdr. Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists, N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist, Mamoru Mohri, present an overview of their mission. This the 50th Shuttle flight marks the first NASA mission devoted primarily to Japan. Endeavour carries into Earth orbit Spacelab-J (SL-J), a 23-foot long pressurized laboratory built by the European Space Agency specifically for conducting experiments in a shirt-sleeve environment. SL-J contains 43 experiments, 34 provided by Japan, 7 from the United States and 2 joint experiments. Jemison becomes the first African American woman to fly in space and Mohri first Japanese to fly in space. Video footage includes the following: prelaunch and launch activities; various experiments including protein crystal growth, electronic materials, fluids, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and the effects of microgravity on plants and animals; earth views of Japan, Tokyo Harbor, and Hurricane Bonnie; and the re-entry and landing of the orbiter.

  15. STS-47 Post Flight Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-47 Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour Cmdr. Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Cmdr. Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists, N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist, Mamoru Mohri, present an overview of their mission. This the 50th Shuttle flight marks the first NASA mission devoted primarily to Japan. Endeavour carries into Earth orbit Spacelab-J (SL-J), a 23-foot long pressurized laboratory built by the European Space Agency specifically for conducting experiments in a shirt-sleeve environment. SL-J contains 43 experiments, 34 provided by Japan, 7 from the United States and 2 joint experiments. Jemison becomes the first African American woman to fly in space and Mohri first Japanese to fly in space. Video footage includes the following: prelaunch and launch activities; various experiments including protein crystal growth, electronic materials, fluids, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and the effects of microgravity on plants and animals; earth views of Japan, Tokyo Harbor, and Hurricane Bonnie; and the re-entry and landing of the orbiter.

  16. Background Tsunamis off the coast of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watada, S.

    2016-12-01

    JMA has been monitoring tsunamis at the outer rise of the Japan trench in real time since 2012 by using three DART stations separated about 100 km apart. Continuous tsunami data from Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPR) have been recovered and investigated for the background tsunamis, or long period surface gravity waves. Cross-correlation of two-hour-long records from two stations were computed and stacked for every month in 1.5 years. Each month, the cross-correlated ocean bottom pressure records starts with 1mm amplitude at zero time lag, indicating background tsunami wavelength can be as long as 200 km. The cross-correlation amplitude gradually increases up to 2mm at a time lag corresponding to the arrival time of the surface gravity waves with sharp pressure decrease due to the ocean depth. The wave period at the amplitude maximum is about 400 sec independent from station distance. Dispersed surface gravity waves follow after the amplitude peak. Seasonal variation of the amplitude the background tsunami is not clear, i.e., at one pair shows a larger amplitude in summer season by about 20% but other pairs do not. To look at the background tsunami propagation of longer distance, cross-correlations between DART 21413 (ESE Tokyo) and 21418 (NE Tokyo) have been computed operated by NOAA. Two stations are separated about 900 km. A one-year stack of the one-day-long cross-correlated records enhances weaker background tsunami waveforms with similar features but with a much smaller amplitude at zero time lag, indicating that background tsunami wavelength is smaller than 900km The merit of cross-correlation analysis of continuously recorded tsunamis is that the tsunami propagation can be obtained by the cross-correlation of observed data without a tsunami simulation.

  17. Tohoku Tsunami Debris, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-14

    The Mar. 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami devastated a large extent of the northeastern Japan coast, and virtually erased many villages and cities from the map. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Sendai on Mar. 14, 2011.

  18. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) first section.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Futoshi; Taniyama, Yukari; Hwi, Song You; Fujisaki, Takeshi; Kameda, Takashi; Mori, Koji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming widely recognized as an issue for Japanese companies. Corporate responsibility for employees is considered important by various stakeholders, and occupational safety and health is regarded as one of these responsibilities. The present authors examined this issue from the viewpoint of corporate management by analysis of statements found in CSR-related reports. For companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), we searched for CSR-related reports, and titles and contents, based on two established guidelines: the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002 as the international reference and the Environmental Reporting Guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, as the domestic reference. Corporations that published CSR reports were 26.3% (416/1,581) of the total, and large differences were recognized by type of industry. Comparing the numbers of pages for various contents, more concern was shown about the environment than about social activity, indicating the environment to be the main issue of CSR in Japan. In the items included in the guidelines, many matters about occupational accidents were mentioned, but it was found that statements regarding HIV/AIDS, which is not of such strong social concern in Japan, and statements regarding the costs of safety that are difficult to calculate were few. However, statements regarding mental health, which is of high interest socially, were many, even though this issue is not included in the two guidelines used. In revising the guidelines, these matters should be reviewed. In the future, continuance of analysis of CSR-related reports with regard to changes and comparisons with overseas reports will help improve occupational safety and health.

  19. International models of investigator-initiated trials: implications for Japan

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, E. L.; Ledermann, J.; Law, K.; Miyata, T.; Imamura, C. K.; Nam, B.-H.; Kim, Y.H.; Bang, Y.-J.; Michaels, M.; Ardron, D.; Amano, S.; Ando, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Kurokawa, K.; Takebe, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Academic/institutional investigator-initiated clinical trials benefit individuals and society by supplementing gaps in industry-sponsored clinical trials. Materials In May 2010, experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, the UK, and the United States, met at a symposium in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss how policies related to the conduct of clinical trials, which have been shown to be effective, may be applied to other regions of the world. Results In order to increase the availability of anticancer drugs world-wide, nations including Japan should examine the benefits of increasing the number of investigator-initiated clinical trials. These trials represent one of the most effective ways to translate basic scientific knowledge into clinical practice. These trials should be conducted under GCP guidelines and include Investigational New Drug application submissions with the ultimate goal of future drug approval. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of these trials, a policy to educate health care professionals, cancer patients and their families, and the public in general on the benefits of clinical trials should be strengthened. Finally, policies that expedite the clinical development of novel cancer drugs which have already been shown to be effective in other countries are needed in many nations including Japan to accelerate drug approval. PMID:22843420

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development (1) Various Policies Based On Reports by CST 90FE0124A Tokyo PROMETHEUS in Japanese Concerning the material science and technology field, Mar...multilayer packing device and a 90FE0124B Tokyo PROMETHEUS in Japanese static pressure compression process, and simultaneously Mar-Apr 90 pp 4-5, 12-13...Introduction of FGM Development Project 90FE0124C Tokyo PROMETHEUS in Japanese Mar-Apr 90 pp 3-4, 14-22 In FY87, the project with the title, "Research

  1. The History of the UNESCO International Conferences on Adult Education--From Helsingor (1949) to Hamburg (1997): International Education Policy through People and Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper starts with the founding of UNESCO and the fundamental belief that humanitarian, social and political deficits in given societies can be corrected by means of education. The history of the UNESCO International Conferences on Adult Education (Elsinore, Montreal, Tokyo, Paris and Hamburg, 1949-1997) demonstrates the changes in perceptions…

  2. The History of the UNESCO International Conferences on Adult Education--From Helsingor (1949) to Hamburg (1997): International Education Policy through People and Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper starts with the founding of UNESCO and the fundamental belief that humanitarian, social and political deficits in given societies can be corrected by means of education. The history of the UNESCO International Conferences on Adult Education (Elsinore, Montreal, Tokyo, Paris and Hamburg, 1949-1997) demonstrates the changes in perceptions…

  3. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Education and Research Division. Section: Library History and Library Theory and Research. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library history and library theory and research presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The History of Western Literature Library Collections in Japan" (Yoshitomi Okazaki, Japan); (2) "Trends of Library History Research in Japan" (Hiroshi Kawai, Yukio…

  4. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Education and Research Division. Section: Library History and Library Theory and Research. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library history and library theory and research presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The History of Western Literature Library Collections in Japan" (Yoshitomi Okazaki, Japan); (2) "Trends of Library History Research in Japan" (Hiroshi Kawai, Yukio…

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Communications Industry Plant and Equipment Investment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-17

    41,288 (21.5) 49,598 (21.3) 44,178 (17.0) Tokyo 53,385 (27.8) 35,395 (15.2) 57,432 (22.1) Shin - etsu 2,112( 1.1) 15,602 ( 6.7) 13,773 ( 5.3) Tokai 8,449...ken, Tochigi- ken, Gunma-ken, Yamanashi-ken Shin - etsu Nagano-ken, Niigata-ken Tokai Aichi-ken, Mie-ken, Shizuoka-ken, Gifu-ken Hokuriki Ishikawa-ken...Tokyo J Kanto Shin - etsu ITokai Hokuriku Kinki Service pro- vision (mark with o) Chugoku Shikoku Kyushu Tohoku Hokkaido Okinawa Outside Japan (Note) For

  6. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  7. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  8. Can Japan Contribute to the Post Millennium Development Goals? Making Human Security Mainstream through the TICAD Process

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Jun; Nomura-Baba, Marika; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yasuhide

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, the fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD V) will be hosted by the Japanese government. TICAD, which has been held every five years, has played a catalytic role in African policy dialogue and a leading role in promoting the human security approach (HSA). We review the development of the HSA in the TICAD dialogue on health agendas and recommend TICAD’s role in the integration of the HSA beyond the 2015 agenda. While health was not the main agenda in TICAD I and II, the importance of primary health care, and the development of regional health systems was noted in TICAD III. In 2008, when Japan hosted both the G8 summit and TICAD IV, the Takemi Working Group developed strong momentum for health in Africa. Their policy dialogues on global health in Sub-Saharan Africa incubated several recommendations highlighting HSA and health system strengthening (HSS). HSA is relevant to HSS because it focuses on individuals and communities. It has two mutually reinforcing strategies, a top-down approach by central or local governments (protection) and a bottom-up approach by individuals and communities (empowerment). The “Yokohama Action Plan,” which promotes HSA was welcomed by the TICAD IV member countries. Universal health coverage (UHC) is a major candidate for the post-2015 agenda recommended by the World Health Organization. We expect UHC to provide a more balanced approach between specific disease focus and system-based solutions. Japan’s global health policy is coherent with HSA because human security can be the basis of UHC-compatible HSS. PMID:24155655

  9. Entering the lesbian world in Japan: debut stories.

    PubMed

    Kamano, Saori

    2005-01-01

    Conceiving of a "lesbian community" as the process and/or the end product of a lesbian's going outside herself or her intimate relationship to connect with other lesbians, this paper explores the experiences of lesbians in entering the community in Tokyo, Japan, which lesbians refer to as "community debut." Based on the personal accounts gathered through interviewing 24 women in 2002 in the Tokyo area, this paper examines the personal contexts in which the women entered a lesbian community, which included searching for and defining themselves, accepting themselves, and acting out the new identity to make changes in their lives. Some of the women interviewed were prompted by a need to understand themselves as lesbians. Others with a lesbian identity searched for further affirmation through connecting with "the world of lesbians" beyond their immediate contexts. For some other women interviewed, entering the community was a way to help them start their lives anew by getting out of their previous (married) lives. The paper also specifically touches on the significance of the Internet as a source of information for individual women and as a way of creating a lesbian community, identifying both positive and negative aspects. Although the research reported in this paper leaves for further exploration how boundaries of the communities are negotiated and drawn, the norms of the communities, and conflicts and negotiations among individuals and groups, it has provided one piece of the mosaic of lesbian communities in Japan. The communities, while still largely invisible in the mainstream society, are nonetheless an important part of life, albeit in different ways, of many lesbians. The research process leads the author to anticipate greater visibility of lesbians and lesbian communities in Japan in the not too distant future.

  10. Social, not physical, infrastructure: the critical role of civil society after the 1923 Tokyo earthquake.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Daniel P

    2012-07-01

    Despite the tremendous destruction wrought by catastrophes, social science holds few quantitative assessments of explanations for the rate of recovery. This article illuminates four factors-damage, population density, human capital, and economic capital-that are thought to explain the variation in the pace of population recovery following disaster; it also explores the popular but relatively untested factor of social capital. Using time-series, cross-sectional models and propensity score matching, it tests these approaches using new data from the rebuilding of 39 neighbourhoods in Tokyo after its 1923 earthquake. Social capital, more than earthquake damage, population density, human capital, or economic capital, best predicts population recovery in post-earthquake Tokyo. These findings suggest new approaches for research on social capital and disasters as well as public policy avenues for handling catastrophes.

  11. Liberal Arts and Engineering Science Education in the University of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    We will discuss the connectivity of educational systems in the College of Arts and Sciences and the Faculty of Engineering in the University of Tokyo. Students entering the University of Tokyo are enrolled for the first two years in the College of Arts and Sciences, since specialized instruction should be erected on top of broad knowledge and understanding. The University is offering several new types of lecture such as Global Focus on Knowledge (Lecture series where leading scholars in several fields overview sciences mainly for freshmen) in order to lead freshmen into the broad and systematic “structuring of knowledge” . The Faculty of Engineering also tries several new series of (teaching) courses, for example, Knowledge Structuring, Engineering Minimum Lecture Series, MONOZUKURI Experiment, English Language Lessons etc., together with Electrical Syllabi System with MIMASearch.

  12. Infant Mortality and Income in 4 World Cities: New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.; Neuberg, Leland G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between average income or deprivation and infant mortality rate across neighborhoods of 4 world cities. Methods. Using a maximum likelihood negative binomial regression model that controls for births, we analyzed data for 1988–1992 and 1993–1997. Results. In Manhattan, for both periods, we found an association (.05% significance level) between income and infant mortality. In Tokyo, for both periods, and in Paris and London for period 1, we found none (5% significance level). For period 2, the association just missed statistical significance for Paris, whereas for London it was significant (5% level). Conclusions. In stark contrast to Tokyo, Paris, and London, the association of income and infant mortality rate was strongly evident in Manhattan. PMID:15623865

  13. NASA Spots Typhoon Phanfone Affecting Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Over the weekend of Oct. 5 and 6, Typhoon Phanfone's center made landfall just south of Tokyo and passed over the city before exiting back into the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. NASA's Aqua satellite captured a picture of the typhoon as Tokyo braced for its large eye. On its way to mainland Japan, Phanfone struck Kadena Air Base on the island of Okinawa. According to the website for U.S. Air Force Kadena Air Base (www.kadena.af.mil), "One Airman is confirmed deceased and two more are missing after they were washed out to sea from the northwest coast of Okinawa at about 3:45 p.m. Oct. 5. An Airman that was found by the Japanese Coast Guard and pulled from the sea was later pronounced dead at a local hospital. HH-60s from Kadena Air Base and Japanese Coast Guard are continuing to search for the remaining two Airmen. Rough seas are complicating rescue efforts." Typhoon Phanfone's large eye made landfall near the city of Hamamatsu on Oct. 5 around 8 a.m. local time and then tracked north before turning eastward into the Pacific Ocean north of Tokyo. The MODIS instrument known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer captures amazing pictures from its orbit aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. MODIS snapped a picture of Typhoon Phanfone approaching Japan on Oct. 5 at 12:55 a.m. EDT. At that time, the Typhoon had already passed north of Okinawa, and was just south of the large island of Kyushu. The MODIS image revealed a large eye with powerful bands of thunderstorms spiraling into the center. On Oct. 6 by 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), Phanfone had weakened from a typhoon to a tropical storm back over open waters of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Maximum sustained winds were near 60 knots (69.0 mph/111.1 kph). Phanfone was located near 38.0 north longitude and 145.0 east latitude. That's about 201 nautical miles (271 miles/372 km) south-southeast of Misawa Air Base, Japan. Phanfone was moving to the northeast at 40 knots (46 mph/74 kph). Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon

  14. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  15. (Tribology conferences and forums)

    SciTech Connect

    Yust, C.S.

    1990-11-30

    The principal meeting attended during this trip was the Japan International Tribology Conference Nagoya 1990. The conference encompassed a wide range of topics, including the tribology of ceramics, the tribology in high-performance automobiles, and many aspects of lubrication technology. Associated forums were also held on the tribology of advanced ceramics, on solid lubrication, and on automotive lubricants. Presentations made during the latter forum discussed anticipated trends in engine development and anticipated improvements in lubricants required for the next generation of engines. In addition to meetings, site visits were made to five industrial organizations to discuss ceramic tribology. Nippon Steel Corporation and Toshiba Corporation are both very active in the ceramic area, Nippon Steel from their interest in research on new materials and Toshiba from both an interest in new materials and in support of their work in electronic devices. Two engine manufacturers were also visited, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. These companies were somewhat reserved in their discussion of progress in the utilization of ceramics in automobile engines.

  16. Seasonal variations of atmospheric C2-C7 nonmethane hydrocarbons in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tomoko; Yokouchi, Yoko; Blake, Donald R.; Kita, Kazuyuki; Izumi, K.; Koike, M.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Fukuda, M.; Kondo, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Eighteen C2-C7 NMHCs (nonmethane hydrocarbons) were measured hourly during the Integrated Measurement Program for Aerosol and Oxidant Chemistry in Tokyo (IMPACT) measurement campaigns conducted in central Tokyo during four different periods (summer/autumn of 2003 and winter/summer of 2004). The ambient atmospheric concentrations of NMHCs showed an inverse correlation with wind speed and mixing height and were significantly affected by mesoscale weather conditions. The mixing ratio of isoprene tightly correlated with solar flux and temperature in summer, as it was dominantly emitted by the local vegetation. All the observed NMHCs except isoprene showed high correlation with each other in winter (r2 > 0.5), suggesting concurrent accumulation under stagnant condition and common sources. Emission ratios were calculated on the basis of the correlation with carbon monoxide and ethyne. Compared to the typical winter NMHC composition, during summer there was a significant increase (up to 7 times higher than wintertime) of C4-C5 alkanes from fuel evaporation; of C2-C3 alkenes, n-hexane and benzene from chemical industry; and of toluene from local manufacturers, reflecting the temperature dependence of these evaporative emissions. In addition to the online measurements in Tokyo, canister sampling at a suburban site (Kisai) followed by multidimensional GC analyses was conducted during the summer campaign in 2004. The atmospheric concentrations of longer-lived compounds (≥ several days) at Kisai showed the buildup under sea breeze circulation. The average ambient concentration of toluene was 2 times higher than that in central Tokyo, likely because of substantial emissions from local industries as reported in the prefectural statistics.

  17. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 5, Number 1, January-March 1980,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    geothermal processes, which he has studied in the Imperial Valley, U.S., and in Turkey, and wants to build up a heat-flow system for the institute so...Mr. Kenya Hamano Shuku-machi Professor Renichi Kondo Tosu, Saga 841 Mr. T. Hagio Tokyo Institute of Technology Professor Kazuo Kobayashi Department...Institution of Engineers, Australia Technology for Development Australia II National Circuit, Barton, ACT 2600 November Geothermal Seminar Rotorua

  18. Conference reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongpei, Chen; Yulong, Ma

    1994-12-01

    The Ultrasonic Electronics Branch Society of the China Acoustics Society, and the Electronics Countermeasure Branch Society of the China Electronics Society held and All-China Applications Conference of Ultrasonic Electronics Devices in Electronic Countermeasures, Radar and Military Communication Technology. A total of 66 papers was received by the conference with contents relating to surface acoustic wave devices, high-frequency acoustic wave devices, acousto-optical devices, applications of devices in radar, applications of devices in electronic countermeasures, and applications of devices in military communication systems.

  19. Energy situations in Japan before and after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, K.

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the various effects on the public conception on nuclear energy and more generally on energy policies in Japan due to the nuclear accident that occurred on 11th March 2011 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station, which is owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Before the accident, nuclear energy had been conceived as the main energy source of electricity in Japan for reducing CO2 emission beyond 2020. However, public opinion has turned almost completely against nuclear energy after observing how vulnerable the nuclear system had been. The present Japanese government is now trying to buy time before taking a decision. After explaining these circumstances, the author tries to chart his personal projection of energy sources for Japan to 2050.

  20. Increase in Primary and Secondary Syphilis Notifications in Men in Tokyo, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Yamagishi, Takuya; Arima, Yuzo; Hori, Narumi; Seki, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The number of notified syphilis cases in Tokyo has more than doubled in recent years. The number of reported primary and secondary syphilis cases increased from 108 cases (0.8 per 100,000 population) in 2007 to 245 cases in 2013 (1.9 per 100,000 population). During this period, the majority of cases was male (905/1,024), and the recent increase among primary and secondary syphilis cases was attributed to the increase among males (90/108 [83%] cases in 2007 to 218/245 [89%] cases in 2013); men aged 20-49 years contributed most to the increase, with those aged 30-34 years having the highest notification rate in 2013. Male-to-male transmission was the primary route of infection reported, and men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for nearly 80% of male cases in 2013. Syphilis appears to be reemerging in Tokyo, and reducing the risk of acquiring syphilis among MSM aged 20-49 years should be a public health priority in Tokyo.

  1. 3-D simulation of urban warming in Tokyo and proposal of air-cooled city project

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Yamada, Noboru

    1999-07-01

    Recent computer projection of the urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area around the year 2030 showed the authors that the urban temperature near Otemachi, heart of Tokyo, will exceed 43{+-}2 degree Celsius (110 degree Fahrenheit) at 6 p.m. in the summer. In the present paper, modeling and 3-D simulation results of urban warming in the Tokyo metropolitan area were presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions was discussed by using a newly developed 3-D simulation code. Finally, the authors proposed a new concept; cool-air ventilated city project, which alleviates the urban warming, air pollution, and urban discomfort. In this project, the urban outdoor and indoor spaces are ventilated by clean cooled-air, which is produced in the rural or mountainous regions located far away from the urban area. Water of a huge reservoir is cooled below 4 degree Celsius in winter by utilizing sky radiation cooling and will be kept until the summer for indoor and outdoor space cooling. In this study, the feasibility of this system was discussed.

  2. PREFACE: The International Conference on Science of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9-13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.:

  3. Superlubricity and friction
  4. Electronic and phononic contributions to friction
  5. Friction on the atomic and molecular scales
  6. van der Waals friction and Casimir force
  7. Molecular motor and friction
  8. Friction and adhesion in soft matter systems
  9. Wear and crack on the nanoscale
  10. Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipation
  11. Friction and chaos
  12. Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts
  13. Friction of powder
  14. The number of participants in the conference was approximately 100, registered from 11 countries. 48 oral and 29 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 23 papers devoted to the above topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education and the Taihokogyo Tribology Research Foundation (TTRF), and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The Surface Science Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Tribologists and Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute. The details of the conference are available at http://www.science-of-friction.com . Finally we want to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Irago, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

  15. Compound class specific {sup 14}C analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with PM10 and PM1.1 aerosols from residential areas of suburban Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Hidetoshi Kumata; Masao Uchida; Eisuke Sakuma; Tatsuya Uchida; Kitao Fujiwara; Mikio Tsuzuki; Minoru Yoneda; Yasuyuki Shibata

    2006-06-01

    Compound class specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) was performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter {lt}10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) and {lt}1.1 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.1}) collected from a residential area of suburban Tokyo, Japan, and seasonal and particle-size radiocarbon variations were investigated. Source diagnostic isomer pair ratios indicated mixed contributions from petroleum combustion and from biomass and coal combustion to the PAHs in APM. The {Delta}{sup 14}C-PAHs in APM, ranging from -787 to -514{per_thousand}, indicated dominance of fossil fuel combustion. The {Delta}{sup 14}C of 5-6 rings (HMW) PAHs were higher than the 3-4 rings (LMW) species in both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 1.1} samples. The {Delta}{sup 14}C of HMW-PAHs indicated greater biomass-burning contributions in summer than in winter and no apparent particle-size variation. Conversely, the {Delta}{sup 14}C of LMW species showed a greater contribution from fossil sources in summer and in larger particles (PM10). This finding could be tentatively attributed to the recondensation of fossil-PAHs vaporized from petroleum sources. A {Delta}{sup 14}C isotopic mass balance approach estimated that biomass burning contributes 17-45% of the PAH burden in suburban Tokyo, and that the increase in the biomass-PAH accounts for approximately 27% and 22% of winter-time elevation of LMW- and HMW-PAHs, respectively. These are far exceeding what is expected from the emission statistics for CO{sub 2} and combusted materials in Japan and emphasizing the importance of biomass-burning as a source of PAHs; which, in turn, demonstrates the utility and the significance of field-based source assessment by using CCSRA for an effective regulation of atmospheric pollution by PAHs. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of centenarians in Okinawa and Honshu, Japan: Part 2 Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Takashi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi

    2017-02-16

    The scope and purpose of this review was to summarize the aims, methods, findings, and future of centenarian and (semi)-supercentenarian studies in Japan, particularly those from our own interdisciplinary laboratory. Medically, approximately 97% of centenarians contract chronic diseases including hypertension and gastrointestinal disease; however, they present with few cardiovascular risk factors. The low prevalence of diabetes mellitus and carotid atherosclerotic plaques is peculiarities of centenarians, which could be associated with high adiponectin levels. While conducting the Tokyo centenarian study (TCS), we found that only 20% of centenarians enjoyed physical and cognitive independence at the age of 100 years, although most remained independent in daily living until into their 90s. Those who maintained physical independence at 100 years of age were highly likely to become semi-supercentenarians (over 105 years) or even supercentenarians (beyond 110 years). We also describe parts of results of the Japan Semi-supercentenarian Study (JSS), which showed that the suppression of chronic inflammation is an important driver of successful aging at extreme old age. Telomere maintenance and an extremely low frequency of APOE-ε4 alleles are genetic peculiarities of (semi)-supercentenarians. The available data confirm our conviction that semi-supercentenarians are a more appropriate model for the study of human longevity.

  17. Conference Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Cait

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes an original conference, organised by the Child Care Research Forum (http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/ccrf/), which brought together experts from all over Northern Ireland to showcase some of the wealth of research with children and young people that is going on in the country today. Developed around the six high-level outcomes of…

  18. The conference

    Treesearch

    Gordon M. Heisler; Lee P. Herrington

    1977-01-01

    This is a report on the Conference on Metropolitan Physical Environment, held in August 1975 at Syracuse, N.Y., where some 160 scientists and planners met to discuss the use of vegetation, space, and structures to improve the amenities for people who live in metropolitan areas.

  19. Conference Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillett, Wade

    2016-01-01

    The following is an exploration of the spatial configurations (and their implications) within a typical panel session at an academic conference. The presenter initially takes up different roles and hyperbolically describes some possible messages that the spatial arrangement sends. Eventually, the presenter engages the audience members in atypical…

  20. Conference Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillett, Wade

    2016-01-01

    The following is an exploration of the spatial configurations (and their implications) within a typical panel session at an academic conference. The presenter initially takes up different roles and hyperbolically describes some possible messages that the spatial arrangement sends. Eventually, the presenter engages the audience members in atypical…

  21. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances; Proceedings of the 6th U.S./Japan Experts Meeting Held at Tokyo, Japan on 16-18 February 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    AD-ARub 778 COR PS OF ENGINEERS FORT BELVOli VA WATER RESOUQCES S--ETC F/6 13/2 MANAGEMENT OF ROTTOR SEDIMENTS CONTAINING TOXIC SUBSTANCES$ PRO-ETC...UI UNCLASSIFIED N US Armvy Corps of Engineers’ Water Resources Support Center Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances Proceedings of...CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Water Resources Support Center March 1982 Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060 13. NJUMBER OF PAGES t4. MONITORING

  22. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition 22 backup crew members, from left, NASA’s Doug Wheelock, Russian Anton Shkaplerov and Japan’s Satoshi Furakawa are seen during during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  23. Expedition 22 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-19

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov, right, answers a reporter's question as Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer looks on during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, Dec., 19, 2009. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan, is scheduled for Monday, Dec., 21, 2009 at 3:52a.m. Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  24. Seismic imaging of the two subducting slabs underneath Tokyo Metropolitan area inferred from Ps single scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, T.; Nishida, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.

    2009-12-01

    Metropolitan Seismic Observation Network (MeSO-net) has recently been deployed in the Kanto region, central part of Japan, by a project supported by MEXT, Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area. The MeSO-net is comprised of approximately 400 stations with a station spacing of 2~5 km, which realizes the one of the most instrumented metropolitan area in the world. Each seismometer is installed at the bottom of 20-m deep borehole. Thus, this network is capable of observing high quality data even in the metropolitan area where artificial noises are considered to be very high. Two slabs, the Pacific slab and the Philippine Sea slab, are present underneath the Kanto region at depths of 0-200 km. The complexities of subsurface structure in the uppermost mantle have been investigated by several seismological approaches, such as tomography, receiver function, and earthquake locations. However, the quality and quantity of the data would be still insufficient to recover the subsurface structure including two slabs in this region. In this study, we tried to image them using teleseismic single scattered waves observed by the MeSO-net. The method used in this study was introduced by Bostock and co-workers, which enables us to image dipping layers well in addition to horizontal layers. Here, we used Ps single scattered waves with an assumption of the Born approximation in the scattering. The used frequency band is 0.1~1.0 Hz. We selected 30 teleseismic events that occurred between April 2008 and March 2009 with magnitudes of 6.3 or greater. The used velocity model is basically 1D JMA velocity model, but its shallow portion from 0 to 10 km depth is replaced by a 2D velocity model. This model is produced by another analysis using seismic interferometry, which precisely describes shallower structure including sedimentary layers. As a result, we show the clear oceanic crust of the Pacific slab at depths of 50~70 km. The oceanic Moho within the

  25. Report of the International Conference on Risk Communication Strategies for BSL-4 laboratories, Tokyo, October 3-5, 2007.

    PubMed

    Dickmann, Petra; Keith, Kelly; Comer, Chris; Abraham, Gordon; Gopal, Robin; Marui, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Working with highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola or Marburg virus in the context of infection control or biodefense research requires high-biocontainment laboratories of the Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) to protect researchers and laboratory staff from infection and to prevent the unintentional release of harmful agents. The public perception of research on highly pathogenic agents and the operation of high-containment facilities is often ambivalent: while the output of the biomedical research is highly valued, the existence of a BSL-4 lab is often viewed with concern. Biomedical research perspectives and public perceptions often differ and can lead to tensions that could have negative effects on research, society, and politics. Therefore, risk communication plays a crucial role in siting, building, and operating a high-containment facility. The Japanese government invited risk communication experts and scientists from Canada, the U.S., Europe, and Australia to discuss their risk communication strategies for BSL-4 labs. This article describes the international perspective on risk communication and gives recommendations for successful strategies.

  26. Calendar of Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-08-01

    8 - 18 August 1996 International Summer School on Plasma Physics and Technology La Jolla, CA, USA Contact: Mr V Stefan, Institute for Advanced Physics Studies, PO Box 2964, La Jolla, CA 92038, USA. Tel +1-619-456-5737. 26 - 30 August 1996 Joint Varenna - Lausanne International Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 2 - 5 September 1996 EU - US Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Further information: G Gorini, ISPP, 16 Via Celoria, I-20133 Milano, Italy. Tel +39-2-2392637, Fax +39-2-2392205, E-mail ggorini@mi.infn.it. Administrative contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 9 - 13 September 1996 International Conference on Plasma Physics Nagoya, Japan Contact: Conference Secretariat, c/o Prof. Hiromu Momota, National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan. Tel +81-52-789-4260, Fax +81-52-789-1037, E-mail icpp96@nifs.ac.jp. Abstract deadline: 31 March 1996. 16 - 20 September 1996 19th Symposium on Fusion Technology Lisbon, Portugal Contact: Professor Carlos Varandas, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Fax +351-1-8417819, E-mail cvarandas@cfn.ist.utl.pt. General information will be available via WWW with URL http://www.cfn.ist.utl.pt. 25 - 29 September 1996 Summer University of Plasma Physics Garching, Germany Contact: Ms Ch Stahlberg, Max-Planck-Institut für PlasmaPhysik, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany. Tel +49-89-3299-2232, Fax +49-89-3299-1001. 11 - 15 November 1996 38th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, APS Denver, CO, USA Contact: Dr Richard Hazeltine, University of Texas

  27. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  28. Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer in Japan and China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987–2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk. PMID:23629646

  29. The High Road to Tokyo Bay. The AAF in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Bering Sea and from Manchuria to the Coral Sea. Just three years later, Japan surrendered, having lost most of its vast domain. Coordinated action by...operations in Asia and the Pacific areas during World War II. A subsequent pamphlet will cover the strategic bombardment of Japan . REPORT DOCUMENTATION...8217 tactical air operations against Japan in the China-Burma-India, Southwest Pacific, Central Pacific, and Western Pacific theaters. 34 pp., maps, photos

  30. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    papers were accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The total number of submitted and accepted papers for this year's conference represents a significant increase over previous Fluid Mechanics Conferences, and has expanded its initial national character and borders which speaks to the great vitality of fluid mechanics. We hope that these proceedings will be used not only as a document of the event but also to assess achievements and new paths to be taken in fluid mechanics research. Finally, we would like to congratulate the winners of the 2014 Professor Janusz W Elsner Competition Ruri Hidema from Japan, Fernando Tejero from Spain and Lukasz Laniewski-Wollk from Poland. Acknowledgements We would like to express grateful appreciation to our colleagues from the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics, as well as to the International Scientific Committee i.e. Members and the Advisory Board. Their advice and efforts have helped us to overcome the problems normally associated with organising international meetings. Special thanks goes to the reviewers for their work in encouraging the submission of papers and the subsequent review of all papers. Their contribution cannot be overestimated. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference was organised by AGH University of Science and Technology, the Polish Academy of Sciences the Committee of Mechanics and the AGH-UST Foundation. Proceedings was published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The demanding work involved could not have been done without the contribution of so many individuals from all institutions as well as numerous external co-workers. Without their extremely valuable help such a meeting would have been impossible. Thank you all so much! Details of the committees are available in the PDF

  31. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  32. [Enhanced surveillance for US presidential visit to Japan].

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie; Masuda, Kazutaka; Nadaoka, Youko; Kamiya, Nobuyuki; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2010-11-01

    US President Barack Obama's November 13-14, 2009 visit to Japan gave us an opportunity to enhanced routine syndrome surveillance upgrade countermeasure against bioterrorism attacks and other emergencies. We conducted analysis using suspected case surveillance based on the Infection Control Law, surveillance for ambulance transfer by the local Tokyo government, and prescription surveillance by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Thanks to regularly conducted prior surveillance, we enhanced the routine by closer monitoring and sharing information, conducting postvisit surveillance for two weeks until November 30. Information as of 07:00 from the Prescription Survey and a 17:00 ambulance transfer survey were submitted to and evaluated National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. The fact that we conducted enhanced surveillance easily without prior preparation indicates that we may be able to cut the cost and time of syndrome surveillance negotiation and preparation. Such enhanced surveillance is highly feasible and we expect to do so similarly cooporating flexibly with local and central governments.