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Sample records for confirm obstructive sleep

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jaquis, J

    1987-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is estimated to affect 2 million to 3 million Americans. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a breathing pattern characterized by periods of apnea alternating with periods of arousal and breathing, a pattern that recurs throughout the sleep cycle. It is important for the nurse practitioner to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of the syndrome in order to initiate diagnostic testing. The role of the nurse practitioner also involves education of the client and family regarding the disease process and treatment modalities. The client and client's family will need help in coping with the diagnosis and possibly with the physical and psychological symptoms experienced. This article outlines the disease process, treatment modalities, possible complications and the role of the nurse practitioner in assisting the client with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

  3. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy S; McSharry, David G; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-02-22

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Features include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60-70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. PMID:23910433

  4. Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Schwengel, Deborah A; Dalesio, Nicholas M; Stierer, Tracey L

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder of airway obstruction with multisystem implications and associated complications. OSAS affects children from infancy to adulthood and is responsible for behavioral, cognitive, and growth impairment as well as cardiovascular and perioperative respiratory morbidity and mortality. OSAS is associated commonly with comorbid conditions, including obesity and asthma. Adenotonsillectomy is the most commonly used treatment option for OSAS in childhood, but efforts are underway to identify medical treatment options. PMID:24491659

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    White, David P; Younes, Magdy K

    2012-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Control of pharyngeal patency is a complex process relating primarily to basic anatomy and the activity of many pharyngeal dilator muscles. The control of these muscles is regulated by a number of processes including respiratory drive, negative pressure reflexes, and state (sleep) effects. In general, patients with OSA have an anatomically small airway the patency of which is maintained during wakefulness by reflex-driven augmented dilator muscle activation. At sleep onset, muscle activity falls, thereby compromising the upper airway. However, recent data suggest that the mechanism of OSA differs substantially among patients, with variable contributions from several physiologic characteristics including, among others: level of upper airway dilator muscle activation required to open the airway, increase in chemical drive required to recruit the pharyngeal muscles, chemical control loop gain, and arousal threshold. Thus, the cause of sleep apnea likely varies substantially between patients. Other physiologic mechanisms likely contributing to OSA pathogenesis include falling lung volume during sleep, shifts in blood volume from peripheral tissues to the neck, and airway edema. Apnea severity may progress over time, likely due to weight gain, muscle/nerve injury, aging effects on airway anatomy/collapsibility, and changes in ventilatory control stability.

  6. Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea*

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Susheel P.; Schneider, Hartmut; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction that result in recurrent arousals and episodic oxyhemoglobin desaturations during sleep. Significant clinical consequences of the disorder cover a wide spectrum, including daytime hypersomnolence, neurocognitive dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, and cor pulmonale. The major risk factors for the disorder include obesity, male gender, and age. Current understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of the disorder suggests that a balance of anatomically imposed mechanical loads and compensatory neuromuscular responses are important in maintaining upper airway patency during sleep. OSA develops in the presence of both elevated mechanical loads on the upper airway and defects in compensatory neuromuscular responses. A sleep history and physical examination is important in identification of patients and appropriate referral for polysomnography. Understanding nuances in the spectrum of presenting complaints and polysomnography correlates are important for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Knowledge of common patterns of OSA may help to identify patients and guide therapy. PMID:17625094

  7. Metabolic complications of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Qanta A

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a widely prevalent disorder, hallmarked by partial or total upper airway obstruction during sleep. These events fracture sleep integrity resulting in chronic partial sleep deprivation with destructive metabolic sequelae, the focus of this review.

  8. [Obstructive sleep apnea in women].

    PubMed

    Turányi, Csilla Zita; Pintér, Nóra; Dunai, Andrea; Novák, Márta

    2014-12-28

    The prevalence of sleep disturbances and their symptomatic manifestations may be different in men and women. Women with obstructive sleep apnea are less likely to be diagnosed with sleep apnea compared to men, probably due to atypical symptoms such as morning headaches, symptoms of depression and daytime fatigue. There is a great importance of diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders regarding quality of life, co-morbidity and mortality in both genders.

  9. Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Dayyat, Ehab; Gozal, David

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children has emerged not only as a relatively prevalent condition but also as a disease that imposes a large array of morbidities, some of which may have long-term implications, well into adulthood. The major consequences of pediatric OSA involve neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, and endocrine and metabolic systems. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA-induced end-organ injury are now being unraveled, and clearly involve oxidative and inflammatory pathways. However, the roles of individual susceptibility (as dictated by single-nucleotide polymorphisms), and of environmental and lifestyle conditions (such as diet, physical, and intellectual activity), may account for a substantial component of the variance in phenotype. Moreover, the clinical prototypic pediatric patient of the early 1990s has been insidiously replaced by a different phenotypic presentation that strikingly resembles that of adults afflicted by the disease. As such, analogous to diabetes, the terms type I and type II pediatric OSA have been proposed. The different manifestations of these two entities and their clinical course and approaches to management are reviewed. PMID:18250221

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates ... the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence ...

  11. Neurostimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: investigations.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D W; Fairbanks, D N

    1993-01-01

    Neurostimulation of the upper airway muscles (accessory muscles of respiration) was accomplished in anesthetized dogs and sleeping humans by electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Such stimulations relieved partial airway obstructions in dogs. They also aborted (shortened) obstructive sleep apnea events in humans who suffer with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In one subject, stimulations delivered in advance of apneic events (by automatic cycling) prevented apneas. Neurostimulation for obstructive sleep apnea may be an important concept for future research and development.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634

  13. Sleep · 8: Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, G; Brouillette, R

    2005-01-01

    In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:15923253

  14. Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Due to Massive Cervical Lipohypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Alper Mete; Ersozlu, Tolga; Basat, Salih Onur; Ceran, Fatih

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a difficult problem to deal with. Many studies on the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea were performed in the past, and we present cervical lipohypertrophy causing severe obstructive sleep apnea in this article.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Due To Extrathoracic Tracheomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Nandalike, K.; Bent, J.; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    We report obstructive sleep apnea in a 3-year-old boy with tracheomalacia secondary to tracheotomy that resolved after placement of a metallic stent in the region of tracheomalacia. The tracheal location of obstruction during sleep in this case contrasts with the usual location in the pharynx or, less often, the larynx. This case also demonstrates the utility of polysomnography in managing decannulation of tracheostomies. Citation: Muzumdar H; Nandalike K; Bent J; Arens R. Obstructive sleep apnea due to extrathoracic tracheomalacia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):163–164. PMID:23372471

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Luigi; Caprioglio, Alberto; Brunetti, Luigia; Nosetti, Luana

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was first reported in 1976 by Guilleminault. This condition has been defined as a disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial/complete upper airway obstruction that disrupts normal ventilation and normal sleep patterns. The prevalence of this condition varies among the different populations but it is between 1 and 2% in preschool children when adenoid and tonsils volume has a major peak. Loud snoring is very common in these children but not always present. The diagnosis may be suggested by the facial appearance and by personal history but it must be confirmed by a polysomnography recording. OSAS has many associated morbidities which involve the cardiovascular system, the neurocognitive performance, the growth and the metabolic homeostasis. Obesity is a common associated condition and it impairs the therapeutic success. It should be considered when planning the treatment program: it should be stressed the obesity epidemic has already reached the European countries and it is now contributing to the "adult type" of OSAS which was quite rare in childhood until few years ago. The adenotonsillectomy is the most common therapeutic intervention but it is curative only in 2/3 of patients. Orthodontic approaches, associated with orofacial muscle reinforcing physiotherapy are helpful in most of these patients. To conclude we must stress that this condition is quite common and should be promptly diagnosed to prevent the multisystem morbidities; a multidisciplinary approach should be always offered to the parents of these children.

  17. Cough in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin; Ing, Alvin; Birring, Surinder S

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) has recently been reported to be a cause of chronic cough. It should be considered when cough remains unexplained following investigations and treatments for common causes. The presence of nocturnal cough, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux may be helpful in identifying patients who require further investigation. Daytime somnolence is often absent. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been reported to be effective in alleviating cough. Therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, if present, should be optimised. The mechanism of the association between OSA and cough is not clear, but airway inflammation, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, increased cough reflex sensitivity and tracheobronchomalacia are possible explanations. Further studies should identify clinical predictors of OSA-cough, establish mechanisms and the optimal therapy.

  18. Sleep Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Aaron C.; Koltai, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is not always resolved or improved with adenotonsillectomy. Persistent or complex cases of pediatric OSA may be due to sites of obstruction in the airway other than the tonsils and adenoids. Identifying these areas in the past has been problematic, and therefore, therapy for OSA in children who have failed adenotonsillectomy has often been unsatisfactory. Sleep endoscopy is a technique that can enable the surgeon to determine the level of obstruction in a sleeping child with OSA. With this knowledge, site-specific surgical therapy for persistent and complex pediatric OSA may be possible. PMID:22518178

  19. Obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with obesity and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Di Guardo, Antonino; Profeta, Gaetano; Crisafulli, Cristiano; Sidoti, Giuseppe; Zammataro, Marcello; Paolini, Italo; Filippi, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Background The links between obstructive sleep apnoea and hypertension are well established; obstructive sleep apnoea is reported in up to 30% of patients with hypertension, although it is frequently underdiagnosed. Physicians can assess the degree of sleepiness by administering the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, but the large number of patients with hypertension makes this strategy difficult for busy physicians to implement. Obese patients form a subgroup at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnoea, which can be targeted for screening. Aim The study carried out a preliminary exploration of the effectiveness of screening patients with hypertension and obesity for obstructive sleep apnoea in general practice using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Setting One group practice in Italy. Design of study ‘Good clinical practice’ was systematically applied: identification of patients with hypertension and obesity; qualitative interview to identify obstructive sleep apnea; and consequent work-up and therapy. Method Three family physicians, caring for 769 pharmacologically-treated patients with hypertension, identified 220 obese patients without relevant pulmonary or neurological diseases or insomnia; 31 of these 220 patients scored >11 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Polysomnography confirmed obstructive sleep apnoea in 10% of the obese, hypertensive population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.03% to 13.63%), and in 3.9% of the whole hypertensive population (95% CI = 2.74% to 5.51%). At baseline, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring showed uncontrolled blood pressure in all these patients. Under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the blood pressure value normalised (P<0.05), and the mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score decreased significantly: mean 13.68 versus 7.84 (P<0.001). Conclusion In obese patients with hypertension examined in this study, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea prevalence is about 10%. CPAP significantly ameliorates the blood pressure

  20. Does obstructive sleep apnea worsen during REM sleep?

    PubMed

    Peregrim, I; Grešová, S; Pallayová, M; Fulton, B L; Štimmelová, J; Bačová, I; Mikuľaková, A; Tomori, Z; Donič, V

    2013-01-01

    Although it is thought that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is worse during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than in non-REM (NREM) sleep there are some uncertainties, especially about apnoe-hypopnoe-index (AHI). Several studies found no significant difference in AHI between both sleep stages. However, REM sleep is associated more with side sleeping compared to NREM sleep, which suggests that body position is a possible confounding factor. The main purpose of this study was to compare the AHI in REM and NREM sleep in both supine and lateral body position. A retrospective study was performed on 422 consecutive patients who underwent an overnight polysomnography. Women had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in both supine (46.05+/-26.26 vs. 23.91+/-30.96, P<0.01) and lateral (18.16+/-27.68 vs. 11.30+/-21.09, P<0.01) body position. Men had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in lateral body position (28.94+/-28.44 vs. 23.58+/-27.31, P<0.01), however, they did not reach statistical significance in supine position (49.12+/-32.03 in REM sleep vs. 45.78+/-34.02 in NREM sleep, P=0.50). In conclusion, our data suggest that REM sleep is a contributing factor for OSA in women as well as in men, at least in lateral position. PMID:24020811

  1. The pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and represents an increasing burden on health care resources. Understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of OSA will ultimately allow for the development of rational therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review current concepts about the pathogenesis of OSA. Specifically, we consider the evidence that the upper airway plays a primary role in OSA pathogenesis and provide a framework for modelling its biomechanical properties and propensity to collapse during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular factors that modulate upper airway obstruction are also discussed. Finally, we consider models of periodic breathing, and elaborate generalizable mechanisms by which upper airway obstruction destabilizes respiratory patterns during sleep. In our model, upper airway obstruction triggers a mismatch between ventilatory supply and demand. In this model, trade-offs between maintaining sleep stability or ventilation can account for a full range of OSA disease severity and expression. Recurrent arousals and transient increases in airway patency may restore ventilation between periods of sleep, while alterations in neuromuscular and arousal responses to upper airway obstruction may improve sleep stability at still suboptimal levels of ventilation. PMID:26380762

  2. The pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Pham, Luu V; Schwartz, Alan R

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and represents an increasing burden on health care resources. Understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of OSA will ultimately allow for the development of rational therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review current concepts about the pathogenesis of OSA. Specifically, we consider the evidence that the upper airway plays a primary role in OSA pathogenesis and provide a framework for modelling its biomechanical properties and propensity to collapse during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular factors that modulate upper airway obstruction are also discussed. Finally, we consider models of periodic breathing, and elaborate generalizable mechanisms by which upper airway obstruction destabilizes respiratory patterns during sleep. In our model, upper airway obstruction triggers a mismatch between ventilatory supply and demand. In this model, trade-offs between maintaining sleep stability or ventilation can account for a full range of OSA disease severity and expression. Recurrent arousals and transient increases in airway patency may restore ventilation between periods of sleep, while alterations in neuromuscular and arousal responses to upper airway obstruction may improve sleep stability at still suboptimal levels of ventilation. PMID:26380762

  3. Treatments for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Calik, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the efficacy of current treatment options for adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods Review of the literature. Results OSA, characterized by repetitive ≥ 10-second interruptions (apnea) or reductions (hypopnea) in airflow, is initiated by partial or complete collapse in the upper airway despite respiratory effort. When left untreated, OSA is associated with comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The current “gold standard” treatment for OSA is continuous positive air pressure (CPAP), which pneumatically stabilizes the upper airways. CPAP has proven efficacy and potential cost savings via decreases in health comorbidities and/or motor-vehicle crashes. However, CPAP treatment is not well-tolerated due to various side effects, and adherence among OSA subjects can be as low as 50% in certain populations. Other treatment options for OSA include improving CPAP tolerability, increasing CPAP adherence through patient interventions, weight loss/exercise, positional therapy, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, oral pressure therapy, oral appliances, surgery, hypoglossal nerve stimulation, drug treatment, and combining 2 or more of the aforementioned treatments. Despite the many options available to treat OSA, none of them are as efficacious as CPAP. However, many of these treatments are tolerable, and adherence rates are higher than those of the CPAP, making them a more viable treatment option for long-term use. Conclusion Patients need to weigh the benefits and risks of available treatments for OSA. More large randomized controlled studies on treatments or combination of treatments for OSA are needed that measure parameters such as treatment adherence, apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation, subjective sleepiness, quality of life, and adverse events. PMID:27134515

  4. Clinical Considerations of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Little REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Dae Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more severe during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than during non-REM sleep. We aimed to determine the features of patients with OSA who experience little REM sleep. Methods Patients with a chief complaint of sleep-disordered breathing were enrolled. All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) and completed questionnaires on sleep quality. Patients were divided into the following three groups according to the proportion of REM sleep detected in overnight PSG: little REM sleep [REM sleep <20% of total sleep time (TST)], normal REM sleep (20–25% of TST), and excessive REM sleep (>25% of TST). Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. The success rate of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration was estimated in these groups. Results The age and body mass index of the patients were 47.9±15.9 years (mean±SD) and 25.2±4.1 kg/m2, respectively. The 902 patients comprised 684 (76%) men and 218 (24%) women. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in the little-REM-sleep group was 22.1±24.4 events/hour, which was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that a higher AHI (p<0.001; odds ratio, 1.512; 95% confidence interval, 1.020–1.812) was independently predictive of little REM sleep. The titration success rate was lower in the little-REM-sleep group than in the normal-REM-sleep group (p=0.038). Conclusions The AHI is higher and the success rate of CPAP titration is lower in OSA patients with little REM sleep than those with normal REM sleep.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea. Clinical and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Paiva, T; Vasconcelos, P; Leitão, A N; Andrea, M

    1994-12-01

    Our study included 42 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) confirmed by polysomnography. In these patients we investigated the clinical manifestations, the results of the laboratory examinations, including polysomnography, ORL observations and tests of pulmonary function, as well as the therapeutic results. Our patients presented a serious set of symptoms which included excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, incapacity to work with precocious retirement, marital conflicts and high incidence of accidents, namely traffic accidents. An adequate treatment, mostly with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), induced marked relief of the symptoms; some patients had an advantage in surgical treatment and weight reduction. OSAS is a frequent entity, affecting mostly male adults after the 5th decade. The lack of knowledge about this entity and the common social acceptance of some of its cardinal symptoms induces considerable delays in its diagnosis. The severity of the symptoms, the personal and social risks of excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardiocirculatory effects and the risk of sudden death during sleep justify an early diagnosis in order to prevent the severe evolution of the disease. Its complex physiopathology and multiple etiological factors justify a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:7653280

  6. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.

  7. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  8. Health Promotion in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is commonly underdiagnosed, has a high occurrence in the world population. Health education concerning sleep disorders and OSAS should be implemented. Objectives The objective was to identify studies related to preventive actions on sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted using Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus by combining the following keywords: “Health Promotion,” “Sleep Disorders,” “Primary Prevention,” “Health Education,” and “Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes.” Initially, 1,055 papers, from 1968 to 2013, were located, with the majority from the Scopus database. The inclusion criteria were applied, and four articles published between 2006 and 2012 were included in the present study. Conclusions The studies on preventive actions in sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS, involved the general population and professionals and students in the health field and led to increased knowledge on sleep disorders and more appropriate practices. PMID:25992174

  9. [Obstructive sleep apnea features and occupational fitness of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Buniatyan, M S; Belozerova, N V; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The article covers prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, its role in health disorders of workers engaged into railway safety. The authors analyzed present standards of occupational fitness in workers performing critically important operating activities and methods of occupational selection with possible obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. I stage recommendations are suggested in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in workers engaged into railway safety. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome appeared to threaten operators' activity, to cause accidents, to early disablement due to life-threatening complications, to unsuitability for the occupation due to diseases connected with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac rhythm and conductivity disorders, obesity). PMID:27396145

  10. [Obstructive sleep apnea features and occupational fitness of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Buniatyan, M S; Belozerova, N V; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The article covers prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, its role in health disorders of workers engaged into railway safety. The authors analyzed present standards of occupational fitness in workers performing critically important operating activities and methods of occupational selection with possible obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. I stage recommendations are suggested in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in workers engaged into railway safety. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome appeared to threaten operators' activity, to cause accidents, to early disablement due to life-threatening complications, to unsuitability for the occupation due to diseases connected with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac rhythm and conductivity disorders, obesity).

  11. Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep.

    PubMed

    Bonekat, H William; Hardin, Kimberly A

    2003-10-01

    Few disorders may manifest with predominantly sleep-related obstructive breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, varies in severity and is associated with significant cardiovascular and neurocognitive morbidity. It is estimated that between 8 and 18 million people in the United States have at least mild OSA. Although the exact mechanism of OSA is not well-delineated, multiple factors contribute to the development of upper airway obstruction and include anatomic, mechanical, neurologic, and inflammatory changes in the pharynx. OSA may occur concomitantly with asthma. Approximately 74% of asthmatics experience nocturnal symptoms of airflow obstruction secondary to reactive airways disease. Similar cytokine, chemokine, and histologic changes are seen in both disorders. Sleep deprivation, chronic upper airway edema, and inflammation associated with OSA may further exacerbate nocturnal asthma symptoms. Allergic rhinitis may contribute to both OSA and asthma. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA. Treatment with CPAP therapy has also been shown to improve both daytime and nighttime peak expiratory flow rates in patients with concomitant OSA and asthma. It is important for allergists to be aware of how OSA may complicate diagnosis and treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. A thorough sleep history and high clinical suspicion for OSA is indicated, particularly in asthma patients who are refractory to standard medication treatments.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Inell C

    2011-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common problem that plays a role in a number of other chronic health concerns including hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and gastroesophageal reflux disease to name a few. In this article, we discuss the relationship between OSA and these conditions as well as how OSA is diagnosed and treated.

  13. Pulmonary haemodynamics in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, Oreste; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria

    2002-06-01

    In patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), pulmonary haemodynamics can show both transient perturbations during sleep and permanent alterations. During sleep, repeated fluctuations in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure, coincident with apnoeas, can be observed. Calculation of transmural pressure values is preferable to intravascular pressures in OSAS, due to the marked swings in intrathoracic pressure associated with obstructive apnoeas. Pulmonary artery pressure may progressively increase during sleep, particularly in close sequences of highly desaturating apnoeas. Apnoea-induced hypoxia appears as the most important determinant of this pulmonary artery pressure behaviour. Stroke volume and cardiac output during obstructive apnoeas show changes mainly related to intrathoracic pressure variations. Permanent precapillary pulmonary hypertension at rest is observed in <50% OSAS patients, and is poorly reversible after OSAS treatment. It correlates best with diurnal respiratory function parameters. However, the finding of pulmonary hypertension in some patients with near normal diurnal lung function led to suggest that sleep respiratory disorders may contribute to permanent pulmonary haemodynamic impairment in predisposed subjects. Knowledge on right ventricle hypertrophy in OSAS is inconsistent. As to right ventricle failure, it is clinically evident in subjects with associated lung disease or morbid obesity, while it may be detected instrumentally in subjects without such alterations, presumably as effect of apnoeas themselves. Besides, it appears more fully reversible after long-term OSAS treatment than pulmonary hypertension. PMID:12531120

  14. Influence of smoking on sleep and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deleanu, Oana-Claudia; Pocora, Diana; Mihălcuţă, Stefan; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Zaharie, Ana-Maria; Mihălţan, Florin Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The various ill effects that tobacco smoking has on health have been largely studied, particularly on vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases. Lately, the discussion about the negative impact of cigarette smoking moved towards sleep medicine. Tobacco consumption has been associated with sleep disordered architecture, both during regular intake and after withdrawal. Its effects on sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) still remain a matter of debate. It is unclear whether smoking represents a risk factor for OSAS or whether smoking cessation has any beneficial effects on OSAS and its therapy. There seems to be a synergistic effect between smoking and OSAS, both causing an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Future studies are needed in order to establish the strength of this association. We aim to review the literature regarding the consequences of smoking on sleep architecture and SDB, adding emphasis on OSAS clinical implications and treatment.

  15. New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Najib T; Hirsch, Allen A J; Laher, Ismail; Bradley, T Douglas; Malhotra, Atul; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Tasali, Esra

    2014-08-01

    OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furthermore, patients with untreated sleep apnoea are at an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Although there are many predisposing risk factors for OSA, including male gender, endocrine disorders, use of muscle relaxants, smoking, fluid retention and increased age, the strongest risk factor is obesity. The aim of the present review is to focus on three cutting-edge topics with respect to OSA. The section on animal models covers various strategies used to simulate the physiology or the effects of OSA in animals, and how these have helped to understand some of the underlying mechanisms of OSA. The section on diabetes discusses current evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrating that intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation has a negative impact on glucose tolerance. Finally, the section on cardiovascular biomarkers reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biomarkers to both measure some of the negative consequences of OSA, as well as the potential benefits of OSA therapies. PMID:24780001

  16. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude.

  17. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude. PMID:25973669

  18. Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Mwenge, Gimbada B; Rombaux, Philippe; Lengele, Benoit; Rodenstein, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very frequent affliction that affects about 1-5% of the adult population in its severe form. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most commonly used treatment and is highly effective, but its use is limited by low long-term adherence rates and overall poor acceptance among the patients. Therefore, there is a need for developing alternative approaches to OSA treatment, including a more 'natural' concept of maintaining an open airway through neuromodulation. Here we review the concept, scientific rationale, and technical details of hypoglossal nerve stimulation. We also review results of published clinical studies with several hypoglossal stimulation devices that are being investigated today. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation appears to be a very promising treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. If its efficacy is confirmed, it will probably be complementary with CPAP therapy and initially aimed at patients unable or unwilling to use CPAP. Once it becomes a standard therapy, its advantages might prove sufficient to challenge CPAP as the first-line therapy.

  19. Cardiopulmonary consequences of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Caples, Sean M; Kara, Tomas; Somers, Virend K

    2005-02-01

    Ongoing research in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suggests strong associations with cardiopulmonary disorders. There is an abundance of studies describing physiological pathways in OSA that acutely impact the cardiovascular system. These mechanisms, if proven to carry over into the daytime hours, could form the basis for clinical disease. The challenge remains in disentangling these mechanistic processes from the many comorbid conditions often present in patients with OSA. Examples include male gender, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, all of which exert their own influence on the development of cardiopulmonary disease. This review discusses some of the physiological mechanisms associated with disordered breathing during sleep and explores putative cardiopulmonary disease associations.

  20. Endothelial function in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Atkeson, Amy; Yeh, Susie Yim; Malhotra, Atul; Jelic, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The repetitive hypoxia/reoxygenation and sleep fragmentation associated with OSA impair endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction, in turn, may mediate increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, in OSA, endothelial nitric oxide availability and repair capacity are reduced, whereas oxidative stress and inflammation are enhanced. Treatment of OSA improves endothelial vasomotor tone and reduces inflammation. We review the evidence and possible mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction as well as the effect of treatment on endothelial function in OSA.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Teresa; Attarian, Hrayr

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of breathing cessation due to complete or partial collapse of the upper airway therefore affecting ventilation. It is quite common, with a prevalence of about 2-4%, has a strong genetic component, and creates a proinflammatory state with elevated TNFα and other cytokines. If untreated, OSA can lead to significant neurological problems that include stroke, cognitive decline, depression, headaches, peripheral neuropathy, and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Treatment reverses some of these neurological problems. Treatment includes continuous positive airway pressure and its variants, oral appliances, weight loss, upper airway surgery, and rarely maxillofacial procedures. Other sleep breathing disorders such as hypoventilation, central sleep apnea, complex sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration are less common and are sometimes associated with neuromuscular disorders causing diaphragmatic paralysis, but can also be seen in opiate exposure and severe obesity.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Teresa; Attarian, Hrayr

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of breathing cessation due to complete or partial collapse of the upper airway therefore affecting ventilation. It is quite common, with a prevalence of about 2-4%, has a strong genetic component, and creates a proinflammatory state with elevated TNFα and other cytokines. If untreated, OSA can lead to significant neurological problems that include stroke, cognitive decline, depression, headaches, peripheral neuropathy, and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Treatment reverses some of these neurological problems. Treatment includes continuous positive airway pressure and its variants, oral appliances, weight loss, upper airway surgery, and rarely maxillofacial procedures. Other sleep breathing disorders such as hypoventilation, central sleep apnea, complex sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration are less common and are sometimes associated with neuromuscular disorders causing diaphragmatic paralysis, but can also be seen in opiate exposure and severe obesity. PMID:24365301

  3. The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    AlGhanim, Nayef; Comondore, Vikram R; Fleetham, John; Marra, Carlo A; Ayas, Najib T

    2008-01-01

    Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases healthcare utilization and is associated with reduced work performance and occupational injuries. The economic burden related to untreated OSA is substantial, accounting for billions of dollars per year. Furthermore, therapy of OSA is an extremely cost-efficient use of healthcare resources, comparing highly favorably with other commonly funded medical therapies. Governments, transportation agencies, industry, and insurance companies need to be better informed concerning the economic impact of untreated OSA and the benefits of therapy.

  4. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea: awakening the hidden truth.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, A; Ramamurthy, J; Dinesh, S P S; Srinivas, A

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common type of sleep apnea and is caused by obstruction of upper airway. Sleep apnea is clinically defined as frequent episodes of apnea, hypopnea and symptoms of functional impairment, which could be life-threatening and associated with extreme daytime hyper somnolence, dysfunction, discrements in health-related quality of life, automobile accidents, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Etiopathogenic factors that contribute to OSA include reduced upper-airway dilator muscle activity during sleep, upper-airway anatomical features, ventilatory control insufficiency, lung volume, and rostral fluid shifts. The presence of risk factors such as age, gender and obesity increases the incidence of OSA. The repetitive nocturnal hypoxemia experienced by patients with OSA is associated with activation of a number of neural, humoral, thrombotic, metabolic, and inflammatory disease mechanisms, all of which have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of various systemic diseases. This article summarizes the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, associated systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and dental diseases with OSA and the influence of tongue on oropharyngeal airway in OSA patients.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akre, Harriet; Øverland, Britt; Åsten, Pamela; Skogedal, Nina; Heimdal, Ketil

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among the Norwegian population with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). A secondary aim was to establish whether TCS phenotype severity is associated with OSAS severity. A prospective case study design was used. Individuals who were 5 years old and above with a known diagnosis of TCS in Norway were invited to participate in a study. The study included genetic testing, medical and dental examinations and polysomnography. All participants demonstrated disturbed respiration during sleep; 18/19 met the diagnostic criteria for OSAS. Subjectively evaluated snoring was not a reliable predictor of OSAS. We found no significant association between TCS phenotype severity and the severity of OSAS. OSAS is common in TCS, but there is no association with the phenotype severity. Individuals diagnosed with TCS must undergo sleep studies to identify the presence of OSAS.

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Debaun, Michael R.; Strunk, Robert C.; Redline, Susan; Seicean, Sinziana; Craven, Daniel I.; Gavlak, Johanna C.D.; Wilkey, Olu; Inusa, Baba; Roberts, Irene; Goodpaster, R. Lucas; Malow, Beth; Rodeghier, Mark; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline data were analyzed from the Sleep and Asthma Cohort Study, a multicenter prospective study designed to evaluate the contribution of sleep and breathing abnormalities to SCA-related morbidity in children ages 4 to 18 years, unselected for OSAS symptoms or asthma. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationships between OSAS status on the basis of overnight in-laboratory polysomnography and putative risk factors obtained from questionnaires and direct measurements. RESULTS: Participants included 243 children with a median age of 10 years; 50% were boys, 99% were of African heritage, and 95% were homozygous for βS hemoglobin. OSAS, defined by obstructive apnea hypopnea indices, was present in 100 (41%) or 25 (10%) children at cutpoints of ≥1 or ≥5, respectively. In univariate analyses, OSAS was associated with higher levels of habitual snoring, lower waking pulse oxygen saturation (Spo2), reduced lung function, less caretaker education, and non–preterm birth. Lower sleep-related Spo2 metrics were also associated with higher obstructive apnea hypopnea indices. In multivariable analyses, habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 remained risk factors for OSAS in children with SCA. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of OSAS in children with SCA is higher than in the general pediatric population. Habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 values, data easily obtained in routine care, were the strongest OSAS risk factors. Because OSAS is a treatable condition with adverse health outcomes, greater efforts are needed to screen, diagnose, and treat OSAS in this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:25022740

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Michael; Wilson, Jonathan; Floyd, Ryan

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes patients to temporarily stop or decrease their breathing repeatedly during sleep. This results in fragmented, nonrestful sleep that can lead to symptoms such as morning headache and daytime sleepiness. Obstructive sleep apnea affects persons of all ages, with an increasing prevalence in those older than 60 years. The exact prevalence is unknown but is estimated to be between 2% and 14%. There are many health conditions associated with obstructive sleep apnea, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and depression. Loud snoring, gasping during sleep, obesity, and enlarged neck circumference are predictive clinical features. Screening questionnaires can be used to assess for sleep apnea, although their accuracy is limited. The diagnostic standard for obstructive sleep apnea is nocturnal polysomnography in a sleep laboratory. Home sleep apnea tests can be performed for certain patients but are generally considered less accurate. Continuous positive airway pressure is the first-line treatment; adherence rates are variable and seem to improve with early patient education and support. Other treatment modalities include weight reduction, oral appliance therapy, and surgery to correct anatomic obstructions, although there is insufficient evidence to support these types of surgeries. Bariatric surgery can improve sleep parameters and symptoms in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea and can result in remission in many patients. PMID:27583421

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea: a palatable treatment option?

    PubMed

    Allison, C

    2007-01-01

    (1) The Pillar(R) Palatal Implant System consists of three polyester threads that are permanently implanted in the palate (the roof of the mouth) to reduce airway obstruction in individuals with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. (2) Three small, non-randomized uncontrolled trials reported a moderate reduction in the number of breathing interruptions during sleep, three to six months following palatal implant insertion. Statistically significant improvements in daytime sleepiness and snoring intensity were also reported. (3) The minimally invasive surgical procedure causes mild, transient discomfort. A potential complication is partial extrusion of the implant, requiring removal and replacement. (4) Currently, there is insufficient published evidence to determine whether palatal implants are an effective treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA due to palatal obstruction. (5) Larger, randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of the implants in a more diverse patient population, including those who are obese or those with comorbid medical conditions. Comparisons with existing treatments for OSA are also needed.

  10. Relationship of symptoms with sleep-stage abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Basunia, Md; Fahmy, Samir A.; Schmidt, Frances; Agu, Chidozie; Bhattarai, Bikash; Oke, Vikram; Enriquez, Danilo; Quist, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) present with a variety of sleep-related symptoms. In polysomnography, sleep architecture is almost always abnormal, but it is not known which of the sleep-stage abnormalities are related to symptoms. Finding key sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms may be of therapeutic importance to alleviate symptoms. So far the mainstay of treatment is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) therapy, but many patients are non-compliant to it. Correcting the sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study. Adult subjects who attended a sleep laboratory for diagnostic polysomnography for a period of 1 month were recruited consecutively. OSAHS was diagnosed using American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Subjects filled a questionnaire for symptoms prior to polysomnography. Results Thirty subjects, of whom 83.3% were obese, met diagnostic criteria, with males constituting 46.7% and females constituting 53%. Mean age was 53.40±11.60 years. Sleep architecture comprised N1 19.50±19.00%, N2 53.93±13.39%, N3 3.90±19.50%, and rapid eye movement 8.92±6.21%. Excessive fatigue or sleepiness, waking up tired, falling asleep during the day, trouble paying attention, snoring and insomnia were significantly related to decreased N3 sleep. Conclusions Most of the symptoms in OSAHS in adults are related to decreased stage N3 sleep. If confirmed by larger controlled studies, correcting N3 sleep deficiency by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy to alleviate symptoms. PMID:27609729

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Mimics Attention Deficit Disorder.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Lauri; Breese McCoy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity are known possible symptoms or correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, these associations may be missed in children, because children often fail to report excessive daytime sleepiness, and attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common primary diagnoses in themselves. We report on a 17-year-old, slender, non-snoring male who presented to his pediatrician with a prolonged history of four complaints: inattention, fidgeting, frequent sinusitis, and somnolence. He was diagnosed with ADHD, while the somnolence, which often abated somewhat upon use of antibiotics for sinusitis, was attributed to the sinus infections. A later sleep study revealed OSA, and thorough additional testing proved that the original ADHD diagnosis was in error. All four conditions were allayed with proper use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea in the obese.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S; Charuzi, I

    1998-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome occurs in 4% to 9% of middle-aged men and in 1% to 2% of middle-aged women. The incidence of OSA among morbidly obese patients is 12- to 30-fold higher. The pathophysiology of OSA is complex and incompletely understood. The important clinical symptoms of OSA include snoring, daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, morning fatigue, and headaches. The diagnosis is made by polysomnography. The possible sequelae of OSA are hypertension, left and right ventricular hypertrophy, sudden cardiovascular death, and increased risk for brain infarction. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) appears to be the recommended treatment for OSA. Morbidly obese patients may also benefit from weight reduction gastric surgery. PMID:9717428

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  15. Update on paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Dehlink, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one of the most common causes of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. It is associated with significant morbidity, potentially impacting on long-term neurocognitive and behavioural development, as well as cardiovascular outcomes and metabolic homeostasis. The low grade systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress seen in this condition are believed to underpin the development of these OSA-related morbidities. The significant variance in degree of end organ morbidity in patients with the same severity of OSA highlights the importance of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in determining the overall OSA phenotype. This review seeks to summarize the current understanding of the aetiology and mechanisms underlying OSA, its risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26904263

  16. Management of Hypertension in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Sofia F; Braz, Caio V; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Drager, Luciano F

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered to be a secondary form of hypertension and in clinical practice OSA is frequently associated with hypertension, even if proof of causality cannot be established. Growing evidence suggests that OSA is associated with worse blood pressure control, alterations in night-time blood pressure dipping, increased target organ damage, and arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension. This review summarizes the current evidence for managing hypertension in patients with OSA. Particular focus will be devoted to discuss the impact of lifestyle changes, preferences for anti-hypertensive treatment in patients with OSA, and the effects of OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure.

  17. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children.

    PubMed

    Blechner, Michael; Williamson, Ariel A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has various negative health and behavioral consequences in the pediatric population. As shown in adults, there are metabolic derangements such as obesity, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular derangements like hypertension, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, ventricular size/function abnormalities, and even elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, that can be seen in children with OSAS. The first two sections will discuss the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences on OSAS in children. The last section summarizes selected studies and reviews on the behavioral, neurocognitive and academic consequences of OSAS in children. PMID:26631839

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea treatment with dental appliance.

    PubMed

    Reimão, R; De Gouveia, M M; Pestana, M C; Lopes, S R; Papaiz, E G; Papaiz, L F

    1994-12-01

    The case of a 40-year-old male patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is reported, with emphasis on treatment with a dental appliance. This therapeutic approach, which has been focused on recent research, has as its objective, the posturing of the mandibule and, consequently, the tongue more anteriorly, thus in turn leading to an increase in the posterior oropharyngeal airway space (PAS). Cephalometry contributed determining in this case whereby enlargement limits were observed in the PAS with mandibular displacement. Clinical and polysomnographic controls showed subjective reduction of the excessive daytime sleepiness and objective decrease in apneas intensity to normal limits. Eight months follow-up evidenced the steady improvement.

  19. 77 FR 25226 - Proposed Recommendations on Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... was published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23794) announcing proposed regulatory... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Proposed Recommendations on Obstructive Sleep Apnea AGENCY... withdrawing its proposed regulatory guidance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and request for comment...

  20. Does nasal decongestion improve obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Clarenbach, Christian F; Kohler, Malcolm; Senn, Oliver; Thurnheer, Robert; Bloch, Konrad E

    2008-12-01

    Whether nasal congestion promotes obstructive sleep apnea is controversial. Therefore, we performed a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial on the effects of topical nasal decongestion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and nasal congestion. Twelve OSA patients with chronic nasal congestion (mean +/- SD age 49.1 +/- 11.1 years, apnea/hypopnea index 32.6 +/- 24.5/h) were treated with nasal xylometazoline or placebo for 1 week each. At the end of treatment periods, polysomnography including monitoring of nasal conductance by an unobtrusive technique, vigilance by the OSLER test, and symptom scores were assessed. Data from xylometazoline and placebo treatments were compared. Mean nocturnal nasal conductance on xylometazoline was significantly higher than on placebo (8.6 +/- 5.3 versus 6.3 +/- 5.8 mL s(-1)Pa(-1), P < 0.05) but the apnea/hypopnea index was similar (29.3 +/- 32.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 32.8/h, P = NS). However, 30-210 min after application of xylometazoline, at the time of the maximal pharmacologic effect, the apnea/hypopnea index was slightly reduced (27.3 +/- 30.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 33.9/h, P < 0.05). Xylometazoline did not alter sleep quality, sleep resistance time (33.6 +/- 8.8 versus 33.4 +/- 10.1 min, P = NS) and subjective sleepiness (Epworth score 10.5 +/- 3.8 versus 11.8 +/- 4.4, P = NS). The reduced apnea/hypopnea index during maximal nasal decongestion by xylometazoline suggests a pathophysiologic link but the efficacy of nasal decongestion was not sufficient to provide a clinically substantial improvement of OSA. PMID:18710420

  1. Occult laryngomalacia resulting in obstructive sleep apnea in an infant.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Karin P Q; Modi, Vikash K

    2013-09-01

    Classic laryngomalacia presents in the awake infant with progressive stridor when agitated. Occult laryngomalacia usually presents with stridor in children older than 2 years and is limited to sleep or exercise. There have been no documented cases of occult laryngomalacia causing obstructive sleep apnea in infants. We report the youngest documented case of an infant with state-dependent laryngomalacia resulting in severe obstructive sleep apnea. This patient was successfully treated with supraglottoplasty, with resolution of symptoms. In conclusion, state-dependent laryngomalacia resulting in obstructive sleep apnea may present in children younger than 12 months of age. In these individuals, supraglottoplasty should be considered. PMID:23911113

  2. Home Sleep Tests for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Mukesh; Greenough, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a fairly common condition that, if left untreated, can lead to complications such as high blood pressure and heart disease. Polysomnography (PSG) is the most accurate method for diagnosing OSA, but it is a cumbersome and expensive test. A well-validated, easier to perform and less expensive alternative is the home sleep test (HST). The purpose of this review is to educate the primary care provider about the important differences between PSG and HSTs, the advantages and limitations of both modalities, identifying patients who are appropriate candidates for the HST, identifying patients in whom the HST should not be performed, and further evaluation of patients who have a negative HST.

  3. Surgical treatment of snoring & obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Ephros, Hillel D; Madani, Mansoor; Yalamanchili, Sumitra C

    2010-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is a potentially serious disorder affecting millions of people around the world. Many of these individuals are undiagnosed while those who are diagnosed, often exhibit poor compliance with nightly use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a very effective nonsurgical treatment. Various surgical procedures have been proposed to manage and, in some cases, treat OSA. In this article we review methods used to assess the sites of obstruction and a number of surgical procedures designed to address OSA. Effective surgical management of OSA depends upon developing a complete database and determining different levels of obstruction, which may include nasal, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal/retrolingual, or a combination of these sites. A systematic approach to clinical evaluation, treatment planning and surgical management is recommended and is likely to result in more predictable outcomes. Surgical treatment may involve various procedures that are performed in different stages depending on the patient's sites of obstruction. The most commonly performed procedures include nasal reconstruction, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), advancement genioplasty, mandibular osteotomy with genioglossus advancement, and hyoid myotomy and suspension. In more severe cases, maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) with advancement genioplasty may be indicated. Even after appropriate surgical treatment, some patients may demonstrate continued obstruction with associated symptoms. Published indications for surgical treatment include an elevated respiratory disturbance index (RDI) with excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), oxygen desaturations below 90 per cent, medical co-morbidities including hypertension and arrhythmias, anatomic abnormalities of the upper airway and failure of medical treatment. The success of surgery in OSA is generally measured by achieving a (RDI) of less than 5, improvement of oxygen nadir to 90 per cent or

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea – management update

    PubMed Central

    Hukins, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly significant condition based both on the high prevalence in community and significant consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), OSA together with hypersomnolence, is seen in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women. OSA is associated with impaired quality of life and increased risks of motor vehicle accidents, cardiovascular disease (including hypertension and coronary artery disease), and metabolic syndrome. There is some evidence for the use of conservative interventions such as weight loss and position modification. CPAP remains the mainstay of treatment in this condition with high-level evidence supporting its efficacy. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an intrusive therapy, with long-term adherence rates of less than 70%. Dental appliances have been shown to be effective therapy in some subjects but are limited by the inability to predict treatment responders. Alternative treatments are discussed but there is little role for upper airway surgery (except in a select few experienced institutions) or pharmacological treatment. The current levels of evidence for the different treatment regimens are reviewed. PMID:19412478

  5. Emerging therapies for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Akinnusi, Morohunfolu; Saliba, Ranime; El-Solh, Ali A

    2012-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder often associated with daytime sleepiness, cognitive dysfunction, and adverse cardiovascular consequences. Available therapies are limited by either lack of long-term adherence or low response rates. Two emerging therapies hold promise in providing alternatives to patients with OSA. The first stems from the importance of the upper-airway dilator muscles in maintaining pharyngeal stability. Electrical stimulation of the genioglossus muscle improves both upper-airway diameter and ameliorates pharyngeal obstruction. The results of phase I and II clinical trials hold promise, but the reported improvements in the apnea-hypopnea index vary between subjects and concerns about long-term safety await long-term studies. The second technology relies on creating an increased expiratory nasal resistance via a bidirectional valve designed to be worn just inside the nostrils. Initial findings of clinical trials suggest reduction in severity of sleep apnea and subjective daytime sleepiness. Considerable heterogeneity in response to the nasal device was noted despite the high adherence rates. It remains unclear which patients will likely benefit a priori from these devices.

  6. [Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as the cause of atypical depression].

    PubMed

    Lang, F U; Hösch, H; Seibert, H; Klug, R; Köppler, D; Jäger, M

    2011-09-01

    Sleep apnoea is a common disorder presenting with somatic comorbidities and psychiatric symptoms. This case report describes a 43-year-old man with an organic depressive disorder due to obstructive sleep apnoea. Initially, an atypical depressive episode or schizophrenic residual syndrome had been considered likely diagnoses; subsequent polysomnography results, however, suggested obstructive sleep apnoea instead. Upon nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), the respiratory distress symptoms improved. The case report highlights the association between sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms. In patients presenting with symptoms of atypical depression and excess body weight sleep apnoea should be considered.

  7. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If

  8. Parapharyngeal angiolipoma causing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alobid, Isam; Benítez, Pedro; Berenguer, Juan; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Mullol, Joaquim

    2004-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is the cessation of airflow with the continuance of respiratory effort during sleep. OSAS associated with a neck mass is extremely rare. Angiolipoma is a rare, benign, fatty tumour composed of mature lipocytes and multiple areas containing angiomatous elements. The treatment for an angiolipoma is surgical excision. We report the case of a 47-year-old male who presented with a history of loud snoring associated with sleep apnoea. A polysomnographic study demonstrated an apnoea-hypopnoea index of 72/h. CT showed a 3.5 x 3 x 8 cm3 hypoattenuated mass of fat density in the left parapharyngeal space causing an impression on the nasopharynx and oropharynx with a peripheral hyperintense area. A cervical transparotid surgical approach was used. A histological study led to the definitive diagnosis of angiolipomal without evidence of malignancy. After surgery, the snoring disappeared and the patient remained tumour-free after 54 months of follow-up. This is the first case in the literature of a patient with nocturnal polysomnographic-documented OSAS caused by a left parapharyngeal angiolipoma.

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Azagra-Calero, Eva; Barrera-Mora, José M.; Llamas-Carreras, José M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is characterized by repeated airway collapse during sleep. The li-terature describes multiple causes of the disease. The main cause is a reduction of the expansion forces of the pharyngeal dilator muscles, as in situations of genioglossal muscle dysfunction, and discoordination between the inspiratory activity of the muscle and respiratory effort, which play an important role in progression of the disease. Other described causes are soft tissue disorders, such as macroglossia or tonsillar hypertrophy, and skeletal structural alterations such as micrognathia and retrognathia. The syndrome is also more frequent in obese people, where the accumulation of fat in the neck region produces narrowing of the pharyngeal airway, thereby diminishing the passage of air. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, epidemiology, main features and diagnosis of the disease, and on its main forms of treatment. Key words:Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:22549673

  10. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient’s quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease.

  11. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio; Baiardini, Ilaria

    2016-08-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient's quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease. PMID:27621908

  12. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient’s quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease. PMID:27621908

  13. Facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Capistrano, Anderson; Cordeiro, Aldir; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Almeida, Veridiana Correia; Silva, Priscila Izabela de Castro e; Martinez, Sandra; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between facial morphological patterns (I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face) as well as facial types (brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients attending a center specialized in sleep disorders. Methods: Frontal, lateral and smile photographs of 252 patients (157 men and 95 women), randomly selected from a polysomnography clinic, with mean age of 40.62 years, were evaluated. In order to obtain diagnosis of facial morphology, the sample was sent to three professors of Orthodontics trained to classify patients' face according to five patterns, as follows: 1) Pattern I; 2) Pattern II; 3) Pattern III; 4) Long facial pattern; 5) Short facial pattern. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by means of Kappa index. The professors ranked patients' facial type based on a facial index that considers the proportion between facial width and height. Results: The multiple linear regression model evinced that, when compared to Pattern I, Pattern II had the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) worsened in 6.98 episodes. However, when Pattern II was compared to Pattern III patients, the index for the latter was 11.45 episodes lower. As for the facial type, brachyfacial patients had a mean AHI of 22.34, while dolichofacial patients had a significantly statistical lower index of 10.52. Conclusion: Patients' facial morphology influences OSA. Pattern II and brachyfacial patients had greater AHI, while Pattern III patients showed a lower index. PMID:26691971

  14. New therapies for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    White, David P

    2014-10-01

    A strong demand for new obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) therapies exists and several are emerging. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is designed to activate upper airway muscles. The initial study from Inspire (Maple Grove, MN) suggests that the device will work well in a very selective group of OSA patients. However, it is likely to be quite expensive. The Winx device (ApniCure, Redwood City, CA) works by establishing a vacuum in the oral cavity, which pulls the uvula and soft palate forward and stabilizes the tongue position. The current device works in approximately 40% of patients and the early data suggest adherence may be quite good. The Provent device( Theravent, San Jose, CA) has been available for several years and is disposable. It is to be attached to the nares nightly and establishes substantial expiratory resistance. Multiple studies suggest that Provent can successfully treat OSA in about 35 to 50% of the patients. However, acceptance and adherence may be a problem. OSA phenotyping is not a therapy, but a way to determine exactly what causes airway collapse in each patient, which can vary substantially. This may allow for individualization of apnea therapy. New methods to prevent supine sleep and surgically implantable devices to treat OSA are also evolving.

  15. Independent associations between fatty acids and sleep quality among obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after controlling for possible confounders. Sixty-three patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome based on overnight attended polysomnography were included. Gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Saturated fatty acids were positively related to total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Significant positive associations were found between polyunsaturated fatty acids and sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. This study revealed independent associations between certain gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality after controlling for age, gender, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome indices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale scores in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Szaulińska, Katarzyna; Pływaczewski, Robert; Sikorska, Olga; Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Wichniak, Adam; Śliwiński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is estimated to be 3-7.5% in men and 2-3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15-48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21-43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11-18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania. PMID:26688840

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Szaulińska, Katarzyna; Pływaczewski, Robert; Sikorska, Olga; Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Wichniak, Adam; Śliwiński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is estimated to be 3-7.5% in men and 2-3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15-48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21-43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11-18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania.

  18. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective.

    PubMed

    Young, Terry; Peppard, Paul E; Gottlieb, Daniel J

    2002-05-01

    Population-based epidemiologic studies have uncovered the high prevalence and wide severity spectrum of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, and have consistently found that even mild obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significant morbidity. Evidence from methodologically strong cohort studies indicates that undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, with or without symptoms, is independently associated with increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. Strategies to decrease the high prevalence and associated morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea are critically needed. The reduction or elimination of risk factors through public health initiatives with clinical support holds promise. Potentially modifiable risk factors considered in this review include overweight and obesity, alcohol, smoking, nasal congestion, and estrogen depletion in menopause. Data suggest that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with all these factors, but at present the only intervention strategy supported with adequate evidence is weight loss. A focus on weight control is especially important given the expanding epidemic of overweight and obesity in the United States. Primary care providers will be central to clinical approaches for addressing the burden and the development of cost-effective case-finding strategies and feasible treatment for mild obstructive sleep apnea warrants high priority. PMID:11991871

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Cluster Analysis at Time of Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Yves; Richard, Philippe; Stach, Bruno; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Lévy, Patrick; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background The classification of obstructive sleep apnea is on the basis of sleep study criteria that may not adequately capture disease heterogeneity. Improved phenotyping may improve prognosis prediction and help select therapeutic strategies. Objectives: This study used cluster analysis to investigate the clinical clusters of obstructive sleep apnea. Methods An ascending hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on baseline symptoms, physical examination, risk factor exposure and co-morbidities from 18,263 participants in the OSFP (French national registry of sleep apnea). The probability for criteria to be associated with a given cluster was assessed using odds ratios, determined by univariate logistic regression. Results: Six clusters were identified, in which patients varied considerably in age, sex, symptoms, obesity, co-morbidities and environmental risk factors. The main significant differences between clusters were minimally symptomatic versus sleepy obstructive sleep apnea patients, lean versus obese, and among obese patients different combinations of co-morbidities and environmental risk factors. Conclusions Our cluster analysis identified six distinct clusters of obstructive sleep apnea. Our findings underscore the high degree of heterogeneity that exists within obstructive sleep apnea patients regarding clinical presentation, risk factors and consequences. This may help in both research and clinical practice for validating new prevention programs, in diagnosis and in decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. PMID:27314230

  20. [Hungarian Society for Sleep Medicine guideline for detecting drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szakács, Zoltán; Ádám, Ágnes; Annus, János Kristóf; Csatlós, Dalma; László, Andrea; Kalabay, László; Torzsa, Péter

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is the most frequent sleep-disordered breathing. The prevalence of sleep apnea in the general population is 2-4% and the main characteristics of the disease are the intermittent cessation or substantial reduction of airflow during sleep, which is caused by complete, or near complete upper airway obstruction. Decreased airflow is followed by oxygen desaturation and intermittent arousals. Untreated patients are 4-6 times more likely to cause traffic accidents than their healthy counterparts. The aims of the obstructive sleep apnea screening are to prevent and reduce the incidence of serious car accidents, which are often caused by one of the most dangerous sleep disorders. Since April 1, 2015 a modification of the 13/1992 regulation has been in force in Hungary which orders screening of obstructive sleep apnea during medical checkup of drivers. The Hungarian Society for Sleep Medicine made a guideline according to the regulation which was adapted to national circumstances and family doctors, occupational health specialists can more easily screen obstructive sleep apnea in suspected patients. In sleep ambulances the disease can be diagnosed and effective treatment can be started. Patients receiving appropriate treatment and with appropriate compliance can get their driving licence under regular care and control. PMID:27233832

  1. Update on obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to COPD

    PubMed Central

    Mieczkowski, Brian; Ezzie, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and preventable lung disease that affects millions of people in the United States. Sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are also common. It is not surprising that many people with COPD also suffer from OSA. This relationship, however, puts people at risk for more nocturnal desaturations and potential complications related to this, including pulmonary hypertension and heart rhythm disturbances. This update focuses on the physiology of sleep disturbances in COPD as well as the clinical implications of OSA in COPD. PMID:24748786

  2. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is a frequent disease for which optimal diagnostic methods are still being defined. Treatment of OSA in children should include providing space, improving craniofacial growth, resolving all symptoms, and preventing the development of the disease in the adult years. Adenotonsillectomy (T&A) has been the treatment of choice and thought to solve young patient's OSA problem, which is not the case for most adults. Recent reports showed success rates that vary from 27.2% to 82.9%. Children snoring regularly generally have a narrow maxilla compared to children who do not snore. The impairment of nasal breathing with increased nasal resistance has a well-documented negative impact on early childhood maxilla-mandibular development, making the upper airway smaller and might lead to adult OSA. Surgery in young children should be performed as early as possible to prevent the resulting morphologic changes and neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic complications. Close postoperative follow-up to monitor for residual disease is equally important. As the proportion of obese children has been increasing recently, parents should be informed about the weight gain after T&A. Multidisciplinary evaluation of the anatomic abnormalities in children with OSA leads to better overall treatment outcome. PMID:21189957

  3. Childhood obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity in children seems to be associated with an increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to this association include the following: adenotonsillar hypertrophy due to increased somatic growth, increased critical airway closing pressure, altered chest wall mechanics, and abnormalities of ventilatory control. However, the details of these mechanisms and their interactions have not been elucidated. In addition, obesity and OSAS are both associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of features such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. There is some evidence that OSAS may contribute to the progression of metabolic syndrome with a potential for significant morbidity. The treatment of OSAS in obese children has not been standardized. Adenotonsillectomy is considered the primary intervention followed by continuous positive airway pressure treatment if OSAS persists. Other methods such as oral appliances, surgery, positional therapy, and weight loss may be beneficial for individual subjects. The present review discusses these issues and suggests an approach to the management of obese children with snoring and possible OSAS. PMID:19875714

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea screening by NIRS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashefi, Feraydune; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Liu, Hanli

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at determining cerebral hemodynamic parameters in human subjects during breath holding using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath holding serves as a method of simulation OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea). Data was acquired non-invasively from 40 subjects, twenty OSA sufferers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-70 years), and twenty normal volunteers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-65 years). Measurements were conducted using a LED Imager (LEDI) during breath holding. In comparing OSA subjects with controls during breath holding, a consistent increase or even a decrease in oxy- ([O IIHb]), deoxy- ([HHb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentrations, and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO II) in the regional brain tissue were observed. The LEDI probe consists of 4 sources and 10 detectors serving as 4 sets of 1 source and 4 detectors each. A three wavelength (730, 805, and 850 nm) LED was used and the wavelengths were switched sequentially. The distance between sources and the source-detector separation were 2.5 cm. Data acquisition consisted of three segments, baseline for one minute, followed by a period of breath holding, and then 2 minutes of recovery time. The duration of the breath holding was subject-dependent. Our investigation proves that NIR spectroscopy could be used as a tool for detecting cerebral hemodynamics and also serves as a method of screening patients with OSA.

  5. Sleep-related eating disorder as a cause of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Eveloff, S E; Millman, R P

    1993-08-01

    A patient with obesity resulting from sleep-related eating disorder demonstrated signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Incarceration restricted access to food during the night, leading to weight loss and clinical improvement. Release from prison allowed recurrence of unrestricted sleep-eating, recurrent obesity, and documented OSA. Successful treatment of sleep-related eating disorder can result in improvement in coexisting OSA.

  6. Dynamic Drug-Induced Sleep Computed Tomography in Adults With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Lee, Li-Ang

    2016-01-01

    Surgical success for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) depends on identifying sites of obstruction in the upper airway. In this study, we investigated sites of obstruction by evaluating dynamic changes in the upper airway using drug-induced sleep computed tomography (DI-SCT) in patients with OSA. Thirty-five adult patients with OSA were prospectively enrolled. Sleep was induced with propofol under light sedation (bispectral index 70–75), and low-dose 320-detector row CT was performed for 10 seconds over a span of 2–3 respiratory cycles with supporting a continuous positive airway pressure model. Most (89%) of the patients had multi-level obstructions. Total obstruction most commonly occurred in the velum (86%), followed by the tongue (57%), oropharyngeal lateral wall (49%), and epiglottis (26%). There were two types of anterior-posterior obstruction of the soft palate, uvular (94%) and velar (6%), and three types of tongue obstruction, upper (30%), lower (37%), and upper plus lower obstruction (33%). DI-SCT is a fast and safe tool to identify simulated sleep airway obstruction in patients with OSA. It provides data on dynamic airway movement in the sagittal view which can be used to differentiate palate and tongue obstructions, and this can be helpful when planning surgery for patients with OSA. PMID:27762308

  7. OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    BRODIE, FRANK L.; CHARLSON, EMILY S.; ALEMAN, TOMAS S.; SALVO, REBECCA T.; GEWAILY, DINA Y.; LAU, MARISA K.; FARREN, NEIL D.; ENGELHARD, STEPHANIE B.; PISTILLI, MAXWELL; BRUCKER, ALEXANDER J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods Patients with CSCR without a history of steroid use or secondary retinal disease were matched based on age/gender/body mass index with control patients and administered the Berlin Questionnaire to assess for OSA risk. Patients were scored “OSA+” if they were at “high risk” on the Berlin Questionnaire or reported a previous OSA diagnosis. Rates of OSA+ were compared between the 2 groups, odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval was calculated using exact conditional logistic regression. Results Forty-eight qualifying patients with CSCR were identified. There were no statistically significant differences between the CSCR and control groups by age (mean = 55 years), gender (79% male), body mass index (mean = 28.2), history of diabetes, or hypertension. Within the CSCR group, 22 patients (45.8%) were OSA+ versus 21 control patients (43.8%) (difference = 2.1%; 95% confidence interval, −18.2% to 22.2%; exact odds ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval, 0.47–2.49; P = 1.00). Conclusion When compared with matched controls, patients with CSCR did not have statistically significant higher rates of OSA risk or previous diagnosis. This finding contrasts with previous work showing a strong association between the diseases. The divergence is likely due to our matching controls for body mass index, a significant risk factor for OSA. PMID:25127049

  8. Mechanism of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Airway Obstruction or Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Kelly; Orr, William

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This is the first study to compare reflux events during wake and sleep in obese and non-obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obese individuals without OSA. The primary aim of the study was to investigate any additive effect of OSA on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) above that of obesity. Methods: Twenty obese individuals (body mass index, BMI > 30 kg/m2), 9 non-obese individuals (BMI < 30 kg/m2) with moderate-to-severe OSA, and 17 obese control subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m2) underwent high-resolution esophageal manometry, 24-h esophageal pH-impedance monitoring, and in-laboratory polysomnography. Results: Mean body mass index was 40 ± 6 and 27 ± 4 kg/m2 for the obese and non-obese OSA groups, respectively, and 34 ± 5 kg/m2 for the obese control group. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 50 ± 30 and 30 ± 25 per hour for the obese and non-obese OSA groups (p > 0.05), significantly higher than that of the obese control group (3 ± 3 per hour, p < 0.05). The two obese groups did not show any significant differences in the total number of acidic reflux events (41 ± 20 vs 28 ± 16); however, the obese OSA group had a greater number of acidic reflux events compared to the non-obese OSA group (22 ± 12 events, p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, BMI significantly predicted number of acidic reflux events (r2 = 0.16, p = 0.01) during the 24-h period; however, AHI showed no significant association with any measure of GER severity. Conclusions: This study confirms an important role for obesity, rather than OSA per se in the relationship between OSA and GER. Citation: Shepherd K, Orr W. Mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in obstructive sleep apnea: airway obstruction or obesity? J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):87–94. PMID:26446244

  9. Low-grade albuminuria in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Varlami, Vasiliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Theologi, Vasiliki; Theophanous, Eleni; Liakos, Nikolaos; Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-06-01

    Small urinary protein loss (low-grade albuminuria or microalbuminuria) may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. In the present study, it was hypothesized that children with obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of microalbuminuria compared with control subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in morning spot urine specimens collected from consecutive children with or without snoring who were referred for polysomnography. Three groups were studied: (i) control subjects (no snoring, apnea-hypopnea index < 1 episode h(-1) ; n = 31); (ii) mild obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index = 1-5 episodes h(-1) ; n = 71); and (iii) moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index > 5 episodes∙h(-1) ; n = 27). Indications for polysomnography in control subjects included nightmares, somnambulism and morning headaches. An albumin-to-creatinine ratio > median value in the control group (1.85 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) was defined as elevated. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, but not those with mild obstructive sleep apnea, had increased risk of elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio relative to controls (reference) after adjustment for age, gender and presence of obesity: odds ratio 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.6); P = 0.04 and 1.5 (0.6-3.7); P > 0.05, respectively. Oxygen desaturation of hemoglobin and respiratory arousal indices were significant predictors of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.01; and r = 0.43, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular

  10. PHARYNGEAL MOTOR CONTROL AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S; White, David P

    2008-01-01

    The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep at least in part, because of a sleep related reduction in upper airway dilator muscle activity. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the neural regulation of these muscles is warranted. The dilator muscles can be classified in two broad categories; those that have respiratory related activity and those that fire constantly throughout the respiratory cycle. The motor control of these two groups likely differs with the former receiving input from respiratory neurons and negative pressure reflex circuits. The activity of both muscle groups is reduced shortly after sleep onset, indicating that both receive input from brainstem neurons involved in sleep regulation. In the apnea patient, this may lead to pharyngeal airway collapse. This review briefly describes the currently proposed sleep and respiratory neural pathways and how these circuits interact with the upper airway dilator muscle motorneurones, including recent evidence from animal studies. PMID:17869188

  11. [Obstructive sleep apneas. A clinical and laboratory study].

    PubMed

    Paiva, T; Vasconcelos, P; Leitão, A N; Andrea, M

    1993-10-01

    Our study included 42 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) confirmed by polysomnography. In these patients we investigated the clinical manifestations, the results of the laboratory examinations, including polysomnography, ORL observations and tests of pulmonary function, as well as the therapeutic results. Our patients presented a serious set of symptoms which included excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, obesity, cranio-facial abnormalities, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, incapacity to work with precocious retirement, marital conflicts and high incidence of accidents, namely traffic accidents. An adequate treatment, mostly with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), induced marked relief of the symptoms; some patients had an advantage in surgical treatment and weight reduction. OSAS is a frequent entity, affecting mostly male adults after the 5th decade. The lack of knowledge about this entity and the common social acceptance of some of its cardinal symptoms induces considerable delays in its diagnosis. The severity of the symptoms, the personal and social risks of excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardio-circulatory effects and the risk of sudden death during sleep justify an early diagnosis in order to prevent the severe evolution of the disease. Its complex physiopathology and multiple etiological factors justify a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:8285115

  12. CT demonstration of pharyngeal narrowing in adult obstructive sleep apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlman, M.E.; Haponik, E.F.; Smith, P.L.; Allen, R.P.; Bleecker, E.R.; Goldman, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    Sleep apnea is a major cause of daytime hypersomnolence. Among the proposed etiologies, focal obstruction of the airways at the level of the pharynx has been suggested but not proven. Using computed tomography, the cross-sectional area of the airway can be readily assessed. Thirty-three adults with clinically proven sleep apnea and 12 normal adults underwent systematic computed tomography of the neck. Significant airway narrowing was demonstrated in all the patients with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas no such narrowing was seen in the controls. In 11, the narrowing was at a single level, whereas in 22 patients two or more levels were affected. This study has shown that a structurally abnormal airway may serve as an anatomic substrate for the development of sleep apnea. On the basis of this evidence, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been performed in two patients with relief of symptoms in one.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: Etiology and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sankri-Tarbichi, Abdul Ghani

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing is a common chronic condition in the general population. This review will highlight the prevalence of different types of sleep apnea in general and obstructive type in particular in the United States and Middle East. Despite the extensive research studies on the sleep apnea pathogenesis, the exact mechanism is not well known. Obesity, however, is the leading risk factor to upper airway narrowing and obstruction and main contributor to the escalating prevalence of morbidity worldwide including the Arab countries. Due to the serious consequences of the untreated sleep disordered breathing, this article will emphasize on the importance of early recognition, key clinical manifestations, and how to treat and prevent the disease. PMID:23210013

  14. Promoting safety of postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Veney, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at risk for postoperative complications related to administration of pain medications, anxiolytics, and antiemetics. They are more likely to experience respiratory and cardiac complications, be transferred to an intensive care unit, or have an increased length of stay in the hospital. This informational article is for nurses who care for postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The focus is on promoting patient safety through communication, vigilant postoperative sedation assessment, and nursing interventions that include appropriate patient positioning, patient education, and involving patients and their families in care. PMID:24247310

  15. Anaesthetic Management in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome for Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Şanlı, Mukadder; Toplu, Yüksel; Özgül, Ülkü; Kayhan, Gülay Erdoğan; Gülhaş, Nurçin

    2014-01-01

    The anaesthetic management of adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is characteristic due to respiratory and cardiac side effects. A detailed physical examination in the preoperative period should be performed, including children’s respiratory and cardiac systems. If they have an active infection, surgery should be postponed until the end of medical treatment. Preparation for difficult airway management should be done in the preoperative period. In this case, we presented a report of two children who had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, with airway management performed at the right lateral position to prevent the pharyngeal collapse and rapid sequence intubation performed using a short-acting muscle relaxant. PMID:27366426

  16. Obstructive apnea during sleep is associated with peripheral vasoconstriction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imadojemu, Virginia A.; Gleeson, Kevin; Gray, Kristen S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2002-01-01

    Obstructive apnea during sleep is associated with a substantial transient blood pressure elevation. The mechanism of this pressor response is unclear. In this study we measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (Psa), and mean limb blood velocity as an index of blood flow (MBV, Doppler) and calculated changes in limb vascular resistance during and after apneas during both wakefulness and sleep in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Immediately postapnea during sleep Psa increased significantly compared with the earlier stages of apnea and this was preceded by a rise of MSNA (n = 5). In contrast to blood pressure, MBV remained unchanged. Because resistance = blood pressure/blood flow, limb vascular resistance increased by 29 +/- 8% from late apnea to postapnea (n = 7, p < 0.002). Voluntary breathhold maneuvers during room air exposure evoked similar responses (n = 10). Supplemental oxygen administered via nonrebreather face mask attenuated the MSNA and vasoconstrictor responses to obstructive (n = 2) and voluntary apneas (n = 10). Our data suggest that obstructive apneas in patients with the obstructive apnea syndrome are accompanied by transient limb vasoconstriction. This vasoconstrictor response appears to be, at least in part, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and may be linked to hypoxia.

  17. Hyperinflation is associated with lower sleep efficiency in COPD with co-existent obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeff S; Wolfe, Lisa F; Lu, Brandon S; Kalhan, Ravi

    2009-12-01

    Prior research has shown that individuals with obstructive lung disease are at risk for sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality. We postulated that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (known as overlap syndrome) who have more severe lung disease, as measured by lung hyperinflation (inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity), would have greater sleep disturbances independent of traditional measures of sleep apnea. We performed a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients evaluated and treated in an academic pulmonary clinic for overlap syndrome. Pulmonary function tests and polysomnogram data were collected. Thirty patients with overlap syndrome were included in the analysis. We found significant univariable associations between sleep efficiency and apnea/hypopnea index (beta = -0.285, p = 0.01) and between sleep efficiency and lung hyperinflation (beta = 0.654, p = 0.03). Using multivariable linear regression, the relationship between sleep efficiency and lung hyperinflation remained significant (beta = 1.13, p = 0.02) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, apnea/hypopnea index, FEV(1)% predicted, oxygen saturation nadir, medications, and cardiac disease. We conclude that increased severity of hyperinflation is associated with worse sleep efficiency, independent of apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia. The mechanisms underlying this observation are uncertain. We speculate that therapies aimed at reducing lung hyperinflation may improve sleep quality in patients with overlap syndrome.

  18. Wrist actigraphic assessment of sleep in 116 community based subjects suspected of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Middelkoop, H. A.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; van Hilten, J. J.; Ruwhof, C. W.; Kamphuisen, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The combined use of wrist actigraphic assessment and self assessment of sleep in the screening of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was evaluated in a community based sample. METHODS--One hundred and sixteen community based subjects clinically suspected of having obstructive sleep apnoea (syndrome) were evaluated by means of simultaneous ambulatory recording of respiration (oronasal flow thermistry), motor activity (wrist actigraphy), and subjective sleep (sleep log) during one night of sleep. RESULTS--The subjects were distributed according to their apnoea index (AI); AI < 1 (non-apnoeic snorers) 44%; AI 1- < 5 39%; and AI > or = 5 17%. High apnoea index values were associated with self reported disturbed sleep initiation and more fragmented and increased levels of motor activity and decreased duration of immobility periods, particularly in those with an apnoea index of > or = 5. Across subjects the duration of immobility periods was the only predictor of the apnoea index, explaining 11% of its variance. Use of the multiple regression equation to discriminate retrospectively between those with an apnoea index of < 1 and > or = 5 resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 75% and 43%, and 5% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--The combined use of a sleep log and actigraphic assessment of sleep failed to identify reliably those subjects who suffered from obstructive sleep apnoea (syndrome) in a sample of community based subjects reporting habitual snoring combined with excessive daytime sleepiness and/or nocturnal respiratory arrests. Images PMID:7660344

  19. Inflammatory cytokines in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Cheng, Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA. Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23. Seventy-nine, 4 to 12-year-old subjects in 2 groups ended the study: 47 nonobese OSA children (mean age = 7.84 ± 0.56 years, body mass index [BMI] = 16.95 ± 0.47 kg/m2, BMI z-score = 0.15 ± 0.21, and mean apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] = 9.13 ± 1.67 events/h) and 32 healthy control children (mean age = 7.02 ± 0.65 years, with BMI = 16.55 ± 0.58 kg/m2, BMI z-score = −0.12 ± 0.27, and mean AHI = 0.41 ± 0.07 event/h) were enrolled. Serum cytokine analyses showed significantly higher levels of HS-CRP, IL-17, and IL-23 in OSA children (P = 0.002, P = 0.024, and P = 0.047). Regression test showed significant influence of HS-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and specifically IL-23, with the continuous performance test and Wisconsin card sorting test. OSA children have abnormal levels of IL-17, an interleukin related to T helper 17 cells, a T helper cell involved in development of autoimmunity and inflammation. This high expression level may contribute to the complications of pediatric OSA; we also found a significant influence of inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-23, on abnormal neurocognitive testing. PMID

  20. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Atkeson, Amy; Jelic, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial activation and inflammation are important mediators of accelerated atherogenesis and consequent increased cardiovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Repetitive episodes of hypoxia/reoxygenation associated with transient cessation of breathing during sleep in OSA resemble ischemia/reperfusion injury and may be the main culprit underlying endothelial dysfunction in OSA. Additional factors such as repetitive arousals resulting in sleep fragmentation and deprivation and individual genetic susceptibility to vascular manifestations of OSA contribute to impaired endothelial function in OSA. The present review focuses on possible mechanisms that underlie endothelial activation and inflammation in OSA.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mohsenin, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder which is characterized by recurrent upper closure with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. OSA increases the risk of vascular disorders in the form of stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and hypertension. The mechanisms underlying the vascular disorders are several and include intermittent hypoxia with release of cytokines, angiogenic inhibitors, free radicals, and adhesion molecules. During apneas, arterial blood pressure gradually rises and surges abruptly after the termination of apnea. Two thirds of patients with OSA will ultimately have diurnal hypertension. This review discusses the literature supporting the significant role of OSA in hypertension and the effect of OSA treatment on blood pressure.

  2. Abnormalities in the flow-volume loop in obstructive sleep apnoea sitting and supine.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, E T; Millman, R P

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of posture on the sensitivity and specificity of abnormalities in the flow-volume loop in 30 patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea. Flow-volume loops were judged as abnormal if the FEF50/FIF50 ratio was greater than 1 or if the sawtooth sign was judged to be present by at least two of three chest physicians. Detailed nocturnal recordings confirmed the presence of obstructive sleep apnoea in 17 of the 30 patients. Our results showed that both the sensitivity and the specificity of each of the flow-volume criteria for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea were higher when the loops were recorded in the supine than when they were recorded in the sitting position. The sensitivities were low, however, even with the supine posture--sawtoothing 41% and FEF50/FIF50 ratio greater than 1 47%. The highest sensitivity (71%) was obtained by considering a positive result as being the presence of either of the abnormalities in either the sitting or the supine posture. This sensitivity of the flow-volume loop was too low to recommend it as a routine screening test for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea but the presence of the sawtooth sign had a high specificity (92%) for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Furthermore, there was a greater fall in oxygen saturation in patients with apnoea who had sawtoothing than in those without sawtoothing. The presence of the sawtooth sign should increase the suspicion of sleep apnoea and suggest the need for further investigation. The effect of posture on the occurrence of abnormalities in the flow-volume loop suggests that position alters the configuration of the upper airway. PMID:6495246

  3. Physiological Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing in children refers to a group of respiratory disorders that occur or are exacerbated during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most significant disorders in this group. OSAS can present in all age groups from early infancy to adolescent years. The cardinal feature of OSAS is limitation of inspiratory flow and volume during sleep resulting in abnormal gas exchange and/or alteration of sleep patterns. When OSAS is a chronic condition it often results in adverse physiological effects that impact on health and development. The present review discusses genesis of OSAS in children and consequent end organ injury with special emphasis on behavior and cognition, cardiovascular function, autonomic regulation, inflammation, endothelial function and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23707879

  4. Complementary and integrative treatments: managing obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Billings, Kathleen R; Maddalozzo, John

    2013-06-01

    This article familiarizes the otolaryngologist with potential integrative and complementary treatment options for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The authors discuss current medical and surgical regimens, and then provide a review of the current literature on integrative and complementary approaches for treatment of this disorder.

  5. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypertension. Evidence of their relationship].

    PubMed

    González-Pliego, José Angel; González-Marines, David; Guzmán-Sánchez, César Manuel; Odusola-Vázquez, Samuel O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze the relation between obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. We present epidemiological data of the respiratory disorder and its association with high blood pressure, as well as physiopathological interactions between both conditions, the diagnostic methods, and the impact of treatment on pathophysiology and prognosis.

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is More Common than Central Sleep Apnea in Methadone Maintenance Patients with Subjective Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Katherine M.; Kurth, Megan E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Corso, Richard P.; Millman, Richard P.; Stein, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Opioid-dependent patients treated with methadone have subjective sleep complaints and disrupted sleep on polysomnography (PSG). Previous studies of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in this population have focused on central sleep apnea (CSA). Our objectives were to: (1) characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and CSA in patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence; (2) examine factors associated with SDB in this population; and (3) investigate whether SDB was related to severity of subjective sleep complaints in MMT patients with subjective sleep disturbances. Methods We analyzed OSA and CSA from one night of home PSG in 71 patients who were in MMT for at least 3 months and had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) score > 5. Results OSA (defined as obstructive apnea-hypoponea index (OAHI) ≥ 5) was observed in 35.2% of our sample. OSA was associated with higher body mass index, longer duration in MMT, and non-Caucasian race. CSA (defined as central apnea index (CAI) ≥ 5) was observed in 14.1% of the sample. CSA was not associated with methadone dose or concomitant drug use. Subjective sleep disturbance measured with the PSQI was not related to OSA or CSA. Conclusions SDB was common in this sample of MMT patients and OSA was more common than CSA. Given the lack of association between presence of SDB and severity of subjective sleep difficulties, factors other than sleep apnea must account for complaints of disturbed sleep in this population. PMID:20079978

  7. Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jen, Rachel; Li, Yanru; Owens, Robert L; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome) have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease. PMID:27445564

  8. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40-300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses.

  9. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40-300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  10. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40–300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02–2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  11. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment: Effect on Serum Lipids in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Michailidis, Vassileios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder in adults. Its hallmark is repetitive episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep associated with increasing respiratory efforts. This leads to oxyhaemoglobin desaturation, sleep fragmentation, and daytime symptoms, mainly excessive sleepiness. Accumulating evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia and oxyhaemoglobin desaturation may, irrespective of obesity, lead to elevation of serum lipids even in non-dyslipidaemic OSA patients. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSA, since it eliminates upper airway collapse during sleep and improves sleep fragmentation, daytime symptoms and quality of life. Moreover, it has been proposed that the amelioration of breathing disturbances during sleep can improve several markers of the lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as apolipoproteins A, B and C. Indeed, some studies have reported improvements in these parameters especially in CPAP adherent patients. However, other studies failed to confirm this beneficial effect. The present article reviews the issue whether CPAP treatment exerts a beneficial effect on lipids. PMID:22216063

  12. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment: effect on serum lipids in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Vassileios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder in adults. Its hallmark is repetitive episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep associated with increasing respiratory efforts. This leads to oxyhaemoglobin desaturation, sleep fragmentation, and daytime symptoms, mainly excessive sleepiness. Accumulating evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia and oxyhaemoglobin desaturation may, irrespective of obesity, lead to elevation of serum lipids even in non-dyslipidaemic OSA patients. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSA, since it eliminates upper airway collapse during sleep and improves sleep fragmentation, daytime symptoms and quality of life. Moreover, it has been proposed that the amelioration of breathing disturbances during sleep can improve several markers of the lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as apolipoproteins A, B and C. Indeed, some studies have reported improvements in these parameters especially in CPAP adherent patients. However, other studies failed to confirm this beneficial effect. The present article reviews the issue whether CPAP treatment exerts a beneficial effect on lipids. PMID:22216063

  13. Assessing severity of obstructive sleep apnea by fractal dimension sequence analysis of sleep EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, X. C.; Luo, L.; Shao, J.; Zhang, C.; Ma, J.; Wang, G. F.; Liu, Y.; Peng, C.-K.; Fang, J.

    2009-10-01

    Different sleep stages are associated with distinct dynamical patterns in EEG signals. In this article, we explored the relationship between the sleep architecture and fractal dimension (FD) of sleep EEG. In particular, we applied the FD analysis to the sleep EEG of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), which is characterized by recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturation and arousals from sleep, a disease which received increasing public attention due to its significant potential impact on health. We showed that the variation of FD reflects the macrostructure of sleep. Furthermore, the fast fluctuation of FD, as measured by the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD), is a useful indicator of sleep disturbance, and therefore, correlates with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and hourly number of blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2) decreases greater than 4%, as obstructive apnea/hypopnea disturbs sleep architecture. For practical purpose, a modified index combining zDFD of EEG and body mass index (BMI) may be useful for evaluating the severity of OSAHS symptoms.

  14. Acoustic-integrated dynamic MR imaging for a patient with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunn-Jy; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Chang, Yi-Chung; Hsu, Ying-Chieh; Huon, Leh-Kiong; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pham, Van-Truong; Lin, Chen; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is caused by multi-level upper airway obstruction. Anatomic changes at the sites of obstruction may modify the physical or acoustic properties of snores. The surgical success of OSA depends upon precise localization of obstructed levels. We present a case of OSAS who received simultaneous dynamic MRI and snore acoustic recordings. The synchronized image and acoustic information successfully characterize the sites of temporal obstruction during sleep-disordered breathing events.

  15. Metabolomics Profiling for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Simple Snorers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huajun; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qian, Yingjun; Guan, Jian; Yi, Hongliang; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Meng, Lili; Zhao, Aihua; Yin, Shankai; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Few clinical studies have explored altered urinary metabolite levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Thus, we applied a metabolomics approach to analyze urinary metabolites in three groups of participants: patients with polysomnography (PSG)-confirmed OSA, simple snorers (SS), and normal subjects. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used. A total of 21 and 31 metabolites were differentially expressed in the SS and OSA groups, respectively. Patients with OSA had 18 metabolites different from those with SS. Of the 56 metabolites detected among the 3 groups, 24 were consistently higher or lower. A receiver operator curve analysis revealed that the combination of 4-hydroxypentenoic acid, arabinose, glycochenodeoxycholate-3-sulfate, isoleucine, serine, and xanthine produced a moderate diagnostic score with a sensitivity (specificity) of 75% (78%) for distinguishing OSA from those without OSA. The combination of 4-hydroxypentenoic acid, 5-dihydrotestosterone sulfate, serine, spermine, and xanthine distinguished OSA from SS with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 80%. Multiple metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with SS and OSA were identified using the metabolomics approach, and the altered metabolite signatures could potentially serve as an alternative diagnostic method to PSG. PMID:27480913

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in a Railroad Controller Worker.

    PubMed

    Raşcu, Agripina; Moise, Laura; Naghi, Eugenia; Handra, Claudia; Oţelea, Marina; Raşcu, Alexandra; Lăcătuşu, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) constitutes a healthcare issue of major importance at international level with a prevalence of 5% in the active population. Consequentially to the induced co-morbidities, the mortality reaches as high as 39% at eight years time lapse from the initial diagnostic. Seldom undiagnosed, the severity spectrum of SAS, in the absence of therapy, only continues to amplify. Here below, we are presenting the case of a 49 years old patient, railroad controller worker, non-smoker and occasionally alcohol user, who was hospitalized in our Clinic for Occupational Medicine. During last year, the patient was accusing excessive daytime somnolence, breath arrests during sleep, intense snoring, morning headaches, morning oral dryness, pin point chest pain, nocturia (4-5 nocturnal urination), concentration difficulties and an overall reduced work capacity. The presumptive diagnostic of Obstructive Sleep Apnea is being considered based on the correlation between the clinical presentation and the Epworth, Stanford and Berlin questionnaire results. The key diagnostic element was the polygraph recording over an 8 hours sleep period. Positive Diagnosis: Obstructive Sleep Apnea severe form. Management and recommendations: (1) Behavioral therapy (weight loss) and (2) CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy which was instituted immediately after the positive diagnosis was made. As a consequence, the respiratory symptoms, the frequent episodes of daytime snoozing and the concentration difficulties at work place diminished considerably. PMID:26076566

  17. Using the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea to Teach Cardiopulmonary Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep…

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Tsubomatsu, Chieko; Shintani, Tomoko; Abe, Ayumi; Yajima, Ryoto; Takahashi, Nozomi; Ito, Fumie; Takano, Kenichi; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for children pertaining to their physical and mental growth. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children has been shown to have different effects as compared to OSAS in adults, including deficits in cognition and neuropsychological functions, hyperactivity, ADHD, behavior problems, aggressive behavior, learning problems and nocturnal enuresis. Hypertrophy of the adenoids and tonsils is a major cause of OSAS in children; therefore, adenotonsillectomy may decrease the effects of OSAS pertaining to physical and mental growth. It is important to accurately diagnose and appropriately treat OSAS in children to prevent OSAS in their adulthood. PMID:27115764

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Insomnia Comorbid with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Lack, Leon; Sweetman, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Insomnia is often comorbid with obstructive sleep apnea. It reduces positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy acceptance and adherence. Comorbid patients show greater daytime impairments and poorer health outcomes. The insomnia often goes undiagnosed, undertreated, or untreated. Pharmacotherapy is not recommended for long-term treatment. Although care should be taken administering behavioral therapies to patients with elevated sleepiness, cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTi) is an effective and durable nondrug therapy that reduces symptoms and may increase the effectiveness of PAP therapy. Sleep clinics should be alert to comorbid insomnia and provide adequate diagnostic tools and clinicians with CBTi expertise. PMID:27542883

  20. A new treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by electrical stimulation of submental region.

    PubMed

    Miki, H; Hida, W; Inoue, H; Takishima, T

    1988-01-01

    Loss of upper airway muscle tone during sleep has been thought to be responsible for obstructive apnea episodes. To examine the effect of electrical stimulation of the submental region on sleep apnea episodes, patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were polysomnographically studied during all-night session with and without stimulation.

  1. Baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep in severe obstructive sleep apnoea: effects of acute CPAP.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M R; Parati, G; Insalaco, G; Castiglioni, P; Marrone, O; Romano, S; Salvaggio, A; Mancia, G; Bonsignore, G; Di Rienzo, M

    2006-01-01

    Baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep (baroreflex sensitivity; BRS) has been shown to be depressed in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and improved after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Whether CPAP also acutely affects BRS during sleep in uncomplicated severe OSA is still debatable. Blood pressure was monitored during nocturnal polysomnography in 18 patients at baseline and during first-time CPAP application. Spontaneous BRS was analysed by the sequence method, and estimated as the mean sequence slope. CPAP did not acutely affect mean blood pressure or heart rate but decreased cardiovascular variability during sleep. Mean BRS increased slightly during CPAP application (from 6.5+/-2.4 to 7.5+/-2.9 ms x mmHg(-1)), mostly in response to decreasing blood pressure. The change in BRS did not correlate with changes in arterial oxygen saturation or apnoea/hypopnoea index. The small change in baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep at first application of continuous positive airway pressure in severe obstructive sleep apnoea was unrelated to the acute resolution of nocturnal hypoxaemia, and might reflect autonomic adjustments to positive intrathoracic pressure, and/or improved sleep architecture. The small increase in baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep may be of clinical relevance as it was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular variability, which is acknowledged as an independent cardiovascular risk factor.

  2. Oxygen desaturation during night sleep affects decision-making in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Högl, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed decision-making and its associations with executive functions and sleep-related factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea and 20 healthy age- and education-matched controls performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a decision-making task under initial ambiguity, as well as an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Patients, but not controls, also underwent a detailed polysomnographic assessment. Results of group analyses showed that patients performed at the same level of controls on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, the proportion of risky performers was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Decision-making did not correlate with executive functions and subjective ratings of sleepiness, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between advantageous performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and percentage of N2 sleep, minimal oxygen saturation, average oxygen saturation and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation level. Also, the minimal oxygen saturation accounted for 27% of variance in decision-making. In conclusion, this study shows that a subgroup of patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at risk of disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity. Among the sleep-related factors, oxygen saturation is a significant predictor of advantageous decision-making. PMID:26899164

  3. Oxygen desaturation during night sleep affects decision-making in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Högl, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed decision-making and its associations with executive functions and sleep-related factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea and 20 healthy age- and education-matched controls performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a decision-making task under initial ambiguity, as well as an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Patients, but not controls, also underwent a detailed polysomnographic assessment. Results of group analyses showed that patients performed at the same level of controls on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, the proportion of risky performers was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Decision-making did not correlate with executive functions and subjective ratings of sleepiness, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between advantageous performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and percentage of N2 sleep, minimal oxygen saturation, average oxygen saturation and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation level. Also, the minimal oxygen saturation accounted for 27% of variance in decision-making. In conclusion, this study shows that a subgroup of patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at risk of disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity. Among the sleep-related factors, oxygen saturation is a significant predictor of advantageous decision-making.

  4. Fatal Consequences: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Train Engineer

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board’s investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer’s post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public. PMID:26553898

  5. Fatal Consequences: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Train Engineer.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary Pat

    2015-11-01

    This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board's investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer's post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public.

  6. Fatal Consequences: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Train Engineer.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary Pat

    2015-11-01

    This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board's investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer's post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public. PMID:26553898

  7. Ophthalmic Diseases in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Skorin, Leonid; Knutson, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 2% of women and 4% of men, but the prevalence of asymptomatic OSA is significantly higher. Several ophthalmic conditions are associated with OSA, including floppy eyelid syndrome, glaucoma, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, keratoconus, and central serous chorioretinopathy. The purpose of this review is to provide primary care physicians with a general knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and management of the ophthalmic diseases associated with OSA. PMID:27455101

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of the retropharynx causing obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ivan H; Eisele, David W; Yang, Tony L; Iezza, Gioia

    2006-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare, usually benign, spindle cell neoplasms that most often originate near mesothelium-lined surfaces of the pleural or peritoneal cavity. SFTs reported in the head and neck occur most commonly in the oral cavity, sinonasal tract, and orbit. We report a case of SFT of the retropharynx causing severe obstructive sleep apnea. The diagnostic and management strategies of SFTs are discussed.

  9. Preoperative evaluation of patients with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Cartagena, Rafael

    2005-09-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea are conditions frequently encountered by the anesthesiologist and may have a significant impact on perioperative outcomes. This article discusses the preoperative evaluation of patients with one or both of these conditions. The goals of the preoperative assessment are to identify issues that can adversely affect the patient. This information is critical to forming an effective plan for the perioperative care of the patient.

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiely, J L; McNicholas, W T

    2000-07-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) but there is debate as to whether OSAS is an independent risk factor for their development, since OSAS may be associated with other disorders and risk factors that predispose to cardiovascular disease. In an effort to quantify the risk of OSAS patients for cardiovascular disease arising from these other factors, the authors assessed the future risk for cardiovascular disease among a group of 114 consecutive patients with established OSAS prior to nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy, using an established method of risk prediction employed in the Framingham studies. Patients were 100 males, aged (mean+/-SD) 52+/-9.0 yrs, and 14 females, aged 51+/-10.4 yrs, with an apnoea/hypopnoea index of 45+/-22 x h(-1). Based on either a prior diagnosis, or a mean of three resting blood pressure recordings >140 mmHg systolic and/or 90 diastolic, 68% of patients were hypertensive. Only 18% were current smokers, while 16% had either diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, and 63% had elevated fasting cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels. The estimated 10-yr risk of a coronary heart disease (CHD) event in males was (mean+/-SEM) 13.9+/-0.9%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12.1-16.0, and for a stroke was 12.3+/-1.4%; 95% CI 9.4-15.1, with a combined 10 yr risk for stroke and CHD events of 32.9+/-2.7%; 95% CI 27.8-38.5 in males aged >53 yrs. These findings indicate that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients are at high risk of future cardiovascular disease from factors other than obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, and may help explain the difficulties in identifying a potential independent risk from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. PMID:10933098

  11. Physiotherapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Lequeux, T; Chantrain, G; Bonnand, M; Chelle, A J; Thill, M P

    2005-06-01

    Apneic patients have hypotonia of the lingual and supra-hyoid muscles. The dysfunction of theses muscles leading to a collapse of the upper airway is responsible for the apnea. The goal of this study, designed as a before-after trial, is to determine the effect of lingual and supra-hyoid muscle strengthening on obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty-four patients with obstructive sleep apnea were included (consecutive sample). Only 16 patients completed the study. The treatment consisted of 30 sessions of transcutaneous neuromuscular stimulation administered to the submental region associated with muscular exercises. The effect on apneic events was analyzed with a polysomnography before and after the treatment. Thirteen patients could be analyzed for the statistical studies. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) decreased from 32.9 to 20.6 (Wilcoxon rank test: P = 0.017). Seven patients ended the study with an AHI of less than 10, and three more patients decreased their AHI by more than 50%. This treatment significantly decreased the AHI in most of the patients. A larger study with more patients and with a long-term follow-up is necessary to determine the place of physiotherapy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

  12. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea consequences

    PubMed Central

    Zamarrón, Carlos; Paz, Vanesa García; Morete, Emilio; del Campo Matías, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two diseases that often coexist within an individual. This coexistence is known as overlap syndrome and is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological link. Although there are claims of a very high incidence of OSAS in COPD patients, recent studies report that it is similar to the general population. Overlap patients present sleep-disordered breathing associated to upper and lower airway obstruction and a reduction in respiratory drive. These patients present unique characteristics, which set them apart from either COPD or OSAS patients. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their coexistence in overlap syndrome probably increases this risk. The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular risk are still unclear, but may involve systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and tonic elevation of sympathetic neural activity. The treatment of choice for overlap syndrome in stable patients is CPAP with supplemental oxygen for correction of upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep. PMID:19281082

  13. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  14. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  15. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  16. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  17. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  18. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnoea and schizophrenia--a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kalucy, Megan J; Grunstein, Ron; Lambert, Timothy; Glozier, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significantly increased physical morbidity and mortality particularly secondary to cardiometabolic disorders. In people with schizophrenia, rates of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are high compared to the general population. Whilst the weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is largely to blame, other factors include inactivity, poor diet and possibly the illness itself. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and frequently under-recognized condition which may be associated with disabling symptoms including daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and long term increases in morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiometabolic disease. As the primary risk factor is obesity, elevated rates of sleep apnoea would therefore seem likely in association with schizophrenia. Thus, OSA might represent a treatable cause of psychiatric and physical co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of quality research in this area. Available data suggest increased rates of sleep apnoea in schizophrenia and that psychotic symptoms may improve when co-morbid sleep apnoea is treated. Health practitioners may be unaware of the need to screen for sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia and the disorder may be significantly under-recognised. Research is required to clarify the epidemiology, consequences and management of sleep apnoea in association with schizophrenia. PMID:23528272

  20. Obstructive sleep apnoea and schizophrenia--a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kalucy, Megan J; Grunstein, Ron; Lambert, Timothy; Glozier, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significantly increased physical morbidity and mortality particularly secondary to cardiometabolic disorders. In people with schizophrenia, rates of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are high compared to the general population. Whilst the weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is largely to blame, other factors include inactivity, poor diet and possibly the illness itself. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and frequently under-recognized condition which may be associated with disabling symptoms including daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and long term increases in morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiometabolic disease. As the primary risk factor is obesity, elevated rates of sleep apnoea would therefore seem likely in association with schizophrenia. Thus, OSA might represent a treatable cause of psychiatric and physical co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of quality research in this area. Available data suggest increased rates of sleep apnoea in schizophrenia and that psychotic symptoms may improve when co-morbid sleep apnoea is treated. Health practitioners may be unaware of the need to screen for sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia and the disorder may be significantly under-recognised. Research is required to clarify the epidemiology, consequences and management of sleep apnoea in association with schizophrenia.

  1. Rehabilitation of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chwieśko-Minarowska, Sylwia; Minarowski, Łukasz; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Chwieśko, Jan; Chyczewska, Elżbieta

    2013-12-01

    The current treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) focuses on alleviation of symptoms by increasing airway patency during sleep through positive airway pressure, oral appliances, changes in sleep position, weight loss, or surgical treatment. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the treatment of choice and prevents upper airway obstruction, resulting in improved sleep architecture and daytime symptoms. Despite proven efficacy, adherence to CPAP treatment is still not efficient. The new methods of rehabilitation (exercise training programs, hypoglossal nerve stimulation) for patients with OSAS are currently modified. The aim of the present study was to present recent developments in the field of selected aspects of rehabilitation in patients with OSAS. Database search was focused on exercise training programs and electrostimulation of genioglossus muscle. The search for articles on the rehabilitation interventions for OSAS was performed using the PubMed database from 1966 to 2013. Most of the findings have shown beneficial effects of rehabilitation. In detail, we describe the recent developments and potential adverse effects of electrostimulation and physical exercises. According to the results of studies presented, the above therapy might support conventional treatment or may be an alternative for patients with poor compliance to CPAP therapy, mandibular advancement devices, or ineffective results of surgical procedures as well.

  2. Ventilatory control and airway anatomy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Andrew; Jordan, Amy S; Malhotra, Atul; Fogel, Robert B; Katz, Eliot S; Schory, Karen; Edwards, Jill K; White, David P

    2004-12-01

    Ventilatory instability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesized that the influence of ventilatory instability in this disorder would vary depending on the underlying collapsibility of the upper airway. To test this hypothesis, we correlated loop gain with apnea-hypopnea index during supine, nonrapid eye movement sleep in three groups of patients with obstructive sleep apnea based on pharyngeal closing pressure: negative pressure group (pharyngeal closing pressure less than -1 cm H(2)O), atmospheric pressure group (between -1 and +1 cm H(2)O), and positive pressure group (greater than +1 cm H(2)O). Loop gain was measured by sequentially increasing proportional assist ventilation until periodic breathing developed, which occurred in 24 of 25 subjects. Mean loop gain for all three groups was 0.37 +/- 0.11. A significant correlation was found between loop gain and apnea-hypopnea index in the atmospheric group only (r = 0.88, p = 0.0016). We conclude that loop gain has a substantial impact on apnea severity in certain patients with sleep apnea, particularly those with a pharyngeal closing pressure near atmospheric.

  3. Defining common outcome metrics used in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawwa, Baha A; Badi, Arunkumar N; Goldberg, Andrew N; Woodson, B Tucker

    2008-12-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing a spectrum that ranges from snoring through disorder of increased airway resistance, to overt sleep apnea affects many clinical disease outcomes. Traditionally, disease outcomes have been measured by polysomnography, with the most common metric being the apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Multiple other clinical metrics are commonly used to assess the severity and impact of disease on important outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These allow assessment of sleepiness, quality of life, performance, and medical, especially cardiovascular outcomes. Currently the available metrics only partially explain the associated disease outcomes in different patients. This review highlights the available clinical, physiological and biomarker metrics in measuring OSA and associated co-morbidities and defines treatment goals.

  4. The burden of obstructive sleep apnea and associated excessive sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent within the primary care community, and yet it is frequently undiagnosed. The most common symptom of OSA--excessive sleepiness (ES)--can negatively affect quality of life. Because the ES associated with OSA results in an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, occupational accidents, and decreased daily functioning, the primary care provider (PCP) needs to be vigilant for risk factors and symptoms associated with this sleep disorder. Commercial drivers in particular need to be carefully assessed and monitored in collaboration with a sleep specialist. The economic costs of untreated OSA are high. Early diagnosis and treatment of OSA is cost-effective and is greatly aided by a high level of clinical suspicion and an awareness of risk factors for OSA on the part of PCPs.

  5. Personalized Medicine for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Therapies: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane; Joosten, Simon A; Hamilton, Garun S

    2016-09-01

    Currently there is no method to predict which treatments for obstructive sleep apnea will have the best outcomes in individual patients. Given that there is increasing interest in a personalized medicine approach to the treatment of a variety of disorders, this review describes the personalized approaches that are currently available for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea as well as future directions for individualized obstructive sleep apnea treatment. PMID:27542876

  6. Tongue Fat and its Relationship to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrew M.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Chan, Eugenia L.; Staley, Bethany; Poptani, Harish; Torigian, Drew A.; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether tongue fat is increased in obese sleep apneics compared to obese subjects without sleep apnea. We hypothesized that excess fat is deposited in the tongue in obese patients with sleep apnea. Design: Case-control design. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined tongue fat in 31 obese controls (apnea-hypopnea index, 4.1 ± 2.7 events/h) and 90 obese apneics (apnea-hypopnea index, 43.2 ± 27.3 events/h). Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 18 gender-, race-, age-, and BMI-matched case-control pairs. Interventions: All subjects underwent a MRI with three-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. We used sophisticated volumetric reconstruction algorithms to study the size and distribution of upper airway fat deposits in the tongue and masseter muscles within apneics and obese controls. Measurements and Results: The data supported our a priori hypotheses that after adjustment for age, BMI, gender, and race, the tongue in apneics was significantly larger (P = 0.001) and had an increased amount of fat (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Similar results were seen in our matched sample. Our data also demonstrate that within the apneic and normal tongue, there are regional differences in fat distribution, with larger fat deposits at the base of the tongue. Conclusions: There is increased tongue volume and deposition of fat at the base of tongue in apneics compared to controls. Increased tongue fat may begin to explain the relationship between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Kim AM, Keenan BT, Jackson N, Chan EL, Staley B, Poptani H, Torigian DA, Pack AI, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat and its relationship to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1639-1648. PMID:25197815

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea and Incident Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Redline, Susan; Yenokyan, Gayane; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Shahar, Eyal; O'Connor, George T.; Resnick, Helaine E.; Diener-West, Marie; Sanders, Mark H.; Wolf, Philip A.; Geraghty, Estella M.; Ali, Tauqeer; Lebowitz, Michael; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although obstructive sleep apnea is associated with physiological perturbations that increase risk of hypertension and are proatherogenic, it is uncertain whether sleep apnea is associated with increased stroke risk in the general population. Objectives: To quantify the incidence of ischemic stroke with sleep apnea in a community-based sample of men and women across a wide range of sleep apnea. Methods: Baseline polysomnography was performed between 1995 and 1998 in a longitudinal cohort study. The primary exposure was the obstructive apnea–hypopnea index (OAHI) and outcome was incident ischemic stroke. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 5,422 participants without a history of stroke at the baseline examination and untreated for sleep apnea were followed for a median of 8.7 years. One hundred ninety-three ischemic strokes were observed. In covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, a significant positive association between ischemic stroke and OAHI was observed in men (P value for linear trend: P = 0.016). Men in the highest OAHI quartile (>19) had an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.86 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–7.4). In the mild to moderate range (OAHI, 5–25), each one-unit increase in OAHI in men was estimated to increase stroke risk by 6% (95% confidence interval, 2–10%). In women, stroke was not significantly associated with OAHI quartiles, but increased risk was observed at an OAHI greater than 25. Conclusions: The strong adjusted association between ischemic stroke and OAHI in community-dwelling men with mild to moderate sleep apnea suggests that this is an appropriate target for future stroke prevention trials. PMID:20339144

  8. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep - an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea-hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:27608271

  9. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep – an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea–hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:27608271

  10. Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Peter R.; Barnes, Maree; Walsh, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Kathleen J.; Hee, Geoffrey; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.; Malhotra, Atul; McEvoy, R. Douglas; Wheatley, John R.; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Rochford, Peter D.; Churchward, Tom; Campbell, Matthew C.; Palme, Carsten E.; Robinson, Sam; Goding, George S.; Eckert, Danny J.; Jordan, Amy S.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Tyler, Louise; Antic, Nick A.; Worsnop, Christopher J.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Hillman, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is fundamental to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) counteracts this problem, with potential to reduce OSA severity. Study Objectives: To examine safety and efficacy of a novel HGNS system (HGNS, Apnex Medical, Inc.) in treating OSA. Participants: Twenty-one patients, 67% male, age (mean ± SD) 53.6 ± 9.2 years, with moderate to severe OSA and unable to tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Design: Each participant underwent surgical implantation of the HGNS system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. OSA severity was defined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-implant. Therapy compliance was assessed by nightly hours of use. Symptoms were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: HGNS was used on 89% ± 15% of nights (n = 21). On these nights, it was used for 5.8 ± 1.6 h per night. Nineteen of 21 participants had baseline and 6-month PSGs. There was a significant improvement (all P < 0.05) from baseline to 6 months in: AHI (43.1 ± 17.5 to 19.5 ± 16.7), ESS (12.1 ± 4.7 to 8.1 ± 4.4), FOSQ (14.4 ± 2.0 to 16.7 ± 2.2), SAQLI (3.2 ± 1.0 to 4.9 ± 1.3), and BDI (15.8 ± 9.0 to 9.7 ± 7.6). Two serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal and a stimulation lead cuff dislodgement requiring replacement. Conclusions: HGNS demonstrated favorable safety, efficacy, and compliance. Participants experienced a significant decrease in OSA severity and OSA-associated symptoms. Clinical Trial Information: Name: Australian Clinical Study of the Apnex Medical HGNS System to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Registration Number: NCT01186926. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2

  11. Airway observations during upper endoscopy predicting obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Glenn; Ali, Eslam; Raina, Amit; Leland, William; Abid, Sabeen; Vahora, Zahid; Movahed, Hossein; Kachru, Sumyra; Tee, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Background This pilot study examined airway characteristics during upper endoscopy to determine who is at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Methods Patients undergoing routine upper endoscopy were divided into 2 groups according to the Berlin Questionnaire (high and low risk for sleep disordered breathing). Patients underwent routine upper endoscopy using propofol sedation. The airway was then evaluated for no, partial, or complete collapse at the levels of the palate/uvula/tonsils, the tongue base, the hypopharynx, and the larynx. They were given a score of 0 for no collapse, 1 for partial collapse, and 2 for complete collapse. The score for each of these levels was added to give a total score or severity index. The larynx was also evaluated for lateral pharyngeal collapse (minimal, up to 50%, >50%, or 100%). Results We found that patients with a partial obstruction at the level of the palate/uvula/tonsils, tongue base, hypopharynx, or larynx, or complete obstruction at any level more often had a positive Berlin questionnaire. Patients with a positive Berlin questionnaire were more often of increased weight (mean 197 vs 175 lbs, P=0.19), increased body mass index (31.2 vs 27.42 kg/m2, P=0.11), increased neck circumference (36.7 vs 34.7 cm, P=0.23), and had a higher total airway score (2.61 vs 1.67, P=0.09). Conclusions The results of our pilot study represent preliminary data regarding the use of upper endoscopy as a potential tool to evaluate patients for obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:27708514

  12. The bidirectional interactions between psoriasis and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Camila; Nogueira, Heloisa; Albuquerque, Rachel G; Tomimori, Jane; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder which can impair general routine activities and has been closely related to poor quality of life. Pruritus and scratching are frequently observed, occurring mainly during sleep and precipitating nighttime arousals. Indeed, sleep quality has been shown to be negatively affected in psoriatic patients, in a close relationship with stress exposure and immune response. Although psoriasis is known to impair sleep, leading to insomnia, its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is controversial. Similarly, OSA is considered a multifactorial inflammatory disease, characterized by intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysfunction, with important outcomes on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, immunological activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines play a prominent role in both OSA and psoriasis. Currently it is not clear whether OSA is a risk factor for psoriasis development or if psoriasis is a possible predictor of OSA. Thus, our main purpose is to provide an overview of this intriguing relationship and show the current link between psoriasis and OSA in a bidirectional relationship.

  13. The bidirectional interactions between psoriasis and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Camila; Nogueira, Heloisa; Albuquerque, Rachel G; Tomimori, Jane; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder which can impair general routine activities and has been closely related to poor quality of life. Pruritus and scratching are frequently observed, occurring mainly during sleep and precipitating nighttime arousals. Indeed, sleep quality has been shown to be negatively affected in psoriatic patients, in a close relationship with stress exposure and immune response. Although psoriasis is known to impair sleep, leading to insomnia, its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is controversial. Similarly, OSA is considered a multifactorial inflammatory disease, characterized by intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysfunction, with important outcomes on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, immunological activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines play a prominent role in both OSA and psoriasis. Currently it is not clear whether OSA is a risk factor for psoriasis development or if psoriasis is a possible predictor of OSA. Thus, our main purpose is to provide an overview of this intriguing relationship and show the current link between psoriasis and OSA in a bidirectional relationship. PMID:26220730

  14. Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was a retrospective case series in a tertiary referral sleep center. Twenty-five adults with moderate to severe OSA and determined to have retropalatal and tongue base obstruction based on Friedman tongue position III and fiberoptic endoscopy underwent CELL in combination with modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, known as relocation pharyngoplasty. CELL involves transoral resection of tongue base muscle tissue and lingual tonsil using Coblation under endoscopic guidance. The mean operation time for CELL was 42.6 ± 13.7 min. Total blood loss for CELL plus relocation pharyngoplasty was <50 ml in all patients. Mean postoperative pain score (sum of total pain scores/sum of total hospitalization day, visual analog scale, 0-10) was 2.6 ± 0.6. Postoperative bleeding and taste disturbance extending beyond 3 months occurred in one patient (4 %) individually. No patients reported tongue weakness or speech dysfunction. Epworth sleepiness scale improved from 9.6 ± 4.9 to 7.5 ± 4.3 (p = 0.023). Apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 45.7 ± 21.7 to 12.8 ± 8.2 events/hour (p < 0.001) 6 months after surgery. The overall response rate was 80 %. CELL is feasible, safe and effective in treating tongue base obstruction in OSA patients who underwent simultaneous relocation pharyngoplasty.

  15. The effect of electrical stimulation on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, C; Powell, N; Bowman, B; Stoohs, R

    1995-01-01

    Patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea polygraphically documented underwent electrical stimulation treatment trials. Submental and intraoral stimulations were applied during waking and during nocturnal sleep. The stimulation was applied using a custom-designed neuromuscular electrical stimulator (EdenTec Corp) providing symmetric biphasic constant voltage pulses. Pulse duration of each phase was set to 80 microseconds based on a subjective evaluation of pulse durations from 80 to 300 microseconds to minimize sensation while generating equivalent motor responses. Pulse repetition rate was set to 50 pulses per second. Cephalometric radiographs and endoscopies were obtained with and without stimulations during waking. Most commonly, stimulations induced alpha EEG arousals. Submental subcutaneous stimulation induced good contractions of platysmal muscles but had no impact on the upper airway. Intraoral stimulation induced clear tongue muscle movements but with change of shape of the upper airway and posterior movements of the tongue. Each time a breakage of apnea was noted, it was associated with a time-linked alpha EEG arousal. The results obtained by us and others do not, at this time, give convincing support for the use of electrical stimulation using submental surface or intraoral electrodes as a viable approach for effective control of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome symptoms.

  16. Timing Matters: Circadian Rhythm in Sepsis, Obstructive Lung Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Truong, Kimberly K; Lam, Michael T; Grandner, Michael A; Sassoon, Catherine S; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-07-01

    Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions. A critical review of the literature supports the association between circadian misalignment and adverse health consequences in sepsis, obstructive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and malignancy. Circadian misalignment plays an important role in these disease processes and can affect disease severity, treatment response, and survivorship. Normal inflammatory response to acute infections, airway resistance, upper airway collapsibility, and mitosis regulation follows a robust circadian pattern. Disruption of normal circadian rhythm at the molecular level affects severity of inflammation in sepsis, contributes to inflammatory responses in obstructive lung diseases, affects apnea length in obstructive sleep apnea, and increases risk for cancer. Chronotherapy is an underused practice of delivering therapy at optimal times to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. This approach has been shown to be advantageous in asthma and cancer management. In asthma, appropriate timing of medication administration improves treatment effectiveness. Properly timed chemotherapy may reduce treatment toxicities and maximize efficacy. Future research should focus on circadian rhythm disorders, role of circadian rhythm in other diseases, and modalities to restore and prevent circadian disruption.

  17. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a cause of cognitive disorders in the elderly?].

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, K; Nguyen-Michel, V H; Mariani, J

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a chronic disease characterized by repeated upper airway obstructions during sleep, resulting in fragmented sleep with arousals, nocturnal intermittent hypoxemia and diurnal dysfunctions. Despite its high prevalence in elderly, sleep apnea syndrome seems to be underestimated and difficult to be recognized because of the lack of clinical symptoms specificity in this population. Among the numerous consequences of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, cognitive impairment prevails on the attention, executive functions and memory. Neuroimaging studies in human and experimental models allowed to highlight neural correlates of these cognitive dysfunctions in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with cognitive impairment shares some features with Alzheimer's disease, involving genetic predisposition ApoE4, hippocampus and synaptic plasticity abnormalities. In this context, the question arises whether obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a possible etiological or aggravating factor of cognitive decline in elderly with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Although there are conflicting results in studies evaluating therapeutic efficiency of continuous positive air pressure, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome seems nevertheless as a correctable factor, at least for its impact on some cognitive consequences. Looking for sleep apnea syndrome in elderly with cognitive decline should be considered in a global, diagnosis and therapeutic management.

  18. Reliability of SleepStrip as a screening test in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Yılmaz, Metin; Tutar, Hakan; Aydil, Utku; Kızıl, Yusuf; Damar, Murat; Kemaloğlu, Yusuf K

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder and related to multiple conditions that cause mortality in adults. In the present study, reliability of SleepStrip, a disposable screening device for detection of OSAS, is tested. In this prospective, nonrandomized double-blinded single cohort study at an academic health center, the performance of the SleepStrip in detecting respiratory events and establishing an SleepStrip score (Sscore) in domestic use were compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by the standard polysomnography (PSG) recordings in the sleep laboratory. Forty-one patients who have the PSG results participated the study and wore the SleepStrips at home. Test efficiency rate was 75% and there was a positive correlation between PSG-AHI scores and Sscores (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). However, diagnostic accuracy analysis showed that the correlation between Sscores and PSG-AHI scores were significant only at AHI > 30 levels. The SleepStrip has 100% specificity and positive predictive values, but it also has low negative predictive and sensitivity values. The SleepStrip is not a reliable screening test in differential diagnosis among simple snorers, mild, moderate and severe OSAS patients. However, high Sscores highly indicate the presence of moderate-severe OSAS. We can safely send these patients to split-night PSG and continuous, automatic, bi-level positive airway pressure (CPAP/BPAP/APAP) titration at the same night. The SleepStrip may increase the effective use of the sleep laboratories. PMID:24861563

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms in Japanese people with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ono, Junji; Chishaki, Akiko; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Nishizaka, Mari; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms and assessed the relationship with obesity or unusual sleep postures in Down syndrome patients in Japan. We obtained the demographic characteristics, sleep postures, and obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms experienced by 90 people as reported by their caregivers. Although 71% reported snoring and 59% arousals, obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms were not significantly different between obese and non-obese participants. The youngest age group had the fewest obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms, especially symptoms of snoring. The odds for arousal, nocturia, and apnea tended to be higher in the unusual sleep-postures group. Unusual sleep postures were most frequent in the group 6-15 years of age. People with Down syndrome might sleep in unusual postures to avoid upper airway obstruction caused by other anatomical factors. For nurses and other health professionals working in mainstream service, it is important to screen all persons with Down syndrome for symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly those six years of age and older, and to refer them for further evaluation for sleep disorders.

  20. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  1. Optic Nerve Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Claudio; Palmieri, Maria Giuseppina; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Cesareo, Massimo; Romigi, Andrea; Izzi, Francesca; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Oliva, Corrado; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Placidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrity of the visual system in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by means of electroretinogram (ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Methods: We performed electrophysiological study of the visual system in a population of severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea events/time in bed ≥ 30/h) patients without medical comorbidities compared to a group of healthy controls similar for age, sex, and body mass index. Patients and controls did not have visual impairment or systemic disorders with known influence on the visual system. ERG and VEP were elicited by a reversal pattern generated on a television monitor at low (55') and high (15') spatial frequencies stimulation. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in both patients and controls. Results: In comparison with healthy controls (n = 27), patients with OSA (n = 27) showed a significant latency delay coupled with a significant amplitude reduction of P100 wave of VEP at all spatial frequencies in both eyes. No significant differences between groups were detected as concerning ERG components. No correlations were found between polygraphic parameters, ESS scores, or VEP and ERG components in OSA patients. Conclusions: This study documented that patients with OSA, without medical comorbidities, present VEP alteration as documented by lower amplitude and longer latency of the P100 component than healthy controls. These altered electrophysiological findings may be the expression of optic nerve dysfunction provoked by hypoxia, acidosis, hypercarbia and airway obstruction, frequently observed in patients with OSA. Hence, we hypothesize that OSA per se may impair optic nerve function. Citation: Liguori C, Palmieri MG, Pierantozzi M, Cesareo M, Romigi A, Izzi F, Marciani MG, Oliva C, Mercuri NB, Placidi F. Optic nerve dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea: an electrophysiological study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):19–23. PMID

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea in children: a critical update

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Leng; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is a highly prevalent disorder caused by a conglomeration of complex pathophysiological processes, leading to recurrent upper airway dysfunction during sleep. The clinical relevance of OSA resides in its association with significant morbidities that affect the cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic systems. The American Academy of Pediatrics recently reiterated its recommendations that children with symptoms and signs suggestive of OSA should be investigated with polysomnography (PSG), and treated accordingly. However, treatment decisions should not only be guided by PSG results, but should also integrate the magnitude of symptoms and the presence or absence of risk factors and signs of OSA morbidity. The first-line therapy in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy is adenotonsillectomy, although there is increasing evidence that medical therapy, in the form of intranasal steroids or montelukast, may be considered in mild OSA. In this review, we delineate the major concepts regarding the pathophysiology of OSA, its morbidity, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24109201

  3. [Continuous positive airways pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea].

    PubMed

    Antone, E; Gilbert, M; Bironneau, V; Meurice, J C

    2015-04-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) still remains the most frequently used and the most efficient treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, its efficiency is conditioned by healthcare quality depending on many factors such as medical specificities of the patients as well as the severity of sleep-related breathing disorders. In order to optimize CPAP efficiency, it is necessary to be aware of the functional abilities of the different devices, and to perform a close monitoring of the patients, particularly during the first weeks of treatment, by maximally using the data provided by the CPAP apparatus. Some questions remain unsolved, such as the impact of nasal CPAP on glucose metabolism or cardiovascular prognosis. Furthermore, the strategy of CPAP use should be improved according to future results of studies dedicated to the interest of home telemonitoring and taking into account the validated mode of CPAP initiation. PMID:25823935

  4. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome associated with stroke.

    PubMed

    Mello-Fujita, Luciane; Kim, Lenise Jihe; Palombini, Luciana de Oliveira; Rizzi, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho

    2015-06-01

    The association between sleep-disordered breathing and stroke has been a subject of increased interest and research. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important risk factor for stroke incidence and mortality. Moreover, OSA is a common clinical outcome after stroke, directly influencing the patient's recovery. The treatment of choice for OSA is positive airway pressure (PAP) support and the PAP appliance is considered the most recommended clinical management for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular complications. However, the implementation of PAP in stroke patients remains a challenge, considering the increased frequency of motor and language impairments associated with the cerebrovascular event. In the present study, we reviewed the main findings describing the association between stroke and OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. We also discussed the types of OSA treatment, the different options and indications of PAP treatment, PAP adherence and the clinical outcomes after treatment.

  5. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Anila; Faizal, Bini

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers. PMID:26689652

  6. CPAP for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick A; Heeley, Emma; Luo, Yuanming; Ou, Qiong; Zhang, Xilong; Mediano, Olga; Chen, Rui; Drager, Luciano F; Liu, Zhihong; Chen, Guofang; Du, Baoliang; McArdle, Nigel; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Tripathi, Manjari; Billot, Laurent; Li, Qiang; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Barbe, Ferran; Redline, Susan; Wang, Jiguang; Arima, Hisatomi; Neal, Bruce; White, David P; Grunstein, Ron R; Zhong, Nanshan; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-09-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events; whether treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents major cardiovascular events is uncertain. Methods After a 1-week run-in period during which the participants used sham CPAP, we randomly assigned 2717 eligible adults between 45 and 75 years of age who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and coronary or cerebrovascular disease to receive CPAP treatment plus usual care (CPAP group) or usual care alone (usual-care group). The primary composite end point was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or transient ischemic attack. Secondary end points included other cardiovascular outcomes, health-related quality of life, snoring symptoms, daytime sleepiness, and mood. Results Most of the participants were men who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and minimal sleepiness. In the CPAP group, the mean duration of adherence to CPAP therapy was 3.3 hours per night, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index (the number of apnea or hypopnea events per hour of recording) decreased from 29.0 events per hour at baseline to 3.7 events per hour during follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 229 participants in the CPAP group (17.0%) and in 207 participants in the usual-care group (15.4%) (hazard ratio with CPAP, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.32; P=0.34). No significant effect on any individual or other composite cardiovascular end point was observed. CPAP significantly reduced snoring and daytime sleepiness and improved health-related quality of life and mood. Conclusions Therapy with CPAP plus usual care, as compared with usual care alone, did not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and established cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Health and

  7. CPAP for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick A; Heeley, Emma; Luo, Yuanming; Ou, Qiong; Zhang, Xilong; Mediano, Olga; Chen, Rui; Drager, Luciano F; Liu, Zhihong; Chen, Guofang; Du, Baoliang; McArdle, Nigel; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Tripathi, Manjari; Billot, Laurent; Li, Qiang; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Barbe, Ferran; Redline, Susan; Wang, Jiguang; Arima, Hisatomi; Neal, Bruce; White, David P; Grunstein, Ron R; Zhong, Nanshan; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-09-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events; whether treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents major cardiovascular events is uncertain. Methods After a 1-week run-in period during which the participants used sham CPAP, we randomly assigned 2717 eligible adults between 45 and 75 years of age who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and coronary or cerebrovascular disease to receive CPAP treatment plus usual care (CPAP group) or usual care alone (usual-care group). The primary composite end point was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or transient ischemic attack. Secondary end points included other cardiovascular outcomes, health-related quality of life, snoring symptoms, daytime sleepiness, and mood. Results Most of the participants were men who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and minimal sleepiness. In the CPAP group, the mean duration of adherence to CPAP therapy was 3.3 hours per night, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index (the number of apnea or hypopnea events per hour of recording) decreased from 29.0 events per hour at baseline to 3.7 events per hour during follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 229 participants in the CPAP group (17.0%) and in 207 participants in the usual-care group (15.4%) (hazard ratio with CPAP, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.32; P=0.34). No significant effect on any individual or other composite cardiovascular end point was observed. CPAP significantly reduced snoring and daytime sleepiness and improved health-related quality of life and mood. Conclusions Therapy with CPAP plus usual care, as compared with usual care alone, did not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and established cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Health and

  8. Overview of proteomics studies in obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Amélia; Torres, Vukosava Milic; Vaz, Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Matthiesen, Rune; Pinto, Paula; Malhotra, Atul; Bárbara, Cristina; Penque, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underdiagnosed common public health concern causing deleterious effects on metabolic and cardiovascular health. Although much has been learned regarding the pathophysiology and consequences of OSA in the past decades, the molecular mechanisms associated with such processes remain poorly defined. The advanced high-throughput proteomics-based technologies have become a fundamental approach for identifying novel disease mediators as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for many diseases, including OSA. Here, we briefly review OSA pathophysiology and the technological advances in proteomics and the first results of its application to address critical issues in the OSA field. PMID:25770042

  9. Management of obstructive sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E; Sawyer, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common problem, with 9% to 28% of women and 24% to 26% of males having apneic events at a treatable level, making this syndrome a serious public health issue. This article describes the outcomes associated with continuous positive airway pressure treatment, significance of the issue of poor adherence in OSA, discusses evidence regarding the optimal duration of nightly use, describes the nature and predictors of nonadherence, and reviews interventions that have been tested to increase nightly use and suggests management strategies.

  10. Obstructive sleep apnoea in children with craniofacial syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Cielo, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is common in children. Craniofacial anomalies such as cleft palate are among the most common congenital conditions. Children with a variety of craniofacial conditions, including cleft palate, micrognathia, craniosynostosis, and midface hypoplasia are at increased risk for OSAS. Available evidence, which is largely limited to surgical case series and retrospective studies, suggests that OSAS can be successfully managed in these children through both surgical and non-surgical techniques. Prospective studies using larger cohorts of patients and including polysomnograms are needed to better understand the risk factors for this patient population and the efficacy of treatment options for OSAS and their underlying conditions. PMID:25555676

  11. Decision making is affected in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daurat, Agnès; Ricarrère, Matthieu; Tiberge, Michel

    2013-03-01

    We assessed decision making in 20 patients newly diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and 20 healthy controls with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which evaluates the ability to learn to sacrifice immediate rewards in favour of long-term gains. A standard neuropsychological battery was administered. Switching scores tended to be lower in patients. Patients persisted in selecting risky decks throughout the IGT, whereas controls behaved normally. Performance was correlated with hypoxaemia. Brain regions underlying decision making may be affected by OSA-related hypoxaemia.

  12. Remote Ambulatory Management of Veterans with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Barry G.; Behari, Pratima Pathak; McCloskey, Susan; True, Gala; Richardson, Diane; Thomasson, Arwin; Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Davies, Keith; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite significant medical sequelae of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the condition remains undiagnosed and untreated in many affected individuals. We explored the feasibility of a comprehensive, telemedicine-based OSA management pathway in a community-based Veteran cohort. Methods: This prospective, parallel-group randomized pilot study assessed feasibility of a telemedicine-based pathway for OSA evaluation and management in comparison to a more traditional, in-person care model. The study included 60 Veterans at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center and two affiliated community-based outpatient clinics. Telemedicine pathway feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes were assessed through a variety of quantitative (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, dropout rates, positive airway pressure [PAP] adherence rates, participant satisfaction ratings) and qualitative (verbal feedback) metrics. Results: There was no significant difference in functional outcome changes, patient satisfaction, dropout rates, or objectively measured PAP adherence between groups after 3 months of treatment. Telemedicine participants showed greater improvement in mental health scores, and their feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that telemedicine-based management of OSA patients is feasible in terms of patient functional outcomes and overall satisfaction with care. Future studies should include larger populations to further elucidate these findings while assessing provider- and patient-related cost effectiveness. Citation: Fields BG, Behari PP, McCloskey S, True G, Richardson D, Thomasson A, Korom-Djakovic D, Davies K, Kuna ST. Remote ambulatory management of veterans with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(3):501–509. PMID:26446115

  13. Effects of surgical correction of nasal obstruction in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sériès, F; St Pierre, S; Carrier, G

    1992-11-01

    Negative upper airway pressure is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. Because nasal resistance contributes to the increase of the transpharyngeal pressure gradient, we evaluated the effects of nasal surgery on sleep-related breathing abnormalities in 20 adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Polysomnographic studies were done before (baseline), and 2 to 3 mo after surgery (septoplasty, turbinectomy, and/or polypectomy). Nasal resistances were measured at these visits in 14 patients. Cephalometric measurements were obtained before surgery. Cephalometric abnormalities consisted in an increase in the distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid bone (MP-H), a decrease in the space between the base of the tongue and the posterior soft tissues (PAS), a retroposition of the mandibule, and an increase in the length of the soft palate. Body weight did not change between the two studies. Nasal resistance decreased significantly after nasal surgery. The composition of the total sleep time spent in the rapid eye movement stage increased from 11.5 +/- 1.3% (mean +/- SEM) to 14 +/- 1.2% after surgery. For the group as the whole, there was no difference between baseline and postsurgical values in the frequency of respiratory disturbances (39.8 +/- 6.1, 36.8 +/- 5.9 n/h), the total apnea time (17.8 +/- 4.2, 15.4 +/- 2.8), the distribution of the apnea time within the different apnea types (obstructive and nonobstructive), and the severity of the nocturnal desaturations. Interestingly, apnea and apnea plus hypopnea indices returned to normal values (< 5 and 10, respectively) in four subjects with normal posterior soft tissues and mandibular plane to the hyoid bone distances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the quality of life

    PubMed Central

    COMAN, ANDREEA CODRUTA; BORZAN, CRISTINA; VESA, CRISTIAN STEFAN; TODEA, DOINA ADINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) affects the quality of life (QOL) due to the effects on the patient’s physical and mental function. QOL in sleep apnea may improve under continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the OSA patients QOL before and after 3 months of CPAP therapy using Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI). Methods We conducted a study in 79 sleep apnea subjects diagnosed using cardiorespiratory portable monitoring, under CPAP therapy, monitored in our Sleep Laboratory from January 2011 to December 2014. This is a cross-sectional study, achieved through quantitative research (SAQLI questionnaire application) about the perception of quality of life in patients with sleep apnea in the moment of diagnosis and 3 months after CPAP therapy. Results Of the 79 subjects, 59 (74.7%) were men and 20 (26.3%) women; mean age was 54.13 years (SD±10.87), the mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 52.46±20.83 events/h. In all 4 domains of SAQLI: daily functioning with mean pretreatment score 4.13±0.58 versus mean post treatment score 5.43±0.52; social interactions with mean pretreatment score 3.68±0.55 versus post treatment mean score 5.36±0.57; emotional functioning with mean pretreatment score 3.83±0.53 versus mean post treatment mean 5.38±0.56 and symptoms with mean pretreatment score 0.81±0.12 versus mean post treatment score 1.15±0.14, quality of life was improved after 3 months of therapy, with significantly statistical correlation (p=0.00). Also, an improvement was seen in mean total score of SAQLI after therapy as compared to baseline 3.11±0.32 versus 4.24±0.39 (p<0.01). Conclusion The quality of life in sleep apnea was better after CPAP therapy than from baseline, according Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index. The SAQLI is a useful toll to evaluate quality of life in sleep apnea, especially to highlight the benefits of CPAP therapy, even with short time

  15. Reduced innervation in the human pharynx in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    de Carlos, Félix; Cobo, Juan; Macías, Emilio; Feito, Jorge; González, Mónica; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Mondragón, María P; García-Suárez, Olivia; Vega, José A

    2015-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a disease characterized by repetitive breathing during sleep that lead to reduced oxygen saturation and sleep disturbance among other symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by blockade of the upper respiratory airway, although the pathogenic mechanism underlying this occlusion remains unknown. In these studies we explored the hypothesis that alterations in the innervation, especially mechanosensory innervation, of the pharynx may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the innervation of the human pharynx in normal individuals and in subjects clinically diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. Using immunohistochemistry for axon and Schwann cells, as well as for two putative mechanoproteins (ASIC2 and TRPV4), we observed a significant reduction in the density of nerve fibers in the submucosa of patients with obstructive sleep apnea as well as morphological abnormalities in mechanosensory corpuscles. Importantly, while ASIC2 and TRPV4 expression was regularly found in the axons of mechanosensory corpuscles distributed throughout the muscular layer in the control subjects, it was absent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. These findings support that neurological alterations are important contributors to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and sequelae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Jung; Chae, Kyu Young

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with frequent postural changes, excessive sweating, or abnormal sleep positions such as hyperextension of neck or abnormal prone position may suggest a sleep-disordered breathing. Night terror, sleepwalking, and enuresis are frequently associated, during slow-wave sleep, with sleep-disordered breathing. Excessive daytime sleepiness becomes apparent in older children, whereas hyperactivity or inattention is usually predominant in younger children. Morning headache and poor appetite may also be present. As the cortical arousal threshold is higher in children, arousals are not easily developed and their sleep architectures are usually more conserved than those of adults. Untreated OSAS in children may result in various problems such as cognitive deficits, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and emotional instability. Mild pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon. Rarely, cardiovascular complications such as cor pulmonale, heart failure, and systemic hypertension may develop in untreated cases. Failure to thrive and delayed development are serious problems in younger children with OSAS. Diagnosis of pediatric OSAS should be based on snoring, relevant history of sleep disruption, findings of any narrow or collapsible portions of upper airway, and confirmed by polysomnography. Early diagnosis of pediatric OSAS is critical to prevent complications with appropriate interventions. PMID:21189956

  17. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Cardiovascular Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Whether Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Reduces that Risk.

    PubMed

    Khayat, Rami; Pleister, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is present in up to 25% of otherwise healthy individuals. OSA is associated with intermittent hypoxia, oxidative stress, sympathetic activation, and an inflammatory response. These perturbations mediate the role of OSA as an independent and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). OSA can induce CVD or accelerate the progression of CVD into an end-stage disorder, including heart failure and stroke. Current clinical recommendations are based on existing clinical trial data and the clinical experience of our program; current and future clinical trials will help to optimize management of OSA in the setting of CVD. PMID:27542874

  18. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Buerger's Disease: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Navvabi, Iman; Ahmadi Hoseini, Seyed Hosein; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar

    2015-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans for reduction of crisis. In 40 patients with Buerger's disease daily sleepiness and risk of Obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated using the Epworth sleeping scale (ESS) and the Stop-Bang score. An Apnea-link device was used for evaluation of chest motion, peripheral oxygenation, and nasal airflow during night-time sleep. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory disurbance index were used for Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis. All subjects were cigarette smokers and 80% were opium addicted. The prevalence of Obstructive sleep apnea (AHI>5) was 80%, but incidence of Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (AHI>5 + ESS≥10) was 5% (2/40). There was no association between duration or frequency of hospitalization and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (P=0.74 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, no correlation between ESS and Stop-Bang scores and AHI was observed (P=0.58 and 0.41, respectively). There was an inverse correlation between smoking rate and AHI (P=0.032, r = -0.48). We did not find an association between Buerger's disease and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the AHI was high (80%) and daily sleepiness was low. The negative correlation of smoking with AHI and on the other hand daily napping in addiction may be caused by the absence of a clear relationship between Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and Buerger's disease. PMID:26615374

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Adolescents and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sara E.; Li, Zhuokai; Tu, Wanzhu; Jalou, Hasnaa; Brubaker, Jamie L.; Gupta, Sandeep; Huber, Jordan N.; Carroll, Aaron; Hannon, Tamara S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and insulin sensitivity/cardiometabolic risk are limited and conflicting. Objective To determine if cardiometabolic risk markers are increased among obese youth with obstructive sleep apnea as compared with their equally obese peers without OSA. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 patients (age 14.2 ± 1.4 years) who underwent polysomnography for suspected OSA. Fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were performed as part of routine clinical evaluation. Patients were categorized into two groups by degree of OSA as measured by the apnea hypopnea index (AHI): none or mild OSA (AHI < 5) and moderate or severe OSA (AHI ≥ 5). Results Despite similar degrees of obesity, patients with moderate or severe OSA had higher fasting insulin (p = 0.037) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR (p = 0.0497)], as compared with those with mild or no OSA. After controlling for body mass index, there was a positive association between the AHI and log HOMA-IR (p = 0.005). There was a positive relationship between arousals plus awakenings during the polysomnography and fasting triglycerides. Conclusions OSA is linked with greater cardiometabolic risk markers in obese youth. PMID:24106092

  20. Severity of depression and anxiety in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Tavakoli, Saman; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder which can result in mood problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms as the most prevalent psychological disturbances present in different severity of OSA. We performed a cross-sectional study of 685 recently diagnosed sleep-disordered patients, over the age of 18, referred to Noor Sleep Lab from August 2008 to November 2010. The participants filled the Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) to assess the depression and anxiety symptoms. We collected other characteristics of subjects such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was determined by an overnight polysomnography. Mean age of the participants was 47.63 years (SD 11.73). More than half of patient had some degrees of depression and anxiety. AHI showed no significant correlation with BDI (p = 0.105, r = -0.070) or BAI (p = 0.712, r = -0.016). Obesity was not either correlated with depression or anxiety (p = 0.18, r = 0.05). Nonetheless, ESS was weakly correlated with depression (p = 0.001, r = 0.148) and anxiety scores (p = 0.006, r = 0.120). BMI and ESS means were significantly higher in patients with severe OSA (p = 0.000). In comparison with men, the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was significantly higher in women (p = 0.000). In this cross-sectional study of patients with sleep problems, OSA was not associated with severity of depression and anxiety symptoms.

  1. Exercise capacity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowski, T; Bielicki, P; Kumor, M; Hildebrand, K; Maskey-Warzechowska, M; Korczyński, P; Chazan, R

    2007-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disease characterized by repetitive partial or complete closure of the upper airway during sleep. Cardiovascular disturbances are the most important complications responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. It is suggested that daytime somnolence, chronic fatigue, and nocturnal hypoxemia may further impair muscle function and decrease exercise fitness. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiopulmonary response to exercise in OSAS patients. One hundred and eleven middle aged (50.2+/-10 yr), obese (BMI 31.0+/-4.6 kg/m2) patients (109 M, 2F) with severe OSAS (AHI 47.2+/-23.1 h(-1)) were enrolled into the study. OSAS was diagnosed with overnight polysomnography and a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed on a treadmill using Bruce protocol. The results showed that the most frequent reason for exercise termination were: muscle fatigue and/or dyspnea (66+/-), increase in systolic blood pressure>220 mmHg (20%), ECG abnormalities, and chest pain (6%). Although the mean VO2 peak was within the reference value (29.6+/-6 mlO2/kg/min), in 52 patients (46%) VO2 peak was <84% of predicted. Hypertensive response to exercise was diagnosed in 39 of patients (35%). Patients with severe sleep apnea (AHI40>or=h(-1)) were characterized by higher mean blood pressure at rest, at 25%, 50% of maximal work load, at peak exercise and at post-exercise recovery. Several significant correlations between hemodynamic responses to exercise and sleep apnea severity were also noted. We conclude that exercise tolerance can be limited due to hypertensive response in about 20% of patients. Patients with severe OSAS have exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and delayed post-exercise blood pressure recovery. Cardiopulmonary response to exercise seems to be related to sleep apnea severity.

  2. SleepAp: an automated obstructive sleep apnoea screening application for smartphones.

    PubMed

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Shahid, Mohammed; Daly, Jonathan; Hallack, Andre; Palmius, Niclas; Stradling, John; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a sleep disorder with long-term consequences. Long-term effects include sleep-related issues and cardiovascular diseases. OSA is often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram. Monitoring can be costly with long wait times for diagnosis. In this paper, a novel OSA screening framework and prototype phone application are introduced. A database of 856 patients that underwent at-home polygraphy was collected. Features were derived from audio, actigraphy, photoplethysmography (PPG), and demographics, and used as the inputs of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The SVM was trained on 735 patients and tested on 121 patients. Classification on the test set had an accuracy of up to 92.2% when classifying subjects as having moderate or severe OSA versus being healthy or a snorer based on the clinicians' diagnoses. The signal processing and machine learning algorithms were ported to Java and integrated into the phone application-SleepAp. SleepAp records the body position, audio, actigraphy and PPG signals, and implements the clinically validated STOP-BANG questionnaire. It derives features from the signals and classifies the user as having OSA or not using the SVM trained on the clinical database. The resulting software could provide a new, easy-to-use, low-cost, and widely available modality for OSA screening. PMID:25561453

  3. Sleep Position Trainer versus Tennis Ball Technique in Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eijsvogel, Michiel M.; Ubbink, Rinse; Dekker, Janita; Oppersma, Eline; de Jongh, Frans H.; van der Palen, Job; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Positional therapy (PT) is an effective therapy in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS) when used, but the compliance of PT is low. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a new kind of PT is effective and can improve compliance. Methods: 29 patients were treated with the sleep position trainer (SPT), 26 patients with the tennis ball technique (TBT). At baseline and 1 month polysomnography, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ) were taken. Daily compliance was objectively measured in both groups. Results: Both therapies prevent supine sleep position to a median of 0% (min-max: SPT 0.0% to 67%, TBT 0.0% to 38.9%), resulting in a treatment success (AHI < 5) in 68.0% of the SPT and 42.9% of the TBT patients. The ESS at baseline was < 10 in both groups. Sleep quality parameters, such as wake after sleep onset (WASO; p = 0.001) and awakenings (p = 0.006), improved more in the SPT group. Total QSQ scores (0.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.03), the QSQ domains nocturnal symptoms (0.7 ± 0.2, p = 0.01), and social interactions (0.8 ± 0.3, p = 0.02) changed in favor of the SPT group. Effective compliance (≥ 4 h/night + ≥ 5 days/week) was 75.9% for the SPT and 42.3% for the TBT users (p = 0.01). Conclusion: In mild POSAS with normal EES the new SPT device and the standard TBT are equally effective in reducing respiratory indices. However, compared to the TBT, sleep quality, quality of life, and compliance improved significantly more in the SPT group. Citation: Eijsvogel MM, Ubbink R, Dekker J, Oppersma E, de Jongh FH, van der Palen J, Brusse-Keizer MG. Sleep position trainer versus tennis ball technique in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):139–147. PMID:25515276

  4. A Case of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Assessments of Fitness for Work

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder that can cause excessive daytime sleepiness and impairment of cognition. These symptoms may lead to the occurrence of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea. Case presentation A 36-year-old man who worked as a dimensional control surveyor caused a vehicle accident while he was driving at the work site. Although he experienced loss of consciousness at the time of the accident, he had no other symptoms. His brain computed tomography and laboratory test did not show any specific findings. Medical tests were conducted to evaluate his fitness for work. Decreased sleep latency was observed on the electroencephalography image, which is suggestive of a sleep disorder. He frequently experienced daytime sleepiness and his Epworth sleepiness score was 13. The polysomnography showed a markedly increased apnea-hypopnea index of 84.3, which led to a diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea. The patient was advised to return to work only when his obstructive sleep apnea improved through proper treatment. Conclusion Proper screening for obstructive sleep apnea among workers is important for preventing workplace accidents caused by this disorder, but screening guidelines have not yet been established in Korea. An effort toward preparing practical guidelines for obstructive sleep apnea is needed. PMID:24822091

  5. Screening for Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea before Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ishman, Stacey L.; Tawfik, Kareem O.; Smith, David F.; Cheung, Kristin; Pringle, Lauren M.; Stephen, Matthew J.; Everett, Tiffany L.; Stierer, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Anesthesia practice guidelines recommend that pediatric and adult patients who undergo ambulatory surgery be screened for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With this in mind, our objective was to assess the frequency of screening by anesthesia providers for the signs and symptoms of OSA in children undergoing surgery in an ambulatory setting. Methods: Prospective single-blinded observational study of anesthesia providers' preoperative interview of caregivers of consecutive patients younger than age 18 who were scheduled for ambulatory surgery. Results: One hundred one children (30 females) were identified, with a mean age of 6.9 ± 5.0 years; 54 were classified as white, 33 as black, and 14 as other. Total OSA-18 scores ranged from 18 to 97, with a mean of 33.1 ± 14.8. The mean score for adenotonsillectomy patients was higher than that for children who underwent procedures other than adenotonsillectomy. Thirty-one percent of children were screened for OSA, and snoring was the most common symptom recorded (28%). Patients who were screened for OSA were more likely to have snoring (p < 0.001), known OSA (p = 0.006), and a scheduled adenotonsillectomy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: OSA was not routinely screened for by anesthesia providers prior to ambulatory pediatric surgery. When screening did occur, “snoring” was the most commonly recorded symptom. Paradoxically, patients with undiagnosed OSA who would benefit the most from screening were the least likely to be screened. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 697. Citation: Ishman SL, Tawfik KO, Smith DF, Cheung K, Pringle LM, Stephen MJ, Everett TL, Stierer TL. Screening for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea before ambulatory surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):751–755. PMID:25902820

  6. Central and Peripheral factors contributing to Obstructive Sleep Apneas

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Garcia, Alfredo J.; Anderson, Tatiana M.; Koschnitzky, Jenna E.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh; Prabhakar, Nanduri

    2013-01-01

    Apnea, the cessation of breathing, is a common physiological and pathophysiological phenomenon with many basic scientific and clinical implications. Among the different forms of apnea, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically the most prominent manifestation. OSA is characterized by repetitive airway occlusions that are typically associated with peripheral airway obstructions. However, it would be a gross oversimplification to conclude that OSA is caused by peripheral obstructions. OSA is the result of a dynamic interplay between chemo- and mechanosensory reflexes, neuromodulation, behavioral state and the differential activation of the central respiratory network and its motor outputs. This interplay has numerous neuronal and cardiovascular consequences that are initially adaptive but in the long-term become major contributors to the morbidity and mortality associated with OSA. However, not only OSA, but all forms of apnea have multiple, and partly overlapping mechanisms. In all cases the underlying mechanisms are neither “exclusively peripheral” nor “exclusively central” in origin. While the emphasis has long been on the role of peripheral reflex pathways in the case of OSA, and central mechanisms in the case of central apneas, we are learning that such a separation is inconsistent with the integration of these mechanisms in all cases of apneas. This review discusses the complex interplay of peripheral and central nervous components that characterizes the cessation of breathing. PMID:23770311

  7. Mini Tracheostomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Evidence Based Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Zaghi, Soroush; Chang, Edward T.; Song, Sungjin A.; Szelestey, Blake; Certal, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To search for articles evaluating the use of tracheostomies (either permanent stomas or tracheostomy tubes) in adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to evaluate the potential for the use of mini tracheostomies as treatment for OSA. Study Design. Systematic review. Methods. Nine databases were searched from inception through July 21, 2015. Results. The overall tracheostomy search yielded 516 articles, of which eighteen studies provided polysomnographic data. No study was identified (empty review) for the use of mini tracheostomies for treating OSA. The mini tracheostomy search yielded ninety-five articles which describe findings for either mini tracheostomy kits (inner cannula diameter of 4 mm) or the performance of mini tracheotomies. Six articles described the use of mini tracheostomies as a temporary procedure to relieve acute upper airway obstruction and none described the use for OSA. For tracheostomy stomal sites, suturing the skin directly to the tracheal rings with defatting can minimize stomal site collapse. The smallest tracheostomy stomal size that can successfully treat OSA has not been described. Conclusion. Mini tracheostomies as small as 4 mm have been successfully used in the short term to relieve upper airway obstruction. Given that polysomnography data are lacking, additional research is needed. PMID:26925105

  8. Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Polysomnography after a Technically Inadequate or Normal Home Sleep Test

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Michelle R.; Santiago, Vicente; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Michael N.; Santiago, Silverio; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Home sleep testing (HST) is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in high-risk populations. Clinical guidelines recommend PSG in cases where the HST is technically inadequate (TI) or fails to establish the diagnosis of OSA in patients with high pretest probability. This retrospective study evaluated predictors of OSA on PSG within patients who had a TI or normal HST. Methods: Electronic medical records were reviewed on 1,157 patients referred for HST at our sleep center. Two hundred thirty-eight patients had a TI or normal HST with subsequent PSG. Age, BMI, Epworth score, HST result, and PSG-based apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were abstracted. Results: Two hundred thirty-eight consecutive patients with either a normal HST (n = 127) or TI HST (n = 111) underwent subsequent PSG. Of 127 who had a normal HST, 76% had a normal PSG and 24% had OSA (23 mild, 6 moderate, 1 severe). Of 111 who had a TI HST, 29% had a normal PSG and 71% had OSA (43 mild, 19 moderate, 17 severe). Individuals younger than 50 years old with a normal HST were more likely to have a normal PSG. Older age predicted diagnosis of OSA on PSG among individuals with a TI HST. Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis of a clinical sample, when the HST is interpreted as normal in a younger patient population, the subsequent PSG is likewise normal in majority of the patients, although significant OSA is sometimes discovered. When a HST is read as TI, the majority of patients have OSA. Citation: Zeidler MR, Santiago V, Dzierzewski JM, Mitchell MN, Santiago S, Martin JL. Predictors of obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography after a technically inadequate or normal home sleep test. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1313–1318. PMID:26156951

  9. Brain Structure Network Analysis in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun-gang; Wang, Defeng; Liu, Kai; Weng, Jian; Guan, Yuefeng; Chan, Kate C. C.; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Shi, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleeping disorder commonly affecting school-aged children and is characterized by repeated episodes of blockage of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed a graph theoretical analysis on the brain morphometric correlation network in 25 OSA patients (OSA group; 5 female; mean age, 10.1 ± 1.8 years) and investigated the topological alterations in global and regional properties compared with 20 healthy control individuals (CON group; 6 females; mean age, 10.4 ± 1.8 years). A structural correlation network based on regional gray matter volume was constructed respectively for each group. Our results revealed a significantly decreased mean local efficiency in the OSA group over the density range of 0.32–0.44 (p < 0.05). Regionally, the OSAs showed a tendency of decreased betweenness centrality in the left angular gyrus, and a tendency of decreased degree in the right lingual and inferior frontal (orbital part) gyrus (p < 0.005, uncorrected). We also found that the network hubs in OSA and controls were distributed differently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that characterizes the brain structure network in OSA patients and invests the alteration of topological properties of gray matter volume structural network. This study may help to provide new evidence for understanding the neuropathophysiology of OSA from a topological perspective. PMID:26413809

  10. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in children: A practical approach.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Kevin D; Jon, Cindy K; Szmuk, Peter; Lazar, Rande H; Mitchell, Ron B

    2016-07-01

    The management of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children differs between institutions, and there is a need for an updated review of current practice. Literature was reviewed using the PubMed database from 1995 to 2015 by four tertiary care providers experienced in the management of children with SDB. Articles were selected for clinical applicability, strength of evidence, and practicality for practicing clinicians. Fifty-five articles were identified by tertiary care providers in pediatric anesthesiology, pediatric pulmonology, sleep medicine, and pediatric otolaryngology. Each reviewed and analyzed literature independently based on their specialties, and a consensus document was created. The consensus was that the majority of children with SDB do not undergo polysomnography (PSG) before adenotonsillectomy (T&A). Indications for PSG are presented, with a practical approach recommended for the otolaryngologist. Clinical practice guidelines are available from leading national societies, but their recommendations differ. T&A is the first-line treatment and is highly effective in normal-weight but not in obese children. The perioperative management of children is challenging and needs to be individualized. Young children, those with severe obstructive sleep apnea, and those with significant comorbidities need to be observed overnight. PMID:27434480

  11. Different heart rate patterns in obstructive apneas during NREM sleep.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M R; Romano, S; Marrone, O; Chiodi, M; Bonsignore, G

    1997-12-01

    Both bradycardia and a trend to tachycardia have been reported in obstructive sleep apneas (OSA). Because heart rate (HR) behavior may yield information on parasympathetic activity during OSA, we analyzed HR in samples of consecutive apneic cycles in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, recorded in normotensive patients breathing room air (n = 7) and supplemental O2 (n = 4). In air, the patients showed different HR trends during apnea, as HR decreased (HR decreased), remained constant (HR=), or increased (HR increased). By multiple regression analysis, development of HR trends correlated with the HR fall in the late interapneic period, HR at first effort, the decrease in esophageal pressure, and the lengthening of inspiration during apnea (R2 = 0.42). O2 abolished HR decreased-OSA, whereas HR= and HR increased-OSA still occurred but at higher HR than in air. In both the air and O2 series, the HR fall preceding apnea correlated significantly with the degree of hypoxia reached in the previous apneic cycle. These data indicate a complex modulation of HR during OSA, with the HR fall in the late interapneic period possibly reflecting the effectiveness of parasympathetic cardiac control in OSA patients during sleep. PMID:9493928

  12. Exercise training effect on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norman, J F; Von Essen, S G; Fuchs, R H; McElligott, M

    2000-01-01

    The role, if any, of exercise training in the management of individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is unclear. Anecdotally, patients have reported improvement in symptoms with regular participation in an exercise regime. In this study, we evaluated the effects of an exercise training program and weight loss on physical and subjective measures associated with OSAS. Nine subjects with mild to moderate OSAS completed a six month supervised exercise program. Pre and post-training measures on polysomnographic testing, physical training, anthropometric measures, quality of life (QOL), daytime somnolence and mood states were assessed. A significant decrease in the AHI (p=0.002) was noted along with improvements (p<0.05) in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings/hour, arousals/hour, apnea index and mean exercise training workloads. Significant decreases (p<.001) in weight (-6.2 kg) and body mass index (-1.6) were observed. Evaluation of QOL measures by the Health Status Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States and Epworth Sleepiness Scale showed significant changes in health status, affective state, and a decrease in daytime somnolence. Regular exercise training had a positive impact on the AHI, aerobic capacity, body mass index and QOL. However, exercise training alone was not an adequate intervention strategy for most individuals with OSAS but may serve well as an adjunct treatment strategy in the conservative management of individuals with mild to moderate OSAS.

  13. Circadian Variability of Fibrinolytic Markers and Endothelial Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Bagai, Kanika; Muldowney, James A. S.; Song, Yanna; Wang, Lily; Bagai, Jayant; Artibee, Kay J.; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Malow, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, including stroke and acute coronary syndromes. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the principal inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), has a pronounced circadian rhythm and is elevated in both OSA and cardiovascular disease and may be an important link between the two conditions. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular disease, and may be altered in OSA. Our primary aim was to compare circadian variability of PAI-1 and t-PA in patients with OSA and normal controls by determining the amplitude (peak level) and mesor (rhythm adjusted mean) of PAI-1 and t-PA in serial blood samples over a 24-h period. The secondary aim was to measure markers of endothelial function (brachial and radial artery flow) in patients with OSA compared with normal controls. Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study. Patients or Participants: Subjects age 18 y or older, with a body mass index of 25-45 kg/m2, with or without evidence of untreated OSA. Interventions: Plasma samples were collected every 2 h, in OSA patients and matched controls, over a 24-h period. PAI-1 and t-PA antigen and activity were measured. The presence or absence of OSA (apnea-hypopnea index of 5 or greater) was confirmed by overnight polysomnography. Endothelial function was measured via brachial artery flow mediated vasodilatation and computerized arterial pulse waveform analysis. Measurements and Results: The rhythm-adjusted mean levels of PAI-1 antigen levels in the OSA group (21.8 ng/mL, 95% confidence level [CI], 18 to 25.7) were significantly higher as compared to the non-OSA group (16 ng/mL, 95% CI, 12.2 to 19.8; P = 0.03). The rhythm-adjusted mean levels of PAI-1 activity levels in the OSA group (23.9 IU/mL, 95% CI, 21.4 to 26.5) were also significantly higher than in the non-OSA group (17.2 IU/ mL, 95% CI, 14.6 to 19.9; P < 0.001).There

  14. Significance of vaspin in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    PAN, ZHE; ZHUANG, XIANGHUA; LI, XIAOBO; HUANG, SHAOYI; ZHANG, LIANG; LOU, FUCHEN; CHEN, SHIHONG; NI, YIHONG

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a commonly-diagnosed chronic sleep disorder. It is considered to be an important independent risk factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Patients with OSAHS exhibit a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity and metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is an adipokine that is considered to be a link between obesity and IR. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of plasma vaspin in patients with OSAHS and examine their potential correlation with sleep characteristics. A total of 20 healthy male subjects and 42 male patients with OSAHS were selected, and patients were divided into mild (n=22) and severe (n=20) OSAHS groups. The 20 patients in the severe OSAHS group received nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment for 2 months. Venous blood samples were drawn from all patients in a fasting state prior to and subsequent to nCPAP treatment, which were used to measure the levels of biochemical indicators. The sleep parameters and serologic index changes were compared prior to and following treatment. The values of contractive pressure (SBP), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and hip circumference (HC) in the two OSAHS groups were significantly increased compared with those in the control group. In addition, the levels of vaspin in OSAHS patients were markedly increased and vaspin was revealed to be positively associated with fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment-IR, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), NC, WC, BMI and WHR (P<0.05). After 2 months of nCPAP treatment, the SBP and AHI were significantly reduced. In conclusion, vaspin may have an important role in OSAHS patients with IR and treatment using nCPAP may improve the condition of OSAHS patients. PMID:26998001

  15. Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation Improves Obstructive Sleep Apnea: 12 Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kezirian, Eric J.; Goding, George S.; Malhotra, Atul; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Zammit, Gary; Wheatley, John R.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Smith, Philip L.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Walsh, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Kathleen J.; Claman, David M.; Huntley, Tod; Park, Steven Y.; Campbell, Matthew C.; Palme, Carsten E.; Iber, Conrad; Eastwood, Peter R.; Hillman, David R.; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is a key contributor to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) activates upper airway dilator muscles, including the genioglossus, and has the potential to reduce OSA severity. The objective of this study was to examine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a novel HGNS system (HGNS®, Apnex Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN) in treating OSA at 12 months following implantation. Thirty-one subjects (35% female, age 52·4±9·4 years) with moderate to severe OSA and unable to tolerate positive airway pressure underwent surgical implantation and activation of the HGNS system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. Primary outcomes were changes in OSA severity (apnoea-hypopnoea index, AHI, from in-laboratory polysomnogram) and sleep-related quality of life (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, FOSQ). HGNS was used on 86±16% of nights for 5·4±1·4 hours per night. There was a significant improvement (p < 0·001) from baseline to 12 months in AHI (45.4±17·5 to 25·3±20·6 events/h) and FOSQ score (14·2±2·0 to 17·0±2·4) as well as other polysomnogram and symptom measures. Outcomes were stable compared to 6 months following implantation. Three serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal and two stimulation lead cuff dislodgements requiring replacement. There were no significant adverse events with onset later than 6 months following implantation. HGNS demonstrated favourable safety, feasibility, and efficacy. PMID:24033656

  16. CPAP, Weight Loss, or Both for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Teff, Karen; Rader, Daniel J.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Townsend, Raymond; Foster, Gary D.; Maislin, Greg; Saif, Hassam; Broderick, Preston; Chittams, Jesse; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist and are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, but their causal relation to these abnormalities is unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned 181 patients with obesity, moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 1.0 mg per liter to receive treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a weight-loss intervention, or CPAP plus a weight-loss intervention for 24 weeks. We assessed the incremental effect of the combined interventions over each one alone on the CRP level (the primary end point), insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and blood pressure. RESULTS Among the 146 participants for whom there were follow-up data, those assigned to weight loss only and those assigned to the combined interventions had reductions in CRP levels, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride levels. None of these changes were observed in the group receiving CPAP alone. Blood pressure was reduced in all three groups. No significant incremental effect on CRP levels was found for the combined interventions as compared with either weight loss or CPAP alone. Reductions in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels were greater in the combined-intervention group than in the group receiving CPAP only, but there were no significant differences in these values between the combined-intervention group and the weight-loss group. In per-protocol analyses, which included 90 participants who met prespecified criteria for adherence, the combined interventions resulted in a larger reduction in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure than did either CPAP or weight loss alone. CONCLUSIONS In adults with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP combined with a weight-loss intervention did not reduce CRP levels more than either intervention alone. In secondary analyses, weight loss provided an incremental reduction

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  18. Sleep-Related Painful Erections in a Patient With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abouda, Maher; Jomni, Taieb; Yangui, Ferdaws; Charfi, Mohamed Ridha; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Sleep-related painful erection (SRPE) is a rare sleep disorder characterized by recurrent, painful penile erections occurring when awakening from rapid eye movement sleep, while erections are painless during wakefulness. Almost 35 cases have been reported worldwide, and only two of them had an associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We report a new case of a 61-year-old man suffering from SRPE associated with OSAS. The adequate treatment of respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure did not alleviate the SRPE symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness. The SRPE diagnosis was made by polysomnography coupled with video surveillance when the patient was referred to the sleep laboratory for residual excessive daytime sleepiness. The patient had 2-4 episodes of SRPE/night. Beta-blocker did not alleviate the SRPE, but a transient improvement was noted when the patient was treated with paroxetine. In contrast with the two previously published cases of SRPE plus OSAS, continuous positive airway treatment did not improve SRPE symptoms in our patient. PMID:26392186

  19. Hypertension, Snoring, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea During Pregnancy: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Chames, Mark C.; Shelgikar, Anita V.; Armitage, Roseanne; Guilleminualt, Christian; Sullivan, Colin E.; Johnson, Timothy R. B.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea among women with and without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Design Cohort study. Setting Obstetric clinics at an academic medical center. Population Pregnant women with hypertensive disorders (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or pre-eclampsia) and normotensive women. Methods Women completed a questionnaire about habitual snoring and underwent overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Main Outcome Measures The presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Results Obstructive sleep apnoea was found among 21 of 51 women with hypertensive disorders (41%), but in only three of 16 women who were normotensive (19%, chi-square test, P = 0.005). Non-snoring hypertensive women typically had mild obstructive sleep apnea but >25% of snoring hypertensive women had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Among the hypertensive women, the mean apnea/hypopnea index was substantially higher in snorers than non-snorers (19.9±34.1 vs. 3.4±3.1, p=0.013) and the oxyhemoglobin saturation nadir was significantly lower (86.4±6.6 vs. 90.2±3.5, p=0.021). Among hypertensive women, after stratification by obesity the pooled relative risk for obstructive sleep apnea in snoring women with hypertension compared to non-snoring hypertension was 2.0 [95%CI 1.4–2.8]. Conclusions Pregnant women with hypertension are at high risk for unrecognised obstructive sleep apnea. While longitudinal and intervention studies are urgently needed, it would seem pertinent given the known relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension in the general population, that hypertensive pregnant women who snore should be tested for obstructive sleep apnea, a condition believed to cause or promote hypertension. PMID:24888772

  20. Hypertension and stroke in a young man with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tikare, S K; Chaudhary, B A; Bandisode, M S

    1985-11-15

    In the case reported here, a 34-year-old man with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had arterial hypertension and had had a stroke that caused right hemiplegia. A review of the literature reveals a surprisingly high occurrence of arterial hypertension in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, including children. The cause of hypertension in these patients is not clear. Surgical procedures and a new nonsurgical treatment have been successful in relieving the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Our patient's symptoms resolved completely after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tonsillectomy. However, his arterial hypertension persisted.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea and insight into mechanisms of sympathetic overactivity

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, François; Kumar, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, we evaluated ten patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We determined that alarming nocturnal oscillations in arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were caused by regulatory coupling and neural interactions among SNA, apnea, and ventilation. Patients with OSA exhibited high levels of SNA when awake, during normal ventilation, and during normoxia, which contributed to hypertension and organ damage. Additionally, we achieved a beneficial and potentially lifesaving reduction in SNA through the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which remains a primary therapeutic approach for patients with OSA. With these results in hindsight, we herein discuss three concepts with functional and therapeutic relevance to the integrative neurobiology of autonomic cardiovascular control and to the mechanisms involved in excessive sympathoexcitation in OSA. PMID:24691480

  2. Functional Role of Neural Injury in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Saboisky, Julian P.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Eckert, Danny J.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are multifactorial. Neural injury affecting the upper airway muscles due to repetitive exposure to intermittent hypoxia and/or mechanical strain resulting from snoring and recurrent upper airway closure have been proposed to contribute to OSA disease progression. Multiple studies have demonstrated altered sensory and motor function in patients with OSA using a variety of neurophysiological and histological approaches. However, the extent to which the alterations contribute to impairments in upper airway muscle function, and thus OSA disease progression, remains uncertain. This brief review, primarily focused on data in humans, summarizes: (1) the evidence for upper airway sensorimotor injury in OSA and (2) current understanding of how these changes affect upper airway function and their potential to change OSA progression. Some unresolved questions including possible treatment targets are noted. PMID:22715333

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea and cancer: effects of intermittent hypoxia?

    PubMed

    Kukwa, Wojciech; Migacz, Ewa; Druc, Karolina; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by pauses in regular breathing. Apneic episodes lead to recurrent hypoxemia-reoxygenation cycles with concomitant cellular intermittent hypoxia. Studies suggest that intermittent hypoxia in OSA may influence tumorigenesis. This review presents recent articles on the potential role of OSA in cancer development. Relevant research has focused on: molecular pathways mediating the influence of intermittent hypoxia on tumor physiology, animal and epidemiological human studies linking OSA and cancer. Current data relating OSA to risk of neoplastic disease remain scarce, but recent studies reveal the potential for a strong relation. More work is, therefore, needed on the impact of OSA on many cancer-related aspects. Results may offer enlightenment for improved cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26562000

  4. The Link Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Fré; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Hertegonne, Katrien B C; Chirinos, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in the general population and highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we review (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA that may causally contribute to cardiovascular disease; (2) current evidence regarding the association between OSA and hypertension, stroke, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and cardiovascular mortality; and (3) the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes. We emphasize the importance of obesity as a comorbidity of OSA and a confounder in the association between OSA and cardiovascular disease. We also discuss the importance of addressing obesity in patients with OSA, as a strategy to reduce the burden of cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Implications for the approach of patients' OSA in clinical practice and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea in North American commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stefanos N; Straubel, Madeleine G

    2014-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17-28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450

  6. [Implantable nerve stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Afonso Delgado, Lidia; Micoulaud Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Monteyrol, Pierre-Jean; Philip, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common disorder that has been identified as a contributor to cardiovascular disease making it a major public health problem. Continuous positive airway pressure is the standard treatment but compliance is suboptimal. Mandibular advancement devices and surgery have limited indications, inconstant efficiency and potential irreversible side effects. Stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve, that innervates the genioglossus, a protrusor muscle of the tongue, is now a new treatment option for moderate and severe cases of OSAHS. Two types of stimulation are currently available: stimulation synchronous with inspiration and continuous stimulation. The indication of each type of stimulation and long-term effects still need to be assessed but the implantable nerve stimulation is a promising treatment for patients without a therapy solution so far.

  7. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco; Pozzebon, Daniela; Scapini, Fabricio; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective  The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Methods  This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG), and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG). Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results  The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group), age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years), and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2). We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion  OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization. PMID:27413397

  8. Results of electromyostimulation therapy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Arwed

    2008-08-01

    Innovative muscle stimulation techniques have become alternatives for therapy of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome breathing disorders. In group I, an individually shaped mouth floor electrode (IME) and in group II, an individually adaptable multi-point electrode (MPE) on a silicone carrier has been used for electromyostimulation (EMS) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The enoral-cutaneous EMS was carried out with the low-frequency stimulation apparatus I-pulse over a period of 8 weeks, two times daily for 30 min during daytime hours only. In group III, the patients used EMS therapy for half a year continuously. Before and after stimulation treatment, three-dimensional volumetric sonographical measurement of the geniohyoid muscle was carried out. All patients (n = 14) totally applied the EMS therapy. Under IME and MPE application after 4 weeks of EMS therapy, a median volume increase of 19.6% (minimum 9.7%, maximum 27.9%) was registered, the median after 8 weeks IME was 27.6% and in MPE 24.0%). No significant difference (analysis of variance type: P > 0.05) between electrodes could be found. In all groups, a reduction of the muscle length of 4.7% was proved. In groups I and II after 26 weeks, the volume was near baseline before stimulation (+4.3%). In the third group, the increase of volume persisted (+29.4%) over the observation period of 12-26 weeks. Opposed to established stimulation techniques, a threefold effectiveness enhancement could be verified by using both individually adaptable electrodes. The EMS therapy should be carried out as continuous long-term therapy or as interval therapy.

  9. Underlying Mechanisms for Coexisting Central and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Nocturnal PaCO2 and Poor Sleep Quality Are Key Issues.

    PubMed

    Contal, Olivier; Pépin, Jean Louis; Borel, Jean Christian; Espa, Fabrice; Perrig, Stephen; Lücker, Lise-Margrit; Adler, Dan; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Lador, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Coexisting central and obstructive sleep apnea is a challenging clinical situation. We report a case exhibiting an overnight shift from obstructive to central events. The central sleep apnea component was related to sleep instability, hyperventilation and low nocturnal PaCO2. Both types of respiratory events were successfully treated with adaptive servoventilation.

  10. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; e Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. Methods UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale—ESS—≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale—MFIS—≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. “Control group” criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in “control group”), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Results UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire—FOSQ—and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—PSQI: p < 0.05) and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003) and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than “control group” (p < 0.02). UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1) compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5) than mild OSA (p = 0.02). Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to “control group” (p = 0.04). Conclusions UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls. PMID:27228081

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh K; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Richardson, Heidi L; Wang, Danny J J; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M

    2013-10-25

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition characterized by upper airway muscle atonia with continued diaphragmatic efforts, resulting in repeated airway obstructions, periods of intermittent hypoxia, large thoracic pressure changes, and substantial shifts in arterial pressure with breathing cessation and resumption. The hypoxic exposure and hemodynamic changes likely induce the structural and functional deficits found in multiple brain areas, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) may contribute to these localized deficits; thus, we examined regional CBF, using arterial spin labeling procedures, in 11 OSA (age, 49.1±12.2 years; 7 male) and 16 control subjects (42.3±10.2 years; 6 male) with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. CBF maps were calculated, normalized to a common space, and regional CBF values across the brain quantified. Lowered CBF values emerged near multiple bilateral brain sites in OSA, including the corticospinal tracts, superior cerebellar peduncles, and pontocerebellar fibers. Lateralized, decreased CBF appeared near the left inferior cerebellar peduncles, left tapetum, left dorsal fornix/stria terminalis, right medial lemniscus, right red nucleus, right midbrain, and midline pons. Regional CBF values in OSA are significantly reduced in major sensory and motor fiber systems and motor regulatory sites, especially in structures mediating motor coordination; those reductions are often lateralized. The asymmetric CBF declines in motor regulatory areas may contribute to loss of coordination between upper airway and diaphragmatic musculature, and lead to further damage in the syndrome.

  12. Immediate postarousal sleep dynamics: an important determinant of sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Younes, Magdy; Hanly, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    Arousability from sleep is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of the clinical spectrum of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Patients with SDB display a wide range of arousability. The reason for these differences is not known. We hypothesized that differences in the speed with which sleep deepens following arousals/awakenings (postarousal sleep dynamics) is a major determinant of these differences in arousability in patients with SDB. We analyzed 40 preexisting clinical polysomnography records from patients with a range of SDB severity (apnea-hypopnea index 5-135/h). Sleep depth was determined every 3 s using the odds ratio product (ORP) method, a continuous index of sleep depth (0 = deep sleep, 2.5 = full wakefulness) that correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with arousability (Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, and Hanly P. Sleep 38: 641-654, 2015). Time course of ORP was determined from end of arousal until the next arousal. All arousals were analyzed (142 ± 65/polysomnogram). ORP increased from 0.58 ± 0.32 during sleep to 1.67 ± 0.35 during arousals. ORP immediately (first 9 s) following arousals/awakenings (ORP-9) ranged from 0.21(very deep sleep) to 1.71 (highly arousable state) in different patients. In patients with high ORP-9, sleep deepened slowly (over minutes) beyond 9 s but only if no arousals/awakenings recurred. ORP-9 correlated strongly with average non-rapid eye movement sleep depth (r = 0.87, P < 2E-13), the arousal/awakening index (r = 0.68, P < 5E-6), and with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). ORP-9 was consistent within each patient and did not change on continuous positive airway pressure despite marked improvement in sleep architecture. We conclude that postarousal sleep dynamics are highly variable among patients with sleep-disordered breathing and largely determine average sleep depth and continuity.

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Preoperative Screening and Postoperative Care.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert M; Pomerantz, Jonathan; Miller, Deborah E; Weiss-Coleman, Rebecca; Solomonides, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has reached epidemic proportions, and it is an often unrecognized cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Profound hypoxic injury from apnea during the postoperative period is often misdiagnosed as cardiac arrest due to other causes. Almost a quarter of patients entering a hospital for elective surgery have OSA, and >80% of these cases are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. The perioperative period puts patients at high risk of apneic episodes because of drug effects from sedatives, narcotics, and general anesthesia, as well as from the effects of postoperative rapid eye movement sleep changes and postoperative positioning in the hospital bed. For adults, preoperative screening using the STOP or STOP-Bang questionnaires can help to identify adult patients at increased risk of OSA. In the pediatric setting, a question about snoring should be part of every preoperative examination. For patients with known OSA, continuous positive airway pressure should be continued postoperatively. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring with an alarm system can help to prevent apneic catastrophes caused by OSA in the postoperative period. PMID:26957384

  14. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA. PMID:26380757

  15. [Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea: an overview].

    PubMed

    Keymel, S; Kelm, M; Randerath, W J

    2013-01-01

    Optimal treatment of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) requires an individually designed and interdisciplinary approach. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is accepted as the first line therapy for patients with OSAS. However, non-CPAP therapies may be indicated as supportive therapeutical approach in CPAP failure or as an alternative approach in CPAP intolerance. Overall, the level of evidence for the majority of non-CPAP therapies is low. Mandibular advancement devices as a medical non-CPAP treatment have proven to reduce respiratory disturbances to a level which may be sufficient in mild to moderate sleep apnoea. Apnoea triggered neurostimulation of upper airway muscles is an innovative approach that has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Surgical treatment has previously been performed as single level surgery of the nasal, the oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal level. However, only tonsillectomy in the presence of tonsillar hypertrophy and maxillomandibular advancement are recommended in carefully selected cases. Due to low success rates for single level surgery, multilevel surgery has been proposed as the surgical approach for the future.

  16. Drug induced sleep endoscopy in the decision-making process of children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Francesca; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Gaini, Renato Maria; Garavello, Werner

    2015-03-01

    Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is currently recommended in children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). However, the condition persists after surgery in about one third of cases. It has been suggested that Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) may be of help for planning a more targeted and effective surgical treatment but evidence is yet weak. The aim of this review is to draw recommendation on the use of DISE in children with OSA. More specifically, we aimed at determine the proportion of cases whose treatment may be influenced by DISE findings. A comprehensive search of articles published from February 1983 to January 2014 listed in the PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed. The search terms used were: "endoscopy" or "nasoendoscopy" or "DISE" and "obstructive sleep apnea" and "children" or "child" or "pediatric." The main outcome was the rate of naive children with hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids. The assumptions are that clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids is reliable and does not require DISE, and that exclusive T&A may solve OSA in the vast majority of cases even in the presence of other concomitant sites of obstruction. Five studies were ultimately selected and all were case series. The median (range) number of studied children was 39 (15-82). Mean age varied from 3.2 to 7.8 years. The combined estimate rate of OSA consequent to hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids was 71% (95%CI: 64-77%). In children with Down Syndrome, the combined estimated rate of hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids was 62% (95%CI: 44-79%). Our findings show that DISE may be of benefit in a minority of children with OSA since up to two thirds of naive cases presents with hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids. Its use should be limited to those whose clinical evaluation is unremarkable or when OSA persists after T&A.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnoea in the elderly: role of continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Chiner, Eusebi; Hernández, Luis; Cortes, Jose Pascual; Catalán, Pablo; Ponce, Silvia; Diaz, Jose Ramón; Pastor, Ester; Vigil, Laura; Carmona, Carmen; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Aizpuru, Felipe; Lloberes, Patricia; Mayos, Mercedes; Selma, Maria José; Cifuentes, Jose Fernando; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2015-07-01

    Almost all the information about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) comes from clinical trials involving only middle-aged patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of CPAP treatment in elderly patients with severe OSA on clinical, quality-of-life and neurocognitive spheres. We performed an open-label, randomised, multicentre clinical trial in a consecutive clinical cohort of 224 elderly (≥70 years old) patients with confirmed severe OSA (apnoea-hypopnea index ≥30) randomised to receive CPAP (n=115) or no CPAP (n=109) for 3 months. A sleep study was performed by either full polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy. CPAP titration was performed by an autoCPAP device. The primary endpoint was quality of life (Quebec Sleep Questionnaire) and secondary endpoints included sleep-related symptoms, presence of anxiety/depression, office-based blood pressure and some neurocognitive tests. The mean±sd age was 75.5±3.9 years. The CPAP group achieved a greater improvement in all quality-of-life domains (p<0.001; effect size: 0.41-0.98), sleep-related symptoms (p<0.001; effect size 0.31-0.91) as well as anxiety (p=0.016; effect size 0.51) and depression (p<0.001; effect size: 0.28) indexes and some neurocognitive tests (digit symbol test (p=0.047; effect size: 0.20) and Trail Making Test A (p=0.029; effect size: 0.44)) in an intention-to-treat analysis. In conclusion, CPAP treatment resulted in an improvement in quality of life, sleep-related symptoms, anxiety and depression indexes and some neurocognitive aspects in elderly people with severe OSA.

  18. Innovative treatments for adults with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Terri E; Calik, Michael W; Farabi, Sarah S; Fink, Anne M; Galang-Boquiren, Maria T; Kapella, Mary C; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one in five adult males and is associated with significant comorbidity, cognitive impairment, excessive daytime sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. For over 25 years, the primary treatment has been continuous positive airway pressure, which introduces a column of air that serves as a pneumatic splint for the upper airway, preventing the airway collapse that is the physiologic definition of this syndrome. However, issues with patient tolerance and unacceptable levels of treatment adherence motivated the exploration of other potential treatments. With greater understanding of the physiologic mechanisms associated with OSA, novel interventions have emerged in the last 5 years. The purpose of this article is to describe new treatments for OSA and associated complex sleep apnea. New approaches to complex sleep apnea have included adaptive servoventilation. There is increased literature on the contribution of behavioral interventions to improve adherence with continuous positive airway pressure that have proven quite effective. New non-surgical treatments include oral pressure devices, improved mandibular advancement devices, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, and newer approaches to positional therapy. Recent innovations in surgical interventions have included laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty, radiofrequency ablation, palatal implants, and electrical stimulation of the upper airway muscles. No drugs have been approved to treat OSA, but potential drug therapies have centered on increasing ventilatory drive, altering the arousal threshold, modifying loop gain (a dimensionless value quantifying the stability of the ventilatory control system), or preventing airway collapse by affecting the surface tension. An emerging approach is the application of cannabinoids to increase upper airway tone. PMID:25429246

  19. Cervical column morphology in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Petri, Niels; Kjaer, Inger; Svanholt, Palle

    2008-10-01

    Cervical column morphology was examined in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compared with the cervical morphology of an adult control group with neutral occlusion, normal craniofacial morphology, and no history of sleep apnoea. The sleep apnoea group consisted of 91 patients, 16 females aged 29-59 years (mean 49.4 years) and 75 males aged 27-65 years (mean 49.0 years). All patients were diagnosed with OSA by overnight polysomnography. The control group consisted of 21 subjects, 15 females aged 23-40 years (mean 29.2 years) and 6 males aged 25-44 years (mean 32.8 years). From each individual, a visual assessment of the cervical column was performed on the radiograph. Differences in the cervical column morphology, between the genders and the groups were assessed by Fisher's exact test and the effect of age by logistic regression analysis. In the OSA group, 46.2 per cent had fusion anomalies of the cervical column and 5.5 per cent a posterior arch deficiency. Fusion anomalies occurred in 26.4 per cent as fusions between two cervical vertebrae. Block fusions occurred in 12.1 per cent and occipitalization in 14.3 per cent. A posterior arch deficiency occurred in 2.2 per cent as a partial cleft of C1 and in 3.3 per cent as dehiscence of C3 and C4. No statistical gender differences were found in the occurrence of morphological characteristics of the cervical column. The fusion anomalies of the cervical column occurred significantly more often in the OSA group. The results indicate that the morphological deviations of the upper cervical vertebrae play a role in the phenotypical subdivision and diagnosis of OSA.

  20. Altered clot microstructure detected in obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    D׳Silva, Lindsay; Wilczynska, Maria; Lewis, Keir; Lawrence, Matthew; Hawkins, Karl; Williams, Rhodri; Stanford, Sophia; Davidson, Simon; Morris, Keith; Evans, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal clot microstructure plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of thromboembolic diseases. Assessing the viscoelastic properties of clot microstructure using novel parameters, Time to Gel Point (TGP), Fractal Dimension (df) and clot elasticity (G׳GP) could explain the increased cardiovascular and thromboembolic events in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS). We wanted to compare TGP, df, and G׳GP and their diurnal variation in OSAHS and symptomatic comparators. thirty six patients attending a sleep disturbed breathing clinic with symptoms of OSAHS were recruited. TGP, df and G׳GP were measured alongside standard coagulation screening, thrombin generation assays, and platelet aggregometry at 16:00 h and immediately after an in-patient sleep study at 07:30 h. OSAHS group had significantly lower afternoon df than comparators (1.705±0.033 vs. 1.731±0.031, p<0.05). df showed diurnal variation and only in the OSAHS group, being significantly lower in the afternoon than morning (p<0.05). Diurnal changes in df correlated with 4% DR, even after controlling for BMI (r=0.37, p=0.02). The lower df in the afternoon in OSAHS suggests a partial compensatory change that may make up for other pro-clotting abnormalities/hypertension during the night. The change to the thrombotic tendency in the afternoon is biggest in severe OSAHS. df Shows promise as a new microstructural indicator for abnormal haemostasis in OSAHS. PMID:27226818

  1. Electrical stimulation therapy improves sleep respiratory parameters in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie-wen; Qi, Wei-wei; Ye, Rui-xin; Wu, Yuan-yuan

    2013-10-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that electrical stimulation has beneficial effects in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of electrical stimulation therapy for OSAS with a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of all relative studies was performed through searching international literature, including PUBMED, CNKI, and EMBASE databases. This literature analysis compared all patients undergoing electrical stimulation therapy with respect to the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and changes in sleep structure. Six studies were selected involving a total of 91 patients. The meta-analysis indicated that electrical stimulation therapy reduced RDI, longest apnea time, and improved the minimum SaO2. Based on the evidence found, electrical stimulation may be a potential therapy for OSAS, warranting further clinical trials.

  2. Quantitative Effects of Trunk and Head Position on the Apnea Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Ellen R.; van Maanen, J. Peter; Hilgevoord, Anthony A.J.; Laman, D. Martin; de Vries, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that head position, separately from trunk position, is an additionally important factor for the occurrence of apnea in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Patients and Participants: Three hundred patients referred to our department because of clinically suspected OSA. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Patients underwent overnight polysomnography with 2 position sensors: one on the trunk, and one in the mid-forehead. Of the 300 subjects, 241 were diagnosed with OSA, based on an AHI > 5. Of these patients, 199 could be analyzed for position-dependent OSA based on head and trunk position sensors (AHI in supine position twice as high as AHI in non-supine positions): 41.2% of the cases were not position dependent, 52.3% were supine position dependent based on the trunk sensor, 6.5% were supine position dependent based on the head sensor alone. In 46.2% of the trunk supine position-dependent group, head position was of considerable influence on the AHI (AHI was > 5 higher when the head was also in supine position compared to when the head was turned to the side). Conclusions: The results of this study confirm our hypothesis that the occurrence of OSA may also be dependent on the position of the head. Therefore in patients with a suspicion of position-dependent OSA, sleep recording with dual position sensors placed on both trunk and head should be considered. Citation: van Kesteren ER; van Maanen JP; Hilgevoord AAJ; Laman DM; de Vries N. Quantitative effects of trunk and head position on the apnea hypopnea index in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2011;34(8):1075-1081. PMID:21804669

  3. Usage of Positional Therapy in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Grietje E.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Doff, Michiel H.J.; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Meijer, Petra M.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Many positional therapy (PT) strategies are available for treating positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PT is primarily supplied to selected patients as a secondary treatment option when other therapies have failed. To our knowledge this is the largest study to date to assess effectiveness and long-term compliance of PT (both commercial waistband and self-made constructions, mimicking the tennis ball technique) as primary treatment in patients with different positional OSA severities. Methods: PT was used by 53 patients, of which 40 patients underwent a follow-up polygraphic evaluation under treatment after a median time interval of 12 weeks. Patients were routinely contacted regarding their clinical status and treatment compliance. Results: PT was successful in 27 out of 40 patients (68%). Overall AHI reduced significantly from a median (interquartile range [IQR]) AHI of 14.5 (10.7–19.6) to 5.9 (3.1–8.5), p < 0.001. The commercial waistband and self-made constructions were equally effective (median (IQR) reduction in overall AHI (Δ9.6 (5.5–11.9) and Δ6.8 (3.2–11.3) respectively), p = 0.22). Short-term compliance was good as most patients used PT more than 7 hours/night (mean 7.2 ± SD 1.4) and more than 6 days/week (mean 6.5 ± SD 1.3). However, after mean 13 ± 5 months, 26 patients (65%) reported they no longer used PT, especially patients with moderate positional OSA (89%). Conclusions: On the short-term, PT using the tennis ball technique, is an easy method to treat most patients with positional OSA, showing significant reductions in AHI. Unfortunately, long-term compliance is low and close follow-up of patients on PT with regard to their compliance is necessary. Citation: de Vries GE, Hoekema A, Doff MH, Kerstjens HA, Meijer PM, van der Hoeven JH, Wijkstra PJ. Usage of positional therapy in adults with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):131–137. PMID:25406271

  4. Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Etiology, Impact, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Siddiqi, Tauseef A.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and may frequently be complicated by sleep disorders. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are commonly encountered in patients with COPD. Nocturnal hypoxemia is also prevalent in COPD may occur despite adequate awake oxygenation and can be especially severe in rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, several factors—some of them unique to COPD—can contribute to sleep-related hypoventilation. Recognition of hypoventilation can be vital as supplemental oxygen therapy itself can acutely worsen hypoventilation and lead to disastrous consequences. Finally, accruing data establish an association between restless leg syndrome and COPD— an association that may be driven by hypoxemia and/or hypercapnia. Comorbid sleep disorders portend worse sleep quality, diminished quality of life, and multifarious other adverse consequences. The awareness and knowledge regarding sleep comorbidities in COPD has continued to evolve over past many years. There are still several lacunae, however, in our understanding of the etiologies, impact, and therapies of sleep disorders, specifically in patients with COPD. This review summarizes the latest concepts in prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diverse sleep disorders in COPD. Citation: Budhiraja R, Siddiqi TA, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: etiology, impact, and management. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):259–270. PMID:25700872

  5. Tube Law of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleeping Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Genta, Pedro R.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Sands, Scott A.; Owens, Robert L.; Butler, James P.; Loring, Stephen H.; White, David P.; Wellman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. However, the dynamics of pharyngeal narrowing and re-expansion during flow-limited breathing are not well described. The static pharyngeal tube law (end-expiratory area versus luminal pressure) has demonstrated increasing pharyngeal compliance as luminal pressure decreases, indicating that the airway would be sucked closed with sufficient inspiratory effort. On the contrary, the airway is rarely sucked closed during inspiratory flow limitation, suggesting that the airway is getting stiffer. Therefore, we hypothesized that during inspiratory flow limitation, as opposed to static conditions, the pharynx becomes stiffer as luminal pressure decreases. Methods: Upper airway endoscopy and simultaneous measurements of airflow and epiglottic pressure were performed during natural nonrapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive (or negative) airway pressure was used to induce flow limitation. Flow-limited breaths were selected for airway cross-sectional area measurements. Relative airway area was quantified as a percentage of end-expiratory area. Inspiratory airway radial compliance was calculated at each quintile of epiglottic pressure versus airway area plot (tube law). Results: Eighteen subjects (14 males) with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 57 ± 27 events/h), aged 49 ± 8 y, with a body mass index of 35 ± 6 kg/m2 were studied. A total of 163 flow limited breaths were analyzed (9 ± 3 breaths per subject). Compliances at the fourth (2.0 ± 4.7 % area/cmH2O) and fifth (0.0 ± 1.7 % area/cmH2O) quintiles were significantly lower than the first (12.2 ± 5.5 % area/cmH2O) pressure quintile (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The pharyngeal tube law is concave (airway gets stiffer as luminal pressure decreases) during respiratory cycles under inspiratory flow limitation. Citation: Genta PR, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Butler JP, Loring SH, White DP, Wellman A. Tube law of

  6. Insomnia Severity, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Veterans With Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Chao, Linda L; Abadjian, Linda R; Esparza, Iva L; Reeb, Rosemary

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that sleep disturbances are common in veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI), there has been a paucity of published sleep studies in this veteran population to date. Therefore, the present study examined subjective sleep quality (assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia severity (assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (assessed with the STOP questionnaire) in 98 Gulf War veterans. Veterans with GWI, defined either by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, had greater risk for obstructive sleep apnea (i.e., higher STOP scores) than veterans without GWI. This difference persisted even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic (e.g., age, gender) and clinical variables. Veterans with GWI, defined by either the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, also had significantly greater insomnia severity and poorer sleep quality than veterans without GWI (p < 0.05), even after accounting for potentially confounding variables. Furthermore, there were significant, positive correlations between insomnia severity, subjective sleep quality, and GWI symptom severity (p ≤ 0.01). In stepwise linear regression models, insomnia severity significantly predicted GWI status over and above demographic and clinical variables. Together these findings provide good rationale for treating sleep disturbances in the management of GWI. PMID:27612364

  7. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Vascular Perfusion Map Findings in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Daniel Q; Golding, John; Choudhry, Netan

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic sleep disorder associated with considerable systemic and ophthalmic consequences. The authors present the retinal vascular findings of a visually asymptomatic 56-year-old man clinically diagnosed with OSA using swept-source optical coherence tomography and vascular perfusion mapping. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:880-884.]. PMID:27631487

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Obstructive Airway Adult Test for Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Vicini, Claudio; De Benedetto, Michele; Salamanca, Fabrizio; Sorrenti, Giovanni; Romandini, Mario; Bosi, Marcello; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Foresta, Enrico; Laforì, Andreina; Meccariello, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Alessandro; Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio; Campanini, Aldo; Montevecchi, Filippo; Rizzotto, Grazia; Cervelli, Daniele; Moro, Alessandro; Arigliani, Michele; Gobbi, Riccardo; Pelo, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. The gold standard for the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is polysomnography, whose access is however reduced by costs and limited availability, so that additional diagnostic tests are needed. Objectives. To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the Obstructive Airway Adult Test (OAAT) compared to polysomnography for the diagnosis of OSA in adult patients. Methods. Ninety patients affected by OSA verified with polysomnography (AHI ≥ 5) and ten healthy patients, randomly selected, were included and all were interviewed by one blind examiner with OAAT questions. Measurements and Main Results. The Spearman rho, evaluated to measure the correlation between OAAT and polysomnography, was 0.72 (p < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve (95% CI) was the parameter to evaluate the accuracy of the OAAT: it was 0.91 (0.81–1.00) for the diagnosis of OSA (AHI ≥ 5), 0.90 (0.82–0.98) for moderate OSA (AHI ≥ 15), and 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30). Conclusions. The OAAT has shown a high correlation with polysomnography and also a high diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of OSA. It has also been shown to be able to discriminate among the different degrees of severity of OSA. Additional large studies aiming to validate this questionnaire as a screening or diagnostic test are needed. PMID:26636102

  9. Preliminary evaluation of Wearable Wellness System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea detection.

    PubMed

    Crupi, R; Faetti, T; Paradiso, R

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have proven how sleep deprivation has a negative impact on daily life, affecting people's psychophysical state. In this field, research is focusing on the improvement of unobtrusive sleep monitoring devices for promoting sleep hygiene and early detection of sleep disorders. This study aims to assess the use of a textile-based wearable system, with its associated apnea detection algorithm, in monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAs). The system has been compared through the simultaneous acquisition of physiological signals in parallel with polysomnograph in laboratory and home environments. Results show that such a wearable system could be successfully used for early detection of OSAs (Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome) and could stimulate people to a better self healthcare looking for a specialized medic examination and eventually undergoing to proper treatment avoiding the onset of OSAs co-morbidities. PMID:26737206

  10. Associations between Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration, and Abnormal Fasting Glucose. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jia; Wang, Rui; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: No data exist as to the role of ethnicity in the associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep duration, and metabolic dysfunction. Objectives: To examine links between OSA, objectively measured habitual sleep duration, and fasting glucose in U.S. ethnic groups. Methods: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a multisite community-based study that conducted polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. In 2,151 subjects (1,839 in fully adjusted models), the apnea–hypopnea index was used to classify OSA as none (0–4.9/h), mild (5–14.9/h), or moderate to severe (≥15/h). Actigraphic sleep duration was classified as short (≤5 h/night), intermediate (>5 and <8 h/night), or long (≥8 h/night). Subjects were classified as having normal fasting glucose (<100 mg/dl and no hypoglycemic medication use) or abnormal fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dl and/or hypoglycemic medication use). Measurements and Main Results: The sample was 45.8% male, age 68.5 ± 9.2 (mean ± SD) years, and 27.3% African American, 37.2% white, 11.8% Chinese, and 23.8% Hispanic. The prevalence of abnormal fasting glucose was 40.2%. Relative to subjects without apnea, moderate-to-severe OSA was significantly associated with abnormal fasting glucose in African Americans (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–4.08) and white participants (odds ratio, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–6.75), but not among Chinese or Hispanic subjects, after adjusting for site, age, sex, waist circumference, and sleep duration (P = 0.06 for ethnicity-by-OSA severity interaction). In contrast, sleep duration was not significantly associated with abnormal fasting glucose after considering the influence of OSA. Conclusions: This large multiethnic study confirmed previous reports of an independent association between OSA and metabolic dysfunction, and suggested that this association may vary by ethnicity. PMID:26084035

  11. Heart rate variability in childhood obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Li; Yung, Tak-Cheung; Ng, Daniel K; Chan, Chung-Hong; Lau, Wing-Fai; Fu, Yu-Ming

    2011-03-01

    The identification of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is important because of morbidities associated with OSA. A previous adult study demonstrated the use of heart rate variability (HRV) as a tool to identify patients with moderate to severe OSA. Either a reduction in time parameters or an increase in LF/HF ratio was seen at overnight or 24-hr studies suggestive of increased sympathetic modulation. To study the feasibility of daytime HRV as a screening tool, a short-term recording of HRV is studied. Since it was shown in adult study that increased normalized LF, decreased normalized HF and increased LF/HF ratio could be detectable during supine rest at daytime awake period, the authors hypothesize that the differences are also detectable in children. Children who underwent sleep polysomnography for suspected OSA were recruited. Subjects were classified OSA if apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 1.5/hr and non-OSA if AHI ≤ 1.5/hr. Continuous 1-hr electrocardiographic monitoring was recorded in awake children during the day. Parameters from time domain and frequency domain were analyzed. Seventy-four male and 17 female snoring subjects were included in this study. Fifty-one (56%) and 40 (44%) of them were classified as "non-OSA" and "OSA," respectively. pNN50, a parameter for parasympathetic modulation, was significantly reduced in the OSA group when compared with the non-OSA group. Using multiple regression, all time domain variables were shown to be decreased in OSA group. Our results suggest that 1-hr study of HRV may be a feasible tool in identifying children with OSA.

  12. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; van Essen, Fabian; Linnhoff, Fabian; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Weber, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro® device were performed. Results Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (−13.3%±5.4% vs −17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04). On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003) and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02). With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001) that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01). Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08). As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and did not significantly vary either in comparison to controls (P=0.07) or throughout the COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.49). COPD-OSA overlap solely correlated with nocturnal hypoxemic events, whereas LV performance status was unrelated to coexisting OSA. Conclusion

  13. Sleep-related breathing disorders. 6. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in infants and children: established facts and unsettled issues.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, C

    1995-11-01

    The presence of increased upper airway resistive loads during sleep can now be diagnosed by paediatricians. However, diagnostic criteria need to be further clarified to allow accurate identification of episodes of partial airway obstruction. New technological advances can be expected to help to determine the clinical usefulness of ambulatory testing during sleep and thus to establish the indications for polysomnographic investigations in the laboratory. A thorough investigation of the anatomical abnormalities that contribute to airways obstruction is essential for selecting the most appropriate therapy. However, the order in which these investigations should be performed remains unclear. The diagnostic tools, including questionnaires and sleep testing, and methods aimed at investigating pathophysiological mechanisms should be standardised for multicentre studies. Familial factors should be taken into account. The best strategy for preventing the complications of the OSA syndrome is to identify the disorder as early as possible. This requires close cooperation between adult physicians and paediatricians called upon to evaluate sleep-related disorders.

  14. Circulating adhesion molecules in obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pak, Victoria M; Grandner, Michael A; Pack, Allan I

    2014-02-01

    Over 20 years of evidence indicates a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease. Although inflammatory processes have been heavily implicated as an important link between the two, the mechanism for this has not been conclusively established. Atherosclerosis may be one of the mechanisms linking OSA to cardiovascular morbidity. This review addresses the role of circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA, and how these may be part of the link between cardiovascular disease and OSA. There is evidence for the role of adhesion molecules in cardiovascular disease risk. Some studies, albeit with small sample sizes, also show higher levels of adhesion molecules in patients with OSA compared to controls. There are also studies that show that levels of adhesion molecules diminish with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Limitations of these studies include small sample sizes, cross-sectional sampling, and inconsistent control for confounding variables known to influence adhesion molecule levels. There are potential novel therapies to reduce circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA to diminish cardiovascular disease. Understanding the role of cell adhesion molecules generated in OSA will help elucidate one mechanistic link to cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA.

  15. Disparities and genetic risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Katherine A; Patel, Sanjay R

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent condition. A growing body of literature supports substantial racial disparities in the prevalence, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. Craniofacial structure among Asians appears to confer an elevated risk of OSA despite lower rates of obesity. Among African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics, OSA prevalence is increased, likely due in part to obesity. The burden of symptoms, particularly excessive daytime sleepiness, is higher among African Americans, although Hispanics more often report snoring. Limited data suggest that African Americans may be more susceptible to hypertension in the setting of OSA. While differences in genetic risk factors may explain disparities in OSA burden, no definitive genetic differences have yet been identified. In addition to disparities in OSA development, disparities in OSA diagnosis and treatment have also been identified. Increased severity of disease at diagnosis among African Americans suggests a delay in diagnosis. Treatment outcomes are also suboptimal among African Americans. In children, tonsillectomy is less likely to cure OSA and more commonly associated with complications in this group. Among adults, adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is substantially lower in African Americans. The reasons for these disparities, particularly in outcomes, are not well understood and should be a research priority. PMID:26428843

  16. Early cardiovascular abnormalities in newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Nadra, Marie; Barone-Rochette, Gilles; Ormezzano, Olivier; Pierre, Hélène; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that it is associated with atherosclerosis and left ventricular dysfunction markers. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular effects of OSA depending on its severity, in patients without clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease. One hundred thirty newly diagnosed, nondiabetic OSA patients (mean age 49 ± 10 years), without vasoactive treatment were included. They underwent clinical and ambulatory blood pressure measurements, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound examination, and a carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. Seventy-five percent of the subjects were hypertensive according to the clinical or ambulatory measurement. More patients with the most severe forms (respiratory disturbance index >37/hour) had a nondipper profile (52% vs 34%; P = 0.025) and their left ventricular mass was higher (40 ± 7 vs 36 ± 8 g/m, p = 0.014). This last parameter was independently and inversely associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (P = 0.004). PWV and carotid intima-media thickness did not differ between one OSA severity group to another, but the prevalence of carotid hypertrophy was higher when mean SaO2 was below 93.5% (29.5 vs 16%; P = 0.05). Our study shows that in OSA patients without clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease, there is a significant left ventricular and arterial effect, which is even more marked when OSA is severe. PMID:20057899

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea and systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Aizpuru, Felipe; Martínez-Null, Cristina; Barbé-Illa, Ferrán

    2009-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSAH) syndrome is a highly prevalent condition. Severe OSAH affects 2-6% of the population, although only 10% of subjects are correctly diagnosed and treated. OSAH is an important and unresolved public health care problem because of its role in the development of cardiovascular events, negative impact on quality of life, and as a cause of traffic accidents. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown a strong association between OSAH and hypertension. Moreover, a number of open-label studies, the majority of 21 controlled studies included in the present review, a systematic review, and 4 recent meta-analyses have shown a reduction of blood pressure (BP) of about 2 mm Hg with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This lowering of blood pressure is significant in terms of reduction of both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk and death. The effect is greater in hypertensive subjects and in those with more severe OSAH. Accordingly, treatment with CPAP could be considered in patients with severe OSAH and hypertension even in the absence of symptoms. The challenge to researchers is to find markers for discriminating subjects in whom blood pressure will decrease from non-responders. This will help to refine relevant clinical indicators for CPAP treatment in clinical practice.

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Women: Specific Issues and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Woehrle, Holger; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ramanan, Dinesh; Armitstead, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has traditionally been seen as a male disease. However, the importance of OSA in women is increasingly being recognized, along with a number of significant gender-related differences in the symptoms, diagnosis, consequences, and treatment of OSA. Women tend to have less severe OSA than males, with a lower apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and shorter apneas and hypopneas. Episodes of upper airway resistance that do not meet the criteria for apneas are more common in women. Prevalence rates are lower in women, and proportionally fewer women receive a correct diagnosis. Research has also documented sex differences in the upper airway, fat distribution, and respiratory stability in OSA. Hormones are implicated in some gender-related variations, with differences between men and women in the prevalence of OSA decreasing as age increases. The limited data available suggest that although the prevalence and severity of OSA may be lower in women than in men, the consequences of the disease are at least the same, if not worse for comparable degrees of severity. Few studies have investigated gender differences in the effects of OSA treatment. However, given the differences in physiology and presentation, it is possible that personalized therapy may provide more optimal care.

  19. Metabolic disorders associated with obstructive sleep apnea in adults.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is multidirectional. Obesity is recognized as the strongest risk factor for OSA. It is unknown whether metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus contribute to the development or aggravation of OSA, although this is likely. Conversely, OSA may be a risk factor for metabolic disorders. Strong evidence suggests that OSA may increase the risk of developing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. OSA has also been associated with the development and/or aggravation of obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. In addition, metabolic disorders are confounding factors in OSA. Metabolic disorders and OSA share common intermediate pathogenic pathways, including alterations in autonomic nervous system regulation, increased inflammatory activity, and alterations in adipokine levels and endothelial dysfunction, which may be involved in the interplay between these conditions. Overall, this complexity makes it especially difficult to reveal and understand the links between OSA and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The International Diabetes Federation has recently published clinical practice recommendations suggesting that OSA patients should be routinely screened for markers of metabolic disturbance and cardiovascular risk, such as waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting lipid and glucose levels. It also recommends that the possibility of OSA should be considered in the assessment of all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22005190

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Women: Specific Issues and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Woehrle, Holger; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ramanan, Dinesh; Armitstead, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has traditionally been seen as a male disease. However, the importance of OSA in women is increasingly being recognized, along with a number of significant gender-related differences in the symptoms, diagnosis, consequences, and treatment of OSA. Women tend to have less severe OSA than males, with a lower apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and shorter apneas and hypopneas. Episodes of upper airway resistance that do not meet the criteria for apneas are more common in women. Prevalence rates are lower in women, and proportionally fewer women receive a correct diagnosis. Research has also documented sex differences in the upper airway, fat distribution, and respiratory stability in OSA. Hormones are implicated in some gender-related variations, with differences between men and women in the prevalence of OSA decreasing as age increases. The limited data available suggest that although the prevalence and severity of OSA may be lower in women than in men, the consequences of the disease are at least the same, if not worse for comparable degrees of severity. Few studies have investigated gender differences in the effects of OSA treatment. However, given the differences in physiology and presentation, it is possible that personalized therapy may provide more optimal care. PMID:27699167

  1. Sympathoexcitation and arterial hypertension associated with obstructive sleep apnea and cyclic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J Woodrow; Tamisier, Renaud; Liu, Yuzhen

    2015-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. These obstructive episodes are characterized by cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), by sleep fragmentation, and by hemodynamic instability, and they result in sustained sympathoexcitation and elevated arterial pressure that persist during waking, after restoration of normoxia. Early studies established that 1) CIH, rather than sleep disruption, accounts for the increase in arterial pressure; 2) the increase in arterial pressure is a consequence of the sympathoactivation; and 3) arterial hypertension after CIH exposure requires an intact peripheral chemoreflex. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated that sympathoactivation and hypertension after CIH are also dependent on altered central sympathoregulation. Furthermore, although many molecular pathways are activated in both the carotid chemoreceptor and in the central nervous system by CIH exposure, two specific neuromodulators-endothelin-1 and angiotensin II-appear to play crucial roles in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic response to intermittent hypoxia.

  2. Oral appliances in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring.

    PubMed

    Ayas, N T; Epstein, L J

    1998-11-01

    Treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances is a promising alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Although there is wide variability in appliance design, these devices produce enlargement of the upper airway by advancing the mandible, tongue, or both. Oral appliances effectively reduce snoring in a significant proportion of individuals. In general they are less effective than CPAP in eliminating obstructive sleep apnea, with approximately 50% of individuals experiencing resolution of their obstructive sleep apnea with these devices. Patients with milder disease have greater success with oral appliance therapy than those with more severe disease. A small proportion of patients will experience worsening of their sleep apnea with an oral appliance, and close follow-up after device prescription is mandatory. Patient satisfaction with oral appliances may be better than that with CPAP.

  3. Effects of Positive Airway Pressure on Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Acute Ascent to Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Katsufumi; Cloward, Tom V.; Weaver, Lindell K.; Brown, Samuel M.; Bell, James E.; Grissom, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: In acute ascent to altitude, untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often replaced with central sleep apnea (CSA). In patients with obstructive sleep apnea who travel to altitude, it is unknown whether their home positive airway pressure (PAP) settings are sufficient to treat their obstructive sleep apnea, or altitude-associated central sleep apnea. Methods: Ten participants with positive airway pressure–treated obstructive sleep apnea, who reside at 1,320 m altitude, underwent polysomnography on their home positive airway pressure settings at 1,320 m and at a simulated altitude of 2,750 m in a hypobaric chamber. Six of the participants were subsequently studied without positive airway pressure at 2,750 m. Measurements and Main Results: At 1,320 m, all participants’ sleep apnea was controlled with positive airway pressure on home settings; at 2,750, no participants’ sleep apnea was controlled. At higher altitude, the apnea–hypopnea index was higher (11 vs. 2 events/h; P < 0.01), mostly due to hypopneas (10.5 vs. 2 events/h; P < 0.01). Mean oxygen saturations were lower (88 vs. 93%; P < 0.01) and total sleep time was diminished (349 vs. 393 min; P = 0.03). Four of six participants without positive airway pressure at 2,750 m required supplemental oxygen to prevent sustained oxygen saturation (as determined by pulse oximetry) less than 80%. Positive airway pressure also was associated with reduced central sleep apnea (0 vs. 1; P = 0.03), improved sleep time (358 vs. 292 min; P = 0.06), and improved sleep efficiency (78 vs. 63%; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Acute altitude exposure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated with positive airway pressure is associated with hypoxemia, decreased sleep time, and increased frequency of hypopneas compared with baseline altitude. Application of positive airway pressure at altitude is associated with decreased central sleep apnea and increased sleep efficiency. PMID:25884271

  4. A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention

    PubMed Central

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269. PMID:22701383

  5. Comparison of the effects of sleep deprivation, alcohol and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on simulated steering performance.

    PubMed

    Hack, M A; Choi, S J; Vijayapalan, P; Davies, R J; Stradling, J R

    2001-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are reported to have an increased risk of road traffic accidents. This study examines the nature of the impairment during simulated steering in patients with OSA, compared to normal subjects following either sleep deprivation or alcohol ingestion. Twenty-six patients with OSA and 12 normal subjects, either deprived of one night's sleep or following alcohol ingestion [mean (SD) alcohol blood level 71.6 mg dl(-1) (19.6)], performed a simulated steering task for a total of 90 min. Performance was measured using the tendency to wander (SD), deterioration across the task, number of 'off-road' events and the reaction time to peripheral events. Control data for OSA, sleep deprivation and alcohol were obtained following treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), after a normal night of sleep, and following no alcohol, respectively. Patients with untreated OSA, and sleep-deprived or alcohol-intoxicated normal subjects performed significantly less well, compared to their respective controls (P<0.01 for all tests), with untreated OSA lying between that of alcohol intoxication and sleep deprivation. Alcohol impaired steering error equally throughout the whole drive, whilst sleep deprivation caused progressive deterioration through the drive, but not initially. Untreated OSA was more like sleep deprivation than alcohol, although there was a wide spread of data. This suggests that the driving impairment in patients with OSA is more compatible with sleep deprivation or fragmentation as the cause, rather than abnormal cognitive or motor skills.

  6. Rapid resolution of intense suicidal ideation after treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Lois E; Miller, Bernard W; Bergstrom, Larry R

    2008-02-15

    Patients with insomnia may develop suicidal ideation; however, we know of no reports of suicidal ideation associated with obstructive sleep apnea. We report on a 74-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with excessive daytime sleepiness, poor quality nocturnal sleep, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation with active suicide plans. An emergency outpatient psychiatry consultation was arranged. The patient declined psychiatric hospitalization. He agreed to a trial of continuous positive airway pressure, using a self-titrating machine, followed by an urgent sleep study. Polysomnography revealed an apnea hypopneaindex of 64, arousal index of 91 and minimum oxygen saturation of 65%. The patient's sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness responded to nCPAP. The patient declined antidepressant medication but had excellent adherence to nCPAP. Suicidal ideation and depression resolved promptly and at 4-month followup were in remission. Further studies examining the relationship among untreated obstructive sleep apnea, depression, and suicidal ideation are warranted. PMID:18350966

  7. Evidence of neurodegeneration in obstructive sleep apnea: Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of dementia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases with age. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease of the elderly characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The disease involves widespread synaptic loss in the neocortex and the hippocampus. Rodent and clinical studies suggest that OSA impairs the structural integrity of several brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe. Indeed, hypoxia, hypertension, hypoperfusion, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress noted in OSA patients also occur in AD patients. This Review highlights pathological commonality, showing that OSA upregulates Aβ, tau hyperphosphorylation, and synaptic dysfunction. Indeed, OSA and hypertension trigger hypoperfusion and hypometabolism of brain regions, including cortex and hippocampus. Several studies show that hypertension-driven brain damage and pathogenic mechanisms lead to an Aβ increase. The pathophysiological mechanism by which OSA enhances hypertension may be linked to sympathoexcitation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Strong pathophysiological similarities that exist between OSA and AD are underscored here. For example, the hippocampus is negatively impacted in both OSA and AD. OSA promotes hippocampal atrophy, which is associated with memory impairment. Cognitive impairment, even in the absence of manifest dementia, is an important independent predictor of mortality. However, several pathophysiological mechanisms in OSA are reversible with appropriate therapy. OSA, therefore, is a modifiable risk factor of cognitive dysfunction, and treating OSA prior to mild cognitive impairment may be an effective prevention strategy to reduce risk for cognitive decline and AD in middle-aged persons and the elderly. PMID:26301370

  8. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  9. Effects of submental stimulation for several consecutive nights in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed Central

    Hida, W.; Okabe, S.; Miki, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Taguchi, O.; Takishima, T.; Shirato, K.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--It has previously been reported that short term submental stimulation can reduce the frequency of apnoea and improve sleep architecture in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. The effects of submental stimulation during consecutive nights on apnoea or on daytime sleepiness have not, however, been studied. METHODS--Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were studied by polysomnography on a control night, for five consecutive nights of submental stimulation, and on three following nights (n = 8). A multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) (n = 8) and measurement of the upper airway resistance (n = 5) were performed during the day after the polysomnographic study, on the control night, and on the fifth stimulation night. In an additional five patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, matched for age, sex, and weight, the effects of two nights of stimulation were examined for comparison. Submental stimulation began when an apnoea lasted for five seconds and stopped with the resumption of breathing as detected by oronasal flow. RESULTS--The apnoea index, the number of times per hour that SaO2 dropped below 85% (SaO2 < 85%/hour), and the total apnoea duration expressed as a percentage of total sleep time during stimulation nights decreased to approximately 50% of the corresponding values on the control night. This improvement persisted for at least two nights after the five consecutive stimulation nights, but not after the two consecutive stimulation nights. Sleep architecture and MSLT following the stimulation nights improved but upper airway resistance did not change. CONCLUSIONS--Submental stimulation for five consecutive nights in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea improved the breathing disturbance, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. The effect lasted for the following two nights, but did not completely abolish the sleep disordered breathing. PMID:8016764

  10. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T.; Elavarasi, A.; Ragesh, R.; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D.; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A. G.; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M. S.; Kharbanda, O. P.; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P. R.; Mallick, B. N.; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S. C.; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J. C.; Vengamma, B.; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V. K.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Gupta, Rasik

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the “gold standard” for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy. PMID:26180408

  11. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surendra K; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T; Elavarasi, A; Ragesh, R; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A G; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M S; Kharbanda, O P; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P R; Mallick, B N; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S C; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J C; Vengamma, B; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V K; Ramakrishnan, N; Gupta, Rasik

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the "gold standard" for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a perspective and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2009-01-01

    Data from animal and human studies provide a biological plausibility to the notion that obstructive sleep apnea activates pathways that lead to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Sleep apnea thus activates the same pathways as does obesity. That obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is supported by epidemiological association studies. Longitudinal cohort studies also provide evidence that patients with untreated severe sleep apnea have an increased rate of cardiovascular events. But these studies, while highly suggestive, do not provide the evidence needed to convince the skeptic. This would only be obtained by randomized treatment trials with hard cardiovascular endpoints such as cardiac events and deaths. While such studies are in the planning stages, they will be challenging. There are issues about randomizing individuals with severe sleep apnea and excessive sleepiness into no therapy, since they are at known increased risk for car crashes. Thus, lack of therapy puts others on the road at risk as well as the subject with sleep apnea. There is, moreover, the concern that treating obstructive sleep apnea in very obese individuals will have little impact, since any effect of therapy for OSA will be overwhelmed by the effects of obesity itself. Data from randomized treatment trials for cardiovascular endpoints will likely not be available for many years. In the interim, physicians need to consider how to treat such patients. It is proposed that given that CPAP treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is highly effective and essentially totally safe, and that the evidence is suggestive that sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, then we propose all patients with severe sleep apnea should be treated to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:19249449

  13. Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chiner, Eusebi; Llombart, Mónica; Valls, Joan; Pastor, Esther; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Andreu, Ada Luz; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can predispose individuals to lower airway infections and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to upper airway microaspiration. This study evaluated the association between OSA and CAP. Methods We performed a case-control study that included 82 patients with CAP and 41 patients with other infections (control group). The controls were matched according to age, sex and body mass index (BMI). A respiratory polygraph (RP) was performed upon admission for patients in both groups. The severity of pneumonia was assessed according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). The associations between CAP and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), OSA, OSA severity and other sleep-related variables were evaluated using logistic regression models. The associations between OSA, OSA severity with CAP severity were evaluated with linear regression models and non-parametric tests. Findings No significant differences were found between CAP and control patients regarding anthropometric variables, toxic habits and risk factors for CAP. Patients with OSA, defined as individuals with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥10, showed an increased risk of CAP (OR = 2·86, 95%CI 1·29–6·44, p = 0·01). Patients with severe OSA (AHI≥30) also had a higher risk of CAP (OR = 3·18, 95%CI 1·11–11·56, p = 0·047). In addition, OSA severity, defined according to the AHI quartile, was also significantly associated with CAP (p = 0·007). Furthermore, OSA was significantly associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0002), and OSA severity was also associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0006). Conclusions OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP when compared to patients admitted to the hospital for non-respiratory infections. In addition, OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP severity. These results support the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of CAP and could have clinical implications. This link between OSA and infection risk

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children: Implications for the Developing Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in our awareness to the high prevalence of sleep disorders in general, and of sleep-disordered breathing among children, in particular, has led to concentrated efforts aiming to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations and potential consequences of such conditions. In this review, I will briefly elaborate on some of the pathogenetic elements leading to the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, focus on the psycho-behavioral consequences of pediatric OSA, and review the evidence on the potential mechanisms underlying the close association between CNS morbidity and the episodic hypoxia and sleep fragmentation that characterize OSA. PMID:18555196

  15. Relationship between Oral Flow Patterns, Nasal Obstruction, and Respiratory Events during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Furukawa, Taiji; Sugimoto, Akira; Katada, Koji; Kotani, Ryosuke; Yoshizawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep breathing patterns are altered by nasal obstruction and respiratory events. This study aimed to describe the relationships between specific sleep oral flow (OF) patterns, nasal airway obstruction, and respiratory events. Methods: Nasal flow and OF were measured simultaneously by polysomnography in 85 adults during sleep. OF was measured 2 cm in front of the lips using a pressure sensor. Results: OF could be classified into three patterns: postrespiratory event OF (postevent OF), during-respiratory event OF (during-event OF), and spontaneous arousal-related OF (SpAr-related OF). Postevent OFs begin at the end of airflow reduction, are preceded by respiratory arousal, and are accompanied by postapneic hyperventilation; during-event OFs occur during nasal flow reduction; and SpAr-related OFs to OF begin during stable breathing, and are preceded by spontaneous arousal but are rarely accompanied by apnea/hypopnea. Multivariate regression showed that nasal obstruction was predictive of SpAr-related OF. The relative frequency of SpAr-related OF events was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. The fraction of SpAr-related OF duration relative to total OF duration was significantly greater in patients with nasal obstruction than in those without. Conclusions: SpAr-related OF was associated with nasal obstruction, but not respiratory events. This pattern thus functions as a “nasal obstruction bypass”, mainly in normal subjects and patients with mild sleep disordered breathing (SDB). By contrast, the other two types were related to respiratory events and were typical patterns seen in patients with moderate and severe SDB. Citation: Suzuki M, Furukawa T, Sugimoto A, Katada K, Kotani R, Yoshizawa T. Relationship between oral flow patterns, nasal obstruction, and respiratory events during sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):855–860. PMID:25766699

  16. Rat Model of Chronic Recurrent Airway Obstructions to Study the Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farré, Ramon; Nácher, Maria; Serrano-Mollar, Anna; Gáldiz, Juan B; Alvarez, Francisco J; Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To implement a chronic rat model of recurrent airway obstructions to study the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. Design: Prospective controlled animal study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Participants: 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g). Interventions: The rats were placed in a setup consisting of a body chamber and a head chamber separated by a neck collar specially designed to apply recurrent airway obstructions with OSA patterns. Rats in the Obstruction group (n=8) were subjected to 5-s obstructions at a rate of 60 per hour, 6 h/day during 4 weeks. Sham rats (n=8) were placed in the setup but no obstructions were applied. Naive rats (n=8) were subjected to no intervention. Measurements and Results: Breathing flow, pressure, CO2 air concentration, and SpO2 showed that the model mimicked OSA respiratory events (obstructive apneas, increased respiratory efforts, and oxygen saturation dips). Animal stress, assessed by body weight and plasma corticosterone, was not significantly different across Obstruction and Sham groups. This supports the concept that this novel model does not introduce a significant burden of stress in the rat after acclimatization to the chamber. Thromboxane-B2/6-keto-Prostaglandin-F1α ratio in plasma, which is an index of vasoconstriction, was significantly increased in the rats subjected to obstructions. Conclusions: The designed animal model of chronic recurrent airway obstructions is feasible and potentially useful to study the mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular consequences of OSA. Citation: Farré R; Nácher M; Serrano-Mollar A et al. Rat model of chronic recurrent airway obstructions to study the sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2007;30(7):930-933. PMID:17682665

  17. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Sonzini, Giulia; Plebani, Daniela; Urbani, Emanuele; Pecis, Marica; Montano, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Although previous studies demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may present subclinical manifestations of dysphagia, in not one were different textures and volumes systematically studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with boluses of different textures and volumes in a large cohort of patients with OSAS. A total of 72 OSAS patients without symptoms of dysphagia were enrolled. The cohort was divided in two groups: 30 patients with moderate OSAS and 42 patients with severe OSAS. Each patient underwent a FEES examination using 5, 10 and 20 ml of liquids and semisolids, and solids. Spillage, penetration, aspiration, retention, and piecemeal deglutition were considered. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), pooling score (PS), and dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) were used for quantitative analysis. Each patient completed the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. Forty-six patients (64 %) presented spillage, 20 (28 %) piecemeal deglutition, 26 (36 %) penetration, and 30 (44 %) retention. No differences were found in the PAS, PS, and DOSS scores between patients with moderate and severe OSAS. Patients with severe OSAS scored higher General Burden and Food selection subscales of the SWAL-QOL. Depending on the DOSS score, the cohort of patients was divided into those with and those without signs of dysphagia. Patients with signs of dysphagia scored lower in the General Burden and Symptoms subscales of the SWAL-QOL. OSAS patients show signs of swallowing impairment in about half of the population; clinicians involved in the management of these patients should include questions on swallowing when taking the medical history.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: natural history, diagnosis, and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Gharibeh, Tarek; Mehra, Reena

    2010-01-01

    Sleep apnea is an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that 2%–4% of the middle-aged population has sleep apnea with a predilection in men relative to women. Risk factors of sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, familial factors, craniofacial abnormalities, and alcohol. Sleep apnea has been increasingly recognized as a major health burden associated with hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapsibility and derangement in ventilatory control responses are the major pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard method for diagnosis of sleep apnea and assessment of sleep apnea severity; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in the setting of high pretest probability sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidity. Positive pressure therapy is the mainstay therapy of sleep apnea. Other treatment modalities, such as upper airway surgery or oral appliances, may be used for the treatment of sleep apnea in select cases. In this review, we focus on describing the sleep apnea definition, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated adverse consequences, diagnostic modalities, and treatment strategies. PMID:23616712

  19. Tongue Protrusion Strength in Arousal State Is Predictive of the Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ogawa, Teruhiro; Izumi, Tadafumi

    2015-01-01

    Contraction of the genioglossus affects either tongue protrusion strength or dilating forces of the upper airway. The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep, at least in part because of a sleep related reduction in genioglossus muscle activity. Thus, although tongue protrusion strength by genioglossus activity during sleep contributes to the maintenance of airway patency in patients with OSA, the relationship between tongue protrusion strength in the arousal state and obstructive sleep apnea has not been fully elucidated. Conventional method of tongue protrusion strength cannot be used to evaluate in edentulous subjects and/or subjects with the decreased biting force. In this study, employing a novel measurement method that does not require biting a transducer, we investigated relationships between the tongue protrusion strength and polysomnographic findings. We enrolled twenty normal subjects and 26 subjects with OSA. All subjects completed the measurement of tongue protrusion strength. Each subject with OSA was evaluated by full polysomnography. The degree of tongue protrusion strength was assessed by maximum voluntary contraction against the tongue depressor connected with a strain gauge dynamometer. The tongue protrusion strength was negatively correlated with obstructive apnea time, apnea index (AI) and the percent of sleep stage 2 (r = -0.61, p < 0.0001, r = -0.41 p = 0.03 and r = -0.39 p = 0.04, respectively). Tongue protrusion strength measured in the arousal state is predictive of the airway patency during sleep in OSA.

  20. Nonrapid Eye Movement-Predominant Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Detection and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Motoo; Fujita, Yukio; Kumamoto, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Ohnishi, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Strohl, Kingman P.; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be severe and present in higher numbers during rapid eye movement (REM) than nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; however, OSA occurs in NREM sleep and can be predominant. In general, ventilation decreases an average 10% to 15% during transition from wakefulness to sleep, and there is variability in just how much ventilation decreases. As dynamic changes in ventilation contribute to irregular breathing and breathing during NREM sleep is mainly under chemical control, our hypothesis is that patients with a more pronounced reduction in ventilation during the transition from wakefulness to NREM sleep will have NREM- predominant rather than REM-predominant OSA. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 451 consecutive patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5) undergoing diagnostic polysomnography was performed, and breath-to-breath analysis of the respiratory cycle duration, tidal volume, and estimated minute ventilation before and after sleep onset were examined. Values were calculated using respiratory inductance plethysmography. The correlation between the percent change in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions and the percentage of apnea-hypopneas in NREM sleep (%AHI in NREM; defined as (AHI-NREM) / [(AHI-NREM) + (AHI-REM)] × 100) was the primary outcome. Results: The decrease in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions was 15.0 ± 16.6% (mean ± standard deviation), due to a decrease in relative tidal volume. This decrease in estimated minute ventilation was significantly correlated with %AHI in NREM (r = −0.222, p < 0.01). Conclusions: A greater dynamic reduction in ventilation back and forth from wakefulness to sleep contributes to the NREM predominant OSA phenotype via induced ventilatory instability. Citation: Yamauchi M, Fujita Y, Kumamoto M, Yoshikawa M, Ohnishi Y, Nakano H, Strohl KP, Kimura H. Nonrapid eye movement-predominant obstructive sleep apnea: detection and

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: The Role of Upper Airway and Facial Skeletal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Afifi, Ahmed M; Sanchez, Ruston; King, Timothy W

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea represents a large burden of disease to the general population and may compromise patient quality of life; workplace and automotive safety; and metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive health. The disease is characterized by repetitive cycles of upper airway collapse resulting from a lack of pharyngeal airway structural support and loss of muscle tone among upper airway dilators. Polysomnography serves as the gold standard for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea and the apnea-hypopnea index is the most commonly used metric for quantifying disease severity. Conservative treatments include lifestyle modification, continuous positive airway pressure treatment, and dental appliance therapy. Surgical treatment options include pharyngeal and facial skeletal surgery. Maxillomandibular advancement has been shown to be the most effective surgical approach for multilevel expansion of the upper airway and may significantly reduce an obstructive sleep apnea patient's apnea-hypopnea index. Patient age, obesity, and the degree of maxillary advancement may be key factors contributing to treatment success. PMID:27673521

  2. Electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kezirian, Eric J; Boudewyns, An; Eisele, David W; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Van de Heyning, Paul H; De Backer, Wilfried A

    2010-10-01

    Upper airway occlusion in obstructive sleep apnea has been attributed to a decline in pharyngeal neuromuscular activity occurring in a structurally narrowed airway. Surgical treatment focuses on the correction of anatomic abnormalities, but there is a potential role for activation of the upper airway musculature, especially with stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and genioglossus muscle. We present evidence from research on upper airway neuromuscular electrical stimulation in animals and humans. We also present results from eight obstructive sleep apnea patients with a fully implanted system for hypoglossal nerve stimulation, demonstrating an improvement in upper airway collapsibility and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Future research, including optimization of device features and stimulation parameters as well as patient selection, is necessary to make hypoglossal nerve stimulation a viable alternative to positive airway pressure therapy and upper airway surgical procedures.

  3. Effect of CPAP on Endothelial Function in Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huajun; Wang, Yuyu; Guan, Jian; Yi, Hongliang; Yin, Shankai

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is related to endothelial dysfunction. CPAP is the first-line treatment for OSA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of CPAP on endothelial function in subjects with OSA. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The overall effects were measured by the weighted mean difference with a 95% CI. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Eleven studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed that CPAP significantly improved endothelial function as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (weighted mean difference of 2.92, 95% CI 2.21-3.63, P < .001), whereas there was no significant improvement in endothelial function in response to nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (weighted mean difference of 0.90, 95% CI -1.63 to 3.43, P = .48). Age, sex, CPAP compliance and duration, and sleep-related variables had no effect on reduction in arterial stiffness after CPAP. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the protective effect of CPAP on endothelial function was robust. CPAP significantly improved flow-mediated dilation in subjects with OSA. Long-term randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the positive effect of CPAP on endothelial function in subjects with OSA.

  4. Association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control in patients with untreated versus treated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Chollet, Sylvaine; Pigeanne, Thierry; Masson, Philippe; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Goupil, François; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control differs between patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, and patients with known and treated type 2 diabetes. This multicentre cross-sectional study included 762 patients investigated by sleep recording for suspected obstructive sleep apnea, 497 of whom were previously diagnosed and treated for type 2 diabetes (treated diabetic patients), while 265 had no medical history of diabetes but had fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg dL(-1) and/or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) ≥6.5% consistent with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (untreated diabetic patients). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent association between HbA1c and obstructive sleep apnea severity in treated and untreated patients with diabetes. In untreated diabetic patients, HbA1c was positively associated with apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.0007) and 3% oxygen desaturation index (P = 0.0016) after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, alcohol habits, metabolic dyslipidaemia, hypertension, statin use and study site. The adjusted mean value of HbA1c increased from 6.68% in the lowest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (<17) to 7.20% in the highest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (>61; P = 0.033 for linear trend). In treated patients with diabetes, HbA1c was associated with non-sleep variables, including age, metabolic dyslipidaemia and insulin use, but not with obstructive sleep apnea severity. Obstructive sleep apnea may adversely affect glucose control in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, but may have a limited impact in patients with overt type 2 diabetes receiving anti-diabetic medications. PMID:25703309

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and 15-Year Cognitive Decline: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Bengtson, Lindsay G.S.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Shahar, Eyal; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Wruck, Lisa M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prospective data evaluating abnormal sleep quality and quantity with cognitive decline are limited because most studies used subjective data and/or had short follow-up. We hypothesized that, over 15 y of follow-up, participants with objectively measured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other indices of poor sleep quantity and quality would experience greater decline in cognitive functioning than participants with normal sleep patterns. Methods: ARIC participants (n = 966; mean age 61 y, 55% women) with in-home polysomnography (1996–1998) and repeated cognitive testing were followed for 15 y. Three cognitive tests (Delayed Word Recall, Word Fluency, and Digit Symbol Substitution) were administered at two time points (1996–1998 and 2011–2013). Ten additional cognitive tests were administered at the 2011–2013 neurocognitive examination. OSA was modeled using established clinical OSA severity categories. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations of OSA and other sleep indices with change in cognitive tests between the two assessments. Results: A median of 14.9 y (max: 17.3) passed between the two cognitive assessments. OSA category and additional indices of sleep (other measures of hypoxemia and disordered breathing, sleep fragmentation, sleep duration) were not associated with change in any cognitive test. Analyses of OSA severity categories and 10 cognitive tests administered only in 2011–2013 also showed little evidence of an association. Conclusions: Overall, abnormal sleep quality and quantity at midlife was not related to cognitive decline and later-life cognition. The effect of adverse sleep quality and quantity on cognitive decline among the elderly remains to be determined. Citation: Lutsey PL, Bengtson LG, Punjabi NM, Shahar E, Mosley TH, Gottesman RF, Wruck LM, MacLehose RF, Alonso A. Obstructive sleep apnea and 15-year cognitive decline: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. SLEEP 2016

  6. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary A; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years), and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years). We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05). In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males), OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males), slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males); for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males); for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males), and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males). Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in females. The

  7. Distraction osteogenesis as a treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai Kin; Yang, Yanqi; Cheung, Lim Kwong; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To conduct a systematic review to answer the clinical question “What are the effectiveness of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) and its complications to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)?”. Methods: A systematic search including a computer search with specific keywords, reference list search, and manual search were done. Relevant articles on MDO were assessed and selected in 3 rounds for final review based on 5 predefined inclusion criteria and followed by a round of critical appraisal. Different types of distraction and their treatment outcomes of OSAS were recorded with standardized form and analyzed. Results: Twelve articles were included in the final review. A total of 256 patients aged 7 days to 60 years were treated with either external or internal MDO, with a mean follow-up period of 6 to 37 months. The average distraction distance of 12 to 29 mm was achieved with various distraction protocols. The success rate for adult patients was 100%, and cure rates were ranged from 82% to 100%. The definition of success or cure for OSAS in children or infants was not defined. Therefore, there were no clearly reported success or cure rates for children/infants in the included studies. However, all studies reported that these patients showed significant improvement in OSAS, with many of them who avoided tracheostomy or had the tracheostomy decannulated. The complication rates were ranged from 0% to 21.4%, with most being from local wound infections or neurosensory disturbances. Conclusion: This systematic review showed that MDO was effective in resolving OSAS in adults with retrognathic mandible. MDO also showed promising results in infants or children with OSAS. From the results of this systematic review, we recommend to define the criteria of success or cure for OSAS surgery in children and infants. We also recommend setting up randomized controlled trials to compare MDO with traditional maxillomandibular

  8. Utility of Symptoms to Predict Treatment Outcomes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Taylor, H. Gerry; Marcus, Carole L.; Katz, Eliot S.; Paruthi, Shalini; Arens, Raanan; Muzumdar, Hiren; Garetz, Susan L.; Mitchell, Ron B.; Jones, Dwight; Weng, Jia; Ellenberg, Susan; Redline, Susan; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Polysomnography defines the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) but does not predict some important comorbidities or their response to adenotonsillectomy. We assessed whether OSAS symptoms, as reflected on the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ), may offer clinical predictive value. METHODS: Baseline and 7-month follow-up data were analyzed from 185 participants (aged 5–9 years with polysomnographically confirmed OSAS) in the surgical treatment arm of the multicenter Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial. Associations were assessed between baseline PSQ or polysomnographic data and baseline morbidity (executive dysfunction, behavior, quality of life, sleepiness) or postsurgical improvement. RESULTS: At baseline, each 1-SD increase in baseline PSQ score was associated with an adjusted odds ratio that was ∼3 to 4 times higher for behavioral morbidity, 2 times higher for reduced global quality of life, 6 times higher for reduced disease-specific quality of life, and 2 times higher for sleepiness. Higher baseline PSQ scores (greater symptom burden) also predicted postsurgical improvement in parent ratings of executive functioning, behavior, quality of life, and sleepiness. In contrast, baseline polysomnographic data did not independently predict these morbidities or their postsurgical improvement. Neither PSQ nor polysomnographic data were associated with objectively assessed executive dysfunction or improvement at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: PSQ symptom items, in contrast to polysomnographic results, reflect subjective measures of OSAS-related impairment of behavior, quality of life, and sleepiness and predict their improvement after adenotonsillectomy. Although objective polysomnography is needed to diagnose OSAS, the symptoms obtained during an office visit can offer adjunctive insight into important comorbidities and likely surgical responses. PMID:25667240

  9. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome with obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Arjun; Shastri, Aravind R T; Ross-Russell, Robert I

    2012-01-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by branchial arch anomalies, otological and renal abnormalities. To the best of our knowledge, upper airway obstruction has not been hitherto reported in BOR. The authors report a 19-month-old girl with BOR syndrome with features of severe airway obstruction needing tracheostomy. PMID:22891008

  10. Function and modulation of premotor brainstem parasympathetic cardiac neurons that control heart rate by hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, Olga; Weigand, Letitia A; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Mares, Jacquelyn; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brainstem dominate the control of heart rate. Previous work has determined that these neurons are inherently silent, and their activity is largely determined by synaptic inputs to CVNs that include four major types of synapses that release glutamate, GABA, glycine, or serotonin. Whereas prior reviews have focused on glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic pathways, and the receptors in CVNs activated by these neurotransmitters, this review focuses on the alterations in CVN activity with hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related cardiovascular diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

  11. Ambulatory Diagnosis and Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Screening Questionnaires, Diagnostic Tests, and the Care Team.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, R Doug; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Antic, Nick A

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea has increased in prevalence in recent years and despite the expansion in sleep medicine services there is a significant unmet burden of disease. This burden presents a challenge to specialists and requires a reappraisal of service delivery, including a move toward lower-cost, simplified methods of diagnosis and treatment, an expansion of the sleep apnea workforce to include suitably trained and equipped primary care physicians and nurses, and the incorporation of chronic disease management principles that link patients to relevant community resources and empower them through new technologies to engage more fully in their own care. PMID:27542873

  12. Quality Measures for the Care of Pediatric Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kothare, Sanjeev V.; Rosen, Carol L.; Lloyd, Robin M.; Paruthi, Shalini; Thomas, Sherene M.; Troester, Matthew M.; Carden, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, obstructive sleep apnea in children, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy. This paper describes the rationale, background, general methods development, and considerations in implementation of these quality measures in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. This document describes measurement methods for five desirable process measures: assessment of symptoms and risk factors of OSA, initiation of an evidence-based action plan, objective evaluation of high-risk children with OSA by obtaining a polysomnogram (PSG), reassessment of signs and symptoms of OSA within 12 months, and documentation of objective assessment of positive airway pressure adherence. When these five process measures are met, clinicians should be able to achieve the two defined outcomes: improve detection of childhood OSA and reduce signs and symptoms of OSA after initiation of a management plan. The AASM recommends the use of these measures as part of quality improvement programs that will enhance the ability to improve care for patients with childhood OSA. Citation: Kothare SV, Rosen CL, Lloyd RM, Paruthi S, Thomas SM, Troester MM, Carden KA. Quality measures for the care of pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):385–404. PMID:25700879

  13. [A case report: perioperative management of adenotonsillectomy in a morbidly obese patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mine, Tomoko; Wada, Minori; Hashimoto, Ai; Minami, Kotaro; Nikai, Tetsuro; Imamachi, Noritaka; Saito, Yoji

    2014-11-01

    A male patient in his thirties was scheduled to undergo adenotonsillectomy due to dyspnea from bilateral tonsillar hypertrophy. He was morbidly obese (body mass index 56 kg x m(-2)) with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and thus was evaluated with extreme risk for difficult ventilation and intubation. We planned awake intubation via video-assisted laryngoscopy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy under dexmedetomidine sedation, and the intubation was successfully performed. After adenotonsillectomy, upper airway obstruction due to hemorrhage and oropharyngeal swelling can be life-threatening requiring emergent airway management. Thus for postoperative airway management, due to the possibility of "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" (CICV) and presumed difficult tracheotomy, we scheduled to perform tracheotomy during adenotonsillectomy, right after anesthetic induction and awake intubation. On postoperative day 1, he started walking with no need of sedative drugs. On day 4, after confirmation of minimal oropharyngeal swelling, tracheal cannulae was removed, and no further complications were observed in his postoperative course. We conclude that careful preoperative evaluation of the airway, retention of spontaneous breathing via awake intubation, and preventive tracheotomy for postoperative airway management are important points in perioperative management of a morbidly obese patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:25731066

  14. The sympathetic nervous system and catecholamines metabolism in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Bisogni, Valeria; Pengo, Martino F.; Maiolino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder of breathing in middle-aged and overweight subjects. It features recurrent episodes of upper airway total (apnoea) o partial (hypopnea) collapse during sleep, which are associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation and with arousal from sleep to re-establish airway patency. An association of OSA with dysregulation of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) and altered catecholamines (CAs) metabolism has been contended for years. However, the pathophysiology mechanisms underlying these alterations remain to be fully clarified. Nonetheless, these alterations are deemed to play a key pathogenic role in the established association of OSA with several conditions besides arterial hypertension (HT), including coronary artery disease, stroke, and, more in general, with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. Hence, in this review we will analyse the relationship between the sleep disturbances associated with OSA and the altered function of the ANS, including CAs metabolism. PMID:26904265

  15. Design of a new controller to treat the obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a sleep related breathing disorder caused by a relaxation of the upper airway structure during the sleep that leads to a complete closure of the upper airway. The most successful therapy is the nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment that keeps the airway opened. More recent devices use an automatic adaptation of the applied pressure. Either the forced oscillation technique (FOT) or the evaluation of the inspiration flow contour are used to evaluate the severity of obstructions. Both methods have disadvantages that may lead to wrong applied pressures. Based on the precise measurement of airflow and mask pressure during nCPAP with a Weinmann SOMNOsmart and additional polysomnography a new parameter set is presented that uses the advantage of both methods to detect the obstructive sleep apnoea. To evaluate the applicability of this parameter set to control Auto-nCPAP-devices a fuzzy-controller is designed under MATLAB/Simulink using an A/D-D/A-converter to control the blower of the SOMNOsmart during Auto-nCPAP-therapy. Obstructive events are detected and treated with a rise of nCPAP-pressure depending on the inspiratory flow requirement. The pressure is lowered after the end of flow limited phases. Although temporary low pressures no oxygen desaturation is recognized by the pulse oxymeter.

  16. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and ischemic heart disease. Evidence of their relationship].

    PubMed

    González-Pliego, José Angel; Hernández-Gordillo, Daniel; Castañeda-Barragán, Edgar; García-Lamas, Leopoldo; Guzmán-Sánchez, César Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse the relation between obstructive sleep apnea and coronary disease. We present epidemiological data on the respiratory disorder and its association with ischemic cardiopathy, as well as common cardiovascular risk factors, physiopathological interactions between both conditions, clinical evolution and impact of treatment on prognosis.

  17. Dynamics of snoring sounds and its connection with obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Adriano M.; da Silva, Diego Greatti Vaz; Oliveira, Carolina Beatriz; Vieira, André P.; Moriya, Henrique T.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    Snoring is extremely common in the general population and when irregular may indicate the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. We analyze the overnight sequence of wave packets - the snore sound - recorded during full polysomnography in patients referred to the Sleep Laboratory due to suspected obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesize that irregular snore, with duration in the range between 10 and 100 s, correlates with respiratory obstructive events. We find that the number of irregular snores - easily accessible, and quantified by what we call the snore time interval index (STII) - is in good agreement with the well-known apnea-hypopnea index, which expresses the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and is extracted only from polysomnography. In addition, the Hurst analysis of the snore sound itself, which calculates the fluctuations in the signal as a function of time interval, is used to build a classifier that is able to distinguish between patients with no or mild apnea and patients with moderate or severe apnea.

  18. Upper airway function in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea: a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert L.; Eckert, Danny J.; Yeh, Susie Yim; Malhotra, Atul

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Obstructive sleep apnea is an increasingly prevalent disease, with a considerable societal burden. The disease is defined by recurrent intermittent collapse of the upper airway. Understanding of and treatment for the disease is largely confined to relief of the mechanical obstruction of the upper airway by application of continuous positive airway pressure, and less commonly weight loss or surgery. However, recent work has focused on the function, rather than structure alone, of the upper airway. Recent findings The following contributors to upper airway structure and function have been studied: traditional fixed anatomical abnormalities, dynamic anatomical changes, upper airway dilator muscle dysfunction, lung volumes, and instability in control of breathing. In each patient with obstructive sleep apnea, the relative contribution of each of these components may be quite variable. The studies reviewed here describe methods to evaluate these factors, and some attempts at treatment. Summary Ongoing studies are attempting to classify patients on the basis of the underlying pathophysiology. This work suggests that obstructive sleep apnea is a heterogeneous disease with multiple root causes. Ultimately, such a classification may allow more individualized treatment, not only relying on mechanical relief of the upper airway obstruction. PMID:18812828

  19. Bone Loss in Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chakhtoura, Marlene; Nasrallah, Mona; Chami, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder. It is associated with many endocrinopathies including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, and glucose intolerance that may lead to bone loss with secondary osteoporosis. Methods: We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with bilateral 9th rib fractures and was found to have obstructive sleep apnea and osteoporosis. We also present a literature review on this topic. Results: OSA can lead to bone loss through various mechanisms. Some are shared with obesity, including hypogonadism, altered adrenergic tone, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus; others are specific to OSA, such as hypoxia and altered glucocorticoids regulation. Conclusion: There are no guidelines on screening for osteoporosis in OSA. Further research is needed to assess the incidence of bone loss and fractures in OSA. Citation: Chakhtoura M, Nasrallah M, Chami H. Bone loss in obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: a review of literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):575–580. PMID:25580607

  20. Videoradiography at submental electrical stimulation during apnea in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hillarp, B; Rosén, I; Wickström, O

    1991-05-01

    Percutaneous submental electrical stimulation during sleep may be a new therapeutic method for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Electrical stimulation to the submental region during obstructive apnea is reported to break the apnea without arousal and to diminish apneic index, time spent in apnea, and oxygen desaturation. The mode of breaking the apnea by electrical stimulation has not yet been shown. However, genioglossus is supposed to be the muscle responsible for breaking the apnea by forward movement of the tongue. To visualize the effect of submental electrical stimulation, one patient with severe OSAS has been examined with videoradiography. Submental electrical stimulation evoked an immediate complex muscle activity in the tongue, palate, and hyoid bone. This was followed by a forward movement of the tongue which consistently broke obstructive apnea without apparent arousal. Time spent in apnea was diminished but intervals between apnea were not affected.

  1. Comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol used for drug-induced sleep endoscopy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kuyrukluyıldız, Ufuk; Binici, Orhan; Onk, Didem; Ayhan Celik, Serap; Torun, Mumtaz Taner; Unver, Edhem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Alagol, Aysin

    2015-01-01

    Backround: Surgical operations are alternative treatments in persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome who cannot tolerate continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy is a method with which somnolence is pharmacologically induced and collapse is evaluated through nasal endoscopy in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Aims: We aimed to evaluate efficiency of dexmedetomidine or propofol used for sedation in patients undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Methods: A total of 40 patients aged between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA STATUS I-II group were included in the study. After premedicatıon wıth midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously, patients were randomly divided into two groups and administered intravenous (iv) propofol with the loading dose of 0.7 mg/kg for 10 minutes, followed 0.5 mg/kg/h infusion (Group P); or dexmedetomidine with the loading dose of 1 mcg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by 0.3 mcg/kg/h infusion (Group D). Haemodynamic and respiratuary parameters, Bispectral index score, Ramsey sedation score, time to achieve sufficient sedation, surgeon’s and patients’ satisfaction, postoperative Aldrete score and side effects were recorded. Results: Time to achieve sufficient sedation, Bispectral index scores at 5, 10 and 15th. minutes intraoperatively, first Aldrete score in the recovery room, SpO2 values and respiratory rates all over the surgical procedure and in the recovery room were found lower in Group P (P<0.05). Bispectral index scores, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the recovery room were significantly lower in Group D (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine may be preferred as a safer agent with respecting to respiratory function compared with propofol in obstructive sleep apnea patients who known to be susceptible to hypoxia and hypercarbia. PMID:26131153

  2. Is Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Erdim, Ibrahim; Akcay, Teoman; Yilmazer, Rasim; Erdur, Omer; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese adolescents. Methods: In total, 240 pubertal children or prepubertal children older than 11 y recruited consecutively from the pediatric endocrinology unit, obesity clinic. Patients with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy (grade 3/4), systemic illnesses, or chronic drug usage were excluded. After anthropometric measurement and laboratory study, patients were divided into two groups according to metabolic syndrome (MS): MS and non-MS. Overnight polysomnographic evaluation was performed and 104 subjects were included for statistical analysis. The two groups were compared in terms of sleep efficiency, number of awakenings per night, oxygen desaturation index, snoring time, and obstructive/central/ mixed apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results: Of the obese adolescents, 51 had MS and 53 did not. The AHI was ≥ 1 in 25 of the 53 non-MS children (47.2%) and in 25 of the 51 MS children (49%). The median obstructive AHI value was 0.9 (0.2–2.4) and total AHI was 0.9 (0.2–2.5) in the MS group; these values were 0.9 (0.25–3.55) and 0.9 (0.3–3.55), respectively, in the non-MS group. Obstructive, central, mixed, and total AHI values in the MS and non-MS groups were not statistically significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusions: In our study, we did not find an association between MS and sleep apnea in obese adolescents. Citation: Erdim I, Akcay T, Yilmazer R, Erdur O, Kayhan FT. Is metabolic syndrome associated with obstructive sleep apnea in obese adolescents? J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1371–1376. PMID:26156956

  3. The Circadian System Contributes to Apnea Lengthening across the Night in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Matthew P.; Smales, Carolina; Wu, Huijuan; Hussain, Mohammad V.; Mohamed, Yusef A.; Morimoto, Miki; Shea, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that respiratory event duration exhibits an endogenous circadian rhythm. Design: Within-subject and between-subjects. Settings: Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Participants: Seven subjects with moderate/severe sleep apnea and four controls, age 48 (SD = 12) years, 7 males. Interventions: Subjects completed a 5-day inpatient protocol in dim light. Polysomnography was recorded during an initial control 8-h night scheduled at the usual sleep time, then through 10 recurrent cycles of 2 h 40 min sleep and 2 h 40 min wake evenly distributed across all circadian phases, and finally during another 8-h control sleep period. Measurements and Results: Event durations, desaturations, and apnea-hypopnea index for each sleep opportunity were assessed according to circadian phase (derived from salivary melatonin), time into sleep, and sleep stage. Average respiratory event durations in NREM sleep significantly lengthened across both control nights (21.9 to 28.2 sec and 23.7 to 30.2 sec, respectively). During the circadian protocol, event duration in NREM increased across the circadian phases that corresponded to the usual sleep period, accounting for > 50% of the increase across normal 8-h control nights. AHI and desaturations were also rhythmic: AHI was highest in the biological day while desaturations were greatest in the biological night. Conclusions: The endogenous circadian system plays an important role in the prolongation of respiratory events across the night, and might provide a novel therapeutic target for modulating sleep apnea. Citation: Butler MP, Smales C, Wu H, Hussain MV, Mohamed YA, Morimoto M, Shea SA. The circadian system contributes to apnea lengthening across the night in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1793–1801. PMID:26039970

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea in Prader-Willi syndrome: risks and advantages of adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Leone; Toma, Salvatore; Palonta, Francesca; Teggi, Roberto; Zucconi, Marco; Di Candia, Stefania; Bussi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a well-known clinical manifestation of Prader-Willi syndrome. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of the disorder as well as the improvement of their post-operative quality of life. Five patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apneas and adenotonsillar hypertrophy of grade III-IV underwent adenotonsillectomy. Pre- and postoperative apneas and Quality of Life were assessed respectively with a polysomnography with multi-sleep latency test and with the pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire, performed before and 6 months after surgery. A decrease of apnea/hypopnea index values has been detected between pre- and post-surgery (t=2.64, P=0.005), as well as oxygen desaturation index values (t=5.51, P=0.005), multi-sleep latency test (t=4.54, P=0.01), and of the values of pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire. No correlation has been detected between body mass index and apnea/hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index and multi-sleep latency test values pre- and post-adenotonsillectomy. A correlation has been found between multi-sleep latency test and oxygen desaturation index values post-surgery (P=0.04). No post-operative complications were observed. Our data underline the efficacy of surgery in Prader-Willi patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy in order to improve their quality of life. PMID:26429118

  5. Orexin Plays a Role in Growth Impediment Induced by Obstructive Sleep Breathing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tarasiuk, Ariel; Levi, Avishag; Assadi, Mohammad H.; Troib, Ariel; Segev, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms linking sleep disordered breathing with impairment of sleep and bone metabolism/architecture are poorly understood. Here, we explored the role of the neuropeptide orexin, a respiratory homeostasis modulator, in growth retardation induced in an upper airway obstructed (AO) rat model. Methods: The tracheae of 22-day-old rats were narrowed; AO and sham-control animals were monitored for 5 to 7 w. Growth parameters, food intake, sleep/wake activity, and serum hormones were measured. After euthanasia, growth plate (GP) histology, morphometry, orexin receptors (OXR), and related mediators were analyzed. The effect of dual orexin receptor antagonist (almorexant 300 mg/kg) on sleep and GP histology were also investigated. Results: The AO group slept 32% less; the time spent in slow wave and paradoxical sleep during light period and slow wave activity was reduced. The AO group gained 46% less body weight compared to the control group, despite elevated food intake; plasma ghrelin increased by 275% and leptin level decreased by 44%. The impediment of bone elongation and bone mass was followed by a 200% increase in OX1R and 38% reduction of local GP ghrelin proteins and growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. Sry-related transcription factor nine (Sox9), a molecule mediating cartilage ossification, was downregulated and the level of transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was upregulated, explaining the bone architecture abnormalities. Administration of almorexant restored sleep and improved GP width in AO animals. Conclusions: In AO animals, enhanced expression of orexin and OX1R plays a role in respiratory induced sleep and growth abnormalities. Citation: Tarasiuk A, Levi A, Assadi MH, Troib A, Segev Y. Orexin plays a role in growth impediment induced by obstructive sleep breathing in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(4):887–897. PMID:26943473

  6. Nocturnal mouthpiece ventilation and medical hypnosis to treat severe obstructive sleep apnea in a child with cherubism.

    PubMed

    Khirani, Sonia; Kadlub, Natacha; Delord, Vincent; Picard, Arnaud; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    A 4-year old boy presented severe obstructive sleep apnoea due to complete nasal obstruction secondary to cherubism. Because of anticipatory anxiety due to numerous surgical interventions, medical hypnosis was proposed to facilitate non-invasive continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPAP) acceptance. CPAP by means of an oral interface was completely accepted after three hypnosis sessions and resulted in the correction of his obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. This report highlights the benefit of medical hypnosis in facilitating CPAP acceptance as well as the efficacy of mouthpiece ventilation in a severe form of cherubism with complete nasal obstruction.

  7. Cardiac arrhythmias in obstructive sleep apnea (from the Akershus Sleep Apnea Project).

    PubMed

    Namtvedt, Silje K; Randby, Anna; Einvik, Gunnar; Hrubos-Strøm, Harald; Somers, Virend K; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn

    2011-10-15

    Increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias has been reported in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but this may not be generalizable to patients from the general population with a milder form of the condition. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cardiac arrhythmias and OSA of mainly mild and moderate severity. In total, 486 subjects (mean age 49 years, 55% men) recruited from a population-based study in Norway underwent polysomnography for OSA assessment and Holter recordings for arrhythmia assessment. Of these, 271 patients were diagnosed with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥5, median AHI 16.8, quartiles 1 to 3 8.9 to 32.6). Mean nadir oxygen saturations were 82% and 89% in patients with and without OSA, respectively. Ventricular premature complexes (≥5/hour) were more prevalent in subjects with OSA compared to subjects without OSA (median AHI 1.4, quartiles 1 to 3 0.5 to 3.0) during the night (12.2% vs 4.7%, p = 0.005) and day (14% vs 5.1%, p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis after adjusting for relevant confounders, AHI was independently associated with an increased prevalence of ventricular premature complexes at night (odds ratio per 1-U increase of log-transformed AHI 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.0, p = 0.008) and during the day (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8, p = 0.035). In conclusion, the prevalence of ventricular premature complexes is increased in middle-aged patients with mainly mild or moderate OSA, suggesting an association between OSA and ventricular arrhythmias even in mild OSA.

  8. Neural Respiratory Drive and Arousal in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Si-Chang; He, Bai-Ting; Steier, Joerg; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I.; Luo, Yuan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: It has been hypothesized that arousals after apnea and hypopnea events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea are triggered when neural respiratory drive exceeds a certain level, but this hypothesis is based on esophageal pressure data, which are dependent on flow and lung volume. We aimed to determine whether a fixed threshold of respiratory drive is responsible for arousal at the termination of apnea and hypopnea using a flow independent technique (esophageal diaphragm electromyography, EMGdi) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Setting: Sleep center of state Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease. Patients: Seventeen subjects (two women, mean age 53 ± 11 years) with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome were studied Methods: We recorded esophageal pressure and EMGdi simultaneously during overnight full polysomnography in all the subjects. Measurements and Results: A total of 709 hypopnea events and 986 apnea events were analyzed. There was wide variation in both esophageal pressure and EMGdi at the end of both apnea and hypopnea events within a subject and stage 2 sleep. The EMGdi at the end of events that terminated with arousal was similar to those which terminated without arousal for both hypopnea events (27.6% ± 13.9%max vs 29.9% ± 15.9%max, P = ns) and apnea events (22.9% ± 11.5%max vs 22.1% ± 12.6%max, P = ns). The Pes at the end of respiratory events terminated with arousal was also similar to those terminated without arousal. There was a small but significant difference in EMGdi at the end of respiratory events between hypopnea and apnea (25.3% ± 14.2%max vs 21.7% ± 13.2%max, P < 0.05]. Conclusions: Our data do not support the concept that there is threshold of neural respiratory drive that is responsible for arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Xiao SC, He BT, Steier J, Moxham J, Polkey MI, Luo YM. Neural respiratory drive and arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea. SLEEP 2015

  9. The effect of increased lung volume in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on upper airway obstruction during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Biselli, Paolo; Grossman, Peter R.; Kirkness, Jason P.; Patil, Susheel P.; Smith, Philip L.; Schwartz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit increases in lung volume due to expiratory airflow limitation. Increases in lung volumes may affect upper airway patency and compensatory responses to inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) during sleep. We hypothesized that COPD patients have less collapsible airways inversely proportional to their lung volumes, and that the presence of expiratory airflow limitation limits duty cycle responses to defend ventilation in the presence of IFL. We enrolled 18 COPD patients and 18 controls, matched by age, body mass index, sex, and obstructive sleep apnea disease severity. Sleep studies, including quantitative assessment of airflow at various nasal pressure levels, were conducted to determine upper airway mechanical properties [passive critical closing pressure (Pcrit)] and for quantifying respiratory timing responses to experimentally induced IFL. COPD patients had lower passive Pcrit than their matched controls (COPD: −2.8 ± 0.9 cmH2O; controls: −0.5 ± 0.5 cmH2O, P = 0.03), and there was an inverse relationship of subject's functional residual capacity and passive Pcrit (−1.7 cmH2O/l increase in functional residual capacity, r2 = 0.27, P = 0.002). In response to IFL, inspiratory duty cycle increased more (P = 0.03) in COPD patients (0.40 to 0.54) than in controls (0.41 to 0.51) and led to a marked reduction in expiratory time from 2.5 to 1.5 s (P < 0.01). COPD patients have a less collapsible airway and a greater, not reduced, compensatory timing response during upper airway obstruction. While these timing responses may reduce hypoventilation, it may also increase the risk for developing dynamic hyperinflation due to a marked reduction in expiratory time. PMID:26048975

  10. The Association Between Antihypertensive Medication and Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Lucília N; Pinto, Paula; Bárbara, Cristina; Papoila, Ana L; Monteiro, Emília C

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension are closely related diseases. The lowering effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressure (BP) control is modest and concomitant antihypertensive therapy is still required. However, the best antihypertensive regimen for BP control in patients with OSA remains unknown. We aimed to investigate a hypothetical association between ongoing antihypertensive medication and BP control rates in patients with OSA. We conducted a prospective observational study in a cohort of 205 patients with OSA and hypertension who underwent a sleep study and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Ongoing antihypertensive medication profile was recorded. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between antihypertensive regimen and BP control, before (n = 205) and, when applicable, after CPAP adaptation (n = 90). One hundred and fifty-five patients (155/205) were being treated with 31 different antihypertensive regimens. At baseline, the antihypertensive regimens and the number of antihypertensive drugs were not associated with BP control (p = 0.847; p = 0.991). After CPAP adaptation, a decrease in median night-time systolic and diastolic BP was observed (p = 0.001; p = 0.006). Nevertheless, the lack of association between antihypertensive regimens and the number of antihypertensive drugs and BP control remained (p = 0.864; p = 0.800). Our findings confirm that although CPAP improves nocturnal BP, this improvement is not sufficient to control blood pressure for 24 h. This study shows, for the first time, that in patients with OSA, there is no association between BP control and both the antihypertensive regimen and the number of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:26303482

  11. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    PubMed

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  12. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the relationship between sleep disorder and pain level, quality of life, and disability

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332

  13. Treatment of Insomnia, Insomnia Symptoms, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea During and After Menopause: Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Joshua Z.; Suh, Sooyeon A.; Dowdle, Claire L.; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Understanding sleep complaints among menopausal women is an emerging area of clinical and research interest. Several recent reviews have focused on mechanisms of menopausal insomnia and symptoms. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on the treatment of sleep disorders for menopausal women, with a focus on menopause-related insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and obstructive sleep apnea. We discuss both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), complementary and alternative medicine, hormone replacement therapy, sedative hypnotics, antidepressants, and continuous positive airway pressure. In addition, we briefly discuss methods and considerations of assessment of sleep disorders in menopausal women. PMID:26478725

  14. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Dedhia, Raj C.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Soose, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent clinical problem with significant effects on both personal and public health. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy and low morbidity; long-term adherence rates approach 50%. Although traditional upper airway surgical procedures target the anatomic component of obstruction, upper airway stimulation tackles the twin goals of improving anatomic and neuromuscular pathology. After decades of trials demonstrating proof of concept of hypoglossal nerve stimulation in animal and human subjects, the results of a large multicenter, prospective trial were recently published. The trial demonstrated that hypoglossal nerve stimulation led to significant improvements in objective and subjective measurements of the severity of OSA. This novel approach is the first to combine sleep surgery techniques with a titratable medical device for the treatment of OSA. Further research is required to define optimal patient selection and device performance and to demonstrate long-term effectiveness. Citation: Dedhia RC, Strollo PJ, Soose RJ. Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: past, present, and future. SLEEP 2015;38(6):899– 906. PMID:25409109

  15. The predictive value of Muller maneuver in REM-dependent obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Kursat Murat; Ozcan, Muge; Ozdogan, Fatih; Hizli, Omer; Dere, Huseyin; Unal, Adnan

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, no studies up to date have investigated the correlation of rapid eye movement (REM) dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and Muller maneuver. The aim of this study is to investigate whether REM-dependent OSAS is predicted by the findings of the Muller maneuver. The study was conducted on 149 patients with witnessed apnea and daytime sleepiness. Muller maneuver was performed to all patients and the obstruction site was determined using a five-point scale. Then, polysomnography of the patient was obtained and the apnea-hypopnea indexes were determined in total sleep time, REM-dependent sleep and non-REM-dependent sleep. The correlations between the Muller maneuver findings and polysomnographic data were analyzed. The ages of the patients included in the study ranged between 25 and 73 years with a mean age of 49.3 ± 10.1 years. Their mean body mass index was 30.8 ± 5.1 kg/m(2) (range 21.9-55.4 kg/m(2)). The patients' mean apnea-hypopnea indexes in total sleep time was 28.1 and ranged between 5.4 and 124.3. REM-dependent OSAS was determined in 49 patients. When the data were analyzed, it was determined that there were no statistically significant correlations between tongue base or lateral pharyngeal band obstruction at the level of hypopharynx and the REM-dependent OSAS. At the level of the soft palate, the obstruction caused by the lateral pharyngeal bands or soft palate and REM dependency did not show any statistically significant correlation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Muller maneuver does not provide useful data to predict REM dependency of OSAS.

  16. Molecular Signatures of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: A Review and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Erna S.; Mackiewicz, Miroslaw; Gislason, Thorarinn; Teff, Karen L.; Pack, Allan I.

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are largely mediated by chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. The primary molecular domains affected are sympathetic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Other affected domains include adipokines, adhesion molecules and molecules that respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Changes in molecular domains affected by OSA, assessed in blood and/or urine, can provide a molecular signature for OSA that could potentially be used diagnostically and to predict who is likely to develop different OSA-related comorbidities. High-throughput discovery strategies such as microarrays, assessing changes in gene expression in circulating blood cells, have the potential to find new candidates and pathways thereby expanding the molecular signatures for OSA. More research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiological significance of these molecular signatures and their relationship with OSA comorbidities. Many OSA subjects are obese, and obesity is an independent risk factor for many comorbidities associated with OSA. Moreover, obesity affects the same molecular pathways as OSA. Thus, a challenge to establishing a molecular signature for OSA is to separate the effects of OSA from obesity. We propose that the optimal strategy is to evaluate the temporal changes in relevant molecular pathways during sleep and, in particular, the alterations from before to after sleep when assessed in blood and/or urine. Such changes will be at least partly a consequence of chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation that occurs during sleep. Citation: Arnardottir ES; Mackiewicz M; Gislason T; Teff KL; Pack AI. Molecular signatures of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: A review and perspective. SLEEP 2009;32(4):447–470. PMID:19413140

  17. Obstructive sleep apnoea in Treacher Collins syndrome: prevalence, severity and cause.

    PubMed

    Plomp, R G; Bredero-Boelhouwer, H H; Joosten, K F M; Wolvius, E B; Hoeve, H L J; Poublon, R M L; Mathijssen, I M J

    2012-06-01

    This cohort study in 35 patients (13 children) evaluates the prevalence, severity and anatomical cause of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. Ambulatory polysomnography was performed cross-sectionally to determine OSAS prevalence and severity. All upper airway related surgical interventions were evaluated retrospectively. In 11 patients, sleep endoscopy, and flexible and rigid endoscopy were applied to determine the level of anatomical obstruction of the upper airway. The overall prevalence of OSAS in Treacher Collins patients was 46% (54% in children; 41% in adults). Thirty-eight upper airway related surgical interventions were performed in 17 patients. Examination of the upper airway revealed various anatomical levels of obstruction, from the nasal septum to the trachea. Most significant obstruction was found at the level of the oro/hypopharynx. OSAS in Treacher Collins patients is an important problem so all patients should be screened for OSAS by polysomnography. Endoscopy of the upper airways was helpful in determining the level of obstruction. Surgical treatment at one level will not resolve OSAS in most patients because OSAS in Treacher Collins has a multilevel origin. Non-invasive ventilation (continuous positive airway pressure or bilevel positive airway pressure) or tracheotomy should be considered as a treatment modality.

  18. [Anesthesia for Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Associated with Severe Obesity].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazutaka; Takenami, Tamie; Hari, Junko; Kaneko, Haruka; Fujita, Tomoe; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-04-01

    A 41-year-old woman with concomitant severe obesity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and asthma was scheduled for endoscopic cholecystectomy. She was 165.8 cm tall and weighed 141.2 kg, with BMI of 51.4. We were concerned with difficulty in ventilation and intubation at the time of anesthesia induction and intra- and post-operative ventilatory failure. After sedation with fentanyl and droperidol together with intraoral local anesthesia with lidocaine (Xylocaine Viscous), the intubating laryngeal mask (ILMA) was inserted while awake, and after the confirmation of adequate ventilation, the bronchoscope was inserted into the guide. Although she received no nerve block, she did not choke at the time of intubation. Because of airway pressure elevation during surgery, volume-controlled ventilation was changed to pressure-controlled ventilation, and, because of a worsening P/F ratio, the recruitment procedure was performed during surgery, with a consequent improvement in the ratio. Although the use of the reservoir and NPPV equipment after extubation was considered, her respiratory status was stable, and she returned to her room with oxygen mask. PMID:26419104

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Community-Dwelling Children: The NANOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Martinez, Mónica; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity in children is assumed to serve as a major risk factor in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, the prevalence of OSAS in otherwise healthy obese children from the community is unknown. Aim: To determine the prevalence of OSAS in obese children identified and recruited from primary care centers. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective, multicenter study. Spanish children ages 3–14 y with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex were randomly selected, and underwent medical history, snoring, and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) assessments, as well as physical examination, nasopharyngoscopy, and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) recordings. Results: Two hundred forty-eight children (54.4% males) with mean age of 10.8 ± 2.6 y were studied with a BMI of 28.0 ± 4.7 kg/m2 corresponding to 96.8 ± 0.6 percentile when adjusted for age and sex. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive RDI (ORDI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) were 5.58 ± 9.90, 5.06 ± 9.57, and 3.39 ± 8.78/h total sleep time (TST), respectively. Using ≥ 3/h TST as the cutoff for the presence of OSAS, the prevalence of OSAS ranged from 21.5% to 39.5% depending on whether OAHI, ORDI, or RDI were used. Conclusions: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children from the general population is high. Obese children should be screened for the presence of OSAS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01322763. Citation: Alonso-Álvarez ML, Cordero-Guevara JA, Terán-Santos J, Gonzalez-Martinez M, Jurado-Luque MJ, Corral-Peñafiel J, Duran-Cantolla J, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D, for the Spanish Sleep Network. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese community-dwelling children: the NANOS study. SLEEP 2014;37(5):943-949. PMID:24790273

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  1. Is Perioperative Fluid and Salt Balance a Contributing Factor in Postoperative Worsening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

    PubMed

    Lam, Thach; Singh, Mandeep; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Chung, Frances

    2016-05-01

    An understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying recurrent upper airway collapse may help anesthesiologists better manage patients in the postoperative period. There is convincing evidence in the sleep medicine literature to suggest that a positive fluid and salt balance can worsen upper airway collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnea through the redistribution of fluid from the legs into the neck and upper airway while supine, in a process known as "rostral fluid shift." According to this theory, during the day the volume from a fluid bolus or from fluid overload states (i.e., heart failure and chronic kidney disease) accumulates in the legs due to gravity, and when a person lies supine at night, the fluid shifts rostrally to the neck, also owing to gravity. The fluid in the neck can increase the extraluminal pressure around the upper airways, causing the upper airways to narrow and predisposing to upper airway collapse. Similarly, surgical patients also incur large fluid and salt balance shifts, and when recovered supine, this may promote fluid redistribution to the neck and upper airways. In this commentary, we summarize the sleep medicine literature on the impact of fluid and salt balance on obstructive sleep apnea severity and discuss the potential anesthetic implications of excessive fluid and salt volume on worsening sleep apnea.

  2. Screening obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome by home videotape recording in children.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Kornecki, A; Schonfeld, T

    1996-10-01

    Overnight polysomnography (PSG) has been used to diagnose and assess the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether home video-recording of children during sleep may be used for screening OSAS. In 58 children suspected of having OSAS, PSG results were compared with the corresponding analyses of 30 min video-recordings of each child sleeping at home. The video-recordings were evaluated by: 1) overall investigator's clinical judgement; and 2) a scoring system based on noisy breathing, movements, walking episodes, apnoea, chest retractions and mouth breathing. PSG results were highly correlated with the video test results, with agreement in 49 out of 58 (84%). In 36 of the 58 children, the PSG was abnormal compared with 41 out of 58 abnormal video tests. The sensitivity of the overall investigator judgement of video test was 94% (34 out of 36) and the specificity 68% (15 out of 22). Video scores > 10 were highly predictive of OSAS, whilst scores < 5 were associated with normality. Using a stepwise logistic regression analysis, each of the scoring variables was tested against the PSG results and an equation was formulated for predicting PSG by the video test. The equation predicted PSG results in 49 out of 58 (84%) cases. Thirty minutes of home video-recordings during sleep is a reliable screening method for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children. This technique may, thus, improve patient selection for polysomnography.

  3. [Successful treatment of diaphragm pacing-induced obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with nasal CPAP].

    PubMed

    Moue, Y; Kamio, K; Tanigaki, T; Hayashi, Y; Kuwahira, I; Takasaki, Y; Ohta, Y; Yamabayashi, H

    1993-08-01

    We report a 71-year-old female patient with primary alveolar hypoventilation syndrome who received diaphragm pacing (DP) and developed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Application of nCPAP markedly improved her nocturnal hypoxemia. The monitored polygrams before and after the application strongly suggested that the main mechanism of OSAS was an imbalance of activity between upper airway dilator muscles and pump muscles. Moreover, paradoxical movement of the rib cage is not necessarily due to upper airway obstruction. Monitoring of tidal volume and arterial oxygen saturation is essential for the diagnosis of DP-induced OSAS.

  4. The efficacy of Watch PAT in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Körkuyu, Emine; Düzlü, Mehmet; Karamert, Recep; Tutar, Hakan; Yılmaz, Metin; Çiftçi, Bülent; Güven, Selma Fırat

    2015-01-01

    Polysomnography is currently considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). But high expense and the backlog of the sleep centers have resulted in a search for an alternative method of diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and reliability of Watch PAT as an alternate option in OSAS diagnosis. The patients have worn a Watch PAT(®) 200 device in the sleep laboratory during a standard polysomnography. The correlation in REM and Non-REM AHI scores, sleep periods and the mean O2 saturation percentage between Watch PAT and PSG sleep studies were assessed. There was a statistically significant very strong correlation between PSG and Watch PAT AHI scores (Spearman's rho = 0.802 p < 0.001). The mean recording time with PSG and Watch PAT was 463.06 ± 37.08 and 469.33 ± 72.81 min, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.068). However, there was a statistically significant difference between two methods regarding the average sleep time and REM sleep period. No statistically significant difference was revealed in the mean O2 saturation percentage (p < 0.001). Watch PAT is an efficient device and is considered to be an adjunctive diagnostic method for PSG in diagnosis of OSAS.

  5. Effects of Suvorexant, an Orexin Receptor Antagonist, on Respiration during Sleep In Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Palcza, John; Card, Deborah; Gipson, Adrianna; Rosenberg, Russell; Kryger, Meir; Lines, Christopher; Wagner, John A.; Troyer, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the respiratory effects of suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist for treating insomnia, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period (4 days per period), crossover, sleep laboratory study. Twenty-six patients aged 18–65 years with mild (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 5 and < 15) to moderate (AHI ≥ 15 and < 30) OSA were randomized to receive suvorexant 40 mg or placebo in period-1 and then crossed over to the other treatment in period-2. Breathing during sleep was measured by AHI (primary endpoint) and oxygen saturation assessed by pulse oximetry (SpO2, secondary endpoint). The study was powered to rule out a mean increase in AHI between suvorexant and placebo of 5 or greater on Day 4. Results: There was a small increase in mean AHI (2.66) in OSA patients after multiple doses of suvorexant relative to placebo, with the upper 90% CI bound slightly exceeding 5.00 (0.22, 5.09). No increase in mean AHI was observed after a single dose of suvorexant versus placebo (mean difference = −0.47 [−3.20, 2.26]), and there was no treatment effect on mean SpO2 during total sleep time after single or multiple doses (Day 1: mean difference = −0.04 [−0.49, 0.42]; Day 4: mean difference = −0.06 [−0.45, 0.33]). There was inter- and intra-individual variability in suvorexant respiratory effects. Conclusions: Suvorexant 40 mg, twice the 20 mg maximum recommended dose for treating insomnia in the USA and Japan, does not appear to have clinically important respiratory effects during sleep in patients with mild to moderate OSA as assessed by mean AHI and SpO2. Due to inter- and intra-individual variability in respiratory effects, suvorexant should be used with caution in patients with compromised respiratory function, and at the lowest effective dose. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01300455. Citation: Sun H, Palcza J, Card D, Gipson A

  6. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Neurocognitive Function and Impact of Continuous Positive Air Pressure.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charles R; Harrington, John J

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can negatively impact attention, memory, learning, executive function, and overall intellectual function in adults and children. Imaging techniques, including MRI, MR diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and fMRI, have provided additional insight into the anatomic and functional underpinnings of OSA-related cognitive impairment. Both animal and human studies have looked to elucidate the separate effects of oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation on independent aspects of cognition. Data from animal models point to neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress as driving factors of cognitive impairment. PMID:27542875

  7. Emerging co-morbidities of obstructive sleep apnea: cognition, kidney disease, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gildeh, Nadia; Drakatos, Panagis; Higgins, Sean; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation. PMID:27747026

  8. [Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children: beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Esteller, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner.

  9. [Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children: beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Esteller, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner. PMID:25107357

  10. Iron Stores, Periodic Leg Movements, and Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Louise M.; Koo, Julie; Fan, Ludi; Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai; Felt, Barbara T.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Most clinical sleep studies are performed for suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), yet one-quarter to one-half show periodic leg movements (PLMs), for reasons that remain unknown. Several other disparate sleep disorders also increase the risk for PLMs. We examined the novel hypotheses that OSA as a representative sleep disorder could promote lower body iron stores, as reflected by serum ferritin levels, and, through downstream effects on dopaminergic transmission, increase PLMs and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Subjects were recruited as they underwent laboratory-based polysomnography for suspected OSA. Serum ferritin levels were measured the next morning. Each subject completed an Epworth Sleepiness Scale and a brief questionnaire to assess for restless legs syndrome (RLS). Results: The frequency of apneic events showed no association with serum ferritin levels, before or after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and likely RLS (each p value > 0.3). Serum ferritin levels did not predict the frequency of PLMs (p = 0.7) or Epworth scores (p = 0.8). Iron deficiency as a dichotomous variable, determined by ferritin levels less than < 50μg/L or in combination with low transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular volume, showed similar results. In exploratory analyses, contrary to expectations, lower minimum oxygen saturation and increased sleep-stage shifts predicted increased rather than decreased ferritin levels (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: Results of this study, powered to detect small to moderate effect sizes, strongly suggest that OSA does not cause lower serum ferritin levels, which, in turn, cannot explain PLMs or daytime sleepiness in these patients. Citation: O'Brien LM; Koo J; Fan L; Owusu JT; Chotinaiwattarakul W; Felt BT; Chervin RD. Iron stores, periodic leg movements, and sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(6):525-531. PMID:20465018

  11. Derived Arterial Stiffness is Increased in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Drakatos, Panagis; Higgins, Sean; Pengo, Martino F.; Kent, Brian D.; Muza, Rex; Karkoulias, Kiriakos; Leschziner, Guy; Williams, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Both periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OSA has also been linked to increased large arterial stiffness, which is considered an independent risk factor for CVD. We utilized a previously validated index of large artery stiffness (SIDVP) derived from the digital volume pulse (DVP) to seek comparison in patients with PLMS and OSA. Methods: Forty-nine adult male subjects, without known comorbidities that could affect arterial stiffness or on vasoactive medication, were retrospectively identified and categorized into controls (n = 8), PLMS (n = 13), OSA (n = 17), and OSA/PLMS (n = 11). The cutoff for PLMS was a periodic limb movement index (PLMI) > 15 events/h, and for OSA an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10 events/h. SIDVP was derived from the raw data of photoplethysmography of the nocturnal polysomnography, averaged for 2 min prior to sleep study initiation (baseline), after completion in the morning, and every half hour after sleep onset. Results: The groups were age/body mass index-matched. Controls showed lower baseline, morning, and overall SIDVP compared to the other groups (p < 0.01). Patients with PLMS (PLMI: 50.69 ± 9.7 events/h) and the OSA group (AHI: 29.7 ± 2 events/h) demonstrated similar overall SIDVP (6.78 ± 0.08 versus 6.94 ± 0.04, respectively, p = 0.5), whereas the OSA/PLMS (AHI: 29.35 ± 8, PLMI: 50.63 ± 7.2) group demonstrated the highest (7.40 ± 0.06, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on an easily reproducible and applicable marker of large arterial stiffness, patients with significant PLMS had higher SIDVP when compared to controls and comparable to those with moderate/severe OSA. The OSA/PLMS group had the highest SIDVP, implying a possible additive effect of OSA and PLMS on arterial stiffness. Citation: Drakatos P, Higgins S, Pengo MF, Kent BD, Muza R, Karkoulias K, Leschziner G, Williams A. Derived arterial

  12. Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Obesity on Exercise Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Carla A.; Selvadurai, Hiran; Baur, Louise A.; Waters, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate the relative contributions of weight status and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to cardiopulmonary exercise responses in children. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, overnight polysomnography, spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise function testing on a cycle ergometer, and cardiac doppler imaging. OSA was defined as ≥ 1 obstructive apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep (OAHI). The effect of OSA on exercise function was evaluated after the parameters were corrected for body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Similarly, the effect of obesity on exercise function was examined when the variables were adjusted for OAHI. Setting: Tertiary pediatric hospital. Participants: Healthy weight and obese children, aged 7–12 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Seventy-one children were studied. In comparison with weight-matched children without OSA, children with OSA had a lower cardiac output, stroke volume index, heart rate, and oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) at peak exercise capacity. After adjusting for BMI z-score, children with OSA had 1.5 L/min (95% confidence interval -2.3 to -0.6 L/min; P = 0.001) lower cardiac output at peak exercise capacity, but minute ventilation and ventilatory responses to exercise were not affected. Obesity was only associated with physical deconditioning. Cardiac dysfunction was associated with the frequency of respiratory-related arousals, the severity of hypoxia, and heart rate during sleep. Conclusions: Children with OSA are exercise limited due to a reduced cardiac output and VO2 peak at peak exercise capacity, independent of their weight status. Comorbid OSA can further decrease exercise performance in obese children. Citation: Evans CA, Selvadurai H, Baur LA, Waters KA. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity on exercise function in children. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1103-1110. PMID:24882905

  13. Portable monitoring devices in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea: current status, advantages, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Polese, Jéssica Fábia; Santos-Silva, Rogério; Kobayashi, Rafael Freire; Pinto, Indira Nunes de Paula; Tufik, Sérgio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of portable monitoring devices for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. These have the potential to be used in lieu of the more complicated and uncomfortable alternative, polysomnography, which has long been considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of this relatively prevalent condition. Following their approval in 2008 by the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services, the federal agency which administers Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, there has been extensive discussion about the utility and validity of these devices for use in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although there are various models of portable monitoring devices, the literature contains little information regarding how each device should be used in specific age groups, patients presenting comorbidities, and asymptomatic patients. Additionally, studies about the cost-effectiveness of this diagnostic method are scarce and conflicting. Therefore, this objective of this study was to review what has been learned about portable monitoring devices over time, as well as to examine the recent progress, advantages, limitations, and applications of these devices in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in different groups of patients.

  14. Dynamic alterations of the tongue in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome during sleep: analysis using ultrafast MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mcdonald, J P; Liu, Y; Pan, K; Zhang, X; Hu, R

    2014-06-17

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) were evaluated using ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (UMRI) while asleep and awake to analyze tongue changes. The upper airway of 21 OSAHS patients and 20 normal controls were examined during sleep using UMRI. A series of midline sagittal images of the upper airway were obtained to measure dynamic changes in tongue size and the distance from the tongue to the x-axis (an extended line from the anterior nasal spine to posterior nasal spine) and the y-axis (a perpendicular line from the center of the pituitary to the x-axis). The maximum and minimum sagittal diameters of the tongue were shorter in the OSAHS group than in the control group (P<0.01) while awake, whereas the difference between the maximum and minimum vertical diameters of the tongue and the upper and central part of tongue between the posterior border and the retropharyngeal wall were greater (P<0.05). During sleep, the maximum values and differences between the maximum and minimum tongue sizes in the OSAHS group were larger than in the control group (P<0.05), whereas the minimum values were lower than in the control group (P<0.01). Tongue size significantly differs between OSAHS patients and normal controls during sleep. The tongue tends to move downward during OSAHS, which may be attributed to increased upper airway resistance.

  15. Quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Relationship with daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, depression, and apnea severity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonhee; Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ryu, Han Uk; Chung, Yoo-Sam; Kim, Woo Sung

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, depression, and apnea severity to mental and physical quality of life (QoL) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were adults diagnosed with OSA. Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form 36 (SF-36), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used. The factors predicting the physical and mental QoL were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Seven hundred ninety three OSA patients participated in the study. The average age was 48.9 years (SD = 11.7 years). The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 29.5 hour(-1) (SD = 20.6 hour(-1)). The SF-36 scores were 72.6 (SD = 18.5). The BDI, sleep quality, and age were related to both mental and physical QoL. However, ESS, minimal arterial oxygen saturation, gender, and body mass index were associated with the physical but not mental QoL. The BDI was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QoL. AHI was related to neither physical nor mental QoL. The potential factors affecting QoL are different between physical and mental dimensions of QoL. Depressive mood was the strongest predictor of both the physical and mental QoL.

  16. Single-Unit Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Reflects Sleep Apnea Severity, Especially in Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamaoka, Takuto; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Usui, Soichiro; Okabe, Yoshitaka; Tokuhisa, Hideki; Kato, Takeshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yu; Nakatsumi, Yasuto; Takata, Shigeo; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with augmented sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, it is still unclear whether single-unit MSNA is a better reflection of sleep apnea severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). One hundred and two OSAS patients underwent full polysomnography and single- and multi-unit MSNA measurements. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine which parameters correlated with OSAS severity, which was defined by the AHI. Single- and multi-unit MSNA were significantly and positively correlated with AHI severity. The AHI was also significantly correlated with multi-unit MSNA burst frequency (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001) and single-unit MSNA spike frequency (r = 0.632, p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that SF was correlated most significantly with AHI (T = 7.27, p < 0.0001). The distributions of multiple single-unit spikes per one cardiac interval did not differ between patients with an AHI of <30 and those with and AHI of 30–55 events/h; however, the pattern of each multiple spike firing were significantly higher in patients with an AHI of >55. These results suggest that sympathetic nerve activity is associated with sleep apnea severity. In addition, single-unit MSNA is a more accurate reflection of sleep apnea severity with alternation of the firing pattern, especially in patients with very severe OSAS. PMID:26973534

  17. Single-Unit Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Reflects Sleep Apnea Severity, Especially in Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Takuto; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Usui, Soichiro; Okabe, Yoshitaka; Tokuhisa, Hideki; Kato, Takeshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yu; Nakatsumi, Yasuto; Takata, Shigeo; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with augmented sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, it is still unclear whether single-unit MSNA is a better reflection of sleep apnea severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). One hundred and two OSAS patients underwent full polysomnography and single- and multi-unit MSNA measurements. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine which parameters correlated with OSAS severity, which was defined by the AHI. Single- and multi-unit MSNA were significantly and positively correlated with AHI severity. The AHI was also significantly correlated with multi-unit MSNA burst frequency (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001) and single-unit MSNA spike frequency (r = 0.632, p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that SF was correlated most significantly with AHI (T = 7.27, p < 0.0001). The distributions of multiple single-unit spikes per one cardiac interval did not differ between patients with an AHI of <30 and those with and AHI of 30-55 events/h; however, the pattern of each multiple spike firing were significantly higher in patients with an AHI of >55. These results suggest that sympathetic nerve activity is associated with sleep apnea severity. In addition, single-unit MSNA is a more accurate reflection of sleep apnea severity with alternation of the firing pattern, especially in patients with very severe OSAS. PMID:26973534

  18. The utility of neck/thyromental ratio in defining low-risk patients with obstructive sleep apnea in sleep clinics.

    PubMed

    Yuceege, Melike; Firat, Hikmet; Altintas, Nejat; Mutlu, Murad; Ardic, Sadik

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the importance of neck/thyromental distance in the diagnosis of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in sleep clinics. 185 patients (122 males, 63 females) referred to our sleep clinic with OSA symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients had level-1 polysomnography (PSG). The neck circumference (N), thyromental distance (T), and STOP test were recorded in all patients. Using an obstructive AHI > 15 event/h on PSG as the cut-off, the best N/T ratio to find patients with OSA was calculated with the receiver operator curve analyses. The best cut-off for N/T was chosen as 4.6. We used Modified STOP test: STO-NT test in which P (for hypertension item) was replaced with N/T ratio. N/T ratio >4.6 was scored as "positive". Two positives out of four questions in STO-NT were scored as high risk for OSA. The OSA prevalence was 60 % for AHI > 15. The mean ratio of N/T was significantly different between groups with AHI > 15 and AHI ≤ 15. N and N/T ratio were moderately correlated with AHI. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and negative likelihood ratio of STOP test for AHI > 15 were 88.5, 28.4, 61.8, 65.4 % and 0.40, whereas 97.3, 23, 85, 65.9 % and 0.12 for STO-NT test, respectively. STO-NT test seems better than STOP test in determining patients who do not likely to have moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics so can be preferred to decide on therapies other than CPAP in a short time.

  19. Computer assisted pulse oximetry for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J

    1995-11-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 110 children undergoing tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy to evaluate the usefulness of computer assisted pulse oximetry (POM) as a screening tool for nocturnal obstructive sleep apnea episodes. Twenty-one healthy age-matched children served as a control group. A self-designed software (CAPO version 1.0) was used to analyse collected oximetric data. Pre-operatively up to 25% of children showed a characteristic pattern of repeated oxygen desaturations related to partial or complete airway obstruction, which was not seen in the matched group. Thirty-one percent had an oxygen desaturation index (ODI) of more than 2 phases/h, being significantly higher than in the matched group. These children could not be identified from history or clinical examination with an acceptable sensitivity. A second monitoring has been performed in 32 patients 5 days after surgery. The nocturnal cyclic oscillations of oxygen saturation resolved in almost all cases. Computer assisted POM is useful in predicting and grading nocturnal obstruction and adds decision making data for the treatment in children suspected of suffering from obstructive sleep apnea.

  20. Simulated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases P-Wave Duration and P-Wave Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Wons, Annette M.; Rossi, Valentina; Bratton, Daniel J.; Schlatzer, Christian; Schwarz, Esther I.; Camen, Giovanni; Kohler, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background A high P-wave duration and dispersion (Pd) have been reported to be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), a condition linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis of whether a short-term increase of P-wave duration and Pd can be induced by respiratory manoeuvres simulating OSA in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Methods 12-lead-electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded continuously in 24 healthy subjects and 33 patients with PAF, while simulating obstructive apnea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM), obstructive hypopnea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH), central apnea (AP), and during normal breathing (BL) in randomized order. The P-wave duration and Pd was calculated by using dedicated software for ECG-analysis. Results P-wave duration and Pd significantly increased during MM and ITH compared to BL in all subjects (+13.1ms and +13.8ms during MM; +11.7ms and +12.9ms during ITH; p<0.001 for all comparisons). In MM, the increase was larger in healthy subjects when compared to patients with PAF (p<0.05). Conclusion Intrathoracic pressure swings through simulated obstructive sleep apnea increase P-wave duration and Pd in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Our findings imply that intrathoracic pressure swings prolong the intra-atrial and inter-atrial conduction time and therefore may represent an independent trigger factor for the development for PAF. PMID:27071039

  1. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    PubMed Central

    Maranate, Thaya; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG) queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%). PMID:26221183

  2. A New Animal Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Responding to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Neuzeret, Pierre-Charles; Gormand, Frédéric; Reix, Philippe; Parrot, Sandrine; Sastre, Jean-Pierre; Buda, Colette; Guidon, Gérard; Sakai, Kazuya; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: An improved animal model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is needed for the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, flexion of the neck and a supine position, two main pathogenic factors during human sleep, are associated with substantially greater OSA severity. We postulated that these two factors might generate OSA in animals. Design: We developed a restraining device for conditioning to investigate the effect of the combination of 2 body positions—prone (P) or supine (S)—and 2 head positions—with the neck flexed at right angles to the body (90°) or in extension in line with the body (180°)—during sleep in 6 cats. Polysomnography was performed twice on each cat in each of the 4 sleeping positions—P180, S180, P90, or S90. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment was then investigated in 2 cats under the most pathogenic condition. Setting: NA. Patients or Participants: NA. Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Positions P180 and, S90 resulted, respectively, in the lowest and highest apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (3 ± 1 vs 25 ± 2, P < 0.001), while P90 (18 ± 3, P < 0.001) and S180 (13 ± 5, P < 0.01) gave intermediate values. In position S90, an increase in slow wave sleep stage 1 (28% ± 3% vs 22% ± 3%, P < 0.05) and a decrease in REM sleep (10% ± 2% vs 18% ± 2%, P < 0.001) were also observed. CPAP resulted in a reduction in the AHI (8 ± 1 vs 27 ± 3, P < 0.01), with the added benefit of sleep consolidation. Conclusion: By mimicking human pathogenic sleep conditions, we have developed a new reversible animal model of OSA. Citation: Neuzeret PC; Gormand F; Reix P; Parrot S; Sastre JP; Buda C; Guidon G; Sakai K; Lin JS. A new animal model of obstructive sleep apnea responding to continuous positive airway pressure. SLEEP 2011;34(4):541-548. PMID:21461333

  3. Toward numerical simulations of fluid-structure interactions for investigation of obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Shao-Ching; White, Susan M.; Mallya, Sanjay M.; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical condition characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the airway during sleep. The soft tissues in the airway of OSA patients are prone to collapse under the low-pressure loads incurred during breathing. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a numerical tool for simulation of air-tissue interactions in the upper airway of patients with sleep apnea. A procedure by which patient-specific airway geometries are segmented and processed from dental cone-beam CT scans into signed distance fields is presented. A sharp-interface embedded boundary method based on the signed distance field is used on Cartesian grids for resolving the airflow in the airway geometries. For simulation of structure mechanics with large expected displacements, a cut-cell finite element method with nonlinear Green strains is used. The fluid and structure solvers are strongly coupled with a partitioned iterative algorithm. Preliminary results are shown for flow simulation inside the three-dimensional rigid upper airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Two validation cases for the fluid-structure coupling problem are also presented.

  4. Origins of and implementation concepts for upper airway stimulation therapy for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Strohl M D, Kingman P; Baskin M D, Jonathan; Lance M D, Colleen; Ponsky M D, Diana; Weidenbecher M D, Mark; Strohl B A, Madeleine; Yamauchi M D, Motoo

    2016-07-01

    Upper airway stimulation, specifically hypoglossal (CN XII) nerve stimulation, is a new, alternative therapy for patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome who cannot tolerate positive airway pressure, the first-line therapy for symptomatic patients. Stimulation therapy addresses the cause of inadequate upper airway muscle activation for nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway collapse during sleep. The purpose of this report is to outline the development of this first-in-class therapy and its clinical implementation. Another practical theme is assessment of the features for considering a surgically implanted device and the insight as to how both clinical and endoscopic criteria increase the likelihood of safe and durable outcomes for an implant and how to more generally plan for management of CPAP-intolerant patients. A third theme is the team building required among sleep medicine and surgical specialties in the provision of individualized neurostimulation therapy. PMID:27424823

  5. Effects of oral care in Down syndrome children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kieko; Shirakawa, Tetsuo; Niikuni, Naoko; Sakata, Hideaki; Asanuma, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS) children with sleep apnea often present with oral breathing associated with nasal obstruction. This causes the oral cavity and pharynx to become dry. We describe the treatment of three DS children with sleep apnea who were treated using products for oral dryness. Snoring disappeared after treatment in two of the children and apnea disappeared in all three. The symptoms of a reddened oral mucosa and coated tongue disappeared in all three DS children. Saliva pH testing demonstrated that the pH value increased in all of the children after treatment. These results indicate that oral care can improve the oral hygiene status of DS children, and that proper oral care can help prevent oral mucosal dryness and thereby reduce sleep apnea symptoms.

  6. Chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and autonomic deregulation in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gozal, David; Hakim, Fahed; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in both adults and children that is fraught with substantial cardiovascular morbidities, the latter being attributable to a complex interplay between intermittent hypoxia (IH), episodic hypercapnia, recurrent large intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep disruption. Alterations in autonomic nervous system function could underlie the perturbations in cardiovascular, neurocognitive, immune, endocrine and metabolic functions that affect many of the patients suffering from OSA. Although these issues have received substantial attention in adults, the same has thus far failed to occur in children, creating a quasi misperception that children are protected. Here, we provide a critical overview of the evidence supporting the presence of autonomic nervous system (ANS) perturbations in children with OSA, draw some parallel assessments to known mechanisms in rodents and adult humans, particularly, peripheral and central chemoreceptor and baroreceptor pathways, and suggest future research directions.

  7. Evaluation of coblation lingual tonsil removal technique for obstructive sleep apnea in Asians: preliminary results of surgical morbidity and prognosticators.

    PubMed

    Wee, Jee Hye; Tan, Kenglu; Lee, Woo-Hyun; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-09-01

    Retroglossal obstruction is one of the etiologies causing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and can be addressed by removing some tissues of the tongue base. However, because of its deep-seated location, its surgical removal is still challenging. Although coblation technique has been introduced, its efficacy and morbidity need further evaluation, particularly in Asians. This study aimed to assess its safety and effectiveness and to identify outcome prognosticators. Forty-seven OSA patients who underwent coblation lingual tonsil removal were included. Retroglossal obstruction was confirmed by drug-induced sleep videofluoroscopy. Attended full-night polysomnography was performed twice; before and 6 months after surgery in 27 patients. The tongue base was fully exposed with three deep-seated traction sutures, visualized with a 30° or 70° endoscope, and ablated using a coblator. Surgical success was defined with postoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <20 and reduction >50 %. Postoperative morbidities were evaluated. Demographic and polysomnographic parameters between success and failure groups were compared. None of the patients had immediate postoperative hemorrhage. Postoperatively, one patient had delayed hemorrhage and one patient severe respiratory difficulty. Taste loss, tongue dysmotility, dental injury or severe oropharyngeal stricture were absent. A mean AHI decreased from 37.7 ± 18.6 to 18.7 ± 14.8/h (P < 0.001). The success rate was 55.6 %. Their mean minimal oxygen saturation was significantly lower (P = 0.004) in the failure group. Coblation lingual tonsil removal technique showed minimal morbidity and favorable outcome in Koreans. The surgical outcome might be associated with the severity of single respiratory events.

  8. The neuropharmacology of upper airway motor control in the awake and asleep states: implications for obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Richard L

    2001-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common and serious breathing problem that is caused by effects of sleep on pharyngeal muscle tone in individuals with narrow upper airways. There has been increasing focus on delineating the brain mechanisms that modulate pharyngeal muscle activity in the awake and asleep states in order to understand the pathogenesis of obstructive apnoeas and to develop novel neurochemical treatments. Although initial clinical studies have met with only limited success, it is proposed that more rational and realistic approaches may be devised for neurochemical modulation of pharyngeal muscle tone as the relevant neurotransmitters and receptors that are involved in sleep-dependent modulation are identified following basic experiments. PMID:11686898

  9. Residual effect of nCPAP applied for part of the night in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Hers, V; Liistro, G; Dury, M; Collard, P; Aubert, G; Rodenstein, D O

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment, applied for only a few hours at the beginning of the night, has any residual effect on sleep and breathing during the ensuing hours of unassisted sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In 27 patients with newly-diagnosed OSAS, effective nCPAP was applied during the first part of the night and then withdrawn. Polysomnographic parameters after nCPAP withdrawal were compared with those of the corresponding part of the diagnostic polysomnography performed a few days or weeks before and with those of the first part of night on nCPAP. After 255+/-63 (mean+/-SD) min of sleep with normalization of sleep and breathing parameters under nCPAP, there was partial improvement of OSAS severity during the remaining 124+/-56 min of nocturnal sleep without treatment; mean oxygen saturation, desaturation index (equivalent to the apnoea/hypopnoea index) and movement arousal index all improved significantly with respect to the diagnostic night (p=0.001). This improvement was not accounted for by a change in sleep architecture. We conclude that there is an improvement in severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after only 4 h of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. This carryover effect could explain why a number of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome apply nasal continuous positive airway pressure for only part of the night or not every night.

  10. Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation and Treatment Among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Raphael; McKenzie, Sharon; Taylor, Tonya; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although blacks are at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), they are not as likely as their white counterparts to receive OSA evaluation and treatment. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards OSA evaluation and treatment among blacks residing in Brooklyn, New York. Methods Five focus groups involving 39 black men and women (aged ≥18 years) were conducted at the State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn to ascertain barriers preventing or delaying OSA evaluation and treatment. Results Misconceptions about sleep apnea were a common theme that emerged from participants’ responses. Obstructive sleep apnea was often viewed as a type of insomnia, an age-related phenomenon, and as being caused by certain bedtime activities. The major theme that emerged about barriers to OSA evaluation was unfamiliarity with the study environment. Barriers were categorized as: problems sleeping in a strange and unfamiliar environment, unfamiliarity with the study protocol, and fear of being watched while sleeping. Barriers to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment adoption were related to the confining nature of the device, discomfort wearing a mask while they slept, and concerns about their partner’s perceptions of treatment. Conclusion Results of this study suggest potential avenues for interventions to increase adherence to recommended evaluation and treatment of OSA. Potential strategies include reducing misconceptions about OSA, increasing awareness of OSA in vulnerable communities, familiarizing patients and their partners with laboratory procedures used to diagnose and treat OSA. We propose that these strategies should be used to inform the development of culturally and linguistically tailored sleep apnea interventions to increase awareness of OSA among blacks who are at risk for OSA and associated comorbidities. PMID:23560353

  11. Gender Differences in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Response to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lichuan; Pien, Grace W.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Weaver, Terri E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Whether gender differences exist in clinical manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and whether women's responses to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are similar to those of men are critical areas of exploration in sleep disordered breathing. This exploratory analysis addressed these questions by examining gender differences over a wide range of clinical outcomes at baseline and in response to CPAP in participants with severe OSA. Methods: Data from 152 men and 24 women who participated in a multicenter CPAP effectiveness study were analyzed. Gender differences in functional status (functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire, sickness impact profile), daytime sleepiness (epworth sleepiness scale, multiple sleep latency test), mood disturbance (profile of mood states), apnea symptoms (multivariable apnea prediction index), and neurobehavioral performance (psychomotor vigilance task) were examined. Treatment response was examined by the change in each outcome from baseline to 3 months after treatment. Results: Despite similar age, body mass index, and apnea-hypopnea index, women reported significantly lower functional status, more subjective daytime sleepiness, higher frequency of apnea symptoms, more mood disturbance, and poorer neurobehavioral performance compared to men at baseline. CPAP treatment significantly improved functional status and relieved symptoms for both genders. The magnitude of improvement in each clinical outcome did not vary by gender. Conclusions: Women with OSA showed greater impairment in daytime functioning and symptoms than men. Both genders benefit from CPAP treatment. Adequately powered studies considering possible referral and response bias are necessary to examine gender differences in OSA clinical manifestations and response to CPAP treatment. Citation: Ye L; Pien GW; Ratcliffe SJ; Weaver TE. Gender Differences in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Response to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. J Clin

  12. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP), most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP). Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device

  13. Frequency of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Dental Patients with Tooth Wear

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Martínez-Null, Cristina; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Guinea, Elena Rubio; Anitua, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in dental patients with tooth wear, and to assess the role of dentists in the identification of patients at risk of OSAS. Methods: Dental patients with tooth wear and treated with occlusal splint were prospectively recruited to perform sleep study. The severity of tooth wear was established by the treating dentist before patient referral to sleep disorders unit. Sleep questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and validated respiratory polygraphy were performed. Results: All patients with dental wear were offered a sleepiness analysis. Of 31 recruited patients, 30 (77% males) participated in this study. Patients' mean age was 58.5 ± 10.7 years (range: 35–90 years) and the body mass index was 27.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2. Tooth wear was mild in 13 patients, moderate in 8 and severe in 9. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 32.4 ± 24.9. AHI < 5 was reported in 2 patients, AHI of 5–29 in 17, and AHI ≥ 30 in 11. A statistically significant association was found between AHI severity and tooth wear severity (Spearman R = 0.505; p = 0.004). Conclusions: Tooth wear could be a tool to identify those patients at risk of having OSAS. This highlights the importance of dental professionals to identify and refer patients with OSAS. Citation: Durán-Cantolla J, Alkhraisat MH, Martínez-Null C, Aguirre JJ, Guinea ER, Anitua E. Frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in dental patients with tooth wear. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):445–450. PMID:25665693

  14. High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  15. Clinical Usefulness of Watch-PAT for Assessing the Surgical Results of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficacy of a wrist-worn device that is based on peripheral arterial tonometry (watch-PAT) to evaluate the surgical results of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome subjects. Study Design and Method: Thirty-five subjects who were diagnosed with OSA and underwent sleep surgeries such as septoplasty, tonsillectomy, or uvuloplasty to correct their airway collapse, participated in this study; the watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured after the sleep surgery. Results: The present study showed that RDI (32.8 ± 10.7 vs 14.8 ± 7.5), AHI (30.3 ± 8.6 vs 13.4 ± 8.2 events/h), lowest oxygen saturation (78.2% ± 8.4% vs 90.5% ± 7.1%), and valid sleep time (329.1 ± 47.2 min and a postoperative value of 389.1 ± 50.1 min) recovered to within a normal range after surgery in 28 subjects. In addition, good agreement was found between watch-PAT-derived factors and visual analogue scales for changes in subjective symptoms, such as snoring, apnea, and daytime somnolence. Seven of the 35 subjects showed no improvement for their subjective symptoms and complained of snoring and apnea after surgery. We found that the RDI and AHI of those 7 subjects were not reduced, and the changes between pre- and postoperative values which were measured with watch-PAT were minimal. Their postoperative lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time were not elevated per the watch-PAT. The results support a strong correlation between the findings from watch-PAT and improved symptoms after surgical correction of an airway collapse. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the factors measured by the watch-PAT might be reliable indicators of symptomatic changes in OSA subjects after sleep surgery and also shows that the watch-PAT is a highly sensitive portable device for estimating treatment results in OSA. Citation: Park CY

  16. Quality of Life and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms After Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: –0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: –0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: –1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly

  17. Sleep • 3: Clinical presentation and diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schlosshan, D; Elliott, M

    2004-01-01

    Patients with OSAHS may present to a sleep clinic or to other specialists with symptoms that are not immediately attributable to the condition. The diagnostic methods available are reviewed. PMID:15047962

  18. Neck Circumference Is a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Short-Sleeping Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Piaggi, Paolo; Mattingly, Megan; Zhao, Xiongce; Lucassen, Eliane; Rother, Kristina I.; Sumner, Anne E.; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The constellation of metabolic syndrome, although controversial with regard to its clinical usefulness, is epidemiologically related to increased diabetes risk and cardiovascular mortality. Our goal was to investigate the associations among neck circumference (NC), obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS), and metabolic syndrome in obese men and women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese men and premenopausal obese women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. We enrolled 120 individuals (92 women), age 40.5±6.9 years and body mass index (BMI) 38.6±6.5 kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome severity was assessed by a score and OSAS was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥5. Metabolic end endocrine parameters were measured, and sleep duration was determined by actigraphy and validated questionnaires. Results: Metabolic syndrome was found in 41% and OSAS in 58% (28% had both). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were 3 years older and more often Caucasian; they had higher RDI scores, larger NC, more visceral fat, lower serum adiponectin, higher 24-hr urinary norepinephrine (NE) excretion, and lower growth hormone concentrations. A NC of ≥38 cm had a sensitivity of 54% and 58% and a specificity of 70% and 79% in predicting the presence of metabolic syndrome and OSAS, respectively. RDI, adiponectin, and NC accounted for approximately 30% of the variability in the metabolic syndrome score, as estimated by an age-, gender-, and race-corrected multivariate model (R2=0.376, P<0.001). Conclusion: Greater NC is associated with OSAS and metabolic syndrome in short-sleeping obese men and premenopausal obese women. Addition of NC to the definition of metabolic syndrome should be considered and needs to be validated in future studies. PMID:24571423

  19. Numerical analysis for the efficacy of nasal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shen; Liu, Ying-Xi; Sun, Xiu-Zhen; Su, Ying-Feng; Wang, Ying; Gai, Yin-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we reconstructed upper airway and soft palate models of 3 obstructive sleep apnea—hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients with nasal obstruction. The airflow distribution and movement of the soft palate before and after surgery were described by a numerical simulation method. The curative effect of nasal surgery was evaluated for the three patients with OSAHS. The degree of nasal obstruction in the 3 patients was improved after surgery. For 2 patients with mild OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement were reduced after surgery. These changes contributed to the mitigation of respiratory airflow limitation. For the patient with severe OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement increased after surgery, which aggravated the airway obstruction. The efficacy of nasal surgery for patients with OSAHS is determined by the degree of improvement in nasal obstruction and whether the effects on the pharynx are beneficial. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the polysomnogram (PSG) test results, chief complaints, and clinical findings, and can indirectly reflect the degree of nasal patency and improvement of snoring symptoms, and further, provide a theoretical basis to solve relevant clinical problems. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Randomised sham-controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Pengo, Martino F; Xiao, Sichang; Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Reed, Kate; Shah, Nimish; Chen, Tao; Douiri, Abdel; Hart, Nicholas; Luo, Yuanming; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Williams, Adrian; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John; Steier, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by a loss of neuromuscular tone of the upper airway dilator muscles while asleep. This study investigated the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in patients with OSA. Patients and methods This was a randomised, sham-controlled crossover trial using transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the upper airway dilator muscles in patients with confirmed OSA. Patients were randomly assigned to one night of sham stimulation and one night of active treatment. The primary outcome was the 4% oxygen desaturation index, responders were defined as patients with a reduction >25% in the oxygen desaturation index when compared with sham stimulation and/or with an index <5/hour in the active treatment night. Results In 36 patients (age mean 50.8 (SD 11.2) years, male/female 30/6, body mass index median 29.6 (IQR 26.9–34.9) kg/m2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale 10.5 (4.6) points, oxygen desaturation index median 25.7 (16.0–49.1)/hour, apnoea-hypopnoea index median 28.1 (19.0–57.0)/hour) the primary outcome measure improved when comparing sham stimulation (median 26.9 (17.5–39.5)/hour) with active treatment (median 19.5 (11.6–40.0)/hour; p=0.026), a modest reduction of the mean by 4.1 (95% CI −0.6 to 8.9)/hour. Secondary outcome parameters of patients' perception indicated that stimulation was well tolerated. Responders (47.2%) were predominantly from the mild-to-moderate OSA category. In this subgroup, the oxygen desaturation index was reduced by 10.0 (95% CI 3.9 to 16.0)/hour (p<0.001) and the apnoea-hypopnoea index was reduced by 9.1 (95% CI 2.0 to 16.2)/hour (p=0.004). Conclusion Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the pharyngeal dilators during a single night in patients with OSA improves upper airway obstruction and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT01661712. PMID:27435610

  1. MRI of the pharynx in ischemic stroke patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Devin L.; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Concannon, Maryann; Helman, Joseph I.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common after stroke and associated with poor stroke outcomes. Whether OSA after acute stroke is caused by anatomic, physiologic, or both etiologies has not been studied. We therefore used brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to assess oropharyngeal anatomy in stroke patients with and without OSA. Methods Patients within 7 days of ischemic stroke underwent nocturnal polysomnography. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI performed for clinical purposes was used to measure retropalatal distance, soft palatal length, soft palatal thickness, retroglossal space, and tongue length. Nasopharyngeal area and high retropharyngeal area were measured from axial T2-weighted images, and lateral pharyngeal wall thickness from coronal T1-weighted images. Results Among 27 subjects, 18 (67%) had OSA (apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5). Demographics, vascular risk factors, and stroke severity were similar in the two groups. Median retropalatal distance was shorter in subjects with OSA (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p= 0.03). Shorter retropalatal distance was associated with higher AHI (linear regression, p=0.04). None of the other morphological characteristics differed. Conclusions Anatomic difference between awake acute stroke patients with and without OSA shows that the sleep disorder cannot be attributed solely to sleep, sleeping position, or changes in neuromuscular control that are specific to the sleep state. PMID:20466584

  2. Utility of portable monitoring in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, U; Aneja, A; Kumar, R Mohan; Kumar, T Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common but underdiagnosed sleep disorder, which is associated with systemic consequences such as hypertension, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic heart disease. Nocturnal laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard test for diagnosis of OSA. PSG consists of a simultaneous recording of multiple physiologic parameters related to sleep and wakefulness including electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), surface electromyography (EMG), airflow measurement using thermistor and nasal pressure transducer, pulse oximetry and respiratory effort (thoracic and abdominal). Multiple alternative and simpler methods that record respiratory parameters alone for diagnosing OSA have been developed in the past two decades. These devices are called portable monitors (PMs) and enable performing sleep studies at a lower cost with shorter waiting times. It has been observed and reported that comprehensive sleep evaluation coupled with the use of PMs can fulfill the unmet need for diagnostic testing in various out-of-hospital settings in patients with suspected OSA. This article reviews the available medical literature on PMs in order to justify the utility of PMs in the diagnosis of OSA, especially in resource-poor, high-disease burden settings. The published practice parameters for the use of these devices have also been reviewed with respect to their relevance in the Indian setting. PMID:26440391

  3. Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Khandoker, Ahsan H; Karmakar, Chandan K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2011-03-01

    We investigate whether pulse rate variability (PRV) extracted from finger photo-plethysmography (Pleth) waveforms can be the substitute of heart rate variability (HRV) from RR intervals of ECG signals during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Simultaneous measurements (ECG and Pleth) were taken from 29 healthy subjects during normal (undisturbed sleep) breathing and 22 patients with OSA during OSA events. Highly significant (p<0.01) correlations (1.0>r>0.95) were found between heart rate (HR) and pulse rate (PR). Bland-Altman plot of HR and PR shows good agreement (<5% difference). Comparison of 2 min recording epochs demonstrated significant differences (p<0.01) in time, frequency domains and complexity analysis, between normal and OSA events using PRV as well as HRV measures. Results suggest that both HRV and PRV indices could be used to distinguish OSA events from normal breathing during sleep. However, several variability measures (SDNN, RMSSD, HF power, LF/HF and sample entropy) of PR and HR were found to be significantly (p<0.01) different during OSA events. Therefore, we conclude that PRV provides accurate inter-pulse variability to measure heart rate variability under normal breathing in sleep but does not precisely reflect HRV in sleep disordered breathing.

  4. Modified Interim Mandibular Advancement (MIMA) Appliance for Symptomatic Correction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Gupta, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a chronic, progressive, multifactorial, life-threatening disorder that causes significant impact on patient’s life. Patients with OSA [Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI)>30] who cannot tolerate Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy or are not surgical candidates may benefit from oral appliances. This paper describes interim appliance devised from existing Hawley’s retainer in patients with OSA. A 38-year-old man of athletic built with history of orthodontic treatment six months back due to esthetic concerns and wearing upper Hawley’s retainer, reported with chief complaint of frequent nocturnal awakening along with excessive daytime somnolence. Based on diagnostic aids, he was diagnosed with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with severe mandibular retrusion. Sleep test revealed AHI score of 34, suggestive of severe OSA. With ENT and Oral surgeon concurrence, mandibular advancement of 7mm with Bilateral Sagital Split Osteotomy (BSSO) with distraction was contemplated as a viable functional and curative stable treatment plan. Because of non-adherence and non-compliance with CPAP therapy and on request of patient, an interim anterior positioning appliance was devised to facilitate comfortable sound sleep till the time surgery is impending. After three months of wearing this customized appliance, improved quality of sleep was discernible; both subjectively as reported by patient and objectively using sleep test (AHI=9.8). PMID:27656589

  5. Microarray studies of genomic oxidative stress and cell cycle responses in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michal S; Singh, Prachi; Wolk, Robert; Romero-Corral, Abel; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Somers, Virend K

    2007-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the commonest form of sleep-disordered breathing, is characterized by recurrent episodes of intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. This study evaluated microarray measures of gene transcript levels in OSA subjects compared to age and BMI matched healthy controls. Measurements were obtained before and after: (a) a night of normal sleep in controls; and (b) a night of untreated apnea in OSA patients. All subjects underwent full polysomnography. mRNA from the whole blood samples was analyzed by HG-U133A and B Affymetrix GeneChip arrays using Spotfire 7.2 data analysis platform. After sleep in OSA patients, changes were noted in several genes involved in modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, and catalase. Changes were also observed in genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and the cell cycle such as cell division cycle 25B, signaling lymphocyte activating molecule (SLAM), calgizzarin S100A11, B-cell translocation gene, Src-like adapter protein (SLAP), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2. These overnight changes in OSA patients are suggestive of activation of several mechanisms to modulate, and adapt to, increased ROS developing in response to the frequent episodes of intermittent hypoxia.

  6. Modified Interim Mandibular Advancement (MIMA) Appliance for Symptomatic Correction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rajkumar; Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Gupta, Ankur

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a chronic, progressive, multifactorial, life-threatening disorder that causes significant impact on patient's life. Patients with OSA [Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI)>30] who cannot tolerate Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy or are not surgical candidates may benefit from oral appliances. This paper describes interim appliance devised from existing Hawley's retainer in patients with OSA. A 38-year-old man of athletic built with history of orthodontic treatment six months back due to esthetic concerns and wearing upper Hawley's retainer, reported with chief complaint of frequent nocturnal awakening along with excessive daytime somnolence. Based on diagnostic aids, he was diagnosed with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with severe mandibular retrusion. Sleep test revealed AHI score of 34, suggestive of severe OSA. With ENT and Oral surgeon concurrence, mandibular advancement of 7mm with Bilateral Sagital Split Osteotomy (BSSO) with distraction was contemplated as a viable functional and curative stable treatment plan. Because of non-adherence and non-compliance with CPAP therapy and on request of patient, an interim anterior positioning appliance was devised to facilitate comfortable sound sleep till the time surgery is impending. After three months of wearing this customized appliance, improved quality of sleep was discernible; both subjectively as reported by patient and objectively using sleep test (AHI=9.8). PMID:27656589

  7. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day mortality among patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Farzin; Ahmadpoor, Amin; Amra, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most life-threatening form of venous thrombosis which causes the majority of mortalities in this category. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been indicated as one of the risk factors for thromboembolism because of hemostatic alterations. The present study was designed to seek for the relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality of patients with PE. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 137 consecutive patients referred to hospital with symptoms of PE and preliminary stable hemodynamic. Confirmation of PE was made by multislice computed tomography pulmonary angiography and in the case of contraindication; V/Q lung scan and Doppler sonography were done. A STOP-Bang Questionnaire was used to determine patients with high- and low-risk of OSA. Patients were followed up for 1-month, and their survivals were recorded. Results: This study showed that there was no relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality (P = 0.389). Chronic kidney disease (P = 0.004), hypertension (P = 0.003), main thrombus (P = 0.004), and segmental thrombus (P = 0.022) were associated with 30-day mortality. In the logistic regression analysis, history of chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as a risk factor for 30-day mortality among the PE patients (P = 0.029, odds ratio = 4.93). Conclusion: Results of this study showed 30-day mortality was not affected by OSA directly. In fact, it was affected by complications of OSA such as hypertension and thrombus. Also, positive history of chronic kidney disease increased the risk of 30-day mortality. PMID:26622255

  8. Three-dimensional evaluation of upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome during oral appliance therapy.

    PubMed

    Cossellu, Gianguido; Biagi, Roberto; Sarcina, Michele; Mortellaro, Carmen; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represents a frequent and common respiratory disease characterized by repeated episodes of complete and/or partial obstruction of upper airways during sleep, normally associated with reduction of oxygen saturation in blood. The oral appliances (OAs) are considered to be an effective treatment modality thanks to the upper airway enlargement. Lateral cephalometry has been used for the 2-dimensional evaluation of upper airway form with several limits. We obtained an accurate 3-dimensional (3D) volume analyses with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to confirm the effects of OA on the upper airway in patients with OSAS. Ten Italian patients with moderate or severe OSA (3 males and 7 females, 53.4 ± 11.3 years of age, and BMI 24.5 ± 2.7), who cannot tolerate continuous positive air pressure therapy and rejected a surgical approach, were treated with non-adjustable customized OAs and evaluated with CBCT and polysomnography. Upper airway form was examined in the presence and absence of OA and the volume was measured and compared in 2 different areas. Specific planes have been considered to match the data and calculate the benefit obtained with therapy. Nine out of ten patients showed an improvement of total upper airway volume and an improvement in apnea-hypopnea index. Volume increased both in the posterior soft palate region and in the posterior tongue region. In the inferior area, we observed greater differences. 3D image reconstruction accurately confirmed morphological changes in the upper airway during OA therapy. The use of this 3D evaluation is expected to improve the results of OA therapy in the future. PMID:25974784

  9. Clinical Effect of Surgical Correction for Nasal Pathology on the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that relief of nasal obstruction in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would lead to reduce OSA severity and to discuss the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery as a treatment modality for OSA. Study Design Twenty-five subjects who had reduced patency of nasal cavity and narrowing of retroglossal or retropalatal airways were diagnosed with OSA and underwent nasal surgery, such as septoplasty or turbinoplasty to correct nasal pathologies. The effect of the surgery on nasal patency was quantified by measuring minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) using acoustic rhinometry. The watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured before and after nasal surgery. Results The present study shows that the AHI and RDI decreased significantly and the lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time rose after nasal surgery in 25 OSA subjects. In addition, a reduction in subjective symptoms was observed in subjects and mean MCA increased after nasal surgery. Fourteen subjects were classified as responders and 11 subjects as non-responders. Responders showed considerable improvement of their subjective symptoms and the AHI and RDI were significantly lower after surgery. We found that the changes between pre- and post-operative AHI and RDI values were minimal in 11 non-responders. However, daytime somnolence and REM sleep time improved after nasal surgery in non-responders. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that the surgical treatment of nasal pathology improves nasal airway patency and reduces OSA severity in 56% subjects. Furthermore, correction of nasal pathology appears to result in improved sleep quality in both responder and non-responders OSA subjects. PMID:24896824

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Impaired Exercise Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Beitler, Jeremy R.; Awad, Karim M.; Bakker, Jessie P.; Edwards, Bradley A.; DeYoung, Pam; Djonlagic, Ina; Forman, Daniel E.; Quan, Stuart F.; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Because cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) aids in prognostic assessment of heart disease, there is rising interest in its utility for cardiovascular risk stratification of patients with OSA. However, the relationship between OSA and exercise capacity is unclear. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that OSA is associated with impaired exercise capacity. Methods: Fifteen subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (apneahypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/h) and 19 controls with mild or no OSA (AHI < 15 events/h) were enrolled. Subjects underwent standard polysomnography to determine AHI and exclude other sleep disorders. Resting metabolic rate was measured via indirect calorimetry, followed by maximum, symptom-limited CPET. Subjects completed a sleep diary and physical activity questionnaire characterizing behaviors in the week prior to testing. Results: Percent predicted peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was significantly lower in OSA subjects than controls (70.1% ± 17.5% vs 83.8% ± 13.9%; p = 0.02). Each 1-unit increase in log-transformed AHI was associated with a decrease in percent predicted peak O2 of 3.20 (95% CI 0.53-5.88; p = 0.02). After adjusting for baseline differences, this association remained significant (p < 0.01). AHI alone explained 16.1% of the variability observed in percent predicted peak O2 (p = 0.02). Conclusions: OSA is associated with impaired exercise capacity. Further study is needed to evaluate the utility of CPET for prognostic assessment of patients with OSA. Citation: Beitler JR, Awad KM, Bakker JP, Edwards BA, DeYoung P, Djonlagic I, Forman DE, Quan SF, Malhotra A. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with impaired exercise capacity: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1199-1204. PMID:25325602

  11. Remotely Controlled Mandibular Protrusion during Sleep Predicts Therapeutic Success with Oral Appliances in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Remmers, John; Charkhandeh, Shouresh; Grosse, Joshua; Topor, Zbigniew; Brant, Rollin; Santosham, Peter; Bruehlmann, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study addresses the need for a validated tool that prospectively identifies favorable candidates for oral appliance therapy in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a mandibular titration study, performed with a remotely controlled mandibular positioner (RCMP), to predict treatment outcome with a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) and to predict an effective target protrusive position (ETPP). Design: A prospective, blinded, outcome study. Setting: Standard clinical care with tests performed in the polysomnographic laboratory. Participants: Consecutive patients (n = 67) recruited from a sleep center or a dental practice using broad inclusion criteria (age 21-80 years; AHI > 10/h; BMI < 40 kg/m2). Interventions: Therapeutic outcome with a mandibular protruding oral appliance was predicted following a mandibular protrusive titration study in the polysomnographic laboratory using a remotely controlled positioner and prospectively established predictive rules. An ETPP was also prospectively determined for participants predicted to be therapeutically successful with MRA therapy. All participants were blindly treated with a MRA, at either the predicted ETPP or a sham position, and therapeutic outcome was compared against prediction. Measurements and Results: At the final protrusive position, standard predictive parameters (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values) showed statistically significant predictive accuracy (P < 0.05) in the range of 83% to 94%. The predicted ETPP provided an efficacious protrusive position in 87% of participants predicted to be therapeutically successful with MRA therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using prospectively established rules for interpreting the polysomnographic data, the mandibular titration study predicted mandibular repositioning appliance therapeutic outcome with significant accuracy, particularly with regard to

  12. Mandibular advancement oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea: effect on awake calibre of the velopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, C; Love, L; Peat, D; Fleetham, J; Lowe, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The mechanisms of action of oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea are poorly understood. Videoendoscopy of the upper airway was used during wakefulness to examine whether the changes in pharyngeal dimensions produced by a mandibular advancement oral appliance are related to the improvement in the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea.
METHODS—Fifteen patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea (median (range) apnoea index (AI) 4(0-38)/h, apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 28(9-45)/h) underwent overnight polysomnography and imaging of the upper airway before and after insertion of the oral appliance. Images were obtained in the hypopharynx, oropharynx, and velopharynx at end tidal expiration during quiet nasal breathing in the supine position. The cross sectional area and diameters of the upper airway were measured using image processing software with an intraluminal catheter as a linear calibration.
RESULTS—AI decreased to a median (range) value of 0 (0-6)/h (p<0.01) and AHI to 8 (1-28)/h (p<0.001) following insertion of the oral appliance. The median (95% confidence interval) cross sectional area of the upper airway increased by 18% (3 to 35) (p<0.02) in the hypopharynx and by 25% (11 to 69) (p<0.005) in the velopharynx, but not significantly in the oropharynx. Although in general the shape of the pharynx did not change following insertion of the oral appliance, the lateral diameter of the velopharynx increased to a greater extent than the anteroposterior diameter. Following insertion of the oral appliance the reduction in AHI was related to the increase in cross sectional area of the velopharynx (p= 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—A mandibular advancement oral appliance increases the cross sectional area of the upper airway during wakefulness, particularly in the velopharynx. Assuming this effect on upper airway calibre is not eliminated by sleep, mandibular advancement oral appliances may reduce the severity of obstructive sleep

  13. Increased phosphatidylcholine concentration in saliva reduces surface tension and improves airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Kirkness, J P; Yamamura, S; Imaizumi, K; Yoshimine, H; Oi, K; Ayuse, T

    2013-10-01

    Surface tension may have important role for maintaining upper airway patency in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. It has been demonstrated that elevated surface tension increases the pharyngeal pressures required to reopen the upper airway following collapse. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between the concentrations of endogenous surfactants in saliva with indices of upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea. We studied 20 male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (age: 60·3 ± 10·3 years; BMI: 25·9 ± 4·6 kg m(-2); AHI: 41·5 ± 18·6 events h(-1)). We obtained 100-μL samples of saliva prior to overnight polysomnographic sleep study. The surface tension was determined using the pull-off force technique. The concentration of phosphatidylcholine (PC) was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Regression analysis between apnoea, hypopnoea and apnoea/hypopnoea indices and the ratio of hypopnoea time/total disordered breathing time (HT/DBT) with surface tension and PC were performed. P < 0·05 was considered significant. The mean saliva surface tension was 48·8 ± 8·0 mN m(-1) and PC concentration was 15·7 ± 11·1 nM. The surface tension was negatively correlated with the PC concentration (r = -0·48, P = 0·03). There was a significant positive correlation between surface tension with hypopnoea index (r = 0·50, P = 0·03) and HT/DBT (r = 0·6, P = 0·006), but not apnoea or apnoea/hypopnoea index (P > 0·11). Similarly, PC concentration negatively correlated with hypopnoea index (r = -0·45, P = 0·04) and HT/DBT (r = -0·6, P = 0·004), but not with apnoea index or AHI (P > 0·08). An increase in salivary PC concentration may increase upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea through a reduction in surface tension.

  14. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  15. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-08-31

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  16. A longitudinal assessment of sleep variables during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vanaparthy, R; Mota, P; Khan, R; Ehsan, M; Qureshi, A; ZuWallack, R; Leidy, N

    2015-11-01

    Although sleep disturbance is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), relatively little is known on the effect of the exacerbation on sleep quality. Accordingly, we longitudinally assessed sleep variables during exacerbations and clinical stability. This is a sub-study of a larger observational analysis. Inclusion criteria were clinically stable COPD and two or more clinical exacerbations in the preceding 12 months. Patients were followed for approximately 6 months and during this time the following were recorded daily: (1) COPD exacerbations, which were determined in two ways, clinically and symptom defined using the exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease tool (EXACT); (2) daytime sleepiness, which was measured using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale; (3) subjective awakenings, which was measured from a sleep diary; and (4) sleep duration, efficiency, and objective awakenings, which was measured from actigraphy. These variables for exacerbation and non-exacerbation days were compared. Seventeen patients (9 male, age 63 ± 12 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 52 ± 20%) entered data over 135 ± 18 days. During this time, 15 patients had 27 symptom-defined exacerbations and 8 had 9 clinically reported exacerbations. Symptom-defined exacerbation days were 26% of the total study days. More daytime sleepiness, decreased total sleep time (TST), and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) were present during exacerbations compared with clinical stability (p < 0.001). These disturbances tended to be greater during clinically reported exacerbations than during unreported events (p < 0.05). Increased daytime sleepiness, less TST, and poorer SE are present during COPD exacerbations.

  17. A systematic review of pharmacists performing obstructive sleep apnea screening services.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Michael J; Warning, William J

    2016-08-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic sleep disorder associated with a varying degree of upper airway collapse during sleep. Left untreated, OSA can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease including risk of stroke and increased mortality. Pharmacists are the most accessible and underutilized healthcare resource in the community and can have a significant role in screening patients for OSA. The result may include an expedited referral to the patient's general practitioners or sleep disorder specialists for further diagnostic assessment and therapeutic intervention. Aim of the review The primary aim of this review was to identify the current published evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services in a community pharmacy setting. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services. The literature search including five databases [PubMed, (1946-January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar] with search terms of ("pharmacist or pharmacy") AND ("obstructive sleep apnea") AND ("sleep disorders") AND ("continuous positive airway pressure-CPAP") were used. Articles were limited to English and reported in humans. Results A total of seven publications (four Australia, two Switzerland and one France) were selected and evaluated. Pharmacists utilized validated screening tools in 6/7 (86 %) of clinical studies to assist in the identification of patients with sleep disorders in community pharmacies. A total of 1701 pharmacies encompassing 9177 patients were screened in the clinical studies. Pharmacists were able to identify between 21.4 and 67 % of patients that were at risk for developing OSA or required a referral to a general practitioner or sleep disorder specialist for further diagnostic testing. Conclusion Studies assessing the role

  18. Inflammatory Markers and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Children: The NANOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Peris, Eduard; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Martinez, Mónica Gonzalez; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are common coexisting conditions associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state underlying some of the cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidities. Aim. To examine the levels of inflammatory markers in obese community-dwelling children with OSA, as compared to no-OSA, and their association with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Methods. In this cross-sectional, prospective multicenter study, healthy obese Spanish children (ages 4–15 years) were randomly selected and underwent nocturnal PSG followed by a morning fasting blood draw. Plasma samples were assayed for multiple inflammatory markers. Results. 204 children were enrolled in the study; 75 had OSA, defined by an obstructive respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 3 events/hour total sleep time (TST). BMI, gender, and age were similar in OSA and no-OSA children. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in OSA children, with interleukin-6 concentrations being higher in moderate-severe OSA (i.e., AHI > 5/hrTST; P < 0.01), while MCP-1 levels were associated with more prolonged nocturnal hypercapnia (P < 0.001). Conclusion. IL-6, MCP-1, and PAI-1 are altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children further reinforcing the proinflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322763. PMID:24991089

  19. Memory monitoring and memory control in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daurat, Agnès; Huet, Nathalie; Tiberge, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome exhibit memory deficit. The present study looked at whether this deficit is related to impaired memory monitoring and/or memory control. Here 25 patients and 26 healthy controls performed a paired-associate learning task. After participants had made a judgement of learning for each pair and performed an initial recall test they were free to restudy any items they wished, for as long or little as they wished, within a 5-minute period. They then performed a second recall test. Monitoring and control processes were assessed on the basis of judgements of learning, item selection, and study-time allocation. In spite of their memory impairment, patients accurately predicted their recall. For the restudy phase patients preferentially selected the judged-easy items, while controls selected the judged-difficult items. However, all the participants allocated more restudy time to the judged-difficult items than to the judged-easy ones. There were no significant correlations between memory performance, metamemory processes, and clinical measures (i.e., subjective sleepiness, subjective sleep quality, anxiety, and depression scores). Results suggested that both memory monitoring and memory control were preserved in our sample of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

  20. An Economic Evaluation of Home Versus Laboratory-Based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Richard D.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Redline-Bruch, Julie; Rueschman, Michael; Auckley, Dennis H.; Benca, Ruth M.; Foldvary-Schafer, Nancy R.; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis C.; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We conducted an economic analysis of the HomePAP study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial that compared home-based versus laboratory-based testing for the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: A cost-minimization analysis from the payer and provider perspectives was performed, given that 3-mo clinical outcomes were equivalent. Setting: Seven academic sleep centers. Participants: There were 373 subjects at high risk for moderate to severe OSA. Interventions: Subjects were randomized to either home-based limited channel portable monitoring followed by unattended autotitration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), versus a traditional pathway of in-laboratory sleep study and CPAP titration. Measurements and Results: From the payer perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory-based pathway were $1,840 (95% confidence interval [CI] $1,660, $2,015) compared to $1,575 (95% CI $1,439, $1,716) for the home-based pathway under the base case. Costs were $264 (95% CI $39, $496, P = 0.02) in favor of the home arm. From the provider perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory arm were $1,697 (95% CI $1,566, $1,826) compared to $1,736 (95% CI $1,621, $1,857) in the home arm, for a difference of $40 (95% CI −$213, $142, P = 0.66) in favor of the laboratory arm under the base case. The provider operating margin was $142 (95% CI $85, $202,P < 0.01) in the laboratory arm, compared to a loss of −$161 (95% CI −$202, −$120, P < 0.01) in the home arm. Conclusions: For payers, a home-based diagnostic pathway for obstructive sleep apnea with robust patient support incurs fewer costs than a laboratory-based pathway. For providers, costs are comparable if not higher, resulting in a negative operating margin. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00642486. Citation: Kim RD, Kapur VK, Redline-Bruch J, Rueschman M, Auckley DH, Benca RM, Foldvary-Schafer NR, Iber C, Zee PC, Rosen CL, Redline S, Ramsey SD. An economic

  1. Sleep Architecture Following a Weight Loss Intervention in Overweight and Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship to Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zammit, Gary; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Newman, Anne B.; Millman, Richard P.; Reboussin, David M.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Jakicic, John M.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Wing, Rena R.; Foster, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if weight loss and/or changes in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) improve sleep architecture in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA. Participants were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a diabetes and support education (DSE) control group. Measures included anthropometry, AHI, and sleep at baseline and year-1, year-2, and year-4 follow-ups. Results: Changes in sleep duration (total sleep time [TST]), continuity [wake after sleep onset (WASO)], and architecture stage 1, stage 2, slow wave sleep, and REM sleep) from baseline to year 1, 2, and 4 did not differ between ILI and DSE. Repeated-measure mixed-model analyses including data from baseline through year-4 for all participants demonstrated a significant positive association between AHI and stage 1 sleep (p < 0.001), and a significant negative association between AHI and stage 2 (p = 0.01) and REM sleep (p < 0.001), whereas changes in body weight had no relation to any sleep stages or TST. WASO had a significant positive association with change in body weight (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Compared to control, the ILI did not induce significant changes in sleep across the 4-year follow-up. In participants overall, reduced AHI in overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA was associated with decreased stage 1, and increased stage 2 and REM sleep. These sleep architecture changes are more strongly related to reductions in AHI than body weight, whereas WASO may be more influenced by weight than AHI. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00194259 Citation: Shechter A, St-Onge MP, Kuna ST, Zammit G, RoyChoudhury A, Newman AB, Millman RP, Reboussin DM, Wadden TA, Jakicic JM, Pi-Sunyer FX, Wing RR, Foster GD, Sleep AHEAD Research Group of the Look AHEAD Research Group. Sleep architecture following a

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in the population—a review on the epidemiology of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) defined at an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 was a mean of 22% (range, 9-37%) in men and 17% (range, 4-50%) in women in eleven published epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2013. OSA with excessive daytime sleepiness occurred in 6% (range, 3-18%) of men and in 4% (range, 1-17%) of women. The prevalence increased with time and OSA was reported in 37% of men and in 50% of women in studies from 2008 and 2013 respectively. OSA is more prevalent in men than in women and increases with age and obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also suggested as risk factors, but the results are conflicting. Excessive daytime sleepiness is suggested as the most important symptom of OSA, but only a fraction of subjects with AHI >5 report daytime sleepiness and one study did not find any relationship between daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea in women. Stroke and hypertension and coronary artery disease are associated with sleep apnea. Cross-sectional studies indicate an association between OSA and diabetes mellitus. Patients younger than 70 years run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. It is concluded that OSA is highly prevalent in the population. It is related to age and obesity. Only a part of subjects with OSA in the population have symptoms of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of OSA has increased in epidemiological studies over time. Differences and the increase in prevalence of sleep apnea are probably due to different diagnostic equipment, definitions, study design and characteristics of included subjects including effects of the obesity epidemic. Cardiovascular disease, especially stroke is related to OSA, and subjects under the age of 70 run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. PMID:26380759

  3. Improvement in obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and management wait times: A retrospective analysis of home management pathway for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Skomro, Robert; Reid, John; Penz, Erika; Fenton, Mark; Gjevre, John; Cotton, David

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common condition within the Canadian population. The current gold standard for diagnosis and management of patients is in-laboratory (in-lab) polysomnography; however, the limited availability of testing options for patients has led to long wait times and increased disease burden within the population. The Sleep Research Laboratory in Saskatoon (Saskatchewan) implemented a home management program to run in parallel with the in-lab system several years ago in an effort to increase their capacity and reduce wait times. The present study was a retrospective analysis of all patients referred to the program between 2009 and 2012. The home management system has improved wait times by diagnosing and managing up to one-half of the referred patient population, reducing the wait for in-lab treatment from a median of 152 days in 2009 to 92 days in 2012 (P<0.0001). Moving forward, home management can provide a viable alternative to in-lab testing for patients who meet strict entry criteria, reducing the in-lab workload and, ultimately, reducing wait times.

  4. Complications of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinopoulou, Sofia; Gallagher, Paul; Elden, Lisa; Garetz, Susan L.; Mitchell, Ron B.; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Katz, Eliot S.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Amin, Raouf; Arens, Raanan; Paruthi, Shalini; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice for most children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but can lead to complications. Current guidelines recommend that high-risk children be hospitalized after adenotonsillectomy, but it is unclear which otherwise-healthy children will develop post-operative complications. We hypothesized that polysomnographic parameters would predict post-operative complications in children who participated in the Childhood AdenoTonsillectomy (CHAT) study. Methods Children in the CHAT study aged 5–9 years with apnea hypopnea index 2–30/hr or obstructive apnea index 1–20/hr without comorbidities other than obesity/asthma underwent adenotonsillectomy. Associations between demographic variables and surgical complications were examined with Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests. Polysomnographic parameters between subjects with/without complications were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results Of the 221 children (median apnea hypopnea index 4.7/hr, range 1.2–27.7/hr; 31% obese), 16 (7%) children experienced complications. 3 (1.4%) children had respiratory complications including pulmonary edema, hypoxemia and bronchospasm. Thirteen (5.9%) had non-respiratory complications, including dehydration (4.5%), hemorrhage (2.3%) and fever (0.5%). There were no statistically significant associations between demographic parameters (gender, race, and obesity) or polysomnographic parameters (apnea hypopnea index, % total sleep time with SpO2<92%, SpO2 nadir, % sleep time with end-tidal CO2>50 Torr) and complications. Conclusions This study showed a low risk of post-adenotonsillectomy complications in school-aged healthy children with obstructive apnea although many children met published criteria for admission due to obesity, or polysomnographic severity. In this specific population, none of the polysomnographic or demographic parameters predicted post-operative complications. Further research could identify the patients at

  5. Assessment of Surgical Effects on Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gary C.; Koomullil, Roy P.; Ito, Yasushi; Shih, Alan M.; Sittitavornwong, Somsak; Waite, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is one of the most common sleep disorders. To treat patients with this health problem, it is important to detect the severity of this syndrome and occlusion sites in each patient. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that the cure of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by maxillomandibular advancement surgery can be predicted by analyzing the effect of anatomical airway changes on the pressure effort required for normal breathing using a high-fidelity, 3-D numerical model. The employed numerical model consists of: 1) 3-D upper airway geometry construction from patient-specific computed tomographic scans using an image segmentation technique, 2) mixed-element mesh generation of the numerically constructed airway geometry for discretizing the domain of interest, and 3) computational fluid dynamics simulations for predicting the flow field within the airway and the degree of severity of breathing obstruction. In the present study, both laminar and turbulent flow simulations were performed to predict the flow field in the upper airway of the selected patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement surgery. Patients of different body mass indices were also studied to assess their effects. The numerical results were analyzed to evaluate the pressure gradient along the upper airway. The magnitude of the pressure gradient is regarded as the pressure effort required for breathing, and the extent of reduction of the pressure effort is taken to measure the success of the surgery. The description of the employed numerical model, numerical results from simulations of various patients, and suggestion for future work are detailed in this paper. PMID:25530663

  6. Slow and fast changes in transmural pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, O; Bonsignore, M R; Romano, S; Bonsignore, G

    1994-12-01

    Our purpose was to assess how pulmonary artery pressure changes in relation to hypoxia and oesophageal pressure during obstructive sleep apnoeas. Transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa,STM), oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) and oesophageal pressure were analysed in two samples of consecutive obstructive apnoeas in each of four patients. In the first samples (samples A; probably recorded during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep), SaO2 swings were small and repetitive. In the second samples (samples B; probably recorded during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep), they were large and more variable. Oesophageal pressure oscillated similarly in the two groups of samples. In all cases, transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure progressively increased throughout apnoeas, and subsequently decreased in the interapnoeic periods. However, both early and end-apnoeic transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure, remained stable in samples A; whilst they progressively increased in samples B. Transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure at the beginning of each apnoea was inversely correlated with SaO2 at the end of the preceding apnoea. These results suggest that transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure is influenced by SaO2, but does not vary at the same speed as SaO2. In all cases, beat-by-beat analysis showed, as expected, that the lower the oesophageal pressure, the higher the transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure however, at each oesophageal pressure level, transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure was more variable and higher, in samples B. In conclusion, transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive apnoeas shows rapid changes, which reflect oesophageal pressure variations, and slower changes, which are likely to be caused by SaO2. PMID:7713203

  7. The Effect of Body Position on Physiological Factors that Contribute to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) resolves in lateral sleep in 20% of patients. However, the effect of lateral positioning on factors contributing to OSA has not been studied. We aimed to measure the effect of lateral positioning on the key pathophysiological contributors to OSA including lung volume, passive airway anatomy/collapsibility, the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate, ventilatory control instability (loop gain), and arousal threshold. Design: Non-randomized single arm observational study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients/participants: 20 (15M, 5F) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated severe OSA patients. Interventions: Supine vs. lateral position. Measurements: CPAP dial-downs performed during sleep to measure: (i) Veupnea: asleep ventilatory requirement, (ii) passive V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are quiescent, (iii) Varousal: ventilation at which respiratory arousals occur, (iv) active V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are activated during sleep, (v) loop gain: the ratio of the ventilatory drive response to a disturbance in ventilation, (vi) arousal threshold: level of ventilatory drive which leads to arousal, (vii) upper airway gain (UAG): ability of airway muscles to restore ventilation in response to increases in ventilatory drive, and (viii) pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Awake functional residual capacity (FRC) was also recorded. Results: Lateral positioning significantly increased passive V0 (0.33 ± 0.76L/min vs. 3.56 ± 2.94L/min, P < 0.001), active V0 (1.10 ± 1.97L/min vs. 4.71 ± 3.08L/min, P < 0.001), and FRC (1.31 ± 0.56 L vs. 1.42 ± 0.62 L, P = 0.046), and significantly decreased Pcrit (2.02 ± 2.55 cm H2O vs. −1.92 ± 3.87 cm H2O, P < 0.001). Loop gain, arousal threshold, Varousal, and UAG were not significantly altered. Conclusions: Lateral positioning significantly improves passive airway anatomy/collapsibility (passive V0, pharyngeal

  8. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and health-related quality of life in individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Østertun Geirdal, Amy; Øverland, Britt; Heimdal, Ketil; Storhaug, Kari; Asten, Pamela; Akre, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Although the relationship between Quality of Life (QoL) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported in several studies, little is known about this relationship among individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The aim of this study was to examine the associations between obstructive sleep and QoL in TCS patients. Thirty-six individuals with TCS (8-75 years) were invited to participate in expanded medical examinations, including a sleep study, polysomnography, as well as to respond to questionnaires about health related Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Twenty-three (64 %) responded to the invitation, but four were later excluded due to additional diagnoses or unconfirmed TCS, and four were below 12 years and excluded due to different scoring rules for sleep and respiratory disturbances in young children and adults. The remaining group comprised 15 adults and adolescents with TCS, 5 male (33 %) and 10 female (66 %). The participants were between 12 and 75 years of age (mean 38.6, SD 18.5). Obstructive sleep was found in 87 % of the patients and several sleep apnea parameters, among these wake time after sleep, subjective snoring and mean saturation, were associated with poorer HRQoL. OSA appears to account for reduced HRQoL in adolescents and adults with TCS.

  9. Consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome on left ventricular geometry and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Bodez, Diane; Damy, Thibaud; Soulat-Dufour, Laurie; Meuleman, Catherine; Cohen, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a frequent sleep disorder that is known to be an independent risk factor for arterial hypertension (AHT). Potential confounding factors associated with both OSAS and AHT, such as age, diabetes mellitus and obesity, have been explored extensively, and are considered as independent but additive factors. However, these factors are also contributors to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and LV diastolic dysfunction, both of which are important causes of cardiovascular morbidity, and have been reported to be associated with OSAS for decades. In this review, we present an overview of how OSAS may promote changes in LV geometry and diastolic dysfunction through its best-known cardiovascular complication, arterial hypertension. We also summarize the epidemiological links between OSAS and LVH, outline diastolic dysfunction in OSAS patients, and try to highlight the mechanisms responsible, focusing on the effect of confounding factors. PMID:27344377

  10. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Leon; Goldberg, Shmuel; Shitrit, Michal; Picard, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last decade, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy has become an increasingly important and popular mode of noninvasive respiratory support. HFNC facilitates delivery of humidified and heated oxygen at a high flow rate and generates positive airway pressure. Methods: We present five cases of children with OSA without adenotonsillar hypertrophy who were treated with HFNC. Results: We demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in apnea-hypopnea index and nadir oxygen saturation in this small cohort. Conclusion: We present our successful experience of treating severe OSA with HFNC in the home setting. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether HFNC could be considered as an established alternative for CPAP in OSA in children Citation: Joseph L, Goldberg S, Shitrit M, Picard E. High-flow nasal cannula therapy for obstructive sleep apnea in children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):1007–1010. PMID:26094930

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Preethi; Greenberg, Harly

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk in several large epidemiologic studies. OSA leads to several physiologic disturbances such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and increase in autonomic tone. These disturbances have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal and human studies. Studies also suggest a bidirectional relationship between OSA and T2DM whereby T2DM itself might contribute to the features of OSA. Moreover, successful treatment of OSA may reduce these risks, although this is controversial. The purpose of this article is to review 1) the links and bidirectional associations between OSA and T2DM; 2) the pathogenic mechanisms that might link these two disease states; 3) the role of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in improving glucose tolerance, sensitivity, and resistance; and 4) the implications for clinical practice. PMID:26491377

  12. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Grønli, Janne; Sivertsen, Børge; Lehmann, Sverre

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults presenting symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population. Randomly selected participants (N = 1,502; 50.7% men, 49.3% women), ages 40 to 70 yr. (M = 53.6, SD = 8.5) were interviewed over the telephone. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) were assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. OSA symptoms were identified by self- or spouse reports on snoring, breathing cessations during sleep, and being tired or sleepy. The prevalence of OSA was 6.2%. Among these participants with OSA, 57.6% reported insomnia and 30.1% reported excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, OSA symptoms were associated with self-reported obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and depression, but only in participants with comorbid insomnia or excessive sleepiness.

  13. Psychotic depression induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS): a case reported.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Rey, María C; Sánchez-Muñoz, María; Gutiérrez-López, María I; Trujillo-Borrego, Alejandra; Sánchez-Bonome, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder that is frequently associated with a large variety of conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular, neuropsychological or metabolic diseases. The most common and prominent symptoms of apnea is excessive diurnal drowsiness, as well asin addition to alterations of the memory and concentration, irritability, headache, and depression, among others. To date, no known studies have related OSAS with another type of more serious psychiatric disorder, such as psychotic symptoms. The case of a 51-year-old man who was diagnosed of SAOS after presenting psychotic and affective symptoms that did not respond to any medication is presentedreported. The treatment resulted in complete remission of the psychiatric symptoms mentioned.

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: An important piece in the puzzle of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cátia; Santos, Beatriz; Severino, Davide; Cabanelas, Nuno; Peres, Marisa; Monteiro, Isabel; Leal, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a clinical entity characterized by recurring episodes of apnea and/or hypopnea during sleep, due to a total or partial collapse, respectively, of the upper airway. This collapse originates a set of pathophysiological changes that determine the appearance of several cardiovascular complications. OSA contributes for the development of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias and coronary heart disease. Nowadays it is recognized to be an important public health problem, taking into account not just its repercussions but also its prevalence, since the main risk factor for the disease is obesity, a growing problem worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about OSA, as regards its definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, cardiovascular effects and treatment. PMID:25496654

  15. Management of severe obstructive sleep apnea using mandibular advancement devices with auto continuous positive airway pressures

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    The use of continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) is considered standard treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Treatment of the disease poses a great challenge not only for its diagnostic purpose but also for its treatment part. In about 29-83% of the patients, treatment is difficult because of non-compliance resulting due to high pressures, air leaks and other related issues. In such situations, alternative methods of treatment need to be looked for so as to ascertain better management. Mandibular advancement devices along with CPAP may show better treatment outcome in specific situations. PMID:25814802

  16. Residual Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Optimization: Causes and Management.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Julia L; Serinel, Yasmina; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2016-09-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but it is also common in the general population. When sleepiness remains after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA, comorbid conditions or permanent brain injury before CPAP therapy may be the cause of the residual sleepiness. There is currently no broad approach to treating residual EDS in patients with OSA. Individual assessment must be made of comorbid conditions and medications, and of lifestyle factors that may be contributing to the sleepiness. Modafinil and armodafinil are the only pharmacologic agents indicated for residual sleepiness in these patients. PMID:27542881

  17. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with mandibular advancement appliance over prostheses: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Thais Moura; Colen, Sâmia; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Rossi, Rowdley; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Ferraz, Otávio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is recommended for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), primary snoring and as a secondary option for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, because it has better adherence and acceptance. However, edentulous patients do not have supports to hold the MAD. This study aimed to present a possible to OSA treatment with MAD in over complete upper and partial lower dentures. The patient, a 38-year-old female with mild OSA, was treated with a MAD. The respiratory parameter, such as apnea–hypopnea index, arousal index and oxyhemoglobin saturation was improved after treatment. PMID:26483952

  18. Morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnoea for major spine surgery: An anaesthetic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Redhu, Shruti; Prakash, Prabhakar Suman; Jain, Virendra; Dash, Hari Hara

    2016-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients with clinical features of obstructive sleep apnoea can present a myriad of challenges to the anaesthesiologists which must be addressed to minimise the perioperative risks. Initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy early in the pre- and post-operative period along with appropriate anaesthetic planning is of paramount importance in such patients. This case report emphasises the usefulness of CPAP therapy, even for a short duration, to minimise morbidity, improve recovery and hasten early discharge from the hospital after major surgery. PMID:27330205

  19. Upper airway surgery of obstructive sleep apnea in pycnodysostosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Leoni, Chiara; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Gnoni, Valentina; Vollono, Catello; Zampino, Giuseppe; Paludetti, Gaetano; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a mutation in the cathepsin K gene, which causes a decrease of the bone turnover; a review of the literature suggests that pycnodysostosis is frequently associated with severe respiratory obstruction, which needs surgical treatment. The aim of this paper is to describe the surgical treatment of a 3½-year-old girl affected by Pycnodysostosis complicated by a severe sleep-related respiratory disorder. The surgical treatment, consisting of adenotonsillectomy and palatoplasty, resulted in a striking amelioration of respiratory parameters and increased posterior airway space, and allowed the patient to avoid tracheotomy while awaiting for maxillo-mandibular surgery.

  20. Role of nocturnal rostral fluid shift in the pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura H; Bradley, T Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in the general population and increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents due to hypersomnolence from sleep disruption, and risk of cardiovascular diseases owing to repetitive hypoxia, sympathetic nervous system activation, and systemic inflammation. In contrast, central sleep apnoea (CSA) is rare in the general population. Although their pathogenesis is multifactorial, the prevalence of both OSA and CSA is increased in patients with fluid retaining states, especially heart failure, where they are associated with increased mortality risk. This observation suggests that fluid retention may contribute to the pathogenesis of both OSA and CSA. According to this hypothesis, during the day fluid accumulates in the intravascular and interstitial spaces of the legs due to gravity, and upon lying down at night redistributes rostrally, again owing to gravity. Some of this fluid may accumulate in the neck, increasing tissue pressure and causing the upper airway to narrow, thereby increasing its collapsibility and predisposing to OSA. In heart failure patients, with increased rostral fluid shift, fluid may additionally accumulate in the lungs, provoking hyperventilation and hypocapnia, driving below the apnoea threshold, leading to CSA. This review article will explore mechanisms by which overnight rostral fluid shift, and its prevention, can contribute to the pathogenesis and therapy of sleep apnoea. PMID:23230237

  1. [Association between the serum level of testosterone and other comorbidities in obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Bercea, Raluca; Bercea, Bogdan; Mihăescu, Traian

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone seems to play a role in the pathophysiology of OSAS but the mechanisms are not yet well defined. Research of this relationship has focused on two main assumptions: first case support the emergence of OSAS or augmentation of OSAS severity in men treated with testosterone for symptomatic hypogonadism; the second hypothesis suggest that serum testosterone deficiency is due to hypoxia and microarousals generated by OSAS with direct impact on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The correlation between sleep apnea and androgenic disorders should be considered in the light of the intervention of many other factors which can act as confounding factors: age, obesity and other associated pathologies (chronic lung disease, smoking status). Many studies conducted so far on this interrelation (sleep apnea, endocrine system) have ignored these factors. In most cases CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) therapy revert low serum testosterone levels to normal levels. Depressive status and fatigue, as OSAS consequences associated with hypogonadism have been reported in the literature and may have clinically significant aspects due to summary effect, with notable improvement after CPAP therapy avoiding adverse effects of hormonal or antidepressant treatment. The clinical implications and major consequences of association between androgen dysfunction and sleep apnea syndrome require a correct management in the recognition and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome associated with comorbidities.

  2. Speech Signal and Facial Image Processing for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Fernández-Pozo, Rubén; Toledano, Doroteo T.; Alcázar-Ramírez, José D.; López-Gonzalo, Eduardo; Hernández-Gómez, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by recurring breathing pauses during sleep caused by a blockage of the upper airway (UA). OSA is generally diagnosed through a costly procedure requiring an overnight stay of the patient at the hospital. This has led to proposing less costly procedures based on the analysis of patients' facial images and voice recordings to help in OSA detection and severity assessment. In this paper we investigate the use of both image and speech processing to estimate the apnea-hypopnea index, AHI (which describes the severity of the condition), over a population of 285 male Spanish subjects suspected to suffer from OSA and referred to a Sleep Disorders Unit. Photographs and voice recordings were collected in a supervised but not highly controlled way trying to test a scenario close to an OSA assessment application running on a mobile device (i.e., smartphones or tablets). Spectral information in speech utterances is modeled by a state-of-the-art low-dimensional acoustic representation, called i-vector. A set of local craniofacial features related to OSA are extracted from images after detecting facial landmarks using Active Appearance Models (AAMs). Support vector regression (SVR) is applied on facial features and i-vectors to estimate the AHI. PMID:26664493

  3. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced (“bigdata”) preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow). PMID:27170854

  4. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    PubMed

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow).

  5. The promise of translational and personalised approaches for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: an 'Omics' perspective.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Leng; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can result in significant morbidities including the cardiovascular, metabolic and neurocognitive systems. These effects are purportedly mediated via activation of inflammatory cascades and the induction of oxidative stress, ultimately resulting in cellular injury and dysfunction. While great advances have been made in sleep medicine research in the past decades, there are still wide gaps in our knowledge concerning the exact underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA and consequences. Without resolving these issues, the reasons why patients with a similar severity of OSA can have markedly different clinical presentation and end-organ morbidity, that is, phenotype, will continue to remain elusive. This review aims to highlight the recent exciting discoveries in genotype-phenotype interactions, epigenetics, genomics and proteomics related to OSA. Just as PCR revolutionised the field of genetics, the potential power of 'Omics' promises to transform the field of sleep medicine, and provide critical insights into the downstream pathological cascades inherent to OSA, thereby enabling personalised diagnosis and management for this highly prevalent sleep disorder.

  6. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    PubMed

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow). PMID:27170854

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tregear, Stephen; Reston, James; Schoelles, Karen; Phillips, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: We performed a systematic review of the OSA-related risk of crash in commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. The primary objective involved determining whether individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at an increased risk for a motor vehicle crash when compared to comparable individuals who do not have the disorder. A secondary objective involved determining what factors are associated with an increased motor vehicle crash risk among individuals with OSA. Design/Setting: Seven electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed (PreMEDLINE), EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, TRIS, and the Cochrane library) were searched (through May 27, 2009), as well as the reference lists of all obtained articles. We included controlled studies (case-control or cohort) that evaluated crash risk in individuals with OSA. We evaluated the quality of each study and the interplay between the quality, quantity, robustness, and consistency of the body of evidence, and tested for publication bias. Data were extracted by 2 independent analysts. When appropriate, data from different studies were combined in a fixed- or random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Individuals with OSA are clearly at increased risk for crash. The mean crash-rate ratio associated with OSA is likely to fall within the range of 1.21 to 4.89. Characteristics that may predict crash in drivers with OSA include BMI, apnea plus hypopnea index, oxygen saturation, and possibly daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Untreated sleep apnea is a significant contributor to motor vehicle crashes. Citation: Tregear S; Reston J; Schoelles K; Phillips B. Obstructive sleep apnea and risk of motor vehicle crash: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(6):573-581. PMID:20465027

  8. Epigenetics modifications and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The EPIOSA study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological and animal models studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in OSA management by interfering intermediates mechanisms associated with cardiovascular complications. We have thus initiated the Epigenetics modification in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (EPIOSA) study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02131610). Methods/design EPIOSA is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 350 participants of caucasian ethnicity and free of other chronic or inflammatory diseases: 300 patients with prevalent OSA and 50 non-OSA subjects. All of them will be follow-up for at least 5 years. Recruitment and study visits are performed in single University-based sleep clinic using standard operating procedures. At baseline and at each one year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident comorbidities and health resources utilization, with a primary focus on cardiovascular events. Confirmatory outcomes information is requested from patient records and the regional Department of Health Services. Every year, OSA status will be assessed by full sleep study and blood samples will be obtained for immediate standard biochemistry, hematology, inflammatory cytokines and cytometry analysis. For biobanking, aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA are also obtained. Bilateral carotid echography will be performed to assess subclinical atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis progression. OSA patients are treated according with national guidelines. Discussion EPIOSA will enable the prospective evaluation of inflammatory and epigenetics mechanism involved in cardiovascular complication of treated and non-treated patients with OSA compared with non OSA subjects. PMID:25016368

  9. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  10. Myofunctional Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Certal, Victor; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Ruoff, Chad M.; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature for articles evaluating myofunctional therapy (MT) as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adults and to perform a meta-analysis on the polysomnographic, snoring, and sleepiness data. Data Sources: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and The Cochrane Library. Review Methods: The searches were performed through June 18, 2014. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was followed. Results: Nine adult studies (120 patients) reported polysomnography, snoring, and/or sleepiness outcomes. The pre- and post-MT apneahypopnea indices (AHI) decreased from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD) of 24.5 ± 14.3/h to 12.3 ± 11.8/h, mean difference (MD) −14.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) −20.98, −7.54], P < 0.0001. Lowest oxygen saturations improved from 83.9 ± 6.0% to 86.6 ± 7.3%, MD 4.19 (95% CI 1.85, 6.54), P = 0.0005. Polysomnography snoring decreased from 14.05 ± 4.89% to 3.87 ± 4.12% of total sleep time, P < 0.001, and snoring decreased in all three studies reporting subjective outcomes. Epworth Sleepiness Scale decreased from 14.8 ± 3.5 to 8.2 ± 4.1. Two pediatric studies (25 patients) reported outcomes. In the first study of 14 children, the AHI decreased from 4.87 ± 3.0/h to 1.84 ± 3.2/h, P = 0.004. The second study evaluated children who were cured of OSA after adenotonsillectomy and palatal expansion, and found that 11 patients who continued MT remained cured (AHI 0.5 ± 0.4/h), whereas 13 controls had recurrent OSA (AHI 5.3 ± 1.5/h) after 4 y. Conclusion: Current literature demonstrates that myofunctional therapy decreases apnea-hypopnea index by approximately 50% in adults and 62% in children. Lowest oxygen saturations, snoring, and sleepiness outcomes improve in adults. Myofunctional therapy could serve as an adjunct to other obstructive sleep apnea treatments. Citation: Camacho M, Certal V, Abdullatif J, Zaghi S, Ruoff CM

  11. Long-Term Effectiveness and Compliance of Positional Therapy with the Sleep Position Trainer in the Treatment of Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Maanen, J. Peter; de Vries, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate effectiveness, long-term compliance, and effects on subjective sleep of the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) in patients with position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS). Design: Prospective, multicenter cohort study. Patients or Participants: Adult patients with mild and moderate POSAS were included. Interventions: Patients asked to use the SPT for 6 mo. At baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 mo, questionnaires would be completed: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and questions related to SPT use. Measurements and Results: One hundred forty-five patients were included. SPT use and SPT data could not be retrieved in 39 patients. In the remaining 106 patients, median percentage of supine sleep decreased rapidly during SPT's training phase (day 3 to 9) to near-total avoidance of supine sleep. This decrease was maintained during the following months of treatment (21% at baseline versus 3% at 6 mo). SPT compliance, defined as more than 4 h of nightly use, was 64.4%. Regular use, defined as more than 4 h of usage over 5 nights/w, was 71.2%. Subjective compliance and regular use were 59.8% and 74.4%, respectively. Median ESS (11 to 8), PSQI (8 to 6), and FOSQ (87 to 103) values significantly improved compared with baseline. Conclusions: Positional therapy using the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) effectively diminished the percentage of supine sleep and subjective sleepiness and improved sleep related quality of life in patients with mild to moderate position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SPT treatment appeared to have sustained effects over 6 months. SPT compliance and regular use rate were relatively good. Subjective and objective compliance data corresponded well. The lack of a placebo-controlled group limited the efficacy of conclusions. Citation: van Maamen JP, de Vries N. Long-term effectiveness and compliance of positional

  12. The Management of Iatrogenic Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome Following Bimaxillary Surgery in a Patient with Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Gerbino, Giovanni; Gervasio, Fernando Carmine; Blythe, John; Bianchi, Francesca Antonella

    2016-07-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with a 6-year history of severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome followed a bimaxillary osteotomy procedure for a class III skeletal pattern. The patient was born with a unilateral cleft lip and palate and underwent primary lip and palate repair and later a pharyngeal flap for severe velopharyngeal insufficiency. Surgical management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome with conventional osteotomy, in cleft lip and palate patients, is a difficult problem. Distraction osteogenesis may provide a safer alternative. The authors describe and discuss the indications and the technical challenge of a multistage treatment protocol with distraction osteogenesis. PMID:27391499

  13. Orthodontics treatments for managing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nelly T; Desplats, Eve; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-02-01

    A small maxilla and/or mandible may predispose children to sleep-disordered breathing, which is a continuum of severity from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea. Preliminary studies have suggested that orthodontic treatments, such as orthopedic mandibular advancement or rapid maxillary expansion, may be effective treatments. The aim is to investigate the efficacy of orthopedic mandibular advancement and/or rapid maxillary expansion in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Internet were searched for eligible studies published until April 2014. Articles with adequate data were selected for the meta-analysis; other articles were reported in the qualitative assessment. Data extraction was conducted by two independent authors. A total of 58 studies were identified. Only eight studies were included in the review; of these, six were included in the meta-analysis. The research yielded only a small number of studies. Consequently, any conclusions from the pooled diagnostic parameters and their interpretation should be treated carefully. Although the included studies were limited, these orthodontic treatments may be effective in managing pediatric snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Other related health outcomes, such as neurocognitive and cardiovascular functions have not yet been systematically addressed. More studies are needed with larger sample size, specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and standardized data reporting to help establish guidelines for the orthodontic treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26164371

  14. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Increases the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kim L.; Hillman, David R.; James, Alan; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Simpson, Laila; Cooper, Matthew N.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Fedson, Annette C.; Mukherjee, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) To describe the incidence rate of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and (2) to investigate MVC risk factors in OSA patients. Methods: A retrospective case-series observational study was conducted using data from the West Australian Sleep Health Study at a tertiary hospital-based sleep clinic. Participants were patients (N = 2,673) referred for assessment of suspected sleep disordered breathing. Questionnaire data were collected including age, sex, years of driving, near-misses and MVCs, sleepiness, and consumption of alcohol and caffeinated drinks. Overnight laboratory-based polysomnography was performed using standard methodology.1 Poisson univariate and negative binomial multivariable regression models were used to investigate associations between risk factors and MVC and near-miss risk in patients with untreated OSA. Results: In patients with untreated OSA, the crash rate was 0.06 MVC/person-year compared with the general community crash rate of 0.02 MVC/person-year. The rate ratio comparing very sleepy men with normal men was 4.68 (95% CI 3.07, 7.14) for near-misses and 1.27 (95% CI 1.00, 1.61) for crashes, after adjusting for confounders. In women there was a significant association with sleepiness score (p = 0.02) but no dose effect across quartiles. Conclusions: Untreated OSA is associated with an increased risk of near-misses in men and women and an increased risk of MVCs in very sleepy men. There is a strong association between excessive daytime sleepiness and increased report of near-misses. Our data support the observation that it is those patients with increased sleepiness regardless of OSA severity who are most at risk. Citation: Ward KL; Hillman DR; James A; Bremner AP; Simpson L; Cooper MN; Palmer LJ; Fedson AC; Mukherjee S. Excessive daytime sleepiness increases the risk of motor vehicle crash in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1013-1021. PMID:24127145

  15. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P.; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony G.; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric J.; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R.; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients’ conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence. PMID:27442772

  16. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Frances; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony G; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandez, Adrian V; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric J; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients' conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence. PMID:27442772

  17. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Durability of the Treatment Effect at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2015-01-01

    , Strohl KP, Stimulation Therapy for Apnea Reduction Trial Group. Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: durability of the treatment effect at 18 months. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1593–1598. PMID:26158895

  18. [Chronic snoring and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    de Carlos Villafranca, F; Cobo Plana, J; Díaz-Esnal, B; Fernández-Mondragón, P; Macías Escalada, E; Puente Rodríguez, M

    2003-09-01

    The problems children have in sleeping are manifold; the gamut of disorders that have been described ranges from simple, occasional snoring with no accompanying complications, through the syndrome of increased blockage of the upper airways to the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) where respiratory difficulties accompanied by hypoxemia, hypercapnia and structural sleep difficulties. Mouth breathing and chronic snoring occur frequently in children, with the incidence of snoring, identical for both sexes, varying between 3.2 and 27%. Difficulties in sleeping begin between the ages of the 3 and 9, peaking between 3 and 6. These results demonstrate, in a general way, the disparity between growth of the adenoids and tonsils, and upper airway growth. A differential diagnosis between the various pathological possibilities is based on the observed clinical signs and symptoms, analysis of cephalometric radiographs, polysomnography, a nocturnal cardio-respiratory polygraph and a video film taken during sleep. Snoring is the most characteristic sign of OSAHS in children. We do not yet have available any synthetic study that would sum up results of studies of sleep disorders in children. Nevertheless, we can define obstructive sleep apnea in children as the partial or total cessation of nose and mouth breathing for a period double that of the normal respiratory cycle. Classical treatment of children who suffer from severe respiratory difficulties during sleep, after identification of the etiology of the problem, consists of surgical removal of the adenoids or tonsils and, in certain, continuous positive pressure to assist breathing. The authors of this article have worked with 137 patients between the ages of 6 and 9, 77 of whom were chronic snorers with an average age of 7 years 6 months. The average age of the control group of 60 children was 7 years 2 months. We collected clinical data, medical histories, and distributed a questionnaire to determine

  19. Withstanding the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome at the expense of arousal instability, altered cerebral autoregulation and neurocognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Mehrabi, Samrad; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Derman, Sabri

    2015-06-01

    The present review attempts to put together the available evidence and potential research paradigms at the interface of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleep micro- and macrostructure, cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive neuroscience. Besides the significant health-related consequences of OSAS including hypertension, increased risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events, notable neurocognitive lapses and excessive daytime somnolence are considered as potential burdens. The intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and hypercapnia which occur in OSAS are known to affect cerebral circulation and result in brain hypoperfusion. Arousal instability is then resulted from altered cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) reflected in sleep EEG. In chronic state, some pathological loss of gray matter may be resulted from obstructive sleep apnea. This is proposed to be related to an upregulated proinflammatory state which may potentially result in apoptotic cell loss in the brain. On this basis, a pragmatic framework of the possible neural mechanisms which underpin obstructive sleep apnea-related neurocognitive decline has been discussed in this review. In addition, the impact of OSAS on cerebral autoregulation and sleep microstructure has been articulated. PMID:25916253

  20. Cephalometric comparisons between Chinese and Caucasian patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Lowe, A A; Zeng, X; Fu, M; Fleetham, J A

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two groups of adult men from different ethnic backgrounds and with obstructive sleep apnea; they were selected by matching age, gender, skeletal pattern, body mass index, and respiratory disturbance index. Pretreatment cephalometric radiographs and overnight polysomnograms of 30 Chinese and 43 Caucasian patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions were analyzed to investigate if there were craniofacial and upper airway structural differences between the two ethnic groups. The Chinese group, when compared with the group of Caucasian patients, revealed more severe underlying craniofacial skeletal discrepancies with significantly smaller maxilla and mandibles, more severe mandibular retrognathism, proclined lower incisors, increased total and upper facial heights, and steeper and shorter anterior cranial bases. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups in posterior facial height, ratio of upper to lower anterior facial height, and the position of hyoid bone, maxilla, and upper incisors. With regard to soft tissue and upper airway measurements, there were no significant ethnic differences in tongue and soft palate size, vertical length of oropharynx, and anteroposterior dimensions of the upper airway at most of the levels except for a larger super-posterior airway space, a larger nasopharynx and oropharynx cross-sectional area, and a smaller tongue height in the Chinese group. We conclude that there are a number of craniofacial and upper airway structures that differ between the two ethnic groups that may be relevant to the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in various ethnic groups.

  1. Percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianggang; Xu, Xiaomei; Gong, Yongsheng; Fan, Xiaofang; Wang, Liangxing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zeng, Yanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of stimulation of the genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses on patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The experiment was conducted in 22 patients clinically diagnosed with OSAS. The patients were monitored with polysomnography (PSG) in the trial. When the sleep apnea was detected, the genioglossus was stimulated with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses that were automatically regulated by a microcontroller to achieve the optimal effect. The percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation caused contraction of the genioglossus, forward movement of the tongue, and relieving of the glossopharyngeal airway obstruction. The SaO2, apnea time, hypoxemia time, and change of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were compared in patients with treatment and without treatment. With percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation of the genioglossus, the OSAS patients showed apnea time decreased (P < 0.01), RDI decreased (P < 0.01), and SaO2 increased (P < 0.01). No tissue injury or major discomfort was noticed during the trial. The stimulation of genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical current pulse is an effective method for treating OSAS. PMID:18232360

  2. Relationship between growth of facial morphology and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shigeto; Ueda, Koichiro; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Mano, Mikiko; Kanegae, Haruhide; Namaki, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between facial morphology using cephalometry and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods From a group of lateral cephalometric radiographs taken of 35 children with OSA for diagnostic purposes, 15 were selected for the present investigation based on head position. The subjects consisted of preschool children with both OSA and primary dentition, all of them with a lowest documented SpO2 <90% and a lowest 0 Obstructive sleep apnea in children may be associated with growth disturbances of the nasal floor and corpus length. PMID:25756027

  3. Percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianggang; Xu, Xiaomei; Gong, Yongsheng; Fan, Xiaofang; Wang, Liangxing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zeng, Yanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of stimulation of the genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses on patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The experiment was conducted in 22 patients clinically diagnosed with OSAS. The patients were monitored with polysomnography (PSG) in the trial. When the sleep apnea was detected, the genioglossus was stimulated with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses that were automatically regulated by a microcontroller to achieve the optimal effect. The percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation caused contraction of the genioglossus, forward movement of the tongue, and relieving of the glossopharyngeal airway obstruction. The SaO2, apnea time, hypoxemia time, and change of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were compared in patients with treatment and without treatment. With percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation of the genioglossus, the OSAS patients showed apnea time decreased (P < 0.01), RDI decreased (P < 0.01), and SaO2 increased (P < 0.01). No tissue injury or major discomfort was noticed during the trial. The stimulation of genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical current pulse is an effective method for treating OSAS.

  4. Cochrane Corner: Extracts from The Cochrane Library: Tonsillectomy or Adenotonsillectomy versus Non-Surgical Management for Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children.

    PubMed

    Burton, Martin J; Goldstein, Nira A; Rosenfeld, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    The "Cochrane Corner" is a section in the journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a Cochrane Review on tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) in children, which finds moderate-quality evidence that surgery improves symptoms, behavior, and quality of life compared to nonsurgical management. The results apply to nonsyndromic children with SDB confirmed by polysomnography and must be balanced against a favorable natural history in many cases.

  5. Oscillating Positive Airway Pressure Versus CPAP for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Petitpierre, Nicolas Julien; Cornette, Françoise; Tobback, Nadia; Vat, Sopharat; Giallourou, Theresia; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed; Heinzer, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), it is not always well tolerated by the patients. Previous physiological studies showed that pressure oscillations applied to the pharynx could activate upper airway muscles, but it is not clear whether these pressure oscillations could be tolerated during sleep in OSA patients. The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance of oscillating positive airway pressure (O-PAP) (a CPAP device delivering high-frequency pressure oscillations to the upper airway) compared to CPAP. Fourteen OSA patients currently on CPAP [age 59.9 ± 10.1 years old, BMI 34.8 ± 7.2 kg/m2, initial apnea–hypopnea index (AHI): 58.7 ± 25.2 events/h] used O-PAP or CPAP on two consecutive nights under polysomnography, in a single-blind randomized crossover design to assess sleep quality. A subtherapeutic pressure (70% of the optimal titrated pressure) was applied in both conditions and the residual AHI with each technique was also compared. There was no difference in measured or perceived sleep quality between the two treatment modalities (sleep efficiency 90.0% versus 88.1%, p = 0.54). Despite the small sample, we also found a trend toward a decrease in residual respiratory events with O-PAP compared to CPAP (median AHI 14.3 versus 20.5/h, p = 0.194). The good tolerance of O-PAP and the positive trend toward a reduction in residual AHI should stimulate further research on the effects of O-PAP in OSA patients. PMID:26029694

  6. Increased Inflammatory Activity in Nonobese Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Thunström, Erik; Glantz, Helena; Fu, Michael; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Petzold, Max; Lindberg, Kristin; Peker, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Enhanced vascular inflammation is implicated as a pathophysiologic mechanism but obesity is confounding. We aimed to address the association of OSA with inflammatory biomarkers in a nonobese cohort of revascularized patients with CAD and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline investigations of a randomized controlled trial. Setting: Clinic-based. Participants: There were 329 nonobese patients with CAD, of whom 234 with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/h) and 95 without OSA (AHI < 5 events/h). Obese patients with CAD and OSA (N = 105) were chosen as an additional control group. Interventions: None. Measurements: Circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α were assessed in relation to OSA diagnosis based on AHI ≥ 15 events/h as well as oxygen desaturation index (ODI) ≥ 5 events/h. Results: Nonobese patients with OSA had significantly higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 than those without OSA. The values did not differ significantly between obese and nonobese patients with OSA. In bivariate regression analysis, AHI ≥ 15 events/h was associated with all four biomarkers but not so in the multivariate model after adjustment for confounders. ODI ≥ 5 events/h was associated with hs-CRP (odds ratio [OR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–1.99) and IL-6 (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.05–1.60) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea with oxygen desaturation index ≥ 5 was independently associated with increased inflammatory activity in this nonobese coronary artery disease cohort. The intermittent hypoxemia, rather than the number of apneas and hypopneas, appears to be primarily associated with enhanced inflammation. Citation: Thunström E, Glantz H, Fu M, Yucel-Lindberg T, Petzold M, Lindberg K, Peker Y

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Impairs Postexercise Sympathovagal Balance in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Felipe X.; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Maki-Nunes, Cristiane; Rondon, Maria Urbana P.B.; Alves, Maria Janieire N.N.; Braga, Ana Maria F.W.; Martinez, Daniel G.; Drager, Luciano F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrao, Carlos E.; Trombetta, Ivani C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The attenuation of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise (ΔHRR) is independently impaired by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we tested the hypotheses: (1) MetS + OSA restrains ΔHRR; and (2) Sympathetic hyperactivation is involved in this impairment. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: We studied 60 outpatients in whom MetS had been newly diagnosed (ATP III), divided according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h in MetS + OSA (n = 30, 49 ± 1.7 y) and AHI < 15 events/h in MetS - OSA (n = 30, 46 ± 1.4 y). Normal age-matched healthy control subjects (C) without MetS and OSA were also enrolled (n = 16, 46 ± 1.7 y). Interventions: Polysomnography, microneurography, cardiopulmonary exercise test. Measurements and Results: We evaluated OSA (AHI - polysomnography), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA - microneurography) and cardiac autonomic activity (LF = low frequency, HF = high frequency, LF/HF = sympathovagal balance) based on spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) variability. ΔHRR was calculated (peak HR minus HR at first, second, and fourth minute of recovery) after cardiopulmonary exercise test. MetS + OSA had higher MSNA and LF, and lower HF than MetS - OSA and C. Similar impairment occurred in MetS - OSA versus C (interaction, P < 0.01). MetS + OSA had attenuated ΔHRR at first, second, and at fourth minute than did C, and attenuated ΔHRR at fourth minute than did MetS - OSA (interaction, P < 0.001). Compared with C, MetS - OSA had attenuated ΔHRR at second and fourth min (interaction, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed association of the ΔHRR (first, second, and fourth minute) and AHI, MSNA, LF and HF components (P < 0.05 for all associations). Conclusions: The attenuation of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is impaired to a greater degree where metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than by MetS with no or

  8. Steering simulation performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and matched control subjects.

    PubMed

    Juniper, M; Hack, M A; George, C F; Davies, R J; Stradling, J R

    2000-03-01

    Patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OSA) have an increased rate of driving accidents, perhaps due to poor vigilance or impaired cognitive skills that influence their driving ability. The authors have assessed whether patients with OSA perform differently to control subjects on a steering simulator which allows the separate assessment of the two visual tasks required for steering a car, immediate positioning on road with reference to the road edges, and assessment of the curve of the oncoming road which allows faster driving. Twelve patients with OSA and 12 control subjects, matched for age, sex and driving experience, performed three 30-min drives with either all the oncoming road visible, only the near part of the road visible, or only the distant part of the road visible. Steering was assessed by measuring the SD around the theoretical perfect path (steering error) and the number of times the driver went "off road". Subjects identified the appearance of target numbers at the four corners of the screen as quickly as possible, thus making the test a divided attention task. Patients with OSA performed significantly less well on the three different road fields as measured by steering error (p<0.001), time to detect the target number (p<0.03), and off road events (p<0.03). The patients appeared to be particularly impaired on the two drives when only part of the road ahead was available to guide steering. This steering simulator, with its more realistic view of the road ahead, identifies impaired performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. In addition it suggests that patients with obstructive sleep apnoea may be more disadvantaged compared to normal subjects when the view of the road ahead is limited (such as in fog).

  9. Acute effects of oxygen administration on transmural pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, O; Bellia, V; Pieri, D; Salvaggio, A; Bonsignore, G

    1992-04-01

    In order to investigate the role of hypoxia on the cyclic oscillation of transmural pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in obstructive sleep apnea, oxygen was administered during one half of the night to six patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome during a nocturnal polysomnographic study. In each patient, transmural PAP measurements were performed on 15 randomly selected apneas recorded while breathing room air, and on 15 during O2 administration. During O2 administration in all patients, apneas were associated with a higher oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2), a smaller SaO2 swing, and a higher transcutaneous PCO2. The mean highest level of transmural PAP in the apneic episodes, commonly reached at their end, was significantly lower than while breathing room air in only two patients; however, due to a decrease in the mean lowest PAP level (at the beginning of apneas), the extent of the PAP increase within apneas did not differ between air and O2 breathing; these patients showed the smallest increase in transcutaneous PCO2 in our sample. End-apneic transmural PAP during O2 administration was significantly higher in one subject (for systolic values) and was not significantly different in the remaining three subjects. The extent of the increase in transmural PAP within apneas was greater in one patient; it was smaller in another one, but only for the diastolic values; and it did not differ significantly with respect to the value observed while breathing room air in all of the other subjects. The results suggest that hypoxia in obstructive apneas, at least in some patients, may lead to a steady increase in PAP, detectable both at the beginning and at the end of the episodes; conversely, the increase in PAP within apneas does not seem to be influenced by the simultaneous decrease in SaO2. PMID:1555416

  10. Long-term results of tracheostomy for severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haapaniemi, J J; Laurikainen, E A; Halme, P; Antila, J

    2001-01-01

    Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) is most often accompanied by metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and coronary disease. In its most severe form, it is a life-threatening condition, requiring active and immediate help. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most efficient nonsurgical treatment for patients with OSAS. However, for anatomical, disease-related and subjective reasons, many patients cannot accept this treatment. A permanent tracheostomy may be one alternative in such patients who, in addition, often suffer from extreme obesity and severe heart disease. In this paper, we describe the long-term follow-up results of 7 patients suffering from OSAS and treated with permanent tracheostomy. All the patients (5 men, 2 women) were diagnosed using the static charge sensitive bed method and night-time oximetry for sleep analysis. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients ranged from 34 to 60 and the age from 41 to 64 years. All the patients had severe OSAS and long periods of low oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels. Six patients had a CPAP trial before tracheostomy. Only 2 patients tolerated the trial but, despite the continuous use of CPAP, they were nonresponders. Permanent tracheostomy was done according to normal routine in each patient. After primary healing of 2 days, they used silver cannulae, which also allowed them to speak. The patients were evaluated every year after the tracheostomy. After some practical difficulties including proper maintenance of the cannula, all the patients quickly learned the correct management. In postoperative sleep studies, nadir SaO2 levels had improved significantly, obstructive apneas had disappeared and the subjective quality of life had improved. No marked changes in BMI were found.

  11. Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Lower in Double Reed Wind Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher P.; York, Kaki M.; McCoy, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by a collapse of the upper airway. Respiratory muscle training with a wind instrument (didgeridoo) in patients with moderate OSA has been previously shown to improve OSA symptomology. However, a survey of orchestra members did not indicate a difference in OSA risk between wind and non-wind instrumentalist. The present study examines whether playing of different wind instrument types may affect the risk of OSA. Methods: A national sample of active musicians (n = 906) was surveyed through the internet. Participants' risk for OSA was determined by the Berlin Questionnaire. Additional survey items included questions about general health and musical experience. Results: A binary logistic regression was conducted to determine if OSA risk was predicted by gender, age, number of years playing instrument, number of hours per week playing instrument, and instrument type. Musicians who played a double reed instrument had a lower risk of OSA (p = 0.047) than non-wind instrumentalists. Additionally, in double reed instrumentalists, the number of hours spent playing the instrument predicted lower OSA risk (p = 0.020). The risk for OSA in other wind instruments (i.e., single reed, high brass, and low brass) was not significantly different from non-wind musicians. Conclusions: Playing a double reed musical instrument was associated with a lower risk of OSA. Citation: Ward CP; York KM; McCoy JG. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea lower in double reed wind musicians. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):251-255. PMID:22701381

  12. Age differences in the association of obstructive sleep apnea risk with cognition and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Addison-Brown, Kristin J; Letter, Abraham J; Yaggi, Klar; McClure, Leslie A; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Howard, Virginia J; Lichtman, Judith H; Wadley, Virginia G

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 2925 stroke-free participants drawn from a national population-based study, we examined cross-sectional associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk with cognition and quality of life and whether these vary with age, while controlling for demographics and comorbidities. Included participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study were aged 47-93 years. OSA risk was categorized as high or low based on responses to the Berlin Sleep Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed with standardized fluency and recall measures. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the four-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12). Multivariate analyses of covariance (mancova) statistics were applied separately to the cognitive and quality of life dependent variables while accounting for potential confounders (demographics, comorbidities). In fully adjusted models, those at high risk for OSA had significantly lower cognitive scores (Wilks' lambda = 0.996, F3,2786  = 3.31, P < 0.05) and lower quality of life [depressive symptoms and HRQoL] (Wilks' lambda = 0.989, F3,2786  = 10.02, P < 0.0001). However, some of the associations were age-dependent. Differences in cognition and quality of life between those at high and low obstructive sleep apnea risk were most pronounced during middle age, with attenuated effects after age 70 years.

  13. Identification of Craniofacial Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using Three-Dimensional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Luqi; Comyn, Francois-Louis; Mitra, Nandita; Reilly, Muredach P.; Wan, Fei; Maislin, Greg; Chmiewski, Lauren; Thorne-FitzGerald, Matthew D.; Victor, Uduak N.; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The alteration of craniofacial structures has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that 1) a smaller mandible is a risk factor for OSA; and 2) the previously observed inferiorly positioned hyoid bone in apneics is associated with enlarged tongue volume. This is a case-control study using three-dimensional MRI cephalometry. 55 apneics and 55 controls were matched for age, gender and race. The analysis was stratified by gender and controlled for age, race, height, neck visceral fat, skeletal type and tongue volume. We found that a 1-SD increase in mandibular length and depth were associated with decreased risk of sleep apnea (odds ratio[OR]=0.52, 95% confidence interval[CI]:0.28-0.99, OR=0.46, 95%CI:0.23-0.91, respectively) in men but not in women. Greater hyoid to nasion (OR=2.64, 95%CI:1.19-5.89 in men; OR=5.01, 95%CI:2.00-12.52 in women) and supramentale-to-hyoid (OR=2.39, 95%CI:1.12-5.14 in men; OR=3.38, 95%CI:1.49-7.68 in women) distances were associated with increased risk of OSA. The difference between apneics and controls for hyoid position was lost after controlling for tongue volume. Enlargement of tongue is likely to be the pathogenic factor for inferior-posterior positioning of hyoid. A small and shallow mandible is an independent risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea in men but not in women. PMID:21233264

  14. Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Collop, Nancy A.; Jacobowitz, Ofer; Thomas, Sherene M.; Quan, Stuart F.; Aronsky, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes when left untreated. There is significant heterogeneity in the evaluation and management of OSA resulting in variation in cost and outcomes. Thus, the goal for developing these measures was to have a way to evaluate the outcomes and reliability of the processes involved with the standard care approaches used in the diagnosis and management of OSA. The OSA quality care measures presented here focus on both outcomes and processes. The AASM commissioned the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup to develop quality care measures aimed at optimizing care for adult patients with OSA. These quality care measures developed by the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup are an extension of the original Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) approved Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) measures group for OSA. The measures are based on the available scientific evidence, focus on public safety, and strive to improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes for individual OSA patients. The three outcomes that were selected were as follows: (1) improve disease detection and categorization; (2) improve quality of life; and (3) reduce cardiovascular risk. After selecting these relevant outcomes, a total of ten process measures were chosen that could be applied and assessed for the purpose of accomplishing these outcomes. In the future, the measures described in this document may be reported through the PQRS in addition to, or as a replacement for, the current OSA measures group. The overall objective for the development of these measures is that implementation of these quality measures will result in improved patient outcomes, reduce the public health burden of OSA, and provide a measurable standard for evaluating and managing OSA. Citation: Aurora RN, Collop NA, Jacobowitz O, Thomas SM, Quan SF, Aronsky AJ. Quality measures for the care of adult patients with

  15. Impact of Treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) on Weight in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Clarke, Denise P.; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight change in persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES) was a 6-month, randomized, double-blinded sham-controlled multicenter clinical trial conducted at 5 sites in the United States. Of 1,105 participants with an apnea hypopnea index ≥ 10 events/ hour initially randomized, 812 had body weight measured at baseline and after 6 months of study. Intervention: CPAP or Sham CPAP. Measurements: Body weight, height, hours of CPAP or Sham CPAP use, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. Results: Participants randomized to CPAP gained 0.35 ± 5.01 kg, whereas those on Sham CPAP lost 0.70 ± 4.03 kg (mean ± SD, p = 0.001). Amount of weight gain with CPAP was related to hours of device adherence, with each hour per night of use predicting a 0.42 kg increase in weight. This association was not noted in the Sham CPAP group. CPAP participants who used their device ≥ 4 h per night on ≥ 70% of nights gained the most weight over 6 months in comparison to non-adherent CPAP participants (1.0 ± 5.3 vs. -0.3 ± 5.0 kg, p = 0.014). Conclusions: OSA patients using CPAP may gain a modest amount of weight with the greatest weight gain found in those most compliant with CPAP. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 995. Citation: Quan SF; Budhiraja R; Clarke DP; Goodwin JL; Gottlieb DJ; Nichols DA; Simon RD; Smith TW; Walsh JK; Kushida CA. Impact of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):989-993. PMID:24127141

  16. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density by Computed Tomography in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Satoshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Hirai, Toyohiro; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Clinical studies have investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can modulate bone metabolism but data are conflicting. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the standard technique for quantifying bone strength but has limitations in overweight patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2). The aim of this study was to examine the association between OSA and BMD by examining CT images that allow true volumetric measurements of the bone regardless of BMI. Methods: Lumbar vertebrae BMD was evaluated in 234 persons (180 males and 54 females) by CT scan. The method was calibrated by a phantom containing a known concentration of hydroxyapatite. Results: BMD was lower in male patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30/h) than non OSA (AHI < 5; p < 0.05), while OSA and BMD had no association in females. Linear and multiple regression analyses revealed that age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.52), hypertension (p = 0.0068, β = −0.17), and the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (A-aDO2) (p = 0.012, β = −0.15) in males were associated with BMD, while only age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.68) was associated with BMD in females. Conclusion: Males with severe OSA had a significantly lower BMD than non OSA participants. Age, hypertension, and elevation of A-aDO2 were significant factors for BMD by CT imaging. The usefulness of measuring BMD in OSA patients by CT scanning should be studied in future. Citation: Hamada S, Ikezoe K, Hirai T, Oguma T, Tanizawa K, Inouchi M, Handa T, Oga T, Mishima M, Chin K. Evaluation of bone mineral density by computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):25–34. PMID:26235157

  17. Morning cortisol levels and glucose metabolism parameters in moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Josko; Galic, Tea; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Ivkovic, Natalija; Ticinovic Kurir, Tina; Valic, Zoran; Lesko, Josip; Dogas, Zoran

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and alterations in glucose metabolism with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to compare morning plasma cortisol levels and glucose metabolism parameters between moderate (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 15-30 events/h) and severe OSA patients (AHI >30 events/h), with respective controls. A total of 56 male OSA patients, 24 moderate (AHI = 21.1 ± 5.3) and 32 severe (AHI = 49.7 ± 18.1), underwent a full-night polysomnography, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and measurement of morning plasma cortisol levels. These groups were compared to 20 matched subjects in a control group. Morning plasma cortisol levels were statistically lower in severe OSA group than in moderate OSA and control groups (303.7 ± 93.5 vs. 423.9 ± 145.1 vs. 417.5 ± 99.8 pmol/L, P < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were found between morning plasma cortisol levels and AHI (r = -0.444, P = 0.002), as well as oxygen desaturation index (r = -0.381, P = 0.011). Fasting plasma glucose (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 5.4 ± 0.7 vs. 4.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.009) was higher in the severe OSA group compared to moderate OSA and controls. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher in the severe OSA group compared to moderate OSA and controls (4.6 ± 3.7 vs. 2.7 ± 2.0 and 2.2 ± 1.8, respectively, P = 0.006). In conclusion, our study showed that morning plasma cortisol levels measured at 8 a.m. were significantly lower in severe OSA patients than those in moderate OSA group and controls. Morning plasma cortisol levels showed a negative correlation with AHI and oxygen desaturation index. Additionally, this study confirmed the evidence of glucose metabolism impairment in moderate and severe OSA patients, with more pronounced effect in the severe OSA patients group. PMID:27000083

  18. Cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fusetti, M; Fioretti, A B; Valenti, M; Masedu, F; Lauriello, M; Pagliarella, M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. We recruited 1185 patients with OSAS who underwent a complete ENT examination, including nasolaryngeal fibre optic endoscopy with Müller's manoeuvre, overnight cardio-respiratory monitoring, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) to measure daytime sleepiness, body mass index (BMI), measurement of blood pressure and blood tests.SUBSEQUENTLY, SUBJECTS WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE SUBGROUPS ACCORDING TO THE APNOEA HYPOPNOEA INDEX (AHI): mild OSAS (AHI 5-15), moderate OSAS (AHI 15-30) and severe OSAS (AHI > 30). In the sample collected, 347 (262 males and 85 females) of 1185 patients suffered from mild OSAS, 363 (269 males and 94 females) from moderate OSAS and 475 (330 males and 145 females) from severe OSAS. In the group suffering from mild OSAS, we found: 127 patients affected by hypertension, 48 with diabetes, 11 with dyslipidaemia and 32 with metabolic syndrome. In the group with moderate OSAS there were 157 patients with hypertension, 63 with diabetes, 72 with dyslipidaemia and 47 with metabolic syndrome. In the group suffering from severe OSAS there were 244 patients with hypertension, 138 with diabetes, 47 with dyslipidaemia and 90 with metabolic syndrome. For data analysis, we used the Spearman correlation test adjusted according to Sidak between the dependent variable AHI and the independent variables BMI, ESS, average SO2 (SO(2med)), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. The results show different patterns of correlation in terms of statistical significance: BMI ρ(s) = 0.26, SO(2med) ρ(s) = -0:51, hypertension ρ(s) = -0.05, dyslipidaemia ρ(s) = 0.22 for women, and BMI ρ(s) = 0.53, ESS ρ(s) = 0.28, SO(2med) ρ(s) = -0.50, hypertension ρ(s) = 0.17, diabetes mellitus ρ(s) = 0.28 and metabolic syndrome ρ(s) = 0.26 for men. The results of the study confirm the

  19. Comparison of Sugammadex versus Neostigmine Costs and Respiratory Complications in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Dilek Yazıcıoğlu; Baran, İlkay; Mutlu, Murad; Ural, Gülçin; Akkaya, Taylan; Özlü, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare sugammadex and neostigmine regarding the efficacy in reversing rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block, the incidence of post-operative respiratory complications and costs in patients undergoing surgery for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Methods After obtaining ethical approval and patient consent, 74 patients in ASA physical status I or II were randomised into two groups to receive 2-mg kg−1 sugammadex (Group S) or 0.04-mg kg−1 neostigmine+0.5-mg atropine (Group N). Groups were compared regarding time to TOF (train-of-four) 0.9, operating room time, post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, post-operative respiratory complications, costs related to neuromuscular block reversal, anaesthesia care and complication treatment. Results Patient demographics, anaesthesia, surgical data and total rocuronium doses were similar between groups. Time to TOF 0.9 was shorter for group S [Group N: 8 (5–18) min; Group S: 2 (1.5–6) min (p<0.001)]. Operating room time [Group S: 72.4±14.3 min; Group N: 96.6±22.8 min (p<0.001)] and PACU stay [Group S: 22.9±10.1 dk; Group N: 36.3±12.6 dk (p<0.001)] were also shorter in Group S. After extubation, desaturation was observed in 12 (32.4%) patients in group N and in 4 (8%) patients in group S (p=0.048). In group N, three patients were reintubated; there were eight (21.6%) unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. There was one unplanned ICU admission in group S. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema was observed in one patient in group N. The results regarding costs were as follows. The reversal cost was higher in the sugammadex group (vial cost 98.14 TL) than that in the neostigmine group (ampoule cost 0.27 TL; total 6147.88 TL vs. 3569.5 TL); however, complication treatment cost and total cost were lower in group S than those in group N (199.5 TL vs. 3944.6 TL) (staff anaesthesia doctor cost was 0.392 TL per min and the cost of nurse anaesthetist was 0.244 TL per min). Conclusion This

  20. [Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Facundo; Nigro, Carlos; Cambursano, Hugo; Borsini, Eduardo; Silio, Julio; Avila, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most relevant chronic respiratory pathologies due to its high prevalence and impact in morbidity and mortality. In 2001, the Asociación Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria (AAMR) published the first Argentinean Consensus on Sleep-Related breathing Disorders. Since then, wide new scientific evidence has emerged, increasing significantly the knowledge about this pathology. According to this, the Sleep-Related breathing Disorders and Oxygen Therapy Section of the AAMR, decided to update its Consensus, developing this Practical Guidelines on Management of patients with OSAS. A working group was created with members belonging to the section, experts in OSAS. They extensively reviewed the literature and wrote these guidelines, orientated to practical resolution of clinical problems and giving answers to questions emerged from dealing with patients who suffer from this syndrome. The document defines OSAS and describes the diagnosis and severity criteria, as well as the risk factors, ways of presentation and epidemiology. Clinical consequences, mainly on cognition, cardiovascular system and metabolism are pointed out. Different diagnostic methods, with their indications and technical aspects for validation and interpretation are detailed. Finally, we describe therapeutic alternatives, as well as practical aspects of their implementation. The authors' aim was to generate an accessible tool for teaching and spreading the knowledge on these disorders, which have a great impact in public health.

  1. Metabolic dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea: A critical examination of underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    MESARWI, Omar A.; SHARMA, Ellora V.; JUN, Jonathan C.; POLOTSKY, Vsevolod Y.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become clear that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome, a disorder of defective energy storage and use. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this finding, drawing upon the characteristics that define OSA. In particular, intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, elevated sympathetic tone, and oxidative stress – all consequences of OSA – have been implicated in the progression of poor metabolic outcomes in OSA. In this review we examine the evidence to support each of these disease manifestations of OSA as a unique risk for metabolic dysfunction. Tissue hypoxia and sleep fragmentation are each directly connected to insulin resistance and hypertension, and each of these also may increase sympathetic tone, resulting in defective glucose homeostasis, excessive lipolysis, and elevated blood pressure. Oxidative stress further worsens insulin resistance and in turn, metabolic dysfunction also increases oxidative stress. However, despite many studies linking each of these individual components of OSA to the development of metabolic syndrome, there are very few reports that actually provide a coherent narrative about the mechanism underlying metabolic dysfunction in OSA. PMID:26412981

  2. Assessment of Multiple Health Risks in a Single Obstructive Sleep Apnea Population

    PubMed Central

    Hudgel, David W.; Lamerato, Lois E.; Jacobsen, Gordon R.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In order to provide a comprehensive estimate of the health risks for OSA patients, we analyzed multiple outcomes and independent predictors of these outcomes in an OSA population evaluated and followed at one sleep center. Methods: Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used in an 8-year follow-up analysis of consecutive OSA patients (N = 1025) and non-apneic snorers (apnea-hypopnea index < 5, N = 494). Results: In our fully adjusted model, independent variables predictive of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular accident, and pulmonary embolus were: older age, male gender, and history of cardiovascular diseases or procedures. In examining subgroups based on age and gender, severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30) was one of the independent predictors of mortality in males and in patients < 50 years old. Severe OSA interacted with maleness, age, and hypertension to predict mortality and myocardial infarction. CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with lower mortality rates in males and those ≥ 50 years old with severe OSA. Conclusions: Mortality and cardiovascular event outcomes were predicted by demographics and cardiovascular disease history more commonly than by OSA severity. OSA severity was an important predictor of mortality in male and young OSA patients. CPAP use appeared protective in older and male severe OSA patients. Citation: Hudgel DW; Lamerato LE; Jacobsen GR; Drake CL. Assessment of multiple health risks in a single obstructive sleep apnea population. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(1):9-18. PMID:22334803

  3. The Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Self-Reported Stroke or Coronary Heart Disease in Overweight and Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas B.; Foster, Gary D.; Sanders, Mark H.; Unruh, Mark; Reboussin, David; Kuna, Samuel T.; Millman, Richard; Zammit, Gary; Wing, Rena R.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Kelley, David; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common, increasingly recognized as comorbid conditions, and individually implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine the association between OSA and CVD in an overweight and obese population with T2DM. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Ancillary study to the Look AHEAD trial. Participants: Three hundred five participants of the Sleep AHEAD study who underwent unattended full polysomnography at home with measurement of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Measurements and Results: Self-reported prevalent CVD was obtained at the initial assessment of the parent study and included a history of the following conditions: stroke, carotid endarterectomy, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, and percutaneous coronary intervention. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of OSA, measured continuously and categorically, with prevalent CVD. OSA was present (AHI ≥ 5) in 86% of the population, whereas the prevalence of all forms of CVD was just 14%. The AHI was associated with stroke with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.57 (1.03, 6.42). Neither the continuously measured AHI nor the categories of OSA severity were significantly associated with the other forms of CVD assessed. Conclusions: We found suggestive evidence of a greater prevalence of stroke at greater values of the AHI. OSA was not associated with prevalent coronary heart disease in the Sleep AHEAD trial. Future studies should confirm the link between OSA and stroke and examine mechanisms that link OSA to stroke in adults with T2DM. Citation: Rice TB; Foster GD; Sanders MH; Unruh M; Reboussin D; Kuna ST; Millman R; Zammit G; Wing RR; Wadden TA; Kelley D; Pi-Sunyer X; Newman AB. The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and self-reported stroke or coronary heart disease in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  4. The Effect of Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Quality of Life in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Kai Hsun; Nixon, Gillian M.

    2008-01-01

    Benefits of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with cerebral palsy could differ from those in otherwise healthy children. We examined the effects of OSA treatment by comparing a group of children with cerebral palsy treated with adenotonsillectomy or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by nasal mask with controls who…

  5. Short-Term Memory Performances during Sustained Wakefulness in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greneche, Jerome; Krieger, Jean; Bertrand, Frederic; Erhardt, Christine; Maumy, Myriam; Tassi, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Both working and immediate memories were assessed every 4 h by specific short-term memory tasks over sustained wakefulness in 12 patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and 10 healthy controls. Results indicated that OSAHS patients exhibited lower working memory performances than controls on both backward digit span and…

  6. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  7. Sleepiness and nocturnal hypoxemia in Peruvian men with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Jorge Rey; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia associated with sleepiness in Peruvian men with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis based on a study which includes patients with OSA who were seen in a private hospital in Lima, Peru from 2006 to 2012. We included male adults who had polysomnographic recordings and who answered the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE). The intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ≤90 %) was classified in four new categories: 0, <1, 1 to 10 and >10 % total sleep time with nocturnal hypoxemia (NH). When the ESE score was higher than 10, we used the definitions presence or absence of sleepiness. We used Poisson regression models with robust variance to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for association between sleepiness and NH. Results 518 male patients with OSA were evaluated. Four hundred and fifty-two (87 %) patients had NH and 262 (51 %) had sleepiness. Of the 142 (27.4 %) patients who had >10 % total sleep time with NH, 98 (69.0 %) showed sleepiness and had a greater probability of sleepiness prevalence, with a crude PR of 1.82 (95 % CI 1.31–2.53). This association persisted in the multivariate models. Conclusions We found an association between NH and sleepiness. Only patients with the major intensity of NH (over 10 % of the total sleep time) had a greater probability of sleepiness. This suggests that sleepiness probably occurs after a chronic process and after overwhelming compensatory mechanisms. PMID:24249663

  8. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Levendowski, Daniel J.; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. Objective The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Methods Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Results Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p < 0.05), and the overall (p < 0.01) and supine (p < 0.05) apnea/hypopnea indexes were observed for both the titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p < 0.05) and supine (p < 0.01). Patients found their custom appliance was more comfortable than the titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. Conclusion The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of

  9. Thyroid Hormone Levels and TSH Activity in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bielicki, P; Przybyłowski, T; Kumor, M; Barnaś, M; Wiercioch, M; Chazan, R

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by complete cessation of inspiratory flow (apnea) or upper airway airflow limitation (hypopnea) with increased respiratory muscle activity, which is repeatedly observed during sleep. Hypothyroidism has been described as a rare cause of OSAS, but it is considered to be the main cause of breathing disorders during sleep in patients in whom an improvement of OSAS is observed after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Nevertheless, euthyreosis due to thyroxine replacement in patients with OSAS often does not improve the breathing disorder and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure is usually applied. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function in patients with OSAS. We studied 813 patients in whom severe OSAS was diagnosed; the mean apnea-hypopnea index was 44.0. Most of the patients were obese (mean BMI 33.1 ± 6.6 kg/m2) and had excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS 12.8 ± 6.6). With the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration as the major criterion, hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 38 (4.7%) and hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in 31 (3.8%) patients. Analysis of basic anthropometric data, selected polysomnography results, and TSH, fT3, and fT4 values did not reveal any significant correlations. In conclusion, the incidence of thyroid function disorders seems to be no different in OSAS than that in the general population. We did not find correlations between TSH activity and the severity of breathing disorders during sleep. PMID:26542600

  10. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease: A case from India confirmed with polysomnographic data

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Goel, Deepak; Walker, Jim; Farney, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a condition characterized by dream enactment. This condition may accompany neurodegenerative disorders. However, only a few reports from India are available, that too, without any polysomnographic evidence. We are reporting a case of REM sleep behavior disorder with polysomnographic evidence. PMID:24174810

  11. The role of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea in the pathogenesis and treatment of resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Jonathan A; Pothineni, Aravind; Marcus, Carolina Z; Bisognano, John D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of resistant hypertension, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), three highly prevalent conditions in the United States, is rising. Approximately one in three adults in the US has hypertension, and a significant proportion of these individuals have hypertension that is difficult to treat, or resistant. Obesity and OSA are well-established risk factors for resistant hypertension, a condition that portends significant cardiovascular risk. Awareness of the various mechanisms by which obesity and OSA impact systemic blood pressure is essential to better understand how best to effectively care for patients with resistant hypertension. In this review, we discuss the clinical and pathophysiologic associations between obesity, OSA, and resistant hypertension. Furthermore, we will explore the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) and other therapeutic interventions on blood pressure control in patients with resistant hypertension.Key Points• Obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and resistant hypertension are highly prevalent conditions, with increasing overall incidence [1-3].• Both obesity and obstructive sleep apnea are independent risk factors for the development of resistant hypertension.• OSA is characterized by a physiologic cascade of collapse of the upper airway, which can lead to intermittent hypoxia, hypercapnia, significant negative intra-thoracic pressure, and increased SNS output.• Intermittent hypoxia leads to activation of the endothelin system [17, 18, 19•], which can lead to the development of resistant hypertension.• Intermittent hypoxia can lead to the over activation of the SNS, which can also contribute to the development of resistant hypertension [20, 21].• OSA leads to state of elevated adrenergic tone, which in turn may contribute to resistant hypertension [25-27].• OSA patients have a higher incidence of "non-dipping" of nocturnal systolic blood pressure, a marker of increased adrenergic tone

  12. Experimental Pain and Opioid Analgesia in Volunteers at High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Doufas, Anthony G.; Tian, Lu; Padrez, Kevin A.; Suwanprathes, Puntarica; Cardell, James A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Panousis, Periklis

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent nocturnal hypoxia and sleep disruption. Sleep fragmentation caused hyperalgesia in volunteers, while nocturnal hypoxemia enhanced morphine analgesic potency in children with OSA. This evidence directly relates to surgical OSA patients who are at risk for airway compromise due to postoperative use of opioids. Using accepted experimental pain models, we characterized pain processing and opioid analgesia in male volunteers recruited based on their risk for OSA. Methods After approval from the Intitutional Review Board and informed consent, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds and tolerances in volunteers after overnight polysomnography (PSG). Three pro-inflammatory and 3 hypoxia markers were determined in the serum. Pain tests were performed at baseline, placebo, and two effect site concentrations of remifentanil (1 and 2 µg/ml), an μ-opioid agonist. Linear mixed effects regression models were employed to evaluate the association of 3 PSG descriptors [wake after sleep onset, number of sleep stage shifts, and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) during sleep] and all serum markers with pain thresholds and tolerances at baseline, as well as their changes under remifentanil. Results Forty-three volunteers (12 normal and 31 with a PSG-based diagnosis of OSA) were included in the analysis. The lower nadir SaO2 and higher insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) were associated with higher analgesic sensitivity to remifentanil (SaO2, P = 0.0440; IGFBP-1, P = 0.0013). Other pro-inflammatory mediators like interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were associated with an enhanced sensitivity to the opioid analgesic effect (IL-1β, P = 0.0218; TNF-α, P = 0.0276). Conclusions Nocturnal hypoxemia in subjects at high risk for OSA was associated with an increased potency of opioid analgesia. A serum hypoxia marker (IGFBP-1) was associated with hypoalgesia and

  13. Model-based stability assessment of ventilatory control in overweight adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea during NREM sleep.

    PubMed

    Nava-Guerra, L; Tran, W H; Chalacheva, P; Loloyan, S; Joshi, B; Keens, T G; Nayak, K S; Davidson Ward, S L; Khoo, M C K

    2016-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) involves the interplay of several different factors such as an unfavorable upper airway anatomy, deficiencies in pharyngeal muscle responsiveness, a low arousal threshold, and ventilatory control instability. Although the stability of ventilatory control has been extensively studied in adults, little is known about its characteristics in the pediatric population. In this study, we developed a novel experimental setup that allowed us to perturb the respiratory system during natural non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep conditions by manipulating the inspiratory pressure, provided by a bilevel pressure ventilator, to induce sighs after upper airway stabilization. Furthermore, we present a modeling framework that utilizes the noninvasively measured ventilatory responses to the induced sighs and spontaneous breathing data to obtain representations of the processes involved in the chemical regulation of respiration and extract their stability characteristics. After validation with simulated data, the modeling technique was applied to data collected experimentally from 11 OSA and 15 non-OSA overweight adolescents. Statistical analysis of the model-derived stability parameters revealed a significantly higher plant gain and lower controller gain in the OSA group (P = 0.046 and P = 0.007, respectively); however, no differences were found in loop gain (LG) and circulatory time delay between the groups. OSA severity and LG, within the 0.03-0.04-Hz frequency band, were significantly negatively associated (r = -0.434, P = 0.026). Contrary to what has been found in adults, our results suggest that in overweight adolescents, OSA is unlikely to be initiated through ventilatory instability resulting from elevated chemical loop gain. PMID:27174926

  14. Physical Inactivity Is Associated with Moderate-Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Laila; McArdle, Nigel; Eastwood, Peter R.; Ward, Kim L.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Wilson, Annette C.; Hillman, David R.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Mukherjee, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether low levels of physical activity were associated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), OSA-related symptoms, and cardiometabolic risk. Methods: A case-control study design was used. OSA cases were patients referred to a sleep clinic for suspected OSA (n = 2,340). Controls comprised participants from the Busselton community (n = 1,931). Exercise and occupational activity were derived from questionnaire data. Associations were modelled using logistic and linear regression and adjusted for confounders. Results: In comparison with moderate exercise, the high, low, and nil exercise groups had an odds ratio (OR) for moderate-severe OSA of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.8), 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.0), and 2.7 (95% CI 1.9–3.7), respectively. Relative to men in heavy activity occupations, men in medium, light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.5), 2.1 (95% CI 1.4–3.2), and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2–2.8), respectively. Relative to women in medium activity occupations, women in light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 4.2 (95% CI 2.6–7.2) and 3.5 (2.0–6.0). OSA patients who adequately exercised had lower: levels of doctor-diagnosed depression (p = 0.047); symptoms of fatigue (p < 0.0001); systolic (p = 0.015) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015); and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Low levels of physical activity were associated with moderate-severe OSA. Exercise in individuals with OSA is associated with lower levels of depression, fatigue, blood pressure and CRP. Citation: Simpson L, McArdle N, Eastwood PR, Ward KL, Cooper MN, Wilson AC, Hillman DR, Palmer LJ, Mukherjee S. Physical inactivity is associated with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1091–1099. PMID:26285117

  15. Night eating, binge eating and related features in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olbrich, Katharina; Mühlhans, Barbara; Allison, Kelly C; Hahn, Eckhart G; Schahin, Simin Pour; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the nature and extent of the association between night eating, other forms of disordered eating and obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS).Eighty-one participants (20 women and 61 men), mean age 53.7 years diagnosed with OSAS were assessed prior to starting treatment. Using a cut-off of > or =25 on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), 8.6% of the participants screened positive for night eating syndrome (NES). In addition, 7.5% met criteria for a daytime eating disorder. NES was significantly associated with diagnoses of depression, anxiety and eating disorders and was significantly correlated with an impairment of mental quality of life. No associations were found between NES and gender, BMI and the severity of the OSAS. NES does not appear to be closely linked to OSAS; however, in patients with OSAS and NES a significant co-morbidity with psychiatric disorders can be expected which might require additional treatment.

  16. Subjective assessment of facial aesthetics after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shofiq; Aleem, Fahd; Ormiston, Ian W

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the subjective perception of facial appearance by patients after maxillofacial surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and explored the possible correlation between satisfaction and surgical outcome. A total of 26 patients, 24 men and 2 women (mean (SD) age 45 (7) years), subjectively assessed their facial appearance before and after operation using a visual analogue scale (VAS). To investigate a possible association between postoperative facial appearance and surgical outcome, we analysed postoperative scores for the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Postoperatively, 14 (54%) indicated that their facial appearance had improved, 4 (15%) recorded a neutral score, and 8 (31%) a lower score. The rating of facial appearance did not correlate with changes in the AHI or ESS following surgery. This study supports the view that most patients are satisfied with their appearance after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for OSA. The subjective perception of facial aesthetics was independent of the surgical outcome.

  17. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation rescue surgery after multiple multilevel procedures for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Strohl, Madeleine; Strohl, Kingman; Palomo, J Martin; Ponsky, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) is a new procedure offered for the treatment of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that has been shown to decrease the severity and symptoms of OSA in select patients. We report on a case of a patient with persistent symptoms and findings of OSA despite a history of multiple multilevel procedures, including an uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) with revision, a genioglossus advancement, and a maxillomandibular advancement. The patient then underwent HNS with significant improvement of his symptoms and severity. The success of this patient's HNS surgery demonstrates that we need to examine where HNS fits into the approach to surgery for OSA. There could be benefit to considering cranial nerve stimulation earlier than conventional approaches for select patients. PMID:26700261

  18. New developments in the use of positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Boeder, Schafer; Malhotra, Atul; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder which afflicts a large number of individuals around the world. OSA causes sleepiness and is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Since its inception in the early 1980’s, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as the major treatment of OSA, and it has been shown to improve sleepiness, hypertension, and a number of cardiovascular indices. Despite its successes, adherence with treatment remains a major limitation. Herein we will review the evidence behind the use of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, its various modes, and the methods employed to improve adherence. We will also discuss the future of PAP therapy in OSA and personalization of care. PMID:26380760

  19. Translational approaches to understanding metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.; Cravo, Sergio L.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Machado, Benedito H.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be independently associated with several cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. To determine how OSA can increase cardiovascular risk, animal models have been developed to explore the underlying mechanisms and the cellular and end-organ targets of the predominant pathophysiological disturbance in OSA–intermittent hypoxia. Despite several limitations in translating data from animal models to the clinical arena, significant progress has been made in our understanding of how OSA confers increased cardiovascular risk. It is clear now that the hypoxic stress associated with OSA can elicit a broad spectrum of pathological systemic events including sympathetic activation, systemic inflammation, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. This review provides an update of the basic, clinical, and translational advances in our understanding of the metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular consequences of OSA and highlights the most recent findings and perspectives in the field. PMID:26232233

  20. New developments in the use of positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Lucas M; Boeder, Schafer; Malhotra, Atul; Patel, Sanjay R

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder which afflicts a large number of individuals around the world. OSA causes sleepiness and is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Since its inception in the early 1980's, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as the major treatment of OSA, and it has been shown to improve sleepiness, hypertension, and a number of cardiovascular indices. Despite its successes, adherence with treatment remains a major limitation. Herein we will review the evidence behind the use of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, its various modes, and the methods employed to improve adherence. We will also discuss the future of PAP therapy in OSA and personalization of care. PMID:26380760

  1. LINKING GPS DATA TO GIS DATABASES IN NATURALISTIC STUDIES: EXAMPLES FROM DRIVERS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Yu, Lixi; Sewell, Kelly; Skibbe, Adam; Aksan, Nazan S.; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Summary In naturalistic studies, it is vital to give appropriate context when analyzing driving behaviors. Such contextualization can help address the hypotheses that explore a) how drivers perform within specific types of environment (e.g., road types, speed limits, etc.), and b) how often drivers are exposed to such specific environments. In order to perform this contextualization in an automated fashion, we are using Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained at 1 Hz and merging this with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases maintained by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT). In this paper, we demonstrate our methods of doing this based on data from 43 drivers with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We also use maps from GIS software to illustrate how information can be displayed at the individual drive or day level, and we provide examples of some of the challenges that still need to be addressed. PMID:26665183

  2. Relationship between C-reactive protein levels and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tie, Y X; Fu, Y Y; Xu, Z; Peng, Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between C-reactive protein levels and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We recruited 30 OSAS patients into the observation group (OSAS group), and subdivided them into mild, moderate and severe groups according to the apnea hypopnea index. In addition, 20 normal individuals were included in the control group. Plasma CRP levels of two groups were measured. As compared with the control group, the CRP levels in the OSAS group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). ANOVA showed that CRP levels in the three subgroups differ; statistically significant differences between the mild and severe OSA patients were observed (P < 0.05). It was hypothesized that OSAS patients show elevated serum CRP levels, and that serum CRP levels are associated with OSAS severity. PMID:27323094

  3. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation rescue surgery after multiple multilevel procedures for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Strohl, Madeleine; Strohl, Kingman; Palomo, J Martin; Ponsky, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) is a new procedure offered for the treatment of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that has been shown to decrease the severity and symptoms of OSA in select patients. We report on a case of a patient with persistent symptoms and findings of OSA despite a history of multiple multilevel procedures, including an uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) with revision, a genioglossus advancement, and a maxillomandibular advancement. The patient then underwent HNS with significant improvement of his symptoms and severity. The success of this patient's HNS surgery demonstrates that we need to examine where HNS fits into the approach to surgery for OSA. There could be benefit to considering cranial nerve stimulation earlier than conventional approaches for select patients.

  4. The role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: our personal experience.

    PubMed

    DE Corso, E; Fiorita, A; Rizzotto, G; Mennuni, G F; Meucci, D; Giuliani, M; Marchese, M R; Levantesi, L; Della Marca, G; Paludetti, G; Scarano, E

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is performed widely and its validity and reliability has been demonstrated by several studies; in fact, it provides clinical information not available by routine clinical inspection alone. Its safety and utility are promising, but still needs to be improved to reach the level of excellence expected of gold standard tests used in clinical practice. Our study compares the results of clinical and diagnostic evaluation with those of sleep endoscopy, evaluating the correlation between clinical indexes of routine clinical diagnosis and sites of obstruction in terms of number of sites involved, entity of obstruction and pattern of closure. This study consists in a longitudinal prospective evaluation of 138 patients who successfully underwent sleep endoscopy at our institution. Patients were induced to sleep with a low dose of midazolam followed by titration with propofol. Sedation level was monitored using bispectral index monitoring. Our results suggest that the multilevel complete collapse was statistically significantly associated with higher apnoea hypopnea index values. By including partial sites of obstruction greater than 50%, our results also suggest that multilevel collapse remains statistically and significantly associated with higher apnoea hypopnoea index values. Analyzing BMI distribution based on number of sites with complete and partial obstruction there was no significant difference. Finally, analyzing Epworth Sleepiness Score distribution based on number of sites with complete obstruction, there was a statistically significant difference between patients with 3-4 sites of obstruction compared to those with two sites or uni-level obstruction. In conclusion, our data suggest that DISE is safe, easy to perform, valid and reliable, as previously reported. Furthermore, we found a good correlation between DISE findings and clinical characteristics such as AHI and EPS. Consequently, adequate assessment by DISE of all

  5. Simulating obstructive sleep apnea patients' oxygenation characteristics into a mouse model of cyclical intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Daniel C.; Po, Pengse; Chuang, Li Pang; Marcondes, Laise; Kim, Emily Y.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Guo, Xiaofeng; Maislin, Greg; Galante, Raymond J.; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models of cyclical intermittent hypoxia (CIH) are used to study the consequences of both hypoxia and oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether or not a mouse model of CIH that simulates OSA patients' oxygenation characteristics would translate into improved patient care remains unanswered. First we identified oxygenation characteristics using the desaturation and resaturation time in 47 OSA subjects from the Molecular Signatures of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Cohort (MSOSA). We observe that a cycle of intermittent hypoxia is not sinusoidal; specifically, desaturation time increases in an almost linear relationship to the degree of hypoxia (nadir), whereas resaturation time is somewhat constant (∼15 s), irrespective of the nadir. Second, we modified the Hycon mouse model of CIH to accommodate a 15-s resaturation time. Using this modified CIH model, we explored whether a short resaturation schedule (15 s), which includes the characteristics of OSA patients, had a different effect on levels of oxidative stress (i.e., urinary 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI levels) compared with sham and a long resaturation schedule (90 s), a schedule that is not uncommon in rodent models of CIH. Results suggest that shorter resaturation time may result in a higher level of 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI compared with long resaturation or sham conditions. Therefore, simulating the rodent model of CIH to reflect this and other OSA patients' oxygenation characteristics may be worthy of consideration to better understand the effects of hypoxia, oxidative stress, and their interactions. PMID:25429097

  6. Inhibition of Lipolysis Ameliorates Diabetic Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Weiszenstein, Martin; Shimoda, Larissa A; Koc, Michal; Seda, Ondrej; Polak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Causal mechanisms mediating this association are not well defined; however, augmented lipolysis in adipose might be involved. Here, we investigated the effect of acipimox treatment (lipolysis inhibitor) on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). C57BL6/J mice were exposed for 14 days to IH or control conditions. IH was created by decreasing the fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9 to 6.5%, 60 times/h. Control exposure was air (fraction of inspired oxygen, 20.9%) delivered at an identical flow rate. Acipimox was provided in drinking water (0.5 g/ml) during exposures. After exposures, intraperitoneal insulin (0.5 IU/kg) and glucose (1 g/kg) tolerance tests were performed, and primary adipocytes were isolated for lipolysis experiments. IH elevated fasting glucose by 51% and worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by 33 and 102%, respectively. In parallel, IH increased spontaneous lipolysis by 264%, and reduced epididymal fat mass by 15% and adipocyte size by 8%. Acipimox treatment prevented IH-induced lipolysis and increased epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size by 19 and 10%, respectively. Acipimox fully prevented IH-induced impairments in fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. For all reported results, P less than 0.05 was considered significant. Augmented lipolysis contributes to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed in mice exposed to IH. Acipimox treatment ameliorated the metabolic consequences of IH and might represent a novel treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26978122

  7. Inhibition of Lipolysis Ameliorates Diabetic Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Weiszenstein, Martin; Shimoda, Larissa A; Koc, Michal; Seda, Ondrej; Polak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Causal mechanisms mediating this association are not well defined; however, augmented lipolysis in adipose might be involved. Here, we investigated the effect of acipimox treatment (lipolysis inhibitor) on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). C57BL6/J mice were exposed for 14 days to IH or control conditions. IH was created by decreasing the fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9 to 6.5%, 60 times/h. Control exposure was air (fraction of inspired oxygen, 20.9%) delivered at an identical flow rate. Acipimox was provided in drinking water (0.5 g/ml) during exposures. After exposures, intraperitoneal insulin (0.5 IU/kg) and glucose (1 g/kg) tolerance tests were performed, and primary adipocytes were isolated for lipolysis experiments. IH elevated fasting glucose by 51% and worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by 33 and 102%, respectively. In parallel, IH increased spontaneous lipolysis by 264%, and reduced epididymal fat mass by 15% and adipocyte size by 8%. Acipimox treatment prevented IH-induced lipolysis and increased epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size by 19 and 10%, respectively. Acipimox fully prevented IH-induced impairments in fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. For all reported results, P less than 0.05 was considered significant. Augmented lipolysis contributes to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed in mice exposed to IH. Acipimox treatment ameliorated the metabolic consequences of IH and might represent a novel treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  8. External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Nseir, Saleh; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations due to hypoplastic mandible and decreased pharyngeal airway. In this study, we will compare external and internal distraction devices for mandibular lengthening in terms of effectiveness, results, patient comfort, and complications. Methods: Thirty-seven patients were treated by bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis for obstructive sleep apnea: 20 with external and 17 with internal distraction devices. Results: Lengthening of the mandible and increase of the pharyngeal airway were obtained in all patients. Using the external devices, the average mandibular elongation was 30 mm versus 22 mm with the internal devices; however, after 1 year, the results were more stable with internal devices. External devices carried greater risk for pin tract infection than the internal devices (27.5% vs 5.88%). In addition, pin loosening in 22.5% required pin replacement or led to reduced retention period. Internal devices had a precise and predictable vector of lengthening and left less visible scars at the submandibular area but carried the disadvantage of requiring a second operation for device removal. In very young children with severe micrognathia, it was impossible to place internal devices, and external devices were used. Conclusions: Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options. PMID:25426371

  9. Nasal and oral flow-volume loops in normal subjects and patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Shepard, J W; Burger, C D

    1990-12-01

    Because flow-volume loops (FVLs) are clinically useful in evaluating upper airway (UA) obstruction and the fact that patency of the nasopharyngeal ventilatory pathway is important to the prevention of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the present study examined the role of nasal compared with oral FVLs in evaluating patients with OSA. Fourteen obese male patients 56 +/- 3 yr of age with a mean apnea plus hypopnea index (AHI) of 51 +/- 9/h were studied along with 14 nonobese, healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects whose mean AHI was 6 +/- 1/h. Nasal and oral FVLs obtained in the normal subjects indicated the nose behaved like a variable resistor, with flow limitation during inspiration but not during expiration. In the patient group, flow limitation was observed during expiration as well as inspiration indicating nondistensibility of the nasopharyngeal ventilatory pathway in the patients compared to the control subjects. A change in body position from upright to supine in the OSA group was associated with small reductions in expiratory but not inspiratory flow rates. The area under the nasal supine flow-volume loop (FVLANaSup) was found to be highly correlated with awake resting PaO2 (r = 0.80) and PaCO2 (r = -0.83) in the patient group. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that PaO2 and the area under the nasal FVLs independently contributed to the prediction of AHI with a multiple R of 0.89. These results suggest that limitations to ventilation via the nasopharynx may significantly influence both gas exchange and the frequency of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2252246

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea in young infants with Down syndrome evaluated in a Down syndrome specialty clinic.

    PubMed

    Goffinski, Alida; Stanley, Maria A; Shepherd, Nicole; Duvall, Nichole; Jenkinson, Sandra B; Davis, Charlene; Bull, Marilyn J; Roper, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) experience congenital and functional medical issues that predispose them to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research utilizing stringent age criteria among samples of infants with DS and OSA is limited. This study examines clinical correlates of OSA among infants with DS. A retrospective chart review was conducted of infants ≤6 months of age referred to a DS clinic at a tertiary children's hospital over five-years (n = 177). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression models were utilized to analyze the data. Fifty-nine infants underwent polysomnography, based on clinical concerns. Of these, 95% (56/59) had studies consistent with OSA. Among infants with OSA, 71% were identified as having severe OSA (40/56). The minimum overall prevalence of OSA among the larger group of infants was 31% (56/177). Significant relationships were found between OSA and dysphagia, congenital heart disease (CHD), prematurity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and other functional and anatomic gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. Results indicate that odds of OSA in this group are higher among infants with GI conditions in comparison to those without. Co-occurring dysphagia and CHD predicted the occurrence of OSA in 36% of cases with an overall predictive accuracy rate of 71%. Obstructive sleep apnea is relatively common in young infants with DS and often severe. Medical factors including GI conditions, dysphagia and CHD may help to identify infants who are at greater risk and may warrant evaluation. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of OSA in infants with DS.

  11. Mechanisms of apnea termination in obstructive sleep apnea. Role of chemoreceptor and mechanoreceptor stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kimoff, R J; Cheong, T H; Olha, A E; Charbonneau, M; Levy, R D; Cosio, M G; Gottfried, S B

    1994-03-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has indicated that mechanoreceptor feedback from the respiratory muscles may play an important role in arousal and apnea termination in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Other studies have pointed to a prominent role for chemoreceptor stimuli. We postulated that mechanoreceptor stimuli from the respiratory system are the primary determinant of apnea termination, and that chemoreceptor stimuli exert their effect indirectly through stimulation of ventilation and thus proprioceptive feedback. To test this, we measured the diaphragmatic tension-time index (TTdi) during obstructive sleep apneas in seven male subjects with severe untreated OSA. We compared the maximal TTdi values at end-apnea during administration of air, O2, and CO2. We reasoned that if mechanoreceptor stimuli mediate apnea termination, changing the degree of chemoreceptor stimulation during apneas should not alter the level of respiratory effort at end-apnea. O2 administration produced a significant increase in end-apneic arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and increased apnea duration. CO2 administration led to an increase in pre- and postapneic end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2), and tended to shorten apneas. However, the mean value for maximal end-apneic TTdi was 0.12 +/- 0.01 (SEM) during room air breathing and was unaltered by O2 (0.12 +/- 0.01) or CO2 (0.11 +/- 0.01) administration. The consistency of end-apneic TTdi values despite the varying chemical drive supports the hypothesis that apnea termination in OSA is mediated by mechanoreceptor feedback from the respiratory system, most likely from the respiratory muscles. The influence of chemoreceptor information may be mediated indirectly through an effect on ventilatory effort. PMID:8118640

  12. Genetic analysis of candidate SNPs for metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    PubMed

    Grilo, Antonio; Ruiz-Granados, Elena S; Moreno-Rey, Concha; Rivera, Jose M; Ruiz, Agustin; Real, Luis M; Sáez, Maria E

    2013-05-25

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by the reduction or complete cessation in airflow resulting from an obstruction of the upper airway. Several studies have observed an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among OSA patients. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, is often found in patients with OSA, but the complex interplay between these two syndromes is not well understood. In this study, we present the results of a genetic association analysis of 373 candidate SNPs for MetS selected in a previous genome wide association analysis (GWAS). The 384 selected SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina VeraCode Technology in 387 subjects retrospectively assessed at the Internal Medicine Unit of the "Virgen de Valme" University Hospital (Seville, Spain). In order to increase the power of this study and to validate our findings in an independent population, we used data from the Framingham Sleep Study which comprises 368 individuals. Only the rs11211631 polymorphism was associated with OSA in both populations, with an estimated OR=0.57 (0.42-0.79) in the joint analysis (p=7.21×10(-4)). This SNP was selected in the previous GWAS for MetS components using a digenic approach, but was not significant in the monogenic study. We have also identified two SNPs (rs2687855 and rs4299396) with a protective effect from OSA only in the subpopulation with abdominal obesity. As a whole, our study does not support the idea that OSA and MetS share major genetic determinants, although both syndromes share common epidemiological and clinical features. PMID:23524009

  13. Genetic analysis of candidate SNPs for metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Antonio; Ruiz-Granados, Elena S.; Moreno-Rey, Concha; Rivera, Jose M.; Ruiz, Agustin; Real, Luis M.; Sáez, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by the reduction or complete cessation in airflow resulting from an obstruction of the upper airway. Several studies have observed an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among OSA patients. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, is often found in patients with OSA, but the complex interplay between these two syndromes is not well understood. In this study, we present the results of a genetic association analysis of 373 candidate SNPs for MetS selected in a previous genome wide association analysis (GWAS). The 384 selected SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina VeraCode Technology in 387 subjects retrospectively assessed at the Internal Medicine Unit of the “Virgen de Valme” University Hospital (Seville, Spain). In order to increase the power of this study and to validate our findings in an independent population, we used data from the Framingham Sleep study which comprises 368 individuals. Only the rs11211631 polymorphism was associated with OSA in both populations, with an estimated OR=0.57 (0.42-0.79) in the joint analysis (p=7.21 × 10-4). This SNP was selected in the previous GWAS for MetS components using a digenic approach, but was not significant in the monogenic study. We have also identified two SNPs (rs2687855 and rs4299396) with a protective effect from OSA only in the abdominal obese subpopulation. As a whole, our study does not support that OSA and MetS share major genetic determinants, although both syndromes share common epidemiological and clinical features. PMID:23524009

  14. Rapid maxillary expansion and obstructive sleep apnea: A review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zancanella, Edilson; Crespo, Agrício-Nubiato

    2016-01-01

    Background OSAS during childhood leads to significant physical and neuropsychomotor impairment. Thus, it needs to be recognized and treated early in order to avoid or attenuate the chronic problems associated with OSAS, which are deleterious to a child’s development. Adenotonsillectomy and, in select cases, continuous positive airwaypressure (CPAP) have been the preferred treatments for OSAS in children, and yet they are ineffective at fully ameliorating the disease. Minimally invasive treatments have recently been proposed, comprising intra-oral and extra-oral devices as well as speech therapy. Objetive: to conduct a meta-analysis on studies from around the world that used rapid maxillary expansion (RME) to treat OSAS in children. Material and Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies using RME for OSA treatment in children. A literature survey was conductedusing PubMed and Medline for English articles published up to December 2014 with the following descriptors: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive, Children, Treatment, Orthodontic, Othopaedic, Maxillaryexpansion. Studies were included in the meta-analysisif they were case-controlled studies, randomized, and involved non-syndromic children aged 0 to 12years old diagnosed with OSA by the polysomnography apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) before and after the intervention, submitted RME only. Results In all, 10 articles conformed to the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The total sample size across all these articles was 215 children, having a mean age of 6.7 years,of whom58.6%were male. The mean AHI during the follow-up was -6.86 (p <0.0001). Conclusions We concluded that rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in children with OSAS appears to be an effective treatment for this syndrome. Further randomized clinical studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of RME in adults. Key words:Rapid maxillary expansión, obstructive sleep apnea, meta-analysis. PMID:27031063

  15. Polymorphisms in α- and β-Adrenergic Receptor Genes, Hypertension, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Skaraborg Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Hedner, Jan; Grote, Ludger; Melander, Olle; von Wowern, Fredrik; Råstam, Lennart; Groop, Leif; Lindblad, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system and the adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulation of blood pressure. This study explored the associations between functional polymorphisms of the α2B-, β1-, and β2-adrenergic receptor genes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in hypertensive patients and hypertension in patients with OSA in a populationbased sample of 157 hypertensive patients and 181 healthy control subjects. Only the Arg389Gly polymorphism of the β1-adrenergic receptor gene was associated with increased risk for mild OSA in hypertensive patients (Arg/Arg versus Gly/Arg/Gly/Gly, 2.1, 95% CI, 1.02–4.7). Hypertensive men carrying the Arg389Arg genotype had higher crude and age-adjusted AHI than carriers of the Arg389Gly/Gly389Gly genotypes. When adjusted also for BMI this difference became borderline significant. This difference was not observed in women. The risk of hypertension in mild OSA was associated with increasing number of Arg-alleles (Arg/Arg OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.4–21.2). PMID:20948559

  16. Obstructive sleep disordered breathing in 2- to 18-year-old children: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Kaditis, Athanasios G; Alonso Alvarez, Maria Luz; Boudewyns, An; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Ersu, Refika; Joosten, Koen; Larramona, Helena; Miano, Silvia; Narang, Indra; Trang, Ha; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Vandenbussche, Nele; Villa, Maria Pia; Van Waardenburg, Dick; Weber, Silke; Verhulst, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the conclusions of a European Respiratory Society Task Force on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood and refers to children aged 2-18 years. Prospective cohort studies describing the natural history of SDB or randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials regarding its management are scarce. Selected evidence (362 articles) can be consolidated into seven management steps. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are present (step 1). Central nervous or cardiovascular system morbidity, growth failure or enuresis and predictors of SDB persistence in the long-term are recognised (steps 2 and 3), and SDB severity is determined objectively preferably using polysomnography (step 4). Children with an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >5 episodes·h(-1), those with an AHI of 1-5 episodes·h(-1) and the presence of morbidity or factors predicting SDB persistence, and children with complex conditions (e.g. Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome) all appear to benefit from treatment (step 5). Treatment interventions are usually implemented in a stepwise fashion addressing all abnormalities that predispose to SDB (step 6) with re-evaluation after each intervention to detect residual disease and to determine the need for additional treatment (step 7).

  17. Evaluation of Cross-section Airway Configuration of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takumi; Enciso, Reyes; Shintaku, Werner H.; Clark, Glenn T.

    2007-01-01

    Upper airway imaging techniques can be useful to identify the exact location and nature of the obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Methods Ten OSA patients and ten non-OSA control subjects were imaged using cone-beam computed tomography (Newtom QR-DVT9000) to compare their upper airway structure. Results The OSA subjects presented higher BMI (OSA: 29.5 ± 9.05 kg/m2; Non-OSA: 23.1 ± 3.05 kg/m2 [p=0.034]), lower total volume (mm3) of the airway (OSA: 4868.4 ± 1863.9; Non-OSA: 6051.7 ± 1756.4 [p =0.054]), statistically significantly smaller anterior-posterior dimension (mm) of the minimum cross-section segment (OSA: 4.6 ± 1.2; Non-OSA: 7.8 ± 3.31 [p =0.009]), and smaller minimum cross-section area (OSA: 45.8±17.5 mm2; Non-OSA: 146.9±111.7 mm2 [p=0.011]) positioned below the occlusal plane in 70% of the cases (OSA:7 out of 10; Non-OSA: 5 out of 10 [p=0.030]). The OSA group presented a concave or elliptic shaped airway and the non-OSA group presented a concave, round or square shaped airway. (156 words) PMID:17178502

  18. Obstructive sleep disordered breathing in 2- to 18-year-old children: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Kaditis, Athanasios G; Alonso Alvarez, Maria Luz; Boudewyns, An; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Ersu, Refika; Joosten, Koen; Larramona, Helena; Miano, Silvia; Narang, Indra; Trang, Ha; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Vandenbussche, Nele; Villa, Maria Pia; Van Waardenburg, Dick; Weber, Silke; Verhulst, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the conclusions of a European Respiratory Society Task Force on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood and refers to children aged 2-18 years. Prospective cohort studies describing the natural history of SDB or randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials regarding its management are scarce. Selected evidence (362 articles) can be consolidated into seven management steps. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are present (step 1). Central nervous or cardiovascular system morbidity, growth failure or enuresis and predictors of SDB persistence in the long-term are recognised (steps 2 and 3), and SDB severity is determined objectively preferably using polysomnography (step 4). Children with an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >5 episodes·h(-1), those with an AHI of 1-5 episodes·h(-1) and the presence of morbidity or factors predicting SDB persistence, and children with complex conditions (e.g. Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome) all appear to benefit from treatment (step 5). Treatment interventions are usually implemented in a stepwise fashion addressing all abnormalities that predispose to SDB (step 6) with re-evaluation after each intervention to detect residual disease and to determine the need for additional treatment (step 7). PMID:26541535

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension in Adolescents: Effect on Neurobehavioral and Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Madaeva, Irina; Polyakov, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data in regard to the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension and neurobehavioral and mental status in adolescence. The aim of our study was to evaluate neurobehavioral patterns and cognitive functions in adolescents with hypertension according to absence or presence of OSA. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study completed at the Scientific Center for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems. Participants included adolescents aged 14–17 years and referred for 24-hour ambulance blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and polysomnographic (PSG) studies between 2007 and 2009, inclusive. Results. 18 hypertensive OSA (the 1st group) and 20 hypertensive non-OSA adolescents (the 2nd group) were included in the study. Significant changes of neurobehavioral functioning in OSA patients were shown. Cognitive abilities also were impaired. Verbal and visual memory indexes and attention index were 2.1 and 2.2 times lower, accordingly, in the 1st group than in the 2nd group (P < 0.05). Speech index was significantly 2.8 times lower in OSA patients than in non-OSA patients (P < 0.05). In hypertensive OSA adolescents more significant Spearman correlations between classic sleep parameters and cognitive measures were found compared to patients without OSA. Conclusions. These results suggest that OSA is closely associated with neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in hypertensive adolescents. PMID:27445534

  20. Prevalence of Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Association With Risk Factors in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Kenia Vieira; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Jorge, Antônio José Lagoeiro; Leite, Adson Renato; Correia, Dayse Mary Silva; Silva, Davi de Sá; Cetto, Diego Bragatto; Brum, Andreia da Paz; Netto, Pedro Silveira; Rodrigues, Gustavo Domingos

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic, progressive disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed, especially among women. Objective To study the prevalence of high risk for OSAS globally and for the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) categories, and to evaluate the reliability of the BQ use in the population studied. Methods Observational, cross-sectional study with individuals from the Niterói Family Doctor Program, randomly selected, aged between 45 and 99 years. The visits occurred between August/2011 and December/2012. Variables associated with each BQ category and with high risk for OSAS (global) were included in logistic regression models (p < 0.05). Results Of the total (616), 403 individuals (65.4%) reported snoring. The prevalence of high risk for OSA was 42.4%, being 49.7% for category I, 10.2% for category II and 77.6% for category III. Conclusion BQ showed an acceptable reliability after excluding the questions Has anyone noticed that you stop breathing during your sleep? and Have you ever dozed off or fallen asleep while driving?. This should be tested in further studies with samples mostly comprised of women and low educational level individuals. Given the burden of OSAS-related diseases and risks, studies should be conducted to validate new tools and to adapt BQ to better screen OSAS. PMID:27142651

  1. Correlation between hippocampal sulcus width and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akhan, Galip; Songu, Murat; Ayik, Sibel Oktem; Altay, Canan; Kalemci, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity and the hippocampal sulcus width in a cohort of subjects with OSAS and controls. A total of 149 OSAS patients and 60 nonapneic controls were included in the study. Overnight polysomnograpy was performed in all patients. Hippocampal sulcus width of the patients was measured by a radiologist blinded to the diagnosis of the patients. Other variables noted for each patient were as follows: gender, age, body mass index, apnea hypopnea index, Epworth sleepiness scale, sleep efficacy, mean saturation, lowest O2 saturation, longest apnea duration, neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference. A total of 149 OSAS patients were divided into three groups: mild OSAS (n = 54), moderate OSAS (n = 40), severe OSAS (n = 55) groups. The control group consisted of patients with AHI <5 (n = 60). Hippocampal sulcus width was 1.6 ± 0.83 mm in the control group; while 1.9 ± 0.81 mm in mild OSAS, 2.1 ± 0.60 mm in moderate OSAS, and 2.9 ± 0.58 mm in severe OSAS groups (p < 0.001). Correlation analysis of variables revealed that apnea hypopnea index (rs = 0.483, p < 0.001) was positively correlated with hippocampal sulcus width. Our findings demonstrated that severity of OSAS might be associated with various pathologic mechanisms including increased hippocampal sulcus width.

  2. The Association Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Emamian, Farnoosh; Khazaie, Habibolah; Tahmasian, Masoud; Leschziner, Guy D.; Morrell, Mary J.; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Sepehry, Amir A.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are highly prevalent, chronic conditions with intriguing, yet poorly understood epidemiological overlap. To date, the amount of OSA syndrome present in patients with AD across literature remains unknown. To address this question, we collected all available published clinical data and analyzed them through a quantitative meta-analytical approach. The results of our quantitative meta-analysis suggest that the aggregate odds ratio for OSA in AD vs. healthy control was 5.05 and homogeneous. This reflects that patients with AD have a five times higher chance of presenting with OSA than cognitively non-impaired individuals of similar age. Moreover, these data suggest that around half of patients with AD have experienced OSA at some point after their initial diagnosis. The additive impact of progressive changes in sleep quality and structure, changes in cerebral blood flow and the cellular redox status in OSA patients may all be contributing factors to cognitive decline and may further aggravate AD progression. It is hoped that the high OSA rate in AD patients, as suggested by the findings of our meta-analysis, might provide a sufficient clinical incentive to alert clinicians the importance of screening patients for OSA in AD, and stimulate further research in this area. PMID:27148046

  3. Is There a Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Hearing Loss?

    PubMed

    Ekin, Selami; Turan, Mahfuz; Arısoy, Ahmet; Gunbatar, Hulya; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Asker, Selvi; Yıldız, Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with an estimated prevalence in the general population of 2-5%. Its main clinical features are loud snoring and breathing stoppage during sleep. Ischemia could be a consequence of noise-induced hearing loss because cochlear oxygen tension is reduced during and after noise exposure. In this study, we evaluated auditory function in patients affected by OSA and simple snoring. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 66 participants (male to female ratio: 40:26) were included in the study, of which 21 were in the control group, 18 were in the simple snoring group, and 27 were in the OSA patient group. Polysomnography and audiometric examination were performed in all participants. RESULTS The mean ages of the participants in the control, simple snoring, and OSA groups were 39.14±9.9, 37.28±8.2, and 41.56±8.99 years, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among groups regarding age or sex; however, there were statistically significant differences among groups in body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index scores, mean saturation, and duration under 90% saturation. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between the patient group and the control and simple snoring groups concerning the mean saturation, duration under 90% saturation, and the extended high frequency of hearing. CONCLUSIONS These data show that snoring may cause hearing loss at extended high frequencies. PMID:27588548

  4. Is There a Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Hearing Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Ekin, Selami; Turan, Mahfuz; Arısoy, Ahmet; Gunbatar, Hulya; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Asker, Selvi; Yıldız, Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with an estimated prevalence in the general population of 2–5%. Its main clinical features are loud snoring and breathing stoppage during sleep. Ischemia could be a consequence of noise-induced hearing loss because cochlear oxygen tension is reduced during