Science.gov

Sample records for confinement fusion program

  1. Progress in the pulsed power Inertial Confinement Fusion program

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Matzen, M.K.; Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1996-12-01

    Pulsed power accelerators are being used in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. In order to achieve our goal of a fusion yield in the range of 200 - 1000 MJ from radiation-driven fusion capsules, it is generally believed that {approx}10 MJ of driver energy must be deposited within the ICF target in order to deposit {approx}1 MJ of radiation energy in the fusion capsule. Pulsed power represents an efficient technology for producing both these energies and these radiation environments in the required short pulses (few tens of ns). Two possible approaches are being developed to utilize pulsed power accelerators in this effort: intense beams of light ions and z- pinches. This paper describes recent progress in both approaches. Over the past several years, experiments have successfully answered many questions critical to ion target design. Increasing the ion beam power and intensity are our next objectives. Last year, the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator H (PBFA II) was modified to generate ion beams in a geometry that will be required for high yield applications. This 2048 modification has resulted in the production of the highest power ion beam to be accelerated from an extraction ion diode. We are also evaluating fast magnetically-driven implosions (z-pinches) as platforms for ICF ablator physics and EOS experiments. Z-pinch implosions driven by the 20 TW Saturn accelerator have efficiently produced high x- ray power (> 75 TW) and energy (> 400 kJ). Containing these x-ray sources within a hohlraum produces a unique large volume (> 6000 mm{sup 3}), long lived (>20 ns) radiation environment. In addition to studying fundamental ICF capsule physics, there are several concepts for driving ICF capsules with these x-ray sources. Progress in increasing the x-ray power on the Saturn accelerator and promise of further increases on the higher power PBFA II accelerator will be described.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

    1996-03-01

    During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

  3. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  4. Inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  5. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Luckhardt, R.; Terry, N.; Drake, D.; Gaines, J.

    1990-04-27

    This KMS Fusion Semi-Annual Technical Report covers the period October 1989 through March 1990. It contains a review of work performed by KMS Fusion, Inc. (KMSF), in support of the national program to achieve inertially confined fusion (ICF). A major section of the report is devoted to target technology, a field which is expected to play an increasingly important role in the overall KMSF fusion effort. Among the highlights of our efforts in this area covered in this report are: improvements and new developments in target fabrication techniques, including a discussion of techniques for introducing gaussian bumps and bands on target surfaces. Development of a single automated system for the interferometric characterization of transparent shells. Residual gas analysis of the blowing gases contained in glass shells made from xerogels. These usually include CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, and are objectionable because they dilute the fuel. Efforts to observe the ice layers formed in the {beta}-layering process in cryogenic targets, and to simulate the formation of these layers. In addition to our work on target technology, we conducted experiments with the Chroma laser and supported the ICF effort at other labs with theoretical and computational support as well as diagnostic development. Included in the work covered in this report are: experiments on Chroma to study interpenetration of and ionization balance in laser generated plasmas. Diagnostic development, including an optical probe for the Aurora laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a high energy x-ray continuum spectrograph for Aurora. Investigation of the radiation cooling instability as a possible mechanism for the generation of relatively cold, dense jets observed in ICF experiments.

  6. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  7. An Overview of the Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and High-Energy-Density Physics Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Batha, Steven H.

    2016-07-15

    The Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and Science Programs engage in a vigorous array of experiments, theory, and modeling. We use the three major High Energy Density facilities, NIF, Omega, and Z to perform experiments. These include opacity, radiation transport, hydrodynamics, ignition science, and burn experiments to aid the ICF and Science campaigns in reaching their stewardship goals. The ICF program operates two nuclear diagnostics at NIF, the neutron imaging system and the gamma reaction history instruments. Both systems are being expanded with significant capability enhancements.

  8. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-11-16

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  9. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOEpatents

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  10. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOEpatents

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  11. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable than

  12. National Ignition Facility for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Murray, J.R.

    1997-10-08

    The National Ignition Facility for inertial confinement fusion will contain a 1.8 MJ, 500 TW frequency-tripled neodymium glass laser system that will be used to explore fusion ignition and other problems in the physics of high temperature and density. We describe the facility briefly. The NIF is scheduled to be completed in 2003.

  13. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications in national security and basic sciences. The US is arguably the world leader in the inertial confinement approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it, with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion. Here, we review the current state of the art in inertial confinement fusion research and describe the underlying physical principles.

  14. Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory:. The National Ignition Facility, Inertial Fusion Energy, 100-1000 TW Lasers, and the Fast Igniter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard Lowdermilk, W.

    The ultimate goal of worldwide research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to develop fusion as an inexhaustible, economic, environmentally safe source of electric power. Following nearly thirty years of laboratory and underground fusion experiments, the next step toward this goal is to demonstrate ignition and propagating burn of fusion fuel in the laboratory. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project is being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for just this purpose. NIF will use advanced Nd-glass laser technology to deliver 1.8 MJ of 0.35 μm laser light in a shaped pulse, several nanoseconds in duration, achieving a peak power of 500 TW. A national community of U.S. laboratories is participating in this project, now in its final design phase. France and the United Kingdom are collaborating on development of required technology under bilateral agreements with the US. This paper presents key aspects of the laser design, and descriptions of principal laser and optical components. Follow-on development of lasers to meet the demands of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is reviewed. In parallel with the NIF Project and IFE developments, work is proceeding on ultrashort pulse lasers with peak power in the range of 100-1000 TW. A beamline on the Nova laser at LLNL recently delivered nearly 600 J of 1 μm light in a 0.5 ps duration pulse, for a peak power in excess of a petawatt (1015 W). This beamline, with advanced adaptive optics, will be capable of focused intensities in excess of 1021 W/cm2. Its primary purpose will be to test technological and scientific aspects of an alternate ignition concept, called the "Fast Igniter", that has the potential to produce higher fusion gain than conventional ICF.

  15. Magnetic Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Feng; Zheng, Xianjun; Deng, Baiquan; Liu, Wei; Ou, Wei; Huang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the similarity in models of the early Sun and the 3-D common focal region of the micro-pinch in X-pinch experiments, a novel hybrid fusion configuration by continuous focusing of multiple Z-pinched plasma beams on spatially symmetric plasma is proposed. By replacing gravity with Lorentz force with subsequent centripetal spherical pinch, the beam-target fusion reactivity is enhanced in a quasi-spherical converging region, thus achieving MICF. An assessment, presented here, suggests that a practical fusion power source could be achieved using deuterium alone. Plasma instabilities can be suppressed by fast rotation resulting from an asymmetric tangential torsion in the spherical focal region of this configuration. Mathematical equivalence with the Sun allows the development of appropriate equations for the focal region of MICF, which are solved numerically to provide density, temperature and pressure distributions that produce net fusion energy output. An analysis of MICF physics and a preliminary experimental demonstration of a single beam are also carried out. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11374217 and 11176020)

  16. Laser driven instabilities in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kruer, W.L.

    1990-06-04

    Parametric instabilities excited by an intense electromagnetic wave in a plasma is a fundamental topic relevant to many applications. These applications include laser fusion, heating of magnetically-confined plasmas, ionospheric modification, and even particle acceleration for high energy physics. In laser fusion, these instabilities have proven to play an essential role in the choice of laser wavelength. Characterization and control of the instabilities is an ongoing priority in laser plasma experiments. Recent progress and some important trends will be discussed. 8 figs.

  17. Effect of Fuelling Depth on the Fusion Performance and Particle Confinement of a Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-12-01

    The fusion performance and particle confinement of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device have been modeled by numerically solving the energy transport equation and the particle transport equation. The effect of fuelling depth has been investigated. The plasma is primarily heated by the fusion produced alpha particles and the loss process of particles and energy in the scrape-off layer has been taken into account. To study the effect of fuelling depth on fusion performance, the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. It is shown that the particle confinement and fusion performance are significantly dependent on the fuelling depth. Deviation of 10% of the minor radius on fuelling depth can make the particle confinement change by ∼ 61% and the fusion performance change by ∼ 108%. The enhancement of fusion performance is due to the better particle confinement induced by deeper particle fuelling. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175178 and 11375196) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2014GB113000)

  18. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used.

  19. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-08-10

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere.

  20. Initial progress in the first wall, blanket, and shield Engineering Test Program for magnetically confined fusion-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Baker, C.C.; Maroni, V.A.

    1981-10-01

    The first wall/blanket/shield (FW/B/S) Engineering Test Program (ETP) progressed from the planning stage into implementation during July, 1981. The program, generic in nature, comprises four Test Program Elements (TPE's), the emphasis of which is on defining the performance parameters for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) and the major fusion device to follow FED. These elements are: (1) nonnuclear thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing of first wall and component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads and heat transient (i.e., plasma disruption) effects; (2) nonnuclear and nuclear testing of FW/B/S components and assemblies with emphasis on bulk (nuclear) heating effects, integrated FW/B/S hydraulics and mechanics, blanket coolant system transients, and nuclear benchmarks; (3) FW/B/S electromagnetic and eddy current effects testing, including pulsed field penetration, torque and force restraint, electromagnetic materials, liquid metal MHD effects and the like; and (4) FW/B/S Assembly, Maintenance and Repair (AMR) studies focusing on generic AMR criteria, with the objective of preparing an AMR designers guidebook; also, development of rapid remote assembly/disassembly joint system technology, leak detection and remote handling methods.

  1. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, Robert E.

    2015-08-27

    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.

  2. Summary of progress in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, S.M.

    1992-12-31

    Progress in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been very rapid over the past two years. Significant advances have been made in the production of smooth laser beams, the focusing of light ions beams, and the development of heavy ion accelerators. The availability of advanced target diagnostics on several major drivers has resulted in an extensive database of target performance over a wide range of conditions. Theoretical models of ICF targets are approaching the predictive level with two and even three dimensional calculations becoming routine. Within the next several years information should be available to allow confident extrapolation to ignition on the next generation driver.

  3. Summary of progress in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been very rapid over the past two years. Significant advances have been made in the production of smooth laser beams, the focusing of light ions beams, and the development of heavy ion accelerators. The availability of advanced target diagnostics on several major drivers has resulted in an extensive database of target performance over a wide range of conditions. Theoretical models of ICF targets are approaching the predictive level with two and even three dimensional calculations becoming routine. Within the next several years information should be available to allow confident extrapolation to ignition on the next generation driver.

  4. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H

    2005-06-21

    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  5. Species separation in inertial confinement fusion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bellei, C.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Haines, M. G.; Casey, D. T.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Welch, D. R.

    2013-01-15

    It is shown by means of multi-fluid particle-in-cell simulations that convergence of the spherical shock wave that propagates through the inner gas of inertial confinement fusion-relevant experiments is accompanied by a separation of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) ions across the shock front. Deuterons run ahead of the tritons due to their lower mass and higher charge-to-mass ratio and can reach the center several tens of picoseconds before the tritons. The rising edge of the DD and TT fusion rate is also temporally separated by the same amount, which should be an observable in experiments and would be a direct proof of the 'stratification conjecture' on the shock front [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056308 (2011)]. Moreover, dephasing of the D and T shock components in terms of density and temperature leads to a degradation of the DT fusion yield as the converging shock first rebounds from the fuel center (shock yield). For the parameters of this study, the second peak in the fusion yield (compression yield) is strongly dependent on the choice of the flux limiter.

  6. NRL Research in Support of the DOE Charged-Particle Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Program for FY 77-78.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-27

    Heavy Ions for Inertial Fusion, Berkeley, CA, July 1976. Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-5543, 1976. 1. "Current Neutralization of Converging Ion...Analysis of a leavy Ion Beam-Plasma System," P.F. Ottinger and 1). Mosher, Ibid. K. "Ion-Stopping Power of Ionized Media," b: 1). Mosher, Proc. ERDA...Summer Study of licavy Ions for Inertial Fusion, Berkeley, CA, July 1976. Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-5543, 1976. 65 I

  7. Stellarator approach to fusion plasma confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The stellarator is a toroidal fusion plasma confinement device with nested magnetic flux surfaces. The required twist of the field lines is produced by external helical coils rather than by plasma current, as in a tokamak. Stellarator devices are attractive fusion reactor candidates precisely because they offer the prospect of steady-state operation without plasma current. In the last few years the excellent results achieved with currentless stellarator plasmas of modest minor radius (10 to 20 cm) at Kyoto University (Japan) and the Max Planck Institute (West Germany) have made the stellarator second only to the tokamak in its progress toward fusion breakeven, with temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/ approx. 1 KeV, Lawson products n tau approx. 2 to 5 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/.s, and volume-averaged beta values approx. = 2%. The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), now under construction at Oak Ridge Natioal Laboratory (ORNL) and scheduled to operate in 1986, represents a significant advance in stellarator research, with a plasma major radius of 2.1 m, an average minor radius of 0.3 m, and a magnetic field of 2 T for 5 s or 1 T at steady state. ATF replaces the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at ORNL and will use the ISX-B heating and diagnostic system.

  8. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, April--June 1995. Volume 5, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The ICF Quarterly Reports is published four times each fiscal year by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The journal reports selected current research within the ICF Program. Major areas of investigation presented here include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology.

  9. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D

    1998-06-01

    The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at http://lasers.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change provided a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated applications. We also

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 5, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included this quarter include: the role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of Inertial Confinement Fusion, laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums, evolution of solid-state induction modulators for a heavy-ion recirculator, the National Ignition Facility project, and terminal-level relaxation in Nd-doped laser material.

  11. High Efficiency Targets for High Gain Inertial Confinement Fusion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-19

    Inertial Confinement Fusion JOHN H. GARDNER AND STEPHEN E. BODNER Laboratory for Computational Physics DTIC CD ELECTEf OCT 241986 j NU Aproedfr...81425 " 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) High Efficiency Targets for High Gain Inertial Confinement Fusion 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Gardner, John ...ArearCod) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL % John H. Gardner (202) 767-3055 Code 4040 DO FORM 1473. 84 MAR 83 APR edtion may be used until exhausted SECURITY

  12. KULL: LLNL's ASCI Inertial Confinement Fusion Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rathkopf, J. A.; Miller, D. S.; Owen, J. M.; Zike, M. R.; Eltgroth, P. G.; Madsen, N. K.; McCandless, K. P.; Nowak, P. F.; Nemanic, M. K.; Gentile, N. A.; Stuart, L. M.; Keen, N. D.; Palmer, T. S.

    2000-01-10

    KULL is a three dimensional, time dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), KULL's purpose is to simulate the physical processes in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets. The National Ignition Facility, where ICF experiments will be conducted, and ASCI are part of the experimental and computational components of DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. This paper provides an overview of ASCI and describes KULL, its hydrodynamic simulation capability and its three methods of simulating radiative transfer. Particular emphasis is given to the parallelization techniques essential to obtain the performance required of the Stockpile Stewardship Program and to exploit the massively parallel processor machines that ASCI is procuring.

  13. Computer modeling and simulation in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1989-03-01

    The complex hydrodynamic and transport processes associated with the implosion of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellet place considerable demands on numerical simulation programs. Processes associated with implosion can usually be described using relatively simple models, but their complex interplay requires that programs model most of the relevant physical phenomena accurately. Most hydrodynamic codes used in ICF incorporate a one-fluid, two-temperature model. Electrons and ions are assumed to flow as one fluid (no charge separation). Due to the relatively weak coupling between the ions and electrons, each species is treated separately in terms of its temperature. In this paper we describe some of the major components associated with an ICF hydrodynamics simulation code. To serve as an example we draw heavily on a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code (ORCHID) written at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. 46 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Computer modeling and simulation in inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Verdon, C. P.

    1989-03-01

    The complex hydrodynamic and transport processes associated with the implosion of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellet place considerable demands on numerical simulation programs. Processes associated with implosion can usually be described using relatively simple models, but their complex interplay requires that programs model most of the relevant physical phenomena accurately. Most hydrodynamic codes used in ICF incorporate a one-fluid, two-temperature model. Electrons and ions are assumed to flow as one fluid (no charge separation). Due to the relatively weak coupling between the ions and electrons, each species is treated separately in terms of its temperature. In this paper we describe some of the major components associated with an ICF hydrodynamics simulation code. To serve as an example we draw heavily on a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code (ORCHID) written at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  15. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  16. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2016-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear bum in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm3-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIP's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY20l0 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  17. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  18. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-03

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications to national security and basic sciences. The U.S. is arguably the world leader in the inertial con fment approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Even though significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion.

  19. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-03

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications to national security and basic sciences. The U.S. is arguably the world leader in the inertial con fment approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it with the objective of establishing the science related to themore » safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Even though significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion.« less

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  1. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  2. Progress in toroidal confinement and fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    During the past 30 years, the characteristic T/sub i/n tau/sub E/-value of toroidal-confinement experiments has advanced by more than seven orders of magnitude. Part of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of the advance is associated with improvements in the ''quality of plasma confinement.'' The combined evidence of spherator and tokamak research clarifies the role of magnetic-field geometry in determining confinement and points to the importance of shielding out plasma edge effects. A true physical understanding of anomalous transport remains to be achieved. 39 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  4. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  5. Coupling of transit time instabilities in electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, J. Fröhlich, M.

    2015-07-15

    A model of the behavior of transit time instabilities in an electrostatic confinement fusion reactor is presented in this letter. It is demonstrated that different modes are excited within the spherical cathode of a Farnsworth fusor. Each of these modes is dependent on the fusion products as well as the acceleration voltage applied between the two electrodes and they couple to a resulting oscillation showing non-linear beat phenomena. This type of instability is similar to the transit time instability of electrons between two resonant surfaces but the presence of ions and the occurring fusion reactions alter the physics of this instability considerably. The physics of this plasma instability is examined in detail for typical physical parameter ranges of electrostatic confinement fusion devices.

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  7. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development, and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  8. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included 'Capabilities Activation' and 'Capabilities Demonstration' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included 'Small Glass Shell Deliveries' and 'Composite Polymer Capsules' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct 'Onsite Support' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of 'Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats' and established 'Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the 'Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  9. Status of target physics for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    A four day review to assess the status of target physics of inertial confinement fusion was held at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters on November 14 to 17, 1988. This review completes the current series of reviews of the inertial fusion program elements to assess the status of the data base for a decision to proceed with the proposed Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) that is being planned. In addition to target physics, the program elements that have been reviewed previously include the driver technology development for KrF and solid-state lasers, and the light-on beam pulsed power system. This series of reviews was undertaken for internal DOE assessment in anticipation of the ICF program review mandated by the Congress in 1988 to be completed in 1990 to assess the significance and implications of the progress that has been realized in the laboratory and the underground Halite/Centurion experiments. For this target physics review, both the direct and the indirect drive approaches were considered. The principal issues addressed in this review were: (1) the adequacy of the present target physics data base in making a decision to proceed with design and construction of LMF now as opposed to continuing planning activities at this time; (2) the desirability of specific additional target physics data in reducing the risk involved in a DOE decision to construct an LMF; (3) the continuing role of Halite/Centurion experiments; (4) the priority given to the direct drive approach; and (5) the optimal program-elements structure to resolve the critical issues of an LMF decision. Specific findings relating to these five issues are summarized.

  10. Addressing Common Technical challenges in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Donald A.

    2016-09-22

    The implosion phase for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) occurs from initiation of the drive until just before stagnation. Evolution of the shell and fusion fuel during the implosion phase is affected by the initial conditions of the target, the drive history. Poor performing implosions are a result of the behavior that occurs during the implosion phase such as low mode asymmetries, mixing of the ablator into the fuel, and the hydrodynamic evolution of initial target features and defects such as the shell mounting hardware. The ultimate results of these effects can only be measured at stagnation. However, studying the implosion phase can be effective for understanding and mitigating these effects and for of ultimately improving the performance of ICF implosions. As the ICF program moves towards the 2020 milestone to “determine the efficacy of ignition”, it will be important to understand the physics that occurs during the implosion phase. This will require both focused and integrated experiments. Focused experiments will provide the understanding and the evidence needed to support any determination concerning the efficacy of ignition.

  11. An antiproton catalyst for inertial confinement fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Raymond A.; Newton, Richard; Smith, Gerald A.; Toothacker, William S.; Kanzleiter, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an inertial confinement fusion propulsion system involving an antiproton catalyst (for antiproton-induced fission). It is argued that, when the two processes, fusion and antimatter annihilation, are combined into one system, a viable candidate propulsion system for planetary exploration emerges. It is shown that as much as 7.6 GW of power, well within the requrements for interplanetary travel, can be achieved using existing driver technologies and available quantities of antiprotons.

  12. Inertial Confinement Fusion Research at LOS Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batha, S. H.; Albright, B. J.; Alexander, D. J.; Barnes, Cris W.; Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Cooley, J. C.; Cooley, J. H.; Day, R. D.; DeFriend, K. A.; Delamater, N. D.; Dodd, E. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Fernandez, J. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Grim, G. P.; Goldman, S. R.; Greenfield, S. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N. M.; Holmes, R. L.; Johnson, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Lanier, N. E.; Loomis, E.; Lopez, F. E.; Luo, S.; Mack, J. M.; Magelssen, G. R.; Montgomery, D. S.; Nobile, A.; Oertel, J. A.; Reardon, P.; Rose, H. A.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, M. J.; Seifter, A.; Shimada, T.; Swift, D. C.; Tierney, T. E.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Wilke, M. D.; Wilson, D. C.; Workman, J.; Yin, L.

    2009-07-01

    Inertial confinement fusion research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is focused on high-leverage areas of thermonuclear ignition to which LANL can apply its historic strengths and that are complementary to high-energy-density-physics topics. Using the Trident and Omega laser facilities, experiments are pursued in laser-plasma instabilities, symmetry, Be technologies, neutron and fusion-product diagnostics, and defect hydrodynamics.

  13. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; Brandon, S. T.; Langer, S. H.; Nora, R. C.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. This new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  14. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  15. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, July--September 1994. Volume 4, Number 4

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, E.

    1994-09-01

    The ICF Quarterly continues with six articles in this issue describing recent developments in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The topics include plasma characterization, production of millimeter scale-length plasmas for studying laser-plasma instabilities, hohlraum physics, three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, crystal growth, and laser-beam smoothing.

  16. Pulsed Power Fusion Program update

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has supported a substantial research program in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) since the early 1970s. Over the course of the ensuing 25 years, pulsed power energy, efficiency, and relatively low cost of the technology when compared to the mainline ICF approach involving large glass lasers. These compelling advantages of pulsed power, however, have been tempered with the difficulty that has been encountered in concentrating the energy in space and time to create the high energy and power density required to achieve temperatures useful in indirect drive ICF. Since the Beams `96 meeting two years ago, the situation has changed dramatically and extremely high x-ray power ({approximately}290 TW) and energy ({approximately}1.8 MJ) have been produced in fast x-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator. These sources have been utilized to heat hohlraums to >150 eV and have opened the door to important ICF capsule experiments.

  17. General principles of magnetic fusion confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    A few of the areas are described in which there is close interaction between atomic/molecular (A and M) and magnetic fusion physics. The comparisons between predictions of neoclassical transport theory and experiment depend on knowledge of ionization and recombination rate coefficients. Modeling of divertor/scrapeoff plasmas requires better low energy charge exchange cross sections for H + A/sup n+/ collisions. The range of validity of neutral beam trapping cross sections must be broadened, both to encompass the energies typical of present injection experiments and to deal with the problem of prompt trapping of highly excited beam atoms at high energy. Plasma fueling models present certain anomalies that could be resolved by calculation and measurement of low energy (<1 keV) charge exchange cross sections.

  18. Cascade inertial-confinement-fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Maya, I.

    1985-11-13

    The Cascade reactor is double-cone shaped with a maximum radius of 5 m. It rotates at 50 rpm. The average temperature of a three-material flowing granular blanket leaving the reactor is 1440 K. Heat from the blanket is transferred to helium gas in a shell- and ceramic-tube-type heat exchanger that has a separate region for each blanket material. Diffusion of tritium from the blanket granules through the heat exchanger is only 25 Ci/d, so no intermediate loop is needed for isolation. We selected a simple once-through, regenerative, 5-MPa helium gas-turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Fusion power is 1500 MW; this is multiplied to 1670 MW/sub t/ in the blanket. Power conversion efficiency is 55%. Net electric power is 815 MW/sub e/, produced with a net plant efficiency of 49%.

  19. Experimental Test of the Polarization Persistence in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didelez, J. P.; Deutsch, C.; Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, M.; Utsuro, M.

    2016-03-01

    The complete deuteron and triton polarization in the DT fusion increases the reactivity by 50%. For Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), due to the dynamics of the fusion reaction process, the fusion rate could even be further increased. It has been argued that the polarization would survive as well in magnetic as in inertial confinements. Recently, we have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a powerful laser hitting a polarized HD target.The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse. The corresponding reaction is: D + D → 3He + n. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are signatures to estimate the polarization persistency. A proposal to test the persistence of the polarization in ICF has been accepted at ILE: the POLAF project (POlarization in LAser Fusion Process). It uses the polarized HD targets produced at RCNP and the powerful ILE lasers, as well as the neutron detectors existing there. Both institutions are on the same campus at Osaka University. The description of the POLAF experiment and of the corresponding set-up is given.

  20. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  1. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  2. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Assessing the degree to which fusion alpha particles contribute to the fusion yield is essential to understanding the onset of the thermal runaway process of thermonuclear ignition. It is shown that in inertial confinement fusion, the yield enhancement due to alpha particle heating (before ignition occurs) depends on the generalized Lawson parameter that can be inferred from experimental observables. A universal curve valid for arbitrary laser-fusion targets shows the yield amplification due to alpha heating for a given value of the Lawson parameter. The same theory is used to determine the onset of the burning plasma regime when the alpha heating exceeds the compression work. This result can be used to assess the performance of current ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility.

  3. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  4. HYLIFE-2 inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1990-10-01

    The HYLIFE-II inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-II avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li2BeF4) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    The ICF Program has undergone a significant change in 1999 with the decommissioning of the Nova laser and the transfer of much of the experimental program to the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester. The Nova laser ended operations with the final experiment conducted on May 27, 1999. This marked the end to one of DOE's most successful experimental facilities. Since its commissioning in 1985, Nova performed 13,424 experiments supporting ICF, Defense Sciences, high-power laser research, and basic science research. At the time of its commissioning, Nova was the world's most powerful laser. Its early experiments demonstrated that 3ω light could produce high-drive, low-preheat environment required for indirect-drive ICE. In the early 1990s, the technical program on Nova for indirect drive ignition was defined by the Nova technical contract established by National Academy Review of ICF in 1990. Successful completion of this research program contributed significantly to the recommendation by the ICF Advisory Committee in 1995 to proceed with the construction of the National Ignition Facility? Nova experiments also demonstrated the utility of high-powered lasers for studying the physics of interest to Defense Sciences. Now, high-powered lasers along with pulsed-power machines are the principal facilities for studying high energy density science in DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). In 1997, one beam of Nova was converted to a short pulsed beam producing a petawatt of power in subpicosecond pulses. The petawatt beam was used for pioneering research in short-pulse laser-matter interactions relevant to fast ignitor ICF and short pulsed x-ray, electron, and particle production for use as probes. Nova is being disassembled and the space is being used to support NIF construction. Nova components are being distributed to a number of other laser laboratories around the world for reuse as determined by DOE. This report summarizes the research performed by the ICF

  6. Generating High-Brightness Ion Beams for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneo, M. E.

    1997-11-01

    The generation of high current density ion beams with applied-B ion diodes showed promise in the late-1980's as an efficient, rep-rate, focusable driver for inertial confinement fusion. These devices use several Tesla insulating magnetic fields to restrict electron motion across anode-cathode gaps of order 1-2 cm, while accelerating ions to generate ≈ 1 kA/cm^2, 5 - 15 MeV beams. These beams have been used to heat hohlraums to about 65 eV. However, meeting the ICF driver requirements for low-divergence and high-brightness lithium ion beams has been more technically challenging than initially thought. Experimental and theoretical work over the last 5 years shows that high-brightness beams meeting the requirements for inertial confinement fusion are possible. The production of these beams requires the simultaneous integration of at least four conditions: 1) rigorous vacuum cleaning techniques for control of undesired anode, cathode, ion source and limiter plasma formation from electrode contaminants to control impurity ions and impedance collapse; 2) carefully tailored insulating magnetic field geometry for uniform beam generation; 3) high magnetic fields (V_crit/V > 2) and other techniques to control the electron sheath and the onset of a high divergence electromagnetic instability that couples strongly to the ion beam; and 4) an active, pre-formed, uniform lithium plasma for low source divergence which is compatible with the above electron-sheath control techniques. These four conditions have never been simultaneously present in any lithium beam experiment, but simulations and experimental tests of individual conditions have been done. The integration of these conditions is a goal of the present ion beam generation program at Sandia. This talk will focus on the vacuum cleaning techniques for ion diodes and pulsed power devices in general, including experimental results obtained on the SABRE and PBFA-II accelerators over the last 3 years. The current status of

  7. Next-generation laser for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Bibeau, C; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Ebbers, C A; Emanuel, M; Freitas, B; Fulkerson, S; Honea, E; Krupke, B; Lawson, J; Orth, C; Payne, S; Petty, C; Powell, H; Schaffers, K; Skidmore, J; Smith, L; Sutton, S; Telford, S

    1998-03-13

    We are developing and building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) for advanced high energy density (HED) physics experiments at LLNL. Mercury will be the first integrated demonstration of a scalable laser architecture compatible with advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) goals. Primary performance goals include 10% efficiencies at 10 Hz and a <10 ns pulse with l {omega} energies of 100 J and with 2 {omega}/3 {omega} frequency conversion. Achieving this performance will provide a near term capability for HED experiments and prove the potential of DPSSLs for inertial fusion energy (IFE).

  8. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  9. Tgermonuclear Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Comparison with Magnetic Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; Chang, P.Y.; Spears, B.K.; Anderson, K.S.; Edwards, J.; Fatenejad, M.; Lindl, J.D.; McCrory, R.L.; Nora, R.; Shvarts, D.

    2010-04-23

    The physics of thermonuclear ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is presented in the familiar frame of a Lawson-type criterion. The product of the plasma pressure and confinement time Ptau for ICF is cast in terms of measurable parameters and its value is estimated for cryogenic implosions. An overall ignition parameter chi including pressure, confinement time, and temperature is derived to complement the product Ptau. A metric for performance assessment should include both chi and Ptau. The ignition parameter and the product Ptau are compared between inertial and magnetic-confinement fusion. It is found that cryogenic implosions on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have achieved Ptau ~ 1.5 atm s comparable to large tokamaks such as the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] where Ptau ~ 1 atm s. Since OMEGA implosions are relatively cold (T ~ 2 keV), their overall ignition parameter chi ~ 0.02–0.03 is ~5X lower than in JET (chi ~ 0.13), where the average temperature is about 10 keV.

  10. Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion.

    PubMed

    Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kline, J L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R

    2014-02-20

    Ignition is needed to make fusion energy a viable alternative energy source, but has yet to be achieved. A key step on the way to ignition is to have the energy generated through fusion reactions in an inertially confined fusion plasma exceed the amount of energy deposited into the deuterium-tritium fusion fuel and hotspot during the implosion process, resulting in a fuel gain greater than unity. Here we report the achievement of fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the US National Ignition Facility using a 'high-foot' implosion method, which is a manipulation of the laser pulse shape in a way that reduces instability in the implosion. These experiments show an order-of-magnitude improvement in yield performance over past deuterium-tritium implosion experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from α-particle self-heating and evidence for the 'bootstrapping' required to accelerate the deuterium-tritium fusion burn to eventually 'run away' and ignite.

  11. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  12. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N.; Wilson, D. C.; Stoeffl, W.; Dauffy, L.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.

    2010-10-01

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded γ-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion γ-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10-5γ/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional γ-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available γ-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV γ-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on C12 nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  13. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Herrmann, H W; Hoffman, N; Wilson, D C; Stoeffl, W; Dauffy, L; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Young, C S; Mack, J M; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M; Miller, E K; Ali, Z A

    2010-10-01

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded γ-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion γ-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10(-5)γ/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional γ-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available γ-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV γ-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on (12)C nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  14. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, October--December 1994. Volume 5, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included in this issue include: system description and initial performance results for beamlet, design and performance of the beamlet amplifiers and optical switch, beamlet pulse-generation and wavefront-control system, large-aperture, high- damage-threshold optics for beamlet, beamlet pulsed power system, beamlet laser diagnostics, and beam propagation and frequency conversion modeling for the beamlet laser.

  15. Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-05-01

    Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ``closed`` and `open``. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research.

  16. KrF lasers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Cartwright, D.C.; Figueira, J.F.; McDonald, T.E.; Sorem, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The KrF laser has been proposed for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) since its discovery in 1975. Since that time, the laser has seen significant development and has been increased in energy many orders of magnitude to the several kilojoule energy level. The suitability of the KrF laser as a driver for ICF energy applications has been continually reviewed. The latest assessments indicate that the KrF laser still appears to be the leading laser candidate. A worldwide effort exists to advance the KrF laser for ICF applications. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Multibeam Stimulated Raman Scattering in Inertial Confinement Fusion Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Hohenberger, M.; Jones, O. S.; Hopkins, L. Berzak; Berger, R. L.; Kruer, W. L.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering from multiple laser beams arranged in a cone sharing a common daughter wave is investigated for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions in a inhomogeneous plasma. It is found that the shared electron plasma wave (EPW) process, where the lasers collectively drive the same EPW, can lead to an absolute instability when the electron density reaches a matching condition dependent on the cone angle of the laser beams. This mechanism could explain recent experimental observations of hot electrons at early times in ICF experiments, at densities well below quarter critical when two plasmon decay is not expected to occur.

  18. Multibeam Stimulated Raman Scattering in Inertial Confinement Fusion Conditions.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Divol, L; Dewald, E L; Milovich, J L; Hohenberger, M; Jones, O S; Hopkins, L Berzak; Berger, R L; Kruer, W L; Moody, J D

    2015-07-31

    Stimulated Raman scattering from multiple laser beams arranged in a cone sharing a common daughter wave is investigated for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions in a inhomogeneous plasma. It is found that the shared electron plasma wave (EPW) process, where the lasers collectively drive the same EPW, can lead to an absolute instability when the electron density reaches a matching condition dependent on the cone angle of the laser beams. This mechanism could explain recent experimental observations of hot electrons at early times in ICF experiments, at densities well below quarter critical when two plasmon decay is not expected to occur.

  19. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-10-02

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.

  20. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for interplanetary fusions propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, Charles D.; Klein, Gail; Sercel, Joel; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.

  1. Laser-plasma interactions relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, K. B.

    1998-11-01

    Research into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion is now entering a critical juncture with the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Many of the remaining unanswered questions concerning NIF involve interactions between lasers and plasmas. With the eventual goal of fusion power in mind, laser-plasma interactions relevant to laser fusion schemes is an important topic in need of further research. This work experimentally addresses some potential shortcuts and pitfalls on the road to laser-driven fusion power. Current plans on NIF have 192 laser beams directed into a small cylindrical cavity which will contain the fusion fuel; to accomplish this the beams must cross in the entrance holes, and this intersection will be in the presence of outward-flowing plasma. To investigate the physics involved, interactions of crossing laser beams in flowing plasmas are investigated with experiments on the Nova laser facility at LLNL. It was found that in a flowing plasma, energy is transferred between two crossing laser beams, and this may have deleterious consequences for energy balance and ignition in NIF. Possible solutions to this problem are presented. A recently-proposed alternative to standard laser-driven fusion, the ''fast ignitor'' concept, is also experimentally addressed in this dissertation. Many of the laser-plasma interactions necessary for the success of the fast ignitor have not previously been explored at the relevant laser intensities. Specifically, the transfer of high-intensity laser energy to electrons at solid-target interfaces is addressed. 20-30% conversion efficiencies into forward-propagated electrons were measured, along with an average electron energy that varied with the type of target material. The directionality of the electrons was also measured, revealing an apparent beaming of the highest energy electrons. This work was extended to various intensities and pulse lengths and a

  2. Fusion-breeder program

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-11-19

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

  3. Inertial confinement fusion research and development studies. Final report, October 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bullis, R.; Finkelman, M.; Leng, J.; Luzzi, T.; Ojalvo, I.; Powell, E.; Sedgley, D.

    1980-08-01

    These Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and development studies were selected for structural, thermal, and vacuum pumping analyses in support of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept development. An additional task provided an outlined program plan for an ICF Engineering Test Facility, using the HYLIFE concept as a model, although the plan is generally applicable to other ICF concepts. The HYLIFE is one promising type of ICF concept which features a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets surround the fusion reaction to protect the first structural wall (FSW) of the vacuum chamber by absorbing the fusion energy, and to act as the tritium breeder. The fusion energy source is a deuterium-tritium pellet injected into the chamber every second and driven by laser or heavy ion beams. The studies performed by Grumman have considered the capabilities of specific HYLIFE features to meet life requirements and the requirement to recover to preshot conditions prior to each subsequent shot. The components under investigation were the FSW which restrains the outward motion of the liquid lithium, the nozzle plate which forms the falling jet array, the graphite shield which is in direct top view of the fusion pellet, and the vacuum pumping system. The FSW studies included structural analysis, and definition of an experimental program to validate computer codes describing lithium motion and the resulting impact on the wall.

  4. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  5. Inertial confinement fusion. 1995 ICF annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is a Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program research and advanced technology development program focused on the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. During FY 1995, the ICF Program continued to conduct ignition target physics optimization studies and weapons physics experiments in support of the Defense Program`s stockpile stewardship goals. It also continued to develop technologies in support of the performance, cost, and schedule goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The NIF is a key element of the DOE`s Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. In addition to its primary Defense Program goals, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application to inertial fusion energy (IFE). Also, ICF technologies have had spin-off applications for industrial and governmental use. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, April--June 1994. Volume 4, Number 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains six articles covering a wide range of activities within the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. It concentrates on target design; theoretical spectral analysis of ICF capsule surfaces; laser fusion experimental methods; and an alternative ICF design, based on ultrafast, ultrapowerful lasers. A key issue for the success of the ICF process is the hydrodynamic stability of the imploding capsule. There are two primary sources of instability growth in the ICF process: (1) asymmetries in the x-ray flux that drive the compression lead to asymmetric in the imploding surface; (2) imperfections on the capsule surface can grow into large perturbations, degrading the capsule performance. In recent years, a great deal of effort, both experimentally and theoretically, has been spent to enhance the Program`s ability to measure, model, and minimize instability growth during an implosion. Four the articles in this issue discuss this subject.

  7. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    radioactive by-products. Meeting these challenges will produce spin-off value of enormous magnitude. By exploring the technology spin-offs of the inertial fusion community to date, we can glimpse the expected future rewards from an IFE program.

  8. Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S.X.; Militzer, B.; Goncharov, V.N.; Skupsky, S.

    2010-06-10

    Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of rho = 0.002–1596 g/cm^3 and T = 1.35 eV–5.5 keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density, and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.

  9. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-15

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {mu}m and {approx}10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  10. Design considerations for an inertial confinement fusion reactor power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, J.V.; Simpson, J.E.

    1981-08-10

    To further define the engineering and economic concerns for inertial confinement fusion reactors (ICR's), a conceptual design study was performed by Bechtel Group Incorporated under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study examined alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE concept and expanded the previous balance of plant design to incorporate information from recent liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) power plant studies. The majority of the effort was to incorporate present laser and target physics models into a reactor design with a low coolant flowrate and a high driver repetition rate. An example of such a design is the LLNL JADE concept. In addition to producing a power plant design for LLNL using the JADE example, Bechtel has also examined the applicability of the EAGLE (Energy Absorbing Gas Lithium Ejector) concept.

  11. Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.; Militzer, B.

    2010-06-11

    Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of {rho}=0.002-1596 g/cm{sup 3} and T=1.35 eV-5.5 keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density ({rho}R), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.

  12. Strong coupling and degeneracy effects in inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Militzer, B; Goncharov, V N; Skupsky, S

    2010-06-11

    Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of ρ=0.002-1596  g/cm3 and T=1.35  eV-5.5  keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density (ρR), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.

  13. Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Militzer, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2010-06-01

    Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of ρ=0.002-1596g/cm3 and T=1.35eV-5.5keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density (ρR), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol coating of polystyrene inertial confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annamalai, P.; Lee, M. C.; Crawley, R. L.; Downs, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target made of polystyrene is first levitated in an acoustic field. The surface of the target is then etched using an appropriate solution (e.g., cyclohexane) to enhance the wetting characteristics. A specially prepared polyvinyl alcohol solution is atomized using an acoustic atomizer and deposited on the surface of the target. The solution is air dried to form a thin coating (2 microns) on the target (outside diameter of about 350-850 microns). Thicker coatings are obtained by repeated applications of the coating solutions. Preliminary results indicate that uniform coatings may be achievable on the targets with a background surface smoothness in the order of 1000 A.

  15. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  16. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    2007-07-18

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  17. Double-shell inertial confinement fusion target fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, C.W.; Lorensen, L.E.; Weinstein, B.W.

    1981-04-01

    Double-shell targets may be required for the next generation of inertial confinement fusion targets since the energy available for driving the implosion is limited with current drivers. The use of double-shell targets to provide a velocity multiplication driven implosion is an alternative to increased driver energy. First generation hemishells, from which spherical shells are constructed, were fabricated by micromachining coated mandrels and by molding. The remachining of coated mandrels will be described in detail in this article. Techniques were developed for coating the microsized mandrels with polymeric and metallic materials by methods including conformal coating, vapor deposition, plasma polymerization and thermoforming. Micropositioning equipment and bonding techniques have also been developed to assemble the hemishells about a fuel pellet maintaining a spherical concentricity of better than 2 mm and voids in the hemishell bonding line of a few hundred angstroms or less.

  18. Pierce instability in neutralized inertial confinement fusion ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.; Cary, J.R.

    1982-06-01

    The stability of a charge and current neutralized electron-ion beam propagating between two planar boundaries is investigated. For equipotential boundaries the beam is, as originally shown by Pierce, electrostatically unstable for electron current densities above a certain limiting value. If, however, the electric field at the upstream boundary is required to vanish, there is no instability. An intermediate case, in which the two boundaries are electrically connected with a finite conductivity plasma, corresponds to the proposed use of neutralized light and heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion drivers. Results indicate such beams can propagate either stably or with zero-frequency Pierce instability growth rates which are probably insignificant. lectric currents; boundary conditions; current density; electric fields; plasma;

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions with Seeded Magnetic Fields on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenberger, M.

    2011-10-01

    Experiments applying laser-driven magnetic-flux compression to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments to enhance the fuel-assembly performance are described. Spherical CH targets filled with 10 atm of deuterium gas were imploded by the OMEGA laser in polar-drive geometry. The targets were embedded with an 80-kG magnetic seed field. Upon laser irradiation, the high-implosion velocities and ionization of the target fill lead to trapping of the magnetic field inside the capsule and its amplification through flux compression to up to tens of megagauss. At such strong magnetic fields, the hot spot inside a spherical target becomes strongly magnetized, reducing the heat losses through electron confinement. The experimentally observed ion temperature was enhanced by 15% and the neutron yield was increased by 30%, compared to nonmagnetized implosions. This represents the first experimental verification of performance enhancement resulting from embedding a strong magnetic field into an ICF capsule. The compressed field was probed via proton deflectometry using the 14.7-MeV protons generated in the D+3He fusion reactions from a laser-imploded glass microballoon. Experimental data for the fuel-assembly performance and magnetic field are compared to numerical results from combining the 1-D hydrodynamics code LILAC with a 2-D, azimuthal symmetry MHD postprocessor. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-04ER54789 and DE-FC52-08NA28302. In collaboration with P.-Y. Chang, G. Fiksel, J. P. Knauer, R. Betti, F. J. Marshall, and D. D. Meyerhofer (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester), and F. H. Séguin and R. D. Petrasso (PSFC, MIT).

  20. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  1. Innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion reactors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourque, R.F.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    Three areas of innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design are given. First, issues pertaining to the Cascade reactor concept are discussed. Then, several innovative concepts are presented which attempt to directly recover the blast energy from a fusion target. Finally, the Turbostar concept for direct recovery of that energy is evaluated. The Cascade issues discussed are combustion of the carbon granules in the event of air ingress, the use of alternate granule materials, and the effect of changes in carbon flow on details of the heat exchanger. Carbon combustion turns out to be a minor problem. Four ICF innovative concepts were considered: a turbine with ablating surfaces, a liquid piston system, a wave generator, and a resonating pump. In the final analysis, none show any real promise. The Turbostar concept of direct recovery is a very interesting idea and appeared technically viable. However, it shows no efficiency gain or any decrease in capital cost compared to reactors with conventional thermal conversion systems. Attempts to improve it by placing a close-in lithium sphere around the target to increase gas generation increased efficiency only slightly. It is concluded that these direct conversion techniques require thermalization of the x-ray and debris energy, and are Carnot limited. They therefore offer no advantage over existing and proposed methods of thermal energy conversion or direct electrical conversion.

  2. Developing one-dimensional implosions for inertial confinement fusion science

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, John L.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; ...

    2016-12-12

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield overmore » the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. As a result, details for each of these approaches are described.« less

  3. Developing one-dimensional implosions for inertial confinement fusion science

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, John L.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Olson, Richard Edward; Wilson, Douglas Carl; Kyrala, George Amine; Perry, Theodore Sonne; Batha, Steven H.; Dewald, Eddie L.; Ralph, Joe E.; Strozzi, David J.; MacPhee, Andy G.; Callahan, Debbie A.; Hinkel, Denise; Hurricane, Omar A.; Leeper, Ramon J.; Zylstra, Alex B.; Peterson, Robert Ross; Haines, Brian Michael; Yin, Lin; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Shah, Rahul C.; Braun, Tom; Biener, Jorgan; Kozioziemski, Bernie J.; Sater, Jim D.; Biener, Monika M.; Hamza, Alex V.; Nikroo, Abbas; Berzak Hopkins, Laura F.; Ho, Darwin; LePape, Sebastian; Meezan, Nathan B.; Montgomery, David S.; Daughton, William Scott; Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine; Cardenas, Tana; Dodd, Evan S.

    2016-12-12

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. As a result, details for each of these approaches are described.

  4. Advanced Scintillator Detectors for Neutron Imaging in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, Verena; Danly, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Simpson, Raspberry; Volegov, Petr; Wilde, Carl

    2016-10-01

    The neutron imaging team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been providing two-dimensional neutron imaging of the inertial confinement fusion process at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for over five years. Neutron imaging is a powerful tool in which position-sensitive detectors register neutrons emitted in the fusion reactions, producing a picture of the burning fuel. Recent images have revealed possible multi-dimensional asymmetries, calling for additional views to facilitate three-dimensional imaging. These will be along shorter lines of sight to stay within the existing facility at NIF. In order to field imaging capabilities equivalent to the existing system several technological challenges have to be met: high spatial resolution, high light output, and fast scintillator response to capture lower-energy neutrons, which have scattered from non-burning regions of fuel. Deuterated scintillators are a promising candidate to achieve the timing and resolution required; a systematic study of deuterated and non-deuterated polystyrene and liquid samples is currently ongoing. A test stand has been implemented to measure the response function, and preliminary data on resolution and light output have been obtained at the LANL Weapons Neutrons Research facility.

  5. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari, S. Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

    2014-10-15

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion: Quarterly report, April-June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.

    1996-06-01

    The lead article, `Ion-beam propagation in a low-density reactor chamber for heavy-ion inertial fusion` (p. 89), explores the ability of heavy-ion beams to be adequately transported and focused in an IFE reactor. The next article, `Efficient production and applications of 2- to 10-keV x rays by laser-heated underdense radiators` (p. 96), explores the ability of the NIF to produce sufficient high-energy x rays for diagnostic backlighting, target preheating, or uniform irradiation of large test objects for Nuclear Weapons Effects Testing. For capsule implosion experiments, the increasing energies and distances involved in the NIF compared to Nova require the development of new diagnostics methods. The article `Fusion reaction-rate measurements--Nova and NIF` (p. 115) first reviews the use of time-resolved neutron measurements on Nova to monitor fusion burn histories and then explores the limitations of that technique, principally Doppler broadening, for the proposed NIF. It also explores the use of gamma rays on Nova, thereby providing a proof-of-principle for using gamma rays for monitoring fusion burn histories on the NIF. The articles `The energetics of gas-filled hohlraums` (p. 110) and `Measurements of laser- speckle-induced perturbations in laser-driven foils` (p. 123) report measurements on Nova of two important aspects of implosion experiments. The first characterizes the amount of energy lost from a hohlraum by stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering as a function of gas fill and laser-beam uniformity. The second of these articles shows that the growth of density nonuniformities implanted on smooth capsule surfaces by laser speckle can be correlated with the effects of physical surface roughness. The article `Laser-tissue interaction modeling with the LATIS computer program` (p. 103) explores the use of modeling to enhance the effectiveness--maximize desired effects and minimize collateral damage--of lasers for medical purposes.

  7. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  8. Large orbit magnetic confinement systems for advanced fusion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, N.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the grant/contract was to illuminate the problem of magnetic confinement for plasmas where the majority of ions have large gyro-orbits and do not obey adiabatic particle dynamics. The electrons are adiabatic. We considered a class of equilibria where large orbit ions dominate; the equilibria are rigorous solutions of the Vlasov/Maxwell equations. For a simple cse -- the infinitely long, low beta, rotating plasma a complete stability analysis was carried out. This problem was the basis of the first paper on finite Larmor radius stabilization. In that paper an expansion in {var epsilon} = {bar {alpha}}{sub i}/r{sub o} was carried out to the first significant order beyond MHD. In this report the same problem is solved to all orders in {var epsilon}. While this case is of limited applicability to experiments it is rigorous and without approximations, so that it can be used to verify approximations to be developed for more complex and useful cases. The application of the results to date to small fusion reactors is described in the second paper which was written after the termination of the contract, but is based in part on material developed during the contract period.

  9. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  10. Transmission Grating Imaging Spectrometer for Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagojevic, B.; Stutman, D.; Vero, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.

    2001-10-01

    The Johns Hopkins Plasma Spectroscopy Group is developing a transmission grating (TG) based imaging spectrometer for the soft and ultrasoft X-ray (USXR) ranges. The spectrometer will be integrated into a multi-purpose impurity diagnostic package for Magnetically Confined Fusion experiments, which will provide time and space resolved information about radiation losses, Zeff profiles and particle transport. The package will also include 2-D filtered USXR diode arrays and atomic physics and impurity transport computational capability. The spectrometer has a very simple layout, consisting of two collimating and space resolving slits, a TG and a 2-D imaging detector. As detector we are developing phosphor (P45) coated fiber optic plates with CCD and intensified CCD image readout. The performance of a test 5000 l/mm, 2:1 bar to open area ratio TG has been evaluated in the laboratory using a K-alpha Manson source and the emission from a Penning Discharge. The incident and diffracted photon flux was recorded in the 10-300 Å range with a gas flow proportional counter. The measurements show that spectral resolution and efficiency agree well with the predicted values. A device optimized for spectral resolution and higher order suppression will be tested on the CDX-U and NSTX tokamak at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Work supported by DoE grant No. DE-FG02-86ER52314ATDoE

  11. External Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements on a Surrogate Indirect Inertial Confinement Fusion Target

    DOE PAGES

    Miles, Robin; Havstad, Mark; LeBlanc, Mary; ...

    2015-09-15

    External heat transfer coefficients were measured around a surrogate Indirect inertial confinement fusion (ICF) based on the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) design target to validate thermal models of the LIFE target during flight through a fusion chamber. Results indicate that heat transfer coefficients for this target 25-50 W/m2∙K are consistent with theoretically derived heat transfer coefficients and valid for use in calculation of target heating during flight through a fusion chamber.

  12. External Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements on a Surrogate Indirect Inertial Confinement Fusion Target

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin; Havstad, Mark; LeBlanc, Mary; Golosker, Ilya; Chang, Allan; Rosso, Paul

    2015-09-15

    External heat transfer coefficients were measured around a surrogate Indirect inertial confinement fusion (ICF) based on the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) design target to validate thermal models of the LIFE target during flight through a fusion chamber. Results indicate that heat transfer coefficients for this target 25-50 W/m2∙K are consistent with theoretically derived heat transfer coefficients and valid for use in calculation of target heating during flight through a fusion chamber.

  13. Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Project Staff

    2012-02-29

    Under this project, General Atomics (GA) was tasked to develop the experimental validation plans for two high priority ISAs, Boundary and Pedestal and Whole Device Modeling in collaboration with the theory, simulation and experimental communities. The following sections have been incorporated into the final FSP Program Plan (www.pppl.gov/fsp), which was delivered to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional deliverables by GA include guidance for validation, development of metrics to evaluate success and procedures for collaboration with experiments. These are also part of the final report.

  14. Historical Perspective on the United States Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Stephen O

    2005-04-15

    Progress and Policy is traced over the approximately 55 year history of the U. S. Fusion Program. The classified beginnings of the effort in the 1950s ended with declassification in 1958. The effort struggled during the 1960s, but ended on a positive note with the emergence of the tokamak and the promise of laser fusion. The decade of the 1970s was the 'Golden Age' of fusion, with large budget increases and the construction of many new facilities, including the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Shiva laser. The decade ended on a high note with the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, overwhelming approved by Congress and signed by President Carter. The Act called for a '$20 billion, 20 year' effort aimed at construction of a fusion Demonstration Power Plant around the end of the century. The U. S. Magnetic Fusion Energy program has been on a downhill slide since 1980, both in terms of budgets and the construction of new facilities. The Inertial Confinement Fusion program, funded by Department of Energy Defense Programs, has faired considerably better, with the construction of many new facilities, including the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  15. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M

    1999-05-14

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  16. Mixing with applications to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, V.; Lim, H.; Melvin, J.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix. The performance cliff we identify is associated with multimode plastic ablator (CH) mix into the hot-spot deuterium and tritium (DT). The buoyancy-drag mix model is mode number independent and selects implicitly a range of maximum growth modes. Our main conclusion is that single effect instabilities are predicted not to lead to hot-spot mix, while combined mode mixing effects are predicted to affect hot-spot thermodynamics and possibly hot-spot mix. Combined with the stagnation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we find the potential for mix effects in combination with the ice-to-gas DT boundary, numerical effects of Eulerian species CH concentration diffusion, and ablation-driven instabilities. With the help of a convenient package of plasma transport parameters developed here, we give an approximate determination of these quantities in the regime relevant to the NIC experiments, while ruling out a variety of mix possibilities. Plasma transport parameters affect the 1D buoyancy-drag mix model primarily through its phenomenological drag coefficient as well as the 1D hydro model to which the buoyancy-drag equation is coupled.

  17. Laser beam propagation through inertial confinement fusion hohlraum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D. H.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N. B.; Dixit, S.; Neumayer, P.; Moody, J. D.; Pollock, B. B.; Ross, J. S.; Suter, L.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2007-05-15

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes have been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The plasma emulator is produced in a gas-filled hohlraum; a blue 351-nm laser beam propagates along the axis of the hohlraum interacting with a high-temperature (T{sub e}=3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e}=5x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), long-scale length (L{approx}2 mm) plasma. Experiments at these conditions have demonstrated that the interaction beam produces less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for laser intensities less than I<2x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows a stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold (R=10%) for a linear gain of 15; these high temperature, low density experiments produce plasma conditions comparable to those along the outer beams in ignition hohlraum designs. By increasing the gas fill density (n{sub e}=10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in these targets, the inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions are accessed. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes and we show that scattering is small for gains less than 20 which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity.

  18. Laser Beam Propagation through Inertial Confinement Fusion Hohlraum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N B; DIxit, S; Neumayer, P; Moody, J D; Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Glenzer, S H

    2006-10-26

    A study of the relevant laser-plasma interaction processes has been performed in long-scale length plasmas that emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Experiments in this high-temperature (T{sub e} = 3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e} = 0.5 - 1 x 10{sup -3}) hohlraum plasma have demonstrated that blue 351-nm laser beams produce less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for ignition relevant laser intensities (I < 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}). The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows that these results are relevant for the outer beams in ignition hohlraum experiments corresponding to a gain threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering of 15. By increasing the gas fill density in these experiments further accesses inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes. They show that scattering is small for gains smaller than 20, which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity.

  19. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Sethian, J. D.; Short, R. W.; Skupsky, S.; Theobald, W.; Kruer, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Betti, R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Hu, S. X.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Michel, D. T.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-25

    In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for

  20. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    DOE PAGES

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; ...

    2015-11-25

    In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. Themore » problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser

  1. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Sethian, J. D.; Short, R. W.; Skupsky, S.; Theobald, W.; Kruer, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Betti, R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Hu, S. X.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Michel, D. T.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser-plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 μm—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 μm (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon-decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline direct

  2. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McKenty, P. W.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Skupsky, S.; Theobald, W.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Hu, S. X.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Michel, D. T.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; and others

    2015-11-15

    The direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 μm—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 μm (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline

  3. Inertial Confinement Fusion Quarterly Report: April--June 1993. Volume 3, Number 3

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B.J.; Kotowski, M.; Schleich, D.

    1993-11-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains six articles describing recent advances in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. The current emphasis of the ICF program is in support of DOE`s National Ignition Facility (NIF) initiative for demonstrating ignition and gain with a 1-2 MJ glass laser. The articles describe recent Nova experiments and investigations tailored towards enhancing understanding of the key physics and technological issues for the NIF. Titles of the articles are: development of large-aperture KDP crystals; inner-shell photo-ionized X-ray lasers; X-ray radiographic measurements of radiation-driven shock and interface motion in solid density materials; the role of nodule defects in laser-induced damage of multilayer optical coatings; techniques for Mbar to near-Gbar equation-of-state measurements with the Nova laser; parametric instabilities and laser-beam smoothing.

  4. X-ray-ablated plumes in inertial confinement fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, John Mitchell

    Modeling of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target chamber phenomena presents researchers with various technical problems requiring creative solutions. In particular, the wide ranging physical and time scales of the problem give special difficulty when modeling one shot cycle of an ICF target chamber. Ultimately, the goal of the modeling effort is a unified model beginning with target injection and ending with condensation of the vaporized debris. The work here develops a combined gas dynamics/X-ray ablation model used to predict the response of materials to X-ray emissions from ICF targets. This model in combination with experiments performed at the Nova facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aided in the design effort for the first wall of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The phenomena inside an ICF target chamber include the fusion bum of a D-T fuel capsule enclosed in a hohlraum leading to the emission of neutrons, debris, and X rays. The X rays emitted from the target deposit on target facing surfaces, heating and vaporizing the surface layers of the material. The vapor plume generated will travel through the chamber and deposit on various other surfaces. For the NIF and other ICF laser facilities, modeling of these X-ray ablated plumes is important to ascertain the performance of the first wall surface of the target chamber. The first wall must be designed to minimize contamination to laser optics that interface with the target chamber. For this work, experiments were performed to assess the performance of materials at X-ray fluences expected at the NIF first wall. These experiments included long-term exposure of potential target chamber materials, the X-ray response of stainless steel, and a louvered geometry experiment to aid in the assessment of the geometrical design and material selection of the first wall. The results of these experiments show that boron carbide and stainless steel will both perform adequately during facility

  5. Cryogenic DT and D2 Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, T. C.

    2006-10-01

    Nearly all inertial confinement fusion ignition target designs are based on a spherical ablator containing a solid, cryogenic-DT-fuel layer. The uniformity of the inner surface of this layer is a critical factor in determining target performance. This talk will describe how cryogenic targets are made, characterized, and imploded on the 60-beam OMEGA laser. While cryogenic D2 targets have been routinely imploded for several years, only recently have targets containing DT-fuel layers been possible. Several of these targets have been imploded on OMEGA and most have had inner-ice-surface uniformity between 1- and 2-μm rms (very close to the ignition specification). These are the first laser-imploded targets to be formed exclusively using beta layering. The creation of these high-uniformity DT layers depends on understanding and controlling many diverse physics processes. These include sublimation and condensation at the inner ice surface (the heart of the layering process), phase transitions of multi-isotopic hydrogen ice, heat flow in the ice, heat flow in the exchange gas surrounding the ice, the geometry of the layering sphere that surrounds the target, and the time that the target is exposed to ambient radiation before being irradiated. In addition, a unique optical shadowgraphic technique has been developed to accurately characterize the 3-D ice-layer-thickness distribution for model comparisons and input to multidimensional hydrocode simulations. The talk will be placed in a historical context, describing previous approaches that worked with smaller targets and, more importantly, the approach being followed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It will describe the mutual constraints that target-design requirements and cryogenic system practicalities impose upon each other, for both direct and indirect drive, and how lessons learned on OMEGA can be used to improve the prospects for a successful ignition campaign on the NIF. Finally, implosion results from

  6. Quantifying Fusion Born Ion Populations in Magnetically Confined Plasmas using Ion Cyclotron Emission

    DOE PAGES

    Carbajal, L.; Warwick Univ., Coventry; Dendy, R. O.; ...

    2017-03-07

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) offers unique promise as a diagnostic of the fusion born alpha-particle population in magnetically confined plasmas. Pioneering observations from JET and TFTR found that ICE intensity P ICE scales approximately linearly with the measured neutron flux from fusion reactions, and with the inferred concentration, n /n i , of fusion-born alpha-particles confined within the plasma. We present fully nonlinear self-consistent kinetic simulations that reproduce this scaling for the first time. This resolves a longstanding question in the physics of fusion alpha particle confinement and stability in MCF plasmas. It confirms the MCI as the likely emissionmore » mechanism and greatly strengthens the basis for diagnostic exploitation of ICE in future burning plasmas.« less

  7. Plasma kinetic effects on interfacial mix in settings relevant to inertial confinement fusion and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J.; Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K.; Fernández, J. C.; Bang, W.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Hamilton, C. E.; Palaniyappan, S.; Santiago Cordoba, M. A.; Hegelich, B. M.; Dyer, G.; Roycroft, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mixing of high-Z/low-Z interfaces in dense plasma media is a problem of importance for understanding mix in inertial confinement fusion experiments and recent experiments at the LANL Trident facility. In this presentation, we apply the VPIC particle-in-cell code with a binary collision model to explore kinetic effects of the atomic mixing. Comparisons are made to published analytic theory and hybrid modeling results and conditions are identified under which plasma kinetic behavior may lead to anomalously rapid atomic mixing. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  8. Overview of the Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program endeavors to quickly develop a compact fusion power plant with favorable commercial economics and military utility. An overview of the concept and its diamagnetic, high beta magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp confinement scheme will be given. The analytical model of the major loss mechanisms and predicted performance will be discussed, along with the major physics challenges. Key features of an operational CFR reactor will be highlighted. The proposed developmental path following the current experimental efforts will be presented. ©2015 Lockheed Martin Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  10. Comments on the History and Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion (lirpp Vol. 10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, Nikolai G.

    2016-10-01

    It is a special favour to be here at a celebration for Edward Teller who was the very first in history to demonstrate a man-made exothermic nuclear fusion reaction. This represented the process of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) on a large scale. Now it is a most important aim for mankind to develop this process into a smaller controllable scale for production of energy...

  11. Alpha heating and burning plasmas in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Spears, B. K.; Nora, R.; Bose, A.; Howard, J.; Woo, K. M.; Edwards, M. J.; Sanz, J.

    2015-06-01

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  12. Pre-Amplifier Module for Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J E; Bowers, M W

    2008-02-06

    The Pre-Amplifier Modules (PAMs) are the heart of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), providing most of the energy gain for the most energetic laser in the world. Upon completion, NIF will be the only laboratory in which scientists can examine the fusion processes that occur inside stars, supernovae, and exploding nuclear weapons and that may someday serve as a virtually inexhaustible energy source for electricity. Consider that in a fusion power plant 50 cups of water could provide the energy comparable to 2 tons of coal. Of paramount importance for achieving laser-driven fusion ignition with the least energy input is the synchronous and symmetric compression of the target fuel--a condition known as laser power balance. NIF's 48 PAMs thus must provide energy gain in an exquisitely stable and consistent manner. While building one module that meets performance requirements is challenging enough, our design has already enabled the construction and fielding of 48 PAMs that are stable, uniform, and interchangeable. PAM systems are being tested at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and the Atomic Weapons Enterprise of Great Britain has purchased the PAM power system.

  13. Inertially confined fusion plasmas dominated by alpha-particle self-heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Jones, O.; Kritcher, A. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; Moody, J.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Albert, F.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Church, J. A.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H.; Hohenberger, M.; Hoover, D.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G.; Kozioziemski, B.; Grim, G.; Field, J. E.; Frenje, J.; Izumi, N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Khan, S. F.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Landen, O.; Merrill, F.; Michel, P.; Moore, A.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Rygg, R. R.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Shaughnessy, D.; Strozzi, D.; Town, R. P. J.; Turnbull, D.; Volegov, P.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C.; Yeamans, C.

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-particle self-heating, the process of deuterium-tritium fusion reaction products depositing their kinetic energy locally within a fusion reaction region and thus increasing the temperature in the reacting region, is essential for achieving ignition in a fusion system. Here, we report new inertial confinement fusion experiments where the alpha-particle heating of the plasma is dominant with the fusion yield produced exceeding the fusion yield from the work done on the fuel (pressure times volume change) by a factor of two or more. These experiments have achieved the highest yield (26 +/- 0.5 kJ) and stagnation pressures (≍220 +/- 40 Gbar) of any facility-based inertial confinement fusion experiments, although they are still short of the pressures required for ignition on the National Ignition Facility (~300-400 Gbar). These experiments put us in a new part of parameter space that has not been extensively studied so far because it lies between the no-alpha-particle-deposition regime and ignition.

  14. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Barboza, Nigel Oswald

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of ~17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, ~200 g/cm3 and ~20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases ~350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios.

  15. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  16. Confinement of fusion reaction products during the fishbone instability

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Hay, R.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-11-12

    The presence of fishbone events in the PDX tokamak is correlated with a reduction in the burnup of 0.8-MeV /sup 3/He ions. This reduction is probably caused by distortion of the /sup 3/He drift orbitals in the helical magnetic fields associated with the instability, resulting in the loss of about 70% of the confined /sup 3/He ions in a moderately strong fishbone. Such a nonresonant loss of particles with large orbits indicates that fishbone events may influence 3.5-MeV alphas in ignition experiments.

  17. Confinement of fusion reaction products during the fishbone instability

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Hay, R.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-09-01

    The presence of fishbone events in the PDX tokamak is correlated with a reduction in the burnup of 0.8 MeV /sup 3/He ions. This reduction is probably caused by distortion of the /sup 3/He drift orbits in the helical magnetic fields associated with the instability, resulting in the loss of about 70% of the confined /sup 3/He ions in a moderately strong fishbone. Such a nonresonant loss of particles with large orbits indicates that fishbone events may influence 3.5 MeV alphas in ignition experiments.

  18. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.

  19. Engineering design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial-confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W W; Godwin, R O; Hurley, C A; Wallerstein, E. P.; Whitham, K.; Murray, J. E.; Bliss, E. S.; Ozarski, R. G.; Summers, M. A.; Rienecker, F.; Gritton, D. G.; Holloway, F. W.; Suski, G. J.; Severyn, J. R.

    1982-01-25

    The design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented from an engineering perspective. Emphasis is placed upon design-to-performance requirements as they impact the various subsystems that comprise this complex experimental facility.

  20. Atomic Scale Mixing for Inertial Confinement Fusion Associated Hydro Instabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-26

    observe that the obvious step of RT validation using NIF or Omega laser data does not address themultimode, mode coupling RTgrowth stage, as the...ignition facility, Phys. Plasmas 18 (2011) 051001. [2] W. Goldstein, R. Rosner, Workshop on the Science of Fusion Ignition on NIF , Technical Report LLNL-TR...11 (2004) 339e491. [6] S.P. Regan, R. Epstein, B.A. Hammel, L.J. Suter, J. Ralph, et al., Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF , Phys

  1. Magnetic-compression/magnetized-target fusion (MAGO/MTF): A marriage of inertial and magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Intermediate between magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF) in time and density scales is an area of research now known in the US as magnetized target fusion (MTF) and in Russian as MAGO (MAGnitnoye Obzhatiye--magnetic compression). MAGO/MTF uses a magnetic field and preheated, wall-confined plasma fusion fuel within an implodable fusion target. The magnetic field suppresses thermal conduction losses in the fuel during the target implosion and hydrodynamic compression heating process. In contrast to direct, hydrodynamic compression of initially ambient-temperature fuel (i.e., ICF), MAGO/MTF involves two steps: (a) formation of a warm (e.g., 100 eV or higher), magnetized (e.g., 100 kG) plasma within a fusion target prior to implosion; (b) subsequent quasi-adiabatic compression by an imploding pusher, of which a magnetically driven imploding liner is one example. In this paper, the authors present ongoing activities and potential future activities in this relatively unexplored area of controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  2. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  3. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion using Helicon Injected Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Ahern, Drew; Bowman, Jaerd

    2016-10-01

    The use of an external plasma source with the IEC has the advantage that the background pressure in the IEC chamber can be low. This then enables a deep potential well formation for ion confinement. Also unit efficiency is increase due to minimization of ion losses through charge exchange. This technique is under study experimentally for use in a plasma jet propulsion unit and as an IEC type neutron source. Current work has studied the effect of locating the IEC grids off-center in the vacuum chamber, near the plasma entrance from the Helicon. With double grids, the relative potentials employed are also key factors in device performance. Electron emitters are added for space charge neutralization in the case of plasma jet propulsion. Plasma simulations are used to supplement the experiments. Specifically, the electric field and the magnetic field effects on energetic ion trajectories are examined for varying configurations. Funding by NASA, Air Force Research Lab and NPL Associates.

  4. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-10-15

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  5. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.

    1995-06-02

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm{sup 3}; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction {sup 2}H({sup 3}H,n){sup 4}He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measured results.

  6. Inertial-confinement-fusion applications of ion-stopping theory

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Bailey, D.S.

    1982-01-22

    Methods were developed to calculate: (1) the stopping power of a hot plasma target, (2) the charge-state of a fast ion projectile, and (3) the final disposition of the deposited energy. The first issue refers to the stopping power for protons. The proton stopping power is altered in high-density or high-temperature targets, especially at velocities below the stopping peak. The second issue concerns the application of a proton stopping curve to the arbitrary projectile. The third topic is more specialized to inertial fusion and concerns the partition of deposited energy between ion (nuclear motion) degrees of freedom and those corresponding to bound and free electrons. The question here is whether a thermal equilibrium plasma is produced.

  7. Confined space entry program for the Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Cornell, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    To comply with anticipated OSHA regulatory requirements concerning Permit-Required Confined Spaces, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) created a Confined Spaces Task Team. The primary focus of the task team was to prepare a formal Confined Space Entry (CSE) Program that would ensure full compliance with the anticipated OSHA requirements. A comprehensive training plan was also prepared and submitted for approval as soon as the new CSE Program was approved and released for implementation. On January 14, 1993, OSHA released their final ruling which contained several further changes, requiring the WHC Confined Space Entry Program and Training Plan to be revised. The revised training manual and lessons learned in establishing a Confined Space Entry Program are presented.

  8. Confinement-induced orbital breathing, fusion, fission and re-ordering in semifilled shell atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, V. K.

    2013-05-01

    Alternate contraction and drastic expansion, i.e., ‘breathing’ of electronic subshells, the effects of the fusion of two subshells into one subshell and its subsequent fission (splitting) into the original subshells, as well as multiple alteration of the order of subshells in confined semifilled shell atoms with a progressively narrowing confinement are theoretically discovered. The confinement is represented by a repulsive penetrable spherical potential of an inner radius r0. The effects are exemplified by calculated data for confined semifilled shell atoms from the second, third and fourth rows of Mendeleev's table—Li, N, P and Cr atoms with semifilled 2s1, 2p3, 3p3 and 3d5 subshells, respectively—for the completeness of the study. The underlying physics behind the discovered effects is explained.

  9. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  10. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  12. HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, R. W.

    1990-12-01

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li2, BeF4) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW times h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  13. HYLIFE-2 inertial confinement: Fusion power plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, R. W.

    1990-12-01

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li2BeF4) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW x h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion. ICF quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993, Volume 4, Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H.T.; Schleich, D.P.; Murphy, P.W.

    1994-05-01

    In the 1990 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report of its review of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, it was recommended that a high priority be placed on completing the Precision Nova Project and its associated experimental campaign. Since fiscal year 1990, the lab has therefore campaigned vigorously on Nova and in its supporting laboratories to develop the Precision Nova capabilities needed to perform the stressful target experiments recommended in the 1990 NAS report. The activities to enable these experiments have been directed at improvements in three areas - the Nova laser, target fabrication capabilities, and target diagnostics. As summarized in the five articles in this report, the Precision Nova improvements have been successfully completed. These improvements have had a positive impact on target performance and on the ability to diagnose the results, as evidenced by the HEP-1 experimental results. The five articles generally concentrate on improvements to the capabilities rather than on the associated target physics experiments. Separate abstracts are included for each paper.

  15. Primary heat transfer loop design for the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, K.A.; McDowell, M.W.

    1984-05-01

    This study investigates a heat exchanger and balance of plant design to accompany the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber concept. The concept uses solid Li/sub 2/O or other lithium-ceramic granules, held to the wall of a rotating reaction chamber by centrifugal action, as a tritium breeding blanket and first wall protection. The Li/sub 2/O granules enter the chamber at 800 K and exit at 1200 K after absorbing the thermal energy produced by the fusion process.

  16. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hedditch, John Bowden-Reid, Richard Khachan, Joe

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  17. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Grigory; Svyatskiy, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Huang, C. -K.; McDevitt, C. J.

    2015-09-03

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydrodynamic instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. Thus, the ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT at the National Ignition Facility.

  18. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedditch, John; Bowden-Reid, Richard; Khachan, Joe

    2015-10-01

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  19. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton Radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R

    2010-04-23

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion is time-resolved imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. Here we report on the source and diagnostic development of hard x-ray radiography and on the first radiographs of direct drive implosions obtained at photon energies up to about 100keV, where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the shell opacity. The radiographs of direct drive, plastic shell implosions obtained at the OMEGA laser facility have a spatial resolution of {approx}10um and a temporal resolution of {approx}10ps. This novel Compton Radiography is an invaluable diagnostic tool for Inertial Confinement Fusion targets, and will be integrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  20. Index of light ion inertial confinement fusion publications and presentations January 1989 through December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report lists publications and presentations that are related to inertial confinement fusion and were authored or coauthored by Sandians in the Pulsed Power Sciences Center from 1989 through 1993. The 661 publications and presentations are categorized into the following general topics: (1) reviews, (2) ion sources, (3) ion diodes, (4) plasma opening switches, (5) ion beam transport, (6) targets and deposition physics, (7) advanced driver and pulsed power technology development, (8) diagnostics, and (9) code development. Research in these areas is arranged by topic in chronological order, with the early efforts under each topic presented first. The work is also categorized alphabetically by first author. A list of acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions of use in understanding light ion inertial confinement fusion research is also included.

  1. Three-dimensional simulations of the implosion of inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R.P.J.; Bell, A.R. )

    1991-09-30

    The viability of inertial confinement fusion depends crucially on implosion symmetry. A spherical three-dimensional hydrocode called PLATO has been developed to model the growth in asymmetries during an implosion. Results are presented in the deceleration phase which show indistinguishable linear growth rates, but greater nonlinear growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability than is found in two-dimensional cylindrical simulations. The three-dimensional enhancement of the nonlinear growth is much smaller than that found by Sakagami and Nishihara.

  2. Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 1, Magnetic confinement Fusion Plasma Theory. Annual progress report, November 16, 1992--November 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on few tokamak plasma confinement issues: applications of our new Chapman-Enskog-like approach for developing hybrid fluid/kinetic descriptions of tokamak plasmas; multi-faceted studies as part of our development of a new interacting island paradigm for the tokamak equilibrium`` and transport; investigations of the resolution power of BES and ECE diagnostics for measuring core plasma fluctuations; and studies of net transport in the presence of fluctuating surfaces. Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the NERSC node and the fusion theory workstations are summarized briefly in this report.

  3. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes research and development effort in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program, including absorption measurements with an integrating sphere, generation of high CO/sub 2/-laser harmonics in the backscattered light from laser plasmas, and the effects of hydrogen target contamination on the hot-electron temperature and transport. The development of new diagnostics is outlined and measurements taken with a proximity-focused x-ray streak camera are presented. High gain in phase conjugation using germanium was demonstrated, data were obtained on retropulse isolation by plasmas generated from metal shutters, damage thresholds for copper mirrors at high fluences were characterized, and phase conjugation in the ultraviolet was demonstrated. Significant progress in the characterization of targets, new techniques in target coating, and important advances in the development of low-density, small-cell-size plastic foam that permit highly accurate machining to any desired shape are presented. The results of various fusion reactor system studies are summarized.

  4. Initial confinement studies of ohmically heated plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bretz, N.; Cecchi, J.L.; Coonrod, J.; Davis, S.; Dylla, H.F.; Fonck, R.; Furth, H.P.

    1984-06-01

    Initial operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has concentrated upon confinement studies of ohmically heated hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. Total energy confinement times (tau/sub E/) are 0.1 to 0.2 s for a line-average density range (anti n/sub e/) of 1 to 2.5 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/ with electron temperatures of T/sub e/(o) approx. 1.2 to 2.2 keV, ion temperatures of T/sub i/(o) approx. 0.9 to 1.5 keV, and Z/sub eff/ approx. 3. A comparison of PLT, PDX, and TFTR plasma confinement supports a dimension-cubed scaling law.

  5. Program status 3. quarter -- FY 1994: Confinement systems programs

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-19

    Highlights of the DIII-D Research Operations are: began experimental research operations; successfully passed radiative divertor project review; presented papers at PSI, Diagnostics, and EPS meetings and prepared IAEA synopses; new computer speeds up data acquisition; completed installation of FWCD antennas with Faraday shields; and completed report of radiative divertor preliminary design with review committee. Summaries are given for progress in research programs; operations; mechanical engineering; electrical engineering; upgrade project; operations support; and collaborative efforts. Brief summaries are given for progress on the International Cooperation task which include JET, ASDEX, TEXTOR, TORE SUPRA, JAERI, TRINTI, T-10, and ARIES support. The work in support of the development plan for the TPX (Tokamak Physics Experiment) goals and milestones continued. Progress in improving on existing models and codes leading to improved understanding of experiments is given. Highlights from the User Service Center are: 18 gigabytes of disks were purchased for exclusive fusion use; a Hewlett-Packard 9000 Series 800 T500 computer was selected as the fusion complete server; the first VAX was removed from the USC cluster; security vulnerability on HP VUE software was corrected; and a cleanup script was developed for the NERSC Cray system. A list of personnel and their assignments is given for the ITER Design Engineering task.

  6. Robustness of predator-prey models for confinement regime transitions in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2013-04-15

    Energy transport and confinement in tokamak fusion plasmas is usually determined by the coupled nonlinear interactions of small-scale drift turbulence and larger scale coherent nonlinear structures, such as zonal flows, together with free energy sources such as temperature gradients. Zero-dimensional models, designed to embody plausible physical narratives for these interactions, can help to identify the origin of enhanced energy confinement and of transitions between confinement regimes. A prime zero-dimensional paradigm is predator-prey or Lotka-Volterra. Here, we extend a successful three-variable (temperature gradient; microturbulence level; one class of coherent structure) model in this genre [M. A. Malkov and P. H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas 16, 012504 (2009)], by adding a fourth variable representing a second class of coherent structure. This requires a fourth coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equation. We investigate the degree of invariance of the phenomenology generated by the model of Malkov and Diamond, given this additional physics. We study and compare the long-time behaviour of the three-equation and four-equation systems, their evolution towards the final state, and their attractive fixed points and limit cycles. We explore the sensitivity of paths to attractors. It is found that, for example, an attractive fixed point of the three-equation system can become a limit cycle of the four-equation system. Addressing these questions which we together refer to as 'robustness' for convenience is particularly important for models which, as here, generate sharp transitions in the values of system variables which may replicate some key features of confinement transitions. Our results help to establish the robustness of the zero-dimensional model approach to capturing observed confinement phenomenology in tokamak fusion plasmas.

  7. Fusion Simulation Program Definition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.

    2012-09-05

    We have completed our contributions to the Fusion Simulation Program Definition Project. Our contributions were in the overall planning with concentration in the definition of the area of Software Integration and Support. We contributed to the planning of multiple meetings, and we contributed to multiple planning documents.

  8. On the Utility of Antiprotons as Drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L J; Orth, C D; Tabak, M

    2003-10-20

    By contrast to the large mass, complexity and recirculating power of conventional drivers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), antiproton annihilation offers a specific energy of 90MJ/{micro}g and thus a unique form of energy packaging and delivery. In principle, antiproton drivers could provide a profound reduction in system mass for advanced space propulsion by ICF. We examine the physics underlying the use of antiprotons ({bar p}) to drive various classes of high-yield ICF targets by the methods of volumetric ignition, hotspot ignition and fast ignition. The useable fraction of annihilation deposition energy is determined for both {bar p}-driven ablative compression and {bar p}-driven fast ignition, in association with 0-D and 1-D target burn models. Thereby, we deduce scaling laws for the number of injected antiprotons required per capsule, together with timing and focal spot requirements. The kinetic energy of the injected antiproton beam required to penetrate to the desired annihilation point is always small relative to the deposited annihilation energy. We show that heavy metal seeding of the fuel and/or ablator is required to optimize local deposition of annihilation energy and determine that a minimum of {approx}3x10{sup 15} injected antiprotons will be required to achieve high yield (several hundred megajoules) in any target configuration. Target gains - i.e., fusion yields divided by the available p - {bar p} annihilation energy from the injected antiprotons (1.88GeV/{bar p}) - range from {approx}3 for volumetric ignition targets to {approx}600 for fast ignition targets. Antiproton-driven ICF is a speculative concept, and the handling of antiprotons and their required injection precision - temporally and spatially - will present significant technical challenges. The storage and manipulation of low-energy antiprotons, particularly in the form of antihydrogen, is a science in its infancy and a large scale-up of antiproton production over present supply

  9. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Skoberne, F.

    1981-10-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements in the Los Alamos National Laboratory eight-beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target-insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximatey 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on-line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six-beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and x-ray radiation-loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass-laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. New processes for fabricating glass miroballoon x-ray diagnostic targets, the application of high-quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of x-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy-ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase-conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment-vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion-fission hybrid concepts are presented.

  10. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-01

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D3He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ˜ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  11. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmore » of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  12. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  13. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Atzeni, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; and others

    2015-06-15

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  14. Inertial Confinement Fusion. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-12-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D2 or deuterium

  15. Geodesic least squares regression for scaling studies in magnetic confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2015-01-13

    In regression analyses for deriving scaling laws that occur in various scientific disciplines, usually standard regression methods have been applied, of which ordinary least squares (OLS) is the most popular. However, concerns have been raised with respect to several assumptions underlying OLS in its application to scaling laws. We here discuss a new regression method that is robust in the presence of significant uncertainty on both the data and the regression model. The method, which we call geodesic least squares regression (GLS), is based on minimization of the Rao geodesic distance on a probabilistic manifold. We demonstrate the superiority of the method using synthetic data and we present an application to the scaling law for the power threshold for the transition to the high confinement regime in magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  16. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.

  17. Progress in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Keck, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J.a.; Marshall, F.J.; Maximov, A.V.; McKenty, P.W.; Morse, S.F.B.; Myatt, J.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2006-06-28

    Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is expected to demonstrate high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the next decade and is a leading candidate for inertial fusion energy production. The NIF will initially be configured for x-ray drive and with no beams placed at the target equator to provide a symmetric irradiation of a direct-drive capsule. LLE is developing the “polar-direct-drive” (PDD) approach that repoints beams toward the target equator. Initial 2-D simulations have shown ignition. A unique “Saturn-like” plastic ring around the equator refracts the laser light incident near the equator toward the target, improving the drive uniformity.

  18. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Kagan, Grigory; Svyatskiy, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; ...

    2015-09-03

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydrodynamic instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. Thus, the ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT atmore » the National Ignition Facility.« less

  19. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; ...

    2015-11-12

    For a long time, neutron time-of-flight diagnostics been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d+t→n+α (DT) and d+d→n+³He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, which is also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (Tion) and cold fuel areal density. We explain such novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent Tion and DSR.

  20. Simulations of mixing in Inertial Confinement Fusion with front tracking and sub-grid scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Verinder; Lim, Hyunkyung; Melvin, Jeremy; Cheng, Baolian; Glimm, James; Sharp, David

    2015-11-01

    We present two related results. The first discusses the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RMI) and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) and their evolution in Inertial Confinement Fusion simulations. We show the evolution of the RMI to the late time RTI under transport effects and tracking. The role of the sub-grid scales helps capture the interaction of turbulence with diffusive processes. The second assesses the effects of concentration on the physics model and examines the mixing properties in the low Reynolds number hot spot. We discuss the effect of concentration on the Schmidt number. The simulation results are produced using the University of Chicago code FLASH and Stony Brook University's front tracking algorithm.

  1. Sensitivity of mix in Inertial Confinement Fusion simulations to diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Jeremy; Cheng, Baolian; Rana, Verinder; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James; Sharp, David H.

    2015-11-01

    We explore two themes related to the simulation of mix within an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosion, the role of diffusion (viscosity, mass diffusion and thermal conduction) processes and the impact of front tracking on the growth of the hydrodynamic instabilities. Using the University of Chicago HEDP code FLASH, we study the sensitivity of post-shot simulations of a NIC cryogenic shot to the diffusion models and front tracking of the material interfaces. Results of 1D and 2D simulations are compared to experimental quantities and an analysis of the current state of fully integrated ICF simulations is presented.

  2. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knauer, J. P.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Munro, D. H.

    2015-11-12

    For a long time, neutron time-of-flight diagnostics been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d+t→n+α (DT) and d+d→n+³He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, which is also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (Tion) and cold fuel areal density. We explain such novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent Tion and DSR.

  3. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  4. A strategy for reducing stagnation phase hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Encouraging progress is being made in demonstrating control of ablation front hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. Even once ablation front stabilities are controlled, however, instability during the stagnation phase of the implosion can still quench ignition. A scheme is proposed to reduce the growth of stagnation phase instabilities through the reverse of the "adiabat shaping" mechanism proposed to control ablation front growth. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations confirm that improved stagnation phase stability should be possible without compromising fuel compression.

  5. Turbulent Transport at High Reynolds Numbers in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    of Turbulent Mixing ,” Phys. Scr ., T142, p. 014014. Fig. 4 Turbulent transport as a fraction of total transport plotted versus Re for each of four...Diffusion in Turbulent Mixing ,” Phys. Scr ., T142, p. 014062. [9] George, E., Glimm, J., Grove, J. W., Li, X.-L., Liu, Y.-J., Xu, Z.-L., and Zhao, N., 2003...ABSTRACT Turbulent Transport at High Reynolds Numbers in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Context Report Title Mix is a critical input to hydro

  6. Magnetic field generation in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Dimonte, Guy; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-04-20

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the field generation by 2D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇n(e)×∇T(e) term in the generalized Ohm's law. Scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, Atwood number, and perturbation wavelength.

  7. Effects of Ionization Gradients on Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Capsule Hydrodynamic Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, Peter

    2008-09-12

    A linear perturbation analysis based on velocity potentials is adapted to include the regional, average-ion charge states (Z) in an imploding, inertial-confinement-fusion capsule and shown to lead to superclassical Rayleigh-Taylor growth following deceleration onset. The added instability is ascribed to an inverted ion-entropy gradient driven by the stepwise ionization mismatch {delta}Z across the fuel-pusher interface and is predicted to principally occur in low Atwood-number (<0.5) implosions associated with low-Z pushers. Similar instability enhancement may pertain to supernovae phenomena and ionization fronts in H II protostellar regions.

  8. Demonstration of ignition radiation temperatures in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion hohlraums.

    PubMed

    Glenzer, S H; MacGowan, B J; Meezan, N B; Adams, P A; Alfonso, J B; Alger, E T; Alherz, Z; Alvarez, L F; Alvarez, S S; Amick, P V; Andersson, K S; Andrews, S D; Antonini, G J; Arnold, P A; Atkinson, D P; Auyang, L; Azevedo, S G; Balaoing, B N M; Baltz, J A; Barbosa, F; Bardsley, G W; Barker, D A; Barnes, A I; Baron, A; Beeler, R G; Beeman, B V; Belk, L R; Bell, J C; Bell, P M; Berger, R L; Bergonia, M A; Bernardez, L J; Berzins, L V; Bettenhausen, R C; Bezerides, L; Bhandarkar, S D; Bishop, C L; Bond, E J; Bopp, D R; Borgman, J A; Bower, J R; Bowers, G A; Bowers, M W; Boyle, D T; Bradley, D K; Bragg, J L; Braucht, J; Brinkerhoff, D L; Browning, D F; Brunton, G K; Burkhart, S C; Burns, S R; Burns, K E; Burr, B; Burrows, L M; Butlin, R K; Cahayag, N J; Callahan, D A; Cardinale, P S; Carey, R W; Carlson, J W; Casey, A D; Castro, C; Celeste, J R; Chakicherla, A Y; Chambers, F W; Chan, C; Chandrasekaran, H; Chang, C; Chapman, R F; Charron, K; Chen, Y; Christensen, M J; Churby, A J; Clancy, T J; Cline, B D; Clowdus, L C; Cocherell, D G; Coffield, F E; Cohen, S J; Costa, R L; Cox, J R; Curnow, G M; Dailey, M J; Danforth, P M; Darbee, R; Datte, P S; Davis, J A; Deis, G A; Demaret, R D; Dewald, E L; Di Nicola, P; Di Nicola, J M; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Dobson, D B; Doppner, T; Driscoll, J D; Dugorepec, J; Duncan, J J; Dupuy, P C; Dzenitis, E G; Eckart, M J; Edson, S L; Edwards, G J; Edwards, M J; Edwards, O D; Edwards, P W; Ellefson, J C; Ellerbee, C H; Erbert, G V; Estes, C M; Fabyan, W J; Fallejo, R N; Fedorov, M; Felker, B; Fink, J T; Finney, M D; Finnie, L F; Fischer, M J; Fisher, J M; Fishler, B T; Florio, J W; Forsman, A; Foxworthy, C B; Franks, R M; Frazier, T; Frieder, G; Fung, T; Gawinski, G N; Gibson, C R; Giraldez, E; Glenn, S M; Golick, B P; Gonzales, H; Gonzales, S A; Gonzalez, M J; Griffin, K L; Grippen, J; Gross, S M; Gschweng, P H; Gururangan, G; Gu, K; Haan, S W; Hahn, S R; Haid, B J; Hamblen, J E; Hammel, B A; Hamza, A V; Hardy, D L; Hart, D R; Hartley, R G; Haynam, C A; Heestand, G M; Hermann, M R; Hermes, G L; Hey, D S; Hibbard, R L; Hicks, D G; Hinkel, D E; Hipple, D L; Hitchcock, J D; Hodtwalker, D L; Holder, J P; Hollis, J D; Holtmeier, G M; Huber, S R; Huey, A W; Hulsey, D N; Hunter, S L; Huppler, T R; Hutton, M S; Izumi, N; Jackson, J L; Jackson, M A; Jancaitis, K S; Jedlovec, D R; Johnson, B; Johnson, M C; Johnson, T; Johnston, M P; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D H; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R L; Keating, G A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Kenitzer, S L; Kimbrough, J R; King, K; Kirkwood, R K; Klingmann, J L; Knittel, K M; Kohut, T R; Koka, K G; Kramer, S W; Krammen, J E; Krauter, K G; Krauter, G W; Krieger, E K; Kroll, J J; La Fortune, K N; Lagin, L J; Lakamsani, V K; Landen, O L; Lane, S W; Langdon, A B; Langer, S H; Lao, N; Larson, D W; Latray, D; Lau, G T; Le Pape, S; Lechleiter, B L; Lee, Y; Lee, T L; Li, J; Liebman, J A; Lindl, J D; Locke, S F; Loey, H K; London, R A; Lopez, F J; Lord, D M; Lowe-Webb, R R; Lown, J G; Ludwigsen, A P; Lum, N W; Lyons, R R; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; Magat, M D; Maloy, D T; Malsbury, T N; Markham, G; Marquez, R M; Marsh, A A; Marshall, C D; Marshall, S R; Maslennikov, I L; Mathisen, D G; Mauger, G J; Mauvais, M -Y; McBride, J A; McCarville, T; McCloud, J B; McGrew, A; McHale, B; MacPhee, A G; Meeker, J F; Merill, J S; Mertens, E P; Michel, P A; Miller, M G; Mills, T; Milovich, J L; Miramontes, R; Montesanti, R C; Montoya, M M; Moody, J; Moody, J D; Moreno, K A; Morris, J; Morriston, K M; Nelson, J R; Neto, M; Neumann, J D; Ng, E; Ngo, Q M; Olejniczak, B L; Olson, R E; Orsi, N L; Owens, M W; Padilla, E H; Pannell, T M; Parham, T G; Patterson, R W; Pavel, G; Prasad, R R; Pendlton, D; Penko, F A; Pepmeier, B L; Petersen, D E; Phillips, T W; Pigg, D; Piston, K W; Pletcher, K D; Powell, C L; Radousky, H B; Raimondi, B S; Ralph, J E; Rampke, R L; Reed, R K; Reid, W A; Rekow, V V; Reynolds, J L; Rhodes, J J; Richardson, M J; Rinnert, R J; Riordan, B P; Rivenes, A S; Rivera, A T; Roberts, C J; Robinson, J A; Robinson, R B; Robison, S R; Rodriguez, O R; Rogers, S P; Rosen, M D; Ross, G F; Runkel, M; Runtal, A S; Sacks, R A; Sailors, S F; Salmon, J T; Salmonson, J D; Saunders, R L; Schaffer, J R; Schindler, T M; Schmitt, M J; Schneider, M B; Segraves, K S; Shaw, M J; Sheldrick, M E; Shelton, R T; Shiflett, M K; Shiromizu, S J; Shor, M; Silva, L L; Silva, S A; Skulina, K M; Smauley, D A; Smith, B E; Smith, L K; Solomon, A L; Sommer, S; Soto, J G; Spafford, N I; Speck, D E; Springer, P T; Stadermann, M; Stanley, F; Stone, T G; Stout, E A; Stratton, P L; Strausser, R J; Suter, L J; Sweet, W; Swisher, M F; Tappero, J D; Tassano, J B; Taylor, J S; Tekle, E A; Thai, C; Thomas, C A; Thomas, A; Throop, A L; Tietbohl, G L; Tillman, J M; Town, R P J; Townsend, S L; Tribbey, K L; Trummer, D; Truong, J; Vaher, J; Valadez, M; Van Arsdall, P; Van Prooyen, A J; Vergel de Dios, E O; Vergino, M D; Vernon, S P; Vickers, J L; Villanueva, G T; Vitalich, M A; Vonhof, S A; Wade, F E; Wallace, R J; Warren, C T; Warrick, A L; Watkins, J; Weaver, S; Wegner, P J; Weingart, M A; Wen, J; White, K S; Whitman, P K; Widmann, K; Widmayer, C C; Wilhelmsen, K; Williams, E A; Williams, W H; Willis, L; Wilson, E F; Wilson, B A; Witte, M C; Work, K; Yang, P S; Young, B K; Youngblood, K P; Zacharias, R A; Zaleski, T; Zapata, P G; Zhang, H; Zielinski, J S; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Niemann, C; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A; Van Wonterghem, B M; Atherton, L J; Moses, E I

    2011-02-25

    We demonstrate the hohlraum radiation temperature and symmetry required for ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions. Cryogenic gas-filled hohlraums with 2.2 mm-diameter capsules are heated with unprecedented laser energies of 1.2 MJ delivered by 192 ultraviolet laser beams on the National Ignition Facility. Laser backscatter measurements show that these hohlraums absorb 87% to 91% of the incident laser power resulting in peak radiation temperatures of T(RAD)=300 eV and a symmetric implosion to a 100 μm diameter hot core.

  9. Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Hatch, Douglas J; Rivera, Gerald

    2011-01-19

    Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

  10. Argonne's program in heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.; Arnold, R.; Burke, R.; Watson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Argonne is constructing the initial part of a xenon accelerator which could serve as the driver for an Inertial Confinement Fusion power plant. The project consists of a Xe source, a 1.5 Mv Dynamitron preaccelerator, independently phased rf cavities as a low ..beta.. linac, and Wideroe linac at 12.5 and 25 MHz. The beam will be injected at 220 MeV into a circular ring to its space charge limit, transferred to a second ring for multiturn injection after an x-y rotation, extracted, compressed in time duration, transported and focused onto foil targets. The project thus will demonstrate nearly all of the beam manipulations involved in a full scale ICF driver. The feasibility of accelerating in the accumulator ring to 10 GeV to achieve adequate beam energy to permit energy deposition experiments in hot plasma is being studied. The status and future plans of this project are discussed.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  12. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  13. Fatigue cracking of a bare steel first wall in an inertial confinement fusion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R. M.; Abbott, R. P.; Havstad, M. A.; Dunne, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion power plants will deposit high energy X-rays onto the outer surfaces of the first wall many times a second for the lifetime of the plant. These X-rays create brief temperature spikes in the first few microns of the wall, which cause an associated highly compressive stress response on the surface of the material. The periodicity of this stress pulse is a concern due to the possibility of fatigue cracking of the wall. We have used finite element analyses to simulate the conditions present on the first wall in order to evaluate the driving force of crack propagation on fusion-facing surface cracks. Analysis results indicate that the X-ray induced plastic compressive stress creates a region of residual tension on the surface between pulses. This tension film will likely result in surface cracking upon repeated cycling. Additionally, the compressive pulse may induce plasticity ahead of the crack tip, leaving residual tension in its wake. However, the stress amplitude decreases dramatically for depths greater than 80–100 μm into the fusion-facing surface. Crack propagation models as well as stress-life estimates agree that even though small cracks may form on the surface of the wall, they are unlikely to propagate further than 100 μm without assistance from creep or grain erosion phenomena.

  14. Cryogenic hydrogen fuel for controlled inertial confinement fusion (formation of reactor-scale cryogenic targets)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R.; Krokhin, O. N.; Osipov, I. E.

    2016-12-01

    In inertial fusion energy research, considerable attention has recently been focused on low-cost fabrication of a large number of targets by developing a specialized layering module of repeatable operation. The targets must be free-standing, or unmounted. Therefore, the development of a target factory for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is based on methods that can ensure a cost-effective target production with high repeatability. Minimization of the amount of tritium (i.e., minimization of time and space at all production stages) is a necessary condition as well. Additionally, the cryogenic hydrogen fuel inside the targets must have a structure (ultrafine layers—the grain size should be scaled back to the nanometer range) that supports the fuel layer survivability under target injection and transport through the reactor chamber. To meet the above requirements, significant progress has been made at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI) in the technology developed on the basis of rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST), also referred to as the FST layering method. Owing to the research carried out at LPI, unique experience has been gained in the development of the FST-layering module for target fabrication with an ultrafine fuel layer, including a reactor- scale target design. This experience can be used for the development of the next-generation FST-layering module for construction of a prototype of a target factory for power laser facilities and inertial fusion power plants.

  15. Strategic plan for the restructured US fusion energy sciences program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This plan reflects a transition to a restructured fusion program, with a change in focus from an energy technology development program to a fusion energy sciences program. Since the energy crisis of the early 1970`s, the U.S. fusion program has presented itself as a goal- oriented fusion energy development program, with milestones that required rapidly increasing budgets. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 also called for a goal-oriented development program consistent with the Department`s planning. Actual funding levels, however, have forced a premature narrowing of the program to the tokamak approach. By 1995, with no clear, immediate need driving the schedule for developing fusion energy and with enormous pressure to reduce discretionary spending, Congress cut fusion program funding for FY 1996 by one-third and called for a major restructuring of the program. Based on the recommendations of the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), the Department has decided to pursue a program that concentrates on world-class plasma, science, and on maintaining an involvement in fusion energy science through international collaboration. At the same time, the Japanese and Europeans, with energy situations different from ours, are continuing with their goal- oriented fusion programs. Collaboration with them provides a highly leveraged means of continued involvement in fusion energy science and technology, especially through participation in the engineering and design activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor program, ITER. This restructured fusion energy sciences program, with its focus on fundamental fusion science and technology, may well provide insights that lead to more attractive fusion power plants, and will make use of the scientific infrastructure that will allow the United States to launch a fusion energy development program at some future date.

  16. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  17. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  18. Effect of the laser wavelength: A long story of laser-plasma interaction physics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Teller Medal Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) relies on the use of high-energy laser beams to compress and ignite a the1monuclear fuel with the ultimate goal of producing energy. Fusion is the holy grail of energy sources-combining abundant fuel with no greenhouse gas emissions, minimal waste products and a scale that can meet mankind's long-term energy demands. The quality and the efficiency of the coupling of the laser beams with the target are an essential step towards the success of laser fusion. A long-te1m program on laser-plasma interaction physics has been pursued to understand the propagation and the coupling of laser pulses in plasmas for a wide range of parameters.

  19. Limitation on Prepulse Level for Cone-Guided Fast-Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A. G.; Divol, L.; Kemp, A. J.; Chen, C. D.; Chen, H.; Hey, D. S.; Henesian, M.; Key, M. H.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Phillips, T. W.; Tabak, M.; Town, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Fedosejevs, R. J.

    2010-02-05

    The viability of fast-ignition (FI) inertial confinement fusion hinges on the efficient transfer of laser energy to the compressed fuel via multi-MeV electrons. Preformed plasma due to the laser prepulse strongly influences ultraintense laser plasma interactions and hot electron generation in the hollow cone of an FI target. We induced a prepulse and consequent preplasma in copper cone targets and measured the energy deposition zone of the main pulse by imaging the emitted K{sub {alpha}} radiation. Simulation of the radiation hydrodynamics of the preplasma and particle in cell modeling of the main pulse interaction agree well with the measured deposition zones and provide an insight into the energy deposition mechanism and electron distribution. It was demonstrated that a under these conditions a 100 mJ prepulse eliminates the forward going component of {approx}2-4 MeV electrons.

  20. Five-frame, x-ray camera for charged particle, inertial confinement fusion studies.

    PubMed

    Fehl, D L; Chang, J; Kuswa, G W; Mendel, C W

    1980-03-01

    A prototype framing x-ray camera has been developed for photographic studies of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets irradiated by charged particle beams. Electron images from five, independently gated, microchannel plates are transported out of the radiation field by means of a toroidal magnetic field and are permanently recorded on film. The calculated, effective exposure time is

  1. A technique for thick polymer coating of inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Feng, I.-A.; Wang, T. G.; Kim, H.-G.

    1983-01-01

    A technique to coat a stalk-mounted inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) target with a thick polymer layer has been successfully demonstrated. The polymer solution is first atomized, allowed to coalesce into a droplet, and positioned in a stable acoustic levitating field. The stalk-mounted ICF target is then moved into the acoustic field by manipulating a 3-D positioner to penetrate the surface membrane of the droplet, thus immersing the target in the levitated coating solution. The target inside the droplet is maintained at the center of the levitated liquid using the 3-D positional information provided by two orthogonally placed TV cameras until the drying process is completed. The basic components of the experimental apparatus, including an acoustic levitator, liquid sample deployment device, image acquisition instrumentation, and 3-D positioner, are briefly described.

  2. Multi-energy SXR cameras for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited).

    PubMed

    Delgado-Aparicio, L F; Maddox, J; Pablant, N; Hill, K; Bitter, M; Rice, J E; Granetz, R; Hubbard, A; Irby, J; Greenwald, M; Marmar, E; Tritz, K; Stutman, D; Stratton, B; Efthimion, P

    2016-11-01

    A compact multi-energy soft x-ray camera has been developed for time, energy and space-resolved measurements of the soft-x-ray emissivity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Multi-energy soft x-ray imaging provides a unique opportunity for measuring, simultaneously, a variety of important plasma properties (Te, nZ, ΔZeff, and ne,fast). The electron temperature can be obtained by modeling the slope of the continuum radiation from ratios of the available brightness and inverted radial emissivity profiles over multiple energy ranges. Impurity density measurements are also possible using the line-emission from medium- to high-Z impurities to separate the background as well as transient levels of metal contributions. This technique should be explored also as a burning plasma diagnostic in-view of its simplicity and robustness.

  3. Multi-energy SXR cameras for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; ...

    2016-11-14

    A compact multi-energy soft x-ray camera has been developed for time, energy and space-resolved measurements of the soft-x-ray emissivity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Multi-energy soft x-ray imaging provides a unique opportunity for measuring, simultaneously, a variety of important plasma properties (Te, nZ, ΔZeff, and ne,fast). The electron temperature can be obtained by modeling the slope of the continuum radiation from ratios of the available brightness and inverted radial emissivity profiles over multiple energy ranges. Impurity density measurements are also possible using the line-emission from medium- to high-Z impurities to separate the background as well as transient levels of metalmore » contributions. As a result, this technique should be explored also as a burning plasma diagnostic in-view of its simplicity and robustness.« less

  4. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μ m in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1 /2 the neutron yield coming from α -particle self-heating.

  5. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Tom

    2013-03-28

    This thesis explores the formation of ICF compatible foam layers inside of an ablator shell used for inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In particular, the capability of p- DCPD polymer aerogels to serve as a scaffold for the deuterium-tritium mix was analyzed. Four different factors were evaluated: the dependency of different factors such as thickness or composition of a precursor solution on the uniformity of the aerogel layer, how to bring the optimal composition inside of the ablator shell, the mechanical stability of ultra-low density p-DCPD aerogel bulk pieces during wetting and freezing with hydrogen, and the wetting behavior of thin polymer foam layers in HDC carbon ablator shells with liquid deuterium. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in cooperation with the Technical University Munich.

  6. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.

  7. A novel three-axis cylindrical hohlraum designed for inertial confinement fusion ignition

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Longyu; Li, Hang; Jing, Longfei; Lin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lu; Li, Liling; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A novel ignition hohlraum for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion is proposed, which is named three-axis cylindrical hohlraum (TACH). TACH is a kind of 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) hohlraum, which is orthogonally jointed of three cylindrical hohlraums. Laser beams are injected through every entrance hole with the same incident angle of 55°. A view-factor simulation result shows that the time-varying drive asymmetry of TACH is less than 1.0% in the whole drive pulse period without any supplementary technology. Coupling efficiency of TACH is close to that of 6 LEHs spherical hohlraum with corresponding size. Its plasma-filling time is close to that of typical cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Its laser plasma interaction has as low backscattering as the outer cone of the cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Therefore, TACH combines most advantages of various hohlraums and has little predictable risk, providing an important competitive candidate for ignition hohlraum. PMID:27703250

  8. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R.P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-06

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Earlier results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  9. Evidence for stratification of deuterium-tritium fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Manuel, M J-E; Rinderknecht, H G; Sinenian, N; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Delettrez, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; McNabb, D P; Amendt, P A; Boyd, R N; Rygg, J R; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Bacher, A D

    2012-02-17

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (dd) and T(t,2n)(4)He (tt) reaction yields have been compared with those of the D(t,n)(4)He (dt) reaction yield, using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions. In these experiments, carried out on the OMEGA laser, absolute spectral measurements of dd protons and tt neutrons were obtained. From these measurements, it was concluded that the dd yield is anomalously low and the tt yield is anomalously high relative to the dt yield, an observation that we conjecture to be caused by a stratification of the fuel in the implosion core. This effect may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility.

  10. Multi-energy SXR cameras for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Hill, K.; Bitter, M.; Rice, J. E.; Granetz, R.; Hubbard, A.; Irby, J.; Greenwald, M.; Marmar, E.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Stratton, B.; Efthimion, P.

    2016-11-01

    A compact multi-energy soft x-ray camera has been developed for time, energy and space-resolved measurements of the soft-x-ray emissivity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Multi-energy soft x-ray imaging provides a unique opportunity for measuring, simultaneously, a variety of important plasma properties (Te, nZ, ΔZeff, and ne,fast). The electron temperature can be obtained by modeling the slope of the continuum radiation from ratios of the available brightness and inverted radial emissivity profiles over multiple energy ranges. Impurity density measurements are also possible using the line-emission from medium- to high-Z impurities to separate the background as well as transient levels of metal contributions. This technique should be explored also as a burning plasma diagnostic in-view of its simplicity and robustness.

  11. Observation of interspecies ion separation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hsu, Scott C.; Joshi, Tirtha Raj; Hakel, Peter; ...

    2016-10-24

    Here we report direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. These experiments, which used plastic capsules with D2/Ar gas fill (1% Ar by atom), were designed specifically to reveal interspecies ion separation by exploiting the predicted, strong ion thermo-diffusion between ion species of large mass and charge difference. Via detailed analyses of imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data, we extract Ar-atom-fraction radial profiles at different times, and observe both enhancement and depletion compared to the initial 1%-Ar gas fill. The experimental results are interpreted with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles models ofmore » interspecies ion diffusion. Finally, the experimentally inferred Ar-atom-fraction profiles agree reasonably, but not exactly, with calculated profiles associated with the incoming and rebounding first shock.« less

  12. Observation of interspecies ion separation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Scott C.; Joshi, Tirtha Raj; Hakel, Peter; Vold, Erik Lehman; Schmitt, Mark J.; Hoffman, Nelson M.; Rauenzahn, Rick M.; Kagan, Grigory; Tang, Xianzhu; Mancini, Roberto C.; Kim, Yong Ho; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2016-10-24

    Here we report direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. These experiments, which used plastic capsules with D2/Ar gas fill (1% Ar by atom), were designed specifically to reveal interspecies ion separation by exploiting the predicted, strong ion thermo-diffusion between ion species of large mass and charge difference. Via detailed analyses of imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data, we extract Ar-atom-fraction radial profiles at different times, and observe both enhancement and depletion compared to the initial 1%-Ar gas fill. The experimental results are interpreted with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles models of interspecies ion diffusion. Finally, the experimentally inferred Ar-atom-fraction profiles agree reasonably, but not exactly, with calculated profiles associated with the incoming and rebounding first shock.

  13. Compact Intense Neutron Generators Based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement of D-D Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, K.; Inoue, K.; Kajiwara, T.; Nakamatsu, R.

    2015-10-01

    A neutron generator based on inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) of fusion plasmas is being developed for a non-destructive inspection system of special nuclear materials hidden in sea containers. The new IEC device is equipped with a multistage feedthrough which was designed aiming at both capability of a high bias voltage and enhancement of ion recirculation by modification of electric fields in the IEC device. Experimental comparison was made with a conventional single-stage IEC device developed in an earlier work. As the results, both the increase in the applied voltage and the modified field symmetry by the new multistage scheme showed significant enhancement in the neutron output. As a consequence, neutron output per input discharge current was enhanced drastically by a factor of ~30 in total. Also, the first pulsing experiments of the newly developed IEC neutron generator showed pulsed neutron output with a rapid pulse fall-off of ~ 1 μsec successfully.

  14. A Freon-Filled Bubble Chamber for Neutron Detection in Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ghilea, M.C.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Sangster, T.C.

    2011-03-24

    Neutron imaging is one of the main methods used in inertial confinement fusion experiments to measure the core symmetry of target implosions. Previous studies have shown that bubble chambers have the potential to obtain higher resolution images of the targets for a shorter source-to-target distance than typical scintillator arrays. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as the active medium was designed and built for the OMEGA laser system. Bubbles resulting from spontaneous nucleation were recorded. Bubbles resulting from neutron–Freon interactions were observed at neutron yields of 1013 emitted from deuterium–tritium target implosions on OMEGA. The measured column bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The recorded data suggest that neutron bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility.

  15. A Freon-filled bubble chamber for neutron detection in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ghilea, M. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.

    2011-03-15

    Neutron imaging is one of the main methods used in inertial confinement fusion experiments to measure the core symmetry of target implosions. Previous studies have shown that bubble chambers have the potential to obtain higher resolution images of the targets for a shorter source-to-target distance than typical scintillator arrays. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as the active medium was designed and built for the OMEGA laser system. Bubbles resulting from spontaneous nucleation were recorded. Bubbles resulting from neutron-Freon interactions were observed at neutron yields of 10{sup 13} emitted from deuterium-tritium target implosions on OMEGA. The measured column bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The recorded data suggest that neutron bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility.

  16. A Freon-filled bubble chamber for neutron detection in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Ghilea, M C; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C

    2011-03-01

    Neutron imaging is one of the main methods used in inertial confinement fusion experiments to measure the core symmetry of target implosions. Previous studies have shown that bubble chambers have the potential to obtain higher resolution images of the targets for a shorter source-to-target distance than typical scintillator arrays. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as the active medium was designed and built for the OMEGA laser system. Bubbles resulting from spontaneous nucleation were recorded. Bubbles resulting from neutron-Freon interactions were observed at neutron yields of 10(13) emitted from deuterium-tritium target implosions on OMEGA. The measured column bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The recorded data suggest that neutron bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility.

  17. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets

    DOE PAGES

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Hammel, B. A.; ...

    2013-07-22

    Mixing of plastic ablator material, doped with Cu and Ge dopants, deep into the hot spot of ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion implosions by hydrodynamic instabilities is diagnosed with x-ray spectroscopy on the National Ignition Facility. The amount of hot-spot mix mass is determined from the absolute brightness of the emergent Cu and Ge K-shell emission. The Cu and Ge dopants placed at different radial locations in the plastic ablator show the ablation-front hydrodynamic instability is primarily responsible for hot-spot mix. As a result, low neutron yields and hot-spot mix mass between 34(–13,+50) ng and 4000(–2970,+17 160) ng are observed.

  18. Transport vehicle for manned Mars missions powered by inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-06-26

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an ideal engine power source for manned spacecraft to Mars because of its inherently high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have produced a concept for a vehicle powered by ICF and utilizing a magnetic thrust chamber to avoid plasma thermalization with wall structures and the resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. This vehicle is capable of 100-day manned Mars missions with a 100-metric-ton payload and a total vehicle launch mass near 6000 metric tons, based on advanced technology assumed to be available by A.D. 2020. Such short-duration missions minimize radiation exposures and physiological deterioration of astronauts.

  19. A strategy for reducing stagnation phase hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    Encouraging progress is being made in demonstrating control of ablation front hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. Even once ablation front stabilities are controlled, however, instability during the stagnation phase of the implosion can still quench ignition. A scheme is proposed to reduce the growth of stagnation phase instabilities through the reverse of the “adiabat shaping” mechanism proposed to control ablation front growth. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations confirm that improved stagnation phase stability should be possible without compromising fuel compression.

  20. Multi-energy SXR cameras for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N.; Hill, K.; Bitter, M.; Rice, J. E.; Granetz, R.; Hubbard, A.; Irby, J.; Greenwald, M.; Marmar, E.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Stratton, B.; Efthimion, P.

    2016-11-14

    A compact multi-energy soft x-ray camera has been developed for time, energy and space-resolved measurements of the soft-x-ray emissivity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Multi-energy soft x-ray imaging provides a unique opportunity for measuring, simultaneously, a variety of important plasma properties (Te, nZ, ΔZeff, and ne,fast). The electron temperature can be obtained by modeling the slope of the continuum radiation from ratios of the available brightness and inverted radial emissivity profiles over multiple energy ranges. Impurity density measurements are also possible using the line-emission from medium- to high-Z impurities to separate the background as well as transient levels of metal contributions. As a result, this technique should be explored also as a burning plasma diagnostic in-view of its simplicity and robustness.

  1. Models and analyses for inertial-confinement fusion-reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes models and analyses devised at Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the technical characteristics of different inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor elements required for component integration into a functional unit. We emphasize the generic properties of the different elements rather than specific designs. The topics discussed are general ICF reactor design considerations; reactor cavity phenomena, including the restoration of interpulse ambient conditions; first-wall temperature increases and material losses; reactor neutronics and hydrodynamic blanket response to neutron energy deposition; and analyses of loads and stresses in the reactor vessel walls, including remarks about the generation and propagation of very short wavelength stress waves. A discussion of analytic approaches useful in integrations and optimizations of ICF reactor systems concludes the report.

  2. Observation of interspecies ion separation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S. C.; Joshi, T. R.; Hakel, P.; Vold, E. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Rauenzahn, R. M.; Kagan, G.; Tang, X.-Z.; Mancini, R. C.; Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.

    2016-09-01

    We report direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. These experiments, which used plastic capsules with D2/Ar gas fill (1% Ar by atom), were designed specifically to reveal interspecies ion separation by exploiting the predicted, strong ion thermo-diffusion between ion species of large mass and charge difference. Via detailed analyses of imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data, we extract Ar-atom-fraction radial profiles at different times, and observe both enhancement and depletion compared to the initial 1%-Ar gas fill. The experimental results are interpreted with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles models of interspecies ion diffusion. The experimentally inferred Ar-atom-fraction profiles agree reasonably, but not exactly, with calculated profiles associated with the incoming and rebounding first shock.

  3. A novel three-axis cylindrical hohlraum designed for inertial confinement fusion ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Longyu; Li, Hang; Jing, Longfei; Lin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lu; Li, Liling; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Jian

    2016-10-01

    A novel ignition hohlraum for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion is proposed, which is named three-axis cylindrical hohlraum (TACH). TACH is a kind of 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) hohlraum, which is orthogonally jointed of three cylindrical hohlraums. Laser beams are injected through every entrance hole with the same incident angle of 55°. A view-factor simulation result shows that the time-varying drive asymmetry of TACH is less than 1.0% in the whole drive pulse period without any supplementary technology. Coupling efficiency of TACH is close to that of 6 LEHs spherical hohlraum with corresponding size. Its plasma-filling time is close to that of typical cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Its laser plasma interaction has as low backscattering as the outer cone of the cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Therefore, TACH combines most advantages of various hohlraums and has little predictable risk, providing an important competitive candidate for ignition hohlraum.

  4. Density-Modulation-Induced Absolute Laser-Plasma-Instabilities in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yan, Rui; Ren, Chuang

    2016-10-01

    Fluid simulations show that when a static sinusoidal density modulation is superimposed on a linear density profile, convective instabilities can become absolutely unstable. This conversion can occur for two-plasmon-decay and stimulated Raman scattering instabilities under realistic direct-drive inertial confinement fusion conditions and can affect hot-electron generation and laser-energy deposition. Analysis of the three-wave model shows that a sufficiently large change of the density gradient in a linear density profile can turn convective instabilities into absolute ones. An analytical expression is given for the threshold of the gradient change, which depends only on the convective gain. This work was supported by DOE under Grant No. DE-SC0012316; by NSF under Grant No. PHY-1314734; and by Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.

  5. A novel three-axis cylindrical hohlraum designed for inertial confinement fusion ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Hang; Jing, Longfei; Lin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lu; Li, Lilin; Ding, Yongkun; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    A novel ignition hohlraum for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion is proposed, which is named as three-axis cylindrical hohlraum (TACH). TACH is a kind of 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) hohlraum, which is made of three cylindrical hohlraums orthogonally jointed. Laser beams are injected through every entrance hole with the same incident angle of 55°. The view-factor simulation result shows that the time-varying drive asymmetry of TACH is no more than 1.0% in the whole drive pulse period without any supplementary technology such as beam phasing etc. Its coupling efficiency of TACH is close to that of 6 LEHs spherical hohlraum with corresponding size. Its plasma-filling time is close to typical cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Its laser plasma interaction has as low backscattering as the outer cone of the cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Therefore, the proposed hohlraum provides a competitive candidate for ignition hohlraum.

  6. Interactive tools designed to study mix in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Welser-sherrill, Leslie; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Doug C

    2008-01-01

    Graphical user interface tools have been built in IDL to study mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion cores. FLAME (Fall-Line Analysis Mix Evaluator), a code which investigates yield degradation due to mix , was designed to post-process 1D hydrodynamic simulation output by implementing a variety of mix models. Three of these mix models are based on the physics of the fall-line. In addition, mixing data from other sources can be incorporated into the yield degradation analysis. Two independent tools called HAME (Haan Analysis Mix Evaluator) and YAME (Youngs Analysis Mix Evaluator) were developed to calculate the spatial extent of the mix region according to the Haan saturation model and Youngs' phenomenological model, respectively. FLAME facilitates a direct comparison to experimental data. The FLAME, HAME, and YAME interfaces are user-friendly, flexible, and platform-independent.

  7. Electron-temperature requirements for neutralized inertial-confinement-fusion light-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their large self-space-charge fields, light ion beam drivers of energy and power sufficient to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot be focused on a small fuel pellet unless neutralized. Even if initially neutralized with comoving electrons, these beams will not stay neutralized and focus during propagation through a vacuum chamber unless the initial thermal energy of the neutralizing electrons is sufficiently small. In this paper we discuss the effects which contribute to the effective initial temperature of the neutralizing electrons, including compressional shock heating. We also employ a simple heuristic model to construct envelope equations which govern axial as well as radial beam compression and use them to predict the largest initial electron temperature consistent with the required beam compression. This temperature for typical light ion beam systems is about ten eV - a temperature which may be possible to achieve.

  8. Overview of the RFX fusion science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Adamek, J.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Alfier, A.; Angioni, C.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Barison, S.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Boldrin, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Boozer, A. H.; Brombin, M.; Brotankova, J.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavinato, M.; Chacon, L.; Chitarin, G.; Cooper, W. A.; Dal Bello, S.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; De Lorenzi, A.; De Masi, G.; Dong, J. Q.; Drevlak, M.; Escande, D. F.; Fantini, F.; Fassina, A.; Fellin, F.; Ferro, A.; Fiameni, S.; Fiorentin, A.; Franz, P.; Gaio, E.; Garbet, X.; Gazza, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Hirano, Y.; Hirshman, S. P.; Ide, S.; Igochine, V.; In, Y.; Innocente, P.; Kiyama, S.; Liu, S. F.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lòpez Bruna, D.; Lorenzini, R.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Mansfield, D. K.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Martines, E.; Mazzitelli, G.; McCollam, K.; Menmuir, S.; Milani, F.; Momo, B.; Moresco, M.; Munaretto, S.; Novello, L.; Okabayashi, M.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Perverezev, G. V.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, L.; Pizzimenti, A.; Pomaro, N.; Pomphrey, N.; Predebon, I.; Puiatti, M. E.; Rigato, V.; Rizzolo, A.; Rostagni, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Ruzzon, A.; Sakakita, H.; Sanchez, R.; Sarff, J. S.; Sattin, F.; Scaggion, A.; Scarin, P.; Schneider, W.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spong, D. A.; Spizzo, G.; Takechi, M.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Toigo, V.; Valisa, M.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; Wang, Z.; White, R. B.; Yadikin, D.; Zaccaria, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zollino, G.; Zuin, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper summarizes the main achievements of the RFX fusion science program in the period between the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conferences. RFX-mod is the largest reversed field pinch in the world, equipped with a system of 192 coils for active control of MHD stability. The discovery and understanding of helical states with electron internal transport barriers and core electron temperature >1.5 keV significantly advances the perspectives of the configuration. Optimized experiments with plasma current up to 1.8 MA have been realized, confirming positive scaling. The first evidence of edge transport barriers is presented. Progress has been made also in the control of first-wall properties and of density profiles, with initial first-wall lithization experiments. Micro-turbulence mechanisms such as ion temperature gradient and micro-tearing are discussed in the framework of understanding gradient-driven transport in low magnetic chaos helical regimes. Both tearing mode and resistive wall mode active control have been optimized and experimental data have been used to benchmark numerical codes. The RFX programme also provides important results for the fusion community and in particular for tokamaks and stellarators on feedback control of MHD stability and on three-dimensional physics. On the latter topic, the result of the application of stellarator codes to describe three-dimensional reversed field pinch physics will be presented.

  9. Progress in laboratory high gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion): Prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, E.; Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M.; Bernat, T.P.; Coleman, L.W.; Emmett, J.L.; Hogan, W.J.; Hunt, J.T.; Krupke, W.F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a thermonuclear reaction in a small (/approximately/5 mm diameter) fuel capsule filled with a few milligrams of deuterium and tritium, has been the subject of very fruitful experimentation since the early 1970's. High gain ICF is now on the threshold of practical applications. With a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), these applications will have major implications for national defense, basic and applied science, and power production. With a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ in a 10-ns pulse at an intensity of /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/, an appropriately configured cryogenic capsule could be compressed to a density of about 200 g/cm/sup 3/ and a temperature of 3--5 keV. Under these conditions, up to 10 mg of DT could be ignited, and with a burn efficiency of about 30%, release up to 1000 MJ of fusion energy, an energy gain of about 100. A thousand megajoules is equivalent to about one quarter ton of TNT, or about 7 gallons of oil--an amount of energy tractable under laboratory conditions and potentially very useful for a variety of applications. 61 refs., 33 figs.

  10. Investigation of Inter-Ion Species Diffusion in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Yongho; Hoffman, Nelson M.; Schmitt, Mark J.; Kagan, Grigory; Batha, Steven H.; Garbett, Warren J.; Horsfield, Colin J.; Rubery, Michael S.; Gales, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Anomalous fusion yield degradation has been observed for gas fill mixtures in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. These mixtures have included D/3He [Rygg et al., Phys Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)], D/T/3He [Herrmann et al., Phys Plasmas 16, 056312 (2009)], D/Ar [Lindl et al., Phys Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] and even D/T [Casey et al., PRL 108, 075005 (2012)]. Fuel ion segregation has been suggested as a possible cause [Amendt et al., PRL 18, 056308 (2011); Kagan et al., Phys Lett. A 10.1016 (2014)]. Segregation may be caused by inter-ion species diffusion driven by gradients in plasma pressure, temperature and electric field, either across a relatively narrow shock boundary or across the entire interior of the compressed capsule. It is expected that lower Z &/or A ions will diffuse outward while higher Z &/or A diffuse inward. In the case of D/T/3He, the 3He diffuses inward to the hotter core, reducing the DT reactivity. A D/T/H mixture should result in H diffusing outward, leaving the hotter core D & T rich and hence enhance reactivity over the simulated expectation. Past results will be reviewed and plans for a hydro-equivalent comparison D/T/3He and D/T/H will be presented. Research conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Progress in theory and simulation of ion cyclotron emission from magnetic confinement fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard; Chapman, Ben; Chapman, Sandra; Cook, James; Reman, Bernard; McClements, Ken; Carbajal, Leopoldo

    2016-10-01

    Suprathermal ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is detected from all large tokamak and stellarator plasmas. Its frequency spectrum has narrow peaks at sequential cyclotron harmonics of the energetic ion population (fusion-born or neutral beam-injected) at the outer edge of the plasma. ICE was the first collective radiative instability driven by confined fusion-born ions observed in deuterium-tritium plasmas in JET and TFTR, and the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability is the most likely emission mechanism. Contemporary ICE measurements are taken at very high sampling rates from the LHD stellarator and from the conventional aspect ratio KSTAR tokamak. A correspondingly advanced modelling capability for the ICE emission mechanism has been developed using 1D3V PIC and hybrid-PIC codes, supplemented by analytical theory. These kinetic codes simulate the self-consistent full orbit dynamics of energetic and thermal ions, together with the electric and magnetic fields and the electrons. We report recent progress in theory and simulation that addresses: the scaling of ICE intensity with energetic particle density; the transition between super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic regimes for the collectively radiating particles; and the rapid time evolution that is seen for some ICE measurements. This work was supported in part by the RCUK Energy Programme [Grant Number EP/I501045] and by Euratom.

  12. Pressure and impulse scaling methods for wall impact in ICF (inertial confinement fusion)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C.; Chen, X.M.; Schrock, V.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Orth, C.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The design of the first structural wall (FSW) in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor requires some knowledge of the expected wall loading produced by x-ray and neutron deposition; specifically in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) reactor, wall loading results from two sources -- gas shock and liquid impact. Gas shock is derived from x-ray deposition in the thin layers of exposed blanket material, producing ionized vapor, which will generate gas shock on the FSW. Liquid impact, on the other hand, results from the acceleration of liquid blanket material by two possible forces -- the drag from vapor expansion through the blanket material and the neutron-induced isochoric disassembly process. Both impacts, however, are coupled by the interaction of hot gas expanding through the liquid blanket. This paper discusses scaling methods for estimating pressure and impulse on the HYLIFE FSW from these impacts. In particular, this paper reviews simple analytical and numerical techniques, and the use of experimental results in the estimation of wall impacts for the HYLIFE blanket geometry. Considered important in the analyses are supersonic flow through jet arrays and isochoric disassembly. Given the same initial parameters as those used in previous HYLIFE studies, the techniques described here yield results comparable to the previous studies utilizing heavy numerical simulation.

  13. Hydrodynamic Scaling of the Deceleration-Phase Rayleigh-Taylor Instability for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, A.; Betti, R.; Woo, K.; Nora, R.

    2014-10-01

    Hydrodynamic equivalence and ignition theory allow for the extrapolation of OMEGA experiments to ignition-scale implosions. The yield-over-clean (YOC = measured yield/1-D yield) depicts the effect of hydro-instabilities on inertial confinement fusion implosions. A 2-D study of the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is carried out to assess the YOC scaling with target size at varying nonuniformity levels. The deceleration-phase ablative RTI is mitigated by the hot-spot thermal and radiation transport, which do not scale hydro-equivalently. Scaling of the thermal conduction shows that hot-spot ablation velocity is higher on OMEGA than on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), resulting in higher RTI growth factors on the NIF. Radiation emitted in the hot-spot makes the implosion nearly hydro-equivalent by increasing the density gradient scale length on the NIF. Thermal conduction and radiation both are nonscalable physics in the deceleration phase, with complementary impacts the scaling of deceleration-phase RTI. Analytic and numerical study of the deceleration-phase RTI on OMEGA and NIF-scale targets show that YOCNIF ~ YOCΩ considering identical laser imprinting and normalized ice roughness levels. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Number DE-FG02-04ER54786.

  14. Neutron Induced D Breakup in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the Omega Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schroder, W. U.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution neutron spectroscopy is used to study the deuteron breakup reaction D(n,n ') np in the thermonuclear environment created in inertial confinement fusion experiments at the Omega Laser Facility. Neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV generated in the primary D-T fusion reactions scatter elastically and inelastically off the dense (cryogenic) D-T fuel assembly surrounding the central hot spot at peak fuel compression. These neutrons also induce a breakup of the fuel deuterons. The corresponding breakup cross section is measured relative to elastic n -D and n -T scattering, i.e., simultaneously in the same environment. Apart from astrophysical and technological interest, the neutron-induced deuteron breakup reaction is of interest to the physics of nucleon -nucleon forces. For example, theoretical calculations predict a noticeable influence of nucleonic three-body forces on the magnitude of the breakup cross section. Preliminary results from measurements of the neutron contribution in the 2- to 6-MeV range show reasonable agreement with the published ENDL 2008.2 semi-empirical cross-section. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Midterm Summary of Japan-US Fusion Cooperation Program TITAN

    SciTech Connect

    Muroga, Takeo; Sze, Dai-Kai; Sokolov, Mikhail; Katoh, Yutai; Stoller, Roger E

    2011-01-01

    Japan-US cooperation program TITAN (Tritium, Irradiation and Thermofluid for America and Nippon) started in April 2007 as 6-year project. This is the summary report at the midterm of the project. Historical overview of the Japan-US cooperation programs and direction of the TITAN project in its second half are presented in addition to the technical highlights. Blankets are component systems whose principal functions are extraction of heat and tritium. Thus it is crucial to clarify the potentiality for controlling heat and tritium flow throughout the first wall, blanket and out-of-vessel recovery systems. The TITAN project continues the JUPITER-II activity but extends its scope including the first wall and the recovery systems with the title of 'Tritium and thermofluid control for magnetic and inertial confinement systems'. The objective of the program is to clarify the mechanisms of tritium and heat transfer throughout the first-wall, the blanket and the heat/tritium recovery systems under specific conditions to fusion such as irradiation, high heat flux, circulation and high magnetic fields. Based on integrated models, the breeding, transfer, inventory of tritium and heat extraction properties will be evaluated for some representative liquid breeder blankets and the necessary database will be obtained for focused research in the future.

  16. Planning for U.S. Fusion Community Participation in the ITER Program

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Charles; Berk, Herbert; Greenwald, Martin; Mauel, Michael E.; Najmabadi, Farrokh; Nevins, William M.; Stambaugh, Ronald; Synakowski, Edmund; Batchelor, Donald B.; Fonck, Raymond; Hawryluk, Richard J.; Meade, Dale M.; Neilson, George H.; Parker, Ronald; Strait, Ted

    2006-06-07

    A central step in the mission of the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences program is the creation and study of a fusion-powered "star on earth", where the same energy source that drives the sun and other stars is reproduced and controlled for sustained periods in the laboratory. This “star” is formed by an ionized gas, or plasma, heated to fusion temperatures in a magnetic confinement device known as a tokamak, which is the most advanced magnetic fusion concept. The ITER tokamak is designed to be the premier scientific tool for exploring and testing expectations for plasma behavior in the fusion burning plasma regime, wherein the fusion process itself provides the dominant heat source to sustain the plasma temperature. It will provide the scientific basis and control tools needed to move toward the fusion energy goal. The ITER project confronts the grand challenge of creating and understanding a burning plasma for the first time. The distinguishing characteristic of a burning plasma is the tight coupling between the fusion heating, the resulting energetic particles, and the confinement and stability properties of the plasma. Achieving this strongly coupled burning state requires resolving complex physics issues and integrating challenging technologies. A clear and comprehensive scientific understanding of the burning plasma state is needed to confidently extrapolate plasma behavior and related technology beyond ITER to a fusion power plant. Developing this predictive understanding is the overarching goal of the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences program. The burning plasma research program in the U.S. is being organized to maximize the scientific benefits of U.S. participation in the international ITER experiment. It is expected that much of the research pursued on ITER will be based on the scientific merit of proposed activities, and it will be necessary to maintain strong fusion research capabilities in the U.S. to successfully contribute to the success of ITER and optimize

  17. Maximizing 1D “like” implosion performance for inertial confinement fusion science

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, John L.

    2016-07-15

    While the march towards achieving indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion at the NIF has made great progress, the experiments show that multi-dimensional effects still dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seed by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of ICF implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. To this end, LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a 1D implosion platform where 1D means high yield over 1D clean calculations. Taking advantage of the properties of beryllium capsules, a high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed. The higher drive efficiency for beryllium enables larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry at the expense of drive. Smaller capsules with a high adiabat drive are expected to reduce the convergence and thus increase predictability. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the initial mass in the hot spot can be controlled via the target fielding temperature which changes the liquid vapor pressure. Varying the initial hot spot mass via the vapor pressure controls the implosion convergence and minimizes the need to vaporize the dense fuel layer during the implosion to achieve ignition relevant hot spot densities. The last method is double shell targets. Unlike hot spot ignition, double shells ignite volumetrically. The inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. Radiation trapping and the longer confinement times relax the conditions required to ignite the fuel. Key challenges for double shell targets are coupling the momentum of the outer shell to

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of Atomic and Molecular Processes in the Edge Region of Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, J. D.; Brezinsek, S.; Mertens, Ph.; Unterberg, B.

    2006-12-01

    Edge plasma studies are of vital importance for understanding plasma-wall interactions in magnetically confined fusion devices. These interactions determine the transport of neutrals into the plasma, and the properties of the plasma discharge. This presentation deals with optical spectroscopic studies of the plasma boundary, and their role in elucidating the prevailing physical conditions. Recorded spectra are of four types: emission spectra of ions and atoms, produced by electron impact excitation and by charge-exchange recombination, atomic spectra arising from electron impact-induced molecular dissociation and ionisation, visible spectra of molecular hydrogen and its isotopic combinations, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra. The atomic spectra are strongly influenced by the confining magnetic field (Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects), which produces characteristic features useful for species identification, temperature determination by Doppler broadening, and studies of chemical and physical sputtering. Detailed analysis of the Zeeman components in both optical and LIF spectra shows that atomic hydrogen is produced in various velocity classes, some related to the relevant molecular Franck-Condon energies. The latter reflect the dominant electron collision processes responsible for production of atoms from molecules. This assignment has been verified by gas-puffing experiments through special test limiters. The higher-energy flanks of hydrogen line profiles probably also show the influence of charge-exchange reactions with molecular ions accelerated in the plasma sheath ('scrape-off layer') separating limiter surfaces from the edge plasma, in analogy to acceleration in the cathode-fall region of gas discharges. While electron collisions play a vital role in generating the spectra, ion collisions with excited atomic radiators act through re-distribution of population among the atomic fine-structure sublevels, and momentum transfer to the atomic nuclei via

  19. Crystallization and fusion behaviors, observed by adiabatic calorimetry, of benzene confined in silica mesopores with uniform diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagoe, Atsushi; Oguni, Masaharu; Fujimori, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    Heat capacities and spontaneous enthalpy-relaxation effects of the benzene confined in silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 pores with uniform diameters were measured by high-precision adiabatic calorimetry. The fusion temperatures and fusion enthalpies determined were compared with the literature results of benzene confined within pores of CPG glasses. It was confirmed, from the observed spontaneous heat-release or -absorption effects, that there exists a non-crystallizing amorphous component of confined benzene, as reported previously. The pore-diameter dependence of fusion enthalpy observed was inconsistent with the previously proposed model which suggested that the non-crystallizing amorphous component is located on the pore wall in the form of a shell-like structure of a few nm in thickness. A very slow relaxation process corresponding to a translational-diffusion motion of molecule was observed, indicating that the benzene fills the pores incompletely along the pore channel. In addition, we found that the fusion enthalpy as a function of inverse pore-diameter dependence decreases steeply in the range of 60-10 nm in diameter while gradually in the range around 5 nm.

  20. Rayleigh-Taylor Experiments in Materials and Conditions Relevant to Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, Jonathan David

    In direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a spherical target is imploded by overlapping laser beams to compress and heat DT fuel to conditions necessary for efficient thermonuclear burn. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is of primary concern in ICF, as it can cause initial areal-density (rhoR) perturbations to grow, leading to shell degradation and quenching of the hot spot necessary to achieve ignition of thermonuclear fusion. This work addresses two RTI concerns relevant to achieving ignition in ICF; measurement of RTI growth in cryogenic D2 targets and the effect of ablators of different atomic numbers (Z) on RTI growth rates using plastic (CH) and glass (SiO 2) targets. In these experiments, the temporal evolution of 2-D areal density (rhoR) modulations is measured using face-on X-ray radiography. Measured RT growth rates in D2 showed reasonable agreement with 2-D hydrodynamic simulations indicating reduced growth in D2 compared to CH, as predicted by theory. This result is crucial to ignition target designs using cryogenic DT ablators. The effect of thin ablators with different Z's on CH and SiO2 targets at varying drive intensities showed inconsistencies between the measured modulation growth and the 2-D hydrodynamic simulations at peak intensities of 1015 W/cm2 for targets with CH ablators due to hot electron preheat. Understanding preheat for ablators of different Z's is critical to achieving ignition in ICF; this work explores the impact of hot electron generation on the RTI at conditions relevant to ignition.

  1. The potential role of electric fields and plasma barodiffusion on the inertial confinement fusion databasea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, S. C.; Bellei, C.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-05-01

    The generation of strong, self-generated electric fields (GV/m) in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) capsules has been reported [Rygg et al., Science 319, 1223 (2008); Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225001 (2008)]. A candidate explanation for the origin of these fields based on charge separation across a plasma shock front was recently proposed [Amendt et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51 124048 (2009)]. The question arises whether such electric fields in imploding capsules can have observable consequences on target performance. Two well-known anomalies come to mind: (1) an observed ≈2× greater-than-expected deficit of neutrons in an equimolar D3He fuel mixture compared with hydrodynamically equivalent D [Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)] and DT [Herrmann et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056312 (2009)] fuels, and (2) a similar shortfall of neutrons when trace amounts of argon are mixed with D in indirect-drive implosions [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. A new mechanism based on barodiffusion (or pressure gradient-driven diffusion) in a plasma is proposed that incorporates the presence of shock-generated electric fields to explain the reported anomalies. For implosions performed at the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], the (low Mach number) return shock has an appreciable scale length over which the lighter D ions can diffuse away from fuel center. The depletion of D fuel is estimated and found to lead to a corresponding reduction in neutrons, consistent with the anomalies observed in experiments for both argon-doped D fuels and D3He equimolar mixtures. The reverse diffusional flux of the heavier ions toward fuel center also increases the pressure from a concomitant increase in electron number density, resulting in lower stagnation pressures and larger imploded cores in agreement with gated, self-emission, x-ray imaging data.

  2. Dynamic symmetry of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsules on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R. P. J. Bradley, D. K.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Dewald, E. L.; Eder, D. C.; Field, J. E.; Glenn, S. M.; Izumi, N.; Haan, S. W.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    In order to achieve ignition using inertial confinement fusion it is important to control the growth of low-mode asymmetries as the capsule is compressed. Understanding the time-dependent evolution of the shape of the hot spot and surrounding fuel layer is crucial to optimizing implosion performance. A design and experimental campaign to examine sources of asymmetry and to quantify symmetry throughout the implosion has been developed and executed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We have constructed a large simulation database of asymmetries applied during different time intervals. Analysis of the database has shown the need to measure and control the hot-spot shape, areal density distribution, and symmetry swings during the implosion. The shape of the hot spot during final stagnation is measured using time-resolved imaging of the self-emission, and information on the shape of the fuel at stagnation can be obtained from Compton radiography [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011)]. For the first time on NIF, two-dimensional inflight radiographs of gas-filled and cryogenic fuel layered capsules have been measured to infer the symmetry of the radiation drive on the capsule. These results have been used to modify the hohlraum geometry and the wavelength tuning to improve the inflight implosion symmetry. We have also expanded our shock timing capabilities by the addition of extra mirrors inside the re-entrant cone to allow the simultaneous measurement of shock symmetry in three locations on a single shot, providing asymmetry information up to Legendre mode 4. By diagnosing the shape at nearly every step of the implosion, we estimate that shape has typically reduced fusion yield by about 50% in ignition experiments.

  3. Overview of the VISTA Spacecraft Concept Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2000-11-21

    VISTA was conceived through a detailed systems analysis as a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on advanced ICF technology but existing or near-term technology for other systems. It is a conical self-contained single-stage piloted spacecraft in which a magnetic thrust chamber directs the plasma emissions from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets into a rearward exhaust. VISTA's propulsion system is therefore unique because it is based on (1) a rather mature technology (ICF), which is known to work with sufficient driver input; (2) direct heating of all expellant by the fusion process, thus providing high mass flow rates without significant degradation of jet efficiency; and (3) a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. VISTA therefore has inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses. With advanced ICF technology, ultra-fast roundtrips (RTs) to objects within the solar system are possible (e.g., {ge}145 days RT to Mars, {ge}7 years RT to Pluto). Such short-duration missions are imperative to minimize the human physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity and the cosmic-radiation. In addition, VISTA offers on-board artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. In this paper, we give an overview of the various vehicle systems for this concept, estimate the general missions performance capabilities for interplanetary missions, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. Items requiring further research include a reduction of the wet mass from its baseline value of 6,000 metric tons, and the development of fast ignition or its equivalent to provide target gains in excess of several hundred. With target gains well

  4. Self-consistent analysis of the hot spot dynamics for inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, J.; Garnier, J.; Cherfils, C.; Canaud, B.; Masse, L.; Temporal, M.

    2005-11-15

    In the context of the French Laser-Megajoule fusion-research program, the hydrodynamic stability of the baseline direct-drive target is investigated at the hot spot surface during the deceleration phase by means of modeling and simulations. Using the convergence of the flow towards a self-similar solution, a closed system of ordinary differential equations is derived for the main hydrodynamic variables. An exact linear stability analysis is performed to compute the Rayleigh-Taylor growths. All theoretical predictions are compared to one-dimensional and two-dimensional single-mode detailed numerical results.

  5. Program status 3. quarter -- FY 1990: Confinement systems programs

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-24

    Highlights of the DIII-D Research Operations task are: completed five weeks tokamak operations; initiated summer vent; achievement of 10.7% beta; carried out first dimensionless transport scaling experiment; completed IBW program; demonstrated divertor heat reduction with gas puffing; field task proposals presented to OFE; presentation of DIII-D program to FPAC; made presentation to Admiral Watkins; and SAN safety review. Summaries are given on research programs, operations, program development, hardware development, operations support and collaborative efforts. Brief summaries of progress on the International Cooperation task include: TORE SUPRA, ASDEX, JFT-2M, and JET. Funding for work on CIT physics was received this quarter. Several physics R and D planning tasks were initiated. Earlier in FY90, a poloidal field coil shaping system (PFC) was found for DIGNITOR. This quarter more detailed analysis has been done to optimize the design of the PFC system.

  6. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton radiography diagnostic of inertial confinement fusion targets (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; MacPhee, A.; Hey, D.; Ma, T.; Chen, C.; Izumi, N.; Unites, W.; MacKinnon, A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Remington, B. A.; Park, H. S.; Springer, P.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Hudson, Larry

    2008-10-15

    We present scaled demonstrations of backlighter sources, emitting bremsstrahlung x rays with photon energies above 75 keV, that we will use to record x-ray Compton radiographic snapshots of cold dense DT fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In experiments performed at the Titan laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we measured the source size and the bremsstrahlung spectrum as a function of laser intensity and pulse length from solid targets irradiated at 2x10{sup 17}-5x10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} using 2-40 ps pulses. Using Au planar foils we achieved source sizes down to 5.5 {mu}m and conversion efficiencies of about 1x10{sup -13} J/J into x-ray photons with energies in the 75-100 keV spectral range. We can now use these results to design NIF backlighter targets and shielding and to predict Compton radiography performance as a function of the NIF implosion yield and associated background.

  7. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; MacPhee, A; Hey, D; Ma, T; Chen, C; Izumi, N; Unites, W; MacKinnon, A; Hatchett, S P; Remington, B A; Park, H S; Springer, P; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Seely, J; Holland, G; Hudson, L

    2008-05-07

    We present scaled demonstrations of backlighter sources, emitting Bremsstrahlung x-rays with photon energies above 75 keV, that we will use to record x-ray Compton radiographic snapshots of cold dense DT fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In experiments performed at the Titan laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we measured the source size and the Bremsstrahlung spectrum as a function of laser intensity and pulse length, from solid targets irradiated at 2e17-5e18 W/cm{sup 2} using 2-40 ps pulses. Using Au planar foils we achieved source sizes down to 5.5 {micro}m, and conversion efficiencies of about 1e-3 J/J into x-ray photons with energies in the 75-100 keV spectral range. We can now use these results to design NIF backlighter targets and shielding, and to predict Compton radiography performance as a function of the NIF implosion yield and associated background.

  8. First Liquid Layer Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Kline, J. L.; Zylstra, A. B.; Yi, S. A.; Biener, J.; Braun, T.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Sater, J. D.; Bradley, P. A.; Peterson, R. R.; Haines, B. M.; Yin, L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Meezan, N. B.; Walters, C.; Biener, M. M.; Kong, C.; Crippen, J. W.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Wilson, D. C.; Hamza, A. V.; Nikroo, A.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    The first cryogenic deuterium and deuterium-tritium liquid layer implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) demonstrate D2 and DT layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions that can access a low-to-moderate hot-spot convergence ratio (12 30 ) DT ice layer implosions. Although high CR is desirable in an idealized 1D sense, it amplifies the deleterious effects of asymmetries. To date, these asymmetries prevented the achievement of ignition at the NIF and are the major cause of simulation-experiment disagreement. In the initial liquid layer experiments, high neutron yields were achieved with CRs of 12-17, and the hot-spot formation is well understood, demonstrated by a good agreement between the experimental data and the radiation hydrodynamic simulations. These initial experiments open a new NIF experimental capability that provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between hot-spot convergence ratio and the robustness of hot-spot formation during ICF implosions.

  9. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; ...

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosionsmore » on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.« less

  10. First-principles investigations on ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene for inertial confinement fusion applications

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; ...

    2016-04-14

    Using quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) methods based on the density functional theory, we have performed first-principles investigations on the ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene (CH) over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.5 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 15,625 to 500,000 K). The ionization data from orbital-free molecular-dynamics calculations have been fitted with a “Saha-type” model as a function of the CH plasma density and temperature, which exhibits the correct behaviors of continuum lowering and pressure ionization. The thermal conductivities (κQMD) of CH, derived directly from the Kohn–Sham molecular-dynamics calculations, are then analytically fitted with a generalizedmore » Coulomb logarithm [(lnΛ)QMD] over a wide range of plasma conditions. When compared with the traditional ionization and thermal conductivity models used in radiation–hydrodynamics codes for inertial confinement fusion simulations, the QMD results show a large difference in the low-temperature regime in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Furthermore, hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic deuterium–tritium targets with CH ablators on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility using the QMD-derived ionization and thermal conductivity of CH have predicted –20% variation in target performance in terms of hot-spot pressure and neutron yield (gain) with respect to traditional model simulations.« less

  11. First-principles investigations on ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene for inertial confinement fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-04-14

    Using quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) methods based on the density functional theory, we have performed first-principles investigations on the ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene (CH) over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.5 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 15,625 to 500,000 K). The ionization data from orbital-free molecular-dynamics calculations have been fitted with a “Saha-type” model as a function of the CH plasma density and temperature, which exhibits the correct behaviors of continuum lowering and pressure ionization. The thermal conductivities (κQMD) of CH, derived directly from the Kohn–Sham molecular-dynamics calculations, are then analytically fitted with a generalized Coulomb logarithm [(lnΛ)QMD] over a wide range of plasma conditions. When compared with the traditional ionization and thermal conductivity models used in radiation–hydrodynamics codes for inertial confinement fusion simulations, the QMD results show a large difference in the low-temperature regime in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Furthermore, hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic deuterium–tritium targets with CH ablators on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility using the QMD-derived ionization and thermal conductivity of CH have predicted –20% variation in target performance in terms of hot-spot pressure and neutron yield (gain) with respect to traditional model simulations.

  12. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knauer, J. P.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Munro, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    Neutron time-of-flight diagnostics have long been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d + t → n + α (DT) and d + d → n + 3He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (Tion) and cold fuel areal density. We report on novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent Tion, and DSR. These methods invoke a single temperature, static fluid model to describe the neutron peaks from DD and DT reactions and a spline description of the DT spectrum to determine the DSR. Both measurements are performed using a forward modeling technique that includes corrections for line-of-sight attenuation and impulse response of the detection system. These methods produce typical uncertainties for DT Tion of 250 eV, 7% for DSR, and 9% for the DT neutron yield. For the DD values, the uncertainties are 290 eV for Tion and 10% for the neutron yield.

  13. Ion separation effects in mixed-species ablators for inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Ross, J. Steven; Salmonson, Jay

    2015-02-01

    Recent efforts to demonstrate significant self-heating of the fuel and eventual ignition at the National Ignition Facility make use of plastic (CH) ablators [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014), 10.1063/1.4874330]. Mainline simulation techniques for modeling CH capsule implosions treat the ablator as an average-atom fluid and neglect potential species separation phenomena. The mass-ablation process for a mixture is shown to lead to the potential for species separation, parasitic energy loss according to thermodynamic arguments, and reduced rocket efficiency. A generalized plasma barometric formula for a multispecies concentration gradient that includes collisionality and steady flows in spherical geometry is presented. A model based on plasma expansion into a vacuum is used to interpret reported experimental evidence for ablator species separation in an inertial-confinement-fusion target [J. S. Ross et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E323 (2012)]. The possibility of "runaway" hydrogen ions in the thermoelectric field of the ablation front is conjectured.

  14. Fast ignition of a compressed inertial confinement fusion hemispherical capsule by two proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Temporal, Mauro

    2006-12-15

    A hemispherical conically guided indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsule has been considered. The fast ignition of the precompressed capsule driven by one or two laser-accelerated proton beams has been numerically investigated. The energy distribution of the protons is Gaussian with a mean energy of 12 MeV and a full width at half maximum of 1 MeV. A new scheme that uses two laser-accelerated proton beams is proposed. It is found that the energy deposition of 1 kJ provided by a first proton beam generates a low-density cylindrical channel and launches a forward shock. A second proton beam, delayed by a few tens of ps and driving the energy of 6 kJ, crosses the low-density channel and heats the dense shocked region where the ignition of the deuterium-tritium nuclear fuel is achieved. For the considered capsule, this new two-beam configuration reduces the ignition energy threshold to 7 kJ.

  15. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.

  16. Mechanism for magnetic field generation and growth in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields at the gas-ice interface and at the ice-ablator interface. The focus here is on the gas-ice interface where the temperature gradient is the largest. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the magnetic field generation and growth for 2-D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma, the two fluids being ions and electrons. Self-generated magnetic fields are observed and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇ne×∇Te term in the generalized Ohm's law. Srinivasan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165002 (2012)] present results of the magnetic field generation and growth, and some scaling studies in 2-dimensions. The results presented here study the mechanism behind the magnetic field generation and growth, which is related to fluid vorticity generation by RTI. The magnetic field wraps around the bubbles and spikes and concentrates in flux bundles at the perturbed gas-ice interface where fluid vorticity is large. Additionally, the results of Srinivasan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165002 (2012)] are described in greater detail. Additional scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, perturbation wavelength, Atwood number, and ion mass.

  17. One-dimensional Lagrangian implicit hydrodynamic algorithm for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    A new one-dimensional hydrodynamic algorithm, specifically developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) applications, is presented. The scheme uses a fully conservative Lagrangian formulation in planar, cylindrical, and spherically symmetric geometries, and supports arbitrary equations of state with separate ion and electron components. Fluid equations are discretized on a staggered grid and stabilized by means of an artificial viscosity formulation. The space discretized equations are advanced in time using an implicit algorithm. The method includes several numerical parameters that can be adjusted locally. In regions with low Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number, where stability is not an issue, they can be adjusted to optimize the accuracy. In typical problems, the truncation error can be reduced by a factor between 2 to 10 in comparison with conventional explicit algorithms. On the other hand, in regions with high CFL numbers, the parameters can be set to guarantee unconditional stability. The method can be integrated into complex ICF codes. This is demonstrated through several examples covering a wide range of situations: from thermonuclear ignition physics, where alpha particles are managed as an additional species, to low intensity laser-matter interaction, where liquid-vapor phase transitions occur.

  18. Mechanism for magnetic field generation and growth in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang Xianzhu

    2012-08-15

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields at the gas-ice interface and at the ice-ablator interface. The focus here is on the gas-ice interface where the temperature gradient is the largest. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the magnetic field generation and growth for 2-D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma, the two fluids being ions and electrons. Self-generated magnetic fields are observed and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the {nabla}n{sub e} Multiplication-Sign {nabla}T{sub e} term in the generalized Ohm's law. Srinivasan et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165002 (2012)] present results of the magnetic field generation and growth, and some scaling studies in 2-dimensions. The results presented here study the mechanism behind the magnetic field generation and growth, which is related to fluid vorticity generation by RTI. The magnetic field wraps around the bubbles and spikes and concentrates in flux bundles at the perturbed gas-ice interface where fluid vorticity is large. Additionally, the results of Srinivasan et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165002 (2012)] are described in greater detail. Additional scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, perturbation wavelength, Atwood number, and ion mass.

  19. Effect of the mounting membrane on shape in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, S. R.; Haan, S. W.; Rygg, J. R.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Field, J. E.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.

    2015-02-01

    The performance of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets relies on the symmetric implosion of highly compressed fuel. X-ray area-backlit imaging is used to assess in-flight low mode 2D asymmetries of the shell. These time-resolved images of the shell exhibit features that can be related to the lift-off position of the membranes used to hold the capsule within the hohlraum. Here, we describe a systematic study of this membrane or "tent" thickness and its impact on the measured low modes for in-flight and self-emission images. The low mode amplitudes of the shell in-flight shape (P2 and P4) are weakly affected by the tent feature in time-resolved, backlit data. By contrast, time integrated self-emission images along the same axis exhibit a reversal in perceived P4 mode due to growth of a feature seeded by the tent, which can explain prior inconsistencies between the in-flight P4 and core P4, leading to a reevaluation of optimum hohlraum length. Simulations with a tent-like feature normalized to match the feature seen in the backlit images predict a very large impact on the capsule performance from the tent feature.

  20. Direct Measurements of Hot-Electron Preheat in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, A. R.; Betti, R.; Howard, J.; Bose, A.; Forrest, C. J.; Theobald, W.; Campbell, E. M.; Delettrez, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Edgell, D. H.; Seka, W.; Davis, A. K.; Michel, D. T.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Wei, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, a spherical capsule of cryogenic DT with a low- Z (CH, Be) ablator is accelerated inward on low entropy to achieve high hot-spot pressures at stagnation with minimal driver energy. Hot electrons generated from laser-plasma instabilities can compromise this performance by preheating the DT fuel, which results in early decompression of the imploding shell and lower hot-spot pressures. The hot-electron energy deposited into the DT for direct-drive implosions is routinely inferred by subtracting hard x-ray signals between a cryogenic implosion and its mass-equivalent, all-CH implosion. However, this technique does not measure the energy deposited into the unablated DT, which fundamentally determines the final degradation in hot-spot pressure. In this work, we report on experiments conducted with high- Z payloads of varying thicknesses to determine the hot-electron energy deposited into a payload that is mass equivalent to the amount of unablated DT present in typical DT layered implosions on OMEGA. These are the first measurements to directly probe the effect of preheat on performance degradation. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  1. Investigation of radial wire arrays for inertial confinement fusion and radiation effects science.

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco Andres; Jennings, Christopher A.; Hall, Gareth Neville; Ampleford, David J.; Peyton, Bradley Philip; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Cleveland, Monica; Rogers, Thomas John; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley; Jones, Michael C.

    2010-02-01

    Radial wire arrays provide an alternative x-ray source for Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. These arrays, where wires are positioned radially outwards from a central cathode to a concentric anode, have the potential to drive a more compact ICF hohlraum. A number of experiments were performed on the 7MA Saturn Generator. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1MA level, where they have been shown to provide similar x-ray outputs to larger diameter cylindrical arrays, to the higher current levels required for ICF. Data indicates that at 7MA radial arrays can obtain higher power densities than cylindrical wire arrays, so may be of use for x-ray driven ICF on future facilities. Even at the 7MA level, data using Saturn's short pulse mode indicates that a radial array should be able to drive a compact hohlraum to temperatures {approx}92eV, which may be of interest for opacity experiments. These arrays are also shown to have applications to jet production for laboratory astrophysics. MHD simulations require additional physics to match the observed behavior.

  2. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hatarik, R. Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Munro, D. H.; Knauer, J. P.

    2015-11-14

    Neutron time-of-flight diagnostics have long been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d + t → n + α (DT) and d + d → n + {sup 3}He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (T{sub ion}) and cold fuel areal density. We report on novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent T{sub ion}, and DSR. These methods invoke a single temperature, static fluid model to describe the neutron peaks from DD and DT reactions and a spline description of the DT spectrum to determine the DSR. Both measurements are performed using a forward modeling technique that includes corrections for line-of-sight attenuation and impulse response of the detection system. These methods produce typical uncertainties for DT T{sub ion} of 250 eV, 7% for DSR, and 9% for the DT neutron yield. For the DD values, the uncertainties are 290 eV for T{sub ion} and 10% for the neutron yield.

  3. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-15

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  4. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Andrei N. Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H.; Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D.

    2014-02-15

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  5. Seeding of capsule instability growth by fill tubes and support rods for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macphee, Andrew; Casey, Daniel; Clark, Daniel; Field, John; Haan, Steven; Hammel, Bruce; Kroll, Jeremy; Landen, Otto; Martinez, David; Milovich, Jose; Nikroo, Abbas; Rice, Neal; Robey, Harry; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Stadermann, Michael; Weber, Christopher; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Collaboration; Atomics Collaboration, General

    2016-10-01

    Features associated with the target support tent and deuterium-tritium fuel fill tube and support rods can seed hydrodynamic instabilities leading to degraded performance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility. We performed in-flight radiography of ICF capsules in the vicinity of the capsule support tent and fill tube surrogates to investigate instability growth associated with these features. For both plastic and high density carbon ablators, the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill-tube cast by the x-ray spots on the hohlraum wall were observed to imprint radial instabilities around the fill tube/capsule interface. Similarly, instability growth was observed for the shadow cast by 12 μm diameter silicon carbide capsule support rods mounted orthogonal to the fill tube as a tent alternative for a plastic ablator. The orientation of the shadows is consistent with raytracing. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2014-10-15

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  7. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Goncharov, V N; Kress, J D; McCrory, R L; Skupsky, S

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ=0.1to100g/cm(3) and T=1000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ∼30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ∼5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ∼10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.

  8. Neutron flux assessment of a neutron irradiation facility based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Sztejnberg Gonçalves-Carralves, M L; Miller, M E

    2015-12-01

    Neutron generators based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion were considered for the design of a neutron irradiation facility for explanted organ Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) that could be installed in a health care center as well as in research areas. The chosen facility configuration is "irradiation chamber", a ~20×20×40 cm(3) cavity near or in the center of the facility geometry where samples to be irradiated can be placed. Neutron flux calculations were performed to study different manners for improving scattering processes and, consequently, optimize neutron flux in the irradiation position. Flux distributions were assessed through numerical simulations of several models implemented in MCNP5 particle transport code. Simulation results provided a wide spectrum of combinations of net fluxes and energy spectrum distributions. Among them one can find a group that can provide thermal neutron fluxes per unit of production rate in a range from 4.1·10(-4) cm(-2) to 1.6·10(-3) cm(-2) with epithermal-to-thermal ratios between 0.3% and 13% and fast-to-thermal ratios between 0.01% to 8%. Neutron generators could be built to provide more than 10(10) n s(-1) and, consequently, with an arrangement of several generators appropriate enough neutron fluxes could be obtained that would be useful for several BNCT-related irradiations and, eventually, for clinical practice.

  9. Real viscosity effects in inertial confinement fusion target deuterium-tritium micro-implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. J.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Faehl, R. J.

    2014-02-01

    We report on numerical studies of real viscous effects on the implosion characteristics of imploded DT micro-targets. We use the implicit ePLAS code to perform 2D simulations of spherical and slightly ellipsoidal DT shells on DT gas filled ˜40 μm diameter voids. Before their final implosions the shells have been nearly adiabatically compressed up to 102 or 103 g/cm3 densities. While the use of conventional artificial viscosity can lead to high central densities for initially spherical shells, we find that a real physical viscosity from ion-ion collisions can give a high (>20 keV) central temperature but severely reduced central density (<200 g/cm3), while the elliptical shells evidence p = 2 distortion of the heated central fuel region. These results suggest that the general use of artificial viscosities in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) modeling may have lead to overly optimistic yields for current NIF targets and that polar direct drive with more energy for the imploding capsule may be needed for ultimate ICF success.

  10. Observations of the Ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov Effect Relevant to Indirect-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Eric; Braun, Dave; Batha, Steve; Landen, Otto

    2013-10-01

    Recent simulations and experiments have shown that isolated features on the outer surface of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition capsules can profoundly impact capsule performance by leading to material jetting or mixing into the hotspot. Controlling the growth of these artifacts is complicated due to uncertainties in equation of state (EOS) models used in simulation codes. Here we report on measurements pertaining to the growth and decay of isolated defects due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in CH capsules in order to validate these models. Face-on transmission radiography was used to measure the evolution of Gaussian bump arrays in plastic targets. Au halfraums heated to radiation temperatures near 70 eV using 15 beams in a 7.5 ns pulse from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY) indirectly drove the samples while simultaneous radiographs from Ta and Y backlighter foils were recorded. Shock speed measurements were also made with Omega's Active Shock Break Out (ASBO) diagnostic in conjunction with the x-ray flux recorded by a soft x-ray power diagnostic (DANTE) were used to determine drive conditions in the target. Measurements of 5 micron tall, 17 micron wide bumps show a decrease in bump areal density between 4.5 and 7.5 ns while 33 micron wide bumps saturate near 3 ns consistent with LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations.

  11. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ =0.1 to 100 g /cm3 and T =1000 to 4 000 000 K ). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ˜30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ˜5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ˜10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.

  12. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

  13. Three-Dimensional Study of Yield Degradation for Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Yan, R.; Aluie, H.; Bose, A.; Zhao, D. X.; Gopalaswamy, V.

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism of yield degradation in the deceleration phase for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion was studied using a recently developed three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code DEC3D. Under the approximation of adiabatic hot spot, an expression that measures the degradation of neutron rate was obtained in terms of the ratio of perturbed to the clean hot-spot volume. The characteristics of perturbed hot-spot volume is identified as a key parameter to understand the departure from spherical symmetry. The role of 3-D effects on compressibility, which affects the hot-spot volume, was examined including the 3-D vorticity dynamics in the spherical converging geometry and the jet flow in P-1 perturbations. In particular, the hot spot was found to be less compressible in the nonlinear phase of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, resulting in a poor hydrodynamic efficiency to convert the shell kinetic energy into hot-spot pressure. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DENA0001944.

  14. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics of the deceleration stage in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C. R. Clark, D. S.; Cook, A. W.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-03-15

    The deceleration stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions is modeled in detail using three-dimensional simulations designed to match experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In this final stage of the implosion, shocks rebound from the center of the capsule, forming the high-temperature, low-density hot spot and slowing the incoming fuel. The flow field that results from this process is highly three-dimensional and influences many aspects of the implosion. The interior of the capsule has high-velocity motion, but viscous effects limit the range of scales that develop. The bulk motion of the hot spot shows qualitative agreement with experimental velocity measurements, while the variance of the hot spot velocity would broaden the DT neutron spectrum, increasing the inferred temperature by 400–800 eV. Jets of ablator material are broken apart and redirected as they enter this dynamic hot spot. Deceleration stage simulations using two fundamentally different rad-hydro codes are compared and the flow field is found to be in good agreement.

  15. Two dimensional impinging jet cooling of high heat flux surface in magnetic confinement fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, A.; Tanno, T.; Takahashi, M.

    1994-12-31

    Divertor surface of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor is exposed to strong radiation heating by high flux charged particles. According to standard design of the ITER, the heat flux of the divertor surface becomes average 15MW/m{sup 2} or more. In this study, a cooling by a two dimensional impinging jet flow is proposed to cool such high heat flux surface. For an impinging jet flow to flat heated surface, such as CHF is obtained only in the limited surface region where the jet flow hits directly. Apart from the region, the CHF decreases abruptly with the distance from the center. The main reason is that the pressure decreases abruptly as apart from the center region and the liquid flow is spread away from the heated surface region by the strong boiling. To overcome these difficulties, the authors propose that the impinging jet is applied to the heat transfer wall with a concave surface, because the pressure change becomes mild by the centrifugal force along the curved surface. The increase of the radial pressure gradient in the vertical direction to the curved surface promotes the departure of vapor bubbles near the wall region. It is expected that this mechanism as well as keeping high pressure along the flow works to enhance the CHF. To obtain the high heat flux in the wide region, a use of a two-dimensional impinging jet is suitable instead of a round jet.

  16. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Cheng, B.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-01

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  17. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Andrei N.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D.; Batha, Steven H.

    2014-02-01

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  18. X-ray ablation rates in inertial confinement fusion capsule materials

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Landen, O. L.

    2011-03-15

    X-ray ablation rates have been measured in beryllium, copper-doped beryllium, germanium-doped plastic (Ge-doped CH), and diamondlike high density carbon (HDC) for radiation temperatures T in the range of 160-260 eV. In beryllium, the measured ablation rates range from 3 to 12 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns; in Ge-doped CH, the ablation rates range from 2 to 6 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns; and for HDC, the rates range from 2 to 9 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns. The ablation rates follow an approximate T{sup 3} dependence and, for T below 230 eV, the beryllium ablation rates are significantly higher than HDC and Ge-doped CH. The corresponding implied ablation pressures are in the range of 20-160 Mbar, scaling as T{sup 3.5}. The results are found to be well predicted by computational simulations using the physics packages and computational techniques employed in the design of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion capsules. An iterative rocket model has been developed and used to compare the ablation rate data set to spherical indirect-drive capsule implosion experiments and to confirm the validity of some aspects of proposed full-scale National Ignition Facility ignition capsule designs.

  19. Ion separation effects in mixed-species ablators for inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Ross, J Steven; Salmonson, Jay

    2015-02-01

    Recent efforts to demonstrate significant self-heating of the fuel and eventual ignition at the National Ignition Facility make use of plastic (CH) ablators [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)]. Mainline simulation techniques for modeling CH capsule implosions treat the ablator as an average-atom fluid and neglect potential species separation phenomena. The mass-ablation process for a mixture is shown to lead to the potential for species separation, parasitic energy loss according to thermodynamic arguments, and reduced rocket efficiency. A generalized plasma barometric formula for a multispecies concentration gradient that includes collisionality and steady flows in spherical geometry is presented. A model based on plasma expansion into a vacuum is used to interpret reported experimental evidence for ablator species separation in an inertial-confinement-fusion target [J. S. Ross et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E323 (2012)]. The possibility of "runaway" hydrogen ions in the thermoelectric field of the ablation front is conjectured.

  20. Angular radiation temperature simulation for time-dependent capsule drive prediction in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Longfei; Yang, Dong; Li, Hang; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Zhiwei; Li, Liling; Kuang, Longyu; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2015-02-15

    The x-ray drive on a capsule in an inertial confinement fusion setup is crucial for ignition. Unfortunately, a direct measurement has not been possible so far. We propose an angular radiation temperature simulation to predict the time-dependent drive on the capsule. A simple model, based on the view-factor method for the simulation of the radiation temperature, is presented and compared with the experimental data obtained using the OMEGA laser facility and the simulation results acquired with VISRAD code. We found a good agreement between the time-dependent measurements and the simulation results obtained using this model. The validated model was then used to analyze the experimental results from the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. More specifically, the variations of the peak radiation temperatures at different view angles with the albedo of the hohlraum, the motion of the laser spots, the closure of the laser entrance holes, and the deviation of the laser power were investigated. Furthermore, the time-dependent radiation temperature at different orientations and the drive history on the capsule were calculated. The results indicate that the radiation temperature from “U20W112” (named according to the diagnostic hole ID on the target chamber) can be used to approximately predict the drive temperature on the capsule. In addition, the influence of the capsule on the peak radiation temperature is also presented.

  1. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vold, E. L.; Joglekar, A. S.; Ortega, M. I.; Moll, R.; Fenn, D.; Molvig, K.

    2015-11-01

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.

  2. First Liquid Layer Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Olson, R E; Leeper, R J; Kline, J L; Zylstra, A B; Yi, S A; Biener, J; Braun, T; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Bradley, P A; Peterson, R R; Haines, B M; Yin, L; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Meezan, N B; Walters, C; Biener, M M; Kong, C; Crippen, J W; Kyrala, G A; Shah, R C; Herrmann, H W; Wilson, D C; Hamza, A V; Nikroo, A; Batha, S H

    2016-12-09

    The first cryogenic deuterium and deuterium-tritium liquid layer implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) demonstrate D_{2} and DT layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions that can access a low-to-moderate hot-spot convergence ratio (1230) DT ice layer implosions. Although high CR is desirable in an idealized 1D sense, it amplifies the deleterious effects of asymmetries. To date, these asymmetries prevented the achievement of ignition at the NIF and are the major cause of simulation-experiment disagreement. In the initial liquid layer experiments, high neutron yields were achieved with CRs of 12-17, and the hot-spot formation is well understood, demonstrated by a good agreement between the experimental data and the radiation hydrodynamic simulations. These initial experiments open a new NIF experimental capability that provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between hot-spot convergence ratio and the robustness of hot-spot formation during ICF implosions.

  3. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, Erik Lehman; Joglekar, Archis S.; Ortega, Mario I.; Moll, Ryan; Fenn, Daniel; Molvig, Kim

    2015-11-20

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion(ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. In this paper, we have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasmaviscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasmaviscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasmaviscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Finally, plasmaviscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.

  4. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Vold, Erik Lehman; Joglekar, Archis S.; Ortega, Mario I.; ...

    2015-11-20

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion(ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. In this paper, we have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasmaviscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasmaviscosity andmore » to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasmaviscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Finally, plasmaviscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.« less

  5. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K.; Joglekar, A. S.; Ortega, M. I.; Moll, R.; Fenn, D.

    2015-11-15

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.

  6. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: The Laser Elevator Solar System Survey for Propellants Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wayne Pryor worked on three projects this summer. These were: 1) Inertial Electrostatic Confinement; 2) The Laser Elevator; and 3) Solar System Survey for Propellants Abstract. We Assisted Jon Nadler from Richland Community College in assembling and operating a table-top nuclear fusion reactor. We successfully demonstrated neutron production in a deuterium plasma. Pryor also obtained basic spectroscopic information on the atomic and molecular emissions in the plasma. The second project consisted of the completion of a paper on a novel propulsion concept (due to Tom Meyer of Colorado, the first author): a laser sail that bounces light back to the laser source. Recycling the photons from source to sail perhaps 100-1000 times dramatically improves the energy efficiency of this system, which may become very important for high-velocity missions in the future. Lastly, we compiled a very basic inventory of solar system propellant resources, their locations, and their accessibility. This initial inventory concentrates on sunlight availability, water availability, and the difficulty (delta-velocity requirement and radiation environment) in getting there.

  7. Demonstration of Radiation Pulse Shaping with Nested-Tungsten-Wire-Array Z Pinches for High-Yield Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, M.E.; Vesey, R.A.; Sinars, D.B.; Waisman, E.M.; Lemke, R.W.; Bliss, D.E.; Stygar, W.A.; Porter, J.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Chandler, G.A.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Chittenden, J.P.; Lebedev, S.V.; Schroen, D.G.

    2005-10-28

    Nested wire-array Z pinches are shown to generate soft x-ray radiation pulse shapes required for three-shock isentropic compression and hot-spot ignition of high-yield inertial confinement fusion capsules. We demonstrate a reproducible and tunable foot pulse (first shock) produced by interaction of the outer and inner arrays. A first-step pulse (second shock) is produced by inner array collision with a central CH{sub 2} foam target. Stagnation of the inner array at the axis produces the third shock. Capsules optimized for several of these shapes produce 290-900 MJ fusion yields in 1D simulations.

  8. Analysis of the radial potential structure and neutron production rate in the spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzanpour, M. A.; Pahlavani, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    The radial dependent potential and neutron production rate in spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) devices is investigated. The electrostatic potential is determined by solving the Poisson equation for various deuteron and electron distribution functions. The fusion reaction rates are determined using energy distribution function. Also, dependence of potential structure and neutron production rate on some important parameters as the ion and electron convergence, working pressure, kinetic energy of the secondary electrons emitted from the cathode and the fraction of secondary electrons drawn inside the cathode are studied. Total produced neutrons as a function of input power at different working conditions are also obtained.

  9. Applications of deuterium-tritium equation of state based on density functional theory in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cong; He, Xian-Tu; Ye, Wen-Hua; Zhang, Ping; Fan, Zheng-Feng

    2015-06-15

    An accurate equation of state for deuterium-tritium mixture is of crucial importance in inertial confinement fusion. The equation of state can determine the compressibility of the imploding target and the energy deposited into the fusion fuel. In the present work, a new deuterium-tritium equation of state, which is calculated according to quantum molecular dynamic and orbital free molecular dynamic simulations, has been used to study the target implosion hydrodynamics. The results indicate that the peak density predicted by the new equation of state is ∼10% higher than the quotidian equation of state data. During the implosion, the areal density and neutron yield are also discussed.

  10. Effects of fuel-capsule shimming and drive asymmetry on inertial-confinement-fusion symmetry and yield

    DOE PAGES

    Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; DeCiantis, J. L.; ...

    2016-03-22

    Three orthogonal proton emission imaging cameras were used to study the 3D effects of low-mode drive asymmetries and target asymmetries on nuclear burn symmetry and yield in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments. The fusion yield decreased quickly as the burn region became asymmetric due to either drive or capsule asymmetry. Here, measurements and analytic scaling are used to predict how intentionally asymmetric capsule shells could improve performance by compensating for drive asymmetry when it cannot be avoided (such as with indirect drive or with polar direct drive).

  11. Experimental study of proton rate density in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yibin

    The concept of spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement (SIEC) is to focus and accelerate ions and electrons radially inward into the center of a negatively biased, highly transparent spherical grid to create a space-charge double-potential well (a negative-potential well nested inside a positive-potential well) which confines the high-energy ions in the dense central core region such that appreciable nuclear fusion reactions are obtained. This experimental work has focused on creating the double-potential well at high perveance (I/V3/2) where there is a significant charge build-up in the center, and on proving the existence of the well from its characteristic radial proton rate density profile. Based on the spatial measurement of the D-D fusion protons by using a capillary proton collimator and the unfolding of this data, this work has been directed to evaluate the radial proton rate density profiles to explore the evolution of potential-well structure in the current and voltage (perveance) range where the double well is expected. Under the optimized operating conditions admitted by using the Star mode to improve focusing to 1.6× ballistic limit and double-grid setup to reduce the ion radial energy spread to <10%, the experiment has successfully created and, through identification of a distinct two-peak proton rate density profile, demonstrated the existence of the double- potential well. Experimental measurements of the two-peak proton rate density profiles have uniquely shown the emergence of the double potential well for perveances >0.34 mA/kV3/2. As the perveance increases, the feature of the double well becomes prominent. At 1.38 mA/kV3/2 (80 mA and 15 kV), the maximum negative potential well depth obtained from the measured proton rate density was calculated, using a beam-background fusion and charge-exchange model, to be ~22-27% of the applied voltage. Also, during the progress of this dissertation, two valuable SIEC derivatives-an SIEC wavelength

  12. The NASA-Lewis program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion, 1958-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Roth, J. Reece

    1990-01-01

    An historical synopsis is provided of the NASA-Lewis research program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion systems. It was initiated to explore the potential applications of fusion energy to space power and propulsion systems. Some fusion related accomplishments and program areas covered include: basic research on the Electric Field Bumpy Torus (EFBT) magnetoelectric fusion containment concept, including identification of its radial transport mechanism and confinement time scaling; operation of the Pilot Rig mirror machine, the first superconducting magnet facility to be used in plasma physics or fusion research; operation of the Superconducting Bumpy Torus magnet facility, first used to generate a toroidal magnetic field; steady state production of neutrons from DD reactions; studies of the direct conversion of plasma enthalpy to thrust by a direct fusion rocket via propellant addition and magnetic nozzles; power and propulsion system studies, including D(3)He power balance, neutron shielding, and refrigeration requirements; and development of large volume, high field superconducting and cryogenic magnet technology.

  13. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  14. Plasma-deposited beryllium carbide coatings for application to inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wu-Sheng

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative energy source for the future energy needs in the next century. The materials of the microsphere which confines the D-T fuel inside require high energy transparency (low atomic number, Z), smooth surface, and permeability to Hsb2. Plasma-deposited Be polymer composite coatings with over 50 atomic % of Be and low O content (<5 atomic %) would meet these requirements. Several films with a Be to C atomic ratio of close to 2 to 1 which corresponds to Besb2C with a surface roughness < 100 A and acceptable permeability to Hsb2 were prepared. The coatings were prepared in a rf-induced cylindrical plasma reactor. Diethylberyllium (DEB) was introduced into the reactor as the precursor. Hsb2 was used as the co-reactant for the purpose of reducing internal/compressional stress of the coatings. These coatings were made at substrate temperatures in the range of ambient temperature to 325sp°C with various Hsb2 to DEB flow rate ratios. These coatings have been characterized by AES, XRD, XPS, SEM, AFM, FTIR, electrical resistivity, and TGA. Permeability to Hsb2 through ˜1 mum and ˜5 mum films was also measured. This is the first successful attempt to prepare Besb2C at 250sp°C by PECVD at low pressure as compare to prepare bulk Besb2C at over 1500sp°C by sintering process in a vacuum furnace (<10sp{-4} mmHg). It has been found that the Be content decreases along the distance from the DEB inlet. It has also been confirmed that Besb2C is the dominant phase in these coatings. The Besb2C in these films is resistant to hydrolysis and/or oxidation to dry and moist air in the temperature range of 30sp°C to 250sp°C. It was found that internal/compressional stress is somewhat reduced by introducing Hsb2 into the reactor as a co-reacting gas.

  15. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; ...

    2015-05-19

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method describedmore » here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple

  16. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Brian M.; Grim, Gary P.; Fincke, James R.; Shah, Rahul C.; Forrest, Chad J.; Silverstein, Kevin; Marshall, Frederic J.; Boswell, Melissa; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Gore, Robert A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Klein, Andreas; Rundberg, Robert S.; Steinkamp, Michael J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a "CD Mixcap," is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employ any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  17. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, Michael J.; Albright, B. J.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Sio, Hong; Zylstra, Alex B.; Johnson, Maria Gatu; Séguin, Fredrick H.; Frenje, Johan A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, Richard D.; Higdon, David M.; Srinivasan, Gowri; Glebov, Vladimir Yu.; Stoeckl, Christian; Seka, Wolf; Sangster, T. Craig

    2015-05-19

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method described here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple approach

  18. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Haines, Brian Michael; Grim, Gary P.; Fincke, James R.; ...

    2016-07-29

    Here, we present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a “CD Mixcap,” is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employmore » any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  19. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, Brian Michael; Grim, Gary P.; Fincke, James R.; Shah, Rahul C.; Forrest, Chad J.; Silverstein, Kevin; Marshall, Frederic J.; Boswell, Melissa; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Gore, Robert A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine; Jungman, Gerard; Klein, Andreas; Rundberg, Robert S.; Steinkamp, Michael James; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.

    2016-07-29

    Here, we present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a “CD Mixcap,” is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employ any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  20. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, Michael J.; Albright, B. J.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Sio, Hong; Zylstra, Alex B.; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Séguin, Fredrick H.; Frenje, Johan A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, Richard D.; Higdon, David M.; Srinivasan, Gowri; Glebov, Vladimir Yu.; Stoeckl, Christian; Seka, Wolf; Sangster, T. Craig

    2015-05-01

    "Reduced" (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method described here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple approach

  1. VISTA -- A Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Application Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2005-03-31

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an ideal technology to power self-contained single-stage piloted (manned) spacecraft within the solar system because of its inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses (i.e., high exhaust velocities). These technological advantages are retained when ICF is utilized with a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. We started with Rod Hyde's 1983 description of an ICF-powered engine concept using a magnetic thrust chamber, and conducted a more detailed systems study to develop a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on ICF technology projected to be available in the first half of the 21st century. The results include an entirely new conical spacecraft conceptual design utilizing near-existing radiator technology. We describe the various vehicle systems for this new concept, estimate the missions performance capabilities for general missions to the planets within the solar system, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. For this mission, we show that roundtrips totaling {ge}145 days are possible with advanced DT fusion technology and a total (wet) spacecraft mass of about 6000 metric tons. Such short-duration missions are advantageous to minimize the known cosmic-radiation hazards to astronauts, and are even more important to minimize the physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity. These ICF-powered missions are considerably faster than those available using chemical or nuclear-electric-propulsion technologies with minimum-mass vehicle configurations. VISTA also offers onboard artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the known hazards and physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. We emphasize, however, that the degree to

  2. Program status. 2nd quarter - FY 1995. Confinement systems programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-18

    We conducted physics experiments: record normalized {Beta} = 4.9 achieved in VH-mode, {Beta} limits of ITER-like configurations evaluated, FWCD commissioning. The tokamak vessel was opened to atmosphere for six weeks and a number of key diagnostics for understanding the divertor were installed. The DIII-D Advisory Committee met in January to review the DIII-D program and plan. They commended us for recent progress and supported the vanadium divertor design. The U.S./Japan DIII-D steering committee met and recommended extending the agreement to the year 2000. The field work proposal for FY 96/97 was presented in Washington on March 29, 1995. A review of the DIII-D plan to install vanadium structural components as part of the new radiative divertor modification was held in Washington 31, 1995 and the panel endorsed the plans. Preliminary plans were developed with PPPL for collaborations in FY96,

  3. Simultaneous usage of pinhole and penumbral apertures for imaging small scale neutron sources from inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Guler, N; Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Wilde, C H

    2012-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to understand the basic principles of creating self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic capsules. The neutron imaging diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by observing neutron images in two different energy bands for primary (13-17 MeV) and down-scattered (6-12 MeV) neutrons. From this, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. These experiments provide small sources with high yield neutron flux. An aperture design that includes an array of pinholes and penumbral apertures has provided the opportunity to image the same source with two different techniques. This allows for an evaluation of these different aperture designs and reconstruction algorithms.

  4. Fusion safety program Annual report, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Carmack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY-95. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A final activity described is work to develop DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Fusion Test Facilities.

  5. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  6. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  7. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-27

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ~34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  8. The mitigating effect of magnetic fields on Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2013-05-15

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at interfaces of disparate mass densities have long been known to generate magnetic fields during inertial confinement fusion implosions. An externally applied magnetic field can also be efficiently amplified by RT instabilities. The focus here is on magnetic field generation and amplification at the gas-ice interface which is RT unstable during the deceleration phase of the implosion. RT instabilities lead to undesirable mix of hot and cold plasmas which enhances thermal energy loss and tends to produce a more massive warm-spot instead of a hot-spot. Two mechanisms are shown here to mitigate the thermal energy loss from the hot-spot. The first mechanism is the reduction of electron thermal conductivity with interface-aligned magnetic fields. This can occur through self-generated magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect as well as through externally applied magnetic fields that undergo an exponential growth via the stretch-and-fold magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Self-generated magnetic fields during RT evolution can result in a factor of 2−10 decrease in the electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface, while externally applied magnetic fields that are compressed to 6–1000 T at the onset of deceleration (corresponding to pre-implosion external fields of 0.06–10 T) could result in a factor of 2–500 reduction in electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface. The second mechanism to mitigate thermal energy loss from the hot-spot is to decrease the interface mixing area between the hot and cold plasmas. This is achieved through large external magnetic fields of 1000 T at the onset of deceleration which damp short-wavelength RT modes and long-wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz modes thus significantly slowing the RT growth and reducing mix.

  9. Anomalous DD and TT yields relative to the DT yield in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Daniel T.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (DD), T(t,2n)4He (TT) and D(t,n)4He (DT) reactions have been conducted using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In these experiments, which were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility, absolute spectral measurements of the DD protons and TT neutrons were conducted and compared to neutron-time-of-flight measured DT-neutron yields. From these measurements, it is concluded that the DD yield is anomalously low and the TT yield is anomalously high relative to the DT yield, an effect that is enhanced with increasing ion temperature. These results can be explained by an enrichment of tritium in the core of an ICF implosion, which may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility. In addition, the spectral measurements of the TT-neutron spectrum were conducted for the first time at reactant central-mass energies in the range of 15-30 keV. The results from these measurements indicate that the TT reaction proceeds primarily through the direct three-body reaction channel, producing a continuous TT-neutron spectrum in the range 0 - 9.5 MeV. This work was conducted in collaboration with J. A. Frenje, M. Gatu Johnson, M. J.-E. Manuel, H. G. Rinderknecht, N. Sinenian, F. H. Seguin, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, P. B. Radha, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, D. P. McNabb, P. A. Amendt, R. N. Boyd, J. R. Rygg, H. W. Herrmann, Y. H. Kim, G. P. Grim and A. D. Bacher. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG03-03SF22691), LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974).

  10. First-principles equation-of-state table of deuterium for inertial confinement fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.; Militzer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through radiation-hydrodynamics simulations relies on the accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of the deuterium and tritium fuels. To minimize the drive energy for ignition, the imploding shell of DT fuel must be kept as cold as possible. Such low-adiabat ICF implosions can access to coupled and degenerate plasma conditions, in which the analytical EOS models become inaccurate due to many-body effects. Using the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium that covers typical ICF fuel conditions at densities ranging from 0.002 to 1596 g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of 1.35 eV to 5.5 keV. We report the internal energy and the pressure and discuss the structure of the plasma in terms of pair-correlation functions. When compared with the widely used SESAME table and the revised Kerley03 table, discrepancies in the internal energy and in the pressure are identified for moderately coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. In contrast to the SESAME table, the revised Kerley03 table is in better agreement with our FPEOS results over a wide range of densities and temperatures. Although subtle differences still exist for lower temperatures (T < 10 eV) and moderate densities (1 to 10 g/cm{sup 3}), hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table and the Kerley03 table have resulted in similar results for the peak density, areal density ({rho}R), and neutron yield, which differ significantly from the SESAME simulations.

  11. First-principles equation-of-state table of deuterium for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Militzer, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through radiation-hydrodynamics simulations relies on the accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of the deuterium and tritium fuels. To minimize the drive energy for ignition, the imploding shell of DT fuel must be kept as cold as possible. Such low-adiabat ICF implosions can access to coupled and degenerate plasma conditions, in which the analytical EOS models become inaccurate due to many-body effects. Using the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium that covers typical ICF fuel conditions at densities ranging from 0.002 to 1596 g/cm3 and temperatures of 1.35 eV to 5.5 keV. We report the internal energy and the pressure and discuss the structure of the plasma in terms of pair-correlation functions. When compared with the widely used SESAME table and the revised Kerley03 table, discrepancies in the internal energy and in the pressure are identified for moderately coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. In contrast to the SESAME table, the revised Kerley03 table is in better agreement with our FPEOS results over a wide range of densities and temperatures. Although subtle differences still exist for lower temperatures (T < 10 eV) and moderate densities (1 to 10 g/cm3), hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table and the Kerley03 table have resulted in similar results for the peak density, areal density (ρR), and neutron yield, which differ significantly from the SESAME simulations.

  12. Fusion of ranging data from robot teams operating in confined areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.; Shrestha, Karma; Liu, Tsung-Ming

    2013-05-01

    We address the problem of fusing laser ranging data from multiple mobile robots that are surveying an area as part of a robot search and rescue or area surveillance mission. We are specifically interested in the case where members of the robot team are working in close proximity to each other. The advantage of this teamwork is that it greatly speeds up the surveying process; the area can be quickly covered even when the robots use a random motion exploration approach. However, the disadvantage of the close proximity is that it is possible, and even likely, that the laser ranging data from one robot include many depth readings caused by another robot. We refer to this as mutual interference. Using a team of two Pioneer 3-AT robots with tilted SICK LMS-200 laser sensors, we evaluate several techniques for fusing the laser ranging information so as to eliminate the mutual interference. There is an extensive literature on the mapping and localization aspect of this problem. Recent work on mapping has begun to address dynamic or transient objects. Our problem differs from the dynamic map problem in that we look at one kind of transient map feature, other robots, and we know that we wish to completely eliminate the feature. We present and evaluate three different approaches to the map fusion problem: a robot-centric approach, based on estimating team member locations; a map-centric approach, based on inspecting local regions of the map, and a combination of both approaches. We show results for these approaches for several experiments for a two robot team operating in a confined indoor environment .

  13. A hybrid-drive nonisobaric-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. T.; Li, J. W.; Fan, Z. F.; Wang, L. F.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Wu, J. F.; Ye, W. H.

    2016-08-01

    A new hybrid-drive (HD) nonisobaric ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed, in which a HD pressure to drive implosion dynamics increases via increasing density rather than temperature in the conventional indirect drive (ID) and direct drive (DD) approaches. In this HD (combination of ID and DD) scheme, an assembled target of a spherical hohlraum and a layered deuterium-tritium capsule inside is used. The ID lasers first drive the shock to perform a spherical symmetry implosion and produce a large-scale corona plasma. Then, the DD lasers, whose critical surface in ID corona plasma is far from the radiation ablation front, drive a supersonic electron thermal wave, which slows down to a high-pressure electron compression wave, like a snowplow, piling up the corona plasma into high density and forming a HD pressurized plateau with a large width. The HD pressure is several times the conventional ID and DD ablation pressure and launches an enhanced precursor shock and a continuous compression wave, which give rise to the HD capsule implosion dynamics in a large implosion velocity. The hydrodynamic instabilities at imploding capsule interfaces are suppressed, and the continuous HD compression wave provides main pdV work large enough to hotspot, resulting in the HD nonisobaric ignition. The ignition condition and target design based on this scheme are given theoretically and by numerical simulations. It shows that the novel scheme can significantly suppress implosion asymmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities of current isobaric hotspot ignition design, and a high-gain ICF is promising.

  14. Erratum: Resonant magnetic perturbations of edge-plasmas in toroidal confinement devices (2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 123001)

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Controlling the boundary layer in fusion-grade, high-performance, plasma discharges is essential for the successful development of toroidal magnetic confinement power generating systems. A promising approach for controlling the boundary plasma is based on the use of small, externally applied, edge resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields (δmore » $$b_⊥^{ext}$$ ≈ $$10^{-4}$$ → $$10^{-3}$$ T). A long-term focus area in tokamak fusion research has been to find methods, involving the use of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations to reduce the intense particle and heat fluxes to the wall. Experimental RMP research has progressed from the early pioneering work on tokamaks with material limiters in the 1970s, to present day research in separatrix-limited tokamaks operated in high-confinement mode, which is primarily aimed at the mitigation of the intermittent fluxes due edge localized modes. At the same time the theoretical research has evolved from analytical models to numerical simulations, including the full 3D complexities of the problem. Following the first demonstration of ELM suppression in the DIII-D tokamak during 2003, there has been a rapid worldwide growth in theoretical, numerical and experimental edge RMP research resulting in the addition of ELM control coils to the ITER baseline design [A. Loarte, et al., Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 033007]. This review provides an overview of edge RMP research including a summary of the early theoretical and numerical background along with recent experimental results on improved particle and energy confinement in tokamaks triggered by edge RMP fields. The topics covered make up the basic elements needed for developing a better understanding of 3D magnetic perturbation physics, which is required in order to utilize the full potential of edge RMP fields in fusion relevant high performance, H-mode, plasmas.« less

  15. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  16. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Eric; Braun, Dave; Batha, Steven H.; Landen, Otto L.

    2013-11-01

    Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF) due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS) models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps) due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY), which sent a ˜1.25Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM) deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα - 2.76keV) backlighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump.

  17. Observation of Interspecies Ion Separation in Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Implosions via Imaging X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Tirtha Raj

    2016-10-01

    Interspecies ion separation has been proposed as a yield-degradation mechanism in inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) experiments. We present direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive ICF experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility. These experiments were designed based on the fact that interspecies ion thermo-diffusion would be strongest for species with large mass and charge difference. The targets were spherical plastic shells filled with D2 and Ar (1% by atom). Ar K-shell spectral features were observed primarily between the time of first-shock convergence and slightly before neutron bang time, using a time- and space-integrated spectrometer, streaked crystal spectrometer, and two gated multi-monochromatic X-ray imagers fielded along quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight. Detailed spectroscopic analyses of spatially resolved Ar K-shell lines reveal deviation from the initial 1%-Ar gas fill and show both Ar-concentration enhancement and depletion at different times and radial positions of the implosion. The experimental results are interpreted with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles models of interspecies ion diffusion. The experimentally inferred Ar-atom-fraction profiles agree gently with calculated profiles associated with the incoming and rebounding first shock. This work was done in collaboration with P. Hakel, S. C. Hsu, E. L. Vold, M. J. Schmitt, N. M. Hoffman, R. M. Rauenzahn, G. Kagan, X.-Z. Tang, Y. Kim, and H. W. Herrmann of LANL, and R. C. Mancini of UNR. LA-UR-16-24804. Supported by the LANL ICF and ASC Programs under US-DoE contract no. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  18. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)

  19. Fusion safety program annual report fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY 1997. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in FY 1979 to perform research and develop data needed to ensure safety in fusion facilities. Activities include experiments, analysis, code development and application, and other forms of research. These activities are conducted at the INEEL, different DOE laboratories, and other institutions. The technical areas covered in this report include chemical reactions and activation product release, tritium safety, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. Work done for ITER this year has focused on developing the needed information for the Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-2).

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report April-June 1999, volume 9, number 3

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B

    1999-06-01

    enhance significantly our understanding of the details of how radiation and matter interact with one another in contexts relevant both to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and to other applications. The first of these two articles describes these experiments. The second one describes the application of such radiative heating techniques to development of a ''piston'' for shocklessly accelerating materials. This new experimental technique, first developed on Nova, shows promise as a way to diagnose the development of acceleration-driven hydrodynamic instabilities in the compressible regime, a longstanding ICF problem that is currently only poorly understood.

  1. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.; Militizer, B.

    2015-04-20

    In this study, a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximately taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (KQMD), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of –2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro

  2. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X. Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.; Militzer, B.

    2015-05-15

    A comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximately taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (κ{sub QMD}), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of ∼2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro-simulations. The FP

  3. NIF Target Designs and OMEGA Experiments for Shock-Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. S.

    2012-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI)footnotetextR. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007). is being pursued as a viable option to achieve ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Shock-ignition target designs require the addition of a high-intensity (˜5 x 10^15 W/cm^2) laser spike at the end of a low-adiabat assembly pulse to launch a spherically convergent strong shock to ignite the imploding capsule. Achieving ignition with SI requires the laser spike to generate an ignitor shock with a launching pressure typically in excess of ˜300 Mbar. At the high laser intensities required during the spike pulse, stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin scattering (SBS) could reflect a significant fraction of the incident light. In addition, SRS and the two-plasmon-decay instability can accelerate hot electrons into the shell and preheat the fuel. Since the high-power spike occurs at the end of the pulse when the areal density of the shell is several tens of mg/cm^2, shock-ignition fuel layers are shielded against hot electrons with energies below 150 keV. This paper will present data for a set of OMEGA experiments that were designed to study laser--plasma interactions during the spike pulse. In addition, these experiments were used to demonstrate that high-pressure shocks can be produced in long-scale-length plasmas with SI-relevant intensities. Within the constraints imposed by the hydrodynamics of strong shock generation and the laser--plasma instabilities, target designs for SI experiments on the NIF will be presented. Two-dimensional radiation--hydrodynamic simulations of SI target designs for the NIF predict ignition in the polar-drive beam configuration at sub-MJ laser energies. Design robustness to various 1-D effects and 2-D nonuniformities has been characterized. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  4. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designs

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; ...

    2015-04-20

    In this study, a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximatelymore » taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (KQMD), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of –2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro

  5. First-principles thermal conductivity of warm-dense deuterium plasmas for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Boehly, T. R.; Kress, J. D.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2014-04-01

    Thermal conductivity (κ) of both the ablator materials and deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel plays an important role in understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. The extensively used Spitzer model for thermal conduction in ideal plasmas breaks down for high-density, low-temperature shells that are compressed by shocks and spherical convergence in imploding targets. A variety of thermal-conductivity models have been proposed for ICF hydrodynamic simulations of such coupled and degenerate plasmas. The accuracy of these κ models for DT plasmas has recently been tested against first-principles calculations using the quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) method; although mainly for high densities (ρ > 100 g/cm3), large discrepancies in κ have been identified for the peak-compression conditions in ICF. To cover the wide range of density-temperature conditions undergone by ICF imploding fuel shells, we have performed QMD calculations of κ for a variety of deuterium densities of ρ = 1.0 to 673.518 g/cm3, at temperatures varying from T = 5 × 103 K to T = 8 × 106 K. The resulting κQMD of deuterium is fitted with a polynomial function of the coupling and degeneracy parameters Γ and θ, which can then be used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. Compared with the "hybrid" Spitzer-Lee-More model currently adopted in our hydrocode lilac, the hydrosimulations using the fitted κQMD have shown up to ˜20% variations in predicting target performance for different ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The lower the adiabat of an imploding shell, the more variations in predicting target performance using κQMD. Moreover, the use of κQMD also modifies the shock conditions and the density-temperature profiles of the imploding shell at early implosion stage, which predominantly affects the final target performance. This is in contrast to the previous speculation that κQMD changes mainly the

  6. First-principles thermal conductivity of warm-dense deuterium plasmas for inertial confinement fusion applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Boehly, T R; Kress, J D; Goncharov, V N; Skupsky, S

    2014-04-01

    Thermal conductivity (κ) of both the ablator materials and deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel plays an important role in understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. The extensively used Spitzer model for thermal conduction in ideal plasmas breaks down for high-density, low-temperature shells that are compressed by shocks and spherical convergence in imploding targets. A variety of thermal-conductivity models have been proposed for ICF hydrodynamic simulations of such coupled and degenerate plasmas. The accuracy of these κ models for DT plasmas has recently been tested against first-principles calculations using the quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) method; although mainly for high densities (ρ > 100 g/cm3), large discrepancies in κ have been identified for the peak-compression conditions in ICF. To cover the wide range of density-temperature conditions undergone by ICF imploding fuel shells, we have performed QMD calculations of κ for a variety of deuterium densities of ρ = 1.0 to 673.518 g/cm3, at temperatures varying from T = 5 × 103 K to T = 8 × 106 K. The resulting κQMD of deuterium is fitted with a polynomial function of the coupling and degeneracy parameters Γ and θ, which can then be used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. Compared with the "hybrid" Spitzer-Lee-More model currently adopted in our hydrocode lilac, the hydrosimulations using the fitted κQMD have shown up to ∼20% variations in predicting target performance for different ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The lower the adiabat of an imploding shell, the more variations in predicting target performance using κQMD. Moreover, the use of κQMD also modifies the shock conditions and the density-temperature profiles of the imploding shell at early implosion stage, which predominantly affects the final target performance. This is in contrast to the previous speculation that κQMD changes mainly the

  7. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Goncharov, V N; Boehly, T R; Epstein, R; McCrory, R L; Skupsky, S

    2014-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of a warm dense deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture is important for reliable design of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The opacity of a warm dense DT shell essentially determines how much radiation from hot coronal plasmas can be deposited in the DT fuel of an imploding capsule. Even for the simplest species of hydrogen, the accurate calculation of their opacities remains a challenge in the warm-dense matter regime because strong-coupling and quantum effects play an important role in such plasmas. With quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) simulations, we have derived a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) of deuterium (and the DT mixture by mass scaling) for a wide range of densities from ρ(D)=0.5 to 673.518g/cm(3) and temperatures from T=5000K up to the Fermi temperature T(F) for each density. Compared with results from the astrophysics opacity table (AOT) currently used in our hydrocodes, the FPOT of deuterium from our QMD calculations has shown a significant increase in opacity for strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions by a factor of 3-100 in the ICF-relevant photon-energy range. As conditions approach those of classical plasma, the opacity from the FPOT converges to the corresponding values of the AOT. By implementing the FPOT of deuterium and the DT mixture into our hydrocodes, we have performed radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for low-adiabat cryogenic DT implosions on the OMEGA laser and for direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. The simulation results using the FPOT show that the target performance (in terms of neutron yield and energy gain) could vary from ∼10% up to a factor of ∼2 depending on the adiabat of the imploding DT capsule; the lower the adiabat, the more variation is seen in the prediction of target performance when compared to the AOT modeling.

  8. Inertial confinement fusion. Quarterly report, July--September 1993: Volume 3, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, R.A.; Murphy, P.W.; Schleich, D.P.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following research: Diode-pumped solid- state-laser driver for inertial fusion energy power plants; Longitudinal beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion accelerators; Design of the ion sources for heavy ion fusion; Measurement of electron density in laser-produced plasma with a soft x-ray moire deflectometer; and Analysis of weakly nonlinear three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  10. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-23

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot “mix” may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields — not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or “grains” of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation, and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. Finally, we describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulations and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.

  11. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE PAGES

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-23

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot “mix” may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields — not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or “grains” of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation, and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. Finally, we describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulationsmore » and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.« less

  12. A Two-Dimensional Hydrocode to Study the Deceleration Phase and Hot-Spot Formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, K. M.; Bose, A.; Betti, R.; Delettrez, J. A.; Anderson, K. S.; Epstein, R.

    2014-10-01

    A hydrocode was developed to study the final stage of an implosion starting from the coasting phase, including hot-spot formation and thermonuclear burn. Recently, a flux-limited multigroup diffusion approximation model has been added to study the transport of radiation energy in the deceleration phase of a spherical inertial confinement fusion target. Numerical results from the multigroup model indicate a good agreement with LILAC 1-D simulations. The code is used to study effects of radiation on the hotspot formation and distortion. Results from 2-D runs are presented and the effect of radiation transport on the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability is discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Number DE-FG02-04ER54786.

  13. Fabrication of cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion targets using target free-fall technique. Report No. 2-82

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Murphy, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Techniques for fabricating cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets (i.e., spherical shells containing a uniform layer of DT ice) are investigated using target free-fall concept. Detection and characterization of the moving targets are effected by optoelectronic means, of which the principal is an RF ac-interferometer. This interferometer system demonstrates, for the first time, the speed capabilities of the phase-modulation ac-interferometry. New techiques developed for handling, holding, launching, and transporting targets are also described. Results obtained at both room and cryogenic temperatures are presented.

  14. Single Crystal Growth and Formation of Defects in Deuterium-Tritium Ice Layers for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, A A; Kozioziemski, B J; Koch, J A; Atherton, L J; Johnson, M A; Hamza, A V; Kucheyev, S O; Lugten, J B; Mapoles, E A; Moody, J D; Salmonson, J D; Sater, J D

    2008-09-05

    We identify vapor-etched grain boundary grooves on the solid-vapor interface as the main source of surface roughness in the Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel layers which are solidified and then cooled. Current inertial confinement fusion target designs impose stringent limits to the cross sectional area and total volume of these grooves. Formation of these grain boundaries occurs over timescales of hours as the dislocation network anneals, and is inevitable in a plastically deformed material. Therefore, either cooling on a much shorter time scale or a technique that requires no cooling after solidification should be used to minimize the fuel layer surface roughness.

  15. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of inertial confinement fusion targets: A multi-scale approach

    SciTech Connect

    Peigney, B. E.; Larroche, O.

    2014-12-15

    In this article, we study the hydrodynamics and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level. The analysis is based on a two-velocity-scale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck kinetic model that is specially tailored to treat fusion products (suprathermal α-particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk. The model assumes spherical symmetry in configuration space and axial symmetry in velocity space around the mean flow velocity. A typical hot-spot ignition design is considered. Compared with fluid simulations where a multi-group diffusion scheme is applied to model α transport, the full ion-kinetic approach reveals significant non-local effects on the transport of energetic α-particles. This has a direct impact on hydrodynamic spatial profiles during combustion: the hot spot reactivity is reduced, while the inner dense fuel layers are pre-heated by the escaping α-suprathermal particles, which are transported farther out of the hot spot. We show how the kinetic transport enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield.

  16. High power millimeter wave ECRH source needs for fusion program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This document stems from the four-day Gyrotron Symposium held at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters on June 13-16, 1983, and serves as a position paper for the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, on high-power millimeter wave source development for Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) of plasmas. It describes the fusion program needs for gyrotron as ECH sources, their current status, and desirable development strategies.

  17. Effect of different tritium fractions on some plasma parameters in deuterium-tritium magnetic confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, S. M.; Mohsenpour, T.; Dashtban, N.

    2016-09-01

    Nearly all reactor projects have considered deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion. The cross section of D-T reaction is larger than those of other fusion reactions, thus it is considered to be a more favorable reaction. The mix of fuel can vary. In this work, a comparison between the effects of different mixture of D-T fuel on the plasma parameters is made. A time dependence calculation of the fusion process is performed using the zero-dimensional model based on a coupled set of particle and energy balance equations in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The time evolution of plasma parameters is also analyzed numerically.

  18. Inertial confinement fusion with direct electric generation by magnetic flux comparession

    SciTech Connect

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    A high-power-density laser-fusion-reactor concept in investigated in which directed kinetic enery imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium--in which the fusion target is centrally located--is maximized. In turn, this kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with, potentially, very high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the concept maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall can be many orders of magnitude less than is typical of D-T fusion reactor concepts.

  19. The US ICF Ignition Program and the Inertial Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J D; Hammel, B A; Logan, B G; Meyerhofer, D D; Payne, S A; Stehian, J D

    2003-07-02

    There has been rapid progress in inertial fusion in the past few years. This progress spans the construction of ignition facilities, a wide range of target concepts, and the pursuit of integrated programs to develop fusion energy using lasers, ion beams and z-pinches. Two ignition facilities are under construction (NIF in the U.S. and LMJ in France) and both projects are progressing toward an initial experimental capability. The LIL prototype beamline for LMJ and the first 4 beams of NIF will be available for experiments in 2003. The full 192 beam capability of NIF will be available in 2009 and ignition experiments are expected to begin shortly after that time. There is steady progress in the target science and target fabrication in preparation for indirect drive ignition experiments on NIF. Advanced target designs may lead to 5-10 times more yield than initial target designs. There has also been excellent progress on the science of ion beam and z-pinch driven indirect drive targets. Excellent progress on direct-drive targets has been obtained on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester. This includes improved performance of targets with a pulse shape predicted to result in reduced hydrodynamic instability. Rochester has also obtained encouraging results from initial cryogenic implosions. There is widespread interest in the science of fast ignition because of its potential for achieving higher target gain with lower driver energy and relaxed target fabrication requirements. Researchers from Osaka have achieved outstanding implosion and heating results from the Gekko XII Petawatt facility and implosions suitable for fast ignition have been tested on the Omega laser. A broad based program to develop lasers and ions beams for IFE is under way with excellent progress in drivers, chambers, target fabrication and target injection. KrF and Diode Pumped Solid-State lasers (DPSSL) are being developed in conjunction with drywall chambers and direct drive targets

  20. Interactions of shock waves with material interfaces in lithotripsy and inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iloreta, Jonathan Ian

    This dissertation focuses on the interaction of shock wave with material interfaces in shock wave lithotrispsy (SWL) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In the area of SWL, a method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the ---6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 cm3 to 0.4 cm3, the -6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 cm3 to 8.3 cm3, and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e. regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 microm) from 103 cm3 to 26 cm3. Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. Also in the area of SWL, the dynamics of bubbles near a kidney stone subjected to a lithotripter shock wave are considered to address the effect of kidney stone geometry and composition on the cavitation potential near the stone in a shock wave lithotripter. Results of the reflection of the LSW from cylindrical kidney stones with proximal surfaces of varying geometry show that the presence of the stone enhances bubble growth near the stone and decreases growth further away, due to constructive and destructive interference, respectively. These effects hold true regardless of the shape and curvature of the face, and are strongest for stones with concave faces and higher reflection coefficients. An interesting consequence of

  1. Self-organized criticality and the dynamics of near-marginal turbulent transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, R.; Newman, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The high plasma temperatures expected at reactor conditions in magnetic confinement fusion toroidal devices suggest that near-marginal operation could be a reality in future devices and reactors. By near-marginal it is meant that the plasma profiles might wander around the local critical thresholds for the onset of instabilities. Self-organized criticality (SOC) was suggested in the mid 1990s as a more proper paradigm to describe the dynamics of tokamak plasma transport in near-marginal conditions. It advocated that, near marginality, the evolution of mean profiles and fluctuations should be considered simultaneously, in contrast to the more common view of a large separation of scales existing between them. Otherwise, intrinsic features of near-marginal transport would be missed, that are of importance to understand the properties of energy confinement. In the intervening 20 years, the relevance of the idea of SOC for near-marginal transport in fusion plasmas has transitioned from an initial excessive hype to the much more realistic standing of today, which we will attempt to examine critically in this review paper. First, the main theoretical ideas behind SOC will be described. Secondly, how they might relate to the dynamics of near-marginal transport in real magnetically confined plasmas will be discussed. Next, we will review what has been learnt about SOC from various numerical studies and what it has meant for the way in which we do numerical simulation of fusion plasmas today. Then, we will discuss the experimental evidence available from the several experiments that have looked for SOC dynamics in fusion plasmas. Finally, we will conclude by identifying the various problems that still remain open to investigation in this area. Special attention will be given to the discussion of frequent misconceptions and ongoing controversies. The review also contains a description of ongoing efforts that seek effective transport models better suited than traditional

  2. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    DOE PAGES

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; ...

    2017-03-28

    Here, this paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle- producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. Themore » potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. Ultimately, the goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellarlike plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.« less

  3. Fusion Safety Program Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY 1996. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. The objective is to perform research and develop data needed to ensure safety in fusion facilities. Activities include experiments, analysis, code development and application, and other forms of research. These activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Work done for ITER this year has focused on developing the needed information for the Non- Site- Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). A final area of activity described is development of the new DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities.

  4. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size, and

  5. THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR GRANT YEAR 2004

    SciTech Connect

    PROJECT STAFF

    2004-12-01

    The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance our scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

  6. Status of target physics for inertial confinement fusion: Report on the review at DOE Headquarters, Germantown, MD on November 14--17, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-09

    A four day review to assess the status of target physics of inertial confinement fusion was held at US Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters on November 14--17, 1988. This review completes the current series of reviews of the inertial fusion program elements to assess the status of the data base for a decision to proceed with the proposed Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) that is being planned. In addition to target physics, the program elements that have been reviewed previously include the driver technology development for KrF and solid-state lasers, and the light-on beam pulsed power system. This series of reviews was undertaken for internal DOE assessment in anticipation of the ICF program review mandated by the Congress in 1988 to be completed in 1990 to assess the significance and implications of the progress that has been realized in the laboratory and the underground Halite/Centurion experiments. For this target physics review, both the direct and the indirect drive approaches were considered. The principal issues addressed in this review were: Is the present target physics data base adequate for a decision to proceed with design and construction of LMF now as opposed to continue planning activities at this time What specific additional target physics data are desirable to reduce the risk for a DOE decision to construct an LMF What is the role for continuation of Halite/Centurion experiments What priority should be given to the direct drive approach Are the program elements optimally structured to resolve the critical issues for an LMF decision Specific findings relating to these five issues are summarized in the following.

  7. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  8. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-03-16

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B{sup 11} with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B{sup 11} fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B{sup 11} power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle

  9. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  10. Son of IXION: A Steady State Centrifugally Confined Plasma for Fusion*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassam, Adil

    1996-11-01

    A magnetic confinement scheme in which the inertial, u.grad(u), forces effect parallel confinement is proposed. The basic geometry is mirror-like as far as the poloidal field goes or, more simply, multipole (FM-1) type. The rotation is toroidal in this geometry. A supersonic rotation can effect complete parallel confinement, with the usual magnetic mirror force rendered irrelevant. The rotation shear, in addition, aids in the suppression of the flute mode. This suppression is not complete which indicates the addition of a toroidal field, at maximum of the order of the poloidal field. We show that at rotation in excess of Mach 3, the parallel particle and heat losses can be minimized to below the Lawson breakeven point. The crossfield transport can be expected to be better than tokamaks on account of the large velocity shear. Other advantages of the scheme are that it is steady state and disruption free. An exploratory experiment that tests equilibrium, parallel detachment, and MHD stability is proposed. The concept resembles earlier (Geneva, 1958) experiments on "homopolar generators" and a mirror configuration called IXION. Ixion, Greek mythological king, was forever strapped to a rotating, flaming wheel. *Work supported by DOE

  11. Two-Plasmon Decay Mitigation in Direct-Drive Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Experiments Using Multilayer Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-04-01

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor-of-5 reduction in hot-electron generation (>50 keV ) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD-driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (lpse) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show good agreement with the measurements. The simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron production observed in the multilayer targets is primarily caused by increased electron-ion collisional damping.

  12. Uniformity of spherical shock wave dynamically stabilized by two successive laser profiles in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Garbett, W. J.; Ramis, R.

    2015-10-15

    The implosion uniformity of a directly driven spherical inertial confinement fusion capsule is considered within the context of the Laser Mégajoule configuration. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations have been performed assuming irradiation with two laser beam cones located at 49° and 131° with respect to the axis of symmetry. The laser energy deposition causes an inward shock wave whose surface is tracked in time, providing the time evolution of its non-uniformity. The illumination model has been used to optimize the laser intensity profiles used as input in the 2D hydro-calculations. It is found that a single stationary laser profile does not maintain a uniform shock front over time. To overcome this drawback, it is proposed to use two laser profiles acting successively in time, in order to dynamically stabilize the non-uniformity of the shock front.

  13. First Measurements of Fuel-Ablator Interface Instability Growth in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Bunn, T. L.; Carlson, L. C.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Sater, J. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Direct measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are reported for the first time. These experiments investigate one of the degradation mechanisms behind the lower-than-expected performance of early ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Face-on x-ray radiography is used to measure instability growth occurring between the deuterium-tritium fuel and the plastic ablator from well-characterized perturbations. This growth starts in two ways through separate experiments—either from a preimposed interface modulation or from ablation front feedthrough. These experiments are consistent with analytic modeling and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which say that a moderately unstable Atwood number and convergence effects are causing in-flight perturbation growth at the interface. The analysis suggests that feedthrough from outersurface perturbations dominates the interface perturbation growth at mode 60.

  14. Refraction-Enhanced X-ray Radiography for Inertial Confinement Fusion and Laser-Produced Plasma Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Kozioziemski, B J; Izumi, N; Dewald, E L; Salmonson, J D; Hammel, B A

    2008-08-26

    We explore various laser-produced plasma and inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) applications of phase-contrast x-ray radiography, and we show how the main features of these enhancements can be considered from a geometrical optics perspective as refraction enhancements. This perspective simplifies the analysis, and often permits simple analytical formulae to be derived that predict the enhancements. We explore a raytrace approach to various material interface applications, and we explore a more general example of refractive bending of x-rays by an implosion plasma. We find that refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography of implosions may provide a means to quantify density differences across shock fronts as well as density variations caused by local heating due to high-Z dopants. We also point out that refractive bending by implosions plasmas can blur fine radiograph features, and can also provide misleading contrast information in area-backlit pinhole imaging experiments unless its effects are taken into consideration.

  15. Laser-Plasma Interaction Near the Quarter-Critical Density in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, A. V.; Wen, H.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Ren, C.

    2016-10-01

    The laser-plasma interaction (LPI) near the quarter-critical density in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasmas strongly influences the coupling of laser energy to the target and the generation of fast electrons capable of preheating the target fuel. The full modeling of LPI near the quarter-critical density includes the interplay between two-plasmon decay and stimulated Raman scattering instabilities as well as ion-acoustic perturbations. The results of the kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are in agreement with the simulation results from the fluid-type code. The fast-electron flux and the ω/2 half-omega light spectra are calculated for the parameters relevant to direct-drive ICF experiments on the OMEGA Laser System and at the National Ignition Facility. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  16. Two-plasmon decay mitigation in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments using multilayer targets

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-04-15

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon-decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor of five reduction in hot-electron generation (> 50 keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (LPSE) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show excellent agreement with the measurements. As a result, the simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron production observed in the multilayer targets is primarily due to increased electron-ion collisional damping.

  17. Two-plasmon decay mitigation in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments using multilayer targets

    DOE PAGES

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; ...

    2016-04-15

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon-decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor of five reduction in hot-electron generation (> 50 keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (LPSE) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show excellent agreement with the measurements. As a result, the simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron productionmore » observed in the multilayer targets is primarily due to increased electron-ion collisional damping.« less

  18. Multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line as direct energy driver for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N.

    1995-12-31

    An FEL based energy driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is proposed. The key element of the scheme is free electron laser system. Novel technical solutions, namely, using of multichannel, multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line, reveal a possibility to construct the FEL system operating at radiation wavelength {lambda} = 0.5 {mu}m and providing flush energy E = 1 MJ and brightness 4 x 10{sup 22} W cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} within steering pulse duration {tau} {approximately} 0.1-2 ns. Total energy efficiency of the proposed ICF energy driver is about of 11% and repetition rate is 40 Hz. It is shown that the FEL based ICF energy driver may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique R& D.

  19. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, October--December 1992. Volume 3, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.N.

    1992-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The Beamlet Front End: Prototype of a new pulse generation system;imaging biological objects with x-ray lasers; coherent XUV generation via high-order harmonic generation in rare gases; theory of high-order harmonic generation; two-dimensional computer simulations of ultra- intense, short-pulse laser-plasma interactions; neutron detectors for measuring the fusion burn history of ICF targets; the recirculator; and lasnex evolves to exploit computer industry advances.

  20. Application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes as design tools for inertial confinement fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abánades, A.; Sordo, F.; Lafuente, A.; Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    The engineering design of the new innovative fusion reactors constitutes a clear challenge for the need to overcome several new technological edges in every engineering aspect. The great amount of thermal energy delivered into any inertial fusion chamber and the large temperatures and thermal gradients that are envisaged, joined to the even more demanding aspects related to neutron activation, Tritium breeding and the characteristics that are imposed to the coolant that could be used for that purpose, converged into material selection in which liquid metal seems to be one of the most interesting options. The safety assessment of such Fusion reactors should be clearly provided to fulfill the requirements asked by the Regulatory Bodies in a near-term future, when licensing will be a must. Therefore the availability of well proven and validated engineering design tools is a must. In this context, CFD is one of the tools that are potentially needed for thermal-hydraulic design of such complex machines. The state-of-the-art of CFD technologies will be shown, in particular in relation with liquid metals.

  1. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.F.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Herring, J.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1992. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and EG G Idaho, Inc. is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations including the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, activation product release, reactions involving beryllium, reactions involving lithium breeding materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base, and computer code development for reactor transients. Also included in the report is a summary of the safety and environmental studies performed by the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiments and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, the safety analysis for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design, and the technical support for the ARIES commercial reactor design study.

  2. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.F.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Herring, J.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1992. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and EG&G Idaho, Inc. is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations including the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, activation product release, reactions involving beryllium, reactions involving lithium breeding materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base, and computer code development for reactor transients. Also included in the report is a summary of the safety and environmental studies performed by the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiments and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, the safety analysis for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design, and the technical support for the ARIES commercial reactor design study.

  3. A Microcomputer Program for Evaluating Pumping Test Results for Confined Aquifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an interactive, self-prompting BASIC program that can be incorporated in introductory and intermediate hydrology courses. Exlains how the program can be used to evaluate pumping test data and also to calculate transmissivity and storativity values of confined aquifers. The program is written for the IBM PC. (ML)

  4. Displacement damage in the first structural wall of an inertial confinement fusion reactor: dependence on blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.

    1984-07-13

    In this study we investigate how the design of the neutron blanket effects the displacement damage rate in the first structural wall (FSW) of an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) reactor. Two generic configurations are examined; in the first, the steel wall is directly exposed to the fusion neutrons, whereas in the second, the steel wall is protected by inner blanket of lithium with an effective thickness of 1-m. The latter represents a HYLIFE-type design, which has been shown to have displacement damage rates an order of magnitude lower than unprotected wall designs. The two basic configurations were varied to show how the dpa rate changes as the result of (1) adding a Li blanket outside the FSW, (2) adding a neutron reflector (graphite) outside the FSW, and (3) changing the position of the inner lithium blanket relative to the FSW. The effects of neutron moderation in the compressed DT-target are also shown, and the unprotected and protected configurations compared.

  5. Demonstration of Ion Kinetic Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions and Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection Using Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Shock-driven laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions have demonstrated the presence of ion kinetic effects in ICF implosions and also have been used as a proton source to probe the strongly driven reconnection of MG magnetic fields in laser-generated plasmas. Ion kinetic effects arise during the shock-convergence phase of ICF implosions when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions (λii) approaches the size of the hot-fuel region (Rfuel) and may impact hot-spot formation and the possibility of ignition. To isolate and study ion kinetic effects, the ratio of N - K =λii /Rfuel was varied in D3He-filled, shock-driven implosions at the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility, from hydrodynamic-like conditions (NK 0.01) to strongly kinetic conditions (NK 10). A strong trend of decreasing fusion yields relative to the predictions of hydrodynamic models is observed as NK increases from 0.1 to 10. Hydrodynamics simulations that include basic models of the kinetic effects that are likely to be present in these experiments-namely, ion diffusion and Knudsen-layer reduction of the fusion reactivity-are better able to capture the experimental results. This type of implosion has also been used as a source of monoenergetic 15-MeV protons to image magnetic fields driven to reconnect in laser-produced plasmas at conditions similar to those encountered at the Earth's magnetopause. These experiments demonstrate that for both symmetric and asymmetric magnetic-reconnection configurations, when plasma flows are much stronger than the nominal Alfvén speed, the rate of magnetic-flux annihilation is determined by the flow velocity and is largely insensitive to initial plasma conditions. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Grant Number DENA0001857.

  6. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    DOEpatents

    Masnari, Nino A.; Rensel, Walter B.; Robinson, Merrill G.; Solomon, David E.; Wise, Kensall D.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1982-01-01

    An ICF target comprising a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a concentric shell; and a process for manufacturing the same which includes the steps of forming hemispheric shells of a silicon or other substrate material, adhering the shell segments to each other with a fuel pellet contained concentrically therein, then separating the individual targets from the parent substrate. Formation of hemispheric cavities by deposition or coating of a mold substrate is also described. Coatings or membranes may also be applied to the interior of the hemispheric segments prior to joining.

  7. Research in the US on heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Laslett, L.J.; Lee, E.P.; Tiefenback, M.G.; Smith, L.

    1986-10-01

    The US study of high-energy multigap accelerators to produce large currents of heavy ions for inertial fusion is centered on the single-pass induction linac method. The large technology base associated with multigap accelerators for high-energy physics gives confidence that high efficiency, high repetition rate, and good availability can be achieved, and that the path from scientific demonstration to commercial realization can be a smooth one. In an induction linac driver, multiple (parallel) ion beams are accelerated through a sequence of pulsed transformers. Crucial to the design is the manipulation of electric fields to amplify the beam current during acceleration. A proof-of-principle induction linac experiment (MBE-4) is underway and has begun the first demonstration of current amplification, control of the bunch ends, and the acceleration of multiple beams. A recently completed experiment, called the Single Beam Transport Experiment has shown that we can now count on more freedom to design an alternating-gradient quadrupole focusing channel to transport much higher ion-beam currents than formerly believed possible. A recent Heavy Ion Fusion System Assessment (HIFSA) has shown that a substantial cost saving results from use of multiply-charged ions, and that a remarkably broad range of options exist for viable power-plant designs. The driver cost at 3 to 4 MJ could be $200/joule or less, and the cost of electricity in the range of 50 to 55 mills/kWhr.

  8. Application of RF Power to Plasma Flow Drive in Fusion Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Berry, L.A.; Carter, M.D.; Jaeger, E.F.

    1999-09-13

    Wave induced flows can produce radially sheared velocity profiles that can in turn stabilize drift wave turbulence and improve plasma confinement. A second-order kinetic theory is developed in one-dimensional slab geometry to treat radio frequency (RF)-driven plasma flows. The Vlasov equation is solved to second order in the RF electric field. Moments of the second-order distribution function give time-averaged expressions for the heating rate, the wave kinetic flux, and the RF force exerted on the plasma. On the collisional or transport time scale, the RF force in the poloidal direction is balanced by neoclassical viscosity, and the force in the radial direction is balanced direction by ambipolar electric fields. Comparison is made with previous theories which have relied on incompressible fluid approximations. Very substantial differences are seen in situations involving the Ion Bernstein Wave, a compressional wave.

  9. Core conditions for alpha heating attained in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; ...

    2016-07-07

    It is shown that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117,more » 025001 (2016)] extrapolated to a 1.9 MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions.« less

  10. Symmetric inertial confinement fusion implosions at ultra-high laser energies

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Meezan, N B; Suter, L J; Dixit, S N; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Dzenitis, E; Edwards, J; Hamza, A V; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; Landen, O L; Lindle, J D; LePape, S; Moody, J D; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Schneider, M B; Town, R J; Wegner, P; Widmann, K; Whitman, P; Young, B F; Van Wonterghem, B; Atherton, J E; Moses, E I

    2009-12-03

    The first indirect-drive hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated symmetric capsule implosions at unprecedented laser drive energies of 0.7 MJ. 192 simultaneously fired laser beams heat ignition hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 3.3 million Kelvin compressing 1.8-millimeter capsules by the soft x rays produced by the hohlraum. Self-generated plasma-optics gratings on either end of the hohlraum tune the laser power distribution in the hohlraum producing symmetric x-ray drive as inferred from capsule self-emission measurements. These experiments indicate conditions suitable for compressing deuterium-tritium filled capsules with the goal to achieve burning fusion plasmas and energy gain in the laboratory.

  11. Core conditions for alpha heating attained in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.; Mangino, D.; Christopherson, A. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Nora, R.; Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Forrest, C. J.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.

    2016-07-07

    It is shown that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 025001 (2016)] extrapolated to a 1.9 MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions.

  12. Core conditions for alpha heating attained in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.; Mangino, D.; Christopherson, A. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Nora, R.; Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Forrest, C. J.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 025001 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.025001] extrapolated to a 1.9 MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions.

  13. Core conditions for alpha heating attained in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Bose, A; Woo, K M; Betti, R; Campbell, E M; Mangino, D; Christopherson, A R; McCrory, R L; Nora, R; Regan, S P; Goncharov, V N; Sangster, T C; Forrest, C J; Frenje, J; Gatu Johnson, M; Glebov, V Yu; Knauer, J P; Marshall, F J; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 025001 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.025001] extrapolated to a 1.9 MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions.

  14. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, January-March 1998, volume 8, number 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kruer, W

    1998-03-31

    The coupling of laser light with plasmas is one of the key physics issues for the use of high-power lasers for inertial fusion, high-energy-density physics, and scientific stockpile stewardship. The coupling physics is extremely rich and challenging, particularly in the large plasmas to be accessed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The coupling mechanisms span the gamut from classical inverse bremsstrahlung absorption to a variety of nonlinear optical processes. These include stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) from electron plasma waves, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from ion sound waves, resonant decay into electron plasma and ion sound waves, and laser beam filamentation. These processes depend on laser intensity and produce effects such as changes in the efficiency and location of the energy deposition or generation of a component of very energetic electrons, which can preheat capsules. Coupling physics issues have an extremely high leverage. The coupling models are clearly very important ingredients for detailed calculations of laser-irradiated target behavior. Improved understanding and models enable a more efficient use of laser facilities, which becomes even more important as these facilities become larger and more expensive. Advances in the understanding also allow a more timely and cost-effective identification of new applications of high-power lasers, such as for generation of high-temperature hohlraums and compact x-ray sources, or for discovery of advanced fusion schemes. Finally, the interaction of intense electromagnetic waves with ionized media is a fundamental topic of interest to numerous areas of applied science and is an excellent test bed for advancing plasma science and computational modeling of complex phenomena. This issue of the ICF Quarterly Report is dedicated to laser--plasma interactions. The eight articles present a cross section of the broad progress in understanding the key interaction issues, such as laser beam bending

  15. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  16. The need for a fusion technology information program

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.L. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    In providing an adequate energy technology for the future, which new programs should be considered by the Department of Energy national laboratories to ensure that the US remains in the forefront of international science and technology is an important question. This paper suggests that the urgency for energy independence demands an active communication program that would increase awareness of energy as a critical national issue and would present fusion, with its benefits and risks, as one of the long-term alternative energy sources.

  17. Achievement of Core Conditions for Alpha Heating in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Mangino, D.; Christopherson, A. R.; Theobald, W.; Campbell, E. M.; McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Stoeckl, C.; Nora, R.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Shvarts, D.

    2016-10-01

    It is shown for the first time that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion extrapolated to a 1.9-MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions. This conclusion is reached using an analytic scaling as well as direct numerical simulations of energy-scaled targets. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Investigations of the Ablator/Fuel Interface during Early Stages of Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Liam; Glosli, James; Murillo, Michael

    2016-10-01

    At the National Ignition Facility, high-powered laser beams are used to compress a small target to generate fusion reactions. A critical issue in achieving this is the understanding of mix at the ablator/fuel interface. Mixing occurs at various length scales, ranging from atomic inter-species diffusion to hydrodynamic instabilities. Because the interface is preheated by energy from the incoming shock, it is important to understand the dynamics before the shock arrives. The interface is in the warm dense matter phase with a deuterium/tritium fuel mixture on one side and a plastic mixture on the other. We would like to understand various aspects of the evolution, including the state of the interface when the main shock arrives, the role of electric field generation at the interface, and the character and time scales for diffusion. We present a multiscale approach to model these processes, which combines molecular dynamics to simulate the ionic degrees of freedom with orbital-free density functional theory to calculate the electronic structure. Simulation results are presented and connections to hydrodynamic models are discussed. This work is performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Dynamic response of materials on sub-nanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C; Tierney, T E; Luo, S N; Paisley, D L; Kyrala, G A; Hauer, A; Greenfield, S R; Koskelo, A C; McClellan, K J; Lorenzana, H E; Knudson, M D; Peralta, P P; Loomis, E

    2004-12-09

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. these relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser ablation can be particularly convenient. The TRIDENT laser has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including surface velocimetry (line-imaging VISAR), surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically-driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1TPa.

  20. A carbon-carbon composite materials development program for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P. ); Engle, G.B. ); Hollenberg, G.W. )

    1992-10-01

    Carbon-carbon composites increasingly are being used for plasma-facing component (PFC) applications in magnetic-confinement plasma-fusion devices. They offer substantial advantages such as enhanced physical and mechanical properties and superior thermal shock resistance compared to the previously favored bulk graphite. Next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), will require advanced carbon-carbon composites possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated extreme thermal heat loads. This report outlines a program that will facilitate the development of advanced carbon-carbon composites specifically tailored to meet the requirements of ITER and BPX. A strategy for developing the necessary associated design data base is described. Materials property needs, i.e., high thermal conductivity, radiation stability, tritium retention, etc., are assessed and prioritized through a systems analysis of the functional, operational, and component requirements for plasma-facing applications. The current Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Program on carbon-carbon composites is summarized. Realistic property goals are set based upon our current understanding. The architectures of candidate PFC carbon-carbon composite materials are outlined, and architectural features considered desirable for maximum irradiation stability are described. The European and Japanese carbon-carbon composite development and irradiation programs are described. The Working Group conclusions and recommendations are listed. It is recommended that developmental carbon-carbon composite materials from the commercial sector be procured via request for proposal/request for quotation (RFP/RFQ) as soon as possible.

  1. Inertial confinement fusion using hohlraum radiation generated by heavy-ion clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, N.A.; Lutz, K.; Geb, O.; Maruhn, J.A.; Deutsch, C.; Hoffmann, D.H.

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of employing heavy-ion cluster beams to generate thermal radiation that can be used to drive inertial fusion capsules. The low charge-to-mass ratio of a cluster may allow the driver beam to be focused to a very small spot size with a radius of the order of 100 {mu}m, while the low energy per nucleon (of the order of 10 keV) may lead to a very short range of the driver particles in the converter material. This would result in high specific power deposition that may lead to a very high conversion efficiency. The problem of cluster stopping in cold matter, as well as in hot dense plasmas has been thoroughly investigated. The conversion efficiency of cluster ions using a low-density gold converter has also been calculated over a wide range of parameters including converter density, converter geometry, and specific power deposition. These calculations have been carried out using a one-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code that includes a multigroup radiation transport scheme [Ramis {ital et al.}, Comput. Phys. Commun. {bold 49}, 475 (1988)]. The problem of symmetrization of this radiation field in a hohlraum with solid gold walls has also been thoroughly investigated using a three-dimensional view factor code. The characteristics of the radiation field obtained by this study are used as input to capsule implosion calculations that are done with a three-temperature radiation-hydrodynamic computer code MEDUSA-KAT [Tahir {ital et al.}, J. Appl. Phys. {bold 60}, 898 (1986)]. A reactor-size capsule which contains 5 mg deuterium{endash}tritium (DT) fuel is used in these calculations. The problem of using a fuel mixture with a substantially reduced tritium content has also been discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Carr, C W; Liao, Z M; Honig, J; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Johnson, M A; Adams, J J; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Matthews, M J; Jancaitis, K S; Kegelmeyer, L M

    2010-12-20

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  3. LDRD final report on confinement of cluster fusion plasmas with magnetic fields.

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, Jeffrey W.; Kellogg, Jeffrey W.; Headley, Daniel Ignacio; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Waugh, Caleb J.; Lewis, Sean M.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Wisher, Matthew; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Bengtson, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Two versions of a current driver for single-turn, single-use 1-cm diameter magnetic field coils have been built and tested at the Sandia National Laboratories for use with cluster fusion experiments at the University of Texas in Austin. These coils are used to provide axial magnetic fields to slow radial loss of electrons from laser-produced deuterium plasmas. Typical peak field strength achievable for the two-capacitor system is 50 T, and 200 T for the ten-capacitor system. Current rise time for both systems is about 1.7 {mu}s, with peak current of 500 kA and 2 MA, respectively. Because the coil must be brought to the laser, the driver needs to be portable and drive currents in vacuum. The drivers are complete but laser-plasma experiments are still in progress. Therefore, in this report, we focus on system design, initial tests, and performance characteristics of the two-capacitor and ten-capacitors systems. The questions of whether a 200 T magnetic field can retard the breakup of a cluster-fusion plasma, and whether this field can enhance neutron production have not yet been answered. However, tools have been developed that will enable producing the magnetic fields needed to answer these questions. These are a two-capacitor, 400-kA system that was delivered to the University of Texas in 2010, and a 2-MA ten-capacitor system delivered this year. The first system allowed initial testing, and the second system will be able to produce the 200 T magnetic fields needed for cluster fusion experiments with a petawatt laser. The prototype 400-kA magnetic field driver system was designed and built to test the design concept for the system, and to verify that a portable driver system could be built that delivers current to a magnetic field coil in vacuum. This system was built copying a design from a fixed-facility, high-field machine at LANL, but made to be portable and to use a Z-machine-like vacuum insulator and vacuum transmission line. This system was sent to the

  4. Inertial confinement fusion reactor cavity analysis: Progress report for the period 1 July 1986 to 30 June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.R.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.; El-Afify, M.; Corradini, M.L.

    1987-07-01

    This is a process report for research performed from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987, for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under subcontract number 9265205 with the project title: Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor Cavity Analysis. This research generally considers the problems of vaporization and condensation of liquid metal or solid first surface materials in high yield ICF facilities such as reactors or high yield target test experiments. The past year's research consisted of 1.2 man years of effort on three tasks. These tasks were: verify the current vaporization-condensation models in CONRAD through literature surveys of relevant published data, and evaluation and comparison of these data with predictions by CONRAD on condensation phenomena, and with predictions by CONRAD, ZPINCH, and/or MIXERG on radiation phenomena, design a small-scale vaporization experiment by evaluating existing experimental facilities, selecting a primary facility, and conceptually designing an experiment complete with facility parameters and measurables, and design a small-scale condensation experiment including experimental parameters, measurables, and diagnostics. 48 refs.

  5. Measurement of hydrodynamic growth near peak velocity in an inertial confinement fusion capsule implosion using a self-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Pickworth, L. A.; Hammel, B. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Scott, H. A.; Robey, H. F.; Landen, O. L.; Barrios, M. A.; Regan, S. P.; Schneider, M. B.; Hoppe, Jr., M.; Kohut, T.; Holunga, D.; Walters, C.; Haid, B.; Dayton, M.

    2016-07-11

    First measurements of hydrodynamic growth near peak implosion velocity in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion at the National Ignition Facility were obtained using a self-radiographing technique and a preimposed Legendre mode 40, λ = 140 μm, sinusoidal perturbation. These are the first measurements of the total growth at the most unstable mode from acceleration Rayleigh-Taylor achieved in any ICF experiment to date, showing growth of the areal density perturbation of ~7000×. Measurements were made at convergences of ~5 to ~10× at both the waist and pole of the capsule, demonstrating simultaneous measurements of the growth factors from both lines of sight. The areal density growth factors are an order of magnitude larger than prior experimental measurements and differed by ~2× between the waist and the pole, showing asymmetry in the measured growth factors. As a result, these new measurements significantly advance our ability to diagnose perturbations detrimental to ICF implosions, uniquely intersecting the change from an accelerating to decelerating shell, with multiple simultaneous angular views.

  6. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  7. Measurement of hydrodynamic growth near peak velocity in an inertial confinement fusion capsule implosion using a self-radiography technique

    DOE PAGES

    Pickworth, L. A.; Hammel, B. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; ...

    2016-07-11

    First measurements of hydrodynamic growth near peak implosion velocity in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion at the National Ignition Facility were obtained using a self-radiographing technique and a preimposed Legendre mode 40, λ = 140 μm, sinusoidal perturbation. These are the first measurements of the total growth at the most unstable mode from acceleration Rayleigh-Taylor achieved in any ICF experiment to date, showing growth of the areal density perturbation of ~7000×. Measurements were made at convergences of ~5 to ~10× at both the waist and pole of the capsule, demonstrating simultaneous measurements of the growth factors from both linesmore » of sight. The areal density growth factors are an order of magnitude larger than prior experimental measurements and differed by ~2× between the waist and the pole, showing asymmetry in the measured growth factors. As a result, these new measurements significantly advance our ability to diagnose perturbations detrimental to ICF implosions, uniquely intersecting the change from an accelerating to decelerating shell, with multiple simultaneous angular views.« less

  8. Large orbit magnetic confinement systems for advanced fusion fuels. Final technical report, April 1, 1990--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, N.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the grant/contract was to illuminate the problem of magnetic confinement for plasmas where the majority of ions have large gyro-orbits and do not obey adiabatic particle dynamics. The electrons are adiabatic. We considered a class of equilibria where large orbit ions dominate; the equilibria are rigorous solutions of the Vlasov/Maxwell equations. For a simple cse -- the infinitely long, low beta, rotating plasma a complete stability analysis was carried out. This problem was the basis of the first paper on finite Larmor radius stabilization. In that paper an expansion in {var_epsilon} = {bar {alpha}}{sub i}/r{sub o} was carried out to the first significant order beyond MHD. In this report the same problem is solved to all orders in {var_epsilon}. While this case is of limited applicability to experiments it is rigorous and without approximations, so that it can be used to verify approximations to be developed for more complex and useful cases. The application of the results to date to small fusion reactors is described in the second paper which was written after the termination of the contract, but is based in part on material developed during the contract period.

  9. Measurement of Hydrodynamic Growth near Peak Velocity in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Capsule Implosion using a Self-Radiography Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickworth, L. A.; Hammel, B. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Scott, H. A.; Robey, H. F.; Landen, O. L.; Barrios, M. A.; Regan, S. P.; Schneider, M. B.; Hoppe, M.; Kohut, T.; Holunga, D.; Walters, C.; Haid, B.; Dayton, M.

    2016-07-01

    First measurements of hydrodynamic growth near peak implosion velocity in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion at the National Ignition Facility were obtained using a self-radiographing technique and a preimposed Legendre mode 40, λ =140 μ m , sinusoidal perturbation. These are the first measurements of the total growth at the most unstable mode from acceleration Rayleigh-Taylor achieved in any ICF experiment to date, showing growth of the areal density perturbation of ˜7000 × . Measurements were made at convergences of ˜5 to ˜10 × at both the waist and pole of the capsule, demonstrating simultaneous measurements of the growth factors from both lines of sight. The areal density growth factors are an order of magnitude larger than prior experimental measurements and differed by ˜2 × between the waist and the pole, showing asymmetry in the measured growth factors. These new measurements significantly advance our ability to diagnose perturbations detrimental to ICF implosions, uniquely intersecting the change from an accelerating to decelerating shell, with multiple simultaneous angular views.

  10. Investigations into the seeding of instabilities due to x-ray preheat in beryllium-based inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, E. N.; Greenfield, S. R.; Johnson, R. P.; Cobble, J. A.; Luo, S. N.; Montgomery, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.

    2010-05-15

    The geometry of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules makes them susceptible to various types of hydrodynamic instabilities at different stages during an ICF implosion. From the beginnings of ICF research, it has been known that grain-level anisotropy and defects could be a significant source of instability seeding in solid beryllium capsules. We report on experiments conducted at the Trident laser facility [S. H. Batha et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 10F305 (2008)] to measure dynamic surface roughening from hard x-ray preheat due to anisotropic thermal expansion. M-band emission from laser-produced gold plasma was used to heat beryllium targets with different amounts of copper doping to temperatures comparable to ICF ignition preheat levels. Dynamic roughening measurements were made on the surface away from the plasma at discrete times up to 8 ns after the beginning of the drive pulse using a surface displacement interferometer with nanometer scale sensitivity. Undoped large-grained targets were measured to roughen between 15 and 50 nm rms. Fine-grained, copper-doped targets were observed to roughen near the sensitivity limit of the interferometer. The results of this work have shed light on the effects of high-Z doping and microstructural refinement on the dynamics of differential thermal expansion and have shown that current ICF capsule designs using beryllium are very effective in reducing preheat related roughening ahead of the first shock.

  11. A new time and space resolved transmission spectrometer for research in inertial confinement fusion and radiation source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, P. F.; Ball, C.; Austin, K.; Hansen, S. B.; Kernaghan, M. D.; Lake, P. W.; Ampleford, D. J.; McPherson, L. A.; Sandoval, D.; Gard, P.; Wu, M.; Bourdon, C.; Rochau, G. A.; McBride, R. D.; Sinars, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and function of a new time and space resolved x-ray spectrometer for use in Z-pinch inertial confinement fusion and radiation source development experiments. The spectrometer is designed to measure x-rays in the range of 0.5-1.5 Å (8-25 keV) with a spectral resolution λ/Δλ ˜ 400. The purpose of this spectrometer is to measure the time- and one-dimensional space-dependent electron temperature and density during stagnation. These relatively high photon energies are required to escape the dense plasma created at stagnation and to obtain sensitivity to electron temperatures ≳3 keV. The spectrometer is of the Cauchois type, employing a large 30 × 36 mm2, transmissive quartz optic for which a novel solid beryllium holder was designed. The performance of the crystal was verified using offline tests, and the integrated system was tested using experiments on the Z pulsed power accelerator.

  12. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega.

    PubMed

    Danly, C R; Day, T H; Fittinghoff, D N; Herrmann, H; Izumi, N; Kim, Y H; Martinez, J I; Merrill, F E; Schmidt, D W; Simpson, R A; Volegov, P L; Wilde, C H

    2015-04-01

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstrated on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. The technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.

  13. Time evolution of filamentation and self-generated fields in the coronae of directly driven inertial-confinement fusion capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Rygg, J. R.; Hicks, D. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Delettrez, J.; Betti, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Time-gated radiography with monoenergetic 15-MeV protons, 3-MeV protons, and 4-MeV alpha particles has revealed a rich and complex evolution of electromagnetic field structures in and around imploding, directly driven inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) targets at the OMEGA laser facility. Plastic-shell capsules and solid plastic spheres were imaged during and after irradiation with ICF-relevant laser drive (up to 6 × 1014 W/cm2). Radial filaments appeared while the laser was on; they filled, and were frozen into, the out-flowing corona, persisting until well after the end of the laser drive. Data from specially designed experiments indicate that the filaments were not generated by two-plasmon-decay instabilities or by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities associated with shell acceleration. Before the onset of visible filamentation, quasi-spherical field structures appeared outside the capsule in the images in a form that suggests outgoing shells of net positive charge. We conjecture that these discrete shells are related to multiple peaks seen previously in the spectra of protons ablated from the targets.

  14. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  15. Validating equation of state models in the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov regime for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Eric; Braun, Dave; Batha, Steve; Sorce, Charles; Landen, Otto

    2011-10-01

    Recent simulations have shown that isolated features on the outer surface of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition capsules can profoundly impact capsule performance by leading to mixing in the hotspot. Controlling the growth of these artifacts is complicated due to uncertainties in equation of state (EOS) models used in simulation codes. Here we report on measurements pertaining to the growth of isolated defects due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov in CH capsules in order to validate these models. Face-on transmission radiography was used to measure the evolution of Gaussian bump arrays in plastic targets. Au halfraums heated to radiation temperatures near 70 eV using 15 beams in a 5 ns pulse from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY) indirectly drove the samples. Shock speed measurements made with Omega's Active Shock BreakOut (ASBO) diagnostic in conjunction with the x-ray flux recorded by a soft x-ray power diagnostic (DANTE) were used to determine drive conditions in the target. These measurements show that SESAME 7592 is in closer agreement with shock speed and bump growth data compared to LEOS 5310.

  16. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega

    DOE PAGES

    Danly, C. R.; Day, T. H.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; ...

    2015-04-16

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstratedmore » on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. Thus, the technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.« less

  17. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, C. R.; Day, T. H.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Kim, Y. H.; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Schmidt, D. W.; Simpson, R. A.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.

    2015-04-16

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstrated on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. Thus, the technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.

  18. Kinetic simulations of stimulated Raman backscattering and related processes for the shock-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Riconda, C.; Weber, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Heron, A.

    2011-09-15

    A detailed description of stimulated Raman backscattering and related processes for the purpose of inertial confinement fusion requires multi-dimensional kinetic simulations of a full speckle in a high-temperature, large-scale, inhomogeneous plasma. In particular for the shock-ignition scheme operating at high laser intensities, kinetic aspects are predominant. High- (I{lambda}{sub o}{sup 2}{approx}5x10{sup 15}W{mu}m{sup 2}/cm{sup 2}) as well as low-intensity (I{lambda}{sub o}{sup 2}{approx}10{sup 15}W{mu}m{sup 2}/cm{sup 2}) cases show the predominance of collisionless, collective processes for the interaction. While the two-plasmon decay instability and the cavitation scenario are hardly affected by intensity variation, inflationary Raman backscattering proves to be very sensitive. Brillouin backscattering evolves on longer time scales and dominates the reflectivities, although it is sensitive to the intensity. Filamentation and self-focusing do occur for all cases but on time scales too long to affect Raman backscattering.

  19. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-15

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  20. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, C. R.; Day, T. H.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Schmidt, D. W.; Simpson, R. A.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Izumi, N.

    2015-04-15

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstrated on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. The technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.

  1. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  2. Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  3. A 1. 5--4 Kelvin detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A.

    1990-01-01

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid helium temperatures (1.5--4K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target-shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D{sub 2} for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Method and System to Directly Produce Electrical Power within the Lithium Blanket Region of a Magnetically Confined, Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Fueled, Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-09-22

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  5. Note: Light output enhanced fast response and low afterglow {sup 6}Li glass scintillator as potential down-scattered neutron diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Arikawa, Yasunobu; Yamanoi, Kohei; Nagai, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kozue; Kouno, Masahiro; Sakai, Kohei; Nakazato, Tomoharu; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Cadatal, Marilou Raduban; Estacio, Elmer Surat; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Nakai, Mitsuo; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahiro; Fujino, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideki; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Satoh, Nakahiro; Kan, Hirofumi

    2010-10-15

    The characteristics of an APLF80+3Ce scintillator are presented. Its sufficiently fast decay profile, low afterglow, and an improved light output compared to the recently developed APLF80+3Pr, were experimentally demonstrated. This scintillator material holds promise for applications in neutron imaging diagnostics at the energy regions of 0.27 MeV of DD fusion down-scattered neutron peak at the world's largest inertial confinement fusion facilities such as the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule.

  6. Hybrid-view programming of nuclear fusion simulation code in the PGAS parallel programming language XcalableMP

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugane, Keisuke; Boku, Taisuke; Murai, Hitoshi; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Tang, William; Wang, Bei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) parallel programming model has emerged as a usable distributed memory programming model. XcalableMP (XMP) is a PGAS parallel programming language that extends base languages such as C and Fortran with directives in OpenMP-like style. XMP supports a global-view model that allows programmers to define global data and to map them to a set of processors, which execute the distributed global data as a single thread. In XMP, the concept of a coarray is also employed for local-view programming. In this study, we port Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code - Princeton (GTC-P), which is a three-dimensional gyrokinetic PIC code developed at Princeton University to study the microturbulence phenomenon in magnetically confined fusion plasmas, to XMP as an example of hybrid memory model coding with the global-view and local-view programming models. In local-view programming, the coarray notation is simple and intuitive compared with Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming while the performance is comparable to that of the MPI version. Thus, because the global-view programming model is suitable for expressing the data parallelism for a field of grid space data, we implement a hybrid-view version using a global-view programming model to compute the field and a local-view programming model to compute the movement of particles. Finally, the performance is degraded by 20% compared with the original MPI version, but the hybrid-view version facilitates more natural data expression for static grid space data (in the global-view model) and dynamic particle data (in the local-view model), and it also increases the readability of the code for higher productivity.

  7. Hybrid-view programming of nuclear fusion simulation code in the PGAS parallel programming language XcalableMP

    DOE PAGES

    Tsugane, Keisuke; Boku, Taisuke; Murai, Hitoshi; ...

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) parallel programming model has emerged as a usable distributed memory programming model. XcalableMP (XMP) is a PGAS parallel programming language that extends base languages such as C and Fortran with directives in OpenMP-like style. XMP supports a global-view model that allows programmers to define global data and to map them to a set of processors, which execute the distributed global data as a single thread. In XMP, the concept of a coarray is also employed for local-view programming. In this study, we port Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code - Princeton (GTC-P), which is a three-dimensionalmore » gyrokinetic PIC code developed at Princeton University to study the microturbulence phenomenon in magnetically confined fusion plasmas, to XMP as an example of hybrid memory model coding with the global-view and local-view programming models. In local-view programming, the coarray notation is simple and intuitive compared with Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming while the performance is comparable to that of the MPI version. Thus, because the global-view programming model is suitable for expressing the data parallelism for a field of grid space data, we implement a hybrid-view version using a global-view programming model to compute the field and a local-view programming model to compute the movement of particles. Finally, the performance is degraded by 20% compared with the original MPI version, but the hybrid-view version facilitates more natural data expression for static grid space data (in the global-view model) and dynamic particle data (in the local-view model), and it also increases the readability of the code for higher productivity.« less

  8. Behavior Analysis of Confined Microsocieties in a Programmed Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 1978, 10, 243-253. Bernstein, I.S., Rose, R.N...programmed environment. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 1978, 29, 319-329. Emurian, H.H., Bigelow, G.E., Brady, J.V., and Enurian, C.S... of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 25 (3): 293-302, 1976. Emurian, H.H., Emurian, C.S., Schnier, F.R., and

  9. New concept for a high-repetition-rate reactor for inertial-confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Monsler, M.J.

    1980-11-01

    A new design concept was developed that has three additional features that are very important in reducing program risk: (1) through a proper choice of the working temperature (400 to 540/sup 0/C) and of the liquid metal (lithium or lead-lithium eutectic alloy), we can select a chamber pressure within the range of 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup -4/ Torr, required for the propagation of either a laser-beam or a heavy-ion-beam driver; (2) presently available ferritic steels can be used for the structural material; and (3) the new concept allows flexibility in irradiaton geometry. Although two-sided irradiation at high f/Nos. seems most attractive from the standpoints of minimizing the number of chamber penetrations and of simplifing the layout of the balance of plant, we must provide for the possibility that target-implosion physics will require a more symmetrical illumination geometry.

  10. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report: October--December 1995. Volume 6, Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    McEachern, R.L.; Carpenter, J.; Miguel, A.; Murphy, P.; Perez, J.; Schleich, D.

    1996-07-01

    This issue presents recent results from the ICF program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in areas ranging from cryogenics to plasma instabilities. The article ``Metastable Crystal Structures of Solid Hydrogen`` describes primarily Raman spectroscopy studies of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} films deposited at various rates and temperatures. All ignition target designs for ICF require a cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel layer of uniform thickness and acceptable roughness. Solid DT layers, in particular, are easier to support in the presence of gravity and self-symmetrize due to self heating from the beta decay of tritium. The roughness of these films is closely related to their crystal structure, so it is important to understand film morphology under different deposition conditions. Three articles present different approaches to the study of plasma instabilities that lead to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In ``Modeling of Self-Focusing Experiments by Beam Propagation Codes,`` the authors describe the use of computer codes to model nonlinear effects during the propagation of laser beams through optical elements. Such codes have played a key role in the design of high-power lasers for ICF, both historically and for the NIF. The article ``Optical Scatter--A Diagnostic Tool to Investigate Laser Damage in KDP and DKDP`` examines the important problem of characterizing single crystals of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) and deuterated KDP. These materials are used as optical switches, for frequency conversion in the Nova laser, and will be required for the NIF. The use of soft x-rays as a plasma probe is the topic of ``Soft X-Ray Interferometry.`` Interferometry of laser-produced plasmas presents a significant challenge, especially at electron densities exceeding 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}. The authors compare x-ray and optical interferometry of plasmas and show experimental results from a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  11. Preliminary study on a tetrahedral hohlraum with four half-cylindrical cavities for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Longfei; Jiang, Shaoen; Kuang, Longyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Liling; Lin, Zhiwei; Li, Hang; Zheng, Jianhua; Hu, Feng; Huang, Yunbao; Huang, Tianxuan; Ding, Yongkun

    2017-04-01

    A tetrahedral hohlraum with four half-cylindrical cavities (FHCH) is proposed to balance tradeoffs among the drive symmetry, coupling efficiency, and plasma filling of the hohlraum performance for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion. The peak drive symmetry in the FHCH with a cavity-to-capsule ratio (CCR) of 2.2 is comparable to those in the spherical hohlraum of CCR  =  4.5 with six laser entrance holes (6LEHs-Sph.) ((Lan et al 2014 Phys. Plasmas 21 010704) and three-axis cylindrical hohlraum (6LEHs-Cyls.) of CCR  =  2.0 (Kuang et al 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 34636), and the filling time of plasma is close to the ones in the 6LEHs-Cyls. and the ignition target Rev5-CH of the national ignition campaign, and about half of that in the 6LEHs-Sph. In particular, the coupling efficiency is about 19% and 16% higher than those of the 6LEHs-Sph. and 6LEHs-Cyls., respectively. Besides, preliminary study indicates that the FHCH has a robust symmetry to uncertainties of power imbalance and pointing errors of laser beams. Furthermore, utilizing the FHCH, the feasibility of a tetrahedral indirect drive approach on the national ignition facility and hybrid indirect–direct drive approach with the laser arrangement designed specially for 6LEHs-Sph. or 6LEHs-Cyls., is also envisioned. Therefore, the proposed hohlraum configuration merits consideration as an alternative route to indirect-drive ignition.

  12. Exponential yield sensitivity to long-wavelength asymmetries in three-dimensional simulations of inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, Brian M.

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we perform a series of high-resolution 3D simulations of an OMEGA-type inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosion with varying levels of initial long-wavelength asymmetries in order to establish the physical energy loss mechanism for observed yield degradation due to long-wavelength asymmetries in symcap (gas-filled capsule) implosions. These simulations demonstrate that, as the magnitude of the initial asymmetries is increased, shell kinetic energy is increasingly retained in the shell instead of being converted to fuel internal energy. This is caused by the displacement of fuel mass away from and shell material into the center of the implosion due to complex vortical flows seeded by the long-wavelength asymmetries. These flows are not fully turbulent, but demonstrate mode coupling through non-linear instability development during shell stagnation and late-time shock interactions with the shell interface. We quantify this effect by defining a separation lengthscale between the fuel mass and internal energy and show that this is correlated with yield degradation. The yield degradation shows an exponential sensitivity to the RMS magnitude of the long-wavelength asymmetries. This strong dependence may explain the lack of repeatability frequently observed in OMEGA ICF experiments. In contrast to previously reported mechanisms for yield degradation due to turbulent instability growth, yield degradation is not correlated with mixing between shell and fuel material. Indeed, an integrated measure of mixing decreases with increasing initial asymmetry magnitude due to delayed shock interactions caused by growth of the long-wavelength asymmetries without a corresponding delay in disassembly.

  13. A Wave-Based Model for Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, J. F.

    2016-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is thought to be responsible for an 30 % reduction in hydrodynamic coupling efficiency on OMEGA and up to 50% at the ignition scale for direct-drive (DD) implosions. These numbers are determined by ray-based models that have been developed and integrated within the radiation-hydrodynamics codes LILAC (1-D) and DRACO (2-D). However, ray-based modeling of CBET in an inhomogeneous plasma assumes a steady-state plasma response, does not include the effects of beam speckle, and ray caustics are treated in an ad hoc manner. Nevertheless, simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with implosion experiments on OMEGA (when combined with a model for nonlocal heat transport). The validity of the modeling for ignition-scale implosions has not yet been determined. To address the physics shortcomings, which have important implications for DD inertial confinement fusion, a new wave-based model has been constructed. It solves the time-enveloped Maxwell equations in three-dimensions, including polarization effects, plasma inhomogeneity, and open-boundary conditions with the ability to prescribe beams incident at arbitrary angles. Beams can be made realistic with respect to laser speckle, polarization smoothing, and laser bandwidth. This, coupled to a linearized low-frequency plasma response that does not assume a steady state, represents the most-complete model of CBET to date. New results will be presented and the implications for CBET modeling and mitigation will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DENA0001944, in collaboration with J. G. Shaw, R. K. Follett, and D. H. Edgell (LLE).

  14. Three-dimensional simulation strategy to determine the effects of turbulent mixing on inertial-confinement-fusion capsule performance.

    PubMed

    Haines, Brian M; Grinstein, Fernando F; Fincke, James R

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present and justify an effective strategy for performing three-dimensional (3D) inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) capsule simulations. We have evaluated a frequently used strategy in which two-dimensional (2D) simulations are rotated to 3D once sufficient relevant 2D flow physics has been captured and fine resolution requirements can be restricted to relatively small regions. This addresses situations typical of ICF capsules which are otherwise prohibitively intensive computationally. We tested this approach for our previously reported fully 3D simulations of laser-driven reshock experiments where we can use the available 3D data as reference. Our studies indicate that simulations that begin as purely 2D lead to significant underprediction of mixing and turbulent kinetic energy production at later time when compared to the fully 3D simulations. If, however, additional suitable nonuniform perturbations are applied at the time of rotation to 3D, we show that one can obtain good agreement with the purely 3D simulation data, as measured by vorticity distributions as well as integrated mixing and turbulent kinetic energy measurements. Next, we present results of simulations of a simple OMEGA-type ICF capsule using the developed strategy. These simulations are in good agreement with available experimental data and suggest that the dominant mechanism for yield degradation in ICF implosions is hydrodynamic instability growth seeded by long-wavelength surface defects. This effect is compounded by drive asymmetries and amplified by repeated shock interactions with an increasingly distorted shell, which results in further yield reduction. Our simulations are performed with and without drive asymmetries in order to compare the importance of these effects to those of surface defects; our simulations indicate that long-wavelength surface defects degrade yield by approximately 60% and short-wavelength drive asymmetry degrades yield by a further 30%.

  15. Accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion: Progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.; Friedman, A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Program is the principal part of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program in the Office of Fusion Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy. The emphasis of the Heavy Ion Program is the development of accelerators for fusion power production. Target physics research and some elements of fusion chamber development are supported in the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, a dual purpose (defense and energy) program in the Defense Programs part of the Department of Energy. The accelerator research program will establish feasibility through a sequence of scaled experiments that will demonstrate key physics and engineering issues at low cost compared to other fusion programs. This paper discusses progress in the accelerator program and outlines how the planned research will address the key economic issues of inertial fusion energy.

  16. Perspectives for the high field approach in fusion research and advances within the Ignitor Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Belforte, G.; Boggio-Sella, E.; Cardinali, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Conti, F.; Costa, E.; D'Amico, A.; Detragiache, P.; De Tommasi, G.; DeVellis, A.; Faelli, G.; Ferraris, P.; Frattolillo, A.; Giammanco, F.; Grasso, G.; Lazzaretti, M.; Mantovani, S.; Merriman, L.; Migliori, S.; Napoli, R.; Perona, A.; Pierattini, S.; Pironti, A.; Ramogida, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sassi, M.; Sestero, A.; Spillantini, S.; Tavani, M.; Tumino, A.; Villone, F.; Zucchi, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Ignitor Program maintains the objective of approaching D-T ignition conditions by incorporating systematical advances made with relevant high field magnet technology and with experiments on high density well confined plasmas in the present machine design. An additional objective is that of charting the development of the high field line of experiments that goes from the Alcator machine to the ignitor device. The rationale for this class of experiments, aimed at producing poloidal fields with the highest possible values (compatible with proven safety factors of known plasma instabilities) is given. On the basis of the favourable properties of high density plasmas produced systematically by this line of machines, the envisioned future for the line, based on novel high field superconducting magnets, includes the possibility of investigating more advanced fusion burn conditions than those of the D-T plasmas for which Ignitor is designed. Considering that a detailed machine design has been carried out (Coppi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 104013), the advances made in different areas of the physics and technology that are relevant to the Ignitor project are reported. These are included within the following sections of the present paper: main components issues, assembly and welding procedures; robotics criteria; non-linear feedback control; simulations with three-dimensional structures and disruption studies; ICRH and dedicated diagnostics systems; anomalous transport processes including self-organization for fusion burning regimes and the zero-dimensional model; tridimensional structures of the thermonuclear instability and control provisions; superconducting components of the present machine; envisioned experiments with high field superconducting magnets.

  17. Erratum: Resonant magnetic perturbations of edge-plasmas in toroidal confinement devices (2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 123001)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Controlling the boundary layer in fusion-grade, high-performance, plasma discharges is essential for the successful development of toroidal magnetic confinement power generating systems. A promising approach for controlling the boundary plasma is based on the use of small, externally applied, edge resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields (δ$b_⊥^{ext}$ ≈ $10^{-4}$ → $10^{-3}$ T). A long-term focus area in tokamak fusion research has been to find methods, involving the use of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations to reduce the intense particle and heat fluxes to the wall. Experimental RMP research has progressed from the early pioneering work on tokamaks with material limiters in the 1970s, to present day research in separatrix-limited tokamaks operated in high-confinement mode, which is primarily aimed at the mitigation of the intermittent fluxes due edge localized modes. At the same time the theoretical research has evolved from analytical models to numerical simulations, including the full 3D complexities of the problem. Following the first demonstration of ELM suppression in the DIII-D tokamak during 2003, there has been a rapid worldwide growth in theoretical, numerical and experimental edge RMP research resulting in the addition of ELM control coils to the ITER baseline design [A. Loarte, et al., Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 033007]. This review provides an overview of edge RMP research including a summary of the early theoretical and numerical background along with recent experimental results on improved particle and energy confinement in tokamaks triggered by edge RMP fields. The topics covered make up the basic elements needed for developing a better understanding of 3D magnetic perturbation physics, which is required in order to utilize the full potential of edge RMP fields in fusion relevant high performance, H-mode, plasmas.

  18. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  19. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections. (MOW)

  20. Behavioral and biological interactions with confined microsocieties in a programmed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emurian, H. H.; Brady, J. V.; Meyerhoff, J. L.; Mougey, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the background, objectives, and methodological approach of an ongoing research project devoted to the analysis of individual and small group performance effectiveness under conditions of isolation and confinement during extended residences in a continuously programmed environment. A more detailed description is provided of the results of a recent series of experiments designed and conducted to assess hormonal and behavioral effects of a change in group membership and size.

  1. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  2. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics. Final report, fiscal years 1989--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA`s experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.

  3. Heavy-ion accelerator research for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers a most attractive long-term solution to the problem of future energy supplies: The fuel is virtually inexhaustible and the fusion reaction is notably free of long-lived radioactive by-products. Also, because the fuel is in the form of a plasma, there is no solid fuel core that could melt down. The DOE supports two major fusion research programs to exploit these virtues, one based on magnetic confinement and a second on inertial confinement. One part of the program aimed at inertial fusion is known as Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, or HIFAR. In this booklet, the aim is to place this effort in the context of fusion research generally, to review the brief history of heavy-ion fusion, and to describe the current status of the HIFAR program.

  4. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D A; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Latkowski, J F

    2004-09-02

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  5. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti; Susana Reyes; Lee C. Cadwallader; Jeffery F. Latkowski

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  6. Fusion research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  7. A Concept Exploration Program in Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion — Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richarad Burnite; Freeman, Richard R.; Van Woekom, L. D.; Key, M.; MacKinnon, Andrew J.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2014-02-27

    The Fast Ignition (FI) approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) holds particular promise for fusion energy because the independently generated compression and ignition pulses allow ignition with less compression, resulting in (potentially) higher gain. Exploiting this concept effectively requires an understanding of the transport of electrons in prototypical geometries and at relevant densities and temperatures. Our consortium, which included General Atomics (GA), The Ohio State University (OSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), University of California, Davis (UC-Davis), and Princeton University under this grant (~$850K/yr) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under a companion grant, won awards in 2000, renewed in 2005, to investigate the physics of electron injection and transport relevant to the FI concept, which is crucial to understand electron transport in integral FI targets. In the last two years we have also been preparing diagnostics and starting to extend the work to electron transport into hot targets. A complementary effort, the Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program for Fast Ignition, was funded starting in 2006 to integrate this understanding into ignition schemes specifically suitable for the initial fast ignition attempts on OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF), and during that time these two programs have been managed as a coordinated effort. This result of our 7+ years of effort has been substantial. Utilizing collaborations to access the most capable laser facilities around the world, we have developed an understanding that was summarized in a Fusion Science & Technology 2006, Special Issue on Fast Ignition. The author lists in the 20 articles in that issue are dominated by our group (we are first authors in four of them). Our group has published, or submitted 67 articles, including 1 in Nature, 2 Nature Physics, 10 Physical Review Letters, 8 Review of Scientific Instruments, and has been invited to

  8. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  9. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Berry, L.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    This report discusses the following topics on fusion research: toroidal confinement activities; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; fusion theory and computation; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; advanced systems program; fusion materials research; neutron transport; and management services, quality assurance, and safety.

  10. Effects of programming and healing temperatures on the healing efficiency of a confined healable polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yougoubare, Y. Quentin; Pang, Su-Seng

    2014-02-01

    In previous work, a biomimetic close-then-heal (CTH) healing mechanism was proposed and validated to repeatedly heal wide-open cracks in load carrying engineering structures by using constrained expansion of compression programmed thermoset shape memory polymers (SMPs). In this study, the effects on healing efficiencies of variation of temperature during both thermomechanical programming and shape recovery (healing) under three-dimensional (3D) confinement are evaluated. The polymer considered is a polystyrene shape memory polymer with 6% by volume of thermoplastic particle additives (copolyester) dispersed in the matrix. In addition to the programming and healing temperatures, some of the parameters investigated include the flexural strength, crack width and elemental composition at the crack interface. It is observed that while increase of the programming temperature is slightly beneficial to strength recovery, most of the strength recovered and damage repair are strongly dependent on the healing temperature. The best healing efficiency (63%) is achieved by a combination of a programming temperature above the glass transition temperature of the polymer and a healing temperature above the bonding point of the copolyester.

  11. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A. J.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Leeper, R. J.; Smelser, R.; Torres, J. A.

    2012-10-15

    A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode for inertial confinement fusion experiments has been applied to the on-axis nTOF detectors located in the basement of the Z-Facility. It will be shown that this method can identify sources of neutron scattering, and is useful for predicting detector responses in future experimental configurations, and for identifying potential sources of neutron scattering when experimental set-ups change. This method can also provide insight on how much broadening neutron scattering contributes to the primary signals, which is then subtracted from them. Detector time responses are deconvolved from the signals, allowing a transformation from dN/dt to dN/dE, extracting neutron spectra at each detector location; these spectra are proportional to the absolute yield.

  12. First-principles studies on the equation of state, thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warm dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.

  13. Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors

    DOEpatents

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  14. First-principles studies on the equation-of-state, thermal-conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Suxing; Collins, Lee A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, Joel David; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-05-26

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warm dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.

  15. Computational modeling of magentically driven liner-on-plasma fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehey, P.T.; Faehl, R.J.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.

    1996-12-31

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach to controlled fusion which potentially avoids the difficulties of the traditional magnetic and inertial confinement approaches. It appears possible to investigate the critical issues for MTF at low cost, relative to traditional fusion programs, utilizing pulsed power drivers much less expensive than ICF drivers, and plasma configurations much less expensive than those needed for full magnetic confinement. Computational and experimental research into MTF is proceeding at Los Alamos, VNIIEF, and other laboratories.

  16. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  17. Recent Accomplishments and Future Directions in US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti; Brad J. Merrill; Phillip Sharpe; L. C. Cadwallader; L. El-Guebaly; S. Reyes

    2006-07-01

    The US fusion program has long recognized that the safety and environmental (S&E) potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behavior of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state of the art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating S&E issues associated with current fusion designs. In this paper, recent accomplishments are reviewed and future directions outlined.

  18. WTAQ - A computer program for aquifer-test analysis of confined and unconfined aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, P.M.; Moench, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Computer program WTAQ was developed to implement a Laplace-transform analytical solution for axial-symmetric flow to a partially penetrating, finite-diameter well in a homogeneous and anisotropic unconfined (water-table) aquifer. The solution accounts for wellbore storage and skin effects at the pumped well, delayed response at an observation well, and delayed or instantaneous drainage from the unsaturated zone. For the particular case of zero drainage from the unsaturated zone, the solution simplifies to that of axial-symmetric flow in a confined aquifer. WTAQ calculates theoretical time-drawdown curves for the pumped well and observation wells and piezometers. The theoretical curves are used with measured time-drawdown data to estimate hydraulic parameters of confined or unconfined aquifers by graphical type-curve methods or by automatic parameter-estimation methods. Parameters that can be estimated are horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, and specific yield. A sample application illustrates use of WTAQ for estimating hydraulic parameters of a hypothetical, unconfined aquifer by type-curve methods. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  19. A novel technique for single-shot energy-resolved 2D x-ray imaging of plasmas relevant for the inertial confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Labate, L; Köster, P; Levato, T; Gizzi, L A

    2012-10-01

    A novel x-ray diagnostic of laser-fusion plasmas is described, allowing 2D monochromatic images of hot, dense plasmas to be obtained in any x-ray photon energy range, over a large domain, on a single-shot basis. The device (named energy-encoded pinhole camera) is based upon the use of an array of many pinholes coupled to a large area CCD camera operating in the single-photon mode. The available x-ray spectral domain is only limited by the quantum efficiency of scientific-grade x-ray CCD cameras, thus extending from a few keV up to a few tens of keV. Spectral 2D images of the emitting plasma can be obtained at any x-ray photon energy provided that a sufficient number of photons had been collected at the desired energy. Results from recent inertial confinement fusion related experiments will be reported in order to detail the new diagnostic.

  20. Update of ZTH physics and design issues and physics goals of ZTH and role in the Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    The ZTH construction program is scheduled for completion in December of 1992. Some design features are still amenable to changes directed by new physics or computational information. Numerical results for the ZTH tapered poloidal field gap show that a relatively simple linear taper results in substantial reduction in field error. This design is simpler to manufacture compared with the compound curve predicted by analytical calculations. Also, ongoing analysis of ZT-40M data indicates that the fluctuation levels of magnetic fields and x-rays at high {theta} (1.7), can be reduced to the fluctuation levels at standard'' operational {theta} (1.4) by changing the winding configuration of the toroidal field (TF) coils. The effect is thought to depend on the shell-like action of the TF coils when they consist of many turns in parallel. Magnetic-field effects, such as field errors, at the unshielded toroidal-field butt-joint gap in the shell can be reduced by this effective external shell. Design implications for installing a second low-current TF coil on ZTH are presented. ZTH has the capability of operating at 4 MA with the addition of power supplies. The projected parameters of ZTH are discussed in the context of various conceptual design. The sensitivity of the conceptual design to the physics results from machines like RFX and ZTH is reviewed. It is shown that the 4 MA ZTH physics results will make a significant advance for the RFP program toward the programmatic RFP fusion goals. Finally, the influence of RFP and tokamak physics on the conceptual design of high mass-power-density (MPD) fusion reactors is investigated through the TITAN and ARIES studies. The confinement characteristics required of these conceptual designs are compared; physics issues are identified that are required to bring the MPD and fusion-power-core of the tokamak designs into coincidence with the RFP designs.

  1. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Progress at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements to LASL's two-beam system, Gemini, are outlined and experimental results are discussed. Our eight-beam system, Helios, was fired successfully on target for the first time, and became the world's most powerful gas laser for laser fusion studies. Work on Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is summarized, indicating that design work and building construction are 70 and 48% complete, respectively. A baseline design for automatic centering of laser beams onto the various relay mirrors and the optical design of the Antares front end are discussed. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, as well as investigations of synthetic-fuel production through application of fusion energy to hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting. Studies on increased efficiency of energy extraction in CO/sub 2/ lasers and on lifetimes of cryogenic pellets in a reactor environment are summarized, as well as the results of studies on pellet injection, tracking, and beam synchronization.

  2. Inertial fusion program, January 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Skoberne, F.

    1981-06-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse carbon dioxide laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements are outlined for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Gemini System, which permitted over 500 shots in support of 10 different target experiments; the transformation of our eight-beam system, Helios, from a developmental to an operational facility that is capable of irradiating targets on a routine basis is described; and progress made toward completion of Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is detailed. Investigations of phenomena such as phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing and its applicability to laser fusion systems, and frequency multiplexing as a means toward multipulse energy extraction are summarized. Also discussed are experiments with targets designed for adiabatic compression. Progress is reported in the development of accurate diagnostics, especially for the detection of expanding ions, of neutron yield, and of x-ray emission. Significant advances in our theoretical efforts are summarized, such as the adaptation of our target design codes for use with the CRAY-1 computer, and new results leading to a better understanding of implosion phenomena are reported. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, including the development of an ICF reactor blanket that offers a promising alternative to the usual lithium blanket, and the formulation of a capital-cost data base for laser fusion reactors to permit meaningful comparisons with other technologies.

  3. The role of nuclear reactions and {alpha}-particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, Josselin; Cherfils-Clerouin, Catherine

    2008-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the deceleration phase of inertial confinement capsules. The purpose is to obtain a zero-dimensional model that has the form of a closed system of ordinary differential equations for the main hydrodynamic quantities. The model takes into account the energy released by nuclear reactions, a nonlocal model for the {alpha}-particle energy deposition process, and radiation loss by electron bremsstrahlung. The asymptotic analysis is performed in the case of a strong temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. We finally study the beginning of the expansion phase after stagnation to derive an ignition criterion.

  4. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Keith Stanley

    1993-02-11

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory`s assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made.

  5. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  6. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, D.J.; Luckhardt, R.; Moyer, S.; Armentrout, C.J.; Downs, R.L.; Moncur, K.

    1990-02-28

    This report discusses: Cryogenic technology; polymer shell fabrication; glass shell fabrication and characterization; coating technology; development of characterization techniques; laser technology; and plasma research and instrumentation.

  7. Inertial electrostatic confinement and DD fusion at interelectrode media of nanosecond vacuum discharge. PIC simulations and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Skowronek, M.; Guskov, S. Yu; Dufty, J.

    2009-05-01

    The generation of energetic ions and DD neutrons from microfusion at the interelectrode space of a low-energy nanosecond vacuum discharge has been demonstrated recently [1, 2]. However, the physics of fusion processes and some results regarding the neutron yield from the database accumulated were poorly understood. The present work presents a detailed particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of the discharge experimental conditions using a fully electrodynamic code. The dynamics of all charge particles was reconstructed in time and anode-cathode (AC) space. The principal role of a virtual cathode (VC) and the corresponding single and double potential wells formed in the interelectrode space are recognized. The calculated depth of the quasistationary potential well (PW) of the VC is about 50-60 keV, and the D+ ions being trapped by this well accelerate up to energy values needed to provide collisional DD nuclear synthesis. The correlation between the calculated potential well structures (and dynamics) and the neutron yield observed is discussed. In particular, ions in the potential well undergo high-frequency (~80 MHz) harmonic oscillations accompanied by a corresponding regime of oscillatory neutron yield. Both experiment and PIC simulations illustrate favorable scaling of the fusion power density for the chosen IECF scheme based on nanosecond vacuum discharge.

  8. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  9. Inertial Fusion Energy Studies on an Earth Simulator-Class Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Stephens, R

    2002-08-13

    The U.S. is developing fusion energy based on inertial confinement of the burning fusion fuel, as a complement to the magnetic confinement approach. DOE's Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program within the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) is coordinated with, and gains leverage from, the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Advanced plasma and particle beam simulations play a major role in the IFE effort, and the program is well poised to benefit from an Earth Simulator-class resource. Progress in all key physics areas of IFE, including heavy-ion ''drivers'' which impart the energy to the fusion fuel, the targets for both ion- and laser-driven approaches, and an advanced concept known as fast ignition, would be dramatically accelerated by an Earth Simulator-class resource.

  10. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.

  11. Neutron Time-of-Flight Measurements of Charged-Particle Energy Loss in Inertial Confinement Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Daniel; Cerjan, Charlie; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Caggiano, Joseph; Divol, Laurent; Eckart, Mark; Graziani, Frank; Grim, Gary; Hartouni, Ed; Hatarik, Robert; Le Pape, Sebastien; MacKinnon, Andrew; Schneider, Dieter; Sepke, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Neutron time-of-flight measurements of inflight T (d , n) α reactions created during an implosion of a deuterium gas target have been performed at the National Ignition Facility, with order of magnitude improvements in statistics and resolution over past experiments. In the implosion, energetic tritons emitted by thermonuclear fusion within the deuterium plasma produced over 1011 inflight T (d , n) α reactions. The yield and particle spectrum of inflight reactions are sensitive to the triton's energy loss in the plasma, which, in this implosion, consisted of multi-keV temperatures and number densities above 1024 cm-3. Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the implosion were adjusted to match the yield and broadening of the D (d , n) 3 He neutron peak. These same simulations give reasonable agreement with the measured T (d , n) α yield and neutron spectrum, and this provides a strong consistency check of the simulated plasma conditions and energy loss model. This research was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Fast ignition when heating the central part of an inertial confinement fusion target by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Il’in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the ignition and burning of a precompressed laser fusion target when it is rapidly heated by an ion beam with the formation of a temperature peak in the central part of the target. We present the results of our comprehensive numerical simulations of the problem that include the following components: (1) the target compression under the action of a profiled laser pulse, (2) the heating of the compressed target with spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a beam of high-energy ions, and (3) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum target compression and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of the compressed-target heating by an ion beam. The dependences of the threshold energies of the igniting ion beam and the thermonuclear gain on the width of the Gaussian beam ion energy spectrum have been established. The peculiarities of fast ignition by an ion beam related to the spatial distribution of parameters for the target precompressed by a laser pulse are discussed.

  13. Development of a polar direct-drive platform for studying inertial confinement fusion implosion mix on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Mark J.; Bradley, Paul A.; Cobble, James A.; Fincke, James R.; Hakel, Peter; Hsu, Scott C.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Kyrala, George A.; Magelssen, Glenn R.; Montgomery, David S.; Murphy, Thomas J.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Shah, Rahul C.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Baumgaertel, Jessica A.; Wysocki, Frederick J.; Batha, Steven H.; Stephen Craxton, R.; McKenty, Patrick W.; Fitzsimmons, Paul; and others

    2013-05-15

    Experiments were performed to develop a platform for the simultaneous measurement of mix and its effects on fusion burn. Two polar direct drive implosions of all-plastic capsules were conducted for the first time on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To measure implosion trajectory and symmetry, area image backlighting of these capsules was also employed for the first time on NIF, an advance over previous 1-D slit imaging experiments, providing detailed symmetry data of the capsules as they imploded. The implosion trajectory and low-mode asymmetry seen in the resultant radiographs agreed with pre-shot predictions even though the 700 kJ drive energy produced laser beam intensities exceeding laser-plasma instability thresholds. Post-shot simulations indicate that the capsule yield was reduced by a factor of two compared to pre-shot predictions owing to as-shot laser drive asymmetries. The pre-shot predictions of bang time agreed within 200 ps with the experimental results. The second shot incorporated a narrow groove encircling the equator of the capsule. A predicted yield reduction factor of three was not observed.

  14. Inertial Confinement Fusion alpha-heating signatures in prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Jennifer; Herrmann, Hans; Cerjan, Charlie; Sayre, Daniel; Carpenter, Arthur; Liebman, Judy; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Kim, Yongho

    2015-11-01

    Prompt gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) supply vital diagnostic information, such as the peak burn time, burn width, and total neutron yield, from prompt DT-fusion gamma-ray emission during high convergence implosion experiments. Additionally, the stagnated cold shell density distribution may be inferred from the time-integrated, calibrated 12C (n,n' γ) signal, thus providing estimates of remaining ablator carbon areal density. Furthermore, simulations suggest that alpha heating signatures might be accessible using more highly resolved temporal gamma-ray emission. Correlation of these signatures with time-dependent neutron emission will constrain the implosion dynamics immediately prior to thermonuclear burn. Measurement of these gamma-ray signatures will be discussed along with updates on our work toward inferred total DT yield and 12C areal density. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07-NA27344, LLNL-ABS-670282.

  15. Investigation of gamma-ray time shifts caused by capsule areal density variations in inertial confinement fusion experiments at the national ignition facility and the omega facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafil, Elliot M.

    This thesis describes work on Cherenkov based gamma detectors used as diag- nostics at Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities. The first part describes the calibration and commissioning of the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic which is a four cell Cherenkov detector array used to characterize the ICF implosion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by measuring the gamma rays generated during the fusion event. Two of the key metrics which the GRH measures are Gamma Bang Time (GBT) generated from the D(T,α)n thermonuclear burn and Ablator Peak Time (APT) caused by (n,n‧)gamma reactions in the surrounding capsule ablator. Simulations of ignition capsules predict that GBT and APT should be time synchronized. After GRH commissioning, the array was used during first year of NIF operation in the National Ignition Campaign. Contrary to expectations, time shifts between GBT and APT of order 10s of picoseconds were observed. In order to further investigate the possibility of these time shifts in view of testing both instrument and code credibility an ICF shot campaign at the smaller OMEGA facility in Rochester was devised. It was performed during two full shot days in April of 2013 and 2014 and confirmed in principle the viability of the Cherenkov detector approach but raised additional questions regarding the credibility of the simulation codes used to describe ICF experiments. Specifically the measurements show that the understanding of temporal behavior of GBT vs APT may not be properly modeled in the DRACO code used at OMEGA. In view of the OMEGA results which showed no time shifts between GBT and APT, the readout and timing synchronization system of the GRH setup at the NIF was reevaluated in the framework of this thesis. Motivated by the results, which highlighted the use of wrong optical fiber diameters and possible problems with the installed variable optical attenuators, the NIF equipment has been updated over the recent months and new timing tests will

  16. Safety and environmental constraints on space applications of fusion energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. Reece

    1990-01-01

    Some of the constraints are examined on fusion reactions, plasma confinement systems, and fusion reactors that are intended for such space related missions as manned or unmanned operations in near earth orbit, interplanetary missions, or requirements of the SDI program. Of the many constraints on space power and propulsion systems, those arising from safety and environmental considerations are emphasized since these considerations place severe constraints on some fusion systems and have not been adequately treated in previous studies.

  17. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, January 1-June 30, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Skoberne, F.

    1980-05-01

    Studies and experiments aimed at investigating the possibility of restoring wavefront quality in optical systems through phase conjugation are summarized, and work that could lead to the development of highly damage-resistant isolators is discussed. The effects of various parameters on pulse-energy uniformity and of multipass extraction on laser efficiency are reported. Results of equation-of-state, shock propagation, multiburst simulation, and opacity measurements are discussed. Target designs are described that should provide a smooth transition from the exploding-pusher regime of experiments to that of isentropic compression. Progress in target fabrication techniques toward creating a 20-times-liquid-density target are outlined, and efforts that led to the extension of our neutron detection capability to levels of less than 10/sup 3/ n are summarized. The results of various studies of laser fusion application, e.g., for producing ultrahigh-temperature process heat or hydrogen from water decomposition are presented, as well as investigations of fusion-fission hybrids for the production of /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th.

  18. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.D.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.

    2000-10-03

    Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to >100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade.

  19. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  20. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  1. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Atzeni, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Séguin, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK=λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with the experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hoc modeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. The remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.

  2. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    DOE PAGES

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; ...

    2016-01-06

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK = λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with themore » experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hocmodeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. Furthermore, the remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.« less

  3. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    SciTech Connect

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Atzeni, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Seguin, F. H.

    2016-01-06

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK = λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with the experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hocmodeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. Furthermore, the remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.

  4. Measurement of areal density in the ablators of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules via detection of ablator (n, n'γ) gamma-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, N. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hsu, H. H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Miller, E. K.; Grafil, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Duffy, T.

    2013-04-01

    We report the first gamma-ray-based measurements of the areal density of ablators in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions. The measurements, made at the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], used observations of gamma rays arising from inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons on 12C nuclei in the compressed plastic ablators. The emission of 12C(n,n'γ) gamma rays from the capsules is detected using the Gamma Reaction History instrument [H. W. Herrmann et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244, 032047 (2010)] operating at OMEGA. From the ratio of a capsule's 12C(n,n'γ) emission to the emission from the same processes in an in situ reference graphite "puck" of known mass and geometry [N. M. Hoffman et al., in IFSA 2011 proceedings (submitted)], we determine the time-averaged areal density of 12C in the capsule's compressed ablator. Measured values of total ablator areal density for thirteen imploded capsules, in the range 23 ± 10 to 58 ± 14 mg/cm2, are comparable to values calculated in 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, and measured by charged-particle techniques.

  5. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hoover, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Peterson, K. J.; Salmonson, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a "low-foot" drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  6. Design and operation of the pellet charge exchange diagnostic for measurement of energetic confined α particles and tritons on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Fisher, R. K.; Duong, H. H.; McChesney, J. M.; Parks, P. B.; Petrov, M. P.; Khudoleev, A. V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.

    1996-09-01

    Radially resolved energy and density distributions of the confined α particles in D-T experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) are being measured with the pellet charge exchange (PCX) diagnostic. Other energetic ion species can be detected as well, such as tritons produced in D-D plasmas and H, He3, or tritium rf-driven minority ion tails. The ablation cloud formed by injected low-Z impurity pellets provides the neutralization target for this active charge exchange technique. Because the cloud neutralization efficiency is uncertain, the PCX diagnostic is not absolutely calibrated so only relative density profiles are obtained. A mass and energy resolving E∥B neutral particle analyzer (NPA) is used which has eight energy channels covering the energy range of 0.3-3.7 MeV for α particles with energy resolution ranging from 5.8% to 11.3% and a spatial resolution of ˜5 cm. The PCX diagnostic views deeply trapped ions in a narrow pitch angle range around a mean value of v∥/v=-0.048±10-3. For D-T operation, the NPA was shielded by a polyethylene-lead enclosure providing 100× attenuation of ambient γ radiation and 14 MeV neutrons. The PCX diagnostic technique and its application on TFTR are described in detail.

  7. First-principles studies on the equation-of-state, thermal-conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Suxing; Collins, Lee A.; Goncharov, V. N.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warmmore » dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.« less

  8. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.

    2014-07-15

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a “low-foot” drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  9. LLE 1998 annual report, October 1997--September 1998. Inertial fusion program and National Laser Users` Facility program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and programs involving the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students for FY98. Research summaries cover: progress in laser fusion; diagnostic development; laser and optical technology; and advanced technology for laser targets.

  10. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  11. Measurements of the Differential Cross Sections for the Elastic n-{sup 3}H and n-{sup 2}H Scattering at 14.1 MeV by Using an Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; McNabb, D. P.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Glebov, V. Yu; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2011-09-16

    For the first time the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-{sup 3}H) and neutron-deuteron (n-{sup 2}H) scattering at 14.1 MeV has been measured by using an inertial confinement fusion facility. In these experiments, which were carried out by simultaneously measuring elastically scattered {sup 3}H and {sup 2}H ions from a deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion capsule implosion, the differential cross section for the elastic n-{sup 3}H scattering was obtained with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in previous accelerator experiments. The results compare well with calculations that combine the resonating-group method with an ab initio no-core shell model, which demonstrate that recent advances in ab initio theory can provide an accurate description of light-ion reactions.

  12. Laser Program annual report 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Rufer, M.L.; Murphy, P.W.

    1985-06-01

    The Laser Program Annual Report is part of the continuing series of reports documenting the progress of the unclassified Laser Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). As in previous years, the report is organized programmatically. The first section is an overview of the basic goals and directions of the LLNL Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, and highlights the year's important accomplishments. Sections 2 through 7 provide the detailed information on the various program elements: Laser Systems and Operations, Target Design, Target Fabrication, Laser Experiments and Advanced Diagnostics, Advanced Laser Development, and Applications of Inertial Confinement Fusion. Individual sections will be indexed separately. 589 refs., 333 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  14. Maryland controlled fusion research program. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.; Hassam, A.; Liu, C.S.; Ott, E.

    1993-05-01

    In recent years, members of the Maryland Plasma Theory Group have made significant contributions to the national fusion theory program, and, in many cases, these theoretical developments helped to interpret experimental results and to design new experimental programs. In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of micro-turbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  15. Graphene Biosensor Programming with Genetically Engineered Fusion Protein Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Soikkeli, Miika; Kurppa, Katri; Kainlauri, Markku; Arpiainen, Sanna; Paananen, Arja; Gunnarsson, David; Joensuu, Jussi J; Laaksonen, Päivi; Prunnila, Mika; Linder, Markus B; Ahopelto, Jouni

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a label-free biosensor concept based on specific receptor modules, which provide immobilization and selectivity to the desired analyte molecules, and on charge sensing with a graphene field effect transistor. The receptor modules are fusion proteins in which small hydrophobin proteins act as the anchor to immobilize the receptor moiety. The functionalization of the graphene sensor is a single-step process based on directed self-assembly of the receptor modules on a hydrophobic surface. The modules are produced separately in fungi or plants and purified before use. The modules form a dense and well-oriented monolayer on the graphene transistor channel and the receptor module monolayer can be removed, and a new module monolayer with a different selectivity can be assembled in situ. The receptor module monolayers survive drying, showing that the functionalized devices can be stored and have a reasonable shelf life. The sensor is tested with small charged peptides and large immunoglobulin molecules. The measured sensitivities are in the femtomolar range, and the response is relatively fast, of the order of one second.

  16. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  17. World progress toward fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements (about 75 percent of that required for ignition) have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R&D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century.

  18. Solid state laser technology for inertial confinement fusion: A collection of articles from ''Energy and Technology Review''

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This paper contains reprinted articles that record several milestones in laser research at LLNL. ''Neodymium-Glass Laser Research and Development at LLNL'' recounts the history of the Laser Program and our work on neodymium-glass lasers. ''Nova Laser Technology'' describes the capabilities of the Nova laser and some of its uses. ''Building Nova: Industry Relations and Technology Transfer'' illustrates the Laboratory's commitment to work with US industry in technology development. ''Managing the Nova Laser Project'' details the organization and close monitoring of costs and schedules during the construction of the Nova laser facility. The article ''Optical Coatings by the Sol-Gel Process,'' describes our chemical process for making the damage-resistant, antireflective silica coatings used on the Nova laser glass. The technical challenges in designing and fabricating the KDP crystal arrays used to convert the light wave frequency of the Nova lasers are reported in ''Frequency Conversion of the Nova Laser.'' Two articles, ''Eliminating Platinum Inclusions in Laser Glass'' and ''Detecting Microscopic Inclusions in Optical Glass,'' describe how we dealt with the problem of damaging metal inclusions in the Nova laser glass. The last article reprinted here, ''Auxilliary Target Chamber for Nova,'' discusses the diversion of two of Nova's ten beamlines into a secondary chamber for the purpose of increasing our capacity for experimentation.

  19. The Texas Experimental Tokamak: A plasma research facility. A proposal submitted to the Department of Energy in response to Program Notice 95-10: Innovations in toroidal magnetic confinement systems

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-12

    The Fusion Research Center (FRC) at the University Texas will operate the tokamak TEXT-U and its associated systems for experimental research in basic plasma physics. While the tokamak is not innovative, the research program, diagnostics and planned experiments are. The fusion community will reap the benefits of the success in completing the upgrades (auxiliary heating, divertor, diagnostics, wall conditioning), developing diverted discharges in both double and single null configurations, exploring improved confinement regimes including a limiter H-mode, and developing unique, critical turbulence diagnostics. With these new regimes, the authors are poised to perform the sort of turbulence and transport studies for which the TEXT group has distinguished itself and for which the upgrade was intended. TEXT-U is also a facility for collaborators to perform innovative experiments and develop diagnostics before transferring them to larger machines. The general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The emphasis of the proposed research is to provide well-documented plasmas which will be used to suggest and evaluate theories, to explore control techniques, to develop advanced diagnostics and analysis techniques, and to extend current drive techniques. Up to 1 MW of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) will be used not only for heating but as a localized, perturbative tool. Areas of proposed research are: (1) core turbulence and transport; (2) edge turbulence and transport; (3) turbulence analysis; (4) improved confinement; (5) ECH physics; (6) Alfven wave current drive; and (7) diagnostic development.

  20. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  1. Plasma-Materials Interactions (PMI) and High-Heat-Flux (HHF) component research and development in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.

    1986-10-01

    Plasma particle and high heat fluxes to in-vessel components such as divertors, limiters, RF launchers, halo plasma scrapers, direct converters, and wall armor, and to the vacuum chamber itself, represent central technical issues for fusion experiments and reactors. This is well recognized and accepted. It is also well recognized that the conditions at the plasma boundary can directly influence core plasma confinement. This has been seen most dramatically, on the positive side, in the discovery of the H-mode using divertors in tokamaks. It is also reflected in the attention devoted worldwide to the problems of impurity control. Nowadays, impurities are controlled by wall conditioning, special discharge cleaning techniques, special coatings such as carbonization, the use of low-Z materials for limiters and armor, a careful tailoring of heat loads, and in some machines, through the use of divertors. All programs, all experiments, and all designers are now keenly aware that PMI and HHF issues are key to the successful performance of their machines. In this brief report we present general issues in Section 2, critical issues in Section 3, existing US PMI/HHF experiments and facilities in Section 4, US International Cooperative PMI/HHF activities in Section 5, and conclude with a discussion on major tasks in PMI/HHF in Section 6.

  2. Documentation of a computer program to simulate transient leakage from confining units using the modular finite-difference, ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, S.A.; Leahy, P.P.; Navoy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Transient leakage into or out of a compressible fine-grained confining unit results from ground- water storage changes within the unit. The computer program described in this report provides a new method of simulating transient leakage using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite- difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). The new program is referred to as the Transient- Leakage Package. The Transient-Leakage Package solves integrodifferential equations that describe flow across the upper and lower boundaries of confining units. For each confining unit, vertical hydraulic conductivity, thickness, and specific storage are specified in input arrays. These properties can vary from cell to cell and the confining unit need not be present at all locations in the grid; however, the confining units must be bounded above and below by model layers in which head is calculated or specified. The package was used in an example problem to simulate drawdown around a pumping well in a system with two aquifers separated by a confining unit. For drawdown values in excess of 1 centimeter, the solution using the new package closely matched an exact analytical solution. The problem also was simulated without the new package by using a separate model layer to represent the confining unit. That simulation was refined by using two model layers to represent the confining unit. The simulation using the Transient-Leakage Package was faster and more accurate than either of the simulations using model layers to represent the confining unit.

  3. WTAQ: A Computer Program for Calculating Drawdowns and Estimating Hydraulic Properties for Confined and Water-Table Aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Moench, Allen F.

    1999-01-01

    The computer program WTAQ calculates hydraulic-head drawdowns in a confined or water-table aquifer that result from pumping at a well of finite or infinitesimal diameter. The program is based on an analytical model of axial-symmetric ground-water flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic aquifer. The program allows for well-bore storage and well-bore skin at the pumped well and for delayed drawdown response at an observation well; by including these factors, it is possible to accurately evaluate the specific storage of a water-table aquifer from early-time drawdown data in observation wells and piezometers. For water-table aquifers, the program allows for either delayed or instantaneous drainage from the unsaturated zone. WTAQ calculates dimensionless or dimensional theoretical drawdowns that can be used with measured drawdowns at observation points to estimate the hydraulic properties of confined and water-table aquifers. Three sample problems illustrate use of WTAQ for estimating horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, and specific yield of a water-table aquifer by type-curve methods and by an automatic parameter-estimation method.

  4. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  5. Particle-beam fusion research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    Sandia research in inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) is based on pulse-power capabilities that grew out of earlier developments of intense relativistic electron-beam (e-beam) radiation sources for weapon effects studies. ICF involves irradiating a deuterium-tritium pellet with either laser light or particle beams until the center of the pellet is compressed and heated to the point of nuclear fusion. This publication focuses on the use of particle beams to achieve fusion, and on the various facilities that are used in support of the particle-beam fusion (PBF) program.

  6. Numerical simulations of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in planar inertial-confinement-fusion targets using the FastRad3D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. W.; Schmitt, A. J.; Karasik, M.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is a central issue in the performance of laser-accelerated inertial-confinement-fusion targets. Historically, the accurate numerical simulation of this instability has been a challenging task for many radiation hydrodynamics codes, particularly when it comes to capturing the ablatively stabilized region of the linear dispersion spectrum and modeling ab initio perturbations. Here, we present recent results from two-dimensional numerical simulations of the ablative RT instability in planar laser-ablated foils that were performed using the Eulerian code FastRad3D. Our study considers polystyrene, (cryogenic) deuterium-tritium, and beryllium target materials, quarter- and third-micron laser light, and low and high laser intensities. An initial single-mode surface perturbation is modeled in our simulations as a small modulation to the target mass density and the ablative RT growth-rate is calculated from the time history of areal-mass variations once the target reaches a steady-state acceleration. By performing a sequence of such simulations with different perturbation wavelengths, we generate a discrete dispersion spectrum for each of our examples and find that in all cases the linear RT growth-rate γ is well described by an expression of the form γ = α [ k g / ( 1 + ɛ k L m ) ] 1 / 2 - β k V a , where k is the perturbation wavenumber, g is the acceleration of the target, Lm is the minimum density scale-length, Va is the ablation velocity, and ɛ is either one or zero. The dimensionless coefficients α and β in the above formula depend on the particular target and laser parameters and are determined from two-dimensional simulation results through the use of a nonlinear curve-fitting procedure. While our findings are generally consistent with those of Betti et al. (Phys. Plasmas 5, 1446 (1998)), the ablative RT growth-rates predicted in this investigation are somewhat smaller than the values previously reported for the

  7. Magnetic and inertial fusion status and development plans

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.; Storm, E.

    1987-12-04

    Controlled fusion, pursued by investigators in both the magnetic and inertial confinement research programs, continues to be a strong candidate as an intrinsically safe and virtually inexhaustible long-term energy source. We describe the status of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion in terms of the accomplishments made by the research programs for each concept. The improvement in plasma parameters (most frequently discussed in terms of the Tn tau product of ion temperature, T, density, n, and confinement time, tau) can be linked with the construction and operation of experimental facilities. The scientific progress exhibited by larger scale fusion experiments within the US, such as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Fusion Test Reactor for magnetic studies and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Nova laser for inertial studies, has been optimized by the theoretical advances in plasma and computational physics. Both TFTR and Nova have exhibited ion temperatures in excess of 10 keV at confinement parameters of n tau near 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ . sec. At slightly lower temperatures (near a few keV), the value of n tau has exceeded 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ . sec in both devices. Near-term development plans in fusion research include experiments within the US, Europe, and Japan to improve the plasma performance to reach conditions where the rate of fusion energy production equals or exceeds the heating power incident upon the plasma. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  10. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  11. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  12. Hydrogeologic Data Fusion. Industry Programs/Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscut Program. OST Reference #2944

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem: The fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface requires knowledge of the hydrogeologic system. Site characterization typically involves the collection of various data sets needed to create a conceptual model that represents what’s known about contaminant migration in the subsurface at a particular site. How Hydrogeologic Data Fusion Works Hydrogeologic Data Fusion is a mathematical tool that can be used to combine various types of geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic data from different types of sensors to estimate geologic and hydrogeologic properties. It can be especially useful at hazardous waste sites where the hydrology, geology, or contaminant distribution is significantly complex such that groundwater modeling is required to enable a reasonable and accurate prediction of subsurface conditions.

  13. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the

  14. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the new energy oriented program. in addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any emerging energy technology.

  15. Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion condition is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion. .

  16. Status of fusion research and implications for D/He-3 systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.

    1988-01-01

    World wide programs in both magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion research have made steady progress towards the experimental demonstration of energy breakeven. However, after breakeven is achieved, considerable time and effort must still be expended to develop a usable power plant. The main program described is focused on Deuterium-Tritium devices. In magnetic confinement, three of the most promising high beta approaches with a reasonable experimental data base are the Field Reversed Configuration, the high field tokamak, and the dense Z-pinch. The situation is less clear in inertial confinement where the first step requires an experimental demonstration of D/T spark ignition. It appears that fusion research has reached a point in time where an R and D plan to develop a D/He-3 fusion reactor can be laid out with some confidence of success.

  17. Programming power reduction in confined phase change memory cells with titanium dioxide clad layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangliang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Zheng, Qianqian; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Wanting; Shao, Hehong; Zhu, Xiuwei; Yu, Wenlei

    2017-01-01

    A confined structure phase change memory (PCM) cell has been fabricated based on the focused-ion beam technique. Furthermore, the titanium dioxide clad layer was proposed for promoting the temperature rise in the Ge0.61Sb2Te layer that causes the reduction in the reset voltage and current compared to the phase change memory cell without clad layer. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are conducted to analyze the thermal effect of the titanium dioxide heating layer. The improved performance of the PCM cell with dioxide clad layer can be attributed to the fact that the buffer layer not only acted as heating layer but also efficiently reduced the cell dissipated power.

  18. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way

  19. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  20. Symbolic regression via genetic programming for data driven derivation of confinement scaling laws without any assumption on their mathematical form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Lupelli, I.; Lungaroni, M.; Gaudio, P.

    2015-01-01

    Many measurements are required to control thermonuclear plasmas and to fully exploit them scientifically. In the last years JET has shown the potential to generate about 50 GB of data per shot. These amounts of data require more sophisticated data analysis methodologies to perform correct inference and various techniques have been recently developed in this respect. The present paper covers a new methodology to extract mathematical models directly from the data without any a priori assumption about their expression. The approach, based on symbolic regression via genetic programming, is exemplified using the data of the International Tokamak Physics Activity database for the energy confinement time. The best obtained scaling laws are not in power law form and suggest a revisiting of the extrapolation to ITER. Indeed the best non-power law scalings predict confinement times in ITER approximately between 2 and 3 s. On the other hand, more comprehensive and better databases are required to fully profit from the power of these new methods and to discriminate between the hundreds of thousands of models that they can generate.