Science.gov

Sample records for confined dredged material

  1. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  2. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  3. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  4. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  5. Chemical Clarification Methods for Confined Dredged Material Disposal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approvedl for publico release; distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the...136. Salinity. The salinity of the sediment water and the bottom water used to suspend and transport the dredged material must be mea- sured or

  6. A technique for the assessment of the visual impact of nearshore confined dredged materials and other built islands

    Treesearch

    Roy Mann

    1979-01-01

    Drilling rigs, confined dredged material disposal sites power and sewage treatment facilities, and other built objects on or near shorelines have often created appreciable impacts on the aesthetic perceptions of residents and recreational users. Techniques for assessing such impacts that are reviewed in this paper include viewscape analysis for large-scale shore...

  7. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Miller, G; Simmers, J W

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

  8. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

  9. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An important goal of managing dredged material is to ensure that the material is used or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.Most of this dredged material could be used in a beneficial manner instead.

  10. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  11. Sustainable Confined Disposal Facilities for Long-term Management of Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    different types of materials separate (e.g. coarse versus fine-grained materials), or even various processing streams resulting from rehandling of the...properties or facilitate biodegradation of contaminants, and an area for composting may also be desirable. Thus, separation processes themselves compete for...beneficial use  Urban areas have great potential for beneficial use  Brownfield reclamation promising as a beneficial use  Topsoil and fertilizer

  12. Informational Webinar on Dredging and Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 1 and Region 2 informational webinar on dredging and dredged material management in Long Island Sound. Topics include: dredging permit process, dredged material testing, and dredged material disposal.

  13. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  14. Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

    1993-01-01

    Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

  15. Field Evaluations of the Quality of Effluent from Confined Dredged Material Disposal Areas. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    acknowledged. This work was performed under the general supervison of Dr. Raymond L. Montgomery, Chief, EED, and Dr. John Harrison, Chief, EL. Managers of the...material discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The Corps of Engineers has recently developed modified elutriate testing procedures for...ABSTRACT (Continued). showed that all five disposal areas were very efficient in retaining suspended solids. The relative retention of contaminants

  16. Dredged Material Research: Notes, News, Reviews, etc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    MARRIAGE OF MARICULTURE AND MATERIAL (DREDGED THAT IS!) In August 1974 the Dow Chemical Company submitted an unsolicited proposal to the DMRP for an...34Investigation of Mariculture as an Alternative Use of Dredged Material Containment Areas." Since the unique, innovative approach proposed was...advantages and disadvantages for the landowners and the Government f80880 of combining dredged material disposal with mariculture , and evaluate

  17. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excavated from the navigable waters of the United States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated.... Dredged material consists primarily of natural sediments or materials which may be contaminated by... not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not...

  18. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... municipal or industrial wastes or by runoff from terrestrial sources such as agricultural lands. (b) Dredged... existing and historical sources of pollution so as to provide reasonable assurance that such material has not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not...

  19. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  1. Federal Standard: Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this document is to provide national guidance that explains the role of the Federal Standard in implementing beneficial uses of dredged material from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ new and maintenance navigation projects.

  2. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not....13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact §...

  3. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not....13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact §...

  4. Stakeholder engagement in dredged material management decisions.

    PubMed

    Collier, Zachary A; Bates, Matthew E; Wood, Matthew D; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-15

    Dredging and disposal issues often become controversial with local stakeholders because of their competing interests. These interests tend to manifest themselves in stakeholders holding onto entrenched positions, and deadlock can result without a methodology to move the stakeholder group past the status quo. However, these situations can be represented as multi-stakeholder, multi-criteria decision problems. In this paper, we describe a case study in which multi-criteria decision analysis was implemented in a multi-stakeholder setting in order to generate recommendations on dredged material placement for Long Island Sound's Dredged Material Management Plan. A working-group of representatives from various stakeholder organizations was formed and consulted to help prioritize sediment placement sites for each dredging center in the region by collaboratively building a multi-criteria decision model. The resulting model framed the problem as several alternatives, criteria, sub-criteria, and metrics relevant to stakeholder interests in the Long Island Sound region. An elicitation of values, represented as criteria weights, was then conducted. Results show that in general, stakeholders tended to agree that all criteria were at least somewhat important, and on average there was strong agreement on the order of preferences among the diverse groups of stakeholders. By developing the decision model iteratively with stakeholders as a group and soliciting their preferences, the process sought to increase stakeholder involvement at the front-end of the prioritization process and lead to increased knowledge and consensus regarding the importance of site-specific criteria.

  5. Dredging and dewatering sediment containing hazardous and toxic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Dredging is a common method of remediating ponds containing contaminated wastes. However, dewatering of the dredged solids is usually not well integrated with the dredging phase. As a result, overall project efficiency can be poor. Specifically, since dredges deliver material in a widely varying slurry form and since dewatering presses require the delivered material to be uniform, union of the two systems often results in inconsistent operation of the overall process. In an effort to enhance overall dredging and dewatering process production rates as well as minimize the return of suspended solids in the decant water, a new process was developed to provide a consistent dredged sludge for delivery to the press. This paper discusses modifications made to a conventional dredging and dewatering process to improve production rates and dewatering capabilities. These modifications are applicable to any project where efficient solids dewatering is required and where returning decant water must be visually free of suspended solids. 4 figs.

  6. Environmental Effects of Dredging. Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits -- Background and Preliminary Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London Dumping Convention) accepted the capping concept, subject to monitoring, as an appropriate technology for rapidly rendering harmless the contaminants of concern in dredged material. Subsequent detailed investigations (e.g., Brannon et al. 1985, O’Connor and O’Connor 1983) have confirmed that capping can be effective in chemically and biologically isolating contaminated dredged material from the overlying aquatic environment. However, in order to ensure this effectiveness, capping projects cannot

  7. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 225.2 Section 225.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set...

  8. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 225.2 Section 225.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set...

  9. Dredged Material Testing and Evaluation for Ocean Disposal

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluation and testing of dredged material proposed for ocean dumping is conducted to help protect human health and the marine environment. National guidance is provided by the Green Book. Regional Implementation Manuals are provided.

  10. A Methodology for Determining Land Value and Associated Benefits Created from Dredged Material Containment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    Definitions 15 CHAPTER III: PRODUCTIVE USES OF DREDGED MATERIAL SITES .... 17 Physical Characteristics 24 Institutional and Legal Constraints 25... definitive information on the environmental effects of dredging and dredged material containment operations. It will develop dredging and...inside of the back cover of this report. Definitions Highest and best use. As commonly employed the term refers to a use of land that maximizes

  11. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program: Guidance for Contracting Biological and Chemical Evaluations of Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    toxi - cology researchers that sediment toxicity tests are more difficult to reproduce than the classic bioassay, in which fish are exposed to a well...shrimp, copepods, Daphnia , or algae. Although most organ- isms used in dredged material testing may be purchased or collected, these may be cultured in the...Biological screens that are available may be useful in comparing and ranking sediments within a proj- ect area. Daphnia , mysid, and amphipod sediment

  12. Environmental effects of dredging: Wetland animal bioassay of saltwater dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The Clean Water Act requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on contaminant concentrations through biological processes. This resulted in a need for Corps of Engineers Districts to be able to predict the potential contamination of animals that may be associated with each of these potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and/or wetland creation. The following is a summary of a wetland animal solid-phase bioassay test applied to sediment collected from the waterway at Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. This test procedure was designed to evaluate the potential movement of toxic heavy metals and other contaminants from dredged material placed in a wetland (reduced) environment into sediment-dwelling intertidal invertebrates as a first step that may be used to evaluate contaminant mobility to animals that may colonize the dredged material. No inference on the movement of contaminants through the wetland food web is offered at this time.

  13. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  14. EPA Proposes Changes to Use of Two Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing to amend its 2005 rule that designated the Central & Western Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites. The proposed amendments will help meet the goal of reducing or eliminating dredged material disposal in the Sound's open waters

  15. Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1983. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    at Mouth, OR & WA 230 C-45 Rogue River , OR 232 C-46 Siuslaw River , OR 234 C-47 Umpqua River , OR 236 C-48 Yaquina Bay & Hrb, OR 238 C-49 Nome, AK...America b. Umpqua River , Oregon 4. Specification of dredged material and process from which derived: a. Description: Sand (SP) b. Mode of dredging...Building Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-5586 C-31 Calcasieu River and Pass, LA (Gulf Approach Channel) 204 C-32 Gulf Intracoastal Water - Trib. Ch. to Port Mansfield

  16. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation... designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS, ``Designation of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Pursuant to Section 102(c...

  17. Lake-dredged materials for beef cattle pasture establishment in subtropics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to reuse dredge materials for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. Beneficial uses of dredging or dredged materials are both economical and environmental. ...

  18. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administrator, a statement of the basis for the proposed determination why no previously designated site is... dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the... composition of the dredged material; and (8) A statement concerning a preliminary determination of the need...

  19. New Federal Regulations for Dredged and Fill Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David D.

    1976-01-01

    Aided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, the United States Army Corps of Engineers regulates the discharge of dredged and fill material, through a permit program, to all waters of the United States. This feature summarizes the key points of the Corps regulations and the EPA guidelines. (BT)

  20. Identification of Alternative Power Sources for Dredged Material Processing Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    This report provides a basis for selecting alternative, renewable power sources specifically for operating dredged material processing systems. A...obtaining power from solid waste (such as incineration of trash), but was discarded. Of all the alternative power sources studied, wind electric generation seems to be the most practical and versatile to apply at this time.

  1. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Mathematical Model of the Consolidation/Desiccation Processes in Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    zI = material coordinate of any point within the layer 21. Total layer settlement between times tI and t2 is now easily expressed by 6 =(Q,t1 ) - ( ,t...2 ) = f [e(z,tl) - e(z, t2 )]dz (17) 0 or if settlement is measured from the initial sedimented dredged fill height h 14 C, 6(t) = e0 0 - f e(z,t)dz...CD 9905C ..... PERMEABILITY FUNCTION TIMES DSDE -- ALPHA1 9910 DO 29 I-lLBL 9915 ALPHAI(I) - PKI(I) * DSDEI(I) 9920 29 CONTINUE * 9925C 9930C

  2. Verification of Design and Construction Techniques for Gaillard Island Dredged Material Disposal Area, Mobile, Alabama.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    pumping and barge hauling dredged material over distances up to 7 miles. A dust pan dredge was used to dredge the soft clayey bottom mate- rial and deposit...Docks and the city of Mobile acquired 1800 acres to form the nucleus of the pirk. The State Docks dredged a 12-ft barge canal up the mid- dle fork of the...Mobile, set up biomonitoring stations to measure changes in such things as siltation, salinity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and benthic

  3. Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.

    PubMed

    Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

    2008-01-01

    Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage).

  4. Barren Island Dredged Material Placement for Regional Sediment Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    originator . Barren Island Dredged Material Placement for Regional Sediment Management by Robert N. Blama PURPOSE. This Coastal and Hydraulics...via a thin shrub-covered tidal flat. Originally , Barren Island was actually not an island, but rather part of the central Delmarva Peninsula that...orientation. The main geologic component of this peninsula is of clay origin and not silica sediments (sand) typical of coastal islands. Due to this

  5. Dredged Material Management Categories for Tracking Beneficial Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    particularly in threatened ecosystems such as the Mississippi Delta or the South Florida wetlands ” (http://www.asce.org/Content.aspx?id=8638). Furthermore...Shallow water placement for Wetland , Marsh , or Habitat: Dredged material placed below ordinary high water for wetland or marsh nourishment/creation or...other habitat such as bottomland hardwood, salt marsh , swamp, wooded wetland , scrub-shrub, and forested wetland . Benefits can also include storm and

  6. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2...

  7. Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged materials. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Clean Water Act in the United States requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on concentrations of contaminants through biological processes. This results in a need for Corps of Engineers districts to be able to predict the contamination of animals that may be associated with potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and wetland creation. The following is a summary of the results of bioassay procedures using the earthworm Eisenia foetida to evaluate the potential contaminant mobility into soil-dwelling animals. These tests were derived from proposed Organization for European Common Development (OECD) and European Economics Commission (EEC) test procedures (evaluating the effects of new chemicals) and modified to consider accumulation and sublethal effects rather than toxicity.

  8. Liquid versus solid phase bioassays for dredged material toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Fernández, N; Forja, J M; DelValls, T A

    2007-05-01

    Since 1994 the results of the analyses of key chemical compounds (trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and the comparison with the corresponding sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) are used in decision-making for dredged material management in Spain. Nonetheless in the last decades a tiered testing approach is promoted for assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of dredged sediments and their potential biological effects in the environment. Bioassays have been used for sediment toxicity assessment in Spain but few or no experiences are reported on harbour sediments. We studied the incidence of toxicity in the 7 d bioassay using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and the 48 h bioassay using sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos over a series of experiments employing 22 different elutriates. The relative performance of this exposure phase was not comparable to data on the 10-d acute toxicity test using the burrowing amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina, carried out on the whole sediments. These results evidence the importance of the exposure route and the test selected in decision-making, as the toxicity registered for the undiluted elutriates was largely due to the different solubility of sediment-bound contaminants. This work and other studies indicate that for many sediments, a complete battery of test is recommended together with physico-chemical analyses to decide whether dredged sediments are suitable for open water disposal or not.

  9. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Report 10. Evaluation of Dredging and Dredging Control Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    views of Japanese Refresher system (from Kaneko, Watari , and Aritomi 1984) 26 ARABj...jiu,2 Figure 13. Horizontal cutterhead of the Mudcat dredge...Turbidity Control," Proceedings of the Specialty Conference on Dredging and Its Environmental Effects, Mobile, AL, January 26-28, 1976. Kaneko, A., Watari , Y

  10. Design of a GIS-based rating protocol to assess the potential for landfill closure using dredge material in post Hurricane Sandy New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Miskewitz, Robert J; Barone, Daniel; Guterl, Sar J; Uchrin, Christopher G

    2017-05-12

    New Jersey is rapidly running out of capacity for storage of dredged material. A potential solution to this lack of storage space is to remove and reuse the dredged material for some beneficial use. Results from a Rutgers University project performed for the New Jersey Department of Transportation, Office of Maritime Resources, designed to assess the potential for closure of New Jersey landfills using dredge material from existing Confined Disposal Facilities (CDFs) are presented and discussed. The project included an update of the existing NJDEP landfill database, the development of a rating system to identify landfills with the highest potential to utilize dredged material for their closure, and the identification and preliminary investigation of the top candidate landfills based on this rating system.

  11. Guidance for Subaqueous Dredged Material Capping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    rjynC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 Prepared for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising...locally, as needed. Contents Preface xii Conversion Factors, Non-SI to SI Units of Measurement xiv 1—Introduction 1 Background 1 Purpose and Scope...material properties, and com- puter models for predicting mound development and spreading behavior are available. c. Long-term cap integrity

  12. Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

    2012-05-01

    As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented.

  13. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Planning-Level Cost Estimates of Dredged Material Containment Islands in New York Harbor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    WES). Three sites are ... *considered: a. A--East Bank (off East Bank and Coney Island ). .. b. B--West Bank (Lower Bay west to Chapel Hill Channel). c...PROGRAM "P." US~~o ArCop MISCELLANEOUS PAPER D-88 3 PLANNING-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF AD-A194 812 DREDGED MATERIAL CONTAINMENT ISLANDS IN NEW YORK HARBOR...10278-0090 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) -’.. Planning-Level Cost Estimates of Dredged Material Containment Islands in New York Harbor

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

  15. Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1984. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    ME 142 C-3 CHELSEA RIVER , MA 146 C-4 FLUSHING BAY & CREEK (*9) i11 C-S MORRIS CANAL IS4 C-6 N.Y. & N.J. CHANNELS (*93) SOUTH OF SHOOTERS IS. CHAN. 156...COQUILLE RIVER , OR 2cF7 C-46 COLUMBIA R. 9 MOUTH, OR & WA 259 C-47 SIUSLAW RIVER , OR 261 C-48 UMPQUA RIVER . OR 263 C-49 YAQUINA BAY & HARBOR, OR 26S C-50...3. Country of origin of wastes and port of loading: a. United States of America b. Umpqua River , Oregon 4. Specification of dredged material and

  16. Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged material. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    Earthworms have great potential for use as bioassay/biomonitor organisms in studies of contaminant uptake and possess many characteristics that make them ideally suited for this purpose (Ma 1982). Studies have demonstrated that native species of earthworms, collected at contaminated sites, can be used to indicate biologically available levels of these contaminants (Helmke et al. 1979, Ireland 1983, Pietz et al. 1984). However, it is the species Eisenia foetida (which does not naturally colonize these sites) which has been recommended for use in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of agricultural and industrial chemicals (European Economic Community (EEC) 1984), proposed as a bioassay species for assessing contaminant availability in waste materials, and used to determine the bioavallability of contaminants in dredged material (Marquenie and Simmers 1984). Correlations between total and OTPA-extractable metal concentrations in contaminated substrates and the concentrations in the tissues of earthworms exposed to these substrates over a 28-day period may be used to establish their potential as biomonitor organisms.

  17. Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Collation and interpretation of data for Times Beach confined disposal facility, Buffalo, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, E.A.; Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Brown, C.P.

    1991-06-01

    This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times Beach confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of contaminants known to be in the dredged material placed at Times Beach by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound contaminants. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent contaminants, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. Contaminant concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.

  18. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation...) Atchafalaya-West Ocean Disposal Site (ODMDS-West) as a permanent MPRSA Section 102(c) ocean dredged material... Management and Monitoring Plan E. Ocean Dumping Site Designation Criteria --General Selection Criteria...

  19. GREAT I: A Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 2. Floodplain Management, Dredged Material Uses, Dredging Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Disposal, Thalwep. The disposal of dredged material into the main channel. Diversion. The taking of water from a stream or other body of water into a...REQUIREMENTS ions will be in bleok 40 white’ VOLUME 3 D. MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT NEEDS E. COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION VOLUME 4 F. WATER QUALITY G. SEDIMENT...acceptable on a temporary basis. The material must be removed from the floodway before seasonal high water . 3. The FPMWG recommends that lands along

  20. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged...

  1. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... at the site will be limited to a maximum of 1 million cubic yards (764,555 cubic meters) per calendar...). However, all dredged material must be discharged within a smaller 3,280 foot (1,000 meter) diameter...,790 feet (2,680 meters). D. Disposal Volume Limit G-DODS is designated for a maximum annual dredged...

  2. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Fact Sheet: Project Partners and Decision Makers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Disposal of dredged material is managed and conducted by federal, state, and local governments; private entities; and semi-private entities. Cooperation among these groups strengthens the possibility that suitable materials will be used beneficially.

  3. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  4. Tylers Beach, Virginia, dredged material plume monitoring project, September 27 to October 4, 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    thevenot, M.M.; Prickett, T.L.; Kraus, N.C.

    1992-12-01

    The Tylers Beach, Virginia, Dredged Material Plume Monitoring Project (TBMP) was conducted during the period 27 September to 4 October 1991. The project was conducted under the Dredging Research Program Technical Area 1, entitled 'Analysis of Dredged Material Placed in Open Water,' in support of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk. The objectives of the TBMP were to (a) collect suspended material concentration data and current data to determine the potential for dredged material issuing from a pipeline discharge to reach environmentally sensitive areas adjacent to the placement site, and (b) continue development of PLUmes MEasurement System (PLUMES) for monitoring dredged material plumes. This report provides an overview of the equipment and procedures used during the TBMP, together with a presentation of the TBMP data and analysis results. The TBMP produced an extensive, high-quality data set from 12 acoustic surveys and numerous suspended material and bottom grab samples.... Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), PLUme MEasurement System (PLUMES), Dredged material, Point of-Shoals, James River, Suspended material.

  5. Environmental effects of dredging. Role of contaminant uptake in the potential use of phragmites australis (cav.) trin. On confined disposal facilities. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.L.; VanDerWerff, M.

    1988-12-01

    PURPOSE: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., common reed, is a plant species that is common to fresh- and brackish-water marshes of the world. P. australis has been recommended as one plant species that could survive and grow after being completely buried during dredged material disposal (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis can also serve as a physical barrier, because of its strong stems, to dredged material flow during hydraulic disposal. Decreasing dredged material flow helps to increase consolidation of hydraulically dredged material (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis is a plant species recommended for habitat development on dredged material disposal sites (Hunt et al. 1978). Plant establishment on marsh creation projects using uncontaminated dredged material poses little threat of increasing environmental cycling of contaminants. However, plant establishment or natural invasion of plants on contaminated dredged material has the potential for increased environmental cycling (mobility) of contaminants. Therefore, a literature review was conducted to determine contaminant uptake by P. australis since many dredged material disposal sites support lush stands of P. australis and contaminant uptake by this species was unknown.

  6. The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A guide for USACE Districts, other federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, and private interest groups. The Federal Standard Paper provides guidance on using dredged material as a resource to achieve environmental and economic benefits.

  7. Using sediment quality guidelines for dredged material management in commercial ports from Spain.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Buceta, J L; Belzunce, M J; Delvalls, T A

    2006-04-01

    Dredged material contamination was assessed in different commercial ports from Spain: Port of Cádiz and Huelva, South West; Bilbao and Pasajes, North; Cartagena and Barcelona, East; Coruña, North West. Sediment from different locations of these ports was sampled and was characterized following the Spanish recommendations for dredged material management. This characterization included grain size distribution, organic matter content and concentration of the chemical compounds included in the list of pollutants and hazardous substances (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn; PCB congeners IUPAC number 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180; PAHs were also analyzed). The results were compared to the limit values of Spanish Action Levels that define the different categories for assessment and management. A set of empirically derived sediment quality guidelines (SQG) was used to assess the possible toxicity of the dredged materials and to improve the use of the chemical approach to characterize dredged material for its management.

  8. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  9. D2M2 Dredged-Material Disposal Management Model. User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    developed by Rochelle Barkin and the network model and the branch-and-bound algorithm were formulated by David Ford and Darryl Davis, Chief, Planning...10 Appendix I: Reprint of "Dredged-material Disposal Management Model" by David T. Ford...By David T. Ford,’ M. ASCE Aae•mA: To identify efficient dredged-material disposal management strat- egies for the Delaware River navigation system

  10. Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-12-01

    Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

  11. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Buttermilk Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Buttermilk Channel was one of seven waterways that was sampled and evaluated for dredging and sediment disposal. Sediment samples were collected and analyses were conducted on sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. A composite sediment samples, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  12. Nematodes as Sensitive Indicators of Change at Dredged Material Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, S. E.; Rees, H. L.; Richardson, C. A.

    2000-12-01

    Demonstration of the recovery of marine habitats from perturbation, or of the effectiveness of protective measures, is dependent on the sensitivity of the target group in responding to change. This paper highlights the utility of the nematode component of the meiofauna as a tool for assessing disturbance from dredgings disposal. Transect surveys were conducted at three major dredged material disposal sites around the U.K. coast. Both gross effects due to the direct impact of dredgings within the disposal sites and lesser consequences arising from the transport of material away from the sites were evident with nematode community analyses. The same nematode species, Sabatieria pulchra group (both breviseta and punctata ) and Daptonema tenuispiculum were found to dominate at all disposal sites, despite appreciable environmental differences between locations and variability in the nature of the deposited dredged material. These studies have established that nematode communities can provide a sensitive indicator of change in response to dredged material disposal at a variety of locations and have introduced a new monitoring tool for a practice that has a wide significance around the U.K. coast. The implications of the findings for the future monitoring of dredged material disposal and other waste inputs are discussed.

  13. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  15. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  16. Behavior of subaqueous sediment mounds: Effect on dredged material disposal site capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Dredging of contaminated sediments and subsequent disposal at legally designated disposal sites is an internationally accepted disposal alternative when adherence to strict disposal practices is maintained. As more highly contaminated sediments in the heavily industrialized harbors of the world must be dredged to maintain navigation and economic viability, use of subaqueous dredged material disposal sites is expected to increase. Use of these subaqueous sites has necessitated development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. A methodology of analysis was developed in this study to investigate the behavior of the crated subaqueous sediment mounds. Emphasis was placed upon the geotechnical engineering aspects of mound behavior although the methodology also includes chemical and biological aspects. This methodology was applied to four field sites at which dredged material mounds have been created. The procedure successfully predicted the geotechnical engineering behavior of the constructed dredged material mounds. This methodology of analysis provides a useful tool for evaluation of subaqueous disposal sites and the dredged materials mounds created within these sites.

  17. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Aquaculture in Dredged Material Containment Areas, Proceedings Held at Galveston, Texas on September 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    MS ENVIR .. UNCLASSIFIED J HOZIRK ET RL’OCT 83 WESiMP/D-83-2 F/G 13/2 NL EmEEEEEMhhEjh/lll/i/lm!EEEI EEEEEEEEEEEEEIiiiiiiiiiiiiiiEhhGhBhEEEEEBo S...destroyed, some $25 million in damage had occurred, and some 6000 people lost their lives. The citizens of Galveston faced a tremendous task of...are tested for a variety of heavy metals and pesticides . In some cases, bioassays of the dredged material have been performed. The results of these

  18. Environmental effects of dredging. Engineering considerations for capping subaqueous dredged material deposits -- background and preliminary planning. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1987-02-01

    In recent years, the search for alternatives to expensive and limited upland containment areas for contaminated sediment has centered on in-water capped disposal. This interest was further reinforced when the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London Dumping Convention) accepted the capping concept, subject to monitoring, as an appropriate technology for rapidly rendering harmless the contaminants of concern in dredged material. Subsequent detailed investigations (e.g., Brannon et al. 1985, O`Connor and O`Connor 1983) have confirmed that capping can be effective in chemically and biologically isolating contaminated dredged material from the overlying aquatic environment. However, in order to ensure this effectiveness, capping projects cannot be treated simply as a modification of conventional disposal practices. A capping project must be thought of as an engineered structure with design and construction requirements that must be met, verified, and maintained over the design life. This is not to say that traditional equipment and operational methods cannot be applied to capping contaminated materials. In fact, they have been used with good success. Technologies must, however, be applied in a systems context and with careful control and monitoring.

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable than

  20. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  1. Assessment/management of dredged material to minimize contaminant-related impacts: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nauke, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Close attention must be given to the effects of dredging and disposal operations on the marine environment. The globally applicable Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972), in conjunction with resolutions adopted there under, provides regulations and guidance regarding sea disposal of dredged material. For this purpose the Dredged Material Assessment Framework developed in 1995 provides advice to decision-makers in the field of management of dredged material, incorporating knowledge and experience gained by Contracting Parties to the Convention on potential environmental impacts of dredging operations. Characterization of dredged material is requested with regard to physical and chemical characteristics, including geochemical parameters, potential routes and previous soils of contaminants in the area, and biological characteristics, including tests to determine acute and chronic toxicity, the potential for bioaccumulation and the potential for tainting aquatic living resources. The results of the physical/chemical/biological characterization will indicate whether the dredged material is suitable for disposal at sea. For material found to be unsuitable for beneficial uses, disposal at sea or disposal on land, disposal management techniques will have to be used to reduce or control impacts to a level that-will not constitute an unacceptable risk to human health, or harm living resources, damage amenities or interfere with legitimate uses of the sea. Disposal management techniques may include burial in the sea floor followed by clean sediment capping, selection of special sites, or methods of containment. The Assessment Framework further includes criteria for selection of sea disposal sites, advice for the conduct of impact assessments, and of post-operational monitoring.

  2. The suitability evaluation of dredged soil from reservoirs as embankment material.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaesung; Son, Younghwan; Noh, Sookack; Bong, Taeho

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the suitability of soil dredged from reservoirs as embankment material and investigated its physical and geochemical properties and strength parameters, as well as its environmental stability. The dredged soil samples were taken from the Ansung, Jechon, and Mulwang Reservoirs in Korea. To evaluate their environmental stability and geochemical properties, we examined their levels of heavy metal contamination, pH, and electrical conductivity. We also conducted X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses. Furthermore, we determined the geotechnical characteristics, such as the compaction characteristics, and permeability coefficient, and we performed consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests to evaluate the recycling potential of dredged soil as embankment material. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment samples were lower than those of the standard samples. The pH value of the soil samples ranged from 4.25 to 5.39, and the electrical conductivity ranged between 83.3 and 265.0 μS/cm, indicating suitability for use as construction material with steel and concrete. Based on the values of the mechanical properties of the dredged soil, analysis of slope stability was performed for various cases and water level conditions. Our results indicate that the dredged soil has sufficient stability for substitution of embankment material and also as new embankment material for expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosolids and dredged materials: alternative sources of nutrients for crop productivity and sustainability of pasture-based agroecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic sewage sludge or “biosolids” and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and cha...

  4. Linking sediment chemical and biological guidelines for characterization of dredged material.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Riba, I; Blasco, J; DelValls, T A

    2005-01-01

    Dredged material management in Spain and possible options for the different categories is discussed according to chemical sediment quality guidelines. Also an approach using an integrated assessment that includes biological end points as part of a tiered testing schema is discussed for future implementation in Spanish recommendations. To establish the feasibility of using both kinds of guidelines, an example of the utility and validity of the approach that links both chemical and biological guidelines proposed for the management of dredged material characterization processes data from a particular case study associated with a port in the north of Spain are discussed. The use of both kinds of methodologies, together with the necessity of assessing the bioavailability of some contaminants, has been shown as a powerful tool for the best selection of different disposal options of dredged material in the case study described.

  5. Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. )

    1992-09-01

    The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in 1986 and 1987. Dredged material from the 1986 and 1987 events was placed in three containment ponds located on the north bank of the Snake River, near River Mile 134.7. The ponds were used to hold approximately 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material removed from the port areas at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Prior to dredging, the river sediments were tested and found to be typical of non-contaminated sediment. Since that testing, dioxins and furans have been found in the effluent from a Kraft pulp mill in Lewiston that discharges directly into the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) believed that dredged material placed in the containment ponds may contain contaminated levels of dioxins and furans. At their request, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) sampled sediments from these ponds and performed a chemical analysis.

  6. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  7. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  8. Valorization of unauthorized sea disposal dredged sediments as a road foundation material.

    PubMed

    Achour, Raouf; Abriak, Nor-Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Rivard, Patrice; Gregoire, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to show the ability of fine dredged material (mainly silty material) to be used in road construction project. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the physical, the mineralogical and the mechanical characteristics of the used fine dredged sediments, as well as their chemical composition and environmental impacts are presented. In the second part, the methodology developed to design the road made from dredged fine sediment is developed. The third part of the paper focuses on the presentation of the road construction and the interpretation of analyses made on cores drilled samples from the road and measurements of the deflection of the road. The environmental assessment, based on leaching tests, is also performed at different issues.

  9. 77 FR 63312 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long... potential designation of one or more Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to serve the eastern Long... Environmental Management; and Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  10. Prediction of Heavy Metal Uptake by Marsh Plants Based on Chemical Extraction of Heavy Metals from Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal absorption and uptake by marsh plant species from dredged material...emphasizes the need for a method to predict heavy metal availability from dredged material to plants. DTPA extraction of heavy metals gave the best correlations with actual heavy metal concentrations in marsh plants.

  11. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  14. Quality of dredged material in the river Seine basin (France). II. Micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Hervé, D; Thévenot, D

    2002-11-01

    Dredging rivers is needed to ensure safe navigable waters, rivers and waterways. To anticipate the management of dredged materials in the case of the river Seine basin, the quality of the sediments in the river is checked every 3 years before dredging operations. The river Seine Basin is heavily submitted to pollution pressure from nearby industrial activities and urban expansion of Paris and its region. Here, the micropollutant content of the sediment sampled in 1996, 1999 and 2000 before dredging is discussed compared to regulatory standards. The results indicate that most of the sediment samples from the river Seine basin are lightly to moderately contaminated with organic and inorganic micropollutants (heavy metals, PAH, PCB), which makes the management after dredging easier. This pollution is strongly correlated with the organic matter content and to the fine fraction (<50 microm) of the sediment. These results can lead to other management options than the ones already used in the river Seine basin: (1) dumping of lightly to moderately polluted sediments in quarries; and (2) physical treatment (sieving, hydrocycloning) of contaminated sediments issued from 'hot spots'.

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  16. Laser material interaction in confined medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaux, David; Fabbro, Remy; Virmont, Jean; Ballard, Patrick; Fournier, Jean

    1990-04-01

    The technique of dielectric metallic target confinement is discussed. Improvements in experimental measurements by piezodielectric sensor are described. Laser material interaction by the hydrodynamic code FILM is described. The formed plasma is visualized using a streak camera.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

  18. Environmental Effects of Dredging Program: Inland Waterways: Proceedings of a National Workshop on the Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Held in St. Paul, Minnesota on 27-30 October 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    John W. Simmers, R. G. Rhett, and J. M. Marquenie ..... ............... . 160 Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material in Seven New England Projects...Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material in Seven New England Projects---Messrs. James E. Walsh, Carlos Carranzat, and Robert A. Humphrey, Bay State...accomplish our purpose. 176 SESSION III: INNOVATIVE BENEFICIAL USES AND CONCEPTS BENEFICIAL USES OF DREDGED MATERIAL IN SEVEN NEW ENGLAND PROJECTS

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Niyogi, D.K.; Kohn, N.P.

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of {minus}40 ft MLLW ({minus}38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  1. Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal at the Historic Area Remediation Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance presents the sediment testing guidelines and requirements to be used by applicants who wish to obtain a Department of the Army permit from the USACE-New York District for dredging and placement of dredged material at the HARS in the Atlantic Ocean

  2. Dredged material characterization and management frameworks: A case study at the port Vilagarcia (NW, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Khosrovyan, Alla; DelValls, T Angel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2016-01-25

    The potential impact of dredged sediment has been assessed at sixteen areas of the high-traffic port of Vilagarcia (Northwest Spanish Atlantic coast). The assessment has been done by three weight-of-evidence tools, which integrated data on sediment characteristics and toxicity responses of Ampelisca brevicornis, Vibrio fischeri and eggs and embryos of Paracentrotus lividus. Two of the tools also represented management options regarding the disposal of dredged material. The comparison of the logic in these tools revealed essential differences in the type and the necessity of bioassays and threshold values for chemical concentrations. However, despite this difference, assessment results and the derived management options coincided in most of the sediments. The potential toxicity of sediments was relatively low especially for eggs and embryos possibly due to different contaminant availability in solid and liquid phases. The importance of a battery of toxicity tests in the dredged material quality assessment has been emphasized to avoid an underestimation of sediment toxicity for solid phase organisms, if only liquid phase responses are considered. The potential false implications, which may result from the application of the third tool, were highlighted. The strengths and weaknesses of the tools were discussed from the dredged material management perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  4. Quality of dredged material in the River Seine basin (France). I. Physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Hervé, D; Thévenot, D

    2002-08-05

    In rivers, sediments are frequently accumulating persistent chemicals, especially for those that are more contaminated as a consequence of pressure related to environmental pollution and human activity. The Seine river basin (France) is heavily polluted from nearby industrial activities, and the urban expansion of Paris and its suburbs within the Ile de France region and the sediments present in the Seine river basin are contaminated. To ensure safe, navigable waters, rivers and waterways must be dredged. In this paper, the quality of the sediment dredged in 1996, 1999 and 2000 is discussed. Physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment itself and of the pore-water are presented. Seine basin sediments show very diverse compositions depending on the sampling site. Nevertheless, a geographic distribution study illustrated that the Paris impact is far from being the only explanation to this diversity, the quality of this sediment is also of great concern. The sediment once dredged is transported via barges to a wet disposal site, where the dredged material is mixed with Seine water in order to be pumped into the receiving site. This sort of dumping might be responsible for the potential release of contaminants to the overlying water from the significantly contaminated sediments.

  5. Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses in Laguna Madre, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P.

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine how long alterations in habitat characteristics and use by fishery and forage organisms were detectable at dredged material placement sites in Laguna Madre, Texas. Water, sediment, seagrass, benthos, and nekton characteristics were measured and compared among newly deposited sediments and nearby and distant seagrasses each fall and spring over three years. Over this period, 75% of the estimated total surface area of the original deposits was either re-vegetated by seagrass or dispersed by winds and currents. Differences in water and sediment characteristics among habitat types were mostly detected early in the study. There were signs of steady seagrass re-colonization in the latter half of the study period, and mean seagrass coverage of deposits had reached 48% approximately three years after dredging. Clovergrass Halophila engelmannii was the initial colonist, but shoalgrass Halodule wrightii predominated after about one year. Densities of annelids and non-decapod crustaceans were generally significantly greater in close and distant seagrass habitats than in dredged material habitat, whereas densities of molluscs were not significantly related to habitat type. Nekton (fish and decapod) densities were almost always significantly greater in the two seagrass habitats than in dredged material deposits. Benthos and nekton communities in dredged material deposits were distinct from those in seagrass habitats. Recovery from dredged material placement was nearly complete for water column and sediment components after 1.5 to 3 years, but recovery of seagrasses, benthos, and nekton was predicted to take 4 to 8 years. The current 2 to 5 years dredging cycle virtually insures no time for ecosystem recovery before being disturbed again. The only way to ensure permanent protection of the high primary and secondary productivity of seagrass beds in Laguna Madre from acute and chronic effects of maintenance dredging, while ensuring

  6. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Confined microenvironments formed in heterogeneous catalysts have recently been recognized as equally important as catalytically active sites. Understanding the fundamentals of confined catalysis has become an important topic in heterogeneous catalysis. Well-defined 2D space between a catalyst surface and a 2D material overlayer provides an ideal microenvironment to explore the confined catalysis experimentally and theoretically. Using density functional theory calculations, we reveal that adsorption of atoms and molecules on a Pt(111) surface always has been weakened under monolayer graphene, which is attributed to the geometric constraint and confinement field in the 2D space between the graphene overlayer and the Pt(111) surface. A similar result has been found on Pt(110) and Pt(100) surfaces covered with graphene. The microenvironment created by coating a catalyst surface with 2D material overlayer can be used to modulate surface reactivity, which has been illustrated by optimizing oxygen reduction reaction activity on Pt(111) covered by various 2D materials. We demonstrate a concept of confined catalysis under 2D cover based on a weak van der Waals interaction between 2D material overlayers and underlying catalyst surfaces. PMID:28533413

  7. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    USEPA Region 6 and the US Army Corps of Engineers submit for public comment the Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  8. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  9. Macrofaunal recovery following the intertidal recharge of dredged material: a comparison of structural and functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need to understand the functional implications of anthropogenic pressures, such as those following coastal disposal of dredged material. Current assessments, based on taxonomic structure of benthic organisms, only provide a limited capacity to determine functional impacts or recovery. This study assesses recovery of two intertidal dredged material recharge schemes, comparing results obtained based on taxonomic structure (univariate and multivariate approaches) and function (biological trait composition, functional diversity, secondary production) of the benthic assemblages. The assemblages recolonising both schemes were consistently less speciose, less densely-populated and exhibited multivariate community structures that differed from those of the reference areas. However, for both schemes metrics of functionality converged to those of reference areas, although some differences in trait composition persisted for up to 3 years. These data support the proposition that impacts of, and recovery from, anthropogenic disturbance should be assessed using a combination of both functional and taxonomic structural approaches.

  10. Application of a hazard assessment research strategy to the ocean disposal of a dredged material: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, J.H.; Pesch, G.G.; Dillon, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    Under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has responsibility for establishing and applying criteria for reviewing and evaluating permits for dumping wastes into the ocean, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) has responsibility for issuing permits for the disposal of dredged material into the ocean. After several years of operational experience, the EPA and the COE have reexamined the strengths and weaknesses of the permit program and the general state of the art in sediment testing for the evaluation of the disposal of dredged material into the marine environment. The chapter describes a predictive hazard assessment strategy and decision rationale for disposal that can be used as the basis for revisions both in the ocean dumping regulations and in the permitting program.

  11. Flotation as a remediation technique for heavily polluted dredged material. 1. A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Cauwenberg, P; Verdonckt, F; Maes, A

    1998-01-19

    The flotation behaviour of highly polluted dredged material was investigated at different pH values by mechanical agitated (Denver) flotation. Up to 80% of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc could be concentrated in the froth layer which represented only 30% of the total mass. The maximum specificity for heavy metals, defined as the concentrating factor, was obtained at pH 8-9. The maximum recovery of heavy metals on the other hand was found to be reached at elevated pH values (pH 12). In addition the specificity of the flotation process for the transition metals could be assigned to their presence as metal sulphides in the dredged material. However, the interaction with organic matter is an important factor in determining their flotability. The carbonate fraction was irrelevant for the flotation behaviour of heavy metals.

  12. Application of Toxicity Identification and Evaluation Procedures for Dredged Material Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    and guidance require the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to evaluate direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental impacts associated with...risks associated with placement of dredged material in a CDF. The USACE Inland Testing Manual and Ocean Disposal Manual provide guidance on a tiered...the mechanism or cause of toxicity) is a critical component for the evaluation of environmental impacts that are associated with many alternative

  13. Identifying, Planning, and Financing Beneficial Use Projects Using Dredged Material: Beneficial Use Planning Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    project spon- sors are active decision makers in the activities discussed in the Tech- nical Framework . In particular, it assumes that beneficial use...access. Recreational uses of dredged material tend to be heavily dependent on acquiring local funding. The innovative funding opportu- nities discussed ...having varying degrees of interest in beneficial use projects. For a more extensive discussion of public involvement planning, see Framework for

  14. A Phase One Archaeological Reconnaissance of a Proposed Dredged Material Disposal Site at Prairie Island, Minnesota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    I© AD-A182 629 fuLE GP’", A PHASE ONE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF A PROPOSED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE AT PRAIRIE ISLAND, MINNESOTA BY...Clark A. Dobbs, Ph.D. Senior Research Archaeologist The Institute for Minnesota Archaeology , Inc. Minneapolis, Minnesota INSTITUTE FOR MINNESOTA... ARCHAEOLOGY REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS NUMBER 17 Prepared for the St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under the terms of Contract Number DACW37-86

  15. Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study ...Management Study ; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement Layla R. Kashlan U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P.O. Box...454632, “Charleston Harbor, SC; Regional Sediment Management Study ” ERDC/CHL TR-17-7 ii Abstract The 2015 Charleston Harbor, SC, final

  16. Impacts of dredged material disposal on a tropical soft-bottom benthic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Motta, J J; Collins, J

    2004-02-01

    The soft-bottom benthic macrofauna in a spoil-ground of dredged material in Cleveland Bay, North Queensland, Australia, was studied to detect possible impacts of the disposal of sediments. The spatial distribution of the assemblage was studied in relation to the source of the impact at 28 stations on four occasions during 1998 and 1999. Additionally, environmental variables were measured on each occasion at each station. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil-ground were different from assemblages outside the spoil ground only immediately after (15 days) the disposal of dredged material. Given the decrease in the abundance of organisms and number of species, it is suggested that this effect was due to direct burial of the macrobenthic assemblage inside the spoil-ground. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil ground were not different from assemblages outside the spoil ground 3 months after dumping. These results suggest that the soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages may respond quickly to the disturbance associated with the dumping of dredged material.

  17. Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

    2006-05-01

    Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater.

  18. PHYTOREMEDIATING DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A BENEFICIAL REUSE PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor Wisconsin, receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwaukee's waterways. Like many CDFs they face the dilemma of steady inputs and no feasible alternative for expansion. The Army Corps of...

  19. Two-dimensional material confined water.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: The interface between water and other materials under ambient conditions is of fundamental importance due to its relevance in daily life and a broad range of scientific research. The structural and dynamic properties of water at an interface have been proven to be significantly difference than those of bulk water. However, the exact nature of these interfacial water adlayers at ambient conditions is still under debate. Recent scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiments, where two-dimensional (2D) materials as ultrathin coatings are utilized to assist the visualization of interfacial water adlayers, have made remarkable progress on interfacial water and started to clarify some of these fundamental scientific questions. In this Account, we review the recently conducted research exploring the properties of confined water between 2D materials and various surfaces under ambient conditions. Initially, we review the earlier studies of water adsorbed on hydrophilic substrates under ambient conditions in the absence of 2D coating materials, which shows the direct microscopic results. Subsequently, we focus on the studies of water adlayer growth at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in the presence of 2D coating materials. Ice-like water adlayers confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophilic substrates can be directly observed in detail by SPM. It was found that the packing structure of the water adlayer was determined by the hydrophilic substrates, while the orientation of intercalation water domains was directed by the graphene coating. In contrast to hydrophilic substrates, liquid-like nanodroplets confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophobic substrates appear close to step edges and atomic-scale surface defects, indicating that atomic-scale surface defects play significant roles in determining the adsorption of water on hydrophobic substrates. In addition, we also review the phenomena of confined water between 2D hydrophilic MoS2 and

  20. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the United States in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  1. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the US in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Long-Term Evaluation of Plants and Animals Colonizing Contaminated Estuarine Dredged Material Placed in Both Upland and Wetland Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    into the surface of the dredged material, enhancing plant growth and establishment. The lime and lime + manure plots showed 51 and 28 percent cover...have greatly improved plant growth and vegetative cover. Vegetative cover plays a significant role in improving surface runoff water quality (Skogerboe...large portion of tie wetland (Figure 9f, left side). As the wetland extended across the marsh creation site, the most robust plant growth was observed

  3. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  5. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    PubMed Central

    Shumaker, Ketia L.; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  6. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  7. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  8. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Contaminated Dredged Material with the Marine Amphipod Corophium volutator

    PubMed

    Ciarelli; Vonck; van Straalen NM; Stronkhorst

    1998-05-01

    The incorporation of toxicological data from bioassays can improve the present system of sediment quality criteria in the Netherlands. The use of acute lethality toxicity tests alone does not however provide sufficient discrimination and sensitivity for predicting ecological effects of slightly and moderately contaminated dredged material. Sublethal endpoints are needed for the assessment of environmental hazards of such dredged material. In this study, two approaches were used to identify toxicity of marine sediments collected from 16 locations classified as "slightly and moderately contaminated" on the basis of chemical data: (1) a comparison of growth vs. mortality as different endpoints in the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas); (2) an investigation on the use of sediment dilutions to characterize the degree of toxicity. The influence of sediment storage time on toxicity was also evaluated. In four out of 16 locations, mortality over 10 days of exposure ranged 80-100%; in two out of 16 locations mortality ranged 40-60%. In the other 10 locations, mortality was below 15%. Results on growth showed that in all locations final dry weight values were significantly lower (a factor of 1.5 to 3) than in controls. Results of dilution experiments showed that if sediments were diluted with a reference sediment of similar physicochemical characteristics, total concentrations of metals, mineral oil, and PAHs decreased as expected and so did the effects on C. volutator. In the 100% contaminated sediments growth was reduced by 32-60% compared to controls. The dilution rate necessary to reduce toxicity to the EC10 value for growth of C. volutator was considered an appropriate endpoint for the evaluation. When sediments were stored for a period of 3-5 months at 4 degreesC and retested, effects on mortality and growth decreased, although some effects on growth were still measured after 5 months of storage. The experiments illustrate the usefulness of ecotoxicity

  9. Beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration in New York-New Jersey Harbor.

    PubMed

    Yozzo, David J; Wilber, Pace; Will, Robert J

    2004-10-01

    A comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) has been developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District (USACE-NYD) and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANY/NJ). The primary objective of the DMMP is to identify cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives for the placement of dredged material derived from ongoing and proposed navigation improvements within the PANY/NJ. A significant portion of this dredged material is classified as unsuitable for open-ocean disposal. One suite of alternatives presented within the DMMP is the beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration within the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary. Proposed beneficial use/habitat development projects include the use of dredged material for construction of artificial reefs, oyster reef restoration, intertidal wetland and mudflat creation, bathymetric recontouring, filling dead-end canals/basins, creation of bird/wildlife islands, and landfill/brownfields reclamation. Preliminary screening of the proposed beneficial use alternatives identified advantages, disadvantages, potential volumes, and estimated costs associated with each project type. Continued study of the proposed beneficial use alternatives has identified areas of environmental research or technology development where further investigation is warranted.

  10. Mechanical and chemical properties of composite materials made of dredged sediments in a fly-ash based geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Lirer, S; Liguori, B; Capasso, I; Flora, A; Caputo, D

    2017-04-15

    Dredging activity in harbours and channels produces huge quantities of sediments, generally considered as waste soil (WS) to be disposed: the management of such sediments is a great environmental problem for many countries worldwide. Among the recycling possibilities, the use of dredged sediments for the manufacture of geopolymer-based materials seems to be an interesting alternative to disposal, due to their low cost and easy availability. In order to analyse the possibility to use these geopolymer materials as building materials - for instance as precast construction elements in maritime projects - a multi-disciplinary research activity has been developed at the Federico II University of Napoli (Italy). Some experimental tests have been carried out on different geopolymeric specimens made by mixing sediments from Napoli 'harbour and industrial fly ashes produced by a power plant in the South of Italy. A siliceous sand was used for comparison as an inert reference material. Chemical, morphological and mechanical properties of different specimens have been studied by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and finally unconfined compression tests. The experimental results highlight that the use of dredged sediments in combination with fly ash can lead to geopolymeric matrices with interesting mechanical performances. Some differences in the microstructure of the geocomposite built with the siliceous sand or the dredged materials were found. In terms of environmental impacts, on the basis of standard leaching tests and according to Italian thresholds, the adopted dredged mixtures satisfy the prescribed limit for inert or non hazardous waste.

  11. Model and assessment of the contribution of dredged material disposal to sea-surface contamination in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Cowan, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Hydrophobic or floatable materials released to the water column during dredge disposal operations may accumulate in high concentrations on the water surface. If such surface accumulations occur, they could impact the reproduction of fish and shellfish with neustonic (floating) eggs or larvae. Also, floatable surface contaminants could deposit on nearby beaches. In order to examine the potential impacts of such processes, an interactive computer (IBM PC) model was developed. The FORTRAN model allows input of contaminant concentrations on the dredge material, the surface area of the disposal site, the floatable fraction of the contaminated material, and the baseline concentrations of contaminants present in the sea-surface microlayer. The model then computes the resultant concentrations of each contaminant in the microlayer and the potential impact on floating fish eggs. The utility of the model would be greatly improved by empirical data, not yeat available, on the vertical upward and lateral movement of contaminants during dredge material disposal.

  12. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  13. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Collation and Interpretation of Data for Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility, Buffalo, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    IAD-A239 637 •II~~~~I -III li OGTERM EFFECTS OF DREDGINGI li Jl1111111111111JilJlONOPERATIONS PR GRAM : MISCELLANEOUS PAPER D-91-17 INTERIM REPORT...features of the site. Times Beach offers a unique opportunity to observe the processes of dredged material consolidation and the establishment and...Vegetation Observed at Times Beach - Wilhelm, 1983 .............................................................. 37 3b Inventory of Vegetation Observed at

  15. Inventory of marine biotest methods for the evaluation of dredged material and sediments.

    PubMed

    Nendza, Monika

    2002-09-01

    An inventory of marine biotest methods for the evaluation of dredged material and sediments was compiled on behalf of the Federal Environmental Agency of Germany. Relevant assays were identified from the literature and experts from several countries contributed to a questionnaire survey on established and developing procedures. The biotest methods are applicable to whole sediment, sediment suspension, sediment elutriate, porewater and/or sediment extract. The endpoints cover acute and long-term toxicity, bioaccumulation, endocrine effects, toxic effects on reproduction, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Comparative analyses and evaluation of the biotest methods were conducted with regard to their sensitivity, specificity, applicability (regional specificity, availability and suitability of the test organisms), variability (physicochemical factors, natural factors and factors related to sampling and testing), cost-effectiveness, aspects of animal ethics, standardization (guidelines, intercalibration) and application for monitoring purposes in the areas of the OSPAR and Helsinki Conventions. The available information was integrated to rate the validity of the methods, their relevance for assessing impacts on ecosystems and the suitability of the methods for the evaluation of marine sediments and dredged material. Based on the rating of the individual bioassays, a tiered testing is suggested in a hierarchical approach representing a variety in taxa, biological processes and exposure routes, thereby covering the cellular, species, population and community level with a wide discriminatory and sensitivity range. The toxicological significance and complexity increases with the tiers: (1) screening and detection of impacts, (2) characterization of toxic effects, (3) verification of in situ alterations.

  16. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders.

  17. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS OF THE U.S. AND OCEAN WATERS § 336.2 Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. (a) Applicable law. Section 103(a) of the ODA provides that the Corps of...

  18. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS OF THE U.S. AND OCEAN WATERS § 336.2 Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. (a) Applicable law. Section 103(a) of the ODA provides that the Corps of...

  19. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS OF THE U.S. AND OCEAN WATERS § 336.2 Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. (a) Applicable law. Section 103(a) of the ODA provides that the Corps of...

  20. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  1. Solidification of Dredged Sludge by Hydraulic Ash-Slag Cementitious Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shu-Jing; Qin, Ying; Hwang, Jiann-Yang

    Solidification treatment is used to treat hazardous wastes for disposal and to remediate the contaminated land. It is an increasingly popular technology for redevelopment of brown fields since treated wastes can often be left on-site, which can improve the site's soil for subsequent construction. In order to find home for the dredged sludge from the Pearl River Estuary Channel in China, the potential uses of treated dredged sludge by solidification treatment as valuable structural fill was investigated. Structure fills were prepared under various formula and curing conditions. Modulus of elasticity was detemined at 7 days, 14 days and 28 days with different types of load application. Atterberg limit, compactibility and CBR values are reported. The relationship between the microstructure and engineering properties of treated sludge are examined. The results clearly show the technical benefits by stabilizing soft soils with Hydraulic ash-slag cementitious materials. XRD and DTA-TG tests were carried out on certain samples to characterize the hydraulic compounds formed.

  2. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Stacie E; Gayes, Paul T; Viso, Richard F; Bergquist, Derk C; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    The deepening of shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, USA) was completed in April 2002 and placed an estimated 22 million cubic yards (mcy) of material in the offshore Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS). To determine if sediments dispersed from the ODMDS were negatively affecting invertebrate and/or finfish communities at hard bottom reef areas around the disposal area, six study sites were established: three close to and downdrift of the ODMDS and three upcurrent and farther from the ODMDS. These sites were monitored biannually from 2000 to 2005 using diver surveys and annually using simultaneous underwater video tows and detailed sidescan-sonar. In general, the sediment characteristics of downdrift sites and reference sites changed similarly over time. Overall, the hard bottom reef areas and their associated communities showed little evidence of degradation resulting from the movement of sediments from the Charleston ODMDS during the study period.

  3. Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin-layer deposition of dredged material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, M.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Thin-layer deposition of dredged material on coastal marsh by means of high-pressure spray dredging (Jet-Spray??2) technology has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize wetland impacts associated with traditional bucket dredging technologies and to restore soil elevations in deteriorated marshes of the Mississippi River delta. The impact of spray dredging on vegetated marsh and adjacent shallow-water habitat (formerly vegetated marsh that deteriorated to open water) was evaluated in a 0.5-ha Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh in coastal Louisiana. The thickness of dredged sediment deposits was determined from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change was determined from sedimentation-erosion tables (SET) established prior to spraying in both sprayed and reference marshes. The vertical accretion and elevation change measurements were made simultaneously to allow for calculation of shallow (~5 m depth) subsidence (accretion minus elevation change). Measurements made immediately following spraying in July 1996 revealed that stems of S. alterniflora were knocked down by the force of the spray and covered with 23 mm of dredged material. Stems of S. alterniflora soon recovered, and by July 1997 the percent cover of S. alterniflora had increased three-fold over pre-project conditions. Thus, the layer of dredged material was thin enough to allow for survival of the S. alterniflora plants, with no subsequent colonization by plant species typical of higher marsh zones. By February 1998, 62 mm of vertical accretion accumulated at this site, and little indication of disturbance was noted. Although not statistically significant, soil elevation change was greater than accretion on average at both the spray and reference marshes, suggesting that subsurface expansion caused by increased root biomass production and/or pore water storage influence elevation in this marsh region. In the adjacent shallow water pond, 129 mm of sediment was deposited in July

  4. Dredged material decontamination demonstration for the port of New York/New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Jones, K W; Feng, H; Stern, E A; Lodge, J; Clesceri, N L

    2001-07-30

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a significant challenge in the Port of New York and New Jersey as a result of more stringent regional ocean placement regulations with escalating costs for upland placement. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has progressed through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) (Marcor, Metcalf & Eddy, Gas Technology Institute, Westinghouse Science & Technology, BioGenesis, International Technology, and BioSafe) and pilot-scale (1.5-500m(3)) (BioGenesis, Gas Technology Institute, and Westinghouse Science & Technology) levels. The technologies developed by Gas Technology Institute and BioGenesis are now going forward to commercial demonstration facilities that are intended to treat from 23000 to 60000m(3) of dredged material during their first operational period in 2001-2002. Beneficial use products are soils and cement. Treatment costs for the final commercial facilities are estimated at US$ 39 per m(3). Selection of the technologies was made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  6. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  7. Spatial Analysis of Sediment Grain Size in the Vicinity of the Canaveral Harbor Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDSs) designated by the EPA pursuant to Section 102 of MPRSA. MPRSA, the Water Resources Development Act...However due to the sampling design , Vann’s study did not detect the area of fines in the in the southeast portion of the study area. This indicates that

  8. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D...

  9. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the designation of an ODMDS off the mouth... an EIS to designate a new ODMDS offshore the mouth of the St. Johns River. The EIS will provide the...

  10. 76 FR 43685 - Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... AGENCY Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the Mouth... of an ODMDS in the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of the Atchafalaya River, St. Mary Parish, LA... the designation of an ODMDS in the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of the Atchafalaya River, St. Mary...

  11. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Stronkhorst, J; Ariese, F; van Hattum, B; Postma, J F; de Kluijver, M; Den Besten, P J; Bergman, M J N; Daan, R; Murk, A J; Vethaak, A D

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 microm) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m3 of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an area extending about 1-2 km eastwards. This correlated with a shift in sediment texture from sand to silt. The contamination of the fine sediment fraction at the Northwest location

  12. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Oakland Harbor intensive study, IC-1 and OC4-B

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-11-01

    Oakland Harbor is located on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay in Alameda County, between the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California. Oakland Harbor and its access channels are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modern deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels to {minus}44 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) ({minus}42 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdraft) in Oakland Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE. Those options include disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean sites, or at upland disposal sites. Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, specifies that all proposed disposal of dredged material into open water be evaluated to determine the potential environmental impacts to those activities. To comply with those requirements, the potential environmental impacts of the dredged material must be evaluated by chemical characterization, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation testing prior to dredging and disposal. Test results are described.

  13. Materials self-assembly and fabrication in confined spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Ji, Dr. Qingmin; Hill, Dr. Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Molecular assemblies have been mainly researched in open spaces for long time. However, recent researches have revealed that there are many interesting aspects remained in self-assemblies in confined spaces. Molecular association within nanospaces such as mesoporous materials provide unusual phenomena based on highly restricted molecular motions. Current research endeavors in materials science and technology are focused on developing either new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities which is often achived via molecular assembly in confined spaces. Template synthesis and guided assemblies are distinguishable examples for molecular assembly in confined spaces. So far, different aspects of molecular confinements are discussed separately. In this review, the focus is specifically to bring some potential developments in various aspects of confined spaces for molecular self-assembly under one roof. We arrange the sections in this review based on the nature of the confinements; accordingly the topological/geometrical confinements, chemical and biological confinements, and confinements within thin film, respectively. Following these sections, molecular confinements for practical applications are shortly described in order to show connections of these scientific aspects with possible practical uses. One of the most important facts is that the self-assembly in confined spaces stands at meeting points of top-down and bottom-up fabrications, which would be an ultimate key to push the limits of nanotechnology and nanoscience.

  14. The confinement effect of inert materials on insensitive high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yutao; Yu, Ming

    2013-06-01

    The paper aims at investing the confinement effect of inert materials on insensitive high explosives by means of shock polar curve and phenomenological reaction model. The confinement types are categorized by the shock polar theory, which built on the leading shock wave based on the detonation ZND model. If the sonic velocity of the confinement material is less than the CJ velocity of an explosive, the shock polar theory can be utilized. In general, there are several types of interactions that give a ``match'' of the pressure and streamline-deflection across the interface between IHE and confinement material. A two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic method with three-term Lee-Tarver rate law is used to numerically simulate all types of confinement interactions. The important character of confinement material include: compressibility, thickness, the representative assembled layers, such as bakelite-iron and iron-beryllium. Supported by NSFC No.11101046.

  15. Water confinement in nanoporous silica materials

    SciTech Connect

    Renou, Richard; Szymczyk, Anthony; Ghoufi, Aziz

    2014-01-28

    The influence of the surface polarity of cylindrical silica nanopores and the presence of Na{sup +} ions as compensating charges on the structure and dynamics of confined water has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. A comparison between three different matrixes has been included: a protonated nanopore (PP, with SiOH groups), a deprotonated material (DP, with negatively charged surface groups), and a compensated-charge framework (CC, with sodium cations compensating the negative surface charge). The structure of water inside the different pores shows significant differences in terms of layer organization and hydrogen bonding network. Inside the CC pore the innermost layer is lost to be replaced by a quasi bulk phase. The electrostatic field generated by the DP pore is felt from the surface to the centre of pore leading to a strong orientation of water molecules even in the central part of the pore. Water dynamics inside both the PP and DP pores shows significant differences with respect to the CC pore in which the sub-diffusive regime of water is lost for a superdiffusive regime.

  16. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Coffman, Reid

    2016-01-01

    More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards) of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA), and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C), LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system. PMID:28773734

  17. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Coffman, Reid

    2016-07-23

    More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards) of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow "infiltration" based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA), and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900-1100 °C), LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  18. Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the Lower Savannah River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Ct, Hg, Pb

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  20. A quantitative analysis of naiad mollusks from the Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin dredge material site on the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havlik, M.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Prairie du Chien dredge material site contains about 100,000 cubic meters of material dredged from the East Channel of the Mississippi Riverin1976. Previous studies in that area suggested a rich molluscan fauna, but most studies were only qualitative or simply observations. Our study of this material was designed to determine the density and diversity of molluscan fauna, to assess changes in the fauna, to identify endemic species previously unreported, and to evaluate the status of the endangered Lampsilis higginsi. Ten cubic meters of dredge material were sieved to recover shells. Molluscan fauna at the site contained38 species of naiades and up to 1,737 identifiable valves per cubic meter. The endangered L. higginsi ranked18th In occurrence, accounted for only 0.52% of the identifiable shells, and averaged about three valves per cubic meter. From a total of 813 kg of naiades and gastropods, 6,339 naiad valves were identified. Five naiad species were collected at the site for the first time, and Eploblasma triquetra had not been reported previously in the Prairie du Chien area. Although the molluscan fauna has changed, the East Channel at Prairie du Chien is obviously suitable for L. higginsi.

  1. Southeast Regional Implementation Manual for Requirements and Procedures for Evaluation of the Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material in Southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Waters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Regional Implementation Manual was prepared by EPA Region 4 to provide guidance for applicants proposing open-water disposal of dredged material in southeastern U.S. coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Los Angeles/Long Beach, Newport and San Diego Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, CA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Los Angeles/Long Beach (LA-2), Newport (LA-3) and San Diego (LA-5) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites in California.

  3. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Water Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, OR/WA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites on the border of Oregon and Washington.

  4. Reports of Public Scoping Meetings for the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Designation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites in Eastern Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide summaries of the scoping meetings as part of the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) process for the designation of dredged material disposal sites in Eastern Long Island Sound.

  5. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan, Corpus Christi Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    USEPA Region 6 and the US Army Corps of Engineers submit for comment this Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan, Corpus Christi Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  6. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.; Maciolek, Nancy J.; Ota, Allan Y.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five benthic infaunal samples were collected from the San Francisco Deep-Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) over a 10-year period from January 1996 to September 2004. Each sample was 0.1 m 2, cut to a depth of 10 cm, and sieved through a 300-μm mesh. A total of 810 species of benthic invertebrates were identified; the majority of taxa (65.4%) new to science. The fauna represents a rich lower slope infaunal assemblage that rivals similarly studied locations in the western North Atlantic. No regional impact or degradation of benthic infauna due to dredged material disposal was detected. All reference stations and stations on the site boundary maintained high species richness and diversity during the monitoring period. Exceptions included an occasional sample with anomalously high numbers of one or two species that reduced the diversity and/or equitability. Within SF-DODS species richness and diversity were often reduced. Stations within the disposal site were recolonized by the same taxa that normally occurred in adjacent reference areas. Initial colonizers of fresh dredged material included spionid and paraonid polychaetes that were typical dominants at the site. At least one polychaete species, Ophelina sp. 1, sometimes colonized dredged materials containing coarse sand. One sample at Station 13, located in the middle of SF-DODS (September 2002), contained 57 species of benthic invertebrates, suggesting that colonization of fresh dredged material is rapid. It seems unlikely that larval dispersal and settlement account for this rapid recolonization; therefore it is postulated that adult organisms from adjacent areas move to the disturbed sites via boundary layer currents. The steep continental slope adjacent to SF-DODS is subject to turbidity flows and the resident fauna are likely pre-adapted to rapidly colonize disturbed sediments. Larval dispersal, especially by spionid polychaetes such as Prionospio delta, may also be important in colonizing

  7. Feasibility of Using Mycorrhizal Fungi for Enhancement of Plant Establishment on Dredged Material Disposal Sites. A Literature Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    n *eseey d IdenlIfy by block number) Establishment of vegetation on dredged material disposal sites is often essential for stabilization of the...require longer periods of time than are acceptable for the desired stabilization or reclamation of the site with vegetation. Moisture deficiencies are...water absorption, and root system stabilization of the host plant.-) Beneficial effects of using mycorrhizal tree seedlings are so profound that the

  8. United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    United States Army EUROPEAN RESEARCH OFFICE OF THE U.S. ARMY London, England CONTRACT NUMBER N68171-01-M-5407 HR Wallingford Report No EX 4891...Netherlands, The United Kingdom , Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany. When all of the comments have been collated the protocols will be finalised. There... United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements Final Report – April 2003 by T N Burt

  9. Comparison of the Direct Scoring Method and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Dredged Material Management Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    regulations is required. There are three main concerns with this approach: lack of weighting, categorical scores, and subjectivity. An initial concern...provided as they may fit into the hypothetical upland disposal site selection for dredged material example below. Three main criteria were identified...cost, environmental, and social (Figure 2). Each main crite- rion is divided into sub-criteria. The cost criterion is divided into construction

  10. Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis: 2014-2015 Working Group Findings Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ER D C TR -1 6- 2 Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis 2014 – 2015...at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC TR-16-2 March 2016 Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short...waters of the United States and ocean waters is a shared responsibility of the USACE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Marine

  11. Sampling, Testing, and Test Interpretation of Dredged Material Proposed for Unconfined, Open-Water Disposal in Central Puget Sound. Volume 5. Evaluation Procedures Technical Appendix. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    in developing guidelines and criteria for regulating dredged and fill material discharge. The focal point for the developmental research fon these...Identification and Assessment and Research Program Development ." Technical Report H-72-8 (U. S . Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg... Development of Dredged Material Disposal Criteria," Contract Report D-74-1 (U. S . Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Mississippi

  12. Use of hydrocyclone and flotation column for reducing the volume of contaminated dredged material.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Lee, J H; Bae, B H; Kim, Y H; Choung, Y K

    2006-01-01

    As sediment contamination problems have recently been raised in Korea, the need for technologies to clean contaminants in sediments has increased. Although the recalcitrant organic matters and heavy metals in the contaminated sediments are of primary concern, large amounts of sediment makes the removal of the contaminants in them more difficult. In this study, the performance of hydrocyclone and flotation column was tested to reduce the volume of contaminated dredged materials (CDMs) prior to treating recalcitrant matters, such as various organic chemicals and heavy metals, in an integrated treatment system. When hydrocyclone was operated with 10% (w/v) solids concentration of the feed slurry, the total solids of upflow products were 4 to 7% (w/v) when the inlet pressure was changed from 1.0 to 2.0 kg/cm2. The volume reduction ratio of CDMs by hydrocyclone was approximately 90% (v/v). When the upflow products in hydrocyclone was then spiked with automobile transmission oil and fed to the flotation colum to see the performance of the column flotation on the volume reduction and the TPH removal, 44% of the TPHs in feed were removed at the tails and the volume reduction ratio of CDMs by column flotation was 18% at 200 L/min of wash water. The flotation column could be proposed as a potential preliminary treatment process of CDMs prior to subsequent biological treatments.

  13. Fishery resource utilization of a restored estuarine borrow pit: a beneficial use of dredged material case study.

    PubMed

    Reine, Kevin; Clarke, Douglas; Ray, Gary; Dickerson, Charles

    2013-08-15

    Numerous pits in coastal waters are subject to degraded water quality and benthic habitat conditions, resulting in degraded fish habitat. A pit in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (USA) was partially filled with dredged sediment to increase flushing, alleviate hypoxia, and enhance benthic assemblages. Restoration objectives were assessed in terms of benthic community parameters and fishery resource occupation. Restoration resulted in increased benthic diversity (bottom samples) and the absence of water column stratification. Fisheries resources occupied the entire water column, unlike pre-restoration conditions where finfish tended to avoid the lower water column. The partial restoration option effectively reproduced an existing borrow pit configuration (Hole #5, control), by decreasing total depth from -11 m to -5.5 m, thereby creating a habitat less susceptible to hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while retaining sufficient vertical relief to maintain associations with juvenile weakfish and other forage fishes. Partially filling pits using dredged material represents a viable restoration alternative.

  14. A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

    2010-12-01

    A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ∼1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities.

  15. Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

    2007-05-07

    Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a

  16. A screening procedure for selecting the most suitable dredged material placement site at the sea. The case of the South Euboean Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Hatzianestis, I; Kanellopoulos, T D; Tsangaris, C; Kaberi, E; Kontoyiannis, H; Rousakis, G; Kyriakidou, C; Hatiris, G A

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the best site for the placement of dredged sedimentary material (∼7,000 m(3)) from the Aliveri coastal area in the adjacent South Euboean Gulf (Greece) was accomplished through a screening procedure. The initial stage comprised the determination of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dredged sediment before the commencement of any dredging operation. Grain size measurements, geochemical analyses together with the use of pollution/toxicity indices and empirical sediment quality guidelines, and the conduct of an acute toxicity test showed that the dredged material consisted of "unpolluted to slightly polluted" silty sands and sandy silts. However, the local authorities planned to place this sediment in the neighboring open sea area, i.e., the South Euboean Gulf, due to the absence of any beneficial use or alternative dumping option (i.e., dumping on public lands). Therefore, the next stage of the screening procedure, based on criteria such as the national legislation, seabed and seawater column characteristics, influence of the water mass circulation pattern on the post-placement migration of dredged sediment, impact on living resources and human activities (i.e., aquaculture and fishing), effect on significant marine sites (i.e., sites of scientific, ecological, and historical importance, navigation routes, military zones), and seafloor engineering uses, led to the evaluation of the suitability of the South Euboean Gulf as a potential dumping area. Then, the identification of the appropriate dredged material placement sites in the South Euboean Gulf was based on a cluster analysis, which tested the physicochemical resemblance of the dredged material and the surface sediments of 19 potential placement locations in the gulf. After the statistical process, only four sites situated near the north shoreline of the South Euboean Gulf were qualified as the best dredged material placement locations.

  17. 77 FR 49277 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Dredged Material Disposal Site, or used to construct seagrass and reef mitigation projects. The confined... reef mitigation areas, and the Miami Offshore Dredged Material Disposal Site). This project was... shelf and will not take place seaward of the outer reef. The specified geographic area of the...

  18. Statistical Mechanics of Confined Biological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kinani, R.; Benhamou, M.; Kaïdi, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we propose a model to study the Statistical Mechanics of a confined bilayer-membrane that fluctuates between two interactive flat substrates. From the scaling laws point of view, the bilayer-membranes and strings are very similar. Therefore, it is sufficient to consider only the problem of a string. We assume that the bilayer-membrane (or string) interact with the substrate via a Double Morse potential that reproduces well the characteristics of the real interaction. We show that the Statistical Mechanic of the string can be adequately described by the Schrödinger equation approach that we solve exactly using the Bethe method. Finally, from the exact value of the energy of the ground state, we extract the expression of the free energy density as well as the specific heat.

  19. Bivalve embryo bioassay to assess the potential toxicity of dredged material before dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Quiniou, F.

    1995-12-31

    Dredged harbor sediments frequently contain a wide spectrum of contaminants in addition to a significant percentage of organic matter. Also, dredging and dumping activities into sea water, of these highly contaminated soil may induce a harmful effect on the environment. In France, in accordance with Oslo convention guidelines, a working group on dredging activities and environment (GEODE) created since 1991 decided to set up a pilot research program to assess the intrinsic toxicity of four harbor sludges. Intrinsic toxicity of harbor muds were tested by solid phase (whole sediment) and aqueous extract bioassays (sea water elutriates) using the sublethal toxicity test bivalve embryo bioassay (Crassostrea gigas). Elutriates enable them to detect the toxicity of contaminants which may be released in the soluble form into the water column during dredging operations. While, whole sediment integrate the synergistic effects of all the contaminants (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) including pore water. Bioassays results, correlated to chemical analysis, are compared to contaminant levels determined by French working group GEODE and Canadian sediment quality criteria.

  20. 75 FR 19311 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... marine environment, or economic potentialities (Section 103(a) of the MPRSA). Three main objectives for management of the G-DODS are: (1) Protection of the marine environment; (2) beneficial use of dredged... commercial or recreational navigation. The ZSF specifically screened the marine environment to avoid areas of...

  1. The confinement effect of inert materials on insensitive high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yutao; Yu, Ming; Tang, Li

    2014-03-01

    The paper aims at investing the confinement effect of inert materials on insensitive high explosives by means of shock polar curve and phenomenological reaction model. The confinement types are categorized by the shock polar theory, which built on the leading shock wave based on the detonation ZND model. If the sonic velocity of the confinement material is less than the CJ velocity of an explosive, the shock polar theory can be utilized. In general, there are several types of interactions that give a ?match? of the pressure and streamline-deflection across the interface between IHE and confinement material. A two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic method with three-term Lee-Tarver rate law is used to numerically simulate all types of confinement interactions. The important character of confinement material include: compressibility, thickness, the representative assembled layers, such as bakelite-iron and iron-beryllium. An improved detonation model is established to simulate the pre-compression effect on unreact explosive. Supported by NSFC No.11101046.

  2. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A CASE STUDY AT THE JONES ISLAND CDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is a 44 acre in-lake area that receives dredged material from Milwaukee Harbor and the surrounding waterways. Some of those materials are contaminated with industrial waste and urban run-off. The CDF is nearing the end of its desi...

  3. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A CASE STUDY AT THE JONES ISLAND CDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is a 44 acre in-lake area that receives dredged material from Milwaukee Harbor and the surrounding waterways. Some of those materials are contaminated with industrial waste and urban run-off. The CDF is nearing the end of its desi...

  4. Land application of carbonatic lake-dredged materials: effects on soil quality and forage productivity.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Coleman, Samuel W; Holtkamp, Mike L

    2006-01-01

    The ability to reuse carbonatic lake-dredged materials (CLDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. A four-year (2001 to 2005) study on land application of CLDM as an option for disposal was conducted on a beef cattle pasture in south central Florida. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess CLDM as a soil amendment to improve quality of sandy soils in most subtropical beef cattle pastures and (ii) to determine the effect of CLDM on productivity and nutritive values of bahiagrass (BG, Paspalum notatum Flügge) in subtropical beef cattle pasture. The five treatment combinations arranged in randomized complete block design were represented by plots with different ratios (R) of natural soil (NS) to CLDM: R1 (1000 g kg(-1):0 g kg(-1)); R2 (750 g kg(-1):250 g kg(-1)); R3 (500 g kg(-1):500 g kg(-1)); R4 (250 g kg(-1):750 g kg(-1)); and R5 (0 g kg(-1):1000 g kg(-1)). Addition of CLDM had significant (p < or = 0.001) effects on soil quality and favorable influence on forage establishment and nutritive values. Compared with the control plots (0 g kg(-1)), the soils in plots amended with CLDM exhibited (i) lower penetration resistance, (ii) an increase in soil pH and exchangeable cations (Ca and Mg), and (iii) decrease in the levels of soil trace metals (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Si). Results disclosed consistently and significantly (p < or = 0.001) higher BG biomass production (forage yield = -106.3x(2) + 1015.8x - 39.2; R(2) = 0.99**) and crude protein content (CP = 1.24x + 6.48; R(2) = 0.94**) from plots amended with CLDM than those of BG planted on plots with no CLDM treatment.

  5. Summary of a workshop on interpreting bioaccumulation data collected during regulatory evaluations of dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Landrum, P.; Neff, J.; Cura, J.

    1996-07-01

    Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation resulting from dredged material disposal is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. Bioaccumulation is a measurable phenomenon, rather than an effect. Without specific information about biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans) resulting from bioaccumulation, it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an `unacceptable adverse effect.` Existing regulatory guidance attempts to overcome this with two approaches, both of which use low aquatic trophic level organisms and a reference-based comparison. In the first approach, the level of bioaccumulation of a specific contaminant is compared with a numerical effect limit, such as a Food and Drug Administration action level or a fish advisory. If the level of the contaminant in the organism exceeds the numerical limit, it is equated to an unacceptable adverse effect. If it does not, or there is no numerical limit, the second approach involves a comparison with animals exposed to a reference sediment. If bioaccumulation in the animals exposed to the dredged material exceeds that of animals exposed to the reference, a number of subjective factors are then evaluated to determine whether or not dredged material disposal will result in an `unacceptable adverse effect` (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 1991, 1994).

  6. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Ecological consequences of dredged material disposal in the marine environment: a holistic assessment of activities around the England and Wales coastline.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G; Rees, H L; Somerfield, P; Smith, R; Clarke, K R; Warwick, R M; Atkins, M; Garnacho, E

    2006-04-01

    This study provides a holistic perspective on the ecological effects of dredged material disposal, both intertidally and subtidally. A number of numerical techniques (univariate, distributional, multivariate and meta-analysis) were used to assess impacts at 18 different disposal sites. The analyses revealed that ecological effects associated with dredged material disposal were dependent on the numerical techniques used, and that impacts were disposal-site specific. Disposal-site communities were generally faunistically impoverished to varying degrees, and impacts following intertidal placement were comparable to those of subtidal placement. We conclude that any assessment of the consequences of dredged material disposal to the coastal environment must take account of site-specific variation in prevailing hydrographic regimes and in ecological status, along with information on the disposal activity itself (mode, timing, quantity, frequency and type of material). As would be expected, variability in the latter presents a significant challenge in attempts to generalise about environmental and ecological impacts.

  8. Mercury-contaminated sludge treatment by dredging in Minamata Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, Kiyoto

    1995-12-31

    To eradicate Minamata Disease, caused by the discharge of sewage containing methyl mercury and its accumulation in fish and shellfish through the food cycle, a large-scale sediment disposal project was conducted with special care taken to prevent new pollution resulting from the project itself. The basic approach to sediment disposal was to construct a highly watertight revetment to reclaim the inner area of the bay and then confine sediment dredged from the remaining contaminated area in the reclamation area through surface treatment. Before sediment disposal, boundary nets were installed to enclose the work area to prevent the mixing of contaminated and noncontaminated fish. Dredging work was successfully carried out by using four cutterless suction dredgers, newly developed in advance for minimizing resuspension of sediments. Dredged material was discharged into the reclamation area, filled up to sea level, and covered with a sandproof membrane, lightweight volcanic ash earth, and mountain soil.

  9. Biological Testing of Solid Phase and Suspended Phase Dredged Material from Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    number) The study evaluates, using bioassays, potential acute chemical toxicity of waters originating from the disposal of sediments dredged from Blair...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Whoa Data Bnteevd) abnormal shells following 48 hour exposure using undiluted water drained from defrosted sediment from sites S-2...thousand by volume from sites S-l, S-2, B-1, B-2, and 3-5. Oyster larvae developed abnormal shells following 48 hr exposure using undiluted water

  10. Independent External Peer Review Report of the Dredged Material Management Plan for Green Bay, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Roseville, MN ► Call & Nicholas, Inc., Tucson , AZ ► Sitka Corporation, Kirkland, WA ► RMT, Inc., Madison and Milwaukee, WI ► STS Consultants, Ltd...performance ► Michael, Best & Friedrich, Milwaukee and Madison, WI, 1983 and 1984, on coastal slope stabilization; 1984, on earth construction...during dredging operations, and delineating new sand borrow sources. Duffield Associates —Project Engineer Delaware City Flood Mitigation Plan

  11. Evaluating Environmental Effects of Dredged Material Management Alternatives - A Technical Framework. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    determination (USEPA 1998; Moore, Bridges and Cura 1998). Design of a testing program for the sediment to be dredged depends on the pathways of concern...environment can be found in Cura et al. (2001). 4.1.2 Site Specification under CWA The specification of disposal sites under the CWA is...procedures for application of risk assessment to the aquatic environment can also be found in Cura et al. (2001). 4.1.3 Site Monitoring Site

  12. GREAT II. Great River Environmental Action Team II. Upper Mississippi River. Guttenberg, Iowa to Saverton, Missouri. Dredged Material Uses Work Group. Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    0 ) (n M IC E an LL> 3 -OL Lu W W.D a) Q a) (v a) 4J~4 4-) >- 4 I- IV L .0 .0 -0 .0 0 S- 0- 0.- 0. . 0. -4-) 4-) 4- 4-) 4.)4. (.0 w L ( (A (A (n) co...dredged material and as such have not tried to find uses for it. c. Road Sanding - Ice Control Channel maintenance dredged material has been used success...with a sewage sludge and sawdust 29 compost in order to create a useful soil additive from waste materials. As stated in their Appendix the study

  13. Beneficial reuse of Brest-Harbor (France)-dredged sediment as alternative material in road building: laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Maherzi, Walid; Benzerzour, Mahfoud; Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; van Veen, Eleanor; Boutouil, Mohamed; Abriak, Nor Edine

    2017-04-09

    The scarcity of natural aggregates promotes waste reuse as secondary raw material in the field of civil engineering. This article focuses on the beneficial reuse of marine-dredged sediments in road building. Thus, mixtures of raw sediments and dredged sand collected from Brest Harbur (Bretagne, France) were treated with road hydraulic binders. Formulation were prepared and characterized as recommended by the French Technical Guidelines for soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders. Mechanical resistance results are quite similar for both the hydraulic binders, suggesting a similar reactivity with the studied sediment sample. However, some discrepancies can be noted on sustainability parameters. Indeed, water resistance after immersion at 40°C is significantly better for the mixtures treated with cement containing more glass-forming oxides (SiO2 + Al2O3) and fluxing (Fe2O3+CaO + MgO + K2O + Na2O). Moreover, the both hydraulic binders can lead to swelling in the road materials as observed in scanning electron microscopy analyses. Indeed, microscopic observations indicated volumetric swelling of treated samples, which is greatly influenced on the one side by ettringite quantity and on the other hand by the presence of water in pores material.

  14. Comprehensive Analysis of Migration Pathways (CAMP): Contaminant Migration Pathways at Confined Dredged Material Disposal Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Various modifica- tions of this procedure have been used in water, soils, and sediments to determine heterotrophic potential (Wagner 1975; Pfaender and... conversions resulting from oxidation-reduction processes acting on inorganic forms; and (b) inter- conversions between inorganic and organic forms...extreme conditions, e.g., a satu- rated, anoxic substrate and/or high salinity. Frequently, algae and submerged and emergent aquatic vascular species

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at dredged material disposal sites around England: concentrations in 2013 and time trend information at selected sites 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Rumney, Heather S; Bolam, Stefan G; Law, Robin J

    2015-03-15

    The maintenance of navigation channels to ports and the development of their facilities present a need to conduct dredging operations, and the subsequent disposal of dredged material at sea. Contaminant concentrations in candidate dredged material are determined and their possible impacts considered during the licensing process, which can result in the exclusion of some material from sea disposal. Monitoring of disposal sites is conducted in order to ensure that no undesirable impacts are occurring. In this study we consider the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments at a number of disposal sites monitored in 2013 and variations in concentrations over time at three sites during the period 2008-2013. These were assessed using established sediment quality guidelines. Elevated PAH concentrations were generally observed only within the boundaries of the disposal sites studied.

  16. Analyses of native water, bottom material, elutriate samples, and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, to provide water-quality data to evaluate environmental effects of dredging activities in selected reaches of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the upper and lower Calcasieu River between January 1980 and March 1981. Thirty-three samples (22 native-water and 11 effluent) were collected from eleven dredging sites. In addition, a series of elutriate studies were conducted between July 1979 and July 1981 to determine water quality as a basis for assessing possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in the following areas: Grand Bayou and Martins Canal near Happy Jack, unnamed bayou near Port Sulphur, Grand Bayou and Pipeline Canal near Port Sulphur and Bayou des Plantins near Empire; Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and Inner Harbor Navigation Canal; Southwest Pass; Barataria Bay; Atchafalaya Bay at Eugene Island; Calcasieu Ship Channel. Samples of native water and samples of bottom material were collected from 22 different sites and elutriate (mixtures of native water and bottom material) samples were prepared and analyzed. Four proposed ocean-disposal sites were sampled for bottom material only. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical and biological constituents and physical properties. (USGS)

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short

  18. Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Scott E; Jutte, Pamela C

    2006-06-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) has been heavily utilized as a disposal site for dredged material resulting from maintenance and channel deepening in the Charleston Harbor. Continuous monitoring by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources at the ODMDS has indicated the presence of fine-grained sediment within the monitoring zones. However, since the Charleston Harbor is formed by the conjunction of three rivers, it has been suggested that some of the fine-grained sediment surrounding the ODMDS could be due to river transport rather than solely by disposal activities. In order to trace the outflow of sediment from the harbor, natural and man-made isotopes were utilized. (7)Be (natural cosmogenic isotope) and (137)Cs (man-made isotope) are often associated with estuarine sediments. Both isotopes were used as tracers in an attempt to determine the extent of density driven sediment flow from the Charleston Harbor. (7)Be was detected in many of the offshore sampling stations indicating a direct correlation to the harbor. (137)Cs was only found in one sediment trap sample offshore, but none the less indicated some transport from the harbor. Further study for utilizing isotopic tracers in determining offshore sediment transport is still being conducted at the disposal site. It is anticipated that further (7)Be and (137)Cs isotopic monitoring offshore Charleston will aid in determining the role that tidal and density driven sediments play in the sediment budgets at the hard bottom reef sites.

  19. Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated esturaine dredged material placed in an upland environment. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP), 1981-1986 (Peddicord 1988). Upland tests (plant and earthworm bioassays) were conducted on the sediment before dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under the upland disposal alternative. Laboratory test results were subsequently field verified at the field test site at `Tongue Point,` Bridgeport, Connecticut. The results of the upland disposal portion of the FVP and the changes occurring since the completion of the FVP for the upland disposal environment are summarized herein. This technical note emphasizes the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland ecosystem at this site will be evaluated until September 1995.

  20. Effects of long-term dumping of harbor-dredged material on macrozoobenthos at four disposal sites along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Simonini, R; Ansaloni, I; Cavallini, F; Graziosi, F; Iotti, M; Massamba N'siala, G; Mauri, M; Montanari, G; Preti, M; Prevedelli, D

    2005-12-01

    Sediment from harbors of the Emilia-Romagna (Northern Adriatic Sea) were dredged and dumped in four disposal areas characterized by muddy bottoms. The long-term effects of the dumping on macrozoobenthic communities were investigated before and after 6 month, 8 month, 2 years and 4 years. The disposal of dredged material did not influence the granulometry and %TOC in the sediment, and no alterations in the structure of the macrobenthic communities were observed in the four areas. The lack of impact could be ascribed to the environmental characteristics and precautionary measures taken to minimize the effects of the dumping. It appears that: (1) the communities of the dumping areas are well adapted to unstable environments; (2) the sediments were disposed gradually and homogeneously over relatively large areas; Other factors that help to reduce the impact of sediment disposal are the low concentrations of contaminants in dredged materials and the similarity of sediment in the dredged and disposal areas. Off-shore discharge appears a sustainable strategy for the management of uncontaminated dredged sediments from the Northern Adriatic Sea harbors.

  1. Social and Economic Impacts of Selected Potential Dredged Material Containment Facilities in Long Island Sound.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    DREDGING/DISPOSAL PERMlITS Pt/TaIm/Cfty pemitI~ ~ Suft. Aaajaav S . rtf M~l M9?3 0 Rover I". -I IlS to1 e~ cftI1 for ____ bwimimd. 196 10182 of Tida w~et...NORTHRDP SEP RI UNCLASSIFED CEM _4280-0OR735 DACW33-AG0-C 61 F/ S 13/2 NL .EIIIIIIIIIIIl EIIIIIIIIIIIIl IIfhhffffflllf L3= L2 11111 1. I iiiii 18...8217AGE ("oen Date &.**d) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCU AENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER z.OT ACCESSION No . Ot TS CATALOG NUMISER S

  2. Flotation as a remediation technique for heavily polluted dredged material. 2. Characterisation of flotated fractions.

    PubMed

    Cauwenberg, P; Verdonckt, F; Maes, A

    1998-01-19

    The particle size distribution and the metal speciation of the heavy metals were investigated on dredged sediment and on the fractions obtained by mechanical agitated (Denver) flotation. The transition metal ions (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were flotated specifically independent of the particle size. Particle size analysis, EDTA extraction and sequential extracts indicated that during flotation a redistribution of metals occurred due to the oxidation of metal sulphides. This oxidation process was more pronounced when the flotation was performed at higher pH values and resulted in a decrease in flotation specificity.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-07-01

    This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

  6. Surface chemistry and catalysis confined under two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-10-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are characterised by their strong intraplanar bonding but weak interplanar interaction. Interfaces between neighboring 2D layers or between 2D overlayers and substrate surfaces provide intriguing confined spaces for chemical processes, which have stimulated a new area of "chemistry under 2D cover". In particular, well-defined 2D material overlayers such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides have been deposited on solid surfaces, which can be used as model systems to understand the new chemistry. In the present review, we first show that many atoms and molecules can intercalate ultrathin 2D materials supported on solid surfaces and the space under the 2D overlayers has been regarded as a 2D nanocontainer. Moreover, chemical reactions such as catalytic reactions, surface adlayer growth, chemical vapor deposition, and electrochemical reactions occur in the 2D confined spaces, which further act as 2D nanoreactors. It has been demonstrated that surface chemistry and catalysis are strongly modulated by the 2D covers, resulting in weakened molecule adsorption and enhanced surface reactions. Finally, we conclude that the confinement effect of the 2D cover leads to new chemistry in a small space, such as "catalysis under cover" and "electrochemistry under cover". These new concepts enable us to design advanced nanocatalysts encapsulated with 2D material shells which may present improved performance in many important processes of heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, and energy conversion.

  7. Millisecond burning of confined energetic materials during cookoff

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.G.; Baer, T.A.

    1997-11-01

    The response of a system containing an energetic material (EM) to an abnormal thermal environment is termed cookoff. To predict the violence of reaction of confined energetic materials during cookoff requires a description of the relevant physical processes that occur on time scales Ranging from days to submicroseconds. The time-to-ignition can be characterized accurately using heat transfer with chemistry and quasistatic mechanics. After ignition the energetic material deflagrates on a millisecond time scale. During this time the mechanical processes become dynamic. If the confinement survives burning then accelerated deflagration can lead to shock formation and deflagration to detonation transition. The focus of this work is the dynamic combustion regime in the millisecond time domain. Due to the mathematical stiffness of the chemistry equations and the prohibitively fine spatial resolution requirements needed to resolve the structure of the flame, an interface tracking approach is used to propagate the burn front. Demonstrative calculations are presented that illustrate the dynamic interaction of the deflagrating energetic material with its confinement.

  8. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  9. Initial Development of Riparian and Marsh Vegetation on Dredged-material Islands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California

    Treesearch

    A. Sidney England; Mark K. Sogge; Roy A. Woodward

    1989-01-01

    Natural vegetation establishment and development were monitored for 3 1/2 years on a new, dredged-material island located within the breached levees at Donlon Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Vegetation measurements and maps prepared annually indicate that marsh and riparian vegetation types have developed rapidly. Topographic data for the island has...

  10. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

  11. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.

    1996-09-01

    The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  12. A temporal and spatial assessment of TBT concentrations at dredged material disposal sites around the coast of England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Bolam, Thi; Barry, Jon; Law, Robin J; James, David; Thomas, Boby; Bolam, Stefan G

    2014-02-15

    Despite legislative interventions since the 1980s, contemporary concentrations of organotin compounds in marine sediments still impose restrictions on the disposal of dredged material in the UK. Here, we analyse temporal and spatial data to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the use of TBT paints in reducing concentrations at disposal sites. At a national scale, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of samples in which the concentration was below the limit of detection (LOD) from 1998 to 2010. This was observed for sediments both inside and outside the disposal sites. However, this temporal decline in organotin concentration is disposal site-specific. Of the four sites studied in detail, two displayed significant increases in proportion of samples below LOD over time. We argue that site-specificity in the effectiveness of the TBT ban results from variations in historical practices at source and unique environmental characteristics of each site.

  13. Analysis of environmental effects of the use of stabilized dredged material from New York/New Jersey Harbor, USA, for construction of roadway embankments.

    PubMed

    Douglas, W Scott; Maher, Ali; Jafari, Farhad

    2005-11-01

    Since the 1997 local ban on ocean dumping of dredged sediments, the state of New Jersey has pursued a policy of environmentally sound solutions to the controversial problem of dredged material management, including beneficial use of dredged material stabilized with pozzolanic additives (SDM). A pilot study was initiated in 1998 to evaluate the use of SDM in the construction of highway embankments. Using 80,000 cubic yards of silty dredged material, 2 embankments were constructed from SDM on a commercial development area adjacent to the New York/New Jersey Harbor. This article presents the evaluation of the environmental effects of the SDM, including fugitive air emissions, leachate, and stormwater quality. Engineering properties, handling and management techniques of the SDM, constructability, and performance were also evaluated, the results of which are published elsewhere. The findings demonstrate that although there are measurable releases of contaminants to the environment from the SDM, these releases are not significant long-term threats to human health or the environment. Policies currently in place to regulate the management of SDM that include limiting placement options to previously contaminated sites with institutional and engineering controls will further reduce the potential for environmental impact and, in fact, have the potential to produce significant environmental benefit.

  14. Environmental effects of dredging, technical notes. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Biomagnification of Contaminants in Aquatic Food Webs as a Result of Open-Water Disposal of Dredged Material ; Fate of Dredged Material During Open-Water Disposal; Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits-Background and Preliminary Planning; Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits-Design Concepts and Placement Techniques; Monitoring Dredged Material Consolidation and Settlement at Aquatic Disposal Sites; Computerized Database for Interpretation of the Relationship Between Contaminant Tissue Residues and Biological Effects in Aquatic Organisms; Use of Daphnia Magna to Predict Consequences of Bioaccumulation; Simplified Approach for Evaluating Bioavailability of Neutral Organic Chemicals in Sediment; A Procedure for Determining Cap Thickness for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits; Acoustic Tools and Techniques for Physical Monitoring of Aquatic Dredged Material Disposal Sites; Contaminant Modeling; Use of Seabed Drifters for Locating and Monitoring Dredged Material Placement Sites.

  15. Potential of Remote Sensing in the Corps of Engineers Dredging Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    The potential of remote sensing in the Corps of Engineers Dredging Program for providing data on channel surveys, sediment drift and dispersion...Aerial photography; Army Corps of engineers; Dredged materials; Dredging; Remote sensing .

  16. Agricultural Uses of Yazoo River Dredged Material. Report 1. Cotton Production on Dredged Material in a Thick-Layer Confined Disposal Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    control Whiteflies and aphids were identified on the plants and were controlled with periodic applications of Diazonon and Orthene at the...were observed, but were not severe enough to verify. Whiteflies (SI ssp) and aphids were detected and controlled with applica- tions of Diazanon and

  17. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  18. Impacts of dredged-material disposal on the coastal soft-bottom macrofauna, Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Katsiaras, N; Simboura, N; Tsangaris, C; Hatzianestis, I; Pavlidou, A; Kapsimalis, V

    2015-03-01

    Dredged sediments derived by the low course and estuary of the metropolitan river of Athens (Kifissos River) were dumped every day for 21 months to an open-sea site in the Saronikos Gulf. The spoil-ground and surrounding area was monitored prior, during and post to dumping for 24 months, over 6-month intervals. Dumping significantly changed the granulometry of the pre-existing superficial sediments to finer-grained only in the spoil ground and increased the sediment contamination load (aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals) throughout the study area. Microtox® SPT showed that sediment toxicity levels were high at almost all sampling stations. During dumping, burial of natural soft-bottom habitats degraded severely the communities of the spoil-ground resulting in an almost azoic state, as well as significantly declined the species number and abundance of benthic communities in locations up to 3.2 km away from the spoil-ground, due to dispersion of the spoil and smothering. Benthic indices on the surrounding sites were significantly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations and sediment toxicity levels. Post to dumping, the macrofauna communities of the spoil-ground were still significantly degraded, but the surrounding areas showed patterns of recovery. However, the high concentrations of aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levels of toxicity persisted in the sediments after the ceasing of dumping operations in the study area, implying the ecological hazard imposed on the area.

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

  20. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Report 8. Compatibility of Liner Systems with New Bedford Harbor Dredged Material Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    liner material has poor resistance, reaction with or absorption of the chemical will occur, with resulting degradation of the desirable physi- cal...liner materials (i.e., HDPE through EPDM (ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer)) are one to two orders of magnitude better barriers to water (on a per...found to indicate that the HDPE liner lost its integrity. All visible seams appeared secure. The only evidence of liner degradation was mechanical dam

  1. Fishery Resource Utilization of a Restored Estuarine Borrow Pit: A Beneficial Use of Dredged Material Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    August trawl samples by high abundances of blue crabs, anchovies and spot, and November samples by silversides and Atlantic croaker . While results...Pomatomus saltatrix) and Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) in Dredged Hole #5, and smooth dogfish and striped sea robin (Prionotus evolans) in...fishes including Atlantic silversides comprised over half of the total catch in Dredged Hole #6, followed by Atlantic croaker (36% of the total catch

  2. Assessing the efficacy of dredged materials from Lake Panasoffkee, Florida: implication to environment and agriculture. Part 1: Soil and environmental quality aspect.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Holtkamp, Mike L; Coleman, Samuel W

    2004-01-01

    Dredged materials because of its variable but unique physical and chemical properties are often viewed by society and regulators as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials, and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. Environmental impact assessment is an important pre-requisite to many dredging initiatives. The ability to reuse lake-dredge materials (LDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces the need for off-shore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills. Additional research on disposal options of dredged materials are much needed to supply information on criteria testing and evaluation of the physical and chemical impacts of dredged materials at a disposal site, as well as information on many other aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. While preliminary efforts are underway to provide information to establish criteria for land disposal, testing procedures for possible land disposal of contaminated sediments are still in their developing stage. The objective of this study (Part 1) was to quantify the effect of applied LDM from Lake Panasoffkee (LP), Florida on soil physico-chemical properties (soil quality) at the disposal site. This series of two papers aims at providing assessment of the efficacy of lake-dredged materials from LP especially its implication to environment (soil quality, Part 1) and agriculture (forage quality and pasture establishment, Part 2). The experimental treatments that were evaluated consisted of different ratios of natural soil (NS) to LDM: LDM0 (100% NS:0% LDM); LDM25 (75% NS:25% LDM); LDM50 (50% NS:50% LDM); LDM75 (25% NS:75% LDM); and LDM100 (0% NS:100% LDM). Field layout was based on the principle of a completely randomized block design with four replications. The Mehlich 1 method (0.05 N HCl in 0.025 N H2SO4) was used for chemical extraction of soil. Soil P and other exchangeable

  3. Improvement of Operations and Maintenance Techniques Program. Literature Review and Technical Evaluation of Sediment Resuspension during Dredging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Contaminated sediments Sediment resuspension Dredging Turbidity Dredging equipment 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary...have, in many instances, become contaminated over the years, resulting in a concern that dredging and disposal of the dredged material may adversely...dredges share the burden of dredging. Most dredges in the United States are old and are not designed to handle highly contaminated sediments. The

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  6. Changes in speciation and leaching behaviors of heavy metals in dredged sediment solidified/stabilized with various materials.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianping; Wang, Liang; Xiao, Man

    2016-05-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of sediments is frequently used to treat contaminants in dredged sediments. In this study, sediment collected from the Pearl River Delta (China) was solidified/stabilized with three different kinds of functional materials: cement, lime and bentonite. Lime primarily acted via induced increases in pH, while cements stabilization occurred through their silicate-based systems and the main function of bentonite was adsorption. The speciation and leaching behaviors of specific heavy metals before and after S/S were analyzed and the results showed that the residual speciation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn increased in all treatments except for Cu, as the exchangeable speciation, carbonate-bound speciation and Fe-Mn-oxide-bound speciation of Cu (all of which could be stabilized) were less than 2 % of the total amount. Pb leaching only decreased when pH increased, while the mobility of Cr and Ni only decreased in response to the silicate-based systems. The leached portion of the Fe-Mn-oxide-bound speciation followed the order Zn > Cu > Ni/Cd > Pb > Cr. The leached portion of organic-matter-bound species was less than 4 % for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb, but 35.1 % and 20.6 % for Cu and Zn, respectively.

  7. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  8. Confined crystals of the smallest phase-change material.

    PubMed

    Giusca, Cristina E; Stolojan, Vlad; Sloan, Jeremy; Börrnert, Felix; Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Sader, Kasim; Rümmeli, Mark H; Büchner, Bernd; Silva, S Ravi P

    2013-09-11

    The demand for high-density memory in tandem with limitations imposed by the minimum feature size of current storage devices has created a need for new materials that can store information in smaller volumes than currently possible. Successfully employed in commercial optical data storage products, phase-change materials, that can reversibly and rapidly change from an amorphous phase to a crystalline phase when subject to heating or cooling have been identified for the development of the next generation electronic memories. There are limitations to the miniaturization of these devices due to current synthesis and theoretical considerations that place a lower limit of 2 nm on the minimum bit size, below which the material does not transform in the structural phase. We show here that by using carbon nanotubes of less than 2 nm diameter as templates phase-change nanowires confined to their smallest conceivable scale are obtained. Contrary to previous experimental evidence and theoretical expectations, the nanowires are found to crystallize at this scale and display amorphous-to-crystalline phase changes, fulfilling an important prerequisite of a memory element. We show evidence for the smallest phase-change material, extending thus the size limit to explore phase-change memory devices at extreme scales.

  9. Confined Crystals of the Smallest Phase-Change Material

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The demand for high-density memory in tandem with limitations imposed by the minimum feature size of current storage devices has created a need for new materials that can store information in smaller volumes than currently possible. Successfully employed in commercial optical data storage products, phase-change materials, that can reversibly and rapidly change from an amorphous phase to a crystalline phase when subject to heating or cooling have been identified for the development of the next generation electronic memories. There are limitations to the miniaturization of these devices due to current synthesis and theoretical considerations that place a lower limit of 2 nm on the minimum bit size, below which the material does not transform in the structural phase. We show here that by using carbon nanotubes of less than 2 nm diameter as templates phase-change nanowires confined to their smallest conceivable scale are obtained. Contrary to previous experimental evidence and theoretical expectations, the nanowires are found to crystallize at this scale and display amorphous-to-crystalline phase changes, fulfilling an important prerequisite of a memory element. We show evidence for the smallest phase-change material, extending thus the size limit to explore phase-change memory devices at extreme scales. PMID:23984706

  10. Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

  11. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  12. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  13. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. )

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  14. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  15. Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaron, O.; Perley, D. A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Groh, J. H.; Horesh, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Sollerman, J.; Fransson, C.; Rubin, A.; Szabo, P.; Sapir, N.; Taddia, F.; Cenko, S. B.; Valenti, S.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Khazov, D.; Fox, O. D.; Cao, Y.; Gnat, O.; Kelly, P. L.; Nugent, P. E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Laher, R. R.; Wozniak, P. R.; Lee, W. H.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.; Soumagnac, M. T.

    2017-02-01

    With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, which sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF 13dqy = SN 2013fs a mere ~3 h after explosion. Our rapid follow-up observations, which include multiwavelength photometry and extremely early (beginning at ~6 h post-explosion) spectra, map the distribution of material in the immediate environment (<~1015 cm) of the exploding star and establish that it was surrounded by circumstellar material (CSM) that was ejected during the final ~1 yr prior to explosion at a high rate, around 10-3 solar masses per year. The complete disappearance of flash-ionized emission lines within the first several days requires that the dense CSM be confined to within <~1015 cm, consistent with radio non-detections at 70-100 days. The observations indicate that iPTF 13dqy was a regular type II supernova; thus, the finding that the probable red supergiant progenitor of this common explosion ejected material at a highly elevated rate just prior to its demise suggests that pre-supernova instabilities may be common among exploding massive stars.

  16. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  17. Bioassessment Methodologies for the Regulatory Testing of Freshwater Dredged Material. Proceedings of a Workshop.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    K. L., Maki, A. W. 1978. "Estimating the Hazard of Chemical Substances to Aquatic Life," ASTM STP 657, American Society for Test- ing and Materials...assays," Aquatic Invertebrate Bioassays, ASTM STP 715, A. L. Buikema, Jr., and J. Cairns, Jr., eds., American Society for Testing and Materials...of midges and daphnids. However, some modifications may be necessary. 2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS 2.1 ASTM Standards * aD511 Calcium and Magnesium .e

  18. Applications of Dredging and Beach Fills in GenCade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    which dredging can be associated: ebb shoal, flood shoal, left and right attachment bars, and left and right bypassing bars. A dredging event in...equilibrium volumes were equal for all of the inlet shoals. The ebb and flood shoal volumes were 1,000,000 yd3/year while all other shoals (left and...10 years after dredging the ebb shoal, flood shoal, or right bypassing bar (removing the material entirely from the model) to dredging each shoal

  19. Management Plan Report. Unconfined Open-Water Disposal of Dredged Material. Phase 2. (North and South Puget Sound)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    governments are to control dredging to minimize damage to existing ecological values and natural resources of both the area to be dredged and the area...s for Mesrin Sel Envir onmnt 1 V~riable_ inPuget-Sound (EPA, 1986) uses the term "Limit of Detection" ir. the manner used in this chapter of the MPR... pesticides . The majority of the remaining chemicals are disruptives, although most of the low molecular weight PAH’s and several of the high

  20. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Dispersion Analysis of Charleston, South Carolina, Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    coral reef areas. Two levels of investigation were employed. A short-term analysis of the disposal operation was conducted to examine the immediate fate of material following release from the barge and subsequent descent to the ocean bottom. The second phase examines the long-term fate to determine whether local ocean currents are capable of eroding and transporting deposited material from the site to the reef area. Results of this study indicate the site to be dispersive and recommendations are made as to locations within the designated limits which will minimize the

  3. 40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contamination, the physical configuration of the sites and the sediment composition of the materials are comparable, in light of water circulation and stratification, sediment accumulation and general sediment... pesticides from land runoff or percolation; (4) Any records of spills or disposal of petroleum products...

  4. 40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contamination, the physical configuration of the sites and the sediment composition of the materials are comparable, in light of water circulation and stratification, sediment accumulation and general sediment... pesticides from land runoff or percolation; (4) Any records of spills or disposal of petroleum products...

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L.

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  6. 33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The CWA requires the Corps to seek state water quality certification for discharges of dredged or fill... request from the state a 401 water quality certification and, if applicable, provide a coastal zone... municipal water supplies, shellfish beds and fishery areas, wildlife, or recreation areas. Upon notification...

  7. United States of America Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1981. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    PAY Marks. edg Material from Ccm~odores Point Term~ CERTIFICATE Of AWALYSIS GZ TEUT5 RtECErVflNG ATv!R 5TA±DAPD rLUJTRLATF -C14) " arcury 0.0002 Mg/i...Acartia sp. : Control LP 100% Comment ’ , 24 hours 9.33 9.33 Not s,gnificant (t =i 4-24 .96"hours = 7.67 7.33 hot sipnificant (t = 𔃺.27). r. .. , _1" 25...and criteria: a. Liquid Phase test results -A(1) Nutrients: Hot tested. Meets criteria of Section 227.13 (b) (1) - ocean dumping rules and

  8. Procedural Guide for Designation Surveys of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    zones ’re generally recognized: the inner, middle, and jutcr coo, t nenta ,’ zones. The inner irone extends from shore nut to a bo1th ,! 20 )T meters. As...material in a mortar to obtain single grains. If a porcelain or iron pestle is required, only up-and-down motions are used. Carbonate and ferruginous...Sulfate Solution (mixed 100:1:1 just before use) (I) 2% (w/v) NaIC0 3 in 0.1 N NaOH (2) 2% (w/v) KNa Tartrate in distilled HO (3) 1% (w/v) CuS0 4 in

  9. Material Placement Site for Maintenance Dredging, Treats Island, Illinois Waterway, Will County, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-23

    Mft U.S. Army Engineer District, Rock Island w Ohm C•OT- as VO 4 s a Caw" b I A Material Placement Site for Maintenance A Will County. 4E. u mm D...34 .! DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ROCK ISLAND DISTRICT. CORPS OF ENGINEERS CLOCK TOWER BUILDING - P.O. BOX 2004 ROCK ISLAND. ILLINOIS...61204-2004 6RPLV 1TO 1i.,.,4LtToft OF: June 23, 1993 Planning Division SEE DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTION LIST The Rock Island District of the U.S. Army Corps of

  10. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Report 6. Laboratory Testing for Subaqueous Capping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    movement of PCB contaminants. 6 ’ ," - Accesion For NTIS CRA&I OTIC TAB 0 Uianno," d C1 Jnlstlllcdt d/ By AvW ’,b. ,’ des ni-i SECURlTY CLASSIPCATION...CSE 7.8 1. 11mld 0 1020304 CAPPINGA MATERIALS (CNTOL Figure 6 . Effect of cap thickness on orthophosphate-phosphorus release rate the capping material...ALTERNATIVES -~ Report 6 LABORATORY TESTING FOR SUBAQUEOUS CAPPINGi!I0by N ThormdS C. Sturgis, Douglas Gunnison Environmental Laboratory DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

  11. Three-dimensional visualization maps of suspended-sediment concentrations during placement of dredged material in 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Mahoney, Mollie H.

    2016-06-30

    Excess sediment in rivers and estuaries poses serious environmental and economic challenges. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) routinely dredges sediment in Federal navigation channels to maintain commercial shipping operations. The USACE initiated a 3-year pilot project in 2013 to use navigation channel dredged material to aid in restoration of shoreline habitat in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. Placing dredged material in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment supports the restoration of shallow bay aquatic habitat aiding in the delisting of the St. Louis River Estuary Area of Concern.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, collected turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) in 2014 and 2015 to measure the horizontal and vertical distribution of SSCs during placement operations of dredged materials. These data were collected to help the USACE evaluate the use of several best management practices, including various dredge material placement techniques and a silt curtain, to mitigate the dispersion of suspended sediment.Three-dimensional visualization maps are a valuable tool for assessing the spatial displacement of SSCs. Data collection was designed to coincide with four dredged placement configurations that included periods with and without a silt curtain as well as before and after placement of dredged materials. Approximately 230 SSC samples and corresponding turbidity values collected in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop a simple linear regression model between SSC and turbidity. Using the simple linear regression model, SSCs were estimated for approximately 3,000 turbidity values at approximately 100 sampling sites in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. The estimated SSCs served as input for development of 12 three-dimensional visualization maps.

  12. Metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J K H; Sippel, P; Denysenko, D; Lunkenheimer, P; Volkmer, D; Loidl, A

    2015-10-21

    In this work, we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes (MFU stands for "Metal-Organic Framework Ulm-University") and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations.

  13. Metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J. K. H.; Sippel, P.; Denysenko, D.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Volkmer, D.; Loidl, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes (MFU stands for "Metal-Organic Framework Ulm-University") and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations.

  14. Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA). Final Environmental Impact Statement Unconfined Open-Water Disposal for Dredged Material, Phase 2. (North and South Puget Sound)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    recent years, as public policy has been to protect environmentally important tidal areas, wetlands , and marshes. Consequently, nearshore disposal options...Material into Puget Sound 4-24 (5) Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands 4-24 (6) Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management 4-24 v vii...TABLE OF CONTENTS (con.) Paragraph Page (5) Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands !i-l,7 (6) Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management 4-47 (7

  15. Dredging Research Program: Mobile, Alabama, Field Data Collection Project, 18 August - 2 September 1989. Report 1. Dredged Material Plume Survey Data Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Tug and loaded barge -- 13:56: 15 1050 -- H Tug and loaded barge 1 14:03:07 1175 1:13200 M Beginning of release 2 14:03: 10 1200 1:13200 H Barge and...column above the sea floor. For the MFDCP, the ARMS was configured as an instrumented tripod approximately 10 ft high with a 15 -ft span between the legs...usually released material over a time interval from 10 to 20 jco , although slower releases also occurred. A surface plume was usually evident as a long

  16. Passive confining pressure SHPB test method for materials under quasi-one-dimensional strain state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Shaochiu; Wang, Lili

    2002-05-01

    An improved quasi-1D strain SHPB method was used to study the dynamic mechanical behavior of materials under passive confining pressure state. The effects of mechanical behavior of the confining jacket material and its geometrical sizes on the experimental results are discussed. Thus the dynamical Poisson's ratio s dynamical Young's modulus Es and dynamical compressive yield strength Y of the material at high strain rate can be obtained. The frictional force between the specimen and jacket and its effects on the axial stress-strain relationship under passive confining pressure are further analyzed. The correction to the elastic constants of the material was given.

  17. Innovative Technologies for Dredging Contaminated Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Watari 1983; Kaneko, Watari , and Aritomi 1984). Major features of the Refresher dredge include: a. Helical cutter. Cuts and guides material into the...by the Refresher No. 6 (Fuyo). The material dredged was primarily silt, in water depths ranging from 7 to 9 ft (Kaneko, Watari , and Aritomi 1984...Kaneko, Watari , and Aritomi (1984) reported the suspended solid con- centrations at this site to be about 1.5 times the turbidity measurement

  18. Application of the Geophysical Scale Multi-Block Transport Modeling System to Hydrodynamic Forcing of Dredged Material Placement Sediment Transport within the James River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. C.; Hayter, E. J.; Pruhs, R.; Luong, P.; Lackey, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    The geophysical scale circulation of the Mid Atlantic Bight and hydrologic inputs from adjacent Chesapeake Bay watersheds and tributaries influences the hydrodynamics and transport of the James River estuary. Both barotropic and baroclinic transport govern the hydrodynamics of this partially stratified estuary. Modeling the placement of dredged sediment requires accommodating this wide spectrum of atmospheric and hydrodynamic scales. The Geophysical Scale Multi-Block (GSMB) Transport Modeling System is a collection of multiple well established and USACE approved process models. Taking advantage of the parallel computing capability of multi-block modeling, we performed one year three-dimensional modeling of hydrodynamics in supporting simulation of dredged sediment placements transport and morphology changes. Model forcing includes spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions and hydrological inputs from the watershed. Surface heat flux estimates were derived from the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). The open water boundary condition for water level was obtained from an ADCIRC model application of the U. S. East Coast. Temperature-salinity boundary conditions were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) long-term monitoring stations database. Simulated water levels were calibrated and verified by comparison with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gage locations. A harmonic analysis of the modeled tides was performed and compared with NOAA tide prediction data. In addition, project specific circulation was verified using US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) drogue data. Salinity and temperature transport was verified at seven CBP long term monitoring stations along the navigation channel. Simulation and analysis of model results suggest that GSMB is capable of resolving the long duration, multi-scale processes inherent to practical engineering problems such as dredged material

  19. Field-verification program (aquatic disposal): comparison of field and laboratory bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants from Black Rock Harbor dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, J.L.; Galloway, W.; Hoffman, G.; Nelson, W.; Scott, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    The utility of laboratory tests for predicting bioaccumulation of contaminants in the field was evaluated by comparing the identities, relative abundances, and quantities of organic and inorganic contaminants accumulated by organisms exposed to dredged material in both laboratory and field studies. The organisms used were Mytilus edulis (a filter-feeding bivalve) and Nephtys incisa (a benthic polychaete). These organisms were exposed in the laboratory and in the field to a contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Connecticut. Both organisms had positive and negative attributes for these exposure studies. Mytilus edulis appeared to reach steady-state in laboratory-exposure studies. However, the determination of field-exposure concentrations was precluded due to limitations on obtaining an integrated water sample during the exposure period in the field. Nephtys incisa did not appear to reach steady-state in laboratory studies and, although field-exposure data (sediment concentrations) were obtained, the exposure zone for these organisms could not be determined. Estimates of field exposures were made using laboratory-derived exposure-residue relationships and residues from field-exposed organisms. These field-exposure estimates were compared with those estimated using exposure data from the field. A comparison of these estimates showed the same general trends in the exposure-residue relationships from the laboratory and the field and further supports the laboratory predictive approach.

  20. Review of technical documents supporting revisions to the portion of EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) ocean-dumping regulations relating to the ocean disposal of dredged materials. Report of the Environmental Engineering Committee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-14

    Although the Committee is in agreement with the EPA that there are significant differences in the properties of most sewage sludge and dredged materials, significant exceptions exist. Clearly defined, consistent, rigorous, and peer-reviewed procedures must exist to identify these exceptions. The EPS Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection maintains that existing procedures for evaluating dredged materials (under Part 227.13) are adequate; however, based on the documents provided to the Committee, a rigorous protocol for identifying exceptions do not appear to exist.

  1. 9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE OUT AT ALTERNATING TIMES. WHILE STARBOARD IS HAULED IN, PORT IS RELEASED OUT TO DREDGE. - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  2. Theoretical Models for Evaluation of Volatile Emissions to Air During Dredged Material Disposal with Applications to New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    vIODELS F OR EVAL.UATION OF VOL Fr-,,-0,lS JO AIR DURING DREDGED ,M, -L SrUSAL wiTH APLICATIONS TO D: , .... HARBOR. M,,;ASSACHUSETTS -t-S May 1989...resulted in the release/generation of VOCs to air. Following a section that considers the thermodynamic basis of chemical vapor equi- librium and...branch of the science of thermodynamics . The general criteria for chemical equilibrium as it applies to pollutants in the natural environment are presented

  3. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Disposal at Island, Nearshore, or Upland Confined Disposal Facilities - Testing Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    below and fit the probit model (8). The Trimmed Spearman - Karber (TSK) and Logistic methods (described below) are acceptable substitutes for the...commonly used methods are the Probit, Trimmed Spearman - Karber (TSK) and Linear Interpolation. This Appendix recommends use of the Probit, TSK or...LC50 using the Logistic method by specifying the D=LOGISTIC option in the model statement. Trimmed Spearman - Karber (TSK) Method . The TSK method is

  4. Assessment of Avian Botulism Control Pilot Project at the Dike 14 Confined Dredged Material Disposal Facility, Cleveland, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    SYMBOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION, USAEWES (if applicable) Environmental I ahnrninrvL I_________________________ 6c. ADDRESS ( City , State...and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS ( City , State, and ZIP Code; 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 8a. NAME OF FUNDING iSPONSORING 18b OFFICE SYMBOL. 9...PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDEN4TFICA-,iON NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable) USAED, BuffaloI 8c. ADDRESS ( City . State. and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 1, Background and appendixes A through H

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  6. Geotechnical and mineralogical characterisations of marine-dredged sediments before and after stabilisation to optimise their use as a road material.

    PubMed

    Saussaye, L; van Veen, E; Rollinson, G; Boutouil, M; Andersen, J; Coggan, J

    2017-02-15

    Dredging activities to extend, deepen and maintain access to harbours generate significant volumes of waste dredged material. Some ways are investigated to add value to these sediments. One solution described here is their use in road construction following treatment with hydraulic binders. This paper presents the characterisation of four sediments, in their raw state and after 90 days of curing following stabilisation treatment with lime and cement, using a combination of novel and established analytical techniques to investigate subsequent changes in mineralogy. These sediments are classified as fine, moderately to highly organic and highly plastic and their behaviour is linked to the presence of smectite clays. The main minerals found in the sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and automated mineralogy are quartz, calcite, feldspars, aluminium silicates, pyrite and halite. Stabilisation was found to improve the mechanical performances of all the sediments. The formation of cementitious hydrates was not specifically detected using automated mineralogy or XRD. However, a decrease in the percentage volume of aluminium silicates and aluminium-iron silicates and an increase of the percentage volume of feldspars and carbonates was observed.

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 2, Appendixes I through L

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  8. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program: Development and Application of Techniques for Predicting Leachate Quality in Confined Disposal Facilities. Background and Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    coefficients ( Levenspiel 1972, Goerlitz 1984). 17. With procedures available for obtaining information on dispersive and convective flux, the only...Darcy permeability (Anderson 1983), and column dispersion will be determined by passing a conservative tracer through the permeameter ( Levenspiel 1972...Material Disposal Criteria," Contract Report D-75-4, US Army Engineer Water- ways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. Levenspiel , Octave. 1972

  9. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  10. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  11. Towards assessing the violence of reaction during cookoff of confined energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Kipp, M.E.; Schmitt, R.G.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    An analysis of post-ignition events in a variable confinement cookoff test (VCCT) geometry is presented aimed toward predicting the level of violence during cookoff of confined thermally-degraded energetic materials. This study focuses on the dynamic events following thermal initiation whereby accelerated combustion interacts with confinement. Numerical simulations, based on a model of reactive multiphase mixtures, indicate that the response of energetic material is highly dependent upon thermal/mechanical damage states prior to ignition. These damaged states affect the rate of pressurization, dynamic compaction behavior and subsequent growth to detonation. Variations of the specific surface area and porosity produced by decomposition of the energetic material causes different responses ranging from pressure burst to detonation. Calculated stress histories are used in estimating breakup of the VCCT confinement based on Grady-Kipp fragmentation theory.

  12. Self-Assembled Biomolecular Materials Confined on Lithographic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfohl, Thomas; Kim, Joon Heon; Case, Ryan; Li, Youli; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2000-03-01

    Lithographically patterned Si-surfaces with different geometries (linear and circular channels) are used for confining and orienting assemblies of biomacromolecules. In order to direct the self assembly, the surfaces are coated with thin organic layers to change the hydrophobicity and surface charge. Droplet casting, spin coating and microinjection are used to fill the channels with biomaterials. In particular, the use of the microinjection technique allows us to control the formation of biomolecular assemblies for highly oriented x-ray samples as well as to fill single channels (width < 5μm) with dilute solutions for single molecule investigations. Biomaterials based on tubulin are our primary interest. We use fluorescence, confocal, and polarization microscopy to observe the polymerization of microtubules from tubulin and the formation of tubulin-cationic lipid complexes. Supported by NSF DMR-9972246, University of California Biotech Research, and Education Program Training Grant 99-14, DFG Pf 375/1-1.

  13. Application of neutral red retention assay to caged clams (Ruditapes decussatus) and crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the assessment of dredged material.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Sara; Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Fabbri, Elena; DelValls, T Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

    2012-01-01

    Dredged material management is a key issue for the protection of aquatic environments. The in situ approach using caged bioindicator species has been chosen lately as a new methodology for the assessment of dredged material. In a tier testing approach, neutral red retention (NRR) assay has been applied as a screening tool to detect adverse changes in health status associated with contamination. Nevertheless, to authors' knowledge, little is known about the application and validation of this technique in sediment bioindicator species and under field conditions. Caged Ruditapes decussatus and Carcinus maenas were exposed during 28 days to potentially contaminated sediments at three sites in Algeciras Bay (SW Spain) and one site in Cádiz Bay (SW Spain). Lysosomal membrane stability was measured over time in haemolymph samples of exposed clams and crabs using the NRR assay. Sediment characterization of the study sites was performed in parallel. NRR time did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) over time in organisms from Cádiz Bay. Conversely, significant differences (p < 0.05) in NRR time were found in clams and crabs exposed to sediments from Algeciras Bay, which exhibited a 30-70% decrease in haemocyte lysosome membrane stability compared to day 0. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between the drop of haemocyte lysosome membrane stability, in both crabs and clams, and the presence of metals (p < 0.05) and PAHs (p < 0.01) in the studied sediments. The results obtained confirmed the use of NRR assay as a suitable and sensitive method to be used in the assessment of sediment quality using as bioindicator species the clam R. philippinarum and the crab C. maenas.

  14. Dredging: Key Link in the Strategic National Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    Ravenhill and Donald Rothchild, Politics and Society in Contempori.rv Africa. (Boulder, CO: Lynne Riehner Publishers, 1992), 279. 91nternational...Navigation Improvements on the Pacific Coast. Washington: Institute for Water Resources, 1983. Beeman & Associates. 1988. Detailed Study of Dredged Material...Land Disposal Alternatives. Ogden Beeman & Associates, Inc., Portland, Oregon. Beeman & Associates. 1990. Investigation of Dredged Material

  15. Proposal of the confinement strategy of radioactive and hazardous materials for the European DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X. Z.; Carloni, D.; Stieglitz, R.; Ciattaglia, S.; Johnston, J.; Taylor, N.

    2017-04-01

    Confinement of radioactive and hazardous materials is one of the fundamental safety functions in a nuclear fusion facility, which has to limit the mobilisation and dispersion of sources and hazards during normal, abnormal and accidental situations. In a first step energy sources and radioactive source have been assessed for a conceptual DEMO configuration. The confinement study for the European DEMO has been investigated for the main systems at the plant breakdown structure (PBS) level 1 taking a bottom-up approach. Based on the identification of the systems possessing a confinement function, a confinement strategy has been proposed, in which DEMO confinement systems and barriers have been defined. In addition, confinement for the maintenance has been issued as well. The assignment of confinement barriers to the identified sources under abnormal and accidental conditions has been performed, and the DEMO main safety systems have been proposed as well. Finally, confinement related open issues have been pointed out, which need to be resolved in parallel with DEMO development.

  16. Effects of hydrogen isotope in coupling between confinement, wall material and SoL turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The hydrogen isotope effect on confinement is discussed by investigating the coupling between confinement, wall material and scrape-off-layer (SoL) turbulence. An emphasis is placed upon the dependence of the neutral density on the hydrogen mass number. The momentum loss via CX process in the barrier is studied, and its influence on the radial electric field in the barrier (so as to modify the suppression of transport) is discussed. The penetration of slow neutrals and the reflection of fast neutrals on the wall are considered. Combining these processes, the influence of hydrogen mass number on the atomic, molecular, material and plasma interactions is investigated. The penetration of strong fluctuations in the SoL plasma into the confined plasma via the fuelling of neutral particles (i.e. fuelling fuels turbulence) is also discussed. The hydrogen isotope effect on this source of edge turbulence, which can affect the core-confinement, is discussed.

  17. Testing of Confining Pressure Impacton Explosion Energy of Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzewiecki, Jan; Myszkowski, Jacek; Pytlik, Andrzej; Pytlik, Mateusz

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the results of testing the explosion effects of two explosive charges placed in an environment with specified values of confining pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of variable environmental conditions on the suitability of particular explosives for their use in the prevention of natural hazards in hard coal mining. The research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of currently adopted technologies of natural hazard prevention and aid in raising the level of occupational safety. To carry out the subject matter measurements, a special test stand was constructed which allows the value of the initial pressure inside the chamber, which constitutes its integral part, to be altered before the detonation of the charge being tested. The obtained characteristics of the pressure changes during the explosion of the analysed charge helped to identify the work (energy) which was produced during the process. The test results are a valuable source of information, opening up new possibilities for the use of explosives, the development of innovative solutions for the construction of explosive charges and their initiation.

  18. Confinement effects on chemical reactions in nanostructured carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Aaron; Kostov, Milen; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2005-03-01

    Chemical reactions are frequently carried out in nano-structured media, such as micellar or colloidal solutions, nano-porous media, hydrogels or organogels, or in systems involving nano-particles. Nanostructured environments have been shown to enhance reaction rates through a variety of catalytic effects, such as high surface area, interactions with the nano-structure or confinement. In this work, we have used state-of-the-art electronic structure techniques to study the prototypical example of the hydrogen-producing reaction of formaldehyde dissociation (H2CO -> H2 + CO) within various configurations of a graphitic pore. Using the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method for transition states analysis, we have found that the activation energy of the dissociation can be influenced by the presence of a graphitic pore. In particular, while a graphene surface reduces the activation barrier for the reaction, this catalytic effect is enhanced by the presence of two planar sheets, which mimic the geometry of a nano-pore. These findings will be discussed in terms of the charge transfer and/or polarization mechanism associated with the catalytic process.

  19. Environmental management for dredging sediments - the requirement of developing nations.

    PubMed

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations.

  20. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  1. The influence of confinement on the mechanical properties of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Donald A.

    2000-04-01

    The mechanical properties of composite explosives are being studied as a function of mechanical confinement. Several techniques have been used including: a) a constant confining pressure obtained by oil immersion, and b) radial confinement of a cylindrical sample by a thick walled steel cylinder which surrounds the sample (negligible radial strain). While many energetic materials fail by crack growth when unconfined (significant surface area free of stress), with both of these forms of confinement they appear to fail by yield and plastic flow. For crystalline explosives, e.g. TNT and composition B, the yield strength and the modulus are independent of confining pressure so that useful results can be easily obtained by use of the steel cylinder technique. However, for materials containing polymer binders such as plastic bonded explosives a constant confining hydrostatic pressure is used because these same properties are found to significantly increase with this pressure. These results indicate the very significant role of the polymer binders in determining the mechanical properties of these energetic materials.

  2. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Richard S.; Black, Kenny D.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    consideration for the role of organic matter and temperature during sedimentation events may lead to an overestimation of the tolerance of benthic species to smothering from dredged material. PMID:26809153

  3. Long-term effects of dredging operations program. long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated estuarine dredged material placed in both upland and wetland environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Simmers, J.W.; Skogerboe, J.G.; Wilhelm, G.S.

    1991-09-01

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the Field Verification Program (FVP), conducted during the period 1981-1986. Laboratory tests were conducted on the sediment prior to dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under each of the disposal alternatives. Prior to dredging for upland disposal and wetland creation at the FVP field site, upland tests (i.e., plant and earthworm bioassays) and wetland tests (i.e., plant, sandworm, snail, and mussel bioassays) were conducted. Laboratory test results were sub-subsequently field verified at the field test site at Tongue Point, Bridgeport, CT. The results of the upland disposal and wetland creation portions of the FVP, and the changes occurring since completion of the FVP for each disposal environment, are summarized herein. The emphasis of this report is on the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. This interim report includes data collected through 1989. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland and wetland ecosystems at this site will be evaluated until September 1985.

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 2 of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Kohn, N.P.; Squires, A.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. The recommended plan consists of deepening the harbor channels from the presently authorized water depth of {minus}35 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) to {minus}42 ft MLLW and supplying the harbor with adequate turning basins and berthing areas. Offshore ocean disposal of the dredged sediment is being considered, provided there is no evident of harmful ecological effects. It harmful ecological effects are not evident then the appropriate certifications from state environmental quality agencies and concurrence from the Environmental Protection Agency can be obtained to allow disposal of sediment. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) collected sediment cores from 23 stations in Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, evaluated these sediment cores geologically, performed chemical analyses for selected contaminants in sediments, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in the tissues of Macoma Nasuta. 43 refs., 26 figs., 61 tabs.

  5. Comparison of the ames assay and mutatox in assessing the mutagenic potential of contaminated dredged material. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, A.S.

    1995-04-01

    The Ames assay and Mutatox were evaluated to compare their ability to identify the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The Ames assay has been used extensively in the testing of environmental contaminants. Mutatox, a bacterial bioluminescence test, was developed as a genotoxicity bioassay. Ten sediments with varying degrees of contamination were soxhlet extracted. These extracts were divided into crude and clean samples. Cleaned samples were prepared using silica-gel chromatography resulting in 20 extract samples. Both the Ames test (TA98 and TAl00) and Mutatox were conducted with and without S9 metabolic activation. TA98+S9 and TA1OO+S9 indicated a positive mutagenic response in 80 and 50 percent, respectively, of the sediment extracts. Half of the extracts indicated a positive mutagenic response with TA98-S9, while only 10 percent did so with TAlOO-S9. Mutatox indicated a positive mutagenic response with S9 activation in 75 percent of the extracts and no mutagenic response in any of the sediment extracts without metabolic activation. In a side-by-side comparison of the Ames assay (TA98+S9) and Mutatox, 80 percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses, both positive and negative. Fifty percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses when tested with TAlOO+S9 and Mutatox. Mutatox compared favorably with the Ames assay and shows promise as a screening tool to assess sediment genotoxicity when used with Ames assay as a confirmation.

  6. Sb-Te Phase-change Materials under Nanoscale Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalawela, Chandrasiri A.

    Size, speed and efficiency are the major challenges of next generation nonvolatile memory (NVM), and phase-change memory (PCM) has captured a great attention due to its promising features. The key for PCM is rapid and reversible switching between amorphous and crystalline phases with optical or electrical excitation. The structural transition is associated with significant contrast in material properties which can be utilized in optical (CD, DVD, BD) and electronic (PCRAM) memory applications. Importantly, both the functionality and the success of PCM technology significantly depend on the core material and its properties. So investigating PC materials is crucial for the development of PCM technology to realized enhanced solutions. In regards to PC materials, Sb-Te binary plays a significant role as a basis to the well-known Ge-Sb-Te system. Unlike the conventional deposition methods (sputtering, evaporation), electrochemical deposition method is used due to its multiple advantages, such as conformality, via filling capability, etc. First, the controllable synthesis of Sb-Te thin films was studied for a wide range of compositions using this novel deposition method. Secondly, the solid electrolytic nature of stoichiometric Sb2Te3 was studied with respect to precious metals. With the understanding of 2D thin film synthesis, Sb-Te 1D nanowires (18 - 220 nm) were synthesized using templated electrodeposition, where nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for the growth of nanowires. In order to gain the controllability over the deposition in high aspect ratio structures, growth mechanisms of both the thin films and nanowires were investigated. Systematic understanding gained thorough previous studies helped to formulate the ultimate goal of this dissertation. In this dissertation, the main objective is to understand the size effect of PC materials on their phase transition properties. The reduction of effective memory cell size in conjunction with

  7. Surgical dredging controls turbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Seagren, E.H.

    1994-06-01

    The need to remove contaminated and uncontaminated sediments located under a column of water is increasing. Small hydraulic dredges offer flexibility in the removal of sediments in industrial lagoons, wetlands, drinking water ponds, and environmentally sensitive areas.

  8. Long-term dredged material management plan within the context of Maumee river watershed sediment management strategy. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-03-01

    This technical report draws several preliminary conclusions about the Investigations needed to develop specific management options. It recommends moving ahead to the Phase 2 Study to address these options that would meet the goals of sediment load reduction, improvement in sediment and water quality, beneficial uses of the material, and a reduced dependency on constriction of new Confined Disposal Facilities (CDF).

  9. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. May 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for May 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, and the disposal of dredged material, are discussed, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials are considered. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 352 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality

  11. An environmental assessment of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and surrounding areas after partial completion of the Charleston Harbor Deepening Project.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lynn E; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2003-11-01

    A project to deepen shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor was conducted from 1999 to 2002. This generated approximately 22 million cubic yards of sediment for offshore disposal. Assessments of biological and physical conditions in the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and surrounding areas were conducted prior to deepening (1993-94), and partway through the disposal period (2000). Results from the 2000 survey are presented and compared to the baseline survey. The study area was composed of the disposal zone and surrounding areas and divided into 20 one square mile strata. Within each stratum, benthic grab samples were collected from ten random sites for analysis of sediment composition and contaminants and macrobenthic assemblages. No contaminant levels were above effects range low levels. Results revealed that sediments in the western strata had significantly higher silt/clay content in the 2000 survey when compared to baseline sediments, while sediments east of the disposal zone were similar to baseline. Analyses were performed on a subset of the benthic data that compared baseline to 2000 conditions in western and eastern strata. The benthic communities in western strata were altered following disposal operations. The benthic community east of the disposal area was not different from baseline conditions. These alterations in the benthic community were attributed to changes in bottom habitat characteristics rather than pollution effects.

  12. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... example, surfers, boaters, boarders, and divers, to use the near-shore area in the vicinity of the Sites... to be sandy material, while a small amount of material (up to 3% of the material) would be classified... the sites is common to nearshore, sandy, wave- influenced regions of the Pacific Coast in Oregon and...

  13. Hierarchically structured materials from block polymer confinement within bicontinuous microemulsion-derived nanoporous polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brad H; Lodge, Timothy P

    2011-11-22

    The self-assembly behavior of block polymers under strong two-dimensional and three-dimensional confinement has been well-studied in the past decade. Confinement effects enable access to a large suite of morphologies not typically observed in the bulk. We have used nanoporous polyethylene, derived from a polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion, as a novel template for the confinement of several different cylinder-forming block polymer systems: poly(isoprene-b-2-vinylpyridine), poly(styrene-b-isoprene), and poly(isoprene-b-dimethylsiloxane). The resultant materials exhibit unique hierarchical arrangements of structure with two distinct length scales. First, the polyethylene template imparts a disordered, microemulsion-like periodicity between bicontinuous polyethylene and block polymer networks with sizes on the order of 100 nm. Second, the block polymer networks display internal periodic arrangements produced by the spontaneous segregation of their incompatible constituents. The microphase-separated morphologies observed are similar to those previously reported for confinement of block polymers in cylindrical pores. However, at present, the morphologies are spatially variant in a complex manner, due to the three-dimensionally interconnected nature of the confining geometry and its distribution in pore sizes. We have further exploited the unique structure of the polyethylene template to generate new hierarchically structured porous monoliths. Poly(isoprene-b-2-vinylpyridine) is used as a model system in which the pyridine block is cross-linked, post-infiltration, and the polyethylene template is subsequently extracted. The resultant materials possess a three-dimensionally continuous pore network, of which the pore walls retain the unique, microphase-separated morphology of the confined block polymer.

  14. Geological and geochemical criteria for the continental nature of the Mendeleev Rise (the Arctic Ocean) from the data of drilling and dredging of seabed rock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Andrey; Petrov, Oleg; Kremenetskiy, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey; Rekant, Pavel; Gusev, Eugene; Shokalskiy, Sergey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey; Artyushkov, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    The results are presented of geological and geophysical studies on the Mendeleev Rise at 10 test sites at 79°N to 83°N (expedition "Arktika-2012" in August-September 2012). During the expedition, for the first time, three boreholes were drilled in the bedrocks of the Mendeleev Rise basement at a depth of 1700-2600 m, and more than 20 thousand fragments of seabed rock material were dredged. Among them carbonate-bearing rocks including dolomite with relicts of trilobites and ostracoderms (D3-C) constitute up 65 %. Up to 20% are terrigenous rocks with a predominance of quartz sandstones. Magmatic rocks constitute 10-15% of the samples (including 8% of gabbro-dolerite and 2 % of granite) with 5% of metamorphic rocks. The boreholes revealed magmatic mafic rocks of basalt to basaltic andesite to trachyandesite series (SiO2-48-58% K2O+Na2O-3,4-9,2%) including epigenically altered volcanic breccias. All fragments of magmatic mafic rocks have a similar mineral and chemical composition and are grouped with gabbro dolerite (SiO2-49-51%, K2O+Na2O-2,5-3,0%). Preliminary results of mineralogic, geochemical and of isotopic geochemical (ICP-OEC, ICP-MS, RFA, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, EPMA and others) analyses suggest the continental nature of the studied rocks and show a distinct difference from rocks of the Gakkel Ridge in the Eurasian part of the ocean, which are of the oceanic origin. U-Pb dating of zircons from the core rocks and seabed rock material (SIMS SHRIMP II) indicate a wide range of their formation age: 2940-995, 639-385 and 303-203 Ma and thus suggest that they belong to volcanogenic terrigeneous carbonate-bearing bed of the ancient platform composing the floor of Amerasian part of the Arctic Ocean.

  15. Characterization of Underwater Sounds Produced by Trailing Suction Hopper Dredges During Sand Mining and Pump-out Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    that hydraulically remove sediment from the seafloor through dragheads. The dragheads are “trailed” beneath the dredge and held in contact with the...substrate as the dredge advances. Large suction pumps transport the sediment from the seafloor and deposit the dredged material into one or more... seafloor ; 2) sounds produced by suction pipes and pumps, and the movement of dredged material through the dragarm riser to the hopper; 3) deposition sounds

  16. Materials, interfaces, and photon confinement in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghong; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Guo, Peijun; Ho, Shu-Te; Buchholtz, D B; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chang, R P H

    2010-11-18

    A series of experiments have been carried out to study the effects of materials quality, surface and interfacial modification, and photon confinement on standard dye-sensitized solar cells. For these studies, both physical and optical characterization of the materials has been performed in detail. In addition, DC and AC impedance measurements along with kinetic charge-transport modeling of experimental results have yielded information on how to systematically optimize the cell efficiency. The same kinetic model has been used to interpret the results of a series of experiments on interfacial modification studies using fluorine etching in combination with TiCl(4) surface treatment. By using specially designed photonic crystals to confine the photons in the cells, it is shown that the best cell efficiency can be further increased by about 13%.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Effects of confinement on material behaviour at the nanometre size scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoutlabi, Mataz; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2005-04-01

    In this article, the effects of size and confinement at the nanometre size scale on both the melting temperature, Tm, and the glass transition temperature, Tg, are reviewed. Although there is an accepted thermodynamic model (the Gibbs-Thomson equation) for explaining the shift in the first-order transition, Tm, for confined materials, the depression of the melting point is still not fully understood and clearly requires further investigation. However, the main thrust of the work is a review of the field of confinement and size effects on the glass transition temperature. We present in detail the dynamic, thermodynamic and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements reported for the glass transition in confined geometries for both small molecules confined in nanopores and for ultrathin polymer films. We survey the observations that show that the glass transition temperature decreases, increases, remains the same or even disappears depending upon details of the experimental (or molecular simulation) conditions. Indeed, different behaviours have been observed for the same material depending on the experimental methods used. It seems that the existing theories of Tg are unable to explain the range of behaviours seen at the nanometre size scale, in part because the glass transition phenomenon itself is not fully understood. Importantly, here we conclude that the vast majority of the experiments have been carried out carefully and the results are reproducible. What is currently lacking appears to be an overall view, which accounts for the range of observations. The field seems to be experimentally and empirically driven rather than responding to major theoretical developments.

  18. Stability of quasi-steady deflagrations in confined porous energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander M. Telengator; Stephen B. Margolis; Forman A. Williams

    2000-03-01

    Previous analyses have shown that unconfined deflagrations propagating through both porous and nonporous energetic materials can exhibit a thermal/diffusive instability that corresponds to the onset of various oscillatory modes of combustion. For porous materials, two-phase-flow effects, associated with the motion of the gas products relative to the condensed material, play a significant role that can shift stability boundaries with respect to those associated with the nonporous problem. In the present work, additional significant effects are shown to be associated with confinement, which produces an overpressure in the burned-gas region that leads to reversal of the gas flow and hence partial permeation of the hot gases into the unburned porous material. This results in a superadiabatic effect that increases the combustion temperature and, consequently, the burning rate. Under the assumption of gas-phase quasi-steadiness, an asymptotic model is presented that facilitates a perturbation analysis of both the basic solution, corresponding to a steadily propagating planar combustion wave, and its stability. The neutral stability boundaries collapse to the previous results in the absence of confinement, but different trends arising from the presence of the gas-permeation layer are predicted for the confined problem. Whereas two-phase-flow effects are generally destabilizing in the unconfined geometry, the effects of increasing overpressure and hence combustion temperature associated with confinement are shown to be generally stabilizing with respect to thermal/diffusive instability, analogous to the effects of decreasing heat losses on combustion temperature and stability in single-phase deflagrations.

  19. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ..., boaters, boarders, and divers, to use the near-shore area in the vicinity of the Sites, but EPA does not... coarser (sandy) material is expected to settle out of the water column within a few minutes of disposal... nearshore, sandy, wave-influenced regions of the Pacific Coast in Oregon and Washington. (3) Location in...

  20. Application of Dredged Materials and Steelmaking Slag as Basal Media to Restore and Create Seagrass Beds: Mesocosm and Core Incubation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukasaki, A.; Suzumura, M.; Tsurushima, N.; Nakazato, T.; Huang, Y.; Tanimoto, T.; Yamada, N.; Nishijima, W.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrass beds stabilize bottom sediments, improve water quality and light conditions, enhance species diversity, and provide habitat complexity in coastal marine environments. Seagrass beds are now experiencing worldwide decline by rapid environmental changes. Possible options of seagrass bed restoration are civil engineering works including mounding to raise the bottom to elevations with suitable light for seagrass growth. Reuse or recycling of dredged materials (DM) and various industrial by-products including steelmaking slags is a beneficial option to restore and create seagrass beds. To evaluate the applicability of DM and dephosphorization slag (Slag) as basal media of seagrass beds, we carried out mesocosm experiments and core incubation experiments in a land-based flow-through seawater tank over a year. During the mesocosm experiment, no difference was found in growth of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and macrobenthic community structures between Slag-based sediments and sand-based control experiments, even though Slag-based sediments exhibited substantially higher pH than sand-based sediments. During the core incubation experiment, we investigated detailed variation and distributions of pH and nutrients, and diffusion fluxes of nutrients between the sediment/seawater interface. Though addition of Slag induced high pH up to 10.7 in deep layers (< 5 cm), the surface pH decreased rapidly within 10 days. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen were comparable between Slag- and sand-based sediments, whereas dissolved phosphate concentration was substantially reduced by the addition of Slag. The low concentrations of phosphate was likely due to precipitation with calcium under high pH condition. Diffusion fluxes of nutrients from the cores were comparable with those reported in natural coastal systems. It was suggested that the mixture of Slag and DM is applicable as basal media for construction of artificial seagrass beds.

  1. Interpretative Analysis of Surficial Sediments as an Aid in Transport Studies of Dredged Materials Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    of Cocoa leech, nornda, to 40-55 ft of uster, on the inner continental shelf. Drefte isposal material io composed of clay, silt, ad fine send remved...of Cape Canaveral and 4.5 miles east of Cocoa Beach, Florida (Site B, Figure 1), has been in use since 1974. During the past 9 years, approximately...and direction diagrams, calculated for Cocoa Beach for the 10-year period (1945-1947 and 1950-1958), were located on project plansheets (SM 1979). A

  2. Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joshua D; Kretinin, Andrey V; Chen, Yiguo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Fogler, Michael M; Francescato, Yan; Ellis, Chase T; Tischler, Joseph G; Woods, Colin R; Giles, Alexander J; Hong, Minghui; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Maier, Stefan A; Novoselov, Kostya S

    2014-10-17

    Strongly anisotropic media, where the principal components of the dielectric tensor have opposite signs, are called hyperbolic. Such materials exhibit unique nanophotonic properties enabled by the highly directional propagation of slow-light modes localized at deeply sub-diffractional length scales. While artificial hyperbolic metamaterials have been demonstrated, they suffer from high plasmonic losses and require complex nanofabrication, which in turn induces size-dependent limitations on optical confinement. The low-loss, mid-infrared, natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride is an attractive alternative. Here we report on three-dimensionally confined 'hyperbolic polaritons' in boron nitride nanocones that support four series (up to the seventh order) modes in two spectral bands. The resonant modes obey the predicted aspect ratio dependence and exhibit high-quality factors (Q up to 283) in the strong confinement regime (up to λ/86). These observations assert hexagonal boron nitride as a promising platform for studying novel regimes of light-matter interactions and nanophotonic device engineering.

  3. Phonon lateral confinement enables thermal rectification in asymmetric single-material nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Vallabhaneni, Ajit; Hu, Jiuning; Qiu, Bo; Chen, Yong P; Ruan, Xiulin

    2014-02-12

    We show that thermal rectification (TR) in asymmetric graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is originated from phonon confinement in the lateral dimension, which is a fundamentally new mechanism different from that in macroscopic heterojunctions. Our molecular dynamics simulations reveal that, though TR is significant in nanosized asymmetric GNRs, it diminishes at larger width. By solving the heat diffusion equation, we prove that TR is indeed absent in both the total heat transfer rate and local heat flux for bulk-size asymmetric single materials, regardless of the device geometry or the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity. For a deeper understanding of why lateral confinement is needed, we have performed phonon spectra analysis and shown that phonon lateral confinement can enable three possible mechanisms for TR: phonon spectra overlap, inseparable dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature and space, and phonon edge localization, which are essentially related to each other in a complicated manner. Under such guidance, we demonstrate that other asymmetric nanostructures, such as asymmetric nanowires, thin films, and quantum dots, of a single material are potentially high-performance thermal rectifiers.

  4. Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Joshua D.; Kretinin, Andrey V.; Chen, Yiguo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Fogler, Michael M.; Francescato, Yan; Ellis, Chase T.; Tischler, Joseph G.; Woods, Colin R.; Giles, Alexander J.; Hong, Minghui; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Maier, Stefan A.; Novoselov, Kostya S.

    2014-10-01

    Strongly anisotropic media, where the principal components of the dielectric tensor have opposite signs, are called hyperbolic. Such materials exhibit unique nanophotonic properties enabled by the highly directional propagation of slow-light modes localized at deeply sub-diffractional length scales. While artificial hyperbolic metamaterials have been demonstrated, they suffer from high plasmonic losses and require complex nanofabrication, which in turn induces size-dependent limitations on optical confinement. The low-loss, mid-infrared, natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride is an attractive alternative. Here we report on three-dimensionally confined ‘hyperbolic polaritons’ in boron nitride nanocones that support four series (up to the seventh order) modes in two spectral bands. The resonant modes obey the predicted aspect ratio dependence and exhibit high-quality factors (Q up to 283) in the strong confinement regime (up to λ/86). These observations assert hexagonal boron nitride as a promising platform for studying novel regimes of light-matter interactions and nanophotonic device engineering.

  5. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  6. Engineering and Design: Field Applications of Polyethylene Pipe in Dredging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-15

    resistance of high density polyethylene ( HDPE ) pipe with convmtimal mild steel pipe as reported at the ASCE Dredging Conference 1984. A third...material, ultra high molecular weight high density polyethylene was also tested. The results indicate that under the test conditions HDPE outperforms mild...steady increase in the number of dredges using high density polyethylene ( HDPE ) pipe in discharge lines. HDPE’s increased popularity is the result of

  7. Superior pseudocapacitive behavior of confined lignin nanocrystals for renewable energy-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Kim, Yun Ki; Lee, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sang Bok; Park, Ho Seok

    2014-04-01

    Strong demand for high-performance energy-storage devices has currently motivated the development of emerging capacitive materials that can resolve their critical challenge (i.e., low energy density) and that are renewable and inexpensive energy-storage materials from both environmental and economic viewpoints. Herein, the pseudocapacitive behavior of lignin nanocrystals confined on reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) used for renewable energy-storage materials is demonstrated. The excellent capacitive characteristics of the renewable hybrid electrodes were achieved by synergizing the fast and reversible redox charge transfer of surface-confined quinone and the interplay with electron-conducting RGOs. Accordingly, pseudocapacitors with remarkable rate and cyclic performances (~96 % retention after 3000 cycles) showed a maximum capacitance of 432 F g(-1), which was close to the theoretical capacitance of 482 F g(-1) and sixfold higher than that of RGO (93 F g(-1)). The chemical strategy delineated herein paves the way to develop advanced renewable electrodes for energy-storage applications and understand the redox chemistry of electroactive biomaterials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Thermal decomposition studies of energetic materials using confined rapid thermolysis/FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.S.; Lee, H.S.; Mallery, C.F.; Thynell, S.T.

    1997-07-01

    An experimental setup for performing rapid thermolysis studies of small samples of energetic materials is described. In this setup, about 8 {micro}L of a liquid sample or about 2 mg of a solid sample is heated at rates exceeding 1,500 K/s to a set temperature where decomposition occurs. The rapid heating is achieved as a result of confining the sample between two closely spaced isothermal surfaces. The gaseous decomposition products depart from the confined space through a rectangular slit into the region of detection. The evolved gases are quantified using FTIR absorption spectroscopy by accounting for the instrument line shape. To illustrate the use of this setup, the thermolysis behaviors of three different energetic materials are examined. These materials include HMX, RDX, and HAN, all of which are considered as highly energetic propellant ingredients. The results obtained in this study of the temporal evolution of species concentrations from these ingredients are in reasonably close agreement with results available in the literature.

  9. Design of a confined environment using protein cages and crystals for the development of biohybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Abe, Satoshi; Maity, Basudev; Ueno, Takafumi

    2016-05-05

    There is growing interest in the design of protein assemblies for use in materials science and bionanotechnology. Protein assemblies, such as cages and crystalline protein structures, provide confined chemical environments that allow immobilization of metal complexes, nanomaterials, and proteins by metal coordination, assembly/disassembly reactions, genetic manipulation and crystallization methods. Protein assembly composites can be used to prepare hybrid materials with catalytic, magnetic and optical properties for cellular applications due to their high stability, solubility and biocompatibility. In this feature article, we focus on the recent development of ferritin as the most promising molecular template protein cage and in vivo and in vitro engineering of protein crystals as solid protein materials with functional properties.

  10. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material: Proceedings of the North Atlantic Regional Conference Held in Baltimore, Maryland on 12-14 May 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    in the Long Island, New York, Region: The Relationship of Dredging to Species Dispersal and Habitat Availability, Dr. Thomas S. Litwin and Mr. David C...Building, Annapolis, MD 21401 (301/974-3871) BURK , Sandra, Maryland Dept. of Natural Resources, Tawes State Office Building, Annapolis, MD 21041 (301...4710) LITWIN , Thomas S., Seatuck Research Program, Cornell University, Box 31, Islip, NY 11751 (516/581-6908) -c- LORAN, Jordan, Maryland Dept. of

  11. Recycled Glass and Dredged Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    soft drink, beer , food, wine, and liquor containers collected at residential curbside, drop boxes, trash barrels, deposit stations, or recycling...cullet (for new bottles and other containers) or non-container glass cullet (all other uses), and non-container processed cullet production is...crystal, porcelain, etc.), metal (from bottle caps), organics (from food, paper labels, etc.), and other inorganics (from soil, concrete, bricks, etc

  12. DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DREDGING: FIELD STUDY FOR EVALUATING DREDGING RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging is a commonly selected remedy for the risk management of contaminated sediments. Even so, there are questions regarding both the short-term and long-term effectiveness of dredging. A significant aspect in the performance of dredging is dredging residuals. Post-dredging ...

  13. DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DREDGING: FIELD STUDY FOR EVALUATING DREDGING RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging is a commonly selected remedy for the risk management of contaminated sediments. Even so, there are questions regarding both the short-term and long-term effectiveness of dredging. A significant aspect in the performance of dredging is dredging residuals. Post-dredging ...

  14. Planning dredging services in contaminated sediments for balanced environmental and investment costs.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Barros, Sérgio Ricardo; Lima, Gilson Brito Alves

    2013-05-30

    Dredging of contaminated sediments has shown to be a harmful activity for the environment, because a number of contaminants can be resuspended and become available to the organisms. Furthermore, dredged contaminated sediments may cause significant damages in the dumping site. In order to avoid the drawbacks of this activity, better techniques have to be developed and the present article presents a new procedure for the planning of dredging that reduces the environmental impacts by reducing the amount of dredged sediments and, at the same time, reduces costs. The new technique uses screening of contaminant concentrations in the sediments that are normally part of the environmental impact assessment for dredging activity. A detailed mapping of the contamination, layer by layer is carried out and the areas where the action levels are reached are outlined with polygons, establishing limits within which sediments have to be dredged with safe procedures. In the case presented, construction of a harbor in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the safe procedure is cutter/suction dredging and pumping into a sub-aquatic confined disposal facility (CDF). A detailed evaluation of costs showed that if the whole layers of sediment were to be dumped into the CDF, the cost of the activity would be at least 63.82% more expensive than the proposed procedure, constituting an attractive advantage. Furthermore, as the size of the CDF is significantly smaller, less dredging is necessary, causing smaller environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Confinement of MgH2 nanoclusters within nanoporous aerogel scaffold materials.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Thomas K; Manickam, Kandavel; Hirscher, Michael; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R

    2009-11-24

    Nanoparticles of magnesium hydride were embedded in nanoporous carbon aerogel scaffold materials in order to explore the kinetic properties of hydrogen uptake and release. A new modified procedure for the synthesis of magnesium hydride nanoparticles is presented. The procedure makes use of monoliths (approximately 0.4 cm(3)) of two distinct types of nanoporous resorcinol-formaldehyde carbon aerogels loaded with dibutylmagnesium, MgBu(2). Excess MgBu(2) was removed mechanically, and the increase in mass was used as a measure of the amount of embedded MgH(2). Energy-dispersive spectrometry revealed that MgH(2) was uniformly distributed within the aerogel material. In situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction showed that MgBu(2) transformed directly to MgH(2) at T approximately 137 degrees C and p(H(2)) = 50 bar. Two distinct aerogel samples, denoted X1 and X2, with pore volumes of 1.27 and 0.65 mL/g and average pore sizes of 22 and 7 nm, respectively, were selected. In these samples, the uptake of magnesium hydride was found to be proportional to the pore volume, and aerogels X1 and X2 incorporated 18.2 and 10.0 wt % of MgH(2), respectively. For the two samples, the volumetric MgH(2) uptake was similar, approximately 12 vol %. The hydrogen storage properties of nanoconfined MgH(2) were studied by Sieverts' measurements and thermal desorption spectroscopy, which clearly demonstrated that the dehydrogenation kinetics of the confined hydride depends on the pore size distribution of the scaffold material; that is, smaller pores mediated faster desorption rates possibly due to a size reduction of the confined magnesium hydride.

  16. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J A; Word, J Q; Pinza, M R; Mayhew, H L; Barrows, E S; Lefkovitz, L F

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

  17. Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Blake

    2008-09-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and "flexible" force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing $2.75 M in

  18. Influence of Sublimation and Pyrolysis on Quasi-Steady Deflagrations in Confined Porous Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen B. Margolis; Alexander M. Telengator

    2001-03-01

    Deflagrations in porous energetic materials under confinement are generally characterized by a relatively rapid increase in the burning rate as the pressure difference, or overpressure, in the burned-gas region relative to that deep within the pores of the unburned solid increases. Specifically, there appears to be a range of overpressures in which the sensitivity, or slope, of the propagation speed as a function of overpressure transitions from relatively small to large values. This effect has been qualitatively attributed to the fact that a sufficient overpressure reverses the gas flow and thus allows the burned gas to permeate, and therefore preheat, the porous material. However, quantitative descriptions of both the process itself and the corresponding burning-rate dependencies have only recently been achieved. The present work reflects a further refinement in this analytical description in that the melt layer, which underlies several previous studies and is likely to exist only at modest overpressures, is replaced by sublimation and pyrolysis at the material surface, followed by an attached gas flame that converts the unburned gaseous reactants to final products. As a result, gaseous reactants as well as products now permeate the porous solid, thereby affecting the propagation speed significantly and modifying both the combustion-wave structure and the transition to convection-enhanced burning.

  19. Environmental effects of dredging program: Leachate testing of Hamlet City Lake, North Carolina, sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

    1992-11-01

    Sediment leaching studies of Hamlet City Lake, Hamlet, NC, were conducted in laboratories at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The purpose of these studies was to provide quantitative information on the potential for leachate impacts on groundwaters if dredged material from Hamlet City Lake were placed in a confined disposal facility (CDF) or under disposal conditions similar to land-farming. The study involved three elements: batch leach tests, column leach tests, and simulations using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. Batch tests were conducted to determine intrinsic leaching characteristics of solids in Hamlet City Lake sediment. Column tests were conducted as a physical analog of continuous flow leaching in a CDF. HELP model simulations were conducted to simulate the generation of leachate by infiltration and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a disposal site liner. Results of this study showed that, under disposal conditions similar to land-farming, organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPHs) will decrease in concentration as the result of volatilization and or biodegradation.... Dredged material, Leachate, Permeameter, Hamlet city lake, Leaching, Heavy metals, Mass transport.

  20. Coastal Modeling System: Dredging Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    spacing. Wave data from Wave Information Study (WIS) station 63401 (WIS 2014) were used for input to the wave model. a. b. Figure 1 . (a...ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-90 June 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Coastal Modeling System : Dredging Module by Chris Reed and...within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Coastal Modeling System (CMS). The DM simulates one or more dredging operations during a CMS

  1. Effects of suction dredging on streams: a review and an evaluation strategy

    Treesearch

    Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

    1998-01-01

    Abstract - Suction dredging for gold in river channels is a small-scale mining practice whereby streambed material is sucked up a pipe, passed over a sluice box to sort out the gold, and discarded as tailings over another area of bed. Natural resource managers should be concerned about suction dredging because it is common in streams in western North America that...

  2. Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peining; Yang, Xiaosheng; Maß, Tobias W. W.; Hanss, Julian; Lewin, Martin; Michel, Ann-Katrin U.; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Surface phonon-polaritons (SPhPs), collective excitations of photons coupled with phonons in polar crystals, enable strong light-matter interaction and numerous infrared nanophotonic applications. However, as the lattice vibrations are determined by the crystal structure, the dynamical control of SPhPs remains challenging. Here, we realize the all-optical, non-volatile, and reversible switching of SPhPs by controlling the structural phase of a phase-change material (PCM) employed as a switchable dielectric environment. We experimentally demonstrate optical switching of an ultrathin PCM film (down to 7 nm, <λ/1,200) with single laser pulses and detect ultra-confined SPhPs (polariton wavevector kp > 70k0, k0 = 2π/λ) in quartz. Our proof of concept allows the preparation of all-dielectric, rewritable SPhP resonators without the need for complex fabrication methods. With optimized materials and parallelized optical addressing we foresee application potential for switchable infrared nanophotonic elements, for example, imaging elements such as superlenses and hyperlenses, as well as reconfigurable metasurfaces and sensors.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  5. Dredging Research Program: NMLONG: Numerical Model for Simulating the Longshore Current. Report 1. Model Development and Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Corps of Engineers 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-6199 and Magnus Larson Department of Water Resources Engineering Lund Institute...Analysis of Dredged Material Placed in Open Waters Area 2 - Material Properties Related to Navigation and Dredging Area 3 - Dredge Plant Equipment and...Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Department of Water Resources Engineering Lund Institute of

  6. North Fork John Day Dredge Tailings Restoration Project Final Report 1997-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, John A.

    2002-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) worked together to rehabilitate 2.1 miles of Clear Creek floodplain, a tributary of the North Fork John Day River Basin. Dredge tailing were deposited from mining operations on Clear Creek's floodplain from the 1930's to the 1950's. These tailing confined the stream channel and degraded the floodplain. The work was completed by moving dredge tailing piles adjacent to the Clear Creek channel, using track-mounted excavators and dump trucks. A caterpillar tractor was used to contour the material placed outside the immediate floodplain, blending it into the hillside. The restored floodplain was very near channel bankfull level following excavation and contoured to accept future flood flows. Monitoring was initiated through pre and post-project photo points and cross-section measurements. Work was completed in two efforts. In 1997 and 1998 floodplain restoration was adjacent to the reconstruction of Road 13 from the junction with Road 10 from Clear Creek River Mile 1.9 to 3.1 for a distance of 1.2 miles. In 1999 the Environmental Assessment for Lower Clear Creek--Granite Creek Floodplain Restoration Project was completed for work proposed on Clear Creek from the mouth up to River mile 1.9 and the Granite Creek floodplain from River miles 5.9 to 7.7. Restoration proposed in the 1999 Environmental Assessment is the subject of this report.

  7. Novel Green Luminescent and Phosphorescent Material: Semiconductive Nanoporous ZnMnO with Photon Confinement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sejoon; Lee, Youngmin; Panin, Gennady N

    2017-06-21

    A novel green luminescent and phosphorescent material of semiconductive nanoporous ZnMnO was synthesized by the thermal nucleation of nanopores in the 20-period Zn0.93Mn0.07O/Zn0.65Mn0.35O multilayer structure. Nanoporous ZnMnO showed an n-type semiconducting property and exhibited an extremely strong green light emission in its luminescence and phosphorescence characteristics. This arises from the formation of the localized energy level (i.e., green emission band) within the energy band gap and the confinement of photons. The results suggest nanoporous ZnMnO to have a great potential for the new type of semiconducting green phosphors and semiconductor light-emitting diodes with lower thresholds, producing an efficient light emission. In-depth analyses on the structural, electrical, and optical properties are thoroughly examined, and the formation mechanism of nanoporous ZnMnO and the origin of the strong green light emission are discussed.

  8. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cappuyns, Valérie Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.

  9. Methodology of management of dredging operations I. Conceptual developments.

    PubMed

    Abriak, N E; Junqua, G; Dubois, V; Gregoire, P; Mac Farlane, F; Damidot, D

    2006-04-01

    This article presents a new methodology for the management of dredging operations. Partly derived from existing methodologies (OECD, UNEP, AIPCN), its aim is to be more complete, by integrating the qualities and complementarities of former methodologies. Moreover, it was carried out in a context of sustainable development. Indeed, it supports, according to a framework of industrial ecology, the development and the implementation of solutions of waste improvement of dredged materials, in order to minimize the environmental impact of dredging. It also uses a tool of MultiCriteria Decision-Making Aid (M.C.D.M.A.), in order to integrate local characteristics. In addition, this tool, called DRAGSED, allows to a dialogue to be established between all the parties concerned with a dredging project (harbour's authorities, industrialists, municipalities, administrations, populations, associations,...). Thus, the implementation of this methodology enables consensus to be reached for the dredging solution retained. It also proposes an environmental follow-up, which will allow an evaluation during its application.

  10. Beneficial use of dredged sediments in public works.

    PubMed

    Zentar, R; Abriak, N E; Dubois, V; Miraoui, M

    2009-07-01

    With the increase in environmental awareness, in combination with a more restrictive legislation, traditional solutions to the management of dredged sediments, such as dumping at sea or disposal to landfills, become more and more inadequate. In order to improve the management of dredged marine sediments, alternative solutions such as beneficial use in civil engineering, manufacture or agriculture have been proposed. Reuse solutions have to fulfil economical, technical and environmental criteria. At present, the proposed solutions are relatively costly and not adaptable to all types of sediments. In particular, fine sediments are difficult to reuse in comparison to sands because of their high water content, the presence of organic matters, their mechanical behaviour and the presence of pollutants in some cases. In this context, this study aims to design a road material that includes dredged fine sediments from a harbour in the north of France. With an initial water content higher than 100%, the first operation consisted in preparing the dredged sediments by reducing its initial water content and, as a consequence, the content of dissolved salts. Then the sediments were characterized and finally a material with the required properties was designed. This material included fine marine sediments, traditional granular materials and hydraulic binders. This paper focuses on the methodology used to design the road material.

  11. TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATRIAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U.S. ACE), has lead responsibility for developing guidelines that provide environmental criteria for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into U.S. waters. To ...

  12. TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATRIAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U.S. ACE), has lead responsibility for developing guidelines that provide environmental criteria for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into U.S. waters. To ...

  13. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Warburton, David

    2013-11-01

    In 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

  14. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Custer, Christine M.; Warburton, David

    2013-01-01

    n 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

  15. Water and small organic molecules as probes for geometric confinement in well-ordered mesoporous carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yeping; Watermann, Tobias; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Gutmann, Torsten; Sebastiani, Daniel; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2014-05-28

    Mesoporous carbon materials were synthesized employing polymers and silica gels as structure directing templates. The basic physico-chemical properties of the synthetic mesoporous materials were characterized by (1)H and (13)C MAS solid-state NMR, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The confinement effects on small guest molecules such as water, benzene and pyridine and their interactions with the pore surface were probed by a combination of variable temperature (1)H-MAS NMR and quantum chemical calculations of the magnetic shielding effect of the surface on the solvent molecules. The interactions of the guest molecules depend strongly on the carbonization temperature and the pathway of the synthesis. All the guest-molecules, water, benzene and pyridine, exhibited high-field shifts by the interaction with the surface of carbon materials. The geometric confinement imposed by the surface causes a strong depression of the melting point of the surface phase of water and benzene. The theoretical calculation of (1)H NICS maps shows that the observed proton chemical shifts towards high-field values can be explained as the result of electronic ring currents localized in aromatic groups on the surface. The dependence on the distance between the proton and the aromatic surface can be exploited to estimate the average diameter of the confinement structures.

  16. A new perspective on plasmonics: Confinement and propagation length of surface plasmons for different materials and geometries [A new perspective on materials for plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Dastmalchi, Babak; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2015-09-21

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating on the surface of a metal. Thanks to subwavelength confinement, they can concentrate optical energy on the micrometer or even nanometer scale, enabling new applications in bio-sensing, optical interconnects, and nonlinear optics, where small footprint and strong field concentration are essential. The major obstacle in developing plasmonic applications is dissipative loss, which limits the propagation length of surface plasmons and broadens the bandwidth of surface-plasmon resonances. Here, a new analysis of plasmonic materials and geometries is presented which fully considers the tradeoff between propagation length and degree of confinement. It is based on a two-dimensional analysis of two independent figures of merit and the analysis is applied to relevant plasmonic materials, e.g., noble metals, aluminum, silicon carbide, doped semiconductors, graphene, etc. Furthermore, the analysis provides guidance on how to improve the performance of any particular plasmonic application and substantially eases the selection of the plasmonic material.

  17. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Methodology for Analysis of Subaqueous Sediment Mounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. - p - A methodology of...ANALYSIS 46. A systematic procedure to analyze the behavior of subaqueous dredged material mounds was developed as a part of this investigation. For this...asso- ciated with dredged material disposal. By including all aspects, this proce- dure provides the necessary framework for successfully analyzing the

  18. The mobilisation of sediment and benthic infauna by scallop dredges.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, F G; Robertson, M; Summerbell, K; Breen, M; Robinson, L A

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of experiments to assess the immediate impact of scallop dredging on the seabed sediment and on the inhabiting infauna. The passage of the scallop dredge is shown to homogenise the seabed, flattening sand ripples. The turbulent wake entrains up to the equivalent of a 1 mm layer of sediment per unit of swept width, although an analysis of the finer particles material implies that the suspended silt material must originate from depths of at least 10 mm. The species most abundant in the sediment plume either swim actively in the water column or are found in, or on, the upper layers of the substrate, whereas those most abundant in core samples taken from the sediment, but not present in the net samples, are almost all tube-building or deep burrowing. The vertical stratification of sediment concentration and of animal numbers in the water column suggests that even if some of these species respond actively to the presence of the dredge, once entrained, they are transported more or less passively in the same way as the larger sediment particles. There was no difference between the core samples taken before or after towing suggesting that animals mobilised by the dredge resettle in the tow path. Our analysis does not provide any information regarding the fate of these animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppression of Freezing and Emergence of a Novel Ordered State in 4He Confined in a Nano - porous Material

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, K.; Shibayama, Y.; Shirahama, K.

    2006-09-07

    Confinement of 4He in a porous material with nanometer - size pores suppresses both the freezing and superfluidity. In our previous investigation of superfluid density of 4He confined in a porous Gelsil glass which has pores of 2.5 nm in diameter, it was demonstrated that the superfluidity is greatly suppressed by pressurization. In order to explore the overall P - T phase diagram, we study the liquid - solid coexistence line. The freezing pressure is elevated up to about 3.4 MPa and independent of temperature below 1.3 K. Along with the previous measurement of superfluid density these features indicate that a nonsuperfluid phase exists next to the solid phase. The flat freezing curve indicates that this nonsuperfluid phase has small entropy as well as that of solid. Therefore the nonsuperfluid phase is possibly a novel ordered state, in which the global phase coherence is destroyed by strong correlation between 4He atoms and/or by random potential.

  20. Interactions of shock waves with material interfaces in lithotripsy and inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iloreta, Jonathan Ian

    This dissertation focuses on the interaction of shock wave with material interfaces in shock wave lithotrispsy (SWL) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In the area of SWL, a method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the ---6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 cm3 to 0.4 cm3, the -6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 cm3 to 8.3 cm3, and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e. regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 microm) from 103 cm3 to 26 cm3. Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. Also in the area of SWL, the dynamics of bubbles near a kidney stone subjected to a lithotripter shock wave are considered to address the effect of kidney stone geometry and composition on the cavitation potential near the stone in a shock wave lithotripter. Results of the reflection of the LSW from cylindrical kidney stones with proximal surfaces of varying geometry show that the presence of the stone enhances bubble growth near the stone and decreases growth further away, due to constructive and destructive interference, respectively. These effects hold true regardless of the shape and curvature of the face, and are strongest for stones with concave faces and higher reflection coefficients. An interesting consequence of

  1. Treatment of Dredged Sludge By Mechanical Dehydration,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the...conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water...turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers

  2. Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

  3. Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

  4. Effects of dredged sediment disposal on the coastal marine macrobenthic assemblage in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Angonesi, L G; Bemvenuti, C E; Gandra, M S

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the deposition impact of dredged material from Patos lagoon estuary on a benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in an adjacent coastal marine area. Nine sampling stations were chosen at random in the disposal area, and nine others in the same way in an adjacent control area. Samples were collected at a 19 m depth before sediment disposal (11 July 2000), during dredging and disposal operations (25 Oct. 2000), and three months thereafter (24 Aug. 2001). Statistical analysis indicated that sampling periods presented similar characteristics in both the control and disposal sites. Disposal of dredged sediment from Patos lagoon had no detectable detrimental effects upon macrobenthic faunal assemblage at the dumping site. This result is attributed both to adaptation of resident biota to dynamic sedimentary conditions and to the fine estuarine sediment dredged, the dispersion of which in the water column might have minimized sediment deposition and consequent damage to the benthic fauna.

  5. Environmental effects of dredging. Use of daphnia magna to predict consequences of bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-01

    Results reported herein represent a portion of the laboratory research evaluating the relationship between mercury and cadmium tissue residues and biological effects in the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna (commonly known as the water flea). Procedures presented here for a 28-day Daphnia magna toxicity test could be used in screening for water-column toxicity resulting from open-water disposal of a specific dredged material. As a part of its regulatory and dredging programs, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers often conducts, or requires to be conducted, an assessment of the potential for bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants from sediment scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. There is, at present, no generally accepted guidance available to aid in the interpretation of the biological consequences of bioaccumulation. To provide an initial basis for such guidance, the Environmental Laboratory is conducting both literature database analyses and experimental laboratory studies as part of the Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program.

  6. Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the upper Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J.D.; McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Thalweg disposal experiments have been conducted at three sites on the upper Mississippi River. During normal channel maintenance, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye prior to disposal as a pile in the thalweg. In postdisposal surveys surficial bottom sediment samples were collected in the disposal area and in the thalweg and border areas downstream to determine the movement of the dredged sand relative to environmentally sensitive river habitats. The experiments were initiated in successive years, and the tagged sand has been tracked for 1 to 3 years, depending on the site. Although the downstream movement of the dredged sand was not the same at each site, the general pattern of behavior was similar. Downstream movement was confined primarily to the main channel and occurred in response to periods of high river discharge. There was no statistically significant evidence of dredged sand dispersing out of the main channel into nearby border areas or sloughs. The distributions of dyed sand in cores from one site suggest that the dredged sand has been incorporated into natural bed forms. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Electroosmotic dewatering of dredged sediments: bench-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Urbanek, Adam; Khodadoust, Amid P

    2006-01-01

    The Indiana Harbor (Indiana, USA) has not been dredged since 1972 due to lack of a suitable disposal site for dredged sediment. As a result of this, over a million cubic yards of highly contaminated sediment has accumulated in the harbor. Recently, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has selected a site for the confined disposal facility (CDF) and is in the process of designing it. Although dredging can be accomplished rapidly, the disposal in the CDF has to be done slowly to allow adequate time for consolidation to occur. The sediment possesses very high moisture content and very low hydraulic conductivity, which cause consolidation to occur slowly. Consolidation of the sediment is essential in order to achieve adequate shear strength of sediments and also to provide enough air space to accommodate the large amount of sediment that requires disposal. Currently, it has been estimated that if a one 3-foot (0.9-m) thick layer of sediment was disposed of at the CDF annually, it would take approximately 10 years to dispose of all the sediment that is to be dredged from the Indiana Harbor. This study investigated the feasibility of using an electroosmotic dewatering technology to accelerate dewatering and consolidation of sediment, thereby allowing more rapid disposal of sediment into the CDF. Electroosmotic dewatering essentially involves applying a small electric potential across the sediment layer, thereby inducing rapid flow as a result of physico-chemical and electrochemical processes. A series of bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on actual dredged sediment samples from the Indiana Harbor to investigate dewatering rates caused by gravity alone, dewatering rates caused by gravity and electric potential, and the effects of the addition of polymer flocculants on dewatering of the sediments. The results showed that electroosmotic dewatering under an applied electric potential of 1.0VDC/cm could increase the rate of dewatering and

  8. Facile synthesis of MOF-5 confined in SBA-15 hybrid material with enhanced hydrostability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ming; Rathi, Monika; Ahrenkiel, S Phil; Koodali, Ranjit T; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2013-02-11

    A MOF-5 [Zn(4)O(BDC)(3); BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate]@SBA-15 hybrid material has been prepared by using SBA-15 as a matrix. This hybrid material exhibits improved hydrostability under ambient conditions and unique gas adsorption behavior compared with pristine MOF-5.

  9. Variations in the concentrations of heavy metals through enforcement of a rest-year system and dredged sediment capping at the Yellow Sea-Byung dumping site, Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chang-Soo; Song, Ki-Hoon; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Hye-Eun; Jung, Jun-Mo; Kim, Chang-Joon

    2017-07-18

    In 2014, the concentrations of 13 heavy metals in surface sediments from 14 sampling stations were analyzed and compared to samples from previous years to evaluate the remediation effectiveness of the "rest-year" (RY) system and capping with dredged material at the Yellow Sea-Byung dumping site offshore Korea. Since the 2006 introduction of the RY system, annual variations in metal concentrations at stations within the RY zone have gradually decreased over time. Heavy metal concentrations at most stations were lower than sediment quality guidelines, indicating the success of the RY system. Additionally, the effects of capping the contaminated sediment with dredged materials were investigated. The results indicate that dredged materials successfully capped the contaminated sediment within the dredged material dumping area, as the concentrations of Cr and total organic carbon were significantly reduced. We conclude that dredged materials may be used as capping materials for the remediation of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Update of the Corps’ Environmental Effects of Dredging Programs (FY 89)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    B. L., Jr., Lee, C. R., and Bates, D. J. 1981. "Field Survey of Heavy Metal Uptake by Naturally Occurring Saltwater and Freshwater Marsh Plants...on Availability and Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals in Dredged Material," Technical Report EL-81-12, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station... Metal Uptake of and of Agronomic Plants Grown on Contami- nated Dutch Sediments," Miscellaneous Paper D-83-1, Institute for Soil Fer- tility, 8, Fhe

  11. Self-healing of polymeric materials: The effect of the amount of DCPD confined within microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Dorina M.; Perez, Alma; Lozano, Karen; Elamin, Ibrahim; Villarreal, Jahaziel; Salinas, Alfonso; Chipara, Mircea

    2013-03-01

    The self-healing SH) of polymers is based on the dispersion of a catalyst and of microcapsules filled with monomer within the polymeric matrix. Sufficiently large external stresses will rupture the microcapsule, releasing the monomer which will diffuse through the polymer and eventually will reach a catalyst particle igniting a polymerization reaction. The classical SH system includes first generation Grubbs catalyst and poly-urea formaldehyde microcapsules filled with DCPD. The polymerization reaction is a ring-opening metathesis. The size and the mechanical features of microcapsules are critical in controlling the SH process. Research was focused on the effect of DCPD on the size and thickness of microcapsules. Microscopy was used to determine the size of microcapsules (typically in the range of 10-4 m) and the thickness of the microcapsules (ranging between 10-6 to 10-8 m). Research revealed a thick disordered layer over a thin and more compact wall. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the confinement of DCPD, TGA measurements aimed to a better understanding of the degradation processes in inert atmosphere, and mechanical tests supported the ignition of self-healing properties. This research has been supported by National Science Foundation under DMR (PREM) grant 0934157.

  12. X-ray ablation rates in inertial confinement fusion capsule materials

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Landen, O. L.

    2011-03-15

    X-ray ablation rates have been measured in beryllium, copper-doped beryllium, germanium-doped plastic (Ge-doped CH), and diamondlike high density carbon (HDC) for radiation temperatures T in the range of 160-260 eV. In beryllium, the measured ablation rates range from 3 to 12 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns; in Ge-doped CH, the ablation rates range from 2 to 6 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns; and for HDC, the rates range from 2 to 9 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns. The ablation rates follow an approximate T{sup 3} dependence and, for T below 230 eV, the beryllium ablation rates are significantly higher than HDC and Ge-doped CH. The corresponding implied ablation pressures are in the range of 20-160 Mbar, scaling as T{sup 3.5}. The results are found to be well predicted by computational simulations using the physics packages and computational techniques employed in the design of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion capsules. An iterative rocket model has been developed and used to compare the ablation rate data set to spherical indirect-drive capsule implosion experiments and to confirm the validity of some aspects of proposed full-scale National Ignition Facility ignition capsule designs.

  13. A new perspective on plasmonics: Confinement and propagation length of surface plasmons for different materials and geometries [A new perspective on materials for plasmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Dastmalchi, Babak; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; ...

    2015-09-21

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating on the surface of a metal. Thanks to subwavelength confinement, they can concentrate optical energy on the micrometer or even nanometer scale, enabling new applications in bio-sensing, optical interconnects, and nonlinear optics, where small footprint and strong field concentration are essential. The major obstacle in developing plasmonic applications is dissipative loss, which limits the propagation length of surface plasmons and broadens the bandwidth of surface-plasmon resonances. Here, a new analysis of plasmonic materials and geometries is presented which fully considers the tradeoff between propagation length and degree of confinement. It is based on amore » two-dimensional analysis of two independent figures of merit and the analysis is applied to relevant plasmonic materials, e.g., noble metals, aluminum, silicon carbide, doped semiconductors, graphene, etc. Furthermore, the analysis provides guidance on how to improve the performance of any particular plasmonic application and substantially eases the selection of the plasmonic material.« less

  14. The Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Properties of Proteins Confined in Nano-porous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Latasha M; O'Neill, Hugh Michael

    2007-01-01

    The entrapment of proteins using the sol-gel route provides a means to retain its native properties and artificially reproduce the molecular crowding and confinement experienced by proteins in the cell allowing investigation of the physico-chemical and structural properties of biomolecules at the biotic/abiotic interface. The biomolecules are spatially separated and 'caged' in the gel structure but solutes can freely permeate the matrix. Thus, properties such as the folding of ensembles of individual molecules can be examined in the absence of aggregation effects that can occur in solution studies. Green fluorescent protein from Aequorea coerulescens was used as a model protein to examine the unfolding/re-folding properties of protein in silica gels. The recombinant protein was isolated and purified from Escherichia coli extracts by cell lysis, three-phase partitioning, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography. The purity of the protein was greater than 90% as judged by SDS PAGE gel analysis. Sol-gels were synthesized using tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) in combination with, methyltrimethoxyorthosilane (MTMOS), ethyltrimethoxyorthosilane (ETMOS), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The acid induced denaturation and renaturation of GFP was analyzed by UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. No renaturation was observed in gels that were made with TMOS only, and in the presence of APTES, MTMOS, and ETMOS. However, in gels that were made with GPTMS, the CD and UV-visible spectra indicated that the protein had refolded. The fluorescence emission spectrum indicated that approximately 20% of fluorescence had returned. This study highlights the importance of the surface chemistry of the silica gels for the refolding properties of the entrapped GFP. Future studies will investigate the effect of surface chemistry on the thermal and solvent stability of the entrapped protein.

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor Experiments in Materials and Conditions Relevant to Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, Jonathan David

    In direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a spherical target is imploded by overlapping laser beams to compress and heat DT fuel to conditions necessary for efficient thermonuclear burn. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is of primary concern in ICF, as it can cause initial areal-density (rhoR) perturbations to grow, leading to shell degradation and quenching of the hot spot necessary to achieve ignition of thermonuclear fusion. This work addresses two RTI concerns relevant to achieving ignition in ICF; measurement of RTI growth in cryogenic D2 targets and the effect of ablators of different atomic numbers (Z) on RTI growth rates using plastic (CH) and glass (SiO 2) targets. In these experiments, the temporal evolution of 2-D areal density (rhoR) modulations is measured using face-on X-ray radiography. Measured RT growth rates in D2 showed reasonable agreement with 2-D hydrodynamic simulations indicating reduced growth in D2 compared to CH, as predicted by theory. This result is crucial to ignition target designs using cryogenic DT ablators. The effect of thin ablators with different Z's on CH and SiO2 targets at varying drive intensities showed inconsistencies between the measured modulation growth and the 2-D hydrodynamic simulations at peak intensities of 1015 W/cm2 for targets with CH ablators due to hot electron preheat. Understanding preheat for ablators of different Z's is critical to achieving ignition in ICF; this work explores the impact of hot electron generation on the RTI at conditions relevant to ignition.

  16. Sub-diffractional, volume-confined polaritons in a natural hyperbolic material: hexagonal boron nitride (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Joshua D.; Kretinin, Andrey V.; Chen, Yiguo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Fogler, Michael M.; Francescato, Yan; Ellis, Chase T.; Tischler, Joseph G.; Woods, Colin R.; Giles, Alexander J.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Maier, Stefan A.; Novoselov, Kostya S.

    2015-09-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where principal components of the dielectric tensor have opposite signs are called hyperbolic. These materials permit highly directional, volume-confined propagation of slow-light modes at deeply sub-diffractional size scales, leading to unique nanophotonic phenomena. The realization of hyperbolic materials within the optical spectral range has been achieved primarily through the use of artificial structures typically composed of plasmonic metals and dielectric constituents. However, while proof-of-principle experiments have been performed, the high plasmonic losses and inhomogeneity of the structures limit most advances to the laboratory. Recently, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) was identified as a natural hyperbolic material (NHM), offering a low-loss, homogeneous medium that can operate in the mid-infrared. We have exploited the NHM response of hBN within periodic arrays of conical nanoresonators to demonstrate `hyperbolic polaritons,' deeply sub-diffractional guided waves that propagate through the volume rather than on the surface of a hyperbolic material. We have identified that the polaritons are manifested as a four series of resonances in two distinct spectral bands that have mutually exclusive dependencies upon incident light polarization, modal order, and aspect ratio. These observations represent the first foray into creating NHM building blocks for mid-infrared to terahertz nanophotonic and metamaterial devices. This talk will also discuss potential near-term applications stemming from these developments.

  17. Anthropogenic landforms and sediments from dredging and disposing sand along the Apalachicola River and its floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossa, Joann; Chen, Yin-Hsuen; Walls, Scott P.; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Wu, Chia-Yu

    2017-10-01

    The Apalachicola River, which begins at the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers near the Georgia-Florida State line, has multiple human impacts. Water inputs declined due to upstream irrigation and urbanization in Georgia. Sediment trapped by numerous small to large dams, including construction of Jim Woodruff Dam in 1954 near the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) confluence has increased degradation. Shortly thereafter, the river was modified for a navigation project, with 29.6 × 106 m3 dredged between 1957 and 2002 from the Apalachicola alone. This study investigates how historic dredging coincides with the modern morphology of the channel and how historic dredging, disposal, and other activities have modified the floodplain landforms and sediments. This analysis of the navigation impacts in the middle Apalachicola River (River Miles 40 to 65) ties spatial and temporal variations of dredging, field-derived bathymetry, historic maps, patterns of floodplain disposal of dredge spoil from LiDAR imagery, and modern point bar channel change of the Apalachicola River. Floodplain mounds of coarse material, built from out-of-bank disposal constitute > 800,000 m3 in the study area. Approximately 7.7 × 106 m3 of sediment was dredged within the study reach, roughly 11% of the volume dredged remains on the floodplain. Sand bars were disposal sites thus their increased area of 263% is partly tied to this practice. Thus, the legacy of dredging affects the modern sedimentology and morphology of the floodplain and channel. Findings show that a failed navigation project could have been pre-empted with better geomorphic, geologic and hydrologic study and suggest that vegetative restoration of point bars would help in narrowing and stabilizing this dynamic system.

  18. The effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messieh, S. N.; Rowell, T. W.; Peer, D. L.; Cranford, P. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of current knowledge on the effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed. The impact of trawling and dredging for fish and shellfish on marine habitats has recently attracted international attention among fisheries and environmental scientists. In Atlantic Canada, trawling and dredging are the principal methods of harvesting groundfish and scallops and ocean clams, respectively. It is estimated that fish trawlers and scallop dredges have swept tracks, cris-crossing the Canadian continental shelf, approximately 4.3 million km in length in 1985. In the past few years several studies were carried out by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe to assess the impacts of trawling and dredging but results were inconclusive. Some studies showed physical damage as well as biological effects, whereas others indicated that the adverse effects were not considered to be serious. Fishermen are not the only potential users of the resources of the continental shelf. There is an increasing demand for good-quality sand and gravel aggregate and the ocean seabed is being seen as a possible source. The eastern Canadian continental shelf also exhibits hydrocarbon potential and operational and accidental discharges are an environmental concern. Increased marine transportation and expansion of the fishing fleet have resulted in a greater need for harbour dredging. Dredging and dredge spoil disposal were controlled by the Ocean Dumping Control Act and now the Canadian Environmental Protection Act which places restrictions on the composition of material that can be disposed of in the sea. Nevertheless some harbours contain contaminant concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable limits. It is concluded that the impacts of human activities on the continental shelf seabed environment are inevitable and the long-term effects, while difficult to determine, must be assessed. The sub-lethal effects

  19. Summary of results of frictional sliding studies, at confining pressures up to 6.98 kb, in selected rock materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collection of stress-strain charts which were produced by deforming selected simuiated fault gouge materials. Several sets of samples consisted of intact cylinders, 1.000 inch in diameter and 2.500 inches long. The majority of the samples consisted of thin layers of the selected sample material, inserted within a diagonal sawcut in a 1.000-inch by 2.500-inch Westerly Granite cylinder. Two sorts of inserts were used. The first consisted of thin wafers cut from 1.000-inch-diameter cores of the rock being tested. The other consisted of thin layers of crushed material packed onto the sawcut surface. In several groups of tests using various thicknesses (0.010 inch to 0.160 inch) of a given type material there were variations in the stress level and/or stability of sliding as a function of the fault zone width. Because of this we elected to use a standard 0.025-inch width fault zone to compare the frictional properties of many of the different types of rock materials. This 0.025-inch thickness was chosen partially because this thickness of crushed granite behaves approximately the same as a fractured sample of initially intact granite, and also because this is near the lower limit at which we could cut intact wafers for those samples that were prepared from thin slices of rock. One series of tests was done with saw cut granite cylinders without fault gouge inserts. All of these tests were done in a hydraulically operated triaxial testing machine. The confining pressure (δ1, least principal stress) was applied by pumping petroleum ether into a pressure vessel. The differential stress (δ3-δ1) was applied by a hydraulically operated ram that could be advanced into the pressure vessel at any of several strain rates (10-4sec-1, 10-5sec-1, 10-6sec-1, 10-7sec-1, or 10-8sec-1). All samples were jacketed in polyurethane tubing to exclude the confining pressure medium from the samples. The majority of the samples, with the exception of some of the initially

  20. Engineering Photonic Devices and Materials Through Quantum Confinement and Electromagnetic Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-20

    selectivity based on the Al concentration in AlGaAs films [27]. Preliminary calibration has demonstrated that a 4:1 ratio of citric acid to hydrogen ... peroxide etches GaAs at a rate approximately 100 times faster than Al0.3Ga0.7As. To take advantage of this effect, we propose a material based on an MBE

  1. Efficiency of Launching Highly Confined Polaritons by Infrared Light Incident on a Hyperbolic Material.

    PubMed

    Dai, Siyuan; Ma, Qiong; Yang, Yafang; Rosenfeld, Jeremy; Goldflam, Michael D; McLeod, Alex; Sun, Zhiyuan; Andersen, Trond I; Fei, Zhe; Liu, Mengkun; Shao, Yinming; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Thiemens, Mark; Keilmann, Fritz; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Fogler, Michael M; Basov, D N

    2017-09-13

    We investigated phonon-polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride-a naturally hyperbolic van der Waals material-by means of the scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy. Real-space nanoimages we have obtained detail how the polaritons are launched when the light incident on a thin hexagonal boron nitride slab is scattered by various intrinsic and extrinsic inhomogeneities, including sample edges, metallic nanodisks deposited on its top surface, random defects, and surface impurities. The scanned tip of the near-field microscope is itself a polariton launcher whose efficiency proves to be superior to all the other types of polariton launchers we studied. Our work may inform future development of polaritonic nanodevices as well as fundamental studies of collective modes in van der Waals materials.

  2. Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing: a route towards confined nonlinear materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammel, Robert; Bergner, Klaus; Thomas, Jens; Ackermann, Roland; Skupin, Stefan; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers enable reliable and versatile high precision ablation and surface processing of various materials such as metals, polymers and semiconductors. However, when modifications deep inside the bulk of transparent media are required, nonlinear pulse material interactions can decrease the precision, since weak focusing and the long propagation of the intense pulses within the nonlinear media may induce Kerr self-focusing, filamentation and white light generation. In order to improve the precision of those modifications, simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) allows to reduce detrimental nonlinear interactions, because the ultrashort pulse duration is only obtained at the focus, while outside of the focal region the continuously increasing pulse duration strongly reduces the pulse intensity. In this paper, we review the fundamental concepts of this technology and provide an overview of its applications for purposes of multiphoton microscopy and laser materials processing. Moreover, numerical simulations on the nonlinear pulse propagation within transparent media illustrate the linear and nonlinear pulse propagation, highlighting the differences between conventional focusing and SSTF. Finally, fs-laser induced modifications in gelatine are presented to compare nonlinear side-effects caused by conventional focusing and SSTF. With conventional focusing the complex interplay of self-focusing and filamentation induces strongly inhomogeneous, elongated disruptions. In contrast, disruptions induced by SSTF are homogeneously located at the focal plane and reduced in length by a factor >2, which is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations of the nonlinear pulse propagation and might favor SSTF for demanding applications such as intraocular fs-laser surgery.

  3. Studies on the behaviour of tritium in components and structure materials of tritium confinement and detritiation systems of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Isobe, K.; Iwai, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Shu, W.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Yamada, M.; Suzuki, T.; Miura, H.; Uzawa, M.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2007-12-01

    Confinement and the removal of tritium are key subjects for the safety of ITER. The ITER buildings are confinement barriers of tritium. In a hot cell, tritium is often released as vapour and is in contact with the inner walls. The inner walls of the ITER tritium plant building will also be exposed to tritium in an accident. The tritium released in the buildings is removed by the atmosphere detritiation systems (ADS), where the tritium is oxidized by catalysts and is removed as water. A special gas of SF6 is used in ITER and is expected to be released in an accident such as a fire. Although the SF6 gas has potential as a catalyst poison, the performance of ADS with the existence of SF6 has not been confirmed as yet. Tritiated water is produced in the regeneration process of ADS and is subsequently processed by the ITER water detritiation system (WDS). One of the key components of the WDS is an electrolysis cell. To overcome the issues in a global tritium confinement, a series of experimental studies have been carried out as an ITER R&D task: (1) tritium behaviour in concrete; (2) the effect of SF6 on the performance of ADS and (3) tritium durability of the electrolysis cell of the ITER-WDS. (1) The tritiated water vapour penetrated up to 50 mm into the concrete from the surface in six months' exposure. The penetration rate of tritium in the concrete was thus appreciably first, the isotope exchange capacity of the cement paste plays an important role in tritium trapping and penetration into concrete materials when concrete is exposed to tritiated water vapour. It is required to evaluate the effect of coating on the penetration rate quantitatively from the actual tritium tests. (2) SF6 gas decreased the detritiation factor of ADS. Since the effect of SF6 depends closely on its concentration, the amount of SF6 released into the tritium handling area in an accident should be reduced by some ideas of arrangement of components in the buildings. (3) It was expected that

  4. Long-Term Management Strategy for Dredged Material Disposal for Naval Weapons Station, Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia; Naval Supply Center, Cheatham Annex, Williamsburg, Virginia; and Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek, Norfolk, Virginia. Phase 2: Formulation of Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    evaluacion program for open-water disposal options was therefore performed for this Phase II effort as described in Part IV. 73. As described in the Phase I...capacity to accommo- date the total dredging requirement. Therefore, open-water 86 disposal at in-bay or ocean sites will be an integral part of any...the placement site as the integral component of the beneficial use. Bioaccumulation - The accumulation of contaminants in the tissues of organisms

  5. Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Babinchak, J A; Graikoski, J T; Dudley, S; Nitkowski, M F

    1977-01-01

    The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenced, the deposition of this material did not increase the incidence of fecal coliforms at 17 spoil stations and 13 control stations in the disposal and surrounding areas. Fecal coliforms appear to occur only in the surface sediment material and are diluted by the subsurface material during the dredging operation. Fecal coliform analyses of bottom waters during high and low tides indicated that the flow of water from the Thames River played a major role in determining the most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in the sediments at the disposal site. PMID:329761

  6. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  7. Dredged-Material Disposal System Capacity Expansion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    plan is the product of the acquisition cost and the binary variable. O’Laoghaire and Himmelblau (1972) propose such an IP formulation, and a similar...Methods: A Survey," Op- erations Research, Vol. 14, 1966, pp. 699-719. Lesso, W. G., Himmelblau , D. M., Jensen, P. A., and Shanmugham, C. V., "Ca...34 Water Resources Research, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug., 1979, pp. 750-756. O’Laoghaire, D. T., and Himmelblau , D. M., "Optimal Capital Investment in the

  8. Bioassays on Illinois Waterway Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    promelas (the fathead min- now) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna...NUMBER OF PAGES Acute Cadmium Daphnia magna Pimephales promelas 110 Ammonia Chronic Elutriate Sediment 16. PRICE CODE Bioassay Cladoceran Fathead minnow 17...11 Acute (48-hr) Bioassays with Daphnia magna ... ........... .. 11 Acute (48-hr) Bioassays with Pimephales

  9. Modeling of Nearshore-Placed Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    and placement onshore. Mound sand was dyed to provide contrast and to differentiate it from the natural sand beach used in the model. Beach surveys...were performed intermittently during each 9-hour (prototype) experiment with a laser scanner. In addition to beach change elevations, the scanner...accumulation was observed on the beach onshore and updrift of the mounds. Beach response was similar to that of an offshore breakwater in which the mound

  10. Dredged Material Containment in Long Island Sound.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    one factor such as biological value, but the fact that these sites are American oyster ( Crassostrea virginica ) seeding grounds would eliminate them...1 N v’ Iuz3 96s N I ~ ~ U r m ICCIO S is I U IC 41 I-E z b .. I u. CU . Ia Q Ix. -’A-6 6, W~ ) 61a U𔃻 L’L L 0 ’o. ’L .I C - I~A Ia. 16161 uv. -d...presented the criteria. He gave a figure of about $3 to $5/ cu . yd. for a barge hauling distance of about 30 miles. An increase of hauling distance from

  11. Effects of Dredged Materials on Zooplankton.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    VI. Biology of Acartia clausi and A. tonsa. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 15: 156-7 . "b Darby, 0. A., R. W. Alden III, J. H. Rule, C. H. Blair...block number) Elutriate bioassays with Acartia tonsa suggest that sediments from the Southern Branch lower reaches could significantly impact the...REFERENCES ..................................................... 15 -’ LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Multiple regression table for Acartia tonsa survival

  12. Rebound of a confined granular material: combination of a bouncing ball and a granular damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F.; Dorbolo, S.

    2013-07-01

    A ball dropped over a solid surface bounces several times before a complete stop. The bouncing can be reduced by introducing a liquid into the ball; however, the first rebound remains largely unaffected by the fluid. Granular materials can also work as dampers. We investigated the rebound of a container partially filled with a given mass of grains mi. During the collision, the kinetic energy of the container is partially transferred to the grains, the rebound is damped, and the fast energy dissipation through inter-particle collisions and friction decreases the bouncing time dramatically. For grain-filled cylinders, a completely inelastic collision (zero rebound) is obtained when mi >= 1.5ɛomc, where ɛo and mc are the coefficient of restitution and mass of the empty container. For grain-filled spheres, the first rebound is almost undamped, but the second collision is completely inelastic if mi >> mc. These findings are potentially useful to design new granular damping systems.

  13. Dynamic mean field theory for lattice gas models of fluid mixtures confined in mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Edison, J R; Monson, P A

    2013-11-12

    We present the extension of dynamic mean field theory (DMFT) for fluids in porous materials (Monson, P. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 128, 084701) to the case of mixtures. The theory can be used to describe the relaxation processes in the approach to equilibrium or metastable equilibrium states for fluids in pores after a change in the bulk pressure or composition. It is especially useful for studying systems where there are capillary condensation or evaporation transitions. Nucleation processes associated with these transitions are emergent features of the theory and can be visualized via the time dependence of the density distribution and composition distribution in the system. For mixtures an important component of the dynamics is relaxation of the composition distribution in the system, especially in the neighborhood of vapor-liquid interfaces. We consider two different types of mixtures, modeling hydrocarbon adsorption in carbon-like slit pores. We first present results on bulk phase equilibria of the mixtures and then the equilibrium (stable/metastable) behavior of these mixtures in a finite slit pore and an inkbottle pore. We then use DMFT to describe the evolution of the density and composition in the pore in the approach to equilibrium after changing the state of the bulk fluid via composition or pressure changes.

  14. Confined disclinations: Exterior versus material constraints in developable thin elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efrati, Efi; Pocivavsek, Luka; Meza, Ruben; Lee, Ka Yee C.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-02-01

    We examine the shape change of a thin disk with an inserted wedge of material when it is pushed against a plane, using analytical, numerical, and experimental methods. Such sheets occur in packaging, surgery, and nanotechnology. We approximate the sheet as having vanishing strain, so that it takes a conical form in which straight generators converge to a disclination singularity. Then, its shape is that which minimizes elastic bending energy alone. Real sheets are expected to approach this limiting shape as their thickness approaches zero. The planar constraint forces a sector of the sheet to buckle into the third dimension. We find that the unbuckled sector is precisely semicircular, independent of the angle δ of the inserted wedge. We generalize the analysis to include conical as well as planar constraints and thereby establish a law of corresponding states for shallow cones of slope ɛ and thin wedges. In this regime, the single parameter δ /ɛ2 determines the shape. We discuss the singular limit in which the cone becomes a plane, and the unexpected slow convergence to the semicircular buckling observed in real sheets.

  15. Dynamic response of materials on sub-nanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C; Tierney, T E; Luo, S N; Paisley, D L; Kyrala, G A; Hauer, A; Greenfield, S R; Koskelo, A C; McClellan, K J; Lorenzana, H E; Knudson, M D; Peralta, P P; Loomis, E

    2004-12-09

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. these relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser ablation can be particularly convenient. The TRIDENT laser has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including surface velocimetry (line-imaging VISAR), surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically-driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1TPa.

  16. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present.

  17. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.

    2017-07-01

    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  18. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Effectiveness of Capping in Isolating Dutch Kills Sediment from Biota and the Overlying Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Identify by block num ber) Marine pollution --Experiments (LC) Environmental engineering (LC) Contamination (Technology) (LC) Dredged material (WES...Harbor Sediments and Dredging Spoil," Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol 12, No. 10 pp 351-353. Babinchak, J. A., Graikoski, J. T., Dudley, S., and...Vol 34, No. 1, pp 38-41. ___-___ 1977b. "Distribution of Fecal Coliforms in Bottom Sediments fromEl the New York Bight," Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol

  19. U.S. Navy Harbor Maintenance Dredging Atlas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Yorktown; and Naval Supply Center - Cheatham Annex, Williamsburg. However, 90% of the composite dredging at these facilities is done at the Norfolk Naval...upland spoil site. The offshore spoil site is still open and EPA approved, but the EPA permit is for land disposal only. See DREDGING COSTS section of... Composite baseline dredging report. Port Hueneme, Calif., 1976. 12. . NESO Report 11-005: Philadelphia baseline dredging report vol 1. Port Hueneme, Calif

  20. Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

    2013-09-01

    A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Environmental effects of dredging, initial comparisons of six assays for the assessment of sediment genotoxicity. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, V.A.; Honeycutt, M.; Jarvis, S.

    1995-01-01

    This technical note reports and compares initial results of six genotoxicity bioassays applied to dredged sediments and describes progress toward development of a testing protocol to aid in regulatory decisionmaking when genotoxic chemicals are an issue of concern. The Long-term Effects of Dredging Operations Program work unit Genotoxicity of Contaminated Dredged Material was initiated in fiscal year 1990 to develop methods for assessing the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The impetus driving this new research and development effort was specific regulatory language in section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act (Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972) prohibiting the open-water discharge of mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic substances in other than trace amounts, and language less specific but of similar intent in section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  2. Basalts Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Engel, C G; Engel, A E

    1963-06-21

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

  3. Basalts dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, C.G.; Engel, A.E.J.

    1963-01-01

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

  4. An overview of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay. [environment effects and coastal ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of the Baltimore and the Newport News/Norfolk harbors as well as of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is accomplished by different dredging operations which depend on the amount and type of material to be moved, water depth, and location of disposal sites. Methods for determining the physical or chemical-biological interactive effects of these activities on the environment and on the shellfish and finfish industries on the Bay are discussed. The types of dredges used are classed according to their mode of operation.

  5. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  6. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  7. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  8. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  9. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  10. Stabilization / solidification of polluted marine dredged sediment of port en Bessin France, using hydraulic binders and silica fume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silitonga, Ernesto

    2017-09-01

    A large amount of sediment is dredged in France every year. Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments, environmentally reuse of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The first objective of this study is to find an application for reuse of marine dredged sediments materials, as new material for road construction. Hence, serial tests need to be realized to identify if marine dredged sediment could be utilized for road construction. The second goal is to enhance the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of the mix, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the identification of the mechanical characteristics measured on the mixes is compatible with their use as a base course material. The results show that the treatment by hydraulics binders could satisfy the needed mechanical characteristics. The present of Silica Fume is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. However, the proportion of hydraulics binders and silica fume needed to meet prescribed specification is important, so the reuse of the marine dredged sediments of Port-en-Bessin, France in road construction, as an alternative material could be achieved. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shown as expected than the study to identify the chemical characteristic realized. To evaluate the environmental impacts of the used material, leaching test is performed. The leaching test was performed to verify the predicted release of pollutants based on total dissolution. And for the final part, the test results show that the polluted marine dredged sediments could be safely used (in term of environmental impact) as a new material in road construction.

  11. Environmental Effects of Dredging. Use of Daphnia Magna to Predict Consequences of Bioaccumulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    and biological effects in the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna (commonly known as the water flea). Procedures presented here for a 28-day Daphnia ... magna toxicity test could be used in screening for water-column toxicity resulting from open-water disposal of a specific dredged material. As a part

  12. The Four Rs of Environmental Dredging: Resuspension, Release, Residual, and Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    sediment, pelagic organisms, and con- sumers of aquatic life. The groups share a set of common hazards (e.g., increased mortality , reduced growth or...S. B. Kane Driscoll, K. von Stackelberg, J. J. Cura , and T. S. Bridges. 2002. An evaluation of sources of uncertainty in dredged material assessments

  13. Environmental Assessment: Beardstown Emergency Dredging Action RM 87.7, LB, Illinois River, Cass County, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    minute hauls at the site with a five-foot crowfoot brail, resulting in the collection of one Anodonta grandis, one Anodonta imbecillis, one Leptodea...four Amblema Dlicata and one Leptodea fragilis . Since dredged material placed at the proposed disposal site could be washed downstream and blanket the

  14. Environmental effects of dredging: The use of population modeling to interpret chronic sublethal sediment bioassays. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-08-01

    This technical note provides a brief introduction to population modeling and describes the application and utility of such techniques for dredged material bioassays. The use of population modeling as a source of interpretive guidance for chronic sublethal dredged material bioassays is emphasized. Current laws and regulations governing the discharge of dredged material stress the importance of assessing the chronic (long-term) sublethal effects of dredging operations. Regulations implementing section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (PL 92-532) state that, `Materials shall be deemed environmentally acceptable for ocean dumping only when . . . no significant undesirable effects will occur due either to chronic toxicity or to bioaccumulation........`. Similar language is used in regulations implementing section 404(b)(1) of the Clean Water Act (FL 92-500) which reads: `The permitting authority shall determine in writing the potential short-term or long-term effects of a proposed discharge of dredged or fill material on the physical, chemical, and biological components of the aquatic environment.........It also stipulates that tests may be required to provide information on the effect of the discharge material on communities or populations of organisms.`

  15. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  16. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. Published by

  17. Moving fluid mud sondes, optical and acoustic sensing methods in support of coastal waterway dredging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Rotkiske, Tyler

    2015-10-01

    Airborne, Satellite and In-Situ optical and acoustical imaging provides a means to characterize surface and subsurface water conditions in shallow marine systems. An important research topic to be studied during dredging operations in harbors and navigable waterways is the movement of fluidized muds before, during and after dredging operations. The fluid movement of the surficial sediments in the form of flocs, muck and mud is important to estimate in order to model the transport of solids material during dredging operations. Movement of highly turbid bottom material creates a lutocline or near bottom nephelometric layers, reduces the penetration of light reaching the water bottom. Monitoring and measurement systems recently developed for use in shallow marine areas, such as the Indian River Lagoon are discussed. Newly developed passive sondes and subsurface imaging are described. Methods and techniques for quantifying the mass density flux of total particulate matter demonstrate the use of multiple sensor systems for environmental monitoring and provide directional fluxes and movement of the fluidized solids. Airborne imaging of dredge site provide wide area surveillance during these activities. Passive sondes, optical imaging and acoustical sensors are used to understand horizontal and vertical mass flux processes. The passive sondes can be directionally oriented and are deployed during optical particle velocimetry system (OPVS) imaging of the flocs, particles and colloidal material motion. Comparison of the image based particle velocities are compared to electromagnetic and acoustic velocity imaging results. The newly developed imaging system provides a pathway for integration of subsurface hyperspectral imaging for particle compositional analysis.

  18. Bayesian Networks for Modeling Dredging Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    comments and discussions on modeling of dredging activities. Dr . Andrew F. Casper of the Aquatic Ecology and Invasive Species Branch, Ecosystem Evaluation...report was written by Dr . Martin T. Schultz, Environmental Risk Assessment Branch, Environmental Processes and Engineering Division (EPED...Environmental Laboratory (EL); Thomas D. Borrowman, Environmental Engineering Branch, EPED, EL; and Dr . Mitchell J. Small, Department of Civil and Environmental

  19. Methods and Metrics for Evaluating Environmental Dredging ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report documents the objectives, approach, methodologies, results, and interpretation of a collaborative research study conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and the National Exposure Research laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the U.S. EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). The objectives of the research study were to: 1) evaluate remedy effectiveness of environmental dredging as applied to contaminated sediments in the Ashtabula River in northeastern Ohio, and 2) monitor the recovery of the surrounding ecosystem. The project was carried out over 6 years from 2006 through 2011 and consisted of the development and evaluation of methods and approaches to assess river and ecosystem conditions prior to dredging (2006), during dredging (2006 and 2007), and following dredging, both short term (2008) and long term (2009-2011). This project report summarizes and interprets the results of this 6-year study to develop and assess methods for monitoring pollutant fate and transport and ecosystem recovery through the use of biological, chemical, and physical lines of evidence (LOEs) such as: 1) comprehensive sampling of and chemical analysis of contaminants in surface, suspended, and historic sediments; 2) extensive grab and multi-level real time water sampling and analysis of contaminants in the water column; 3) sampling, chemi

  20. Impact of remobilized contaminants in Mytilus edulis during dredging operations in a harbour area: bioaccumulation and biomarker responses.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H

    2012-11-01

    Dredging operations in harbours are recurrent to maintain accessibility and navigational depths. One of the main environmental risks of these operations is the remobilization of contaminants trapped in the sediments, rendering them more bioavailable to the biota. However, regulatory policies regarding the contamination risk of dredging chiefly apply to the disposal of dredged materials rather than the direct impact of the procedure itself. In order to assess the ecotoxicological risk of harbour dredging operations in a polluted estuary (the Tagus, W Portugal), the present study compared bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in field-deployed mussels before and after the beginning of operations, complemented by sediment characterization and risk analysis based on standardized sediment quality guidelines. The results revealed a very significant increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress from the beginning of dredging onwards, which was accompanied by increased bioaccumulation of toxicants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Overall, the results indicate the importance of surveying the direct impacts of these procedures on local contamination, especially considering these sediments had been previously classified as "trace contaminated", according to normative guidelines, and therefore safe for disposal. This study shows the importance of obtaining both chemical and biological data in standard monitoring procedures and that the remobilization of contaminants by dredging operations may be grossly underestimated, which calls for caution when assessing the impact of these activities even in low to moderately polluted areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Evaluation of the 1980 Capping Operations at the Experimental Mud Dump Site, New York Bight Apex.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    chlorinated pesticides . 23. Dredged material disposed at the Mud Dump may aftect marine organisms in two ways: first, by exposing them to a range of... pesticides ), and evaluation according to a "matrix" j predictive of food chain "biowagnification" effects (Engler et al.. 1981; Pierce et al., 1981b...metals, pesticides . PCB) must be given special treatment. New criteria for ocean dumping of coutamiiated dredged material from New York Harbor are being

  2. An 'Early Warning System' for the prevention of dredging potential impacts on sensitive areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Madonia, Alice; Fersini, Giorgio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are increasingly subject to multiple pressures and stressors produced by the effects of human activities. Intense and frequent disturbances which affect marine environment can derive from dredging activity, which is a fundamental management for most ports and harbours. The potential environmental effects of dredging procedures are generally due to the excavation of material from the sea bottom and the relocation elsewhere for disposal, overflow from the dredger and loss of material from pipelines during transport. Depending on the location and the intensity of these activities the marine environment, particularly sensitive areas, may be affected by dredging. The main environmental effects can be associated with suspended sediments and increases in turbidity into the water column, which can have adverse effects on marine animals and plants by reducing light penetration and by physical disturbance. For this reason it is fundamental to implement a real time monitoring system to control and prevent negative effects, enabling a rapid response to adverse water quality conditions and a fast activation of mitigation procedures, in agreement with all the reference authorities. In this work we present the development of an innovative 'Early Warning System' based on fixed stations, ad hoc in situ surveys and forecasting models, which was applied to a dredging activity carried out in the Gulf of Gaeta (Latium, Italy). It represents an extension of the C-CEMS (Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System) network, which is operative in the Tyrrhenian sea since 2005.

  3. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  4. Creation Of Constructed Tidal Flats Using Ocean Dredged Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yi, B.; Lee, I.; Sung, K.

    2007-12-01

    The enforcement of London dumping convention (1972) and protocols (1996) which are comprehensive assessment system for ocean dumping wastes needs environmentally sound treatment and/or reuse of dredged sediment. Creation of constructed tidal flats using dredged sediments could be one of the useful alternatives among other dredged sediment treatments. In this study, the pilot-scale constructed tidal flats with 4 different mixing ratio of ocean dredged sediment were constructed in Nakdong river estuary, Korea. The reed was transplanted from the adjacent reed community after construction, and then the survival and growth rate of the planted reed was measured. Also the changes of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ignition loss (IL), and the heterotrophic microbial numbers were monitored. The survival rate of the planted reed decreased as the mixing ratio of dredged sediment increased. The survival rate of reed in the constructed tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment was 54% while that in the tidal flat with 0% dredged sediment (original soil of Nakdong river estuary) was 90%. There was little difference of length and diameter of the reed shoot among the 4 different constructed tidal flats. 30% of COD and 9% of IL in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment decreased after 202 day, however, the consistent tendency in the change of COD and IL in the other tidal flats was not found possibly due to the open system. It was suggested that the construction of tidal flats using ocean dredged sediment can be possible considering the growth rate of transplanted reeds and the contaminated ocean dredged sediment might be biologically remediated considering the results of decrease of organic matter and increased heterotrophic microbial number in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment. However, the continuous monitoring on the vegetation and various environmental factors in the constructed tidal flats should be necessary to evaluate the success of creation of constructed flats using

  5. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High

  6. The dynamics of fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Lescinski, Jamie; Harden, E. Lynne; Lacy, Jessica R.; Tonnon, Pieter K.

    2011-01-01

    In the fall and early winter of 2009, a demonstration project was done at Santa Cruz Harbor, California, to determine if 450 m3/day of predominantly (71 percent) mud-sized sediment could be dredged from the inner portion of the harbor and discharged to the coastal ocean without significant impacts to the beach and inner shelf. During the project, more than 7600 m3 of sediment (~5400 m3 of fine-grain material) was dredged during 17 days and discharged approximately 60 m offshore of the harbor at a depth of 2 m on the inner shelf. The U.S. Geological Survey's Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center was funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Santa Cruz Port District to do an integrated mapping and process study to investigate the fate of the mud-sized sediment dredged from the inner portion of Santa Cruz Harbor and to determine if any of the fine-grain material settled out on the shoreline and/or inner shelf during the fall and early winter of 2009. This was done by collecting highresolution oceanographic and sediment geochemical measurements along the shoreline and on the continental shelf of northern Monterey Bay to monitor the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and discharged onto the inner shelf. These in place measurements, in conjunction with beach, water column, and seabed surveys, were used as boundary and calibration information for a three-dimensional numerical circulation and sediment dynamics model to better understand the fate of the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and the potential consequences of disposing this type of material on the beach and on the northern Monterey Bay continental shelf.

  7. Managing dredged sediment placement in open-water disposal sites, Upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panageotou, W.; Garbaciak, Jr. S.

    2002-01-01

    The maintenance dredging of fine-grained sediment which accumulated in shipping channels in the Upper Chesapeake was discussed. The capacity of open-water sites was maximized in an environmentally acceptable manner to provide adequate time for the development of beneficial use or confined placement sites. The additional water column turbidity generated by dragging operations and bottom sediment movement during placement raised environmental concerns which weighted against the need to maximize capacity. The inter-agency team overseeing site management provided a mechanism to implement operational changes which maximized site capacity and insured operational use through the projected life span of the site.

  8. A simple AC calorimeter for specific heat measurement of liquids confined in porous materials: A study of hydrated Vycor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Marco; Zanotti, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    Nanometric confinement of fluids in porous media is a classical way to stabilize metastable states. Calorimetric studies give insight on the behavior of confined liquids compared to bulk liquids. We have developed and built a simple quasi-adiabatic AC calorimeter for heat capacity measurement of confined liquids in porous media in a temperature range between 150 K and 360 K. Taking the fully hydrated porous medium as a reference, we address the thermal behavior of water as a monolayer on the surface of a porous silica glass (Vycor). For temperature ranging between 160 K and 325 K, this interfacial water shows a surprisingly large heat capacity. We describe the interfacial Hbond network in the framework of a mean field percolation model, to show that at 160 K interfacial water experiences a transformation from low density amorphous ice to a heterogeneous system where transient low and high density water patches coexist. The fraction of each species is controlled by the temperature. We identify the large entropy of the interfacial water molecules as the cause of this behaviour.

  9. Distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants in harbor sediments of Livorno (Italy): a multivariate approach to evaluate dredging sediments.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A M; Mecozzi, M; Morlino, R; Pellegrini, D; Veschetti, E

    2001-10-01

    Dredging is a very important procedure for harbor management. In Italy the guidelines for the offshore dumping of dredged materials are issued by the Ministry of Environment. They described a few steps of dredging activities, such as the sampling strategy, but do not deal with limits or guide-values for the chemical, physical and biological composition of the resulting sediments. The quality of dredged materials is mainly dependent on the presence of inorganic and organic pollutants. In particular, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organo-chlorinated pesticides are seen as a high priority in marine environment by international organizations because of their persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation capacity. In this article the presence of some PCBs and organo-chlorinated pesticides in sediment samples collected from the harbor of Livorno (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea) was investigated. The concentration of HCHs, Aldrin, Chlordanes, DDEs, DDTs, and PCBs in 12 representative sites ranged between <1 microg kg(-1) and 95, 19, 32, 35, 107, and 111 microg kg(-1), respectively. The application of univariate and multivariate statistical techniques, such as linear regression analysis and principal component analysis, to the experimental data showed a different distribution of PCBs in the two sediment layers. On the contrary, the vertical distribution of the other investigated pollutants was more homogeneous and affected by random variability. The multivariate approach was an important tool to establish more rational criteria for the management of dredged materials.

  10. Dredging processes and remedy effectiveness: Relationship to the 4 Rs of environmental dredging.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Todd S; Gustavson, Karl E; Schroeder, Paul; Ells, Stephen J; Hayes, Donald; Nadeau, Steven C; Palermo, Michael R; Patmont, Clay

    2010-10-01

    Timely and effective remediation of contaminated sediments is essential for protecting human health and the environment and restoring beneficial uses to waterways. A number of site operational conditions influence the effect of environmental dredging of contaminated sediment on aquatic systems. Site experience shows that resuspension of contaminated sediment and release of contaminants occur during dredging and that contaminated sediment residuals will remain after operations. It is also understood that these processes affect the magnitude, distribution, and bioavailability of the contaminants, and hence the exposure and risk to receptors of concern. However, even after decades of sediment remediation project experience, substantial uncertainties still exist in our understanding of the cause-effect relationships relating dredging processes to risk. During the past few years, contaminated sediment site managers, researchers, and practitioners have recognized the need to better define and understand dredging-related processes. In this article, we present information and research needs on these processes as synthesized from recent symposia, reports, and remediation efforts. Although predictions about the effect of environmental dredging continue to improve, a clear need remains to better understand the effect that sediment remediation processes have on contaminant exposures and receptors of concern. Collecting, learning from, and incorporating new information into practice is the only avenue to improving the effectiveness of remedial operations. © 2010 SETAC.

  11. Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from <10 to 200,000 nephelometric turbidity units. The most visible turbidity plumes were produced by surface discharge of material with high sand content into unconfined placement areas during times of strong tidal currents. The least visible turbidity plumes were produced by discharge of material with high silt and clay content into areas enclosed by floating turbidity barriers during times of weak tidal currents. Beach nourishment from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in

  12. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  13. Fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report: construction worker dies as a result of spraying coating material in confined space in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    A fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report describing a confined space accident in California was presented. The report was part of the NIOSH FACE project to collect data on electricity or confined space/related accidents involving fatalities. The victim and a coworker were exposed to 2-nitropropane and coal-tar-pitch vapors while painting the valves and steel flanges in a 72-inch underground water line with an epoxy coating on July 1, 1985. They were admitted to a hospital after complaining of nausea, headache, and vomiting. They were discharged on July 2. The victim was readmitted on July 6. He lapsed into a coma and died on July 12 of acute liver failure. The coworker was advised by the attending physician not to return to work because of fluctuations in his liver enzyme counts. Despite warnings on the cans not to use the resin in confined, unventilated spaces, a blower provided for ventilation was not used. Since both workers did not speak English well, it is possible they did not understand the warning labels. Recommendations include ensuring that employees are aware of the hazards associated with the materials they are using and enforcing existing safety policies.

  14. Decimeter Positioning For Dredging and Hydrographic Surveying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Torrence, CA. Leick, Alfred and Liu, Quanjiang, 1991: Investigation of the Use of the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) to Determine Tides and Water Level...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated development of a prototype decimeter defferential GPS positioning system for...ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated development of a prototype decimeter differential GPS positioning system for dredging and

  15. Impact of roadside ditch dredging on bacterial communities and biological contamination of a tidal creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chance E.; Barkovskii, Andrei L.

    2017-03-01

    Tidal creek networks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. A possible impact from the excavation of drainage ditch systems on bacterial communities and biological contamination was studied in the water column and sediments of headwater, mid-stream, and mouth sites of the intertidal Oakdale Creek on Sapelo Island, GA. Community analysis was performed using the MiSeq Illumina platform and revealed that dredging was the cause of a significant rise in Proteobacteria, especially γ-proteobacteria. Targeted biological contaminants included fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus spp. (Entero-1), pathogens, Shigella spp. (ipaH), and Salmonella spp (invA), virulence associated genes (VG's) of pathogenic E. coli (eaeA, hlyD, stx1, stx2, and set1B), integrons (intI1, intI2), and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs). Incidence and gene concentrations of Shigella spp., eaeA and set1B, and of TRGs increased 3-20 folds after the onset of dredging, and followed the dredging schedule. Principal Component Analysis suggested possible common carriers for Shigella spp., some TRGs, and the pathogenic E. coli eaeA gene. At the site of dredging, all of the above contaminants were detected at high concentrations. We concluded that excavation of roadside ditches caused significant changes in bacterial composition and a rise in incidence and concentrations of biological contaminants in the creek. The authors suggest a different approach for the maintenance of this material be explored.

  16. Heavy metal immobilization through phosphate and thermal treatment of dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Ndiba, Peter; Axe, Lisa; Boonfueng, Thipnakarin

    2008-02-01

    Disposal of dredged sediments is expensive and poses a major challenge for harbor dredging projects. Therefore beneficial reuse of these sediments as construction material is highly desirable assuming contaminants such as heavy metals are immobilized and organics are mineralized. In this research, the effect of the addition of 2.5% phosphate, followed by thermal treatment at 700 degrees C, was investigated for metal contaminants in dredged sediments. Specifically, Zn speciation was evaluated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), by applying principal component analysis (PCA), target transformation (TT), and linear combination fit (LCF) to identify the main phases and their combination from an array of reference compounds. In dredged sediments, Zn was present as smithsonite (67%) and adsorbed to hydrous manganese oxides (18%) and hydrous iron oxides (15%). Phosphate addition resulted in precipitation of hopeite (22%), while calcination induced formation of spinels, gahnite (44%), and franklinite (34%). Although calcination was previously used to agglomerate phosphate phases by sintering, we found that it formed sparingly soluble Zn phases. Results from the U.S. EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) confirmed both phosphate addition and calcination reduced leachability of heavy metals with the combined treatment achieving up to an 89% reduction.

  17. Heavy Metal Immobilization Through Phosphate and Thermal Treatment of Dredged Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ndiba,P.; Axe, L.; Boonfueng, T.

    2008-01-01

    Disposal of dredged sediments is expensive and poses a major challenge for harbor dredging projects. Therefore beneficial reuse of these sediments as construction material is highly desirable assuming contaminants such as heavy metals are immobilized and organics are mineralized. In this research, the effect of the addition of 2.5% phosphate, followed by thermal treatment at 700 C, was investigated for metal contaminants in dredged sediments. Specifically, Zn speciation was evaluated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), by applying principal component analysis (PCA), target transformation (TT), and linear combination fit (LCF) to identify the main phases and their combination from an array of reference compounds. In dredged sediments, Zn was present as smithsonite (67%) and adsorbed to hydrous manganese oxides (18%) and hydrous iron oxides (15%). Phosphate addition resulted in precipitation of hopeite (22%), while calcination induced formation of spinels, gahnite (44%), and franklinite (34%). Although calcination was previously used to agglomerate phosphate phases by sintering, we found that it formed sparingly soluble Zn phases. Results from the U.S. EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) confirmed both phosphate addition and calcination reduced leachability of heavy metals with the combined treatment achieving up to an 89% reduction.

  18. Development of Civil Works Energy Goals for Dredging Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Energy conservation technologies that apply to dredging operations were evaluated through (i) an extensive review of the dredging technology litera- ture...sign Center. A literature review was conducted to find management strategies that potentially apply to Corps dredging. Energy conservation goals were...energy efficiency indicator. Management-based strategies were reviewed from the limited literature on this subject. Some strategies were suggested as

  19. Pore size dependent behavior of hydrated Ag+ ions confined in mesoporous MCM-41 materials under synchrotron X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kanae; Yoshida, Koji; Kittaka, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of hydrated Ag+ ions in a 1.5 mol dm(-3) AgNO3 aqueous solution confined in mesoporous silica MCM-41 with different pore sizes was characterized by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The hydrated Ag+ ions are stabilized in 4-fold coordination down to 195 K in the pores (21 Å in diameter), whereas in the larger pores (28 Å) the hydrated Ag+ ions are reduced to Ag0 to form nano clusters with the Ag-Ag interactions of 2.80 Å.

  20. Methemoglobinemia resulting from exposure in a confined space: Exothermic self-polymerization of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) material.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Lodwick, Jeffrey; Dartt, Joe; Amani, Jenny R; Fagan, Kathleen M

    2017-01-01

    A worker attempting to remove solidified material inside a confined space (storage tank) suffered severe methemoglobinemia and almost died. The tank contained liquid 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate monomer that had solidified after an equipment power failure caused excessive heating. Wearing a full-face elastomeric air-purifying respirator and Tyvek® coveralls, the worker used pneumatic air hammers to break up the solid material. After two tank entries totaling slightly less than one hour, the worker complained of headache and dizziness and within two hours of exiting the tank, he was admitted to the hospital in severe respiratory distress. During his eight-week hospital course, he suffered a cardiac arrest among other complications. An investigation into the cause of the worker's illness used onsite gas chromatography-mass spectrometry which identified aniline and p-toluidine vapor within the tank, attributable to overheating that led to formation of the solid material. Both are well-known causes of methemoglobinemia, and had the initial characterization of the confined space atmosphere adequately identified the hazards present appropriate engineering controls and personal protective equipment could have allowed the tank entrant to work safely in the space.

  1. Backfilling canals to mitigate Wetland dredging in Louisiana coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Christopher; Turner, R. Eugene

    1987-11-01

    Returning canal spoil banks into canals, or backfilling, is used in Louisiana marshes to mitigate damage caused by dredging for oil and gas extraction. We evaluated 33 canals backfilled through July 1984 to assess the success of habitat restoration. We determined restoration success by examining canal depth, vegetation recolonization, and regraded spoil bank soils after backfilling. Restoration success depended on: marsh type, canal location, canal age, marsh soil characteristics, the presence or absence of a plug at the canal mouth, whether mitigation was on- or off-site, and dredge operator performance. Backfilling reduced median canal depth from 2.4 to 1.1 m, restored marsh vegetation on the backfilled spoil bank, but did not restore emergent marsh vegetation in the canal because of the lack of sufficient spoil material to fill the canal and time. Median percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on the canal spoil banks was 51.6%. Median percentage of cover in the canal was 0.7%. The organic matter and water content of spoil bank soils were restored to values intermediate between spoil bank levels and predredging marsh conditions. The average percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on backfilled spoil banks was highest in intermediate marshes (68.6%) and lowest in fresh (34.7%) and salt marshes (33.9%). Average canal depth was greatest in intermediate marshes (1.50 m) and least in fresh marshes (0.85 m). Canals backfilled in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana were shallower (average depth = 0.61 m) than in the eastern Deltaic Plain (mean depth range = 1.08 to 1.30 m), probably because of differences in sediment type, lower subsidence rate, and lower tidal exchange in the Chenier Plain. Canals backfilled in marshes with more organic soils were deeper, probably as a result of greater loss of spoil volume caused by oxidation of soil organic matter. Canals ten or more years old at the time of backfilling had shallower depths after backfilling. Depths varied widely

  2. Screening-level risk assessment applied to dredging of polluted sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Ana Elisa F; Nascimento, Juliana R; Sabadini-Santos, Elisamara; Bidone, Edison D

    2017-03-16

    Guanabara Bay is characterized by predominant eutrophication and anoxic sediments with a mixture of pollutants. The risk prognosis associated with the dumping of its dredged sediments into the open ocean was addressed by our algorithm. Our algorithm could prioritize areas, characterize major processes related to dredging, measure the potential risk of sediments, and predict the effects of sediment mixing. The estimated risk of dredged sediment was >10-fold than that of ocean sediments. Among metals, mercury represented 50-90% of the total risk. The transfer of dredged material into the ocean or internal dumping in the bay requires a 1:10 dilution to mitigate the risk and bring the risk levels close to that in the EPA criteria, below which there is less likelihood of adverse effects to the biota, and a 1:100 dilution to maintain the original characteristics of the ocean disposal control area. Our algorithm indicator can be used in the design of both aquatic and continental disposal of dredged materials and their management.

  3. Long-term effects of dredging operations program: Assessing bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.U.; McFarland, V.A.

    1991-07-01

    This paper synthesizes previous work on bioaccumulation to provide a working document for the environmental impact on the aquatic environment due to bioaccumulation of sediment contaminants resulting from dredging operations and dredged material placement. Emphasis is placed on explanation of basic concepts concerning, and factors influencing, sediment contaminant bioaccumulation and bioavailability. The paper presents several numerical methods for assessing bioaccumulation, including a simple method for estimating theoretical bioaccumulation potential (TBP) from sediment chemistry for neutral organic chemicals. Methods are also given for projecting contaminant concentrations in organism tissues when steady state is achieved, based on laboratory or field exposures to contaminated sediments. These assessments are presented in the context of the US Environmental Protection Agency's tiered testing approach for dredged material evaluation. The various numerical methods for bioaccumulation assessment are illustrated and compared using step-by-step example calculations with hypothetical and actual data.

  4. Sediment Engineering thru Dredging and with Nature (SETDWN) - Fate of Fines in the Dredging and Placement Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    present at the placement site. Empirically determining the percentage of fines lost between the dredge intake and final placement on the beach or in...determining the percentage of fines (fine sediment less than 63 microns) lost between the dredge intake and final placement on the beach as a function...Standard sieve (63 microns) as measured in the channel is allowed for beach placement and 20% fines is allowed for nearshore placement. From a dredging

  5. Behavior of liquid crystals confined to mesoporous materials as studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy of methyl iodide and methane as probe molecules.

    PubMed

    Tallavaara, Pekka; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2008-01-24

    The behavior of thermotropic nematic liquid crystals (LCs) Merck Phase 4 and ZLI 1115 confined to mesoporous controlled pore glass materials was investigated using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of probe molecules methyl iodide and methane. The average pore diameters of the materials varied from 81 to 375 A, and the temperature series measurements were performed on solid, nematic, and isotropic phases of bulk LCs. Chemical shift, intensity, and line shape of the resonance signals in the spectra contain lots of information about the effect of confinement on the state of the LCs. The line shape of the 13C resonances of the CH3I molecules in LCs confined into the pores was observed to be even more sensitive to the LC orientation distribution than, for example, that of 2H spectra of deuterated LCs or 129Xe spectra of dissolved xenon gas. The effect of the magnetic field on the orientation of LC molecules inside the pores was examined in four different magnetic fields varying from 4.70 to 11.74 T. The magnetic field was found to have significant effect on the orientation of LC molecules in the largest pores and close to the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature. The theoretical model of shielding of noble gases dissolved in LCs based on pairwise additivity approximation was utilized in the analysis of CH4 spectra. For the first time, a first-order nematic-isotropic phase transition was detected to take place inside such restrictive hosts. In the larger pores a few degrees below the nematic-isotropic phase transition of bulk LC the 13C quartet of CH3I changes as a powder pattern. Results are compared to those derived from 129Xe NMR measurements of xenon gas in similar environments.

  6. Inertization of hazardous dredging spoils.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Alberto Giulio; Bonsembiante, Enrico; Brusatin, Giovanna; Calzolari, Giacomo; Colombo, Paolo; Dall'Igna, Roberto; Hreglich, Sandro; Scarinci, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Vitrification and production of ceramics materials starting from sediment excavated from Venice lagoon is described. This sediment is classified as toxic waste because contains several heavy metal ions and organic pollutants and was successfully vitrified at 1200-1350 degrees C. Twenty weight percentage of glass cullet, coming from a community glass recycling program, was added to the raw materials, previously calcined at 900 degrees C, as a way of adjusting the variations of composition of the individual sediment batches. Chemical durability (leaching) tests showed that the optimized glass compositions are inert, and thus not only volume reduction but also inertization of the waste was obtained by this process. Moreover, the economics of the entire process was analysed. The valorization of the waste was accomplished by the subsequent processing of the glass derived from the inertization. Glass ceramic materials were produced by viscous phase sintering of pressed glass powders which crystallized during the densification process. Sintered glass ceramic products had good mechanical characteristics (HV = 7.5 GPa, bending strength 150 +/- 8 MPa), making them suitable for applications in the building industry.

  7. Recyclability of bottom ash mixed with dredged soils according to the transportation distance and mixing ratio through the estimation of CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sookack; Son, Younghwan; Yoon, Taegang; Bong, Taeho

    2015-06-01

    Bottom ash and dredged soils can be used as construction materials because they are similar in physical characteristics to natural aggregates. However, whenever such byproducts as bottom ash and dredged soils are used, the energy efficiency of recycling is offset to a certain degree by emissions from transportation. The objective of this study is to analyze the environmental efficiency of recycling bottom ash and dredged soils through the estimation of CO2 emissions, considering both transportation distance and the mixing ratio. Agricultural reservoirs were selected as the final destinations of these recycled materials. This analysis demonstrated that using 100% bottom ash emits less CO2 than using natural aggregates when the ash is transported less than 35.15 km. This breakeven distance increases exponentially with the mass fraction of admixed dredged soil. However, admixture with natural soils does not affect the breakeven distance. Using the breakeven distances, the effective area with which it is efficient to recycle bottom ash was delineated. When dredged soil is admixed to a mass fraction of 70%, the effective area covers most of South Korea. In addition, 100% bottom ash was efficient in 1622 reservoirs (9.45%) in terms of CO2 emissions, and the mixture with 30% bottom ash and 70% dredged soils is efficient in 98.83% of all of the reservoirs in Korea. Bottom ash is most useful for reducing CO2 emissions when it is mixed with dredged soils, which are a byproduct of construction found on-site. This result is meaningful because bottom ash and dredged soils are complementary in their physical characteristics, and they need to be mixed before use as construction materials. The recycling of bottom ash becomes even more attractive with anticipated improvements in fuel efficiency.

  8. Environmental effects of dredging: Wetland animal bioassays/biomonitoring. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Simmers, J.W.; Kay, S.H.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

    1987-03-01

    This note follows Technical Note EEDP-O3-1 and adds support to the concept of using wetland animals as Indicators of bioavailable contaminants in dredged material used to create intertidal wetlands. The text of this tech note was taken from a paper by Kay, Marquenie, and Simmers (1986). Animal bioassay test procedures are being evaluated (field tested) and verified under the Interagency Field Verification of Testing and Predictive Methodologies for Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives in the Field Verification Program (FVP). Bioassays have been shown to be a relatively simple tool for ecological evaluation and environmental assessment of potential contaminant movement within permanent or temporary wetlands, and with field verification, it will be a useful biomonitoring tool as well.

  9. Confined-Volume Effect on the Thermal Properties of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Paula F; Ahmed, Adham; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2016-03-18

    We have encapsulated the heat exchange material, n-docosane, into polyurethane capsules of different sizes. Decreasing the size of the capsules leads to changes of the crystallinity of phase-change material as well as melting/crystallization temperature. The novelty of the paper includes 1) protection of the nanostructured energy-enriched materials against environment during storage and controlled release of the encapsulated energy on demand and 2) study of the structure and surface-to-volume properties of the energy-enriched materials dispersed in capsules of different sizes. The stability of energy nanomaterials, influence of capsule diameter on their energy capacity, homogeneity and operation lifetime are investigated.

  10. Environmental assessment of physical/chemical impacts related to the dredging and disposal of spoil from the proposed trench tube crossing of the Anacostia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, F. W.; Yost, J. C.; Saul, S. W.; Wood, S. G.

    1981-03-01

    Environmental sampling and testing was conducted to identify specified chemical pollutants in river-bottom material to be dredged during construction of the Metro subway tube tunnel crossing of the Anacostia River. Constituent concentrations is sediments, elutriates, and surface waters at the site and defined and compared with federal, state, and District of Columbia criteria and guidelines to identify potential problem areas and to evaluate potential chemical and physical impacts of dredging and spoil disposal. The results indicate sediment-bound concentrations of chlordane, DDT and PCBs which fail to meet federal criteria. High surface water concentrations of iron and mercury were identified which would prevent regulatory compliances of dredging operations for these constituents. It was concluded that the dredging would be minimal. Potential impacts upon groundwater were identified, bur further analyses of hydrogeology at the proposed disposal sites would be needed to define the potential for problems.

  11. Scour of chinook salmon redds on suction dredge tailings

    Treesearch

    Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - We measured scour of the redds of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on dredge tailings and natural substrates in three tributaries of the Klamath River, California. We measured maximum scour with scour chains and net scour by surveying before and after high winter flows. Scour of chinook salmon redds located on dredge tailings exceeded scour of redds...

  12. Engineering Geology in International Dredging and Infrastructure: Keynote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasblom, Willem J.

    Engineering geology supports the execution of dredging works in all stages. An industry that takes the full profit of his knowledge is the international dredging contractor. Based on own experiences the importance of his work is emphasised in a number of cases. Finally, a number of future developments in which he shall play an important role are highlighted.

  13. 22. VIEW LOOKING FROM FRONT LEFT OF DREDGE TOWARDS GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW LOOKING FROM FRONT LEFT OF DREDGE TOWARDS GEAR DRIVE OF MAIN (HOISTING) ENGINE. ARM ON RIGHT IS PART OF VALVE LINKAGE. BOX ABOVE THAT IS THE CYLINDER OIL LUBRICATOR. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET PUMPS FOR PUMPING SAND, AND WEAR RATES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DREDGING PIPE. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  15. 44. Photocopied August 1978. DREDGES WORKING AT POWER HOUSE LOCATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopied August 1978. DREDGES WORKING AT POWER HOUSE LOCATION, DECEMBER 10, 1898. BY SPECIAL AGREEMENT, CONTRACTORS MASON & HODGE WERE PERMITTED TO BEGIN EXCAVATION OVER THE POWER HOUSE LOCATION WITH DREDGES, COMPLETING THE WORK LATER BEHIND THE COFFER DAM BEING CONSTRUCTED ON THE FAR RIGHT SIDE OF THE PICTURE. (21) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. Silt Curtains as a Dredging Project Management Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    current, accurate technical guidance on environmental controls for dredging operations. Remaining challenges include rigorous examination of silt or...turbidity curtains as a temporary control measure to better define performance criteria and identification of technical guidelines for their selection...and use in navigation and environmental dredging projects. PURPOSE: This technical note reviews the basic types of silt curtains used in navigation and

  17. Confined-plume chemical deposition: rapid synthesis of crystalline coatings of known hard or superhard materials on inorganic or organic supports by resonant IR decomposition of molecular precursors.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Borislav L; Wellons, Matthew S; Lukehart, Charles M

    2009-08-26

    A one-step process for preparing microcrystalline coatings of known superhard, very hard, or ultraincompressible ceramic compositions on either inorganic or organic supports is reported. Midinfrared pulsed-laser irradiation of preceramic chemical precursors layered between IR-transmissive hard/soft supports under temporal and spatial confinement at a laser wavelength resonant with a precursor vibrational band gives one-step deposition of crystalline ceramic coatings without incurring noticeable collateral thermal damage to the support material. Reaction plume formation at the precursor/laser beam interface initiates confined-plume, chemical deposition (CPCD) of crystalline ceramic product. Continuous ceramic coatings are produced by rastering the laser beam over a sample specimen. CPCD processing of the Re-B single-source precursor, (B(3)H(8))Re(CO)(4), the dual-source mixtures, Ru(3)(CO)(12)/B(10)H(14) or W(CO)(6)/B(10)H(14), and the boron/carbon single-source precursor, o-B(10)C(2)H(12), confined between Si wafer or NaCl plates gives microcrystalline deposits of ReB(2), RuB(2), WB(4), or B(4)C, respectively. CPCD processing of Kevlar fabric wetted by (B(3)H(8))Re(CO)(4) produces an oriented, microcrystalline coating of ReB(2) on the Kevlar fabric without incurring noticeable thermal damage of the polymer support. Similarly, microcrystalline coatings of ReB(2) can be formed on IR-transmissive IR2, Teflon, or Ultralene polymer films.

  18. Summary of First Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Birds on the South Atlantic Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    1-4, 2005 at Jekyll Island, Georgia. The primary goal of the workshop was to disseminate information on the beneficial use of dredged material...nourishment operations of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and bird conservation held during 1-4 February 2005, in Jekyll Island, Georgia...a good source of sand, and on large tidal deltas (e.g., Jekyll Island, Georgia), sand from offshore sources appears to work well. However

  19. Effects of the use of fly ash as a binder on the mechanical behaviour of treated dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Silitonga, E; Levacher, D; Mezazigh, S

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of dredged sediments treated with pozzolanic binders as a pavement base material, and to assess the usefulness of fly ash as a soil mixture/binder with the aim of improving the engineering properties of the stabilized dredged sediments in order to make them capable of taking more load from the foundation structures. Comparing the results with other binders currently used in road construction, the addition of fly ash shows significant positive advantages. The present study covers the characterization of the dredged sediments and fly ash, compaction behaviour, pH measurement, effect on unconfined compressive strength, and the effect of cyclic wet-dry and freeze-thaw tests.

  20. Estimated Particulate Emissions By Wind Erosion From the Indiana Harbor Confined Disposal Facility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is being designed for contaminated sediments dredged from the Indiana Harbor Canal at East Chicago, IN. The sediment will be placed in two cells enclosed by earthern berms about 9 m tall and cover about 36 hectares. The purposes of this study were to a) determine...

  1. Maintenance Dredging at Mianus River, Greenwich, Connecticut.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    8217RNUSM11ER LQ ’ M ~. Cenrnescfreut Io DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for public release, Distribution Unlimited DISTRIBUTION...PROCESSING SHEET DTIC OCT 7 70A MAINTENANCE DREDGING m MIANUS RIVER MIANUS, CONNECTICUT DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NEW ENGLAND...13 . .’ to 3 ./.?o" ""I C " .I m 4 4- A AD .- .P1 10 . 2 -- o"., ,-R, : ’? ’" 3 3 " ( ’ % t ," ....... , r. , Y." - / 6 , " .-- 33 . , ,’I .. n

  2. The effects of dredge-spoil dumping on a shallow water soft-sediment community in the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, S D; Rule, M J

    2001-11-01

    In December 1999, 28,000 m3 of sediment was dredged from two sites within the harbour at Coffs Harbour, NSW. Dredging was carried out using a trailing suction hopper-dredge which transported the spoil to a shallow (6 m) site within the adjacent Solitary Islands Marine Park for disposal. Evaluation of the effects of the dredge-spoil dumping at the receiving site was conducted by taking replicated van Veen grab samples at the disposal site and at two control sites, before, immediately after, and three months after dumping. The results indicated that dredge-spoil dumping had no detectable effect on either the structure of the invertebrate community or the physical characteristics of sediment at the receiving site. Although there were some significant faunistic differences between samples from the disposal site and the control sites immediately following dumping, these were related to pre-existing differences between sites rather than to the effects of dredge-spoil disposal. Four principal factors are likely to have contributed to the lack of impact: (i) dredged material had similar sedimentary characteristics to those at the receiving site; (ii) dredged material was free from contaminants; (iii) the disposal method systematically distributed a number of shallow layers of sediment over the disposal site and thus motile macrofauna had the opportunity to migrate upwards between passes of the barge; and (iv) the disposal site was in a high energy environment where the resident biota are likely to be adapted to dynamic sedimentary conditions. The lack of detectable effects suggests that the disposal strategy was one which minimized impacts within an area which has high conservation value and should thus be adopted as a model for future works within the region.

  3. High surface area Au-SBA-15 and Au-MCM-41 materials synthesis: tryptophan amino acid mediated confinement of gold nanostructures within the mesoporous silica pore walls.

    PubMed

    Selvakannan, Pr; Mantri, Kshudiram; Tardio, James; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2013-03-15

    Advantages of confining the gold nanostructures formation within the mesoporous silica pore walls during its silica condensation and consequent improvement in the textural properties such as specific surface area, pore volume, pore diameter have been demonstrated, while retaining gold nanostructures within the silica walls. This has been achieved by tryptophan mediated confinement of gold nanoparticles formation within the condensing silica framework, to obtain Au-SBA-15 (SSA 1247 m(2)/g, V(t)~1.37 cm(3)/g) and Au-MCM-41 (SSA 1287 m(2)/g, V(t)~1.1 cm(3)/g), mesoporous silica materials having the combination of very high surface area from the porous support as well as gold nanoparticles infiltrated silica walls. Choice of tryptophan for this purpose is that it has an indole group, which was known to reduce gold ions to form gold nanoparticles and its amine and carboxylic acid groups, catalyze the hydrolysis of silica precursors in a wide range of pH. These properties have been utilized in restricting the gold nanostructures formation inside the condensing silica phase without affecting the self assembly between the silica precursors and the triblock copolymer (for SBA-15) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template (for MCM-41). The polytryptophan and the gold nanostructures, which were encapsulated within the silica framework and upon removal of the template by calcination resulting in the formation mesoporous materials wherein the silica walls become microporous due to the removal of occluded polytryptophan and the resulting microchannels contain very small gold nanostructures. Hence, the resulting materials have very high surface area, high pore volume and narrow pore size distribution as compared to their parent SBA-15, MCM-41 and SBA-15, MCM-41 post functionalized with gold nanoparticles inside the pores.

  4. Heteroatomic SenS8-n Molecules Confined in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbons as Reversible Cathode Materials for High-Performance Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fugen; Cheng, Hongye; Chen, Jianzhuang; Zheng, Nan; Li, Yongsheng; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-09-27

    A reversible cathode material in an ether-based electrolyte for high-energy lithium batteries was successfully fabricated by homogeneously confining heteroatomic SenS8-n molecules into nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (NMCs) via a facile melt-impregnation route. The resultant SenS8-n/NMC composites exhibit highly reversible electrochemical behavior, where selenium sulfides are recovered through the reversible conversion of polysulfoselenide intermediates during discharge-charge cycles. The recovery of selenium sulfide molecules endows the SenS8-n/NMC cathodes with the rational integration of S and Se cathodes. Density functional theory calculations further reveal that heteroatomic selenium sulfide molecules with higher polarizability could bind more strongly with NMCs than homoatomic sulfur molecules, which provides more efficient suppression of the shuttling phenomenon. Therefore, with further assistance of mesopore confinement of the nitrogen-doped carbons, the Se2S6/NMC composite with an optimal Se/S mole ratio of 2/6 presents excellent cycle stability with a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 96.5% and a high reversible capacity of 883 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles and 780 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 250 mA g(-1). These encouraging results suggest that the heteroatomization of chalcogen (such as S, Se, or Te) molecules in mesostructured carbon hosts is a promising strategy in enhancing the electrochemical performances of chalcogen/carbon-based cathodes for Li batteries.

  5. Sixth Season of Hudson River Dredging Begins, Historic Dredging Project Draws to a Close, Next Up: Cleaning Up Floodplains

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Albany, NY) Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Judith A. Enck announced the start of the sixth, and final, season of dredging of PCB-contaminated sediments from the bottom of the Hudson River. The historic dredging project

  6. Direct comparison of amphipod sensitivities to dredged sediments from Spanish ports.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martinez, M C; Forja, J M; DelValls, T A

    2007-06-01

    The sensitivity of the benthic amphipod species Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator to dredged sediments was compared through simultaneous testing on the standard 10 days sediment toxicity test. The results of mortality obtained for 22 harbor sediments sampled at several Spanish ports were studied together with the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples to obtain the incidence of toxicity in terms of dredged material categories and to identify possible differences in the amphipod mortality results when using one or another test species. The results showed a similar incidence of toxicity for medium-high and highly contaminated sediments for both amphipod species, similar to that obtained through the comparison of the chemical concentrations measured in sediments with the single limit values used in Spain for dredged material characterization and management. On the contrary, C. volutator presented a higher mortality and a higher incidence of toxicity when exposed to low and medium-low contaminated sediments, which may have been caused by the lower sensitivity of A. brevicornis when exposed to sediments from its natural environment. When compared to other amphipod species used for whole sediment toxicity assessment, both amphipod species used in this study reported slightly higher sensitivities although these differences could have been associated to the different set of chemical compounds considered when characterizing the sediment samples. In this sense, the amphipod mortality results were better predicted through the use of mean quotients than just by comparing the measured chemical concentrations with the single limit values used in Spain, which indicates that the toxic response of both species was caused by the cocktail of contaminants present in the sediments. Finally, the correlation analysis identified a higher association between A. brevicornis mortality and the metallic contaminants while C. volutator was more correlated with the organic

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L. |

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd{sup 3} (4,580 m{sup 3}) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories` preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment.

  8. RF thermal plasma treatment of dredged sediments: vitrification and silicon extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, V.; Ghedini, E.; Gherardi, M.; Mani, V.; Sanibondi, P.; Vazquez, B.

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, dredged polluted sediments with high level of hydrocarbons and heavy metals have been treated by means of a laboratory scale radiofrequency (RF) thermal plasma source inside a graphite crucible. Two different experimental approaches have been utilized (1) to fully decontaminate and vitrify this material, and (2) to study the technical feasibility of metallurgical-grade silicon (MGS) smelting by carbothermal-reduction reactions of carbon with silica (SiO2) content in these dredged sediments. A two-dimensional model of a commercial inductively coupled RF plasma torch has been used to investigate the effects of plasma flow and temperature distributions of the plasma discharge interacting with the material inside the crucible. Samples of both vitrification and carbothermal reduction processes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and leaching tests. Results obtained showed a fully decontamination of the dredged sediments, with release values of heavy metals in leachates well below the law limits. Moreover, SEM/EDS analyses suggested that separation of MGS by carbothermal-reduction process is possible.

  9. More than scratching the surface: dredge-up in simulations of double white dwarf mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Staff, J. E.; Raskin, C.; Marcello, D.; Clayton, G. C.; Fryer, C.; Frank, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the strange isotopic abundances of R Corona Borealis stars (e.g. 16O / 18O ~ 1) as well as other properties of these unusual stars may naturally be explained if they originate from the merger of a He white dwarf with a CO white dwarf. However, the merger process that reignites these stellar remnants is highly dynamic and violent. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the accreting star will dredge up oxygen 16 from the accretor at the same time that material from the donor star is fusing to form oxygen 18. Recent stellar evolution calculations have indicated that if dredge up is strongly suppressed, the merger remnant will appear as an R Corona Borealis star but it is not clear how or if dredge up can be shut down. In this presentation we will compare double white dwarf merger simulations performed with three independent codes (SPH, fixed grid Eulerian and adaptive mesh refinement) to ascertain how much accretor material is lifted into the proto-envelope of the merged object.

  10. Estimating source terms for far field dredge plume modelling.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johannes; van Eekelen, Erik; van Wiechen, Joost; de Lange, William; Damsma, Thijs; Smolders, Tijmen; van Koningsveld, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Far field modelling of dredging induced suspended sediment plumes is important while assessing the environmental aspects of dredging. Realistic estimation of source terms, that define the suspended sediment input for far field dredge plume modelling, is key to any assessment. This paper describes a generic method for source term estimation as it is used in practice in the dredging industry. It is based on soil characteristics and dredge production figures, combined with empirically derived, equipment and condition specific 'source term fractions'. A source term fraction relates the suspended fine sediment that is available for dispersion, to the amount of fine sediment that is present in the soil and the way it is dredged. The use of source term fractions helps to circumvent modelling of complicated near field processes, at least initially, enabling quick assessments. When further detail is required and extra information is available, the applicability of the source term fractions can/should be evaluated by characterisation monitoring and/or near field modelling. An example of a fictitious yet realistic dredging project demonstrates how two different work methods can trigger two distinctly different types of stress to the environmental system in terms of sediment concentration and duration.

  11. Temporal Patterns in Seawater Quality from Dredging in Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ross; Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance and capital dredging represents a potential risk to tropical environments, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs. There is little detailed, published observational time-series data that quantifies how dredging affects seawater quality conditions temporally and spatially. This information is needed to test realistic exposure scenarios to better understand the seawater-quality implications of dredging and ultimately to better predict and manage impacts of future projects. Using data from three recent major capital dredging programs in North Western Australia, the extent and duration of natural (baseline) and dredging-related turbidity events are described over periods ranging from hours to weeks. Very close to dredging i.e. <500 m distance, a characteristic features of these particular case studies was high temporal variability. Over several hours suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) can range from 100–500 mg L-1. Less turbid conditions (10–80 mg L-1) can persist over several days but over longer periods (weeks to months) averages were <10 mg L-1. During turbidity events all benthic light was sometimes extinguished, even in the shallow reefal environment, however a much more common feature was very low light ‘caliginous’ or daytime twilight periods. Compared to pre-dredging conditions, dredging increased the intensity, duration and frequency of the turbidity events by 10-, 5- and 3-fold respectively (at sites <500 m from dredging). However, when averaged across the entire dredging period of 80–180 weeks, turbidity values only increased by 2–3 fold above pre-dredging levels. Similarly, the upper percentile values (e.g., P99, P95) of seawater quality parameters can be highly elevated over short periods, but converge to values only marginally above baseline states over longer periods. Dredging in these studies altered the overall probability density distribution, increasing the frequency of extreme values. As such

  12. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  13. Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50–101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

  14. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

  15. 27. photographer unknown undated DREDGING OVERBURDEN FROM CRIB EXCAVATION AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. photographer unknown undated DREDGING OVERBURDEN FROM CRIB EXCAVATION AREAS IN MAIN CHANNEL FOR FIRST STEP COFFERDAM. BRADFORD ISLAND IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISEDNOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISED-NOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING TO GUIDE SAILS DOWN TO BOOM AND CLUB (REQUIRES LESS CREW) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  17. 5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Dredging displaces bottlenose dolphins from an urbanised foraging patch.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Laesser, Barbara Eva; Hardaker, Andrea; Riddoch, Nicholas; Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-09-15

    The exponential growth of the human population and its increasing industrial development often involve large scale modifications of the environment. In the marine context, coastal urbanisation and harbour expansion to accommodate the rising levels of shipping and offshore energy exploitation require dredging to modify the shoreline and sea floor. While the consequences of dredging on invertebrates and fish are relatively well documented, no study has robustly tested the effects on large marine vertebrates. We monitored the attendance of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to a recently established urbanised foraging patch, Aberdeen harbour (Scotland), and modelled the effect of dredging operations on site usage. We found that higher intensities of dredging caused the dolphins to spend less time in the harbour, despite high baseline levels of disturbance and the importance of the area as a foraging patch.

  19. DISSIPATION OF PAHs IN SATURATED, DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A FIELD TRIAL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sediments dredged from navigable rivers often contain elevated concentrations of recalcitrant, potentially toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these compounds often requires that the sediments be stored in fully conta...

  20. Bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredging and dredged material disposal: a literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Mac, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A literature review of sediment bioassessment was conducted as the first step in the development of a more standardized and ecologically sound test procedure for evaluating sediment quality. Based on the review, the authors concluded that 1) a standardized laboratory bioassessment test should consist of flowthrough exposure of at least 10 days duration using more than one aquatic organism including at least an infaunal benthic invertebrate and a fish species. 2) Before adoption of a laboratory sediment bioassessment procedure, the laboratory results should be evaluated by comparison with field conditions. 3) Most current sediment bioassessment regulatory tests measure acute toxicity or bioaccumulation. Development of tests to evaluate chronic, sublethal effects is needed.

  1. Evaluation of the Submerged Discharge of Dredged Material Slurry During Pipeline Dredge Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    turbulentI flow of the fluid mud wave the friction factor becomes virtually independent of Reynolds number and is determined solely by the relative...viscosity of the fluid mud. In the laboratory test program, head wave Reynolds numbers fell in the turbulent regime, and the bottom friction factor was...to prototype, the bottom friction factor was constant. Friction conditions at the upper inter- face are governed primarily by Froude number with little

  2. Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis: Management Plan Assessment Report. Dredged Material Management Year 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    A. 4.3 Other PSDDA Program Topics Laboratory Accreditation Ecology presented during the DY 1989 ARM a summary of: o the legal authority to establish...a laboratory accreditation program (RCW 43.21 A.230 (1987)); o the purpose in establishing such a program; o the state rules which establish such a...and documenting best professional judgment considerations. Page A-1 Page A-2 CLARIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION Prepared by Toi Jries

  3. Plasma confinement at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, I.; JET Contributors

    2016-01-01

    Operation with a Be/W wall at JET (JET-ILW) has an impact on scenario development and energy confinement with respect to the carbon wall (JET-C). The main differences observed were (1) strong accumulation of W in the plasma core and (2) the need to mitigate the divertor target temperature to avoid W sputtering by Be and other low Z impurities and (3) a decrease of plasma energy confinement. A major difference is observed on the pedestal pressure, namely a reduction of the pedestal temperature which, due to profile stiffness the plasma core temperature is also reduced leading to a degradation of the global confinement. This effect is more pronounced in low β N scenarios. At high β N, the impact of the wall on the plasma energy confinement is mitigated by the weaker plasma energy degradation with power relative to the IPB98(y, 2) scaling calculated empirically for a CFC first wall. The smaller tolerable impurity concentration for tungsten (<10-5) compared to that of carbon requires the use of electron heating methods to prevent W accumulation in the plasma core region as well as gas puffing to avoid W entering the plasma core by ELM flushing and reduction of the W source by decreasing the target temperature. W source and the target temperature can also be controlled by impurity seeding. Nitrogen and Neon have been used and with both gases the reduction of the W source and the target temperature is observed. Whilst more experiments with Neon are necessary to assess its impact on energy confinement, a partial increase of plasma energy confinement is observed with Nitrogen, through the increase of edge temperature. The challenge for scenario development at JET is to extend the pulse length curtailed by its transient behavior (W accumulation or MHD), but more importantly by the divertor target temperature limits. Re-optimisation of the scenarios to mitigate the effect of the change of wall materials maintaining high global energy confinement similar to JET-C is

  4. 14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship repair facilities dredging map. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 1. Plan no. 10,529. Scale one inch to 50 feet. September 22, 1943. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 18, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  5. Management of Dredging Projects; Summary Repot for Technical Area 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Donald L. Robey, Chief, EPED; Dr. John W. Keeley, Director, EL; and Dr. John Har- rison, former Director, EL. Hydraulics Laboratory (HL)-Mr. Mitch...one on the Gulf Coast (Wheeler). For FY92, the Corps 1 Chapter 3 was extracted from Ogden Beeman and Associates, Inc. (in preparation). Chapter 3...and maintenance dredging was per- formed by private industry. The purpose of Corps of Engineers Hopper Dredging, 1954-1994 (Og- den Beeman and

  6. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  7. Environmental effects of dredging: Critical body residue (CBR) approach for interpreting the consequences of bioaccumulation of neutral organic contaminants. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M.; Gibson, A.

    1992-12-01

    This technical note describes a procedure for interpreting tissue residues of neutral organic chemicals generated in 28-day dredged material bioaccumulation bioassays. This interpretive guidance uses a critical body residue (CBR) of neutral organic chemicals reported for the fathead minnow, Pirnephales pmmelas. The CBR is based on a very large U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) acute toxicity database and well accepted quantitative structure activity relation- ships (QSARs). Guidance in this technical note is not appropriate when xenobiotic metabolism of neutral organic contaminants is likely. Background The evaluation of dredged material requires an assessment of `unacceptable adverse impacts.` Testing to support this evaluation will often include sediment bioassays.

  8. Three-dimensional numerical study of laminar confined slot jet impingement cooling using slurry of nano-encapsulated phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohib Ur Rehman, M.; Qu, Z. G.; Fu, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    This Article presents a three dimensional numerical model investigating thermal performance and hydrodynamics features of the confined slot jet impingement using slurry of Nano Encapsulated Phase Change Material (NEPCM) as a coolant. The slurry is composed of water as a base fluid and n-octadecane NEPCM particles with mean diameter of 100nm suspended in it. A single phase fluid approach is employed to model the NEPCM slurry.The thermo physical properties of the NEPCM slurry are computed using modern approaches being proposed recently and governing equations are solved with a commercial Finite Volume based code. The effects of jet Reynolds number varying from 100 to 600 and particle volume fraction ranging from 0% to 28% are considered. The computed results are validated by comparing Nusselt number values at stagnation point with the previously published results with water as working fluid. It was found that adding NEPCM to the base fluid results with considerable amount of heat transfer enhancement.The highest values of heat transfer coefficients are observed at H/W=4 and Cm=0.28. However, due to the higher viscosity of slurry compared with the base fluid, the slurry can produce drastic increase in pressure drop of the system that increases with NEPCM particle loading and jet Reynolds number.

  9. Sediment pass-through, an alternative to reservoir dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.L.; Lee, W.H.; Tu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is studying an alternative {open_quotes}Sediment Management Plan{close_quotes} (SMP) to control sediments at Rock Creek Reservoir and the downstream Cresta Reservoir on the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County. The reservoirs are part of the 182,000 kW Rock Creek-Cresta Project hydroelectric development. Approximately 5.4 million cubic meters of sediments, deposited in the two reservoirs since they were placed in service in 1949 and 1950, partially obstruct the dams` low level outlets and pipe inlets supplying water for spillway gate operations. The sediments jeopardize the reliable and efficient operation of the dams and powerhouses. The SMP includes retrofitting Rock Creek and Cresta Dams with additional low-level gated outlets and modification of trash racks at the existing low level outlet pipes at each dam to improve sediment pass-through (SPT) capacity during high flows. Also, to enable construction of the dam modifications and to facilitate the initiation of SPT operation, dredging of approximately 46,000 cubic meters at Rock Creek Reservoir and 57,000 cubic meters at Cresta Reservoir can be accomplished using a new slurry pump dredging technology to minimize turbidity and re-suspension of solids during dredging. It is proposed to deposit the sediment on the reservoir bottoms, upstream of the areas to be dredged. The dredged sediments subsequently would be flushed from the reservoirs during SPT operations to ultimately be deposited in the dead storage volume of a large downstream reservoir, Lake Oroville. The SPT management plan supersedes more costly plans for major dredging, and may preclude the need for future maintenance dredging at the reservoirs.

  10. Sediment infilling of Louisiana continental-shelf dredge pits: a record of sedimentary processes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Obelcz, J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    Many sand resources, including buried paleo river channels, have been used as dredge sites for coastal restoration; our knowledge of infill rates and dynamics with the seafloor are limited. Sediment cores were collected at continental-shelf sites of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to develop a better understanding of mud-capped dredge pit post-dredging evolution. The two pits studied were Sandy Point (SP) and Raccoon Island (RI) (both at shelf depths of 10m), which were dredged in 2012 and 2013 respectively; vibracores and multicores were collected in 2015 and analyzed for Beryllium-7. SP1, the northwestern site in the Sandy Point dredge pit, showed 26 cm of 7Be. In the Raccoon Island multicores, 7Be penetration depths varied from 36 cm in the center of the dredge pit (RI3) to all 50 cm of the northern-most site (RI1) core, indicating that 7Be occurred deeper than the 50 cm long multicore. Surface sediment samples from outside the pit contained no 7Be. Of note is the surprising rate of deposition within the pits as well as the source of the infill material. Sediments laden with 7Be must have been deposited within 1-3 half lives of 7Be ( 50-150 days) prior to sampling, indicating recent sedimentation rates greater than 26-50 cm/year. The nearest major sources of river sediment are: 12.5 km offshore from Grand Pass of the Mississippi River for SP; and 147 km from the Mississippi and 90 km from the Atchafalaya River for RI. Because rivers are a major source of 7Be in coastal marine sediments, 26-50 cm of 7Be activity indicates rapid and long-distance transport of sediment from a likely fluvial source and suggests that the pits are efficient sediment traps. An alternative hypothesis would be that marine sediment accumulated and efficiently scavenged 7Be from marine and atmospheric sources. Regardless of source, the dredge pits are accumulating a record of sediment that would not be recorded on the shelf otherwise, and collapses of pit walls cannot explain the whole

  11. Remediation of hydrophobic, persistent pollutants using a magnetic permanently confined micelle array (Mag-PCMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K. K.; Keller, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors have resulted in the deposition of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) like PAHs and PCBs in elevated levels in soils and sediments. Currently there are 150 Superfund sites in the United States with contaminated sediments. Dredging is the most common practice for restoring Superfund sites to their preexisting conditions; this requires the transport of large volumes of material off-site for additional storage or processing. Our lab has designed a nano-hybrid material that can be used on-site; it combines a magnetic nanoscale iron oxide core coated with a cationic surfactant and is encased in a mesoporous silica matrix, called magnetic permanently confined micelle arrays, (Mag-PCMAs). This sorbent has been designed to remove HOCs from such scenarios. Surfactants are important in the enhancement of transport from binding sites in nature, such as organic matter, onto sorbents and other recoverable materials. The sorbent’s magnetic core allows for rapid separation by applying a magnetic field. It has also been shown to be reusable and maintain a removal efficiency of 95% over five cycles of reuse. Preliminary sorption studies show that the sorbent is capable of removing up to 98% of hydrophobic compounds from aqueous media. Current sorption studies are being done to test the efficiency of removing PAHs and PCBs from sediments, soils, and suspended sediments. Physicochemical properties that will influence the desorption/sorption hysteresis are being characterized to determine which properties enhance desorption from the contaminated media onto the Mag-PCMAs. Relevant applications are diverse as this material has the potential to recover a variety of HOCs in both ex situ and in situ remediation scenarios. Magnetic Permanently Confined Micelle Arrays

  12. DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

  13. DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

  14. H2O and CO2 confined in cement based materials: an ab initio molecular dynamics study with van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, James; Miranda, Caetano; Fazzio, Adalberto

    2013-03-01

    Although the cement has been widely used for a long time, very little is known regarding the atomistic mechanism behind its functionality. Particularly, the dynamics of molecular systems at confined nanoporous and water hydration is largely unknown. Here, we study the dynamical and structural properties of H2O and CO2 confined between Tobermorite 9Å(T9) surfaces with Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics with and without van der Waals (vdW) interactions, at room temperature. For H2O confined, we have observed a broadening in the intra and intermolecular bond angle distribution. A shift from an ice-like to a liquid-like infrared spectrum with the inclusion of vdW interactions was observed. The bond distance for the confined CO2 was increased, followed with the appearance of shorter (larger) intramolecular (intermolecular) angles. These structural modifications result in variations on the CO2 symmetric stretching Raman active vibration modes. The diffusion coefficient obtained for both confined H2O and CO2 were found to be lower than their bulk counterparts. Interestingly, during the water dynamics, a proton exchange between H2O and the T9 surface was observed. However, for confined CO2, no chemical reactions or bond breaking were observed.

  15. Hopper dredges applied to the Alaska oil spill, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.H.; Redlinger, J.F.

    1992-03-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. This accident resulted in the largest American oil spill ever and spoiled one of the most pristine areas in North America. In April 1989, the US Army Corps of Engineers was requested to assist in the cleanup of this disastrous oil spill. Two of the Corps' minimum fleet hopper dredges, the Yaquina and the Essayons, were dispatched to assist in collecting oil. Although unmodified hopper dredges had never been used in this capacity, the Yaquina and the Essayons proved to be the most effective tools in the recovery of oil. Given proper air support, adequate containment boom, and commitment at the earliest possible time, hopper dredges can make a significant contribution to the cleanup of large oil spills.

  16. Review of Dredging Elutriate Application Factors: Relevance to Acute-to-Chronic Protection, Contaminant, and Endpoint Specificity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    multipliers; AFs are applied to median effect toxicity endpoints in an effort to determine “safe” contaminant levels in the open water environment. While the...underprotective, high AF would underestimate the toxic effects of contaminants and potentially impact the organisms at the open-water, dredged material...adverse biological effects are expected, toxicity testing is generally required, especially under MPRSA. Toxicological testing of DM consists of three

  17. 77 FR 47284 - Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI... from a portion of Lake Huron during the preparation for and salvage operations of the Arthur J. dredge... public interest. The emergency sinking of the dredge vessel Arthur J. precluded the Coast Guard...

  18. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  19. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  20. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  1. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  2. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  3. Hopper Dredges Applied to the Alaska Oil Spill, March 1989,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    oil spill ever and spoiled one of the most pristine areas in North America. In April 1989, the US Army Corps of Engineers was requested to assist in the cleanup of this disastrous oil spill . Two of the Corps’ minimum fleet hopper dredges, the Yaquina and the Essayons, were dispatched to assist in collecting oil. Although unmodified hopper dredges had never been used in this capacity, the Yaquina and the Essayons proved to be the most effective tools in the recovery of oil. Given proper air support, adequate containment boom, and commitment at the

  4. Dredging Research Program: Acoustic Resuspension Measurement System (ARMS) Instrumental Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    pounds (mass) 0.4535924 kilograms * To obtain Celsius (C) temperature readings from Fahrenheit ( F ) readings, use the following formula: C = (5/9) ( F ...32). To obtain kelvin (K) readings, use: K = (5/9) ( F - 32) + 273.15. x 1 Introduction The Dredging Research Program The Dredging Research Program...theory as Chapar 3 ARMS koumemdon 9 I(zjt) - N + F (Z’TP{ nQizt) 9i a’ 1 x exp(-) where N = intensity of additive noise F = response function of the

  5. 16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING OPERATIONS USING TWO LEVERS FROM CEILING, THREE LEVELS ON THE FLOOR, AND TWO FLOOR PEDDLES. RIGHT HAND CONTROLLED SHOT GUN SWINGER (BOOM MOVE TO RIGHT WHEN PUSHED FORWARD, LEFT WHEN PULLED BACK, AND, IF LUCKY, STOPPED WHEN IN CENTER POSITION). LEFT HAND CONTROLLED THROTTLE. FLOOR LEVER AND FLOOR PEDDLE ON LEFT CONTROLLED THE BACKING LINE FRICTION. MIDDLE LEVER AND PEDDLE, STUCK IN FLOOR CONTROLLED THE MAIN HOIST FRICTION. LEVER ON RIGHT CONTROLLED THE CYLINDER DRAIN VALVE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Confined Disposal Facility and Maintenance Dredging of the Les Cheneaux Island Federal Navigation Channels, Michigan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    extends 15 miles eastward. The islands, their neighboring shoals, and the numerous points jutting among them from the irregular mainland coast, have a...available, such as beach nourishment or highway construction. Under current laws additional costs of such a disposal method , if any, would have to be borne...entrance, a middle entrance, and a west entrance. The east entrance extends from Penny Island up through Scammons Harbor and into Cedar- ville Bay along

  7. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by the Administrator, a statement of the basis for the proposed determination why no previously... made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An... determination of the need for and/or availability of an environmental impact statement. (b) The Regional...

  8. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by the Administrator, a statement of the basis for the proposed determination why no previously... made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An... determination of the need for and/or availability of an environmental impact statement. (b) The Regional...

  9. The Long Island Sound Dredged Material Containment Feasibility Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    containment sites; Clinton Harbor and Black Ledge (Groton) North in Connecticut. Detailed investigations at Clinton Harbor and Black Ledge have been made...be a Marsh creation project while Black Ledge would be a shallow island creation project. This report is a compilation of the various site screenings...and the detailed investigations of Clinton Harbor and Black Ledge. q DD I PJ0=1 1473 EDITION 0f.I Nov of t OS@OL9TE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NEW

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION IN SEDIMENTS AND DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The identification of toxicants affecting aquatic benthic systems is critical to sound assessment and management of our nation?s waterways. Identification of toxicants can be useful in designing effective sediment remediation plans and reasonable options for sediment disposal. K...

  11. Economical Treatment of Dredged Material to Facilitate Beneficial Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    45 Soil Washing EDTA and Citric Acid ...cadmium-contaminated marine sediment at Point Mugu, citric acid was added to the cathode wells for pH control. The spacing between anodes and...cathodes was 4.6 m. Half of the anode well samples contained citric acid in less than 15 days after citrate was added to cathode wells (Gent and Estes in

  12. Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1982. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    P-28 Greater NY Terminals 81 P-29 Port Authority of NY/NJ 83 P-30 Colgate /Palmolive Co. 85 P-31 Northville-Linden Terminal 87 P-32 Proctor and Gamble...authority: Division North Atlantic District New York 2. Date issued: November 16, 1981 Permit # 12159 Colgate /Palmolive Co. 3. Country of origin of

  13. Upper Mississippi II Dredged Material Disposal Site Recreational User Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    true where a popular beach was near a large metropolitan area, such as Hogback Island near Quincy, IL, in Pool 21. E. Climatic Factors Cool...of the users who reported they were headed for a specific place said they were going to Hogback Island (Q 25). The average party size was seven people...Use of Pool 21 and Hogback Island on Selected Days Utilizing Aerial and Water Based Observation." Unpublished Paper Dept. of Recreation and Parks

  14. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  15. Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  16. Framework for Comparative Risk Analysis of Dredged Material Disposal Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    biomagnification of some organochlorine compounds (e.g., DDT , PCB). The objectives of the following analysis are to: 9 Describe the limitations of the...common carcinogens may lead to average lifetime cancer risks as high as 7x10- 4 (Table A-i. Cigarette smokers experience higher risks; e.%., on the order...0.060000000 92-94 4,4’- DDT , DD, DDE 3.000000000 1.000000000 0.100000000 35 2,4-dinitrotoluene 3.000000000 1.000000000 0.100000000 3 acrylonitrile 4.000000000

  17. USING SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES IN DREDGED MATERIAL ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) are not formally included in the frameworks described in the Inland Testing manual and the Green Book because these frameworks are biologically based. The SQGs are often used informally, however, to help put the results of biological testing in ...

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment and Dredged Material Management: Issues and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Mission Valley Hilton, San Diego, California by David W. Moore, Todd S. Bridges, Carlos Ruiz, WES Jerome Cura , Susan Kane Driscoll, Donna...Vorhees, Menzie- Cura and Associates, Inc. Dick Peddicord, Dick Peddicord & Co., Inc. Approved For Public Release; Distribution Is Unlimited 19990316 084...3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Jerome Cura , Susan Kane Driscoll, Donna Vorhees Menzie- Cura and Associates, Inc. 1 Courthouse Lane

  19. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal. Testing Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    from any of four ranges: 0.1-1.0; 1-10; 10-100; or 100-1000. Step 4. From that point, read across to the lefthand vertical axis and select the TBP value...Determination by Administrator, the conditions to be imposed. The Administrator. or such other EPA (c) Review of Corps of Engineers employee as he...Administra- with I 228.4(e). tors or such other EPA employees as they may from time to time designate PART 221-APPUCATIONS FOR in writing, are delegated the

  20. Assessment of Dredged Material Toxicity in San Francisco Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    bio- assay with the copepod Tigriopus californicus . Reproduction, measured as the total number of young produced, was evaluated in copepods exposed...there were no sig- nificant differences in copepod reproduction. The effects of elevated hydro- gen sulfide concentrations in Islais Waterways...sediments may have affected the observed response in copepod reproduction. A number of field observations have been reported which suggest that San Francisco