Science.gov

Sample records for confronting industry-distributional concerns

  1. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    PubMed

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996-2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844

  2. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996–2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844

  3. Confronting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  4. Confronting Dynamics Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brna, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of problems students have with learning about Newtonian dynamics and kinematics focuses on the assumption that learning is promoted through confronting students with their own misconceptions. A computer-based modelling environment--DYNLAB--is explained, and a study conducted with high school boys in Scotland to test it is described. (29…

  5. Confronting Islamophobia in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramarajan, Dhaya; Runell, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    The "Religion and Diversity Education" program of the Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding includes innovative training for elementary and high school educators on addressing religious pluralism in school. This paper highlights the program and its curricula which confront Islamophobia by teaching students concrete skills for living in…

  6. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  7. Confrontation Resolution Without Sacrifice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, David

    1976-01-01

    Pupil teacher confrontation can often be most effectively handled if the teacher avoids a power struggle; initially makes use of a tension breaking comment followed by speaking to the student privately; and possibly, if necessary, sends the child to a third party away from the classroom setting. (DB)

  8. Confrontation in the climacteric.

    PubMed Central

    Wilbush, J

    1994-01-01

    Why is an increasing number of women dissatisfied with their doctors' help in their climacteric? Why do so many object to hormone replacement therapy (HRT)? Why do they generally feel it is not 'natural'? Though many object to getting old, want to continue flaunting their 'eternal youth', many more, women and men, embrace retirement, wish to rest and slow down. There is no mistaking these extremes, for while the first grasp at every possible treatment, the last are but seldom medically seen. It is the middle majority, their demands, censure, disapproval, even open confrontation with those who try to help them which is difficult to understand. This paper briefly reviews the manner in which Western climacteric women have, during two hundred, but mainly last fifty, years confronted their world: their protests at societal attitudes, their private marital conflicts, their demands of doctors and, finally, their present criticism of them. It also pays detailed attention to the key concept of 'natural' treatment. Finally it suggests that much of present climacteric confrontation is a displacement activity, born of concurrent conflicting desires for both youth and retirement, rather than aimed specifically at doctors. PMID:8046706

  9. How experience confronts ethics.

    PubMed

    Hoffmaster, Barry; Hooker, Cliff

    2009-05-01

    Analytic moral philosophy's strong divide between empirical and normative restricts facts to providing information for the application of norms and does not allow them to confront or challenge norms. So any genuine attempt to incorporate experience and empirical research into bioethics--to give the empirical more than the status of mere 'descriptive ethics'--must make a sharp break with the kind of analytic moral philosophy that has dominated contemporary bioethics. Examples from bioethics and science are used to illustrate the problems with the method of application that philosophically prevails in both domains and with the conception of rationality that underlies this method. Cues from how these problems can be handled in science then introduce summaries of richer, more productive naturalist and constructivist accounts of reason and normative knowledge. Liberated by a naturalist approach to ethics and an enlarged conception of rationality, empirical work can be recognized not just as essential to bioethics but also as contributing to normative knowledge.

  10. Helping Counselors Learn to Confront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamminen, Armas W.; Smaby, Marlowe H.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a model for training counselors to learn to confront empathetically. Describes a confrontation training scale that includes inadequate responses of acquiescing and scolding and the progressively more effective responses of recognizing ineffective behavior, realizing its negative consequences, and committing to change. Suggests confronting…

  11. Confronting Asian Concerns in Engaging Learners to Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Ganakumaran

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that cultural emphasis on education plays a major role in explaining Asian students' achievement. While Asian parents often view education as the main vehicle for upward social mobility, the social and cultural make-up of Asian societies and the context within which education is conducted in Asia often clash with the…

  12. Concern for truth: driving defensively when confronting a zombie epidemic.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The newly approved drug Diclegis(®), indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, has a very interesting background story going back more than 50 years, in which science, celebrity individuals, the media, and the courts crossed paths. The story illustrates how concepts of truth, evidence, objectivity, and disinterested inquiry can become distorted in various ways, and this is especially relevant and prevalent in today's media environment of cable television, talk radio, and especially the Internet.

  13. Misunderstandings Concerning Genetics Among Patients Confronting Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Critical questions arise about misunderstandings of genetics. We interviewed for 2 h each, 64 individuals who had or were at risk for Huntington’s disease (HD), breast cancer or Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. These individuals revealed various misunderstandings that can affect coping, and testing, treatment and reproductive decisions. A therapeutic misconception about testing appeared: that testing would be helpful in and of itself. Many believed they could control genetic disorders (even HD), yet these beliefs were often incorrect, and could impede coping, testing, and treatment. Misunderstandings about statistics and genetics often fueled each other, and reflected denial, and desires for hope and control. Emotional needs can thus outweigh understandings of genetics and statistics, and providers’ input. Individuals often maintained non-scientific beliefs, though embarrassed by these. These data have implications for care, and public and professional education. Misunderstandings’ persistence, despite realization of their inaccuracy, suggests that providers need to address not just cognitive facts, but underlying emotional issues. PMID:20512408

  14. Concern for truth: driving defensively when confronting a zombie epidemic.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The newly approved drug Diclegis(®), indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, has a very interesting background story going back more than 50 years, in which science, celebrity individuals, the media, and the courts crossed paths. The story illustrates how concepts of truth, evidence, objectivity, and disinterested inquiry can become distorted in various ways, and this is especially relevant and prevalent in today's media environment of cable television, talk radio, and especially the Internet. PMID:24124694

  15. Valuing Confrontations with the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joseph T.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests teaching methods and materials for use by high school and college social studies teachers as they help students develop valuing skills. Entitled Valuing Confrontation With The Future (VCF), the materials promote consideration of provocative episodes such as electrical stimulation of the human brain and a congressional ban on large pets…

  16. Confronting employees. A positive management tool.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R E

    1988-08-01

    Nurse managers who confront employees in an appropriate manner leave no doubt about their expectations. They demand excellent and consistent performance and do not settle for less. A manager who uses confrontation shows that he or she cares enough about the employee to challenge poor performance. When the manager confronts an employee about his or her performance, the manager is sending a message to all employees that mediocre work is not acceptable. The method of confrontation used by the manager ultimately determines how the criticism is received and how effective it is. The manager's attitude toward the employee and his or her ability to verbalize expected outcomes significantly influences how confrontation is accepted. Managers who are derogatory, angry, or arrogant find that confrontation is ineffective in motivating their staff to improve. Managers who show respect, empathy, and support toward their employees and establish firm expectations find confrontation to be a useful tool in staff motivation.

  17. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds.

    PubMed

    Marcell, M M; Borella, D; Greene, M; Kerr, E; Rogers, S

    2000-12-01

    The development of a set of everyday, nonverbal, digitized sounds for use in auditory confrontation naming applications is described. Normative data are reported for 120 sounds of varying lengths representing a wide variety of acoustic events such as sounds produced by animals, people, musical instruments, tools, signals, and liquids. In Study 1, criteria for scoring naming accuracy were developed and rating data were gathered on degree of confidence in sound identification and the perceived familiarity, complexity, and pleasantness of the sounds. In Study 2, the previously developed criteria for scoring naming accuracy were applied to the naming responses of a new sample of subjects, and oral naming times were measured. In Study 3 data were gathered on how subjects categorized the sounds: In the first categorization task - free classification - subjects generated category descriptions for the sounds; in the second task - constrained classification - a different sample of subjects selected the most appropriate category label for each sound from a list of 27 labels generated in the first task. Tables are provided in which the 120 stimuli are sorted by familiarity, complexity, pleasantness, duration, naming accuracy, speed of identification, and category placement. The. WAV sound files are freely available to researchers and clinicians via a sound archive on the World Wide Web; the URL is http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/confront.htm.

  18. Cryogenic moderator simulations : confronting reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-06

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities.

  19. Gauge-flation confronted with Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Namba, Ryo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Peloso, Marco E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity γ ≡ g{sup 2}Q{sup 2}/H{sup 2} (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For γ < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strong tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n{sub s} is too low at small γ, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large γ. No value of γ leads to acceptable values for n{sub s} and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with γ was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. When the pseudo-scalar can be integrated out, one recovers the model of Gauge-flation plus corrections. It was shown that this identification is very accurate at the background level, but differences emerged in the literature concerning the perturbations of the two models. On the contrary, our results show that the analogy between the two models continues to be accurate also at the perturbative level.

  20. A Stress and Coping Perspective on Confronting Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Miller, Carol T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we tested a stress and coping model of confronting sexism. One hundred fourteen university women completed measures of optimism, cognitive appraisals about the prospects of confronting discrimination (expectations of the costs and benefits of confrontation as well as confrontation-related anxiety), and reported on the extent to which…

  1. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    PubMed

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. PMID:27053288

  2. Opening Spaces for Confrontive Encounters with Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Diane D.

    A literature class can be successfully taught and organized around content that confronts oppressions (subtle, moral and intellectual forms of discrimination) and empowers students to critique their conceived worlds which are often at odds with their perceived realities. First, selected writings for examination illuminate life in a resistant world…

  3. Macroeconomic Issues Confronting the Next President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solow, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies economic issues that confronted the United States in the late 1980's and discusses how the president might deal with them. Highlights the following issues: recession, rising price levels, the budget deficit, international trade imbalance, and revival of U.S. long-term growth. (GEA)

  4. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, John; Zack, David R.

    This annual publication seeks to inform interested readers about important concerns of currently confronting the United States. An introduction provides: a brief discussion of individuals in the Reagan Administration; a list of the leadership positions and committees in the 100th Congress--the reader must fill in the person for each position; a…

  5. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE

    PubMed Central

    LYON, THOMAS D.; DENTE, JULIA A.

    2014-01-01

    After the Supreme Court’s ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant’s right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children’s evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child’s vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities. PMID:25364063

  6. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  7. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  8. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities. PMID:25364063

  9. Confronting racism and sexism to improve men's health.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, Henrie M; Northridge, Mary E; Bethea, Traci N

    2007-03-01

    Two fundamental determinants of men's health are confronted-racism and sexism-that the authors believe underlie many of the health disparities documented between women and men and place men of color at particular disadvantage in U.S. society. In doing so, the authors contend that race and gender, as well as racism and sexism, are social constructs and, therefore, amenable to change. They hope to allay concerns that gains in the health of men will come at the expense of continued advances in the health of women. Instead, by better understanding how the harsh intersections of racism and sexism have contorted roles for men of color and damaged their social ties, a healing process in intimate relationships, extended families, and entire communities may be fostered. Only by reforming historical injustices and reuniting men with their partners, families, and communities will sustained improvements in their health and well-being be realized.

  10. Confronting Drowsy Driving: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Morgenthaler, Timothy; Chervin, Ronald; Carden, Kelly; Kirsch, Douglas; Kristo, David; Malhotra, Raman; Martin, Jennifer; Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene; Weaver, Terri; Wise, Merrill

    2015-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious public health concern which is often difficult for individual drivers to identify. While it is important for drivers to understand the causes of drowsy driving, there is still insufficient scientific knowledge and public education to prevent drowsy driving. As a result, the AASM is calling upon institutions and policy makers to increase public awareness and improve education on the issue, so our society can better recognize and prevent drowsy driving. The AASM has adopted a position statement to educate both healthcare providers and the general public about drowsy driving risks and countermeasures. Citation: Watson NF, Morgenthaler T, Chervin R, Carden K, Kirsch D, Kristo D, Malhotra R, Martin J, Ramar K, Rosen I, Weaver T, Wise M. Confronting drowsy driving: the american academy of sleep medicine perspective. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1335–1336. PMID:26414989

  11. Dialogic Considerations of Confrontation as a Counseling Activity: An Examination of Allen Ivey's Use of Confronting as a Microskill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Zeman, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine confrontation as a communication skill practiced and described by counselor educator Allen Ivey. Seeing confrontation as a dialogic activity completed interactionally, they use conversation analysis to examine 2 passages where Ivey used confrontation in his teaching tapes. Their microanalyses highlight some important and…

  12. Confronting Therapeutic Failure: A Conversation Guide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We reflect on the impact of bad news on both clinician and patient in the setting of cancer treatment failure. We review the classic six-step SPIKES (setting, perception, invitation for information, knowledge, empathy, summarize and strategize) protocol for giving bad news that has been widely adopted since it was first published in this journal in 2005. The goal of such a conversation guide is to describe both the process and the tasks that constitute vital steps for clinicians and to comment on the emotional impact of the conversation on the clinician. Confronting therapeutic failure is the hardest task for oncologists. We offer practical tips derived from a thorough review of the evidence and our clinical experience. Implications for Practice: Discussing the failure of anticancer therapy remains a very difficult conversation for oncologists and their patients. In this article, the process of confronting this failure is broken down into various components, and practical tips are provided for clinicians following a classic protocol for breaking bad news. Also addressed are the emotions of the oncologist and the reasons why these conversations are typically so hard. These insights are based on solid research intended to deepen the therapeutic connection between physician and patient. PMID:26099747

  13. When Professors Confront Themselves: Towards a Theoretical Conceptualization of Video Self-Confrontation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlberg, Arye

    1983-01-01

    Two explanations of the underlying process in faculty self-evaluation by videotape recording are outlined and integrated into one conceptualization. One theory is based on affect: self-confrontation, dissonance, stress, distress, and eustress. The second is based on a cognitive and information processing approach and includes feedback,…

  14. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  15. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552.23 Section 552.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance procedures. Prior to any calculated use of...

  16. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552.23 Section 552.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation...

  17. Confronting Violence through the Arts: A Thematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Alice

    2005-01-01

    When art, music, and poetry are integrated into the art room, children can confront difficult themes in works of art and process information in highly personal ways (Jewitt & Kress, 2003). An arts classroom gives children the time and place to confront images of war and violence and decode the multiple levels of meaning (Arnold, 1997) found within…

  18. The psychiatrist confronted with a fibromyalgia patient.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is usually treated by rheumatologists but since co-morbid depression and anxiety are frequent, psychiatrists are likely to be confronted with patients suffering from the syndrome. The symptoms associated with fibromyalgia vary from patient to patient but there is one common symptom-they ache all over. In addition to pain, patients report headaches, poor sleep, fatigue, depressed mood and irregular bowel habits, which are also all symptoms of depression. For a formal diagnosis of fibromyalgia, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria require the patient to have widespread pain for at least 3 months together with tenderness at 11 or more of 18 specific tender points.Treatment of fibromyalgia requires a comprehensive approach involving education, aerobic exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy in addition to pharmacotherapy. The most effective drugs available for the treatment for fibromyalgia, the serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, milnacipran and duloxetine and the anti-epileptic, pregabalin, are well known to psychiatrists. Thus the psychiatrist is well placed to initiate treatment in these patients.

  19. Confronting mortality: faith and meaning across cultures.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Kellehear, Allan; Kripal, Jeffrey J; Leary, Lani

    2014-11-01

    Despite advances in technology and medicine, death itself remains an immutable certainty. Indeed, the acceptance and understanding of our mortality are among the enduring metaphysical challenges that have confronted human beings from the beginning of time. How have we sought to cope with the inevitability of our mortality? How do various cultural and social representations of mortality shape and influence the way in which we understand and approach death? To what extent do personal beliefs and convictions about the meaning of life or the notion of an afterlife affect how we perceive and experience the process of death and dying? Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion on death, dying, and what lies beyond that included psychologist Lani Leary, professor of philosophy and religion Jeffrey J. Kripal, and sociologist Allan Kellehear. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred February 5, 7:00-8:30 pm, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.

  20. Dementia Care: Confronting Myths in Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Neitch, Shirley M; Meadows, Charles; Patton-Tackett, Eva; Yingling, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Every day, patients with dementia, their families, and their physicians face the enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible. While there are innumerable myths about dementia and its causes and treatments, we are going to focus on the most common false claims or misunderstandings which we hear in our Internal Medicine practice at Marshall Health. We offer suggestions for busy practitioners approaching some of the more common issues with patients and families in a clinic setting. PMID:27025116

  1. Confronting mortality: faith and meaning across cultures.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Kellehear, Allan; Kripal, Jeffrey J; Leary, Lani

    2014-11-01

    Despite advances in technology and medicine, death itself remains an immutable certainty. Indeed, the acceptance and understanding of our mortality are among the enduring metaphysical challenges that have confronted human beings from the beginning of time. How have we sought to cope with the inevitability of our mortality? How do various cultural and social representations of mortality shape and influence the way in which we understand and approach death? To what extent do personal beliefs and convictions about the meaning of life or the notion of an afterlife affect how we perceive and experience the process of death and dying? Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion on death, dying, and what lies beyond that included psychologist Lani Leary, professor of philosophy and religion Jeffrey J. Kripal, and sociologist Allan Kellehear. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred February 5, 7:00-8:30 pm, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25060040

  2. Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-06-01

    We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small.

  3. Dementia Care: Confronting Myths in Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Neitch, Shirley M; Meadows, Charles; Patton-Tackett, Eva; Yingling, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Every day, patients with dementia, their families, and their physicians face the enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible. While there are innumerable myths about dementia and its causes and treatments, we are going to focus on the most common false claims or misunderstandings which we hear in our Internal Medicine practice at Marshall Health. We offer suggestions for busy practitioners approaching some of the more common issues with patients and families in a clinic setting.

  4. When Do We Confront? Perceptions of Costs and Benefits Predict Confronting Discrimination on Behalf of the Self and Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Jessica J.; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2012-01-01

    Across two studies, we tested whether perceived social costs and benefits of confrontation would similarly predict confronting discrimination both when it was experienced and when it was observed as directed at others. Female undergraduate participants were asked to recall past experiences and observations of sexism, as well as their confronting…

  5. Confronting Misinformation in Climate Change Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Among the many challenges faced by climate change educators is the highly politicized nature of the subject matter (e.g. McCright and Dunlap, 2011) and the associated misinformation from key media outlets and websites (e.g. see Oreskes and Conway, 2010). Students typically do not enter the classroom as 'blank slates', but often have already formed some opinion about climate change which may or may not be based on reputable sources. Further, many students have lives outside the classroom and/or off campus, and even those who do live in an isolated bubble of campus life will eventually graduate. Thus, providing students with a level of climate change knowledge and understanding robust enough to cope with misinformation may be an important goal for educators. This paper presents a case study of the direct use of climate change misinformation as a college-level classroom activity. Some research from other fields (notably psychology) has found that directly addressing misconceptions in the classroom can be the most effective means of dispelling them (Kowalski and Taylor, 2009). However, directly confronting misinformation in the classroom carries inherent risks, such as reinforcing misconceptions (e.g. Cook and Lewandowsky, 2011). This paper therefore considers approaches to minimizing those risks while attempting to maximize the possible benefits. This paper argues that use of misinformation as a teaching tool can provide useful exercises in critical thinking, testing of content knowledge, and consideration of the nature of science. Cook, J. and S. Lewandowsky. 2011. The Debunking Handbook. Online publication available www.skepticalscience.com/docs/Debunking_Handbook.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2012. Kowalski, P. and A.K. Taylor. 2009. DOI: 10.1080/00986280902959986. McCright, A., and R.T. Dunlap. 2011. The politicization of climate change and polarization in the American public's views of global warming, 2001-2010. The Sociological Quarterly 52:2, 155-194. Oreskes, N. and E

  6. Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  7. Confronting the Pedagogical Challenge of Cyber Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanewald, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Cyber violence and the antidote of cyber safety are fast becoming a global concern for governments, educational authorities, teachers, parents and children alike. Despite substantial funding for information dissemination on preventative strategies and the development of electronic responses to hinder perpetrators, the phenomenon of cyber violence…

  8. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... knowledge they have gained about the inmate and the incident, determine if use of force is necessary....

  9. Confronting Endometriosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Endometriosis Confronting Endometriosis Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents left ... condition. Would you share your personal history with endometriosis? My symptoms started with my first period when ...

  10. Confrontational scavenging as a possible source for language and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of language and the high degree of cooperation found among humans seems to require more than a straightforward enhancement of primate traits. Some triggering episode unique to human ancestors was likely necessary. Here it is argued that confrontational scavenging was such an episode. Arguments for and against an established confrontational scavenging niche are discussed, as well as the probable effects of such a niche on language and co-operation. Finally, several possible directions for future research are suggested. PMID:21933413

  11. Confronting dark energy models using galaxy cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Basilakos, S.; Plionis, M.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2010-10-15

    The mass function of cluster-size halos and their redshift distribution are computed for 12 distinct accelerating cosmological scenarios and confronted to the predictions of the conventional flat {Lambda}CDM model. The comparison with {Lambda}CDM is performed by a two-step process. First, we determine the free parameters of all models through a joint analysis involving the latest cosmological data, using supernovae type Ia, the cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and baryon acoustic oscillations. Apart from a braneworld inspired cosmology, it is found that the derived Hubble relation of the remaining models reproduces the {Lambda}CDM results approximately with the same degree of statistical confidence. Second, in order to attempt to distinguish the different dark energy models from the expectations of {Lambda}CDM, we analyze the predicted cluster-size halo redshift distribution on the basis of two future cluster surveys: (i) an X-ray survey based on the eROSITA satellite, and (ii) a Sunayev-Zeldovich survey based on the South Pole Telescope. As a result, we find that the predictions of 8 out of 12 dark energy models can be clearly distinguished from the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, while the predictions of 4 models are statistically equivalent to those of the {Lambda}CDM model, as far as the expected cluster mass function and redshift distribution are concerned. The present analysis suggests that such a technique appears to be very competitive to independent tests probing the late time evolution of the Universe and the associated dark energy effects.

  12. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Neil F; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-10

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a 'lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  13. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another – from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a ‘lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds. PMID:24322528

  14. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Neil F; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a 'lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds. PMID:24322528

  15. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a `lone wolf' identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  16. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  17. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  18. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  19. Atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae of the endometrium. Cytologic and histopathologic confrontations.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, M; Cristea, A; Samoilescu, M; Alexandrescu, M; Virtej, P; Andronescu, A

    1977-01-01

    By cytologic and histopathologic confrontations performed in uterine curettage products, 34 atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae were comparatively analysed with 38 malignant proliferations of the endometrium. The confrontation was made with the aim of knowing the diagnosis significance of some atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae lesions, finally correlated with the diagnosis established on histerectomy pieces. The significance of anomalies and/or atypies generated by disorders occurred in the cytodifferentiation of glandular cells and of those of the covering epithelium of the endometrium are discussed as well as the value of methods for the early diagnosis of the malignant process at the level of endometrium.

  20. Widening Participation: Challenges Confronting a Research-Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthill, Michael; Schmidt, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the challenges confronting a research-intensive Australian university in responding to the "widening participation" agenda outlined in the recent "Review of Higher Education". The university argued that it is not possible to respond effectively to this agenda without having a clear understanding of the…

  1. Taking versus Confronting Visual Perspectives in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Merzsch, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 3-year-olds can take other people's visual perspectives not only when they perceive different things (Level 1) but even when they see the same thing differently (Level 2). One hypothesis is that 3-year-olds are good perspective takers but cannot confront different perspectives on the same object (Perner, Stummer,…

  2. Assessment, Confrontation, Strategizing: A Social Science Model for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William K.

    The Assessment-Confrontation-Strategizing Model for developing parent and community involvement in school decision-making consists of three stages. In the assessment stage parent perceptions of the permeability of the school's psychosocial boundaries are examined and the differing educational values held by teachers, administrators, and…

  3. [Veterinarians of Waadt confronted with the "war of cows"].

    PubMed

    Leresche, E

    2006-01-01

    During spring 1966 the veterinary practitioners of the canton Waadt were confronted with the illegal import of bovine semen and cattle from France. The Société Vaudoise des Vétérinaires wrote an "open letter" to the former Federal Councillor Schaffner. This letter achieved a partially liberalization of the importation of bovine semen of foreign breeds. PMID:16444948

  4. How to Help Students Confront Life's "Big Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walvoord, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Many college students are interested in spirituality and the "big questions" about life's meaning and values, but many professors seem not to know how to respond to that interest. In this article, the author offers several strategies to help students confront the "big questions". One way is to structure assignments and discussions so that students…

  5. Significant Issues Confronting Vocational Education: Implications for UCVE Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu

    A study identified significant issues currently confronting vocational education and described what role(s) the University Council for Vocational Education (UCVE) might pursue relative to each issue. To identify significant issues, a literature review, analysis, and consensus building were used. A Delphi method was used to build consensus on the…

  6. Identity Pole: Confronting Issues of Personal and Cultural Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciminero, Sandra Elser

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the "Identity Pole" was to explore the big idea of identity. Students would confront issues of personal and cultural meaning, and draw upon interdisciplinary connections for inspiration. The author chose to present totem poles of the Northwest Coast Native Americans/First Nations of Canada, as well as school, state and national…

  7. Liabilities of a physician confronted with child abuse.

    PubMed

    Vansweevelt, Thierry

    2013-06-01

    Several research questions raises when physicians are confronted with a possible case of child abuse. First, there is a problem of professional secrecy. In most European countries, physicians have the right to speak when confronted with a state of emergency. In other countries, physicians have a duty to speak and alert the police when the life or physical integrity of a person is at stake. A second topic to be discussed involves the possible liability of physicians who do not report child abuse. By not reporting a case of possible child abuse, the physician is respecting the family life of the parents, even though the child might continue to suffer damages. Third and essentially, I analyse the possible liability of physicians who do inform the prosecutor ofa suspected child abuse. Specific criteria are elaborated to establish negligence when physicians report child abuse to the prosecutor. PMID:23984493

  8. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM ... Medicine Division. Photo Courtesy of Lisa Helfert Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives is on display in the ...

  9. The Oedipus complex: A confrontation at the central cross-roads of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Hartke, Raul

    2016-06-01

    The theory of the Oedipus complex as Freud formulated it rests on the following pillars: the child's characteristic sexual and aggressive impulses concerning the parents, phallic monism, and the castration complex. This paper reviews the context in which Freud discovered the Oedipus complex, as well as Freud's theory. It then examines the proposals of later authors whose general Oedipal theories differ from Freud's in an attempt to point out both their possible correlations and confrontations with Freud. It includes Klein's pre-genital Oedipal theory, Lacan's structuralist reinterpretation, Bion's reconception of the complex under the knowledge vertex, Green's generalized triangulation theory, Meltzer's notions of the aesthetic object and sexual mental states, and Chasseguet-Smirgel's archaic Oedipal matrix. PMID:27437633

  10. Urban inclusion as wellbeing: Exploring children's accounts of confronting diversity on inner city streets.

    PubMed

    Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Carroll, Penelope

    2015-05-01

    The diversity of people living in a city is often most visible on inner city streets. These streets are also the neighbourhood environment of children who live in the central city. In the past, the wellbeing and sensibilities of children have been marginalised in planning practices in western cities but this is beginning to change with child-friendly and inclusive city discourses now more common. In this paper we report on children's experiences confronting diversity in inner-city Auckland. In 2012, 40 inner-city children, 9-12 years, participated in walking interviews in their local streets and school-based focus group discussions. As the children talked about their lives, moving and playing around neighbourhood streets, many described distress and discomfort as they confronted homelessness, drunkenness, and signs of the sex industry. A few older children also described strategies for coping with these encounters, an emerging acceptance of difference and pride in becoming streetwise. New Zealand (NZ) has a history of progressive social policy. In 2003, it became the first country in the world to decriminalise all forms of prostitution. Securing the health and human rights of sex workers were the primary drivers of the reforms. Similar concerns for health and rights underpin broadly inclusive local policies towards homelessness. To promote the health and wellbeing of inner city children their presence on city streets, alongside those of other marginalised groups, needs to be at the forefront of planning concerns. However we conclude that there are inherent tensions in promoting a child-friendly city in which diversity and inclusiveness are also valued. PMID:25618307

  11. Details of a confrontation between two wild wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A confrontation was photographed and video-taped at close range between a wild alpha mate wolf (Canis lupus) of known history and an alien adult on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. For 100-110 seconds the two stood near each other, maneuvered around, and snapped at each other until the alien fled. The alpha and his mate, who suddenly joined the encounter, chased the other wolf for 1.2 km and gave up without inflicting wounds. Discussed are possible reasons why this wolf was not killed, while other alien wolves have been.

  12. [The people's mentality confronting plague in the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu

    2013-03-01

    The social influence of plague was not only confined to its pathogenicity, but also its close relationship with the people's mentality. According to the historical materials of the Ming Dynasty, there were 2 kinds of mentalities when confronting with the prevalence of plague: negative and positive. The former included fear, helplessness, depression and superstition etc., and the latter included intelligence, consolation, thanksgiving and vigour etc. The negative passive mentality didn't help to fight effectively against the plague, or might even aggravate its prevalence. However, the positive mentality helped ameliorate and control the plague, and also the rehabilitation of the order of production and living order after the plague.

  13. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes. PMID:26989665

  14. An Experimental Study of the Clinical Acquisition of Behavioral Principles by Videotape Self-Confrontation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Univ., CO.

    To determine the effect of videotape self-confrontation as a training device for speech clinicians, 30 students participated in a 12 month study. Ten experimental subjects were assigned to single confrontation, 10 to double confrontation, and 10 were control subjects. Each confrontation subject used a therapy matrix and scored his therapy session…

  15. The History of Science as a Tool To Identify and Confront Pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Seth C.

    2007-06-01

    Many are concerned by the widespread popularity pseudoscience has achieved in modern society. While it is easy to dismiss such beliefs as belonging to the uneducated, numerous studies have shown that such beliefs are not significantly reduced by a university education. In fact, one study found that belief in astrology was largely unaffected by the completion of a U.S. science degree: students who commenced a degree program believing in astrology finished that program still believing in it. This illustrates the extent to which even a successful science education has failed to transform students’ intellectual outlook, and should raise sharp concern as to the deficiencies in our present science curriculum. Over the years various authors have given sound justification for the inclusion of a historical component in science programs. I would like to add to these arguments the fact that knowledge of science history allows one to more easily identify and confront pseudoscience and that rectifying the current deficiency of historical context in our science education may be an effective approach to change the way students view claims and ideas presented to them.

  16. Behavior change following self-confrontation: a test of the value-mediation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Grube, J W; Rankin, W L; Greenstein, T N; Kearney, K A

    1977-04-01

    This study presents a reanalysis of data from Rokeach's self-confrontation experiments using path analytic techniques. Contrary to Rokeach's interpretations, findings indicate that behavior changes following self-confrontation are not primarily mediated through changes in value priorities. Rather, the available data suggest that the self-confrontation process involves the resolution of inconsistencies between behaviors and self-conceptions that are revelaed during the treatment session. The authors interpret these findings within the framework of Rokeach's general theory of self-disatisfaction and cognitive-behavioral change. Suggestions for future directions in self-confrontation research are offered.

  17. Art as Social Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  18. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  19. Confrontation Avoidance in Island Cultures: Some Observations in Guam and Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, C. Christopher; Carey, Edwin

    The avoidance of interpersonal confrontations is a behavioral pattern which seems to be common to small homogeneous island cultures. At the University of Guam, a quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate this confrontation avoidance phenomenon in Guam and Micronesia. This paper presents a description of that study and a discussion of…

  20. Confronting DGP braneworld gravity with cosmico observations after Planck data

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lixin

    2014-02-01

    The normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld gravity with brane tension is confronted by the currently available cosmic observations from the geometrical and dynamical perspectives. On the geometrical side, the type Ia supernova as standard candle, the baryon acoustic oscillation as standard ruler and the cosmic microwave background measurement from the first released 15.5 months data were used to fix the background evolutions. On the dynamical side, the redshift space distortion data will be used to determine the evolution of the matter perturbation. Through a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we found the dimensionless crossover scale Ω{sub r{sub c}} = 1/(4H{sup 2}{sub 0}r{sup 2}{sub c}) = 0.00183{sub −0.00183}{sup +0.000338} in a spatially flat normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld. This result suggests that the crossover scale r{sub c} should be around 12H{sup −1}{sub 0} which is consistent with the previous result r{sub c} > 3H{sup −1}{sub 0} and greater. It also implies that the five-dimensional gravity effect is weak to be observed in H{sup −1}{sub 0} scale.

  1. [30 years' development of economic theories in confrontation with facts].

    PubMed

    Levy, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1969, R. Frish and J. Tinbergen received the first Nobel Price in Economics. 200 years after Quesnay's "economic tables", economics were at last considered as a science. During the last thirty years, economics haven't lost their scientific reputation, but, confronted with different situations in the world and in France, economics have been unable to bring appropriate solutions to every problem. Nowadays, economics are quite far from the promises born after the Second World War: indeed, until the 1974 world crisis, Keynes' theory (from a macro-economic point of view) and Walras' formalisation of the markets (from a micro-economic point of view) were sufficient to give satisfying representations of any economic reality and mechanism. Nevertheless, these theories were unable to deal with both growing unemployment and raising inflation in the late 70's and early 80's. Today, economics present a wide variety of efficient analysis of society. Game theory, behaviour theory or econometrics are new means used to found new kinds of reality representation. Therefore, if economics can no longer be considered as an exact science, it remains nevertheless scientific.

  2. Confronting Uncertainty in Wildlife Management: Performance of Grizzly Bear Management

    PubMed Central

    Artelle, Kyle A.; Anderson, Sean C.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Paquet, Paul C.; Reynolds, John D.; Darimont, Chris T.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone – discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels – led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty. PMID:24223134

  3. Confronting the concordance model of cosmology with Planck data

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-01-01

    We confront the concordance (standard) model of cosmology, the spatially flat ΛCDM Universe with power-law form of the primordial spectrum with Planck CMB angular power spectrum data searching for possible smooth deviations beyond the flexibility of the standard model. The departure from the concordance cosmology is modeled in the context of Crossing statistic and statistical significance of this deviation is used as a measure to test the consistency of the standard model to the Planck data. Derived Crossing functions suggest the presence of some broad features in angular spectrum beyond the expectations of the concordance model. Our results indicate that the concordance model of cosmology is consistent to the Planck data only at 2 to 3σ confidence level if we allow smooth deviations from the angular power spectrum given by the concordance model. This might be due to random fluctuations or may hint towards smooth features in the primordial spectrum or departure from another aspect of the standard model. Best fit Crossing functions indicate that there are lack of power in the data at both low-ℓ and high-ℓ with respect to the concordance model. This hints that we may need some modifications in the foreground modeling to resolve the significant inconsistency at high-ℓ. However, presence of some systematics at high-ℓ might be another reason for the deviation we found in our analysis.

  4. The Piggle: confrontations with non-existence in childhood.

    PubMed

    Charles, M

    1999-08-01

    The author interweaves pieces from D. W. Winnicott's 'The Piggle: An Account of the Psychoanalytic Treatment of a Little Girl' with her own experiences and case material, to explore how confrontations with existence/non-existence can become terrifying realities that overwhelm the child's resources. In the pages of 'The Piggle', we can see a young child 'playing' with the unfathomable notions of beginnings and endings in the wake of the birth of a sibling, which also heralds the death of the extant mother/child relationship. In the case material these issues are explored from the perspective of an adult who had been unable to resolve them without great loss of self. In both cases, parental failures impeded the child's ability to integrate his or her experiences. The work of Matte-Blanco provides a useful terminology for understanding condensations and equivalences in the material; as affect intensifies, the rules of conventional logic recede, and sameness threatens to annihilate distinctions between good and bad, or self and other. Containing these dichotomies within the analytic setting facilitates their integration, in a movement from the fragmentation of the paranoid-schizoid position towards the reconciliation and renunciation of the depressive position.

  5. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    PubMed

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Reynolds, John D; Darimont, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  6. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    PubMed

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Reynolds, John D; Darimont, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty. PMID:24223134

  7. Confronting two-sex demographic models with data.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Inouye, Brian D

    2011-11-01

    Most population dynamics models explicitly track the density of a single sex. When the operational sex ratio can vary, two-sex models may be needed to understand and predict population trajectories. Various functions have been proposed to describe the relative contributions of females and males to recruitment, and these functions can differ qualitatively in the patterns that they generate. Which mating function best describes the dynamics of real populations is not known, since alternative two-sex models have not been confronted with experimental data. We conducted the first such comparison, using laboratory populations of the bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Manipulations of the operational sex ratio and total density provided strong support for a demographic model in which the birth rate was proportional to the harmonic mean of female and male densities, and females, males, and their offspring made unique contributions to density dependence. We offer guidelines for transferring this approach to other, less tractable systems in which possibilities for sex ratio manipulations are more limited. We show that informative experimental designs require strong perturbations of the operational sex ratio. The functional form of density dependence (saturating vs. over-compensatory) and the relative contributions of each sex to density dependence can both determine in which direction and at which population densities such perturbations would be most informative. Our experimental results and guidelines for design strategies promote synthesis of two-sex population dynamics theory with empirical data.

  8. Confronting DGP braneworld gravity with cosmico observations after Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lixin

    2014-02-01

    The normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld gravity with brane tension is confronted by the currently available cosmic observations from the geometrical and dynamical perspectives. On the geometrical side, the type Ia supernova as standard candle, the baryon acoustic oscillation as standard ruler and the cosmic microwave background measurement from the first released 15.5 months data were used to fix the background evolutions. On the dynamical side, the redshift space distortion data will be used to determine the evolution of the matter perturbation. Through a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we found the dimensionless crossover scale Ωrc = 1/(4H20r2c) = 0.00183-0.00183+0.000338 in a spatially flat normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld. This result suggests that the crossover scale rc should be around 12H-10 which is consistent with the previous result rc > 3H-10 and greater. It also implies that the five-dimensional gravity effect is weak to be observed in H-10 scale.

  9. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Kontić, Branko Dermol, Urška

    2015-01-15

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects.

  10. US IRBs confronting research in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, US-sponsored research is carried out in developing countries, but how US Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) approach the challenges they then face is unclear. METHODS I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each, with 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators and members. I contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs in the United States (US) (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 (55%). RESULTS US IRBs face ethical and logistical challenges in interpreting and applying principles and regulations in developing countries, given economic and health disparities, and limited contextual knowledge. These IRBs perceive wide variations in developing world IRBs/RECs’ quality, resources and training; and health systems in some countries may have long-standing practices of corruption. These IRBs often know little of local contexts, regulations and standards of care, and struggle with understandings of other cultures’ differing views of autonomy, and risks and benefits of daily life. US IRBs thus face difficult decisions, including how to interpret principles, how much to pay subjects and how much sustainability to require from researchers. IRB responses and solutions include trying to maintain higher standards for developing world research, obtain cultural expertise, build IRB infrastructure abroad, communicate with foreign IRBs, ‘negotiate’ for maximum benefits for participants and fearing ‘worst-case scenarios’. CONCLUSIONS US IRBs confront a series of tensions and dilemmas in reviewing developing world research. These data have important implications for increased education of IRBs/RECs and researchers in the US and abroad, and for research and practice. PMID:22515423

  11. Confronting Models with Data: The GEWEX Cloud Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David; Curry, Judith; Duynkerke, Peter; Krueger, Steven; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Ryan, Brian; Starr, David OC.; Miller, Martin; Rossow, William; Tselioudis, George

    2002-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS; GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) was organized to promote development of improved parameterizations of cloud systems for use in climate and numerical weather prediction models, with an emphasis on the climate applications. The strategy of GCSS is to use two distinct kinds of models to analyze and understand observations of the behavior of several different types of clouds systems. Cloud-system-resolving models (CSRMs) have high enough spatial and temporal resolutions to represent individual cloud elements, but cover a wide enough range of space and time scales to permit statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. Results from CSRMs are compared with detailed observations, representing specific cases based on field experiments, and also with statistical composites obtained from satellite and meteorological analyses. Single-column models (SCMs) are the surgically extracted column physics of atmospheric general circulation models. SCMs are used to test cloud parameterizations in an un-coupled mode, by comparison with field data and statistical composites. In the original GCSS strategy, data is collected in various field programs and provided to the CSRM Community, which uses the data to "certify" the CSRMs as reliable tools for the simulation of particular cloud regimes, and then uses the CSRMs to develop parameterizations, which are provided to the GCM Community. We report here the results of a re-thinking of the scientific strategy of GCSS, which takes into account the practical issues that arise in confronting models with data. The main elements of the proposed new strategy are a more active role for the large-scale modeling community, and an explicit recognition of the importance of data integration.

  12. Scalar doublet models confront τ and b anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, James M.

    2016-04-01

    There are indications of a possible breakdown of the standard model, suggesting that τ lepton interactions violate flavor universality, particularly through B meson decays. BABAR, Belle, and LHCb report high ratios of B →D(*)τ ν . There are long-standing excesses in B →τ ν and W →τ ν decays and a deficit in inclusive τ to strange decays. We investigate whether two Higgs doublet models with the most general allowed couplings to quarks, and a large coupling to τ leptons, can explain these anomalies while respecting other flavor constraints and technical naturalness. Fits to B →D(*)τ ν data require couplings of the new Higgs doublet to down-type quarks, opening the door to many highly constrained flavor-changing neutral current processes. We confront these challenges by introducing a novel ansatz that relates the new up- and down-type Yukawa couplings, and demonstrate viable values of the couplings that are free from fine-tuning. LEP and LHC searches for new Higgs bosons decaying via H0→τ+τ- and H±→τ±ν allow a window of masses mH=[100 - 125 ] GeV and m±˜100 GeV that is consistent with the predictions of our model. Contamination of the W+→τ+ν signal by H+→τ+ν decays at LEP could explain the apparent W →τ ν excess. We predict that the branching ratio for Bs→τ+τ- is not far below its current limit of several percent. An alternative model with decays of B →D(*)τ νs to a sterile neutrino is also argued to be viable.

  13. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  14. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  15. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  16. Expression of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien

    2016-08-01

    This is a note of a temporary expression of concern related to the publication titled, "Sapphirine and fluid inclusions in Tel Thanoun mantle xenoliths, Syria" by Ahmad Bilal, which appeared in Journal of African Earth Sciences, 116 (2016) 105-113.

  17. Widening Privacy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Paige

    1992-01-01

    Discusses privacy concerns relating to electronic information media. European privacy initiatives from the European Community are described, including personal data protection, impact on the online industry, and telecommunications privacy; and activities in the United States are examined, including telephone caller privacy, electronic mail…

  18. The Role of School Counselor in Confronting Peer Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Lonnie L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the issue of preventing and countering harassment in schools and the role of school counselors. Defines sexual harassment and gives an overview of evolving legal interpretations concerning peer harassment. Discusses effects of peer sexual harassment and specific implications for the school counselor. Outlines resources and ideas for…

  19. Confronting AIDS. Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This book is addressed to anyone involved with or affected by the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, including legislators, researchers, health care personnel, insurance providers, educators, health officials, executives in the pharmaceutical industry, blood bank administrators, and other concerned individuals. The following…

  20. The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, R.; Atwood-Blaine, D.

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses a professional development workshop for K-12 science teachers entitled "The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom." This workshop was conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), which has the primary goal to understand and predict the role of polar ice sheets in sea level change. The specific objectives of this summer workshop were two-fold; first, to address the need for advancement in science technology engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and second, to address the need for science teacher training in climate change science. Twenty-eight Kansas teachers completed four pre-workshop assignments online in Moodle and attended a one-week workshop. The workshop included lecture presentations by scientists (both face-to-face and via video-conference) and collaboration between teachers and scientists to create online inquiry-based lessons on the water budget, remote sensing, climate data, and glacial modeling. Follow-up opportunities are communicated via the CReSIS Teachers listserv to maintain and further develop the collegial connections and collaborations established during the workshop. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results indicate that this workshop was particularly effective in the following four areas: 1) creating meaningful connections between K-12 teachers and CReSIS scientists; 2) integrating distance-learning technologies to facilitate the social construction of knowledge; 3) increasing teachers' content understanding of climate change and its impacts on the cryosphere and global sea level; and 4) increasing teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about teaching climate science. Evaluation methods included formative content understanding assessments (via "clickers") during each scientist's presentation, a qualitative evaluation survey administered at the end of the workshop, and two quantitative evaluation instruments administered pre- and post- workshop. The first of these

  1. Bridgman`s concern

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman`s static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman`s concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman`s 1956 concerns.

  2. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed.

  3. Inference Concerning Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    The question of whether the universe "is" just an information- processing system has been extensively studied in physics. To address this issue, the canonical forms of information processing in physical systems - observation, prediction, control and memory - were analyzed in [24]. Those forms of information processing are all inherently epistemological; they transfer information concerning the universe as a whole into a scientist's mind. Accordingly, [24] formalized the logical relationship that must hold between the state of a scientist's mind and the state of the universe containing the scientist whenever one of those processes is successful. This formalization has close analogs in the analysis of Turing machines. In particular, it can be used to define an "informational analog" of algorithmic information complexity. In addition, this formalization allows us to establish existence and impossibility results concerning observation, prediction, control and memory. The impossibility results establish that Laplace was wrong to claim that even in a classical, non-chaotic universe the future can be unerringly predicted, given sufficient knowledge of the present. Alternatively, the impossibility results can be viewed as a non-quantum mechanical "uncertainty principle". Here I present a novel motivation of the formalization introduced in [24] and extend some of the associated impossibility results.

  4. Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren; Goldthau, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    All too often, energy policy and technology discussions are limited to the domains of engineering and economics. Many energy consumers, and even analysts and policymakers, confront and frame energy and climate risks in a moral vacuum, rarely incorporating broader social justice concerns. Here, to remedy this gap, we investigate how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making by reframing five energy problems — nuclear waste, involuntary resettlement, energy pollution, energy poverty and climate change — as pressing justice concerns. We conclude by proposing an energy justice framework centred on availability, affordability, due process, transparency and accountability, sustainability, equity and responsibility, which highlights the futurity, fairness and equity dimensions of energy production and use.

  5. Genetics and attribution issues that confront the microbial forensics field.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    The commission of an act of bioterrorism or biocrime is a real concern for law enforcement and society. Efforts are underway to develop a strong microbial forensic program to assist in identifying perpetrators of acts of bioterrorism and biocrimes, as well as serve as a deterrent for those who might commit such illicit acts. Genetic analyses of microbial organisms will likely be a powerful tool for attribution of criminal acts. There are some similarities to forensic human DNA analysis practices, such as: molecular biology technology, use of population databases, qualitative conclusions of test results, and the application of QA/QC practices. Differences include: database size and composition, statistical interpretation methods, and confidence/uncertainty in the outcome of an interpretation. PMID:15639572

  6. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology.

    PubMed

    Phair, Robert D

    2014-11-01

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist-electrical engineer-systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a future in which teams of experimentalists and modelers build-and subject to exhaustive experimental tests-models covering the entire spectrum from molecular cell biology to human pathophysiology. There is, in my view, no technical obstacle to this future, but it will require some plasticity in the biological research mind-set.

  7. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Phair, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist–electrical engineer–systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a future in which teams of experimentalists and modelers build—and subject to exhaustive experimental tests—models covering the entire spectrum from molecular cell biology to human pathophysiology. There is, in my view, no technical obstacle to this future, but it will require some plasticity in the biological research mind-set. PMID:25368428

  8. Anesthetic Concerns of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are acutely aware of the fact that, although a given surgical procedure may be relatively simple, the required anesthetic care is, in certain cases, extremely complex. This principle is particularly evident when one ponders the difficulties involved in providing even basic anesthetic care in microgravity. In this issue some of these difficulties through the evaluation of airway management techniques during water immersion are confronted, a simulation of the gravito-inertial conditions of space flight. As prelude for this paper, I would like to outline some of the challenges to be overcome before surgical, anesthetic, and critical care can be delivered beyond our home planet.

  9. Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

    2006-12-01

    The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

  10. USA-France: Confronting two perspectives on shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.; Fellous, J.

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting shale gas and oil can be seen from very different perspectives, whether you live in the US where it is a decade long reality shaping the country's energy landscape or in France, where it is banned by law since 2011. Beyond this situation, the overall legal framework that regulates (or not) environmental and water protection, the use of chemicals, land ownership and the exploitation of underground mineral resources, the attribution of licenses for exploration and exploitation, etc. in Europe (and particularly in France, the only European country with Bulgaria where hydraulic fracturation is strictly forbidden) and in the US is at complete variance. This presentation will discuss subsequent attitudes vis-à-vis exploration, exploitation, scientific research on shale gas and fracking, and public activism that has arisen as a result of environmental, socioeconomic and human concerns. It will compare and contrast the different views and look at lessons that can be learned from those differences. This work is building upon the experience of the authors who have studied the issues relating to energy, water, population and climate and their connections, as seen from both sides of the Atlantic.

  11. Confronting the conflict of interest crisis in medical research.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Trudo

    2004-10-01

    In the last couple of years, serious controversies have raised doubts over the reliability of research supporting the efficacy and safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, popular drugs used for the treatment of depression and a variety of related conditions. These controversies have also evoked concerns over the promotional tactics used by industry to promote these drugs. In another article in this volume, David Healy argues that the tactics highlighted by these and some other recent controversies in psychiatry have brought medical research itself to the level of commercial publicity. In the following article, I provide some additional first-hand information about controversies in which David Healy was involved. I then situate these controversies within the context of the increasing commercialization of medical research. I discuss how the controversies highlight the failure of existing regulatory regimes in curbing inappropriate industry influence over research. I critically analyse some of the measures recently promoted by the medical research community, such as the introduction of a clinical trial registry, and I indicate why these measures are insufficient. In conclusion, I highlight how a more radical reform of the clinical trials scene is needed.

  12. Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women's Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Melanie M; Friedman, Carly K; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-10-01

    Factors related to young women's reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female undergraduates (M = 19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action) and situational factors (familiarity and status of perpetrator, type of sexism) were tested as predictors in a logistic regression. Women were less likely to report confronting sexism if (1) they did not identify as feminists, (2) the perpetrator was unfamiliar or high-status/familiar (vs. familiar/equal-status), or (3) the type of sexism involved unwanted sexual attention (vs. sexist comments).

  13. Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women's Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Melanie M; Friedman, Carly K; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-10-01

    Factors related to young women's reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female undergraduates (M = 19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action) and situational factors (familiarity and status of perpetrator, type of sexism) were tested as predictors in a logistic regression. Women were less likely to report confronting sexism if (1) they did not identify as feminists, (2) the perpetrator was unfamiliar or high-status/familiar (vs. familiar/equal-status), or (3) the type of sexism involved unwanted sexual attention (vs. sexist comments). PMID:19784381

  14. Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed.

  15. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  16. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  17. Biosimilars: Hope and concern.

    PubMed

    Emmanouilides, Christos E; Karampola, Maria I; Beredima, Maria

    2016-08-01

    As patents of the first introduced biologic therapeutics in oncology have begun to expire, competing pharmaceutical companies are allowed to produce and market the same protein as the original agent. These products are called biosimilars. Upon patent expiration, biosimilars would hopefully be a cheaper alternative to the original agent and that is the main reason for their existence. Although the financial aspect is similar to generics, the complex nature of these products generates the need for a distinct regulatory environment. Biosimilars are produced by DNA technology in bacteria, plant cells, or animal cells, while generics are produced by chemical synthesis. Details in the process of synthesis, selection of the microorganism, protein extraction, purification and manufacturing, affect the precise nature of the end product. Monoclonal antibodies are large proteins with four polypeptide chains and interact variably with each other and with the environment. It is important for payors to realize that biosimilars are different from generics; therefore, they need to develop different set of rules for approving, registering, and dispensing biosimilars. Regulators ought to respect the physicians' request for non-interchangeability and facilitate in any possible way of traceability. Such regulations along with a rigorous pharmacovigilance program will satisfy the concerns for true equivalence in activity and long-term safety. This is the only way to accumulate over time reliable safety information for new biosimilars. In conclusion, the wish born by the medical community and the society for a more affordable health system triggers the emergence of biosimilars, which could meet that goal if properly regulated. PMID:26391898

  18. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  19. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  20. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  1. Confronting water in an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David; Trottier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    SummaryTrans-boundary water agreements are usually conceived as allocation agreements. In other words, water is treated as if it were a pie to be divided among the riparian states. The treatment of water as if it were as immobile as land may be useful in the short term, but it is fundamentally flawed as a means to avoid conflict as well as to ensure efficient, equitable, and sustainable management of water over the long term. This article proposes to avoid quantitative allocations within international water agreements, whether they be presented as percentage or fixed allocations or whether or not accompanied by a periodic revision clause. It proposes instead an ongoing joint management structure that allows for continuous conflict resolution concerning water demands and uses in a manner that effectively de-nationalises water uses. As well, it builds on existing, functioning institutions that are already active over a variety of scalar levels. It disaggregates what is usually perceived as a national water demand into its component institutions and re-aggregates them within an international institutional context. Though this approach for building trans-boundary water agreements can prove useful in any geographical situation, this article uses the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a model. It proposes to respect the existing differences in the institutional management of water between the two entities and to reach four general objectives: economic efficiency, social and political equity, ecological sustainability, and the ability to implement the agreement in practice. The institutional design and proposed mechanisms follow five key principles for shared management: water allocations that are not fixed but variable over time; equality in rights and responsibilities; priority for demand management over supply management; continuous monitoring of water quality and quantity; and mediation among competing uses of fresh water. This institutional structure balances water

  2. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    PubMed Central

    O’ Callaghan, Karen A.M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  3. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  4. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  5. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  6. Health Concerns of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery

    1987-01-01

    Examined health concerns of 278 urban junior high school students. Highest levels of concerns pertained to dental health, friendships, nutrition, and sex; lowest levels pertained to smoking, birth control, pregnancy, and homosexuality. Younger, female, and less healthy students expressed greater health concerns. (Author/NB)

  7. Concerns of Entering Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Robert H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    First-year dental students from three schools were surveyed to assess their concern about psychosocial, academic, time, isolation, and money issues. Similarity in ranking of concerns, and differences in intensity of concern are examined for implications for research in stress management. (MSE)

  8. Understanding and Confronting Alcohol-Induced Risky Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornier, Lucien J.; Fauquier, Katharine J.; Field, April R.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting alcohol abuse is a challenge for most higher education institutions. Each year, students are admitted to hospitals for issues arising from the misuse of alcohol. The deaths of some engaged in alcohol related activities is especially worrisome. Factors such as age and financial standing could impact the likelihood of abuse. So-called…

  9. Challenges Confronting Female Intercollegiate Athletic Directors of NCAA Member Institutions by Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarterman, Jerome; DuPree, Aimee D.; Willis, Kimberly Pettaway

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the major challenges confronting female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs of NCAA member institutions. A 34-item questionnaire was mailed to 169 female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs. Of the 169 directors…

  10. Multichannel fNIRS Assessment of Overt and Covert Confrontation Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriai-Izawa, Ayano; Dan, Haruka; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Oguro, Keiji; Yokota, Hidenori; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2012-01-01

    Confrontation naming tasks assess cognitive processes involved in the main stage of word production. However, in fMRI, the occurrence of movement artifacts necessitates the use of covert paradigms, which has limited clinical applications. Thus, we explored the feasibility of adopting multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to…

  11. Academic Misconduct: A Goals-Plans-Action Approach to Peer Confrontation and Whistle-Blowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Denbow, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Academic misconduct is a serious, pervasive, communication phenomenon on college campuses. In this study, the goals-plans-action model (Dillard, 1990) was used as a theoretical framework to investigate peer confrontation of cheating and whistle-blowing to a course instructor. In an experiment, participants were asked to respond to measures of…

  12. Confronting Challenges to the Liberal Arts Curriculum: Perspectives of Developing and Transitional Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Patti McGill

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research on higher education in developing and transitional countries is often focused on such issues as access, finance, student mobility and the impact of globalization, but there has been little attention to curriculum and the forces that shape it. Confronting Challenges to the Liberal Arts Curriculum fills an important gap in the…

  13. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  14. Three Misconceptions about Radiation--And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi--all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with…

  15. "Do You Remember": Confronting Post-9/11 Censorship through Critical Questioning and Poetic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2008-01-01

    Jeanine M. Staples led a group of students, ages fourteen to eighteen, in developing a critical stance about words and images found in 9/11 media. Through questions, comments, and declarations toward these texts, the students labeled as "disengaged" actively participated in constructing a collaborative poem to confront repressive thinking.…

  16. Beyond the Myth of Confrontation: A Comparative Study of African and African-American Female Protagonists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eko, Ebele

    1986-01-01

    Describes mother-daughter relations in four American and African literary works: Ama Ata Aidoo's "Anowa," Gloria Naylor's "Women of Brewster Place," Bessie Head's "Maru," and Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl Brownstones." Argues that the myth of Black mother-daughter confrontations camouflages deep-seated frustrations associated with racial and sexual…

  17. Students' Alternative Conceptions about the Lotus Effect: To Confront or to Ignore?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubisch, Franziska; Heyne, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    At the botanical garden of the University of Würzburg, we conducted practical lessons on bionics, focused on the lotus effect, with 260 students. Those approx. 14 years old, 8th-grade mid-level students were divided into two groups. During an instructional discussion about the topic, one group was confronted with their alternative conceptions…

  18. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

  19. Post Stereotypes: Deconstructing Racial Assumptions and Biases through Visual Culture and Confrontational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Yuha

    2015-01-01

    The Post Stereotypes project embodies confrontational pedagogy and involves postcard artmaking designed to both solicit expression of and deconstruct students' racial, ethnic, and cultural stereotypes and assumptions. As part of the Cultural Diversity in American Art course, students created postcard art that visually represented their personal…

  20. The Dilemmas of Peer Relationships Confronting Mathematically Gifted Female Adolescents: Nine Cases in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-Yao

    2011-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…

  1. Confronting Delinquency: Probations Officers' Use of Coercion and Client-Centered Tactics to Foster Youth Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalbe, Craig S.; Maschi, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Youthful compliance with juvenile court mandates is a cornerstone of effective probation practice. Despite this, research has not examined probation strategies for encouraging and enforcing youthful compliance with probation conditions. This study describes the use of confrontational tactics and client-centered approaches reported by probation…

  2. The Effects of Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Stimuli on the Confrontation-Naming Performance of Aphasics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Wright, Judith M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of semantic grouping on confrontation-naming performances of 16 fluent and 10 nonfluent aphasic adults was examined. Performances were not uniformly facilitated in one naming condition over the other. Some patients, however, did appear to display performance discrepancies between the two conditions. (Author/CL)

  3. Confronting the Universal Disbelief that Poor Children Can Achieve at High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In her first year as superintendent of the Atlanta Public Schools, Beverly Hall encountered what she describes as the nearly universal disbelief that poor children of color can achieve high levels of learning. This chapter recounts how she confronted this and other obstacles and challenges as the new leader of the Atlanta Public Schools. Hall is…

  4. Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stob, Paul

    2012-01-01

    On May 31, 1897, William James, one of America's most influential philosophers and psychologists, delivered the first civic oration of his career. The principal orator at the dedication of the Robert Gould Shaw memorial in Boston, James did what commemorative speakers are not supposed to do. He chose to be confrontational and divisive in a…

  5. Breaking the Bonds: Women School Leaders Confront the Effects of Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald D.; Hudson, Martha B.

    Demand for school reform continues to be characterized by a cry to adopt new leadership behaviors and change the preparation of school leaders. Once hired, new school leaders are confronted by the weight of tradition and history in their new jobs. This paper reports on an investigation of the impact of these socialization practices on new…

  6. Educating Women Students in the Academy to Confront Gender Discrimination and Contribute to Equity Afterward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen

    2010-01-01

    We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…

  7. Zur Theorie der Konfrontativen Sprachwissenschaft (On the Theory of Confrontative Linguistics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabrocki, Ludwik

    1975-01-01

    The article traces the history of comparative linguistics, noting a continual increase in the breadth of such studies. It then considers the related fields of typological-comparative linguistics and confrontative linguistics, their differences and similarities in methodology and application. (Text is in German.) (DH)

  8. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This annual publication seeks to inform interested readers about issues currently confronting the United States. The introductory section briefly discusses the 101st Congress, members of the Bush administration, and the Supreme Court. The federal budget process is also discussed in this section. The section on domestic policy issues contains the…

  9. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  10. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Practices of Superintendents Confronted by District Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noppe, Rene; Yager, Stuart; Webb, Carol; Sheng, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the decision-making and problem-solving approaches most frequently used by school superintendents in two mid-western states when confronted with district dilemmas. The research replicated a study conducted by Polka, Litchka, Caizi, Denig and Mete (2011) in five Mid-Atlantic states. The survey used in both…

  11. La Grippe and World War I: conflict participation and pandemic confrontation.

    PubMed

    Steele, B J; Collins, C D

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether a nation-state's participation in conflict influences its ability to confront global pandemic or disease. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed. First, increased levels of conflict participation lead to increased abilities of states to confront pandemics. A second and alternative hypothesis is that increased conflict participation decreases the ability of states to confront pandemics. The hypotheses are tested through the ultimate case of war and pandemic: the 1918 Influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu or 'La Grippe') that killed 20-100 million people worldwide. Using simple correlation and case illustrations, we test these hypotheses with special focus upon the ability of the participant countries to confront the pandemic. The findings suggest, in a limited and varied fashion, that while neutral countries enjoyed the lowest levels of pandemic deaths, of the participant countries greater levels of conflict participation correlate with lower levels of pandemic deaths. The paper concludes with some propositions regarding the relationship between the current 'war on terror' and prospective pandemics such as avian flu.

  12. [Tuberculosis continues to be a concern].

    PubMed

    Ibraim, Elmira; Cioran, Nicoleta; Cocei, Horia

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has not been eliminated from none of the world's regions up to now. Trends of TB endemic were constantly favorable in Romania in the recent years: number of new cases and relapses decreased with 13 235, incidence rate with 42%, incidence rate in children with 51% and mortality rate with 44%, from 2002 to 2011. The highest TB risk is being observed in men living in rural area and in those of 45-54 age group. The counties with the highest TB incidence rates are those in the South-West part of the country. The favorable trend of TB endemic in Romania has been achieved through a constant case detection rate over 70% and a treatment success rate over 80% in the recent years. The current major concerns in TB control in the country, as well as all over the world, are TB-HIV co-infection and micobacterial drug-resistance. Also, a negative aspect of TB endemic in Romania is that a number of severe forms of TB, TB-HIV, MDR-TB or deaths are still reported in children under 15 years old, each year. The response of health system to the TB problem consists in the development of the National TB Programme, which achieved many successes in the recent years, but in the same time is confronted with many challenges. However, the programatic control of the disease can be obtained by health services only in partnership with other services, institutions and organizations, which may offer economic and social support to the patients and their families.

  13. The Development of Clinical Skills in Speech Pathology by Audiotape and Videotape Self-Confrontation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Daniel R.; Stech, Ernest L.

    An initial study with 30 students in clinical speech pathology training found videotape confrontation to be a powerful clinical training technique. This subsequent study, using 20 additional students, was designed to compare the effectiveness of audiotape and videotape, and to ascertain whether videotape self-confrontation (single and double…

  14. Human Lyme disease vaccines: past and future concerns.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Dean T; Munson, Erik L; Callister, Steven M; Schell, Ronald F

    2009-05-01

    The development of a vaccine for Lyme disease was intensely pursued in the 1990s. However, citing a lack of demand, the first human Lyme disease vaccine was withdrawn from the market less than 5 years after its approval. The public's concerns about the vaccine's safety also likely contributed to the withdrawal of the vaccine. Nearly a decade later, no vaccine for human Lyme disease exists. The expansion of Lyme disease's endemic range, as well as the difficulty of diagnosing infection and the disease's steady increase in incidence in the face of proven preventative measures, make the pursuit of a Lyme disease vaccine a worthwhile endeavor. Many believe that the negative public perception of the Lyme disease vaccine will have tarnished any future endeavors towards its development. Importantly, many of the drawbacks of the Lyme disease vaccine were apparent or foreseeable prior to its approval. These pitfalls must be confronted before the construction of a new, effective and safe human Lyme disease vaccine.

  15. Confronting Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, as schools first started getting widespread access to the internet, many administrators saw the potential in this new technology, but also huge risks and liabilities. While billions were being spent on hardware and connectivity, the mainstream media was fueling parental fears with stories of online predators…

  16. Confronting Ableism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehir, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Society's pervasive negative attitude about disability--which the author terms ableism--often makes the world an unwelcoming and inaccessible place for disabled people. An abelist perspective asserts that it is preferable for a child to read print rather than Braille, walk rather than use a wheelchair, spell independently rather than use a…

  17. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  18. Confronting Deregulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madget, James

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how schools can capitalize on new opportunities for cost savings and improved service in a deregulated electric industry. It discusses strategies for preparing to buy electrical power on the open market and examines two forms of purchasing called "wholesale-wheeling" and "retail-wheeling." Steps in conducting a utility audit are…

  19. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  20. Effects of social defeat on sleep and behaviour: importance of the confrontational behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinn Rød, Anne Marie; Murison, Robert; Mrdalj, Jelena; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Øvernes, Leif Arvid; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-29

    We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress levels of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and allowed 3weeks of recovery. Rats in the SD group (n=10) were exposed to 1hour SD on two consecutive days, while control rats (n=10) were left undisturbed. Telemetric sleep recordings were performed before SD (day -1), day 1 post SD, and once weekly for 3weeks thereafter. The open field emergence test was performed on day 9 and weekly for 2weeks thereafter. Blood samples for measures of corticosterone responsiveness were drawn after the last emergence test (day 23). Acoustic startle responses were tested on day 24 post SD. Overall, SD rats as a group were not affected by the social conflict. Effects of SD seemed, however, to vary according to the behaviours that the intruder displayed during the social confrontation with the resident. Compared to those SD rats showing quick submission (SDS, n=5), SD rats fighting the resident during one or both SD confrontations before defeat (SDF, n=5) showed more fragmented slow wave sleep, both in SWS1 and SWS2. They also showed longer latency to leave the start box and spent less time in the open field arena compared to SDS rats. In the startle test, SDF rats failed to show response decrement at the lowest sound level. Our results indicate that how animals behave during a social confrontation is more important than exposure to the SD procedure itself, and that rapid submission during a social confrontation might be more adaptive than fighting back.

  1. Eye tracking unconscious face-to-face confrontations: dominance motives prolong gaze to masked angry faces.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Hooiveld, Nicole; Aarts, Henk; Kenemans, J Leon; van Honk, Jack

    2011-03-01

    In primates, dominance/submission relationships are generally automatically and nonaggressively established in face-to-face confrontations. Researchers have argued that this process involves an explicit psychological stress-manipulation mechanism: Striding with a threatening expression, while keeping direct eye contact, outstresses rivals so that they submissively avert their gaze. In contrast, researchers have proposed a reflexive and implicit modulation of face-to-face confrontation in humans, on the basis of evidence that dominant and submissive individuals exhibit vigilant and avoidant responses, respectively, to facial anger in masked emotional Stroop tasks. However, these tasks do not provide an ecologically valid index of gaze behavior. Therefore, we directly measured gaze responses to masked angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions with a saccade-latency paradigm and found that increased dominance traits predict a more prolonged gaze to (or reluctance to avert gaze from) masked anger. Furthermore, greater non-dominance-related reward sensitivity predicts more persistent gaze to masked happiness. These results strongly suggest that implicit and reflexive mechanisms underlie dominant and submissive gaze behavior in face-to-face confrontations. PMID:21303993

  2. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  3. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  4. Expressed concerns of Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alzubaidi, A; Upton, G; Baluch, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of adolescents in the Republic of Yemen. A short version of the Mooney Problem Check List was administered to 150 13- to 17-year-old males and females. Results indicated that the major concerns and problems reported by Yemeni adolescents were related to their vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Problems related to social life, family, and health and physical issues were less prominent. Results also showed that though there were similarities in the number of concerns expressed by males and females, males reported more difficulties with their vocational and educational future, marriage and sexual matters, and finances and employment, while females reported more problems with recreational activities, personal relationships, and health. PMID:9583671

  5. Report on the ESO Workshop ''Spiral Structure in the Milky Way: Confronting Observations and Theory''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbøl, P.; Carraro, G.; Beletsky, Y.

    2011-03-01

    The main objectives of the workshop were to review current observational evidence for spiral arms in our Galaxy and confront them with models of spiral structure in order to arrive at a consistent picture. Of primary importance was to understand just what additional information is required to resolve outstanding issues related to the spiral structure in the Milky Way, especially as new survey instruments (e.g., ALMA, VISTA and VST) are coming online and major space missions like GAIA will be launched in the near future.

  6. Engineering human tissue and regulation: confronting biology and law to bridge the gaps.

    PubMed

    Longley, D; Lawford, P

    2001-01-01

    There are a number of difficulties confronting the regulation of human tissue engineered products, from the scientific, ethical and legal perspectives. Many of these issues are international in scope and any responses must consider the global implications of marketing and monitoring these products. The article argues that as tissue engineered products become more available regulatory authorities should not be pressured into adopting possibly inappropriate measures, but must consider all the factors relevant to human health, including the need for innovative regulatory mechanisms as well as innovative tissue products themselves.

  7. Counseling Concerns and Bisexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Ralph

    1974-01-01

    This article focuses on counseling concerns for the practical living of individuals with homosexual tendencies. The author cautions against irresponsible promotion of a bisexual mode of life for many persons who have had to deny their homosexual desires under the heavy anti-homosexual bias of our society. (Author/BW)

  8. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  9. Consumer Concerns: Newcomer's Guide. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jean

    A bilingual pamphlet containing practical law-related information for recent Russian Jewish immigrants to New York City, this document addresses consumer concerns. Following a brief description of the Newcomer series, 15 questions are listed, each followed by an answer. Questions asked include the meaning of the terms consumer and contract;…

  10. Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

  11. Children's Views Concerning Phase Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; Travis, Anthony S.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on answers by children (grades 1-9, n=83) to oral and written questions concerning the phase change from liquid to gas. The development of concepts was followed, proceeding from concrete to abstract ideas. Many students were found to experience difficulties in problem solving even though they may have had the necessary level…

  12. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  13. Online Catalogs: Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausser, Jaye

    This document explores the various issues and concerns related to the development of online systems in libraries and, in particular, online catalogs. Following a preface, foreword, and introduction, chapters are devoted to each of the following topics: (l) providing for special interests including the disabled; (2) authority control; (3) subject…

  14. Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

  15. Examining the benefits of learning based on an audience response system when confronting emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; García, Ana Belén Sánchez; Montesinos, María José López; Jiménez, Juan José López

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an empirical study on the effectiveness of the use of an audience response system called SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia on a nursing course. A total of 130 students of mixed gender, age, and computer experience and educational background on a third-year course in nursing administration and management participated in the study. The benefits of an audience response system as regards learning how to confront emergency situations were studied. The innovative aspect of the proposal is twofold: (1) the use of a smartphone to respond to the questions and (2) the analysis of the students' response time when confronting critical situations while managing nursing resources. A positive impact on the students' performance was revealed in their final assessments. Our findings show that SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia increases student participation and aids in identifying and correcting misconceptions. The students found SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia to be very motivating and wanted it to be used in additional lectures. Further research is required to study the effectiveness of SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia for it to be widely used in other disciplines. PMID:24633235

  16. TAPS design concepts: environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The engineering concepts used in the design, construction, and operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were often new and in many cases in the state of the art. To accommodate environmental concerns for operating a hot oil pipeline in permafrost soil, unique features were incorporated into TAPS. Design concepts include a sophisticated leak detection and internal pipeline monitoring system. Additional features for accommodating thaw-unstable soils, earthquakes, and river systems are described. (23 references)

  17. An Inquiry into Teacher Concerns in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yih-fen; Reeves, Carolyn

    This study identified concerns of teachers in Taiwan and contrasted concerns of these teachers with the 56 concerns which comprise the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC), Form B, developed in the United States. A total of 294 teachers (155 preservice teachers and 139 inservice teachers) completed a Chinese version of the Survey of Teacher Concerns.…

  18. Io. [theories concerning volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the continuing investigation of Io is presented. Gravitational resonance is discussed as the cause of Io's volcanism, and the volcanic activity is explained in terms of sulfur chemistry. Theories concerning the reasons for the two main types of volcanic eruptions on Io are advanced and correlated with geographical features of the satellite. The sulfur and silicate models of the calderas are presented, citing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Problems of the gravitational resonance theory of Io's heat source are then described. Finally, observations of Io planned for the Galileo mission are summarized.

  19. Customer concerns regarding satellite servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The organization of orbital servicing of satellites is discussed. Provision of servicing equipment; design interfaces between the satellite and the servicing equipment; and the economic viability of the concept are discussed. The proposed solution for satisfying customer concerns is for the servicing organizations to baseline an adequate inventory of servicing equipment with standard interfaces and established servicing costs. With this knowledge, the customer can conduct tradeoff studies and make programmatic decisions regarding servicing options. A dialog procedure between customers and servicing specialists is outlined.

  20. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group:

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Phillips, L.B.; Williams, W.J.

    1988-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indicated that Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) exemption of waste streams from the disposal requirements for low level radioactive waste should be based on actual expected nuclide concentration and variability. Because of variations in the importance and relative abundance of nuclides in waste, one or a small number of nuclides may control the detemination of a waste steam as BRC. This study wasconducted to evaluate the relative importance of the major radionucldies in dose assessments for the disposal options and geographic regions under consideration for BRC waste. 6 refs., 25 tabs.

  1. Phytotoxins: environmental micropollutants of concern?

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-11-18

    Natural toxins such as mycotoxins or phytotoxins (bioactive compounds from fungi and plants, respectively) have been widely studied in food and feed, where they are stated to out-compete synthetic chemicals in their overall human and animal toxicological risk. A similar perception and awareness is yet largely missing for environmental safety. This article attempts to raise concern in this regard, by providing (circumstantial) evidence that phytotoxins in particular can be emitted into the environment, where they may contribute to the complex mixture of organic micropollutants. Exposures can be orders-of-magnitude higher in anthropogenically managed/affected (agro-)ecosystems than in the pristine environment. PMID:25325883

  2. Phytotoxins: environmental micropollutants of concern?

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-11-18

    Natural toxins such as mycotoxins or phytotoxins (bioactive compounds from fungi and plants, respectively) have been widely studied in food and feed, where they are stated to out-compete synthetic chemicals in their overall human and animal toxicological risk. A similar perception and awareness is yet largely missing for environmental safety. This article attempts to raise concern in this regard, by providing (circumstantial) evidence that phytotoxins in particular can be emitted into the environment, where they may contribute to the complex mixture of organic micropollutants. Exposures can be orders-of-magnitude higher in anthropogenically managed/affected (agro-)ecosystems than in the pristine environment.

  3. Confronting Oral Health Disparities Among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The Pediatric Oral Health Therapist

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David A.; Nagel, Ron J.

    2005-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) children are disproportionately affected by oral disease compared with the general population of American children. Additionally, AIAN children have limited access to professional oral health care. The Indian Health Service (IHS) and AIAN tribal leaders face a significant problem in ensuring care for the oral health of these children. We discuss the development and deployment of a new allied oral health professional, a pediatric oral health therapist. This kind of practitioner can effectively extend the ability of dentists to provide for children not receiving care and help to confront the significant oral health disparities existing in AIAN children. Resolving oral health disparities and ensuring access to oral health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives is a moral issue—one of social justice. PMID:16006412

  4. Memory for Names Test Provides a Useful Confrontational Naming Task for Aging and Continuum of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Robert M.; Martin, Corby K.; Correa, John B.; Davis, Allison B.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Foil, Heather C.; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1–2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21304184

  5. The Continuous Confrontation of Caregiving as Described in Real-Time Online Group Chat.

    PubMed

    Male, Dana A; Fergus, Karen D; Stephen, Joanne E

    2015-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the caregiver experience has been informed primarily by guided inquiry in the form of interviews and surveys, yielding information that is limited by the scope of researchers questions. The intent of this study was to explore the experience of caring for a loved one with advanced-stage cancer by means of participant-determined communication, using interactive, text-based transcripts from synchronous online support groups. Grounded theory analysis of the group transcripts yielded the core category continuous confrontation, characterized by major challenges (unrelenting assault, a new us, and the costs of caregiving) and minor triumphs (refuelling and living more intentionally). This unique method of data collection allowed for an especially candid, intersubjective group account of what it is to be a caregiver for an ill loved one without compromising the details that caregivers themselves consider important.

  6. Current challenges for confronting the public health problem of snakebite envenoming in Central America.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-03-06

    Snakebite envenoming is a serious public health problem in Central America, where approximately 5,500 cases occur every year. Panama has the highest incidence and El Salvador the lowest. The majority, and most severe, cases are inflicted by the pit viper Bothrops asper (family Viperidae), locally known as 'terciopelo', 'barba amarilla' or 'equis'. About 1% of the bites are caused by coral snakes of the genus Micrurus (family Elapidae). Despite significant and successful efforts in Central America regarding snakebite envenomings in the areas of research, antivenom manufacture and quality control, training of health professionals in the diagnosis and clinical management of bites, and prevention of snakebites, much remains to be done in order to further reduce the impact of this medical condition. This essay presents seven challenges for improving the confrontation of snakebite envenoming in Central America. Overcoming these challenges demands a coordinated partnership of highly diverse stakeholders though inter-sectorial and inter-programmatic interventions.

  7. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus confronts host degradation by sheltering in small/midsized protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Rena; Fridman, Lilia; Kolot, Mikhail; Rotem, Or; Ghanim, Murad; Shriki, Oz; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-02-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to tomato and other crops. TYLCV proteins are endangered by the host defenses. We have analyzed the capacity of the tomato plant and of the whitefly insect vector to degrade the six proteins encoded by the TYLCV genome. Tomato and whitefly demonstrated the highest proteolytic activity in the fractions containing soluble proteins, less-in large protein aggregates; a significant decrease of TYLCV proteolysis was detected in the intermediate-sized aggregates. All the six TYLCV proteins were differently targeted by the cytoplasmic and nuclear degradation machineries (proteases, ubiquitin 26S proteasome, autophagy). TYLCV could confront host degradation by sheltering in small/midsized aggregates, where viral proteins are less exposed to proteolysis. Indeed, TYLCV proteins were localized in aggregates of various sizes in both host organisms. This is the first study comparing degradation machinery in plant and insect hosts targeting all TYLCV proteins. PMID:26654789

  8. UNITY: Confronting Supernova Cosmology's Statistical and Systematic Uncertainties in a Unified Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Boone, K.; Chappell, G.; Currie, M.; Deustua, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Fruchter, A.; Hayden, B.; Lidman, C.; Nordin, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Saunders, C.; Sofiatti, C.; Supernova Cosmology Project, The

    2015-11-01

    While recent supernova (SN) cosmology research has benefited from improved measurements, current analysis approaches are not statistically optimal and will prove insufficient for future surveys. This paper discusses the limitations of current SN cosmological analyses in treating outliers, selection effects, shape- and color-standardization relations, unexplained dispersion, and heterogeneous observations. We present a new Bayesian framework, called UNITY (Unified Nonlinear Inference for Type-Ia cosmologY), that incorporates significant improvements in our ability to confront these effects. We apply the framework to real SN observations and demonstrate smaller statistical and systematic uncertainties. We verify earlier results that SNe Ia require nonlinear shape and color standardizations, but we now include these nonlinear relations in a statistically well-justified way. This analysis was primarily performed blinded, in that the basic framework was first validated on simulated data before transitioning to real data. We also discuss possible extensions of the method.

  9. Introduction to a special section on ecohydrology of semiarid environments: Confronting mathematical models with ecosystem complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoray, Tal; Assouline, Shmuel; Katul, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Current literature provides large number of publications about ecohydrological processes and their effect on the biota in drylands. Given the limited laboratory and field experiments in such systems, many of these publications are based on mathematical models of varying complexity. The underlying implicit assumption is that the data set used to evaluate these models covers the parameter space of conditions that characterize drylands and that the models represent the actual processes with acceptable certainty. However, a question raised is to what extent these mathematical models are valid when confronted with observed ecosystem complexity? This Introduction reviews the 16 papers that comprise the Special Section on Eco-hydrology of Semiarid Environments: Confronting Mathematical Models with Ecosystem Complexity. The subjects studied in these papers include rainfall regime, infiltration and preferential flow, evaporation and evapotranspiration, annual net primary production, dispersal and invasion, and vegetation greening. The findings in the papers published in this Special Section show that innovative mathematical modeling approaches can represent actual field measurements. Hence, there are strong grounds for suggesting that mathematical models can contribute to greater understanding of ecosystem complexity through characterization of space-time dynamics of biomass and water storage as well as their multiscale interactions. However, the generality of the models and their low-dimensional representation of many processes may also be a "curse" that results in failures when particulars of an ecosystem are required. It is envisaged that the search for a unifying "general" model, while seductive, may remain elusive in the foreseeable future. It is for this reason that improving the merger between experiments and models of various degrees of complexity continues to shape the future research agenda.

  10. Consumer concerns: motivating to action.

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologic safety is consumers' most frequently volunteered food safety concern. An increase in the level of concern in recent years suggests that consumers are more receptive to educational information. However, changing lifestyles have lessened the awareness of foodborne illness, especially among younger consumers. Failure to fully recognize the symptoms or sources of foodborne disease prevents consumers from taking corrective action. Consumer education messages should include the ubiquity of microorganisms, a comprehensive description of foodborne illnesses, and prevention strategies. Product labels should contain food-handling information and warnings for special populations, and foods processed by newer safety-enhancing technologies should be more widely available. Knowledge of the consequences of unsafe practices can enhance motivation and adherence to safety guidelines. When consumers mishandle food during preparation, the health community, food industry, regulators, and the media are ultimately responsible. Whether inappropriate temperature control, poor hygiene, or another factor, the error occurs because consumers have not been informed about how to handle food and protect themselves. The food safety message has not been delivered effectively. PMID:9366604

  11. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  12. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics. PMID:11561998

  13. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  14. Concerns About STEM Education Restructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    Several education experts told Eos that they generally favored some improvements in U.S. federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, but they also expressed concern about the Obama administration's proposed STEM reorganization plan as it affects the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). John Farrington, chair of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) panel that issued a review of the NOAA education program in 2010, told Eos that he is confident that a considerable amount of thought went into this proposal to consolidate the K-12 STEM efforts, that consolidation could make for greater efficiencies, and that a positive aspect of having the Department of Education (ED) as a lead is that STEM education should not be considered as separate from the education of the student as a whole.

  15. [Several problems concerning population investment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    1982-07-29

    Population investment is a major topic in the studies of population and economic relations. In this particular area, numerous theoretical and practical problems are still in need of solution. Concerning the problem of population concept, there are three different approaches: (1) to determine the definition of population investment from the relationship between the population growth and the capital from national income used for investment, including investment in the newly increased population and investment in the entire population; (2) to explain population investment from the economic viewpoint that people are producers; and (3) to explain population investment from the expense needed to change a simple labor force to a skillful labor force. The expenses include educational costs, maintanance spending, wages needed to compensate workers in labor, costs for workers to master and learn modern scientific techniques to be used for production, and the costs of keeping a young labor force in the next generation.

  16. Undergraduate Course on Global Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, G. A.; Weidner, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    GEO 311: Geoscience and Global Concerns is an undergraduate course taught at Stony Brook University during each fall semester. The class meets twice per week, with one session consisting of a lecture and the other, an interactive activity in a computer laboratory that engages the students in exploring real world problems. A specific concern or issue serves as a focus during each session. The students are asked to develop answers to a series of questions that engage them in identifying causes of the problem, connections with the Earth system, relationships to other problems, and possible solutions on both a global and local scale. The questions are designed to facilitate an integrated view of the Earth system. Examples of topics that the students explore during the laboratory sessions are: 1) fossil fuel reserves and consumption rates and the effect of their use on climate, 2) alternative sources of energy and associated technologies, such as solar photovoltaics, nuclear energy, tidal power, geothermal energy, and wind power, 3) effects of tsunamis and earthquakes on human populations and infrastructure, 4) climate change, and 5) hurricanes and storms. The selection and scheduling of topics often takes advantage of the occurrence of media attention or events that can serve as case studies. Tools used during the computer sessions include Google Earth, ArcGIS, spreadsheets, and web sites that offer data and maps. The students use Google Earth or ArcGIS to map events such as earthquakes, storms, tsunamis, and changes in the extent of polar ice. Spreadsheets are employed to discern trends in fossil fuel supply and consumption, and to experiment with models that make predictions for the future. We present examples of several of these activities and discuss how they facilitate an understanding of interrelationships within the Earth system.

  17. Whither American Social Policy? Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States. Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local governments, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle will be a series of reports, based on a series of small…

  18. Who Gets Blamed for Intimate Partner Violence? The Relative Contributions of Perpetrator Sex Category, Victim Confrontation, and Observer Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cindy; Moore, Todd; Crone, Travis; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Rhatigan, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of perpetrator sex category, victim confrontation, observer sex category, and observer attitudes on attributions of blame and behavioral stability for partner violence. Data were collected from 728 college-aged students enrolled at 2 universities in the United States. Results demonstrated that males and…

  19. The Guiding Effects of a Critical Reading Program on the Use of External Reading Strategies When Confronting an Ironical Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabay, Aysegul

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a sample of 60 pre-service teachers to examine the guiding effects of understanding critical reading theories on using external reading strategies such as note-taking and underlining when confronting an ironical literary text. The study broke down the teachers into one control group of 30 teachers and one experimental group of…

  20. Business Education Students' Evaluation of the Benefits and Challenges Confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme in Edo and Delta States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumese, H. A.; Ediagbonya, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This research paper specifically investigated Business Education students' evaluation of the benefits and challenges confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) in Edo and Delta States. Two research questions were raised to guide the study and were answered descriptively. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for…

  1. Future Directions for EC Education: 10 Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Colin

    2009-01-01

    What are the problems that early childhood educators are trying to answer? In this article, the author presents his ten concerns for early childhood teacher education: (1) A concern about policymakers' pottery wheels; (2) A concern about "white shoe" education evangelists; (3) A concern that increasing control may cripple autonomy and build…

  2. Current Research on the Concerns of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Frances F.; Parsons, Jane S.

    This paper familiarizes the educational community with the research on teacher concerns that has taken place since the publication of Fuller's 1969 article "Concerns of Teachers: A Developmental Conceptualization" (SP 003 919). Two studies are described concerning reliability of information for the Teacher Concerns Statement and the establishment…

  3. Teacher Concerns and Teacher Life Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Yan Fung

    2005-01-01

    This article examines teaching concerns at successive life stages among teachers with up to twenty years' or more teaching experience. Three concern stages are discerned. Nine common concern factors were found from factor-analysing thirty-three concern items. Results show that student discipline, relations with students, and students' learning and…

  4. Confronting the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge of Finnish Net Generation Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Pontinen, Susanna; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti; Hacklin, Stina

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner (Oblinger &…

  5. Nanoparticles: Is Toxicity a Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pragna

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology involving manipulation of atoms and molecules at the nanoscale is one of the frontier areas of research in modern science. During the last few years, nanotechnology has witnessed breakthroughs in the fields of medicine, environment, therapeutics, drug development and biotechnology. This is due to the unique properties of nanomaterials (e.g. chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic, and biological) which make them desirable for commercial and medical applications. Considering the theory and practice of using nanoparticles, nanotechnology has a great potential in improving treatment of various disorders and in vitro diagnostics. However, there is not much information available on the toxicity of nanoparticles in relation to human health. Toxic effect of nanomaterials on humans is the primary concern of the health industry. Nanomaterials are able to cross biological membranes and access cells, tissues and organs that larger-sized particles normally cannot. Nanomaterials can gain access to the blood stream via inhalation or ingestion. This may lead to both genotoxicity and biochemical toxicity. In this review we try to show which types, sizes and concentrations of nanoparticles are safe for human use and this will help in developing diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic models using nanoparticles.

  6. Myths Concerning Alpine Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert J.; Ettlinger, Carl F.; Shealy, Jasper E.

    2009-01-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children’s equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions. PMID:23015911

  7. [Polypharmacy is of major concern in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Dovjak, Peter; Sommeregger, Ulrike; Otto, Ronald; Roller, Regina E; Böhmdorfer, Birgit; Iglseder, Bernhard; Benvenuti-Falger, Ursula; Lechleitner, Monika; Gosch, Markus

    2010-06-01

    Quality improvement in cardiology over the past decade focused on management of acute coronary syndrome with invasive and innovative medical therapies, optimizing treatment of congestive heart failure and the development of repair procedures in valvular heart disease. On the other hand cardiologist and the attendant physicians are confronted with changes in the characteristics of patients in the light of demographic facts. Comorbidity and polypharmacy raise the need for clear concepts. Therapeutic and diagnostic tools of geriatric medicine may help in that context. PMID:20640922

  8. 30 years of remote sensing imagery in Sahel confronted to field observations (Gourma, Mali)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardel, Cecile; Kergoat, Laurent; Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric; Grippa, Manuela; Auda, Yves; Tucker, Compton Jim

    2013-04-01

    Long time-series of satellite data (AVHRR, VGT, METEOSAT, MODIS) now provide important evidence of decadal trends in vegetation activity for different biomes (arctic, boreal, temperate, tropical). Obtaining such time-series is notoriously difficult for a number of reasons including sensor calibration and spectral characterization, orbital drift, consistency of atmospheric corrections confronted to poorly-known aerosol and dust fields, to name just a few. Consistency between sensors or products has already been addressed, but corroboration with in situ data remains challenging. We present here such a consistency check based on long term productivity data collected within the frame of the AMMA-CATCH observatory in northern Sahel, Mali. Firstly, a comparison is performed between various NDVI datasets. The new-released GIMMS-3g dataset is available from 1981 to 2011 with a spatial resolution of 9km and 15 days maximum composite images. It is compared to two other NDVI datasets also based on AVHRR data: LTDR (1981-1999) and the previous GIMMS dataset (1981-2006). Correlations are calculated on a regional basis through simple linear correlation maps over the common time period. Better correlations are found over the Sahelian belt than over the Sahara desert, where vegetation is nil or too sparse. Correlation is higher between LTDR and GIMMS-3g than between GIMMS and GIMMS-3g. Temporal profile is also performed in order to compare AVHRR NDVI to NDVI product from the MODIS sensor (2000-2012). These four datasets were found to be consistent over time once corrected for the observed offsets in NDVI absolute values. Particularly, interannual variability is consistent. GIMMS-3g and MODIS show a good agreement over the last decade. Some minor discrepancies are found for 2010 and 2011 when GIMMS-3g shows lower values especially during the dry season. Preliminary results on the consistency with the Meteosat albedo product and SPOT-VGT time series are also presented. Secondly

  9. Cell phones and health concerns: impact of knowledge and voluntary precautionary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The article explores how voluntary precautionary recommendations for cell phone usage influence people's health concerns and behavior. An experimental study using a sample of Swiss citizens (N=408) was conducted. Three different versions of a newly developed booklet, which focused on common misconceptions in regard to mobile communication, and an existing booklet were tested. The experimental design addressed questions of the potential effects of knowledge, precautionary recommendations, and sender identity on health concerns and transfer of the proposed recommendations. Participants' perceptions were measured three times: immediately before and after reading the booklet, and two weeks later. The reading of the booklets increased participants' knowledge considerably and led to perceptual changes. In regard to cell phones, health concerns increased after the reading and stayed at a higher level even after two weeks. The negative perception of base stations, in contrast, tended to decrease. Neither the identity of the sender nor the omission of precautionary recommendations had significant effects on health concerns. Provision of specific recommendations enhanced readers' behavioral changes. Confrontation with information per se, and not precautionary recommendations, influenced the public's health concerns. These changes should not prevent the provision of precautionary recommendations because, in the face of scientific uncertainty, these are the only means through which to enable users to make informed decisions.

  10. Moving from Requirements to Design Confronting Security Issues: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkidis, Spyros T.; Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Stephanides, George

    Since the emergence of software security as a research area, it has been evident that security should be incorporated as early as possible in the software lifecycle. The advantage is that large gains can be achieved in terms of cost and effort compared to the introduction of security as an afterthought. The earliest possible phase to consider possible attacks is during requirements specification. A widely accepted approach to consider security in the requirements is the employment of misuse cases. In this paper we examine a case study to automatically generate a class diagram, based on the use and misuse cases present in the requirements. Particularly, we extend a natural language processing approach to move beyond a general domain model and produce a detailed class diagram. Moreover, security patterns are introduced in appropriate places of the design to confront the documented attacks and protect the threatened resources. Additionally, we perform an experimental study to investigate the tradeoff between the additional effort to mitigate the attacks and the security risk of the resulting system. Finally, the optimization problem of finding the smallest system regarding additional effort given a maximum acceptable risk is established and an appropriate algorithm to solve it is proposed.

  11. Tameness and stress physiology in a predator-naive island species confronted with novel predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Rödl, Thomas; Berger, Silke; Michael Romero, L; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Tame behaviour, i.e. low wariness, in terrestrial island species is often attributed to low predation pressure. However, we know little about its physiological control and its flexibility in the face of predator introductions. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands are a good model to study the physiological correlates of low wariness. They have lived virtually without predation for 5–15 Myr until some populations were first confronted with feral cats and dogs some 150 years ago. We tested whether and to what extent marine iguanas can adjust their behaviour and endocrine stress response to novel predation threats. Here, we show that a corticosterone stress response to experimental chasing is absent in naive animals, but is quickly restored with experience. Initially, low wariness also increases with experience, but remains an order of magnitude too low to allow successful escape from introduced predators. Our data suggest that the ability of marine iguanas to cope with predator introductions is limited by narrow reaction norms for behavioural wariness rather than by constraints in the underlying physiological stress system. In general, we predict that island endemics show flexible physiological stress responses but are restricted by narrow behavioural plasticity. PMID:17476779

  12. Confronting AeroCom models with particle size distribution data from surface in situ stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Stephen; Fiebig, Markus; Mann, Graham; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The size distribution is the most important property for describing any interaction of an aerosol particle population with its surroundings. In first order, it determines both, the aerosol optical properties quantifying the direct aerosol climate effect, and the fraction of aerosol particles acting as cloud condensation nuclei quantifying the indirect aerosol climate effect. Aerosol schemes of modern climate models resolve the aerosol particle size distribution (APSD) explicitly. In improving the skill of climate models, it is therefore highly useful to confront these models with precision APSD data observed at surface stations. Corresponding previous work focussed on comparing size integrated, seasonal particle concentrations at selected sites with ensemble model averages to assess overall model skill. Building on this work, this project intends to refine the approach by comparing median particle size and integral concentration of fitted modal size distributions. It will also look at skill differences between models in order to find reasons for matches and discrepancies. The presentation will outline the project, and will elaborate on input requested from modelling groups to participate in the exercise.

  13. Confrontation Between a Quantized Periods of Some Exo-planetary Systems and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Morcos, Abd

    2012-07-01

    Confrontation Between a Quantized Periods of Some Exo-planetary Systems and Observations A.B. Morcos Corot and Kepler were designed to detect Earth-like extra solar planets. The orbital elements and periods of these planets will contain some uncertainties. Many theoretical treatments depend on the idea of quantization were done aiming to find orbital elements of these exoplenets. In the present work, as an extension of previous works, the periods of some extoplanetary systems are calculated by using a simple derived formula. The orbital velocities of some of them are predicted . A comparison between the calculated and observed data is done References 1-J.M. Barnothy , the stability of the Solar System and of small Stellar Systems . (Y.Kazai edn,IAU,1974). 2-L.Nottale,Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics,Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity,( World Scientific, London,1994). 3-L. Nottale, A&A Lett. 315, L9 (1996). 4-L. Nottale, G. Schumacher and J. Gay, A&A , 322, 1018 , (1997). 5-L. Nottale, A&A , 361, 379 (2000). 6-A.G. Agnese and R.Festa, arXiv:astro-ph/9807186v1, (1998). 7-A.G. Agnese and R.Festa, arXiv:astro-ph/9910534v2. (1999). 8- A.B.Morcos, MG 12 , France (2009). 9- A.B.Morcs, Cospar 38 , Bremen , Germany (2010)

  14. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Basilakos, Spyros; Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan E-mail: fbauerphysik@eml.cc

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class (F{sup n}{sub m}) of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F{sup n}{sub m} found by this method with the standard or concordance ΛCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model.

  15. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    PubMed

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank.

  16. The threat at home: Confronting the toxic legacy of the U. S. Military

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental problems that confront the military--and the communities where military facilities are located--are as varied and diverse as the military itself. Past waste management and mismanagement practices have led to large-scale contamination of soil and groundwater with toxic or hazardous fuels, solvents, trace metals, pesticides, explosives, and propellants. Nuclear production facilities generate mixed wastes, which contain both radioactive and toxic contaminants. Test sites and proving grounds are known to contain a large number of unexploded munitions buried in the soil, and a number of arsenals and ammunition plants store chemical weapons agents, which are no longer needed, such as mustard gas and nerve agents. The book is divided into three parts--[open quotes]The Threat[close quotes], [open quotes]Secret Legacies[close quotes], and [open quotes]Facing the Future[close quotes]. Shulman devotes separate chapters to individual facilities and sites, describing the environmental degradation and damage that has occurred. Through interviews with private citizens, the author portrays the anger and suspicion that exist in surrounding communities. The author describes the frustration of Congressional committees as well as military and contract personnel involved in cleanup, who decry the lack of guidance from the Pentagon.

  17. Non-anthropocentric Reasoning in Children: Its incidence when they are confronted with ecological dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, António; Vasconcelos, Clara Maria; Strecht-Ribeiro, Orlando; Torres, Joana

    2013-01-01

    This study used an individual structured interview to (1) verify the incidence of non-anthropocentric reasoning in 123 children attending the 3rd and 4th years in three primary schools in the Lisbon area (Portugal), when they are confronted with ecological dilemmas and (2) establish those places they frequented which permit animal contact. The results show a greater incidence of non-anthropocentric reasoning than that obtained in other international studies. This may be related to the focus of the questions asked, which invited children to imagine themselves as another animal or to present situations where human interaction is unfair. This incidence was found independently of gender, school origin and whether or not pets were owned, even with the more biologically complex animals. School year was the only variable proven to make a difference in conceptually more demanding questions. We also verified that the children's general past experience of nature is essentially aligned to 'controlled environments depending on ongoing human management', confirming a decline in direct contact with 'natural and semi-natural environments'. However, this type of experience does not seem to exert a negative influence on their non-anthropocentric reasoning.

  18. A public health approach to cholesterol. Confronting the 'TV-auto-supermarket society'.

    PubMed Central

    Bodenheimer, T.

    1991-01-01

    Coronary heart disease has been proved to be associated with a "high-risk" diet and with elevated blood cholesterol levels. The National Cholesterol Education Program has embarked on a campaign based on intensive medical treatment of 60 million Americans with high blood cholesterol levels, but the degree of benefit of dietary change or pharmaceutical intervention or both to reduce blood cholesterol values remains a subject of disagreement within the scientific community. Evidence from comparative international studies suggests that to lower coronary heart disease mortality substantially, dietary alterations and general societal changes must be greater than those possible under the National Cholesterol Education Program's approach of physician-centered patient counseling. The nation's priority to prevent coronary heart disease should be a public policy approach, the goal of which is to reduce for the entire population all coronary disease risk factors. In the dietary area, three proposals to reduce the availability of atherogenic foods are the use of warning labels on atherogenic foods, the prohibition of advertising for such high-risk foods, and the imposition of an excise tax on the same foods. We must confront the "TV-auto-supermarket society" that underlies our nation's high rate of coronary heart disease. PMID:2028608

  19. Confronting predictions of stellar evolution theory: the case of single field M dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Mann, Andrew W.; Gaidos, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Using a homogenous sample of single field M dwarf stars from the CONCH-SHELL catalog, we confront the reliability of predictions from low mass stellar evolution models. Empirical values for the bolometric flux, effective temperature, and stellar radius are typically determined with better than 1%, 2%, and 5% precision, respectively. Coupled with precise [M/H] values, these observations place strong constraints on the accuracy of stellar models. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) formalism is used to establish the most likely stellar properties, with associated uncertainties, by interpolating within a dense grid of Dartmouth stellar evolution models with mass, age, metallicity, and distance as free parameters. The observed effective temperature and bolometric flux are adopted as independent observables in the MCMC likelihood function with the addition of the observed [M/H] and distance as informative Bayesian priors. Results are presented comparing model mass estimates to those from an empirical mass-luminosity calibration, and showing how well stellar models reproduce the observed radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities. Reliability of stellar models is then investigated as a function of mass, [M/H], equivalent width of H-alpha, and X-ray luminosity. Finally, we briefly discuss various physical mechanisms to explain the observed trends, particularly in the context of the hypothesis that magnetic activity is the source of model-observation discrepancies.

  20. Current challenges for confronting the public health problem of snakebite envenoming in Central America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a serious public health problem in Central America, where approximately 5,500 cases occur every year. Panama has the highest incidence and El Salvador the lowest. The majority, and most severe, cases are inflicted by the pit viper Bothrops asper (family Viperidae), locally known as ‘terciopelo’, ‘barba amarilla’ or ‘equis’. About 1% of the bites are caused by coral snakes of the genus Micrurus (family Elapidae). Despite significant and successful efforts in Central America regarding snakebite envenomings in the areas of research, antivenom manufacture and quality control, training of health professionals in the diagnosis and clinical management of bites, and prevention of snakebites, much remains to be done in order to further reduce the impact of this medical condition. This essay presents seven challenges for improving the confrontation of snakebite envenoming in Central America. Overcoming these challenges demands a coordinated partnership of highly diverse stakeholders though inter-sectorial and inter-programmatic interventions. PMID:24602234

  1. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class {Fnm} of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models Fnm found by this method with the standard or concordance ΛCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model.

  2. Effects of Perceptual and Contextual Enrichment on Visual Confrontation Naming in Adult Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Yvonne; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of enriching line drawings with color/texture and environmental context as a facilitator of naming speed and accuracy in older adults. Method Twenty young and 23 older adults named high-frequency picture stimuli from the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) under three conditions: (a) black-and-white items, (b) colorized-texturized items, and (c) scene-primed colored items (e.g., “hammock” preceded 1,000 ms by a backyard scene). Results With respect to speeded naming latencies, mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that young adults did not benefit from colorization-texturization but did show scene-priming effects. In contrast, older adults failed to show facilitation effects from either colorized-texturized or scene-primed items. Moreover, older adults were consistently slower to initiate naming than were their younger counterparts across all conditions. Conclusions Perceptual and contextual enrichment of sparse line drawings does not appear to facilitate visual confrontation naming in older adults, whereas younger adults do tend to show benefits of scene priming. We interpret these findings as generally supportive of a processing speed account of age-related object picture-naming difficulty. PMID:21498581

  3. Control, confront or collude: how family and society respond to excessive drinking.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    1992-11-01

    Research on excessive drinking in the family context has revealed the range of ways of coping used by close relatives. Case material from ongoing research in England and Mexico is used to illustrate this point. This research is also revealing the ways in which the family, close and extended, often fail to support the coping actions of close relatives. The analogy is drawn between coping with excessive drinking in the family and coping in the work setting. In the latter context explicit alcohol policies have been developed. These often recommend combining confrontative and supportive coping. It may be difficult for relatives, in the family setting, to adopt such a policy without support. The forms of coping identified in family research and in work policies correspond to basic and universal dimensions of interpersonal behaviour: dominance-submissiveness and friendliness-hostility. These forms of responding to excessive drinking may be identified beyond the microsocial systems of family and workplace. They are evident, also, in the responses of community agents such as police and social workers, and at the level of local and national government.

  4. The Challenge of Responsibilities: Confronting the Revolution in Workplace Rights in Modern Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osigweh, Chimezie A. B.

    1988-01-01

    A revolution in workplace rights thinking and practices is occurring. Related factors include professionalization and technocracy, management orthodoxy, and corrupt organizational structures. Because of the correlative link between rights and responsibilities, organizational researchers should be concerned with identifying and describing…

  5. A Tentative Description of Post-Formal Thinking: The Critical Confrontation with Cognitive Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe L.; Steinberg, Shirley R.

    1993-01-01

    Postformal thinking concerns questions of meaning and purpose, multiple perspectives, human dignity, freedom, and social responsibility. Curriculum and instruction based on postformalism involves detecting problems, uncovering hidden assumptions, seeing relationships, deconstructing, connecting logic and emotion, and attending to context. (SK)

  6. Concerns of Professionals in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.

    1977-01-01

    An American Vocational Association (AVA) Agricultural Education Research Committee survey of the professional concerns of teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators showed that curriculum development, funding, teacher education, teacher shortages, and program evaluation were the major concerns. (HD)

  7. 12 CFR 347.106 - Going concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Going concerns. 347.106 Section 347.106 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.106 Going concerns. Going concerns. If a bank acquires an equity interest in a... revenues of the foreign organization may be attributable to activities that are not permissible under §...

  8. 12 CFR 347.106 - Going concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Going concerns. 347.106 Section 347.106 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.106 Going concerns. Going concerns. If a bank acquires an equity interest in a... revenues of the foreign organization may be attributable to activities that are not permissible under §...

  9. 12 CFR 347.106 - Going concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Going concerns. 347.106 Section 347.106 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.106 Going concerns. Going concerns. If a bank acquires an equity interest in a... revenues of the foreign organization may be attributable to activities that are not permissible under §...

  10. 12 CFR 347.106 - Going concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Going concerns. 347.106 Section 347.106 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.106 Going concerns. Going concerns. If a bank acquires an equity interest in a... revenues of the foreign organization may be attributable to activities that are not permissible under §...

  11. Writing Centre Tutoring Sessions: Addressing Students' Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Roger; Kathpalia, Sujata S.; Koo, Swit Ling

    2016-01-01

    The guiding principle behind university writing centres is to focus on the process of writing rather than the finished product, prioritising higher order concerns related to organisation and argumentation of texts rather than lower order concerns of grammar and punctuation. Using survey-based data, this paper examines students' concerns regarding…

  12. 12 CFR 347.106 - Going concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Going concerns. 347.106 Section 347.106 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.106 Going concerns. Going concerns. If a bank acquires an equity interest in...

  13. Health behaviors and their correlates among participants in the Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey

    PubMed Central

    Müllerová, Hana; Landis, Sarah H; Aisanov, Zaurbek; Davis, Kourtney J; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M; Maskell, Joe; Menezes, Ana M; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Tabberer, Maggie; Han, MeiLan K

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims We used data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey to test the hypothesis that patients with COPD who report less engagement with their disease management are also more likely to report greater impact of the disease. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 4,343 subjects aged ≥40 years from 12 countries, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. The impact of COPD was measured with COPD Assessment Test, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, and hospital admissions and emergency department visits for COPD in the prior year. The 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) instrument and the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) were used to measure patient disease engagement and medication adherence, respectively. Results Twenty-eight percent of subjects reported being either disengaged or struggling with their disease (low engagement: PAM-13 levels 1 and 2), and 35% reported poor adherence (MMAS-8 <6). In univariate analyses, lower PAM-13 and MMAS-8 scores were significantly associated with poorer COPD-specific health status, greater breathlessness and lower BMI (PAM-13 only), less satisfaction with their doctor’s management of COPD, and more emergency department visits. In multivariate regression models, poor satisfaction with their doctor’s management of COPD was significantly associated with both low PAM-13 and MMAS-8 scores; low PAM-13 scores were additionally independently associated with higher COPD Assessment Test and modified Medical Research Council scores and low BMI (underweight). Conclusion Poor patient engagement and medication adherence are frequent and associated with worse COPD-specific health status, higher health care utilization, and lower satisfaction with health care providers. More research will be needed to better understand what factors can be modified to improve medication adherence and

  14. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jason; Landis, Sarah H.; Maskell, Joe; Oh, Yeon-Mok; van der Molen, Thys; Han, MeiLan K.; Mannino, David M.; Ichinose, Masakazu; Punekar, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Background The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation), contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient. Results The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea) to $9,981 (USA), with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries) and home oxygen therapy (3 countries) being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy) to 52% (USA and UK) with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia) to $30,826 (USA) but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease) and a greater number of comorbidities. Conclusions The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs. PMID:27092775

  15. Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy at the High School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high school students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based climate curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of climate literacy and develop into climate literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and Climate, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about climate and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and climate occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.

  16. Confronting Cyber-Bullying: What Schools Need to Know to Control Misconduct and Avoid Legal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shariff, Shaheen

    2009-01-01

    This book is directed to academics, educators, and government policy-makers who are concerned about addressing emerging cyber-bullying and anti-authority student expressions through the use of cell phone and Internet technologies. There is a current policy vacuum relating to the extent of educators' legal responsibilities to intervene when such…

  17. "I Just Don't like that Kid": Confronting and Managing Personal Feelings about Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Sue

    2008-01-01

    All good teachers try hard to treat each child fairly and kindly, with care and concern. Indeed, they are ethically obliged to do so (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC], 2005). As they are human, however, they may occasionally meet a child to whom they react negatively. It is not something to be proud of, but they…

  18. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1996 Edition [and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This book accompanied by the Teacher's guide, focuses on policy issues being discussed and debated by U.S. policymakers. The book provides essays on current issues facing the nation and the world. Ten chapters highlight domestic policy issues and 10 chapters are about foreign policy issues. This book informs readers about important concerns of…

  19. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  20. Confronting Our Discomfort: Clearing the Way for Anti-Bias in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Tamar

    Despite having a genuine concern about racism and oppression, many early childhood teachers encounter significant feelings of discomfort as they try to implement antibias values in their classrooms. Based on the view that it is not possible to authentically teach children about acceptance without engaging in reflection upon one's own values and…

  1. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1989 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R., Ed.

    This book investigates a variety of contemporary issues, both domestic U.S. concerns and those of an international focus that involve the United States. The introduction develops the context of the book by discussing the Reagan legacy, the 101st Congress, the Supreme Court, and the making of the U.S. federal budget. The domestic policy issues of…

  2. The three-dimensional seismological model a priori constrained: Confrontation with seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, Yanick; Nataf, Henri-Claude; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    1996-04-01

    We compare the predictions of an a priori model of the upper mantle with seismic observations of surface waves and eigenmodes. The 3-Dimensional Seismological Model A Priori Constrained (3SMAC) has been developed by Nataf and Ricard [1996]. It is based on the interpretation by geodynamicists of the near surface layers of the Earth; on distributions of temperature, pressure, and composition as a function of depth; and then on estimates of seismic parameters (density, velocities, attenuations) from solid state laboratory measurements as a function of temperature and pressure. The 3SMAC predictions are confronted with observations consisting of phase velocities for Love and Rayleigh waves in the period range of 70-250 s [Montagner and Tanimoto, 1990]. We first show that tomographic inversions applied to 3SMAC synthetics induce a strong smoothing of the heterogeneities. This casts doubt on the meaning of the spectra of mantle heterogeneities revealed by tomography. We then show that most of the Love and Rayleigh fundamental mode observations for periods less than 200 s are satisfactorily predicted by 3SMAC. The major differences come from the seismic velocities under the Red Sea and Southeast China, which are much slower than what is estimated from 3SMAC, as well as those under Greenland, which are not as fast as the other cratonic areas. Because the lithosphere is thinner than 100 km under oceans and thinner than 300 km under continents in 3SMAC, we suggest that the existence of deeper lithospheric anomalies as proposed in many tomographic models is mostly due to a spurious effect of the inversion rather than implied by surface wave data. Half of the variance of the degree 2 anomaly mapped by low-degree eigenmode observations can be explained by lithospheric velocity structures. The other half is highly correlated with the distribution of deep slabs, but its amplitude is a factor of 3 or 4 larger than that predicted by 3SMAC. The lithospheric anomalies present a

  3. Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Grant; Toniolo, Viola; Ainley, David G; Parkinson, Claire L; Arrigo, Kevin R; Trathan, Phil N

    2010-07-01

    Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) spans approximately 22 degrees. Penguins from northern colonies may not migrate, but due to the high latitude of Ross Island colonies, these penguins almost certainly undertake the longest migrations for the species. Previous work has suggested that Adélies require both pack ice and some ambient light at all times of year. Over a three-year period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated characteristics of migratory routes and wintering locations of Adélie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin. We acquired data from 3-16 geolocation sensor tags (GLS) affixed to penguins each year at both Cape Royds and Cape Crozier in 2003-2005. Migrations averaged 12760 km, with the longest being 17 600 km, and were in part facilitated by pack ice movement. Trip distances varied annually, but not by colony. Penguins rarely traveled north of the main sea-ice pack, and used areas with high sea-ice concentration, ranging from 75% to 85%, about 500 km inward from the ice edge. They also used locations where there was some twilight (2-7 h with sun < 6 degrees below the horizon). We report the present Adélie Penguin migration pattern and conjecture on how it probably has changed over the past approximately 12000 years, as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet withdrew southward across the Ross Sea, a situation that no other Adélie Penguin population has had to confront. As sea ice extent in the Ross Sea sector decreases in the near future, as predicted by climate models, we can expect further changes in the migration patterns of the Ross Sea penguins.

  4. Academic Major, Environmental Concern, and Arboretum Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherburn, Meghan; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between academic major, environmental concern, and the presence of a campus arboretum. Twenty-seven men and 43 women from a small liberal arts college, ages 18-36, completed a series of surveys including the Environmental Preference Questionnaire (EPQ), the Environmental Concern Scale (EC), and the New…

  5. Addressing Teachers' Concerns about Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martie; Ngxola, Nonyameko

    2009-01-01

    Evolution was introduced into the senior secondary school Life Sciences curriculum in South Africa for the first time in 2008. Research in other countries shows that evolution is an extremely controversial topic to teach, raising serious concerns for teachers. Curriculum change theory dealing with "stages of concern" suggests that teachers…

  6. Nigerian Elementary Children's Interests and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maduewesi, Ebele

    1982-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes interests (curiosity, wishes, favorite activities) and concerns (aversions, worries, fears) of 528 Nigerian rural and urban children age 7 to 13. Shows age to be the main determinant of differences. Major interests included biological functioning, personal possession, and play. Major concerns included injustice, aggressive…

  7. Patient concerns regarding chronic hepatitis C infections.

    PubMed

    Minuk, G Y; Gutkin, A; Wong, S G; Kaita, K D E

    2005-01-01

    Counselling of patients with chronic hepatitis C infections is often limited to discussions regarding how the virus is transmitted and what can be done to decrease the risk of transmission to others. The purpose of the present study was to document the principal concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C, and thereby enhance counselling strategies and content. Seventy newly diagnosed and 115 follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were initially asked in an open-ended manner (volunteered concerns) and then to prioritize from a prepared list of seven potential concerns (prioritized concerns), to identify those concerns that were of utmost importance to them. The most common volunteered concerns of newly diagnosed patients in decreasing order were: disease progression (27%), premature death (19%), infecting family members (13%), side-effects of treatment (11%) and miscellaneous others. In decreasing order, prioritized concerns included: infecting family members, development of liver cancer, infecting others, development of cirrhosis, social stigma of having liver disease, need for liver transplant and loss of employment. The principal volunteered and prioritized concerns of follow-up patients were similar to those of newly diagnosed patients. Volunteered and prioritized concerns were relatively consistent across the different genders, age groups, ethnic backgrounds, education level, marital status, employment, modes of viral acquisition and in the case of follow-up patients, duration of follow-up. These results indicate that health care providers who focus counselling efforts exclusively on viral transmission are unlikely to address other important concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:15655048

  8. Polio: another cause for global concern?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A

    2015-02-01

    Polio was declared an international public health emergency in May 2014. International travel and migration raises the threat for widespread outbreak. Promoting and protecting worker's health requires increased vigilance over international public health concerns. PMID:25881661

  9. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern or environmental emerging contaminants, are chemicals, products and materials that are detected with increasing frequency in all environmental media including surface, ground water and drinking water. Examples of these contaminants include pharmac...

  10. Health Update: Health Concerns for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses job-related health problems, such as infectious diseases and job stress, that are of concern to child caregivers in child care settings. Ways that these problems can be alleviated and/or medically treated are also discussed. (BB)

  11. Counterexamples concerning a weighted L^2 projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinchao

    1991-10-01

    Counterexamples are given to show that some results concerning a weighted {L^2} projection presented earlier by Bramble and the author are sharp, i.e., that certain error and stability estimates are impossible in some cases.

  12. Concern for Economy Reflected in Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The 21 resolutions approved at the American Vocational Association (AVA) New Orleans Convention reflected: concern about the economy, the single State agency concept for administering funds, more resources for research, and support for the adoption of the metric system. (EA)

  13. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  14. Retaining nurses through conflict resolution. Training staff to confront problems and communicate openly can improve the work climate.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A R; Bushardt, S C; Jones, M A

    1993-06-01

    The way nurses resolve conflict may be leading them to quit their jobs or leave the profession altogether. Conflict is inevitable in a dynamic organization. What is important is not to avoid conflict but to seek its resolution in a constructive manner. Organizational conflict is typically resolved through one of five strategies: withdrawal, force, conciliation, compromise, or confrontation. A recent study of nurses in three different hospitals showed that the approach they use most is withdrawal. This might manifest itself in a request to change shifts or assignments and may lead to a job change and, eventually, abandonment of the field altogether. Given this scenario, changing nurses' conflict resolution style may help administrators combat the nursing shortage. Healthcare organizations must examine themselves to determine why nurses so frequently use withdrawal; then they must restructure work relationships as needed. Next, organizations need to increase nurses' awareness of the problem and train them to use a resolution style more conducive to building stable relationships: confrontation. Staff should also be trained in effective communications skills to develop trust and openness in their relationships. PMID:10126220

  15. Visual confrontation naming and hippocampal function: A neural network study using quantitative (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sawrie, S M; Martin, R C; Gilliam, F G; Faught, R E; Maton, B; Hugg, J W; Bush, N; Sinclair, K; Kuzniecky, R I

    2000-04-01

    Prior research on the relationship between visual confrontation naming and hippocampal function has been inconclusive. The present study examined this relationship using quantitative (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to operationalize the function of the left and right hippocampi. The 60-item Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure naming. Our sample included 46 patients with medically intractable, focal mesial temporal lobe epilepsy who had been screened for all pathology other than mesial temporal sclerosis. Statistics included Pearson correlations and neural network analysis (multilayer perceptron and radial basis function). Baseline BNT performance correlated significantly with left (1)H-MRS hippocampal ratios. Thirty-six per cent of the variance in baseline BNT performance was explained by a neural network model using left and right (1)H-MRS ratios(creatine/N-acetylaspartate) as input. This was elevated to 49% when input from the right hippocampus was lesioned mathematically. In a second model, left (1)H-MRS hippocampal ratios were modelled using measures of semantic and episodic memory as input (including the BNT). Explained variance in left (1)H-MRS hippocampal ratios fell from 60.8 to 3.6% when input from BNT and another semantic memory measure was degraded mathematically. These results provide evidence that the speech-dominant hippocampus is a significant component of the overall neuroanatomical network of visual confrontation naming. Clinical and theoretical implications are explored.

  16. Ethical concerns expressed by forensic psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R

    1986-04-01

    A survey was made of American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) forensic psychiatrists to evaluate whether there is concern among them about potential ethical problems in criminal justice work. Of the respondents, 93.8% had encountered such problems. The main concerns indicated were about those psychiatrists who become a "hired gun," become an advocate, do not give an honest opinion, or have problems with confidentiality. The need for ethical guidelines and further debate about ethical issues is presented.

  17. Confronting hysteresis: Wood based river rehabilitation in highly altered riverine landscapes of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Andrew P.; Howell, Timothy; Abbe, Tim B.; Arthington, Angela H.

    2006-09-01

    values in the control were around 1.5% and 1%, respectively. Two indices of morphologic diversity were measured for each bed survey: the standard deviation of 3D residuals of change compared with the baseline survey (SD iΔ3D); and the standard deviation of thalweg residuals from the line of best fit (SD iTR). The SD iΔ3D index shows both reaches increased in complexity through the study with the treatment increasing more than the control (0.37 and 0.29, respectively). The SD iTR index does not detect clear changes because of the low signal to noise ratio, however, it does suggest the test reach was more complex than the control at the outset. The observed increase in fish abundance after the first 12 months of monitoring, reported previously, is now far less distinct 4 years on — a pattern seemingly reflecting the relatively minor increases in critical pool habitat and habitat diversity over the same period. Although no significant differences were detectable in fish species richness or total abundance from the reach aggregate data after 4 years, analysis of individual structures show them to be high quality habitat for native fish compared to the rest of the reach and the upstream control. These results highlight the challenges river managers face in achieving measurable improvements in the health of aquatic ecosystems in highly altered rivers. Managers must confront hysteresis in a biophysical and institutional sense when attempting to reverse the degradation of rivers. The scale of treatment implemented in this experiment was at the upper end of the spectrum of rehabilitation efforts currently being undertaken in Australia, suggesting that far greater resources and longer timescales are required to achieve the levels of improvement in the diversity of stream habitat expected by the community. The study also highlights problems with the strategy of attempting to meet multiple objectives within a reach scale rehabilitation project. While this treatment successfully

  18. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed.

  19. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed. PMID:27695706

  20. Corporate Funding for Schools of Public Health: Confronting the Ethical and Economic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.

  1. Confronting Complexity: Adaptation Strategies for Managing Biodiversity in the Face of Rapid Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graumlich, L.; Cross, M.; Tabor, G.; Enquist, C.; Rowland, E.

    2008-12-01

    There is no doubt that the montane landscapes of the Western US are being transformed by a complex interplay of changing climate, growing urban centers, altered disturbance regimes and invasive species. Among this suite of drivers of change, climate change has emerged as a critical concern of managers and agencies concerned with protected areas and protected species. These managers are under intensifying pressure to come up with scientifically robust and socially acceptable plans for adaptation to climate change. Those charged with managing biodiversity in the face of change have turned to the scientific community for decision support tools that they can implement immediately to proactively address adaptation. Broadly speaking, this is good news for that part of the scientific community that is keen to engage in translational science, even if the timeline is a bit breathtaking. A key challenge in this endeavor is to find common ground between all those issues that define complexity for the scientific community (e.g., nonlinearity, thresholds, cross-scale interactions) and a range of issues that define complexity for the management community (e.g., multiple jurisdictions, regulatory issues, values of diverse stakeholders). In this talk, we reflect on emerging strategies that seek to infuse adaptation into climate change into landscape scale conservation planning in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Southwestern US. We describe how climate change challenges current adaptive management practices to 1) anticipate a broad range of climate trajectories, including no-analog scenarios, and 2) to actively incorporate new information from positive outcomes and negative consequences of management interventions. The success of such adaption hinges on public understanding and acceptance of the process of adaption, which, in turn, demands even greater attention to be paid to increasing public understanding of the intersection of climate change and the role of

  2. Dementing illnesses in rural populations: the need for research and challenges confronting investigators.

    PubMed

    Keefover, R W; Rankin, E D; Keyl, P M; Wells, J C; Martin, J; Shaw, J

    1996-01-01

    Expansion of the world's elderly populations has increased concerns about aging-related medical disorders like Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In the United States, one fourth of those older than age 65 and at greatest risk for developing dementia live in rural environments that may influence its manifestation. The objectives of this study were to determine the need for and potential benefits of further epidemiological research concerning dementia and similar disorders in rural U.S. populations and to identify pertinent methodological issues related to rural dementia research. This study employed a National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) document search based on the key words "cognitive disorders," "dementia," "Alzheimer's disease," and "rural," followed by recovery of literature resources references in the bibliographies of selected articles. Nineteen studies focusing on dementia or related disorders in rural settings have been reported from around the world. While four of these were conducted in the United States, only one rural dementia prevalence study has been undertaken in this country. Because of methodological variability, comparisons of prevalence estimates between these rural studies, as well as with those from urban investigations, is difficult. Nonetheless, there is reason to believe that certain potentially dementing illnesses are more common in rural populations. There is also evidence to suggest that the screening instruments commonly used in such studies tend to misclassify rural elders as "false positive" dementia cases. Information regarding dementing disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease, in rural populations is scarce. Preliminary observations that dementia may be more common in rural settings and that rural families are more likely to maintain their dementing elders in the community imply that further rural dementia research could yield important insights into the risk factors for these illnesses, the variables influencing their

  3. AFRA confronts gender issues: the process of creating a gender strategy.

    PubMed

    Bydawell, M

    1997-02-01

    The Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA), a nongovernmental organization in South Africa affiliated with the National Land Committee (NLC), seeks to redress the legacy of unjust land dispensation during the apartheid period. AFRA is the first organization within NLC to deal openly with issues of race and gender; this process has been conflictual, however. At gender training workshops conducted by White development workers, many staff expressed the view that sexism is an alien Western issue. Moreover, gender sensitivity was interpreted by Black staff as an assault on their race and cultural identity. The staff itself was polarized on racial grounds, with White managers and Black field workers. Staff further expressed concerns that a gender perspective would dilute AFRA's focus on land reform and alienate rural women who want male household heads to continue to hold the title to their land. The organizational structure was reorganized, though, to become more democratic and racially representative. The 1995 appointment of the first field worker assigned to address women's empowerment in both the organization and target communities refueled the controversy, and a gender workshop led by a psychologist was held to build trust and unity. Staff moved toward a shared understanding of gender as an aspect of social differentiation. AFRA has since committed itself to develop an integrated gender strategy sensitive to people's needs and fears.

  4. “Am I my genes?”: Questions of identity among individuals confronting genetic disease

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore many questions raised by genetics concerning personal identities that have not been fully investigated. Methods We interviewed in depth, for 2 hours each, 64 individuals who had or were at risk for Huntington disease, breast cancer, or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Results These individuals struggled with several difficult issues of identity. They drew on a range of genotypes and phenotypes (e.g., family history alone; mutations, but no symptoms; or symptoms). They often felt that their predicament did not fit preexisting categories well (e.g., “sick,” “healthy,” “disabled,” “predisposed”), due in part to uncertainties involved (e.g., unclear prognoses, since mutations may not produce symptoms). Hence, individuals varied in how much genetics affected their identity, in what ways, and how negatively. Factors emerged related to disease, family history, and other sources of identity. These identities may, in turn, shape disclosure, coping, and other health decisions. Conclusions Individuals struggle to construct a genetic identity. They view genetic information in highly subjective ways, varying widely in what aspects of genetic information they focus on and how. These data have important implications for education of providers (to assist patients with these issues), patients, and family members; and for research, to understand these issues more fully. PMID:20010365

  5. Evaluation of RSRM case hardware fretting concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swauger, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Fretting corrosion was first noted on Shuttle flight STS-26. This flight was the first usage of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The occurrence of fretting has since been observed on both the field and factory joints of the RSRM. Fretting is a form of corrosion that occurs at the interface between contacting, highly loaded, metal surfaces when exposed to slight relative vibratory motions. The engineering effort performed to evaluate the effect of fretting on the RSRM case hardware is summarized. Based on the results of this evaluation, several conclusions were made concerning flight safety. Also, recommendations were made concerning trending the effects of multiple generations of fretting damage.

  6. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  7. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  8. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  9. Patterns of invasive growth in vitro. Human decidua graviditatis confronted with established human cell lines and primary human explants.

    PubMed

    Schleich, A B; Frick, M; Mayer, A

    1976-02-01

    Human decidua graviditatis was used as a receptor tissue to demonstrate invasive properties of human cells in vitro. In the confrontation between decidua and established cell lines of tumors and of normal origin as well as primary explanted cells, we noted differences in the cells' interactions with decidual tissue. The two original tumor cell lines, HeLa (carcinoma) and AFi (sarcoma), and a spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell line showed aggressiveness, i.e., invasion, rapid proliferation, injury, and destruction of the decidual tissue. Strain HeLa S3 and two established cell lines, FL (amnion) and Girardi Heart, which are regarded as transformed cells because of their increased mitotic rate and polyploidy, exhibited various degrees of aggressiveness but did not invade. Freshly explanted fetal lung and endometrium caused no injury to the receptor tissue and were included in the decidual tissue.

  10. Fundamental study on filter effect of confronting divergent magnetic fields applied to low-pressure inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Hirotake; Ogino, So

    2016-07-01

    The electron motion under confronting divergent magnetic fields (CDMFs) applied to inductively coupled plasmas was simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The CDMFs induced by two coaxial dc coils confined electrons in one side of the separatrix of the CDMFs. However, electrons diffused across the separatrix mainly in two ways. One was the displacement of their gyrocenters due to scattering near the outer part of the separatrix. This process tended to occur for high-energy electrons with correspondingly large gyroradii. The other was passage through the weak magnetic field around the center. This process was allowed for low-energy electrons. The position-dependent selectivity about the electron energy was pointed out as a seed property for applications of the separatrix as a magnetic filter or shutter. The mechanism by which the functions of the separatrix emerge was explained from a viewpoint of electron motion under the CDMFs.

  11. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys: comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M; Landis, Sarah H; Han, MeiLan K; Muellerova, Hana; Aisanov, Zaurbek; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M; Davis, Kourtney J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD. Results Most physicians (79%) responded that the long-term health outlook for patients with COPD has improved over the past decade, largely attributed to the introduction of better medications. However, patient access to medication remains an issue in many countries, and some physicians (39%) and patients (46%) agreed/strongly agreed with the statement “there are no truly effective treatments for COPD”. There was strong concordance between physicians and patients regarding COPD management practices, including the use of spirometry (86% of physicians and 76% of patients reporting they used/had undergone a spirometry test) and smoking cessation counseling (76% of physicians reported they counseled their smoking patients at every clinic visit, and 71% of smoking patients stated that they had received counseling in the past year). However, the groups differed in their perception about the role of smoking in COPD, with 78% of physicians versus 38% of patients strongly agreeing with the statement “smoking is the cause of most cases of COPD”. Conclusion The Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys demonstrate that while physicians and patients largely agreed about COPD management practices and the need for more effective treatments for COPD

  12. Limitations of cadaveric organ donation on judicial cases and problems confronted in autopsy: Istanbul data in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Arslan, M N; Esen Melez, I; Melez, D O; Cavlak, M; Gur, A

    2014-04-01

    Organ transplantation is one of the most important services of modern medicine to the humanity. In judicial death cases the interaction between judicial needs and transplantation needs is inevitable and both should be provided in a short time before the decomposition of the body. Thus, the description of this interaction and the algorithm which should be carried out to manage these cases are important. Aim of this study is to determine the problems confronted in forensic autopsies and to determine what to do for both judicial processes' and cadaveric organ donations' not becoming limited due to each other. With these aims, autopsy case archive of the Council of Forensic Medicine Istanbul Morgue Department was reviewed, between the years 2009 and 2011, to reveal the number of organ donors among autopsy cases and also to find out the judicial problems confronted during autopsies. Among 12,016 judicial death cases referred to Istanbul Morgue Department in 3 years, 35 cases were found to have undergone cadaveric solid organ harvesting procedure and 307 cases cornea-only harvesting procedure. Manner of deaths for organ donor cases were blunt trauma due to traffic accident in 20 cases, firearm injury in 3 cases, stabbing in 2 cases, suspicious criminal battery in 4 cases and fatal falls in 5 cases. Only 1 case was suspected to have died due to high dose insulin administration. Through the whole data presented in this study, it can be concluded that consulting with the Forensic Medicine Expert not only for the autopsies but also during the clinical process of a judicial case, who is a candidate to be an organ donor, is absolutely important. The early contribution of the Forensic Medicine Expert would provide help to plan both the judicial process and the transplantation process which needs urgent decisions. A Forensic Medicine Expert may be an organ harvest team member performing initial investigations on the cause of death and collecting some of the toxicological

  13. Public land and natural resource issues confronting animal scientists and livestock producers.

    PubMed

    Vavra, M

    1998-09-01

    Livestock producers using public lands in the West were once concerned primarily with efficient systems for livestock production. Historically, this concept began in 1934 with the passage of the Taylor Grazing Act. Management activities on public lands continued to focus on sustainable livestock production until the 1970s, when the public began to demand enforcement of the Multiple Use Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. During this time, species listing under the Endangered Species Act became more active. Unfortunately, so many species are listed or are being considered for listing that it becomes impossible to develop biological information on causative factors for listing or recovery plans for each one. Peer-reviewed science that addresses management needs is often unavailable, and articles from the gray literature have been used in management plans for both threatened and endangered species and for public land. Personal biases of both scientists and land managers can influence the development of land management plans, especially in cases in which scientific information is minimal. The Land Grant System is well positioned to develop research applicable for public lands. Animal scientists need to be involved in interdisciplinary teams. Livestock producers need to overcome the stigma that livestock grazing is not a sustainable use. Rangeland in poor condition, whether public or private, should be improved if livestock managers are to change the public perception that grazing degrades rangeland. To accomplish this, education and peer pressure should be used. Another approach needed is activism on the part of producers and animal scientists. The public is demanding a voice in public land management. Working groups seem to be the emerging pathway to cooperatively develop management plans.

  14. Serendipity, Eighth Grade Concerns, and Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Josie; Pros, Jennifer; Marshall, Joan

    Graduate students (N=13) in a counselor education program in New York State participated in a study about what they thought were the main concerns of eighth grade students. A needs assessment is often a helpful method for counselors to plan and deliver services. The responses of the school counselor trainees were very different from the responses…

  15. New Developments of the Shared Concern Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikas, Anatol

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and describes new developments in the Shared Concern method (SCm), a tool for tackling group bullying amongst teenagers by individual talks. The psychological mechanisms of healing in the bully group and what hinders the bully therapist in eliciting them have become better clarified. The most important recent advancement of the SCm…

  16. Counseling Concerns for the Individual with Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclair, Norma J; Berkowitz, Belinda

    1983-01-01

    Presents characteristics, medical concerns, treatment alternatives, and family issues for counselors working with nonhospitalized clients. Emphasis is placed on attending the interaction of the behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains in the client. Counselors should use interventions based on theory and research. (Author/JAC)

  17. Linguistic Privilege: Why Educators Should Be Concerned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Geurtsen, Tricia

    2007-01-01

    Awareness of privilege and the unearned power that it brings those who have it is a crucial aspect of becoming a multicultural educator. For some time White and male privilege has been a topic of discussion among educators and people concerned about social justice. All aspects of privilege need to be understood and articulated in order to continue…

  18. Universalism Values: Blueprint for Environmental Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Empirical research has consistently shown human values to be significantly related to both attitudes and behaviors. This paper unites the value theories of several researchers into an explanation of environmental concern, and provides some preliminary data to support the model. Attitudes toward environmental choices should be determined by…

  19. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  20. Internet Review: Educator Concerns regarding Cyberspace Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czubaj, Camilia Anne

    2004-01-01

    The five educator concerns regarding cyberspace curricula identified on the Internet are teacher training, resources, attitudes. software, and reproduction rights. Several web sites are discussed that list training opportunities. Other web sites offer educators interactive multimedia materials. Self-training can be accomplished with web sites that…

  1. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Area Confidentiality & Safety Get Informed What Is Abuse? What Is Neglect? What is Financial Exploitation? Other Safety Concerns? History ... adults. These are commonly reported signs of self-neglect* reported to Adult ... of clutter Animal feces in home Residence is extremely dirty, filled ...

  2. Groups concerned about Congress and criticism

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-12-07

    Environmental groups are concerned about the impact a Republican-dominated Congress will have on their activities. The Republican agenda would {open_quotes}severely undercut public health and environmental protection, {close_quotes} says the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington).

  3. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  4. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  5. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  6. Revised Recommendation Concerning Technical and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The UNESCO (United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) revised recommendation setting forth general principles, goals, and guidelines concerning technical and vocational education (adopted by the General Conference at its 18th session in Paris, 19 November 1974) is presented under the following headings: (1) Technical and…

  7. Understanding Teachers' Concerns about Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Monika; Das, Ajay; Sharma, Sushama; Tiwari, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon,…

  8. Current Concerns for Austrian School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz-Viechtbauer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes four recent concerns of the Austrian Institute for School and Sport Facilities, which is responsible for current issues and problems related to educational buildings in the country: schools as low energy buildings, electromagnetic fields and school buildings, chairs and tables for educational buildings, and school grounds (learnscapes).…

  9. Anticipatory Concern: A Study in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Jessica A.; Harris, Ruth; Garcia-Perez, Rosa; Hobson, R. Peter

    2009-01-01

    There has been substantial research on children's empathic responsiveness towards distressed people, and on the limited responsiveness of children with autism. To date, however, there have not been experimental studies to test how far children show concern towards someone who might be "expected" to feel badly, when that person has "not" (yet)…

  10. Systems Analysts in Higher Education: Some Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John W.

    This paper focuses on the concerns associated with the use of systems analysis in higher education. One fear is that systems analysis will increase the need for centralized authority and highly structured activity, thus contributing to further alienation and dehumanization. A second objection pertains to the increased requirement for specifying…

  11. Tenure Traps: Legal Issues of Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Offers information and observations on six areas of legal concern in circumstances where tenure is denied and the individual decides to contest the decision. Advises making the tough decisions early in the process, following the established process, and being as clear as possible in intentions and communication. (SR)

  12. Employer Concerns Regarding Workers with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; Johnson, Virginia Anne

    More than 90 surveys conducted during the past 40 years covering a variety of disabling conditions and employers' concerns regarding workers with these conditions were reviewed. The goal of this review is to identify, develop, test, and disseminate interventions for rehabilitation practitioners to use in job development and placement. The review…

  13. Connecting Legal Discourse with Real World Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Nigel

    This paper reports on the strategies used by an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher to help law students whose first language is Chinese in an English-for-law course learn and understand how to negotiate legal texts and ordinances and connect them with the concerns of people in the real world. The example of the recently enacted Human Organ…

  14. A Survey of Counselor Educators' Ethical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Reiko; Neukrug, Edward

    1994-01-01

    To survey their ethical concerns, counselor educators were asked to respond to a series of vignettes. The majority of respondents expressed satisfaction with the current ethical standards of the American Counseling Association, although slightly over half indicated that ethical standards specifically applicable to counselor education would be…

  15. Faculty Attitudes and Behaviors Concerning Student Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Rebecca; Davidson, Laura; Bell, Matthew C.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between university faculty attitudes concerning student cheating and syllabus statements on academic integrity were evaluated to determine the relationship between faculty attitudes and their actual attempts to deter cheating rates through their syllabi. No relationship was found between attitudes about student cheating and the…

  16. Legal Concerns in Community College Employment Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    The American community college has posed, for a period of time, some distinctively unique concerns pertaining to legal issues. However, the most pressing legal issues facing community colleges now are those regarding personnel. The diversity of programs community colleges offer require that personnel (specifically faculty) come to the institution…

  17. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  18. Adolescent Homosexuality and Concerns Regarding Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Therese W.

    2003-01-01

    With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…

  19. General Beliefs and Environmental Concern: Transatlantic Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Anna; Ohman, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to empirically test whether grouping people according to their general beliefs, combined with positional factors, can explain environmental concern, and whether there are country differences in this respect. The study is based on the United States, Canadian, Norwegian, and Swedish parts of The International Social Survey…

  20. Ethical Concerns: Negotiating Truth and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    Few studies in mathematics education explicitly address ethical issues arising from student interactions. The ethical concerns held by students are expressed in their words, actions, and interactions. The purpose of this article is to explore the ethical nature of copying as it arises in a mathematics classroom. We investigate the basis for…

  1. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business...

  2. Are British Higher Educational Concerns Different from European Higher Educational Concerns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangset, Marte

    2008-01-01

    British universities are known among the other Bologna countries not to have adjusted fully to the new common three-tier degree structure. Is it the case that British higher educational concerns are different from Continental concerns? A study of recent developments in two British graduate schools of history shows that a three-tier study structure…

  3. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    PubMed

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  4. WMPO project issues and public concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Vieth, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    The Governor of Nevada was notified in 1983 that the Yucca Mountain site is a potentially acceptable site for a nuclear waste storage site. A series of public hearings held produced nearly 400 comments on issues concerning the site nomination. Areas of primary public concern are the impact of the proposed nuclear site on tourism, transportation, and socioeconomic impact on adjacent communities. Results of recent studies showed no impact of high-level waste transport on tourism in the Las Vegas area and on analysis of data accumulated over the 25 to 30 years that high-level radioactive wastes have been transported on Nevada highways showed that no one has been evacuated from their home as the result of an accident involving radioactive waste. A comparison of the possible effects of construction of a nuclear waste storage facility at the Yucca mountain site with the effects of Nevada Test Site indicate that the impact on communities will be minimal.

  5. Relative concerns associated with genetics and surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, M

    Assisted reproductive technologies, incorporating artificial insemination and in-vitro fertilization techniques, are widely practised across Europe. Concern about surrogacy prompted the UK Government to commission a review and consultation on surrogacy arrangements. The ensuing document was concerned primarily with the questions of payment to the surrogate, and the regulation of agencies involved in surrogacy arrangements. This author feels that more fundamental issues should first be debated by both health professionals and society. Genetic aspects of surrogacy merit special attention, particularly regarding the genetic contribution to parenthood and the ownership and use of genetic information. Health professionals need to be fully aware of the ethical implications of advances in genetics and technology when they are applied to assisted reproduction. PMID:9735720

  6. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  7. Consumer perceptions and concerns about food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, C M

    1999-01-01

    More consumers are concerned about microbiological hazards than any other area. Pesticide residues generate concern, especially among low income consumers with less formal education. Use of antibiotics and hormones in animal production is considered a serious hazard by fewer consumers. Consumer attitudes are influenced by media coverage. An increasing number of consumers expect food producers and retailers to assume a major role in providing safe food. A majority of consumers express interesting in purchasing irradiated food when specific benefits are described and the percentage increases when irradiation is more fully described. In actual market experiences, irradiated produce and poultry have been well received. Similarly, most consumers are positive toward biotechnology, with greatest support for environmental applications. The scientific community should use the media to reach the public with information identifying risks and protective strategies, including the use of new technology. PMID:10335365

  8. Panglobalism and pandemics: ecological and ethical concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, Holmes

    2005-01-01

    A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital, and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature. PMID:17132337

  9. Rehabilitation concerns following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Frndak, P A; Berasi, C C

    1991-11-01

    Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a subject of controversy in the orthopaedic and rehabilitation literature. With an increasing number of these operations currently being performed and with the advent of arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction over the past several years, particular rehabilitation needs and problems have been identified in association with these patients. Various authors have stressed one or a combination of a few basic themes which outline the basic rehabilitation concerns following ACL reconstruction. The most fundamental concern is the need to initiate motion very soon after surgery. Prolonged postoperative immobilisation is known to cause serious complications after ACL reconstruction which can be avoided by early motion. Positions or activities which may apply excessive stress to a newly reconstructed ACL must also be considered. The amount of protection required by the graft will vary depending upon the type of graft used and the quality of fixation obtained intraoperatively. Most authors agree that nonweightbearing, active resistive quadriceps exercises should be avoided for an extended period, while closed chain exercises may be initiated much earlier. Strength recovery is obviously important for the quadriceps postoperatively, but maximal strength returns of all of the muscles about the knee must be pursued. Hamstring strength is of particular concern as this may provide an active support to the reconstructed ACL. Sensory loss in the knee after ACL disruption should also be addressed during rehabilitation, prior to a patient's return to full athletic activity. Progressive neuromuscular re-education exercises which rely on sensory input from intact pericapsular structures are encouraged. A final concern is the role of bracing after ACL reconstruction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1763251

  10. Nutritional concerns in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology and fundamental etiologic mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not well understood even though therapeutic regimens and drugs are rapidly evolutionary. IBD has complicated connections with genetic, immunologic, gut microbial, environmental, and nutritional factors. It is not clearly well known to the physicians how to feed, what nutrients are more helpful, and what food to be avoided. This review discusses the issues of growth and important nutritional concerns in the management of IBD in childhood. PMID:27462352

  11. Aluminum in Vaccines: Addressing Parents' Concerns.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    With myriad frightening stories on the Internet about vaccines, parents are frequently presenting to the pediatrician with questions about the safety of vaccine ingredients, and pediatricians need to be ready to listen to families with a kind ear. Pediatricians must also feel prepared to offer thoughtful, knowledgeable advice, appreciating the parent's concerns and educating them about the irrefutable benefits as well as the potential risks of vaccination. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e231-e233.]. PMID:27403668

  12. Wetlands production: a balancing of concerns. [Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cluck, A.

    1983-01-01

    Oil and gas operations along the Texas Gulf Coast require, not only special technical and operational considerations, but also special attention to environmental concerns. A Texas Gulf Coast oil and gas operator must work his way through a complex and sometimes contradictory maze of federal, state and city regulations in order to obtain appropriate permits to drill a well, lay a pipeline or install a production facility.

  13. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels. PMID:26427264

  14. Relation of dreams to waking concerns.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rosalind; Agargun, Mehmet Y; Kirkby, Jennifer; Friedman, Julie Kabat

    2006-03-30

    To test that dreams are influenced by the pre-sleep waking emotional concerns of the sleeper and have an effect on waking adaptation, 20 depressed and 10 control subjects, who were all going through a divorce, were enrolled in a repeated measures study lasting 5 months. A Current Concerns test was administered on three occasions before nights when every REM period was interrupted to record recalled mental content. The degree of waking concern about the ex-spouse correlated significantly with the number of dreams in which the former partner appeared as a dream character. Those who were in remission at the follow-up evaluation had a higher percentage of well-developed dreams than those who remained depressed. Dreams of the former spouse reported by those in remission differed from those who remained depressed in the expression of dream affect and in the within-dream linkage among units of associated memory material. Dreams of the former spouse that are reported by those who are not in remission lack affect and connection to other memories.

  15. The safety of vasectomy: recent concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Farley, T. M.; Meirik, O.; Mehta, S.; Waites, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Vasectomy has been accepted for family planning by approximately 42 million couples worldwide, the majority of whom live in developing countries. It is a highly reliable and safe contraceptive method, which has been extensively studied. Recently, however, renewed concerns have been raised about a possible effect between vasectomy and cancer of the prostate many years after the procedure has been performed. These concerns are based on research conducted in the USA, where there is a high and rising incidence of prostate cancer. This review discusses the evidence for this association and its potential impact in developing countries. The factors influencing the development and growth of prostate cancer are poorly understood and complicate any research into risk factors for the disease. Overall incidences of prostate cancer in some developed countries, such as the USA, are fifty times higher than in some developing countries, such as China. The majority of epidemiological studies on the relationship between vasectomy and prostate cancer have been based in the USA, but the findings are inconsistent and the reported associations weak. On the basis of currently available data, no changes in family planning policies with regard to vasectomy are warranted, but the concerns raised by these studies require that research into any possible association be undertaken in developing countries where vasectomy is widely practised. PMID:8324861

  16. Endoscopic vein harvesting: technique, outcomes, concerns & controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the graft conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has significant implications both in the short- and long-term. The patency of a coronary conduit is closely associated with an uneventful postoperative course, better long-term patient survival and superior freedom from re-intervention. The internal mammary artery is regarded as the primary conduit for CABG patients, given its association with long-term patency and survival. However, long saphenous vein (LSV) continues to be utilized universally as patients presenting for CABG often have multiple coronary territories requiring revascularization. Traditionally, the LSV has been harvested by creating incisions from the ankle up to the groin termed open vein harvesting (OVH). However, such harvesting methods are associated with incisional pain and leg wound infections. In addition, patients find such large incisions to be cosmetically unappealing. These concerns regarding wound morbidity and patient satisfaction led to the emergence of endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH). Published experience comparing OVH with EVH suggests decreased wound related complications, improved patient satisfaction, shorter hospital stay, and reduced postoperative pain at the harvest site following EVH. Despite these reported advantages concerns regarding risk of injury at the time of harvest with its potential detrimental effect on vein graft patency and clinical outcomes have prevented universal adoption of EVH. This review article provides a detailed insight into the technical aspects, outcomes, concerns, and controversies associated with EVH. PMID:24251019

  17. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  18. Child Health, Medicaid, and Welfare "Reform." Report III, Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local government, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a series of…

  19. Confronting the Challenges of the Digital Era. Proceedings of the Membership Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (133rd, Washington, DC, October 14-16, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhalla, Nicole, Ed.; Barrett, Jaia, Ed.; Wetzel, Karen A., Ed.

    The 133rd meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) focused on strategies for confronting critical challenges associated with the digital era and for fostering understanding from university leaders and supporters regarding the resources needed to perform successfully in this print plus digital environment. Program Session I,…

  20. Valuable but Threatening: The Reduced Effect of Incremental Theory on Challenge-Confronting Tendencies for Students Who Fear Being Laughed at

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Research has widely demonstrated that an incremental theory of intelligence is beneficial for students in achievement settings. The present study examined whether this theory can help students with high gelotophobia (i.e., the fear of being laughed at) confront challenges and clarified possible underlying processes. Theories of intelligence…

  1. Using Performance Ethnography to Confront Issues of Privilege, Race, and Institutional Racism: An Account of an Arts-Based Teacher Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierros, Edward Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Preservice student teachers engaged in a collaborative research initiative to examine the memory of the 1954 "Brown v. Topeka Board of Education" decision that culminated in a public performance. Ethnographic data were translated into performance texts through students' performances that confronted issues of privilege, race, and institutional…

  2. The Politics of Knowledge and the Revitalization of American Democracy: A Response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Cary

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex." Henry Giroux has written a provocative assessment of the contemporary challenges facing the United States as a society, which over the course of the 20th century had assumed the role of leader and exemplar…

  3. [Anniversaries of the Serbian Medical Society, 1952: 80 years since the founding of the Society--first results and confrontations].

    PubMed

    Vuković, Z

    1998-01-01

    The celebration of the 80th anniversary of the foundation of the Serbian Medical Association as an important jubilee "for all cultural and social life of our country", "the importance of which" we many not be able to apprehend yet, "falls in times that show to us all the complexity of social and political situation in the country". In that time the first results in the creation of a system of medical protection and the conception of new health institutions, begun after the WW II on the initiative of the Association. All this relates to tasks that the Association proclaimed in its "resolution" for the combat against basic problems of public health, and above all, infant mortality and tuberculosis, as well as other aims that have in the meantime been realised. One can, on the basis of the aforesaid, speak about this period as the most important in the history of the Serbian Medical Association. On the other hand, with the First Congress of Serbian Doctors, a wide ideological confrontation was initiated that, in the pursuit of particular political goals, and under the motto of "constructing the image of a people's doctor" dominated in the time of the jubilee. This culminated in the confrontation with some professors at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade. Without going into analysis of this campaign that progressed with "great support of responsible state administration and social instructions" and all this because "of the construction of the image of a people's doctor" one can, from a great temporal distance, say that everything that has been done is the fact that the Serbian Medical Association did not partake in the campaign. This positive fact in the history of our Association is so important because these happenings did not disturb the work of sections and branches of the Association. The Association and its members continued with their activity that in the next period gave important results in further construction of a medical system in the country. This created

  4. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans. PMID:12857632

  5. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans.

  6. Social Media: Challenges and Concerns for Families.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin

    2016-10-01

    This article explores the impact of social media on child development and family health. Why do we allow our children to use social media sites before their privacy policies allow? Why do we let them lie about their ages to use these sites? What is it about technology that lets us bend these rules in a way we would never do in the unplugged world? Gaining insight into the answers to these questions and what is positive and negative about social media and the digital world allows us to talk to families about this world, allay their concerns, and keep children of all age safe when using social media.

  7. Social Media: Challenges and Concerns for Families.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin

    2016-10-01

    This article explores the impact of social media on child development and family health. Why do we allow our children to use social media sites before their privacy policies allow? Why do we let them lie about their ages to use these sites? What is it about technology that lets us bend these rules in a way we would never do in the unplugged world? Gaining insight into the answers to these questions and what is positive and negative about social media and the digital world allows us to talk to families about this world, allay their concerns, and keep children of all age safe when using social media. PMID:27565362

  8. How granularity issues concern biomedical ontology integration.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; Boeker, Martin; Stenzhorn, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The application of upper ontologies has been repeatedly advocated for supporting interoperability between domain ontologies in order to facilitate shared data use both within and across disciplines. We have developed BioTop as a top-domain ontology to integrate more specialized ontologies in the biomolecular and biomedical domain. In this paper, we report on concrete integration problems of this ontology with the domain-independent Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) concerning the issue of fiat and aggregated objects in the context of different granularity levels. We conclude that the third BFO level must be ignored in order not to obviate cross-granularity integration.

  9. Pet Food Safety A Shared Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges, and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  10. Contegra conduit: current outcomes and concerns.

    PubMed

    Raja, Shahzad G

    2006-09-01

    A variety of congenital cardiac anomalies with severe right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction or RVOT interruption require surgical reconstruction from the infundibulum up to the pulmonary artery bifurcation or even into the branches of the pulmonary arteries. Ideally, the conduit or valve required for such reconstruction has to be formed of autologous tissue that grows, resists infection, lasts for the life span of the patient and is readily available in all sizes. Such conduits, however, are not available and although several alternatives have been used, none of which are without potential drawbacks. Contegra valved bovine internal jugular vein conduit (Medtronic Inc., MN, USA) has recently emerged as a promising option for pediatric RVOT reconstruction and has been advocated for its 'off-the-shelf' availability in sizes ranging from 12 to 22 mm, surgical pliability and encouraging short- and mid-term success in experimental animal, as well as clinical studies. This review focuses on the current outcomes of Contegra conduit and highlights some of the major concerns related to the use of this conduit and strategies to tackle these concerns. PMID:17081094

  11. Wolbachia infection and Lepidoptera of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Hamm, C A; Handley, C A; Pike, A; Forister, M L; Fordyce, J A; Nice, C C

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of at-risk species requires multi-faceted and carefully-considered management approaches to be successful. For arthropods, the presence of endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), may complicate management plans and exacerbate the challenges faced by conservation managers. Wolbachia poses a substantial and underappreciated threat to the conservation of arthropods because infection may induce a number of phenotypic effects, most of which are considered deleterious to the host population. In this study, the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in lepidopteran species of conservation concern was examined. Using standard molecular techniques, 22 species of Lepidoptera were screened, of which 19 were infected with Wolbachia. This rate is comparable to that observed in insects as a whole. However, this is likely an underestimate because geographic sampling was not extensive and may not have included infected segments of the species' ranges. Wolbachia infections may be particularly problematic for conservation management plans that incorporate captive propagation or translocation. Inadvertent introduction of Wolbachia into uninfected populations or introduction of a new strain may put these populations at greater risk for extinction. Further sampling to investigate the geographic extent of Wolbachia infections within species of conservation concern and experiments designed to determine the nature of the infection phenotype(s) are necessary to manage the potential threat of infection. PMID:25373153

  12. Fighting proliferation new concerns for the nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolski, H.

    1996-09-01

    Iraq`s threatened chemical missile strikes against US forces, combined with its efforts to build nuclear weapons, have quite literally put issues about the proliferation of strategic weapons on the map. Indeed, after Operation Desert Shield, both the Bush and Clinton administrations focused considerable attention on the need to dismantle Iraq`s strategic weapons capabilities and to assure that the strategic weapons complex in the former Soviet Union doesn`t end up helping future Iraqs. Since Operation Desert Storm, though, additional proliferation concern devising an effective strategy against proliferation, coping with the spread of space technology, and curbing Iran`s and North Korea`s strategic programs have emerged. Fighting Proliferation examines these challenges and their implications for US policy. The first of these concern how best to reform existing non- proliferation efforts-is examined in part 1. With the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) indefinitely extended, just exactly how the treaty will be implemented remains unclear. The Clinton administration is on record arguing that the NPT is a model for how the US will curb the proliferation of not only nuclear but all other kinds of strategic weapons. But what does the NPT and its obligations actually mean. Its key proscriptions in Articles 1, 2, and 3 are ambiguous. The treaty also lacks any clear enforcement measures and is nearly impossible to amend.

  13. Wolbachia Infection and Lepidoptera of Conservation Concern

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, C. A.; Handley, C. A.; Pike, A.; Forister, M. L.; Fordyce, J. A.; Nice, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of at-risk species requires multi-faceted and carefully-considered management approaches to be successful. For arthropods, the presence of endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), may complicate management plans and exacerbate the challenges faced by conservation managers. Wolbachia poses a substantial and underappreciated threat to the conservation of arthropods because infection may induce a number of phenotypic effects, most of which are considered deleterious to the host population. In this study, the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in lepidopteran species of conservation concern was examined. Using standard molecular techniques, 22 species of Lepidoptera were screened, of which 19 were infected with Wolbachia. This rate is comparable to that observed in insects as a whole. However, this is likely an underestimate because geographic sampling was not extensive and may not have included infected segments of the species' ranges. Wolbachia infections may be particularly problematic for conservation management plans that incorporate captive propagation or translocation. Inadvertent introduction of Wolbachia into uninfected populations or introduction of a new strain may put these populations at greater risk for extinction. Further sampling to investigate the geographic extent of Wolbachia infections within species of conservation concern and experiments designed to determine the nature of the infection phenotype(s) are necessary to manage the potential threat of infection. PMID:25373153

  14. The repeated confrontation with videotapes of spiders in multiple contexts attenuates renewal of fear in spider-anxious students.

    PubMed

    Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Iberico, Carlos; Baeyens, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer; Hermans, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    In a treatment-analogue experiment, extinction of fear of spiders was investigated in a group of spider-anxious students. Two groups were created: in the single extinction group the extinction trials consisted of repeated presentations of a videotaped spider in one specific location of a house, whereas in the multiple extinction group the trials consisted of videotapes of the same spider in three different locations of a house. Also a control group was included that was exposed to videotapes of the location but without the spider. As reflected in skin conductance responses and self-report data, fear of spiders was significantly reduced in the two extinction groups compared to the control group. Moreover, when the extinction groups were confronted with the videotape of the spider in a new location, the single extinction group did not show generalisation of extinction, whereas the multiple extinction group did. These results corroborate the existing evidence for context dependence of extinction of fear and provide new evidence that the use of multiple contexts during extinction might improve the generalisability of extinction in humans. Implications for exposure therapy are discussed.

  15. Effect of age, education, and bilingualism on confrontation naming in older illiterate and low-educated populations.

    PubMed

    Ashaie, Sameer; Obler, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of age as well as the linked factors of education and bilingualism on confrontation naming in rural Kashmir by creating a culturally appropriate naming test with pictures of 60 objects. We recruited 48 cognitively normal participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 28 and from 60 to 85. Participants in our study were illiterate monolinguals (N = 18) and educated Kashmiri-Urdu bilinguals (N = 30). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that younger adults performed better than older adults (P < 0.01) and the age effect was quadratic (age(2)). It also showed Age X Education and Age X L2 Speaking interactions predicted naming performance. The Age X Education interaction indicated that the advantages of greater education increased with advancing age. Since education is in the second language (L2) in our population, this finding is no doubt linked to the Age X L2 Speaking interaction. This suggests that L2 speaking proficiency contributed more to first language (L1) naming with advancing age.

  16. Conservation in the face of climate change: The roles of alternative models, monitoring, and adaptation in confronting and reducing uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Runge, M.C.; Nichols, J.D.; Stodola, K.W.; Cooper, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The broad physical and biological principles behind climate change and its potential large scale ecological impacts on biota are fairly well understood, although likely responses of biotic communities at fine spatio-temporal scales are not, limiting the ability of conservation programs to respond effectively to climate change outside the range of human experience. Much of the climate debate has focused on attempts to resolve key uncertainties in a hypothesis-testing framework. However, conservation decisions cannot await resolution of these scientific issues and instead must proceed in the face of uncertainty. We suggest that conservation should precede in an adaptive management framework, in which decisions are guided by predictions under multiple, plausible hypotheses about climate impacts. Under this plan, monitoring is used to evaluate the response of the system to climate drivers, and management actions (perhaps experimental) are used to confront testable predictions with data, in turn providing feedback for future decision making. We illustrate these principles with the problem of mitigating the effects of climate change on terrestrial bird communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Environmental Education in Northern Ireland: Concern and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the current status of environmental education in primary and secondary schools in Northern Ireland, identifying issues and concerns, and summarizing recent developments that address these concerns. (DC)

  18. Three dialogues concerning robots in elder care.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Theodore A; Barnes, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    The three dialogues in this contribution concern 21st century application of life-like robots in the care of older adults. They depict conversations set in the near future, involving a philosopher (Dr Phonius) and a nurse (Dr Myloss) who manages care at a large facility for assisted living. In their first dialogue, the speakers discover that their quite different attitudes towards human-robot interaction parallel fundamental differences separating their respective concepts of consciousness. The second dialogue similarly uncovers deeply contrasting notions of personhood that appear to be associated with respective communities of nursing and robotics. The additional key awareness that arises in their final dialogue links applications of life-like robots in the care of older adults with potential transformations in our understandings of ourselves - indeed, in our understandings of the nature of our own humanity. This series of dialogues, therefore, appears to address a topic in nursing philosophy that merits our careful attention.

  19. Some results concerning linear iterative (systolic) arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, O.H.; Palis, M.A.; Kim, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have shown some new interesting results concerning the properties, power, and limitations of various types of linear iterative (systolic) arrays. The method they employed consisted of finding sequential machine characterizations of these array models, and then using the characterizations to prove the results. Because of the absence of any concurrency and synchronization problems, the authors obtained simple proofs to results which when proved directly on the arrays would seem very difficult. The characterizations, therefore, provide a novel and promising method which can be used to analyze other systolic systems. In the future they hope to extend this methodology to the study of two-dimensional and multidimensional systolic arrays, and other systolic systems with different interconnection networks.

  20. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  1. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  2. Fundamental studies concerning planetary quarantine in space.

    PubMed

    Koike, J; Hori, T; Katahira, Y; Koike, K A; Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, K; Kawasaki, Y

    1996-01-01

    If there is a possibility that the organisms carried from Earth to space can live for a significant period on planets, the contamination of planets should be prevented for the purpose of future life-detection experiments. In connection with quarantine for interplanetary missions, we have examined the survivabilities of terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions. In this study, examined the survivabilities of terrestrial organisms under simulated Mars conditions. The Mars conditions were simulated by ultraviolet (UV) and proton irradiation under low temperature, high vacuum, and simulated gaseous conditions. After exposure to the simulated Mars condition, the survivabilities of the organisms were examined. The spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger, some anaerobic bacterias and algaes, showed considerably high survivabilities even after UV and proton irradiation corresponding to 200 years on Mars. This subject is not restricted to academic curiosity but concerns problems involving the contamination of Mars with terrestrial organisms carried by space-probes.

  3. Analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-12-11

    Although science has largely determined that man-made emissions cause acid rain, there is uncertainty concerning the extent and timing of its anticipated effects. Thus, at the present time scientific information alone does not lead unequivocally to a conclusion on whether it is appropriate to begin control actions now or to await better understanding. Given this uncertainty, decisionmakers must weigh the risks of further, potentially avoidable environmental damage against the risks of economic impacts from acid rain control actions which may ultimately prove to be unwarranted. GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: To what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects. 5 figures, 20 tables.

  4. [Ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activity].

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Lourenço, Maria Regina; Shinyashiki, Gilberto Tadeu

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at addressing the ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activities, the authors of this work referred to Etzioni and adopted a hospital classification as a reference of organization in which consent is based on the internalization of rules accepted as legitimate. Regarding patients, their need to adapt to medical behavior and hospital rules through internalization is considered to be a result of physicians', nurses' and the hospital's power. However, the authors view that such internalization is naive, without consent, especially by taking into account that most Brazilian patients do not know that they should or should not consent and are used to obeying. Thus, the work focused on nurses' managerial actions, indicating that they must be based on professional values, the Nursing ethical code as well as on the rights of hospitalized patients, thus integrating qualified care guided by respect, free consent and promotion of patients as the protagonists and subjects of care.

  5. Evaluating minerals of environmental concern using spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Higgins, C.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Eric, Livo K.; Hoefen, T.M.; Ong, C.; Kruse, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has been successfully used to aid researchers in characterizing potential environmental impacts posed by acid-rock drainage, ore-processing dust on mangroves, and asbestos in serpentine mineral deposits and urban dust. Many of these applications synergistically combine field spectroscopy with remote sensing data, thus allowing more-precise data calibration, spectral analysis of the data, and verification of mapping. The increased accuracy makes these environmental evaluation tools efficient because they can be used to focus field work on those areas most critical to the research effort. The use of spectroscopy to evaluate minerals of environmental concern pushes current imaging spectrometer technology to its limits; we present laboratory results that indicate the direction for future designs of imaging spectrometers.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV session entitled "Concerning Chondrites" includes the following topics: 1) Petrology and Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Phases in the Gujba CB Chondrite and the Shock History of the CB Parent Body; 2) The Relationship Between CK and CV Chondrites: A Single Parent Body Source? 3) Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites; 4) Composition and Origin of SiO2-rich Objects in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 5) Re-Os Systematics and HSE distribution in Tieschitz (H3.6); Two Isochrons for One Meteorite; 6) Loss of Chromium from Olivine During the Metamorphism of Chondrites; 7) Very Short Delivery Times of Meteorites After the L-Chondrite Parent Body Break-Up 480 Myr Ago; and 8) The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201.

  7. Housing concerns of vulnerable older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; LeBlanc, Kristal

    2010-09-01

    Preparing for the future housing needs of older adults is imperative in countries with an aging population, but little is known about these issues among vulnerable older adults. This study used a qualitative approach to identify key housing concerns in this group. A total of 84 vulnerable older adults including Aboriginal elders, those with various disabilities, and ethnic minorities participated in 10 focus groups. The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation's (CMHC's) standards of core housing need provided a framework for data analysis, along with the identification of additional key housing themes across and within groups of vulnerable older adults. The results provide insight into preferred housing characteristics, regardless of housing form. Additionally, the results provide insight into how to support vulnerable older adults who choose to remain in their homes and communities and how to help ensure that appropriate housing is developed that meets the needs of this diverse population. PMID:20712917

  8. Fundamental studies concerning planetary quarantine in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Hori, T.; Katahira, Y.; Koike, K. A.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kawasaki, Y.

    If there is a possibility that the organisms carried from Earth to space can live for a significant period on planets, the contamination of planets should be prevented for the purpose of future life-detection experiments. In connection with quarantine for interplanetary missions, we have examined the survivabilities of terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions /1-8/. In this study, examined the survivabilities of terrestrial organisms under simulated Mars conditions. The Mars conditions were simulated by ultraviolet (UV) and proton irradiation under low temperature, high vacuum, and simulated gaseous conditions. After exposure to the simulated Mars condition, the survivabilities of the organisms were examined. The spores of Bacillus subtilis andAspergillus niger , some anaerobic bacterias and algaes, showed considerably high survivabilities even after UV and proton irradiation corresponding to 200 years on Mars. This subject is not restricted to academic curiosity but concerns problems involving the contamination of Mars with terrestrial organisms carried by space-probes.

  9. The reawakening of national concern about silicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, G; Rosner, D

    1998-01-01

    From West Texas to West Virginia, from California to New York, in industries from oil refining to coal mining and work settings from foundries to shipyards, the United States is experiencing an epidemic of silicosis, a preventable disease. Silica sand has been linked to cancer, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has named silica as a probable human carcinogen. This article analyzes the reawakening of national concern about silicosis and the social, economic, and epidemiologic factors that have led scientists, policy makers, industrial hygienist, and labor and industry representatives to reassess the danger that silica sand poses to the health of an estimated two million workers in this country. Images p302-a p303-a p304-a p308-a p310-a PMID:9672567

  10. Fundamental studies concerning planetary quarantine in space.

    PubMed

    Koike, J; Hori, T; Katahira, Y; Koike, K A; Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, K; Kawasaki, Y

    1996-01-01

    If there is a possibility that the organisms carried from Earth to space can live for a significant period on planets, the contamination of planets should be prevented for the purpose of future life-detection experiments. In connection with quarantine for interplanetary missions, we have examined the survivabilities of terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions. In this study, examined the survivabilities of terrestrial organisms under simulated Mars conditions. The Mars conditions were simulated by ultraviolet (UV) and proton irradiation under low temperature, high vacuum, and simulated gaseous conditions. After exposure to the simulated Mars condition, the survivabilities of the organisms were examined. The spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger, some anaerobic bacterias and algaes, showed considerably high survivabilities even after UV and proton irradiation corresponding to 200 years on Mars. This subject is not restricted to academic curiosity but concerns problems involving the contamination of Mars with terrestrial organisms carried by space-probes. PMID:11538982

  11. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  12. Listeriosis during Pregnancy: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Teresa; Silva, Joana; Maia, Rui L.; Teixeira, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Listeria was first described in 1926 by Murray, Webb, and Swann, who discovered it while investigating an epidemic infection among laboratory rabbits and guinea pigs. The role of Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen was definitively recognized during the 1980s. This recognition was the consequence of a number of epidemic human outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated foods, in Canada, in the USA and in Europe. Listeriosis is especially severe in immunocompromised individuals such as pregnant women. The disease has a low incidence of infection, although this is undeniably increasing, with a high fatality rate amongst those infected. In pregnant women listeriosis may cause abortion, fetal death, or neonatal morbidity in the form of septicemia and meningitis. Improved education concerning the disease, its transmission, and prevention measures for immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women has been identified as a pressing need. PMID:24191199

  13. Space resources. Volume 4: Social concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. This volume, Social Concerns, covers some of the most important issues which must be addressed in any major program for the human exploration of space. The volume begins with a consideration of the economics and management of large scale space activities. Then the legal aspects of these activities are discussed, particularly the interpretation of treaty law with respect to the Moon and asteroids. The social and cultural issues of moving people into space are considered in detail, and the eventual emergence of a space culture different from the existing culture is envisioned. The environmental issues raised by the development of space settlements are faced. Some innovative approaches are proposed to space communities and habitats and self-sufficiency is considered along with human safety at a lunar base or outpost.

  14. Appendix: Conjectures concerning proof, design, and verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.

    2000-05-31

    This article focuses on an esoteric but practical use of automated reasoning that may indeed be new to many, especially those concerned primarily with verification of both hardware and software. Specifically, featured are a discussion and some methodology for taking an existing design -- of a circuit, a chip, a program, or the like--and refining and improving it in various ways. Although the methodology is general and does not require the use of a specific program, McCune's program OTTER does offer what is needed. OTTER has played and continues to play the key role in my research, and an interested person can gain access to this program in various ways, not the least of which is through the included CD-ROM in [3]. When success occurs, the result is a new design that may require fewer components, avoid the use of certain costly components, offer more reliability and ease of verification, and, perhaps most important, be more efficient in the contexts of speed and heat generation. Although the author has minimal experience in circuit design, circuit validation, program synthesis, program verification, and similar concerns, (at the encouragement of colleagues based on successes to be cited) he presents materials that might indeed be of substantial interest to manufacturers and programmers. He writes this article in part prompted by the recent activities of chip designers that include Intel and AMD, activities heavily emphasizing the proving of theorems. As for his research that appears to the author to be relevant, he has made an intense and most profitable study of finding proofs that are shorter [2,3], some that avoid the use of various types of term, some that are far less complex than previously known, and the like. Those results suggest to me a strong possible connection between more appealing proofs (in mathematics and in logic) and enhanced and improved design of both hardware and software. Here the author explores diverse conjectures that elucidate some of the

  15. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  16. Confronting the Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Weinberg, Sheldon

    1972-01-01

    A review of recent innovations in counseling style is presented along with an analysis of the advantages of these innovations over the more traditional counseling framework when dealing with disadvantaged clients. The authors recommend the use of these new, directive methods for the effective counseling of these groups. (Author)

  17. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  18. Confronting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

  19. Confronting world hunger.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, B

    1983-01-01

    In 1980, per capita food supplies were less than adequate in 53 developing countries. More than half of these were the predominantly rural, low income countries of South Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Finding the proper balance between satisfying immediate human needs and building political and economic systems in which individuals can in the future acquire the means to satisfy their own requirements is the central issue facing those in the fight against world hunger. At the international level, developed countries have responded to world hunger by raising the minimum level of food aid provided when supplies are scarce and by creating a financing facility for cereal imports. The food and agriculture sector is receiving a highe priority than before in the allocation of international development assistance, and more attention is being given to the effects of both general food subsidies and targeted nutrition programs on future agricultural output. At the national level, over 40 developing countries have requested assistance from the World Food Council for the preparation of food sector strategies. Although such measures are important, they do not directly address local problems and individual needs. For example, dietary intake tends to be lower in urban than in rural households in Latin America at the same level of income. These urban groups require health and nutrition interventions that simultaneously address their immediate need for food, clean water, and health care and their more longterm need for employment. Longterm economic development that provides adequate income to all segments of the population is the best means to combat hunger, and income security also reduces incentives for large family size. The contribution of the international community should remain the transfer of resources and the provision of technical assistance. At the individual level, the need for targeted food distribution programs continues. Greater benefit can be obtained from directing such programs to groups with seriously inadequate levels of food consumption rather than targeting broadly on low income groups. New initiatives should be undertaken as a true collaboration between donors and recipients and should be focused on eradicating the conditions that give rise to hunger as well as on meeting immediate needs. PMID:12266156

  20. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

  1. a Confrontation with Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2001-09-01

    Early attempts at constructing realistic models for the weak interaction were offset by the emergence of infinite, hence meaningless, expressions when one tried to derive the radiative corrections. When models based on gauge theories with Higgs mechanism were discovered to be renormalizable, the bothersome infinities disappeared -- they cancelled out. If this success seemed to be due to mathematical sorcery, it may be of interest to explain the physical insights on which it is actually based. This lecture contains much of the same material that was used in the Nobel Lecture, which was given in Stockholm, December 8, 1999.

  2. A Confrontation with Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooft, Gerard't.

    Early attempts at constructing realistic models for the weak interaction between elementary particles were off-set by the emergence of infinite, hence meaningless, expressions when one tried to derive the radiative corrections. When models based on gauge theories with Higgs mechanism were discovered to be renormalizable, the bothersome infinities disappeared-they cancelled out. If this success seemed to be due to mathematical sorcery, it may be of interest to explain the physical insights on which it is actually based.

  3. Confronting World Hunger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The idea that food should be a universally accepted human right has been the focus of worldwide attention aimed primarily at increasing production at the national level and on reducing price fluctuations in world markets. However, the problem of individual human needs must be simultaneously addressed. The largest number of hungry people live in…

  4. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  5. [Biological security confronting bioterrorism].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    A review is made on Biosecurity at both local and global level in relationship with Bioterrorism as a real threat and its control and prevention. The function of the network of High Security Laboratories around the world able to make immediate diagnosis, research on vaccines, fundamental and urgent epidemiological studies, conform a steady basis to control natural infections and also the possible bioterrorism attacks. PMID:12197209

  6. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  7. "College for All" Confronted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A new report proposes academic pathways that would lead some students toward careers rather than college, and that is raising fears among advocates for the disadvantaged. Leaders of the "Pathways to Prosperity" project at the Harvard Graduate School of Education argue for an education system that clearly articulates students' career options as…

  8. Confronting fraud in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Laura H.

    2010-09-01

    Scientists have a macabre fascination with fraud. Some of the most famous recent cases - including those of the physicists Victor Ninov and Jan Hendrick Schön, who falsified results in nuclear physics and nanotechnology, respectively - have remained hot topics for years, continually generating investigations, articles and invited talks at scientific conferences.

  9. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  10. Cuba confronts climate change.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  11. Atrocities and Confrontational Tension

    PubMed Central

    Klusemann, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of video-recordings and other micro-level data of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia-and-Herzegovina. It focuses on the sequential unfolding of micro-interactions and emotional dynamics before, and over the course of the atrocity. The paper argues that massacres have a pattern of situational emergence: local emotional dynamics are crucial to explain where and when atrocities do or do not come off and what form they take on the micro-level. It is shown that (1) micro-interactions constitute situational turning-points, towards or away from atrocities and that (2) local emotional dynamics shape the internal structure of atrocities, i.e. their internal dynamics of killings. The analysis is based on recent advances in the micro-sociology of violence by Collins, Katz, and Grossman, as well as Ekman's research tools for identifying emotional cues in micro-data. PMID:19936029

  12. Confronting Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, John E.; And Others

    Text and accompanying exercises are provided in this two-part learning module that was designed to acquaint instructors with techniques for influencing student attitudes. Part I defines five attitudinal concepts, beginning with those which are most resistant to being changed and then discussing those which are less resistant to change: (1) beliefs…

  13. Confronting Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintzer, Irving M.

    1992-06-01

    This book, which was published in time for the Earth Summit in Brazil in June 1992, is likely to make a huge impact on the political and economic agendas of international policy makers. It summarizes the scientific findings of Working Group I of the IPCC in the first part of the book. While acknowledging the uncertainties in subsequent chapters, it challenges and expands upon the existing views on how we should tackle the problems of climate change.

  14. Cuba confronts climate change.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions. PMID:26027581

  15. Americans Confront the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Political Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of an America Jewish Committee telephone survey of Americans who viewed one or more episodes of the television series on Nazi treatment of Jews during World War II ("Holocaust"), the article concluded that a majority of viewers approved of the presentation and wanted the schools to teach about the Holocaust. (DB)

  16. Confronting Costs, Controlling Destiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Kent; Gaudreau, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Mature higher education markets are drifting headfirst into the perfect storm. The convergence of shifting demographics, increased competition, decreased government funding, and the reality of a global marketplace has become the new normal in Canada, like in many other parts of the world. Most within the academy have come to accept this reality,…

  17. Confrontation: Aging in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, George

    This publication contains two activities on aging for use with secondary students. The activities are designed to challenge the prevailing myths about growing old, to provide students with better information, and to foster more positive attitudes about older people. In the first activity, which will take about five class periods, students clarify…

  18. A Confrontation for Coexistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jen

    2003-01-01

    A month-long summer camp in Maine combines recreation, sports, and arts activities with daily conflict resolution sessions to help adolescents from regions of conflict (primarily the Middle East) learn the art of coexistence and peace. From its center in East Jerusalem, Seeds of Peace provides regular activities to reinforce the lessons that…

  19. Synthetic Confrontation Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Larry

    After initially dispelling predictable fears that his paper might suggest that computers can be equated with man, the author states the problem: what part, if any, might computers play in counseling. Specifically, the possibilities for therapeutic synthetic (artificial) counseling encounters are discussed. Two propositions are significant: (1) the…

  20. Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    To accelerate the adoption of these emerging marine hydrokinetic technologies, navigational and environmental issues and concerns must be identified and addressed. As hydrokinetic projects move forward, various stakeholders will need to be engaged; one of the key issues that project proponents face as they engage stakeholders is that many conflicting uses and environmental issues are not well-understood. Much of this lack of understanding comes from a limited understanding of the technologies themselves. To address this issue, in September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC, was selected by the Department of Energy, under their market acceleration program, to apply a scenario-based assessment approach to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector. The goal was to improve understanding of potential environmental and navigation impacts of these technologies and focus stakeholders on the critical issues. To meet this goal, the study established baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios captured variations in technical approaches and deployment scales and thus grounded the analysis in realistic constraints. The work conducted under this award provides an important foundation to other market acceleration activities carried out by the DOE and other stakeholders in this sector. The scenarios were then evaluated using a framework developed by H.T. Harvey & Associates to identify and characterize key environmental concerns and uncertainties. In collaboration with PCCI and the U.S. Coast Guard, navigation issues were assessed and guidelines developed to assure the safe operation of these systems. Finally, the work highlights “next steps” to take to continue development and adoption of marine hydrokinetic energy. Throughout the project, close collaboration with device developers, project developers and regulatory stakeholders was pursued to ensure that assumptions and constraints are realistic. Results concur

  1. Physiological Outperformance at the Morphologically-Transformed Edge of the Cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida) when Confronting Opponent Corals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Hsu, Chia-Min; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Meng, Pei-Jie; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2015-01-01

    Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge’s growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status) over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%), the δ13C value (ca. 4%), free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%), and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115%) compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319) and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle. PMID:26110525

  2. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a

  3. Physiological outperformance at the morphologically-transformed edge of the cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida) when confronting opponent corals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Hsu, Chia-Min; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Meng, Pei-Jie; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2015-01-01

    Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status) over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%), the δ13C value (ca. 4%), free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%), and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115%) compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319) and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle. PMID:26110525

  4. Physiological outperformance at the morphologically-transformed edge of the cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida) when confronting opponent corals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Hsu, Chia-Min; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Meng, Pei-Jie; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2015-01-01

    Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status) over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%), the δ13C value (ca. 4%), free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%), and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115%) compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319) and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle.

  5. Fukushima- Ocean Impacts and Public Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesseler, K.

    2015-12-01

    The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. This presentation will provide an overview of studies of Fukushima radionuclides in the ocean. The radioactive releases from Fukushima will be compared to natural and prior human sources. The fate of cesium is largely determined by its soluble nature in seawater, though uptake in sediments does occur via cesium's association with both detrital particles and biological uptake and sedimentation. Cesium's continued supply from the rivers and ongoing leakages at the nuclear power plants suggests that coastal sediments may remain contaminated for decades to come. Although levels of cesium in the ocean and being released from Fukushima more than four years later are orders of magnitude lower than in 2011, other isotopes such as strontium-90 remain of interest as they are elevated relative to cesium in the groundwater and storage tanks at the reactor site. Across the Pacific, Fukushima cesium is starting to be detectable along the west coast of North America. Although models suggest cesium will be at levels well below those considered of human health concern, the public is worried about the lack of ocean monitoring of Fukushima radionuclides. We addressed these public concerns by creating "Our Radioactive Ocean" a citizen-scientist crowd-funded campaign that provides a sampling kit that can use to sample their favorite beach. Once collected, samples are returned to WHOI for analyses of the isotopes of cesium that allow us to distinguish Fukushima cesium from other sources (http://OurRadioactiveOcean.org ). However to measure the low levels of cesium already in the ocean 20 liter samples are needed. To increase public participation, we will also present results from a new wearable sample collector, the "RadBand" which contains a small amount of cesium selective resin that surfers and swimmers can wear on

  6. Occupational health concerns in the welding industry.

    PubMed

    Korczynski, R E

    2000-12-01

    The Workplace Safety and Health Branch initiated a proactive study in the welding industry in Manitoba. Eight welding companies participated in this study. Health concerns raised by welders were welders' flash, sore/red/teary eyes, headaches, nosebleeds, and a black mucous discharge from their nasal membrane. Most welders expressed concern regarding excessive smoke levels in the workplace and inadequate ventilation. Types of welding identified were MIG mild steel, MIG stainless steel, and TIG aluminum. Monitoring involved an assessment of noise levels, fume composition, and carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations. Metal analyses were according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300. Noise dosimeters used were the Quest model 100 and Micro 14 & 15. Carbon monoxide was monitored using the Gastech Model 4700 and ozone using the AID Portable Ozone Meter Model 560. In Manitoba, a hearing conservation program is required when the equivalent sound exposure level (normalized Lex 8-hr) exceeds 80 dBA-weighted. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value-time weighted average (ACGIH TLV-TWA) for iron is 5.0 mg/m3, manganese is 0.2 mg/m3, carbon monoxide is 25 ppm, and ozone is 0.05 ppm (heavy work), 0.08 ppm (moderate work), and 0.1 ppm (light work). Welders' personal exposures to manganese ranged from 0.01-4.93 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 0.5; GM = 0.2; SD +/- 0.9; GSD +/- 3.2) and to iron ranged from 0.04-16.29 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 3.0; GM = 1.4; SD +/- 3.5; GSD +/- 2.5). Noise exposures ranged from 79-98 dBA (N = 44; AM = 88.9; GM = 88.8; SD +/- 4.2; GSD +/- 1.0). Carbon monoxide levels were less than 5.0 ppm (at source) and ozone levels varied from 0.4-0.6 ppm (at source). Ventilation upgrades in the workplace were required in most welding shops. Only 7 percent of the welders wore respiratory protection. A hearing conservation program and hearing protection were required at all monitored workplaces.

  7. Dispelling myths concerning pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, V; Russo, T; Giacomel, J; Lallas, A; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2016-06-01

    The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015. The remaining discussed were selected on the basis of the existing literature and our personal experience. In order to explore these misconceptions, the following are the seven most salient questions that require investigation: (i) Is it dangerous to excise moles?; (ii) Is it dangerous to traumatize moles?; (iii) Are plantar moles worrisome?; (iv) Is it necessary to selectively apply sunscreen to moles?; (v) Is it inadvisable to partially biopsy a melanoma?; (vi) Do moles turn into melanoma?; and (vii) Is it necessary to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanomas and for atypical Spitz naevi? Myths are ubiquitous, being prevalent in dermatological practice, with many of them concerning pigmented skin lesions. By encouraging critical analysis by patients and medical practitioners, the birth and perpetuation of myths can potentially be minimized, for the ultimate benefit of patients. This requires a scientific approach to be rigorously applied to dermatology, with critical questioning of unsubstantiated hypotheses including those emanating from the mass media as well as from respected sources. PMID:26840917

  8. Issues concerning centralized versus decentralized power deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.; Harty, Richard B.; Robin, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study of proposed lunar base architectures to identify issues concerning centralized and decentralized power system deployment options are presented. The power system consists of the energy producing system (power plant), the power conditioning components used to convert the generated power into the form desired for transmission, the transmission lines that conduct this power from the power sources to the loads, and the primary power conditioning hardware located at the user end. Three power system architectures, centralized, hybrid, and decentralized, were evaluated during the course of this study. Candidate power sources were characterized with respect to mass and radiator area. Two electrical models were created for each architecture to identify the preferred method of power transmission, dc or ac. Each model allowed the transmission voltage level to be varied at assess the impact on power system mass. The ac power system models also permitted the transmission line configurations and placements to determine the best conductor construction and installation location. Key parameters used to evaluate each configuration were power source and power conditioning component efficiencies, masses, and radiator areas; transmission line masses and operating temperatures; and total system mass.

  9. European concern about acid rain is growing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.A.

    1985-01-28

    The growing concern about acid rain in Europe with particular reference to West Germany, the UK and Scandinavia is discussed. Damage has occurred not only to trees but also to many historic buildings throughout Europe. The mechanism of acid deposition is outlined; monitoring systems have established correlations between transport of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the UK and central Europe and increased acidity in lakes and rivers in Scandinavia. In November 1979 thirty four countries and the European Economic Community signed a convention on longrange transboundary air pollution; in 1983 Finland, Norway, and Sweden proposed that member countries of the so-called 30% Club should cut annual sulfur emissions 30% from their 1980 base emission levels, by 1993 at the latest. The UK and the US are conspicuous by their absence from the 30% Club. In the UK in particular it is argued that firm proof is lacking that sulfur dioxide is the prime factor in forest decline; nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and ozone may be more critical factors.

  10. Wireless Network Security Vulnerabilities and Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad

    The dilemma of cyber communications insecurity has existed all the times since the beginning of the network communications. The problems and concerns of unauthorized access and hacking has existed form the time of introduction of world wide web communication and Internet's expansion for popular use in 1990s, and has remained till present time as one of the most important issues. The wireless network security is no exception. Serious and continuous efforts of investigation, research and development has been going on for the last several decades to achieve the goal of provision of 100 percent or full proof security for all the protocols of networking architectures including the wireless networking. Some very reliable and robust strategies have been developed and deployed which has made network communications more and more secure. However, the most desired goal of complete security has yet to see the light of the day. The latest Cyber War scenario, reported in the media of intrusion and hacking of each other's defense and secret agencies between the two super powers USA and China has further aggravated the situation. This sort of intrusion by hackers between other countries such as India and Pakistan, Israel and Middle East countries has also been going on and reported in the media frequently. The paper reviews and critically examines the strategies already in place, for wired network. Wireless Network Security and also suggests some directions and strategies for more robust aspects to be researched and deployed.

  11. Commitment and concern in the health service.

    PubMed

    Weir, R D

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general review of the use of local health services resources, a specific enquiry was mounted to examine the recurring complaint of a lack of identity or sense of belonging made by staff working in the largest district of the Grampian Health Board. The investigation pointed to clearly identifiable sources of confusion and concern: (a) a need to identify with and feel committed to the health service; (b) a sense of purpose and direction; (c) satisfaction with the conditions of service; (d) an understanding of an individual's role and its relationship to others'. It is relatively easy to list the problems, such as friction between occupational groups, lack of commitment, uncertainty over duties and authority, reluctance to delegate and resistance to, or even outright rejection of, decisions apparently at variance with professional advice. In addition to these internal stresses the health service is perpetually beset by two other external problems, namely what it is expected to achieve and the finance allowed to attain its goals. The various groups within the service are in no way agreed on roles and responsibilities, Without agreement goals cannot be defined. Without goals, use of resources cannot be rationalized. Without a demonstrably fair distribution of resources, neither the public nor health service staff will feel confident or committed. Somewhere this cycle must be broken.

  12. Recent concerns about stunning and slaughter.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G

    2005-07-01

    This review summarises information that is relevant to concerns that have recently been expressed about stunning and slaughter. It is known that captive bolt stunning can result in brain material passing to the lungs via the jugular veins. If future studies show that BSE prions pass beyond the lungs to the edible carcass, there will be a move away from captive bolt stunning in large cattle towards electrical stunning. Greater use of electrical stunning in large cattle will increase the importance of blood splash in the beef industry. The theoretical causes of blood splash are reviewed to improve our understanding of this problem. In some situations it can be due to excessive venous pressure causing rupture of a capillary bed some distance from the source of the pressure rise, but it is not known whether this applies to electrical stunning. Gas stunning is replacing electrical stunning for poultry because it can reduce blood spots, which is a similar condition to blood splash. Several gas stunning methods are now being used, but it is not clear which of these is the most humane. Anoxic stunning leads to carcass convulsions and this causes more carcass damage. In fish, recent developments in electrical stunning are showing promise in overcoming problems with carcass damage. It is recommended that rock lobsters should be chilled or frozen before butchery, to ensure a humane death. PMID:22063747

  13. Concerns with low-level ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Populations have been studied in geographic areas of increased natural radiation, in radiation-exposed workers, in patients medically exposed, and in accidental exposures. No reproducible evidence exists of harmful effects from increases in background radiation three to ten times the usual levels. There is no increase in leukemia or other cancers among American military participants in nuclear testing, no increase in leukemia or thyroid cancer among medical patients receiving {sup 131}I for diagnosis or treatment of hypothyroidism, and no increase in lung cancer among nonsmokers exposed to increased radon in the home. The association of radiation with the atomic bomb and with excessive regulatory and health physics as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) radiation levels practices has created a climate of fear about the dangers of radiation at any level. However, there is no evidence that radiation exposures at the levels equivalent to medical usage are harmful. The unjustified excessive concern with radiation at any level, however, precludes beneficial uses of radiation and radioactivity in medicine, science, and industry.

  14. Research Concerning Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Maxwell; Cunningham, John; Kuhlmann, Steve; Spinka, Hal; Underwood, Dave; Hammergren, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Throughout my academic career at Loyola I have carried out research with the Loyola University Cosmic Event Detection System concerning the possibility of detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) based on radio meteor scattering methods. This research was furthered through summer internships and research fellowships at Adler Planetarium Chicago and Stony Brook University in New York. At Adler Planetarium we used a helium balloon carrying a Geiger counter and other equipment to record the cosmic ray flux at various points in the atmosphere. The results clearly show the flux depends on the atmospheric density. At Stony Brook University I studied their advanced system for detecting cosmic rays in similar manner to radio meteor scattering principles. Research there focused on detection algorithms and also on the possibility of utilizing Digital Tv (DTv) signals for further research. Through the research a solid understanding of cosmic rays was formed including topics such as origins and energy scales of cosmic rays, both of which pose unanswered questions. )

  15. Secondary Teachers' Concerns about Response to Intervention: Using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study addressed the problem of implementing response to intervention (RTI) in general secondary education. To investigate this problem, one north Texas school's RTI implementation was examined using the theoretical framework of the concerns-based adoption model (CBAM) and defining RTI as the innovation. RTI-related practices were studied…

  16. Issues and Concerns in Robotic Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Exploration of the Martian subsurface will be essential in the search for life and water, given the desiccated and highly oxidized conditions on the surface. Discovery of these, at least in non-fossil form, is unlikely without drilling or other physical access to the subsurface. Hence subsurface access will be critical for both future in-situ science and Mars sample return. Drilling applications present many new challenges for diagnosis and control technology. Traditionally, diagnosis has concentrated on determining the internal state of a system, and detecting failures of system components. In the case of drilling applications, an additional challenge is to diagnose the interactions between the drill and its environment. This is necessary because particular observations of the drilling operation may be consistent with a number of possible problems, including faults in the equipment, but also changes in the material being drilled (for example, from rock to ice). The diagnosis of a particular observation may also depend on knowledge of geological formations previously encountered during drilling, and different remedial actions may be required for each diagnosis. Current 2009 Mars mission scenarios call for no more than 33 sols to be spent drilling. Yet they also call for a baseline of two 2m-deep holes in each of three target areas, for a total of six drilling operations. Using current levels of automation, it is estimated that 15-16 sols would be required to drill each hole. As a result of this, either the drilling part of the mission plan will need to be severely downscoped to no more than two holes total, or on-board automation and robotics must be increased in order to reduce the number of sols required per hole by removing ground control from the drilling control loop. This lecture will discuss salient issues and concerns of robotic drilling automation compares with other applications, and implementation constraints.

  17. Vinyl chloride: still a cause for concern.

    PubMed Central

    Kielhorn, J; Melber, C; Wahnschaffe, U; Aitio, A; Mangelsdorf, I

    2000-01-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is both a known carcinogen and a regulated chemical, and its production capacity has almost doubled over the last 20 years, currently 27 million tons/year worldwide. According to recent reports it is still a cause for concern. VC has been found as a degradation product of chloroethylene solvents (perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene) and in landfill gas and groundwater at concentrations up to 200 mg/m(3) and 10 mg/L, respectively. Worldwide occupational exposure to VC still seems to be high in some countries (e.g., averages of approximately 1,300 mg/m(3) until 1987 in one factory), and exposure may also be high in others where VC is not regulated. By combining the most relevant epidemiologic studies from several countries, we observed a 5-fold excess of liver cancer, primarily because of a 45-fold excess risk from angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL). The number of ASL cases reported up to the end of 1998 was 197 worldwide. The average latency for ASL is 22 years. Some studies show a small excess risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and others suggest a possible risk of brain tumors among highly exposed workers. Lung cancer, lymphomas, or leukemia do not seem to be related to VC exposure according to recent results. The mutation spectra observed in rat and human liver tumors (ASL and/or hepatocellular carcinoma) that are associated with exposure to VC are clearly distinct from those observed in sporadic liver tumors or hepatic tumors that are associated with other exposures. In rats, the substitution mutations found at A:T base pairs in the ras and p53 genes are consistent with the promutagenic properties of the DNA adduct 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine formed from VC metabolites. Risk assessments derived from animal studies seem to overestimate the actual risk of cancer when comparing estimated and reported cases of ASL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10905993

  18. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good quality

  19. Problems Confronting the Higher Education Assistance Foundation. Hearing on Examining the Financial Difficulties Confronting the Higher Education Assistance Foundation and the Impact That Situation Has on the Guaranteed Student Loan Programs of the Department of Education before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities.

    This document reports oral testimony and prepared statements of persons who testified at hearings on the financial difficulties confronting the Higher Education Assistance Foundation (HEAF) and the impact that situation has on the Stafford Student Loan Program of the Department of Education. Witnesses included: Lauro F. Cavazos, U.S. Department of…

  20. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    SciTech Connect

    Brounstein, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    Nuisance odors are generally thought of as just being annoying or unpleasant and not causing any physiological harm to our internal organs or other biologic systems. Yet during an excavation of buried animal remains, field workers experienced a multitude of symptoms that are associated with exposures to toxic materials. An examination of the decomposition process revealed that there is a potential off-gassing of a number of common, yet harmful chemicals including ammonia, mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, butyric acid and phenol. In addition, other compounds, that have limited information such as established health data and occupational exposure limits, were also potential contaminants-of-concern. While a variety of monitoring and sampling techniques were used to assess worker exposures, all results indicated non-detectable airborne concentrations. Nevertheless, workers were experiencing such symptoms as nausea and headaches. As such, protective measures were necessary for field personnel to continue work while having confidence that the project was instituting sincere steps to ensure their health and safety. Researching the possible reasons for the causes of workers exhibiting adverse health effects from nuisance odors revealed that such exposures initiate electrochemical pathways, starting from the olfactory bulb to the brain, followed by a transfer of information to such biologic systems as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These systems, in turn, secrete hormones that cause a number of involuntary reactions; many of which are observed as typical adverse health effects, when in fact, they are merely reactions caused by the brain's memory; most likely created from previous experiences to unpleasant odors. The concern then focuses of how the Occupational Safety and Health community shall respond to such workplace exposures. Future work in this area may need to focus on the viability of current occupational exposure limits and the possibility of revising these

  1. Residents' concerns and attitudes toward a municipal solid waste landfill: integrating a questionnaire survey and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Weiqian; Shang, Zhaoyi; Tai, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The ever-growing industry of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal appeals to the growing need for disposal facilities, and MSW treatment facilities are increasingly an environmental and public health concern. Residents living near MSW management facilities are confronted with various risk perceptions, especially odour. In this study, in an effort to assist responsible decision-makers in better planning and managing such a project, a structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to assess the nearby residents' concerns and attitudes surrounding the Laogang Landfill in Shanghai. Geographic information system techniques and relevance analysis were employed to conduct the spatial analysis of physical perceptions, especially odour annoyance. The findings of the research indicate that a significant percentage of the responding sample was aware of the negative impacts of landfills on the environment and public health, and residents in close proximity preferred to live farther from the landfill. The results from the spatial analysis demonstrated a definite degree of correlation between odour annoyance and distance to the facility and proved that the benefits of the socially disadvantaged have been neglected. The research findings also direct attention to the important role of public participation, information disclosure, transparency in management, and mutual communication to avoid conflicts and build social trust.

  2. A few problems concerning population science.

    PubMed

    Xu, D

    1981-05-27

    This paper discusses problems concerning population science in China within a Marxist perspective. In contrast to capitalism, the socialist society is built on the foundation of the socialist public ownership of the means of production. The socialist law of population, as distinct from the capitalist, means the inevitability of population planning under the socialist mode of production. If rapid population growth is allowed to continue, the yearly increment of material wealth will be conserved by the additional population which will thereby nullify the cultural and material needs of the people. Therefore, population growth planning is necessary to control reproduction and material production as well as the development of the national economy. 3 differences between Chinese population theory and that of the neoMalthusians are discussed: 1) whereas the neoMalthusians propose to safeguard the capitalist system, the Chinese theory is to consolidate the socialist system, 2) Malthusianism emphasizes population growth and ignores, unlike the Chinese system, the possibility of increasing production while achieving population control by degrees, and 3) responsibility for controlling "surplus population" is placed on the working people by neoMalthusians but on the elites in the Chinese system. Recent efforts in China are to control the population by reducing families to one child. In the past 30 years, a series of contradictions have developed in the development of the economy in relation to population growth: 1) distinct disproportion arises between the growth of the total population (66.7% between 1952-78) and that of the means of subsistence (5.4%/year between 1952-78); 2) if population growth is not controlled, a contradiction will occur between those of working ages and the growth of the means of production; and 3) the disproportion between the quality of population and the needs of the modern socialist system. Under the socialist system, population control is

  3. Radiation and Reliability Concerns for Modern Nonvolatile Memory Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Friendlich, Mark R.; Kim, Hak S.; Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Buchner, S. P.; McMorrow, D.; Mavis, D. G.; Eaton, P. H.; Castillo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial nonvolatile memory technology is attractive for space applications, but radiation issues are serious concerns. In addition, we discuss combined radiation/reliability concerns which are only beginning to be addressed.

  4. Ask Dr. Sue: Center Directors Express These Health Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1991-01-01

    A physician addresses three health concerns of child care center directors. She provides information about the increasing number of children with asthma problems, the exclusion of ill children from child care settings, and the increasing concern about lead poisoning. (GLR)

  5. 7 CFR 1469.4 - Significant resource concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Significant resource concerns. 1469.4 Section 1469.4... Provisions § 1469.4 Significant resource concerns. (a) Soil quality and water quality are nationally significant resource concerns for all land uses. (b) For each sign-up, the Chief may determine...

  6. 7 CFR 1469.4 - Significant resource concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Significant resource concerns. 1469.4 Section 1469.4... Provisions § 1469.4 Significant resource concerns. (a) Soil quality and water quality are nationally significant resource concerns for all land uses. (b) For each sign-up, the Chief may determine...

  7. 7 CFR 1469.4 - Significant resource concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Significant resource concerns. 1469.4 Section 1469.4... Provisions § 1469.4 Significant resource concerns. (a) Soil quality and water quality are nationally significant resource concerns for all land uses. (b) For each sign-up, the Chief may determine...

  8. 20 CFR 725.708 - Disputes concerning medical benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disputes concerning medical benefits. 725.708... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Medical Benefits and Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.708 Disputes concerning medical benefits. (a) Whenever a dispute develops concerning medical services...

  9. 20 CFR 725.708 - Disputes concerning medical benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disputes concerning medical benefits. 725.708... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Medical Benefits and Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.708 Disputes concerning medical benefits. (a) Whenever a dispute develops concerning medical services...

  10. 7 CFR 1469.4 - Significant resource concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Significant resource concerns. 1469.4 Section 1469.4... Provisions § 1469.4 Significant resource concerns. (a) Soil quality and water quality are nationally significant resource concerns for all land uses. (b) For each sign-up, the Chief may determine...

  11. 7 CFR 1469.4 - Significant resource concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Significant resource concerns. 1469.4 Section 1469.4... Provisions § 1469.4 Significant resource concerns. (a) Soil quality and water quality are nationally significant resource concerns for all land uses. (b) For each sign-up, the Chief may determine...

  12. Teachers' Stages of Concern about the Target-Oriented Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Ng, Davis

    2000-01-01

    Investigates teachers' concerns about the Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) in Hong Kong (China). Finds that most teachers showed concern about the management of TOC (found in the third stage) and most were concerned with efficiency, time demands, organization, scheduling, and the best use of resources. Includes references. (CMK)

  13. Spiritual and Religious Concerns of the Hospitalized Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Tomas J.; Reilly, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Examined the spiritual and religious concerns of 114 hospitalized adolescents using the Spiritual and Religous Concerns questionnaire. Results showed the majority believed in God, and half the seriously ill patients experienced a marked change in spiritual concerns. Sex, race, religion, and type of school were other variables. (BH)

  14. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as the…

  15. Literature Review: Reported Educator Concerns Regarding Cyberspace Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czubaj, Camilia Anne

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and educators have expressed many concerns regarding cyberspace curricula. In this review of the literature, it was found that articles dealing with educator concerns regarding cyberspace curricula reported five major categorical concerns: insufficient teacher training, insufficient educator involvement in the technology development…

  16. Assessment and Intervention for Young Children with Nonphysiological Feeding Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Among families who have young children, feeding concerns are quite common (Brazelton, 1992). Feeding concerns can include, but are not limited to, inappropriate mealtime behaviors, lack of self-feeding, food selectivity, and food refusal (Kerwin, 1999). Given the complex nature of assessment of and intervention for feeding concerns in young…

  17. Career Concerns for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Brandon; Jaques, Jodi; Niles, Spencer G.; Wierzalis, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Study seeks to identify the career concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS. Used qualitative research methodology to ask participants to discuss the impact their diagnosis has had on their career development concerns and their career goals. Responses classified participants' concerns as relating to career or workplace issues, medical issues, or…

  18. Comparing Alternative Question Forms for Assessing Consumer Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Robert O.; Sterngold, Arthur; Warland, Rex H.

    1998-01-01

    Three forms of consumer questionnaires were compared:(1) asking how concerned people are about an issue; (2) using concern filters; and (3) using awareness filters. The forms with filters (2 and 3) produced lower percentages of "very concerned" and higher percentages of "unaware" responses. Awareness filters improved the correlation between…

  19. 20 CFR 725.708 - Disputes concerning medical benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disputes concerning medical benefits. 725.708... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Medical Benefits and Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.708 Disputes concerning medical benefits. (a) Whenever a dispute develops concerning medical services...

  20. Do Maternal Concerns at Delivery Predict Parenting Stress during Infancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Cain, Daphne S.; Wilson, Elizabeth E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In a previous study, we found that new mothers could and would express concerns about their parenting, including concerns about maltreatment and poor care. In this study, we examine the utility of early maternal concerns for predicting parenting stress in the first year. Parenting stress is important because it has been shown to be…

  1. Eating Concerns in College Women across Sexual Orientation Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…

  2. Symmetry Concerns as a Symptom of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ashley S; Phillips, Katharine A

    2013-07-01

    Symmetry obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and have several demographic and clinical correlates. Appearance-related symmetry concerns appear common in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); however, no published studies have examined this topic. This study examined the clinical features, prevalence, and correlates of symmetry concerns involving physical appearance in two BDD samples (N=160 and N=115). More than 25% of participants in each sample reported symmetry concerns for a body part with which they were preoccupied (total of 18 body parts in sample 1 and 18 in sample 2). In sample 1, BDD participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were older than those without appearance-related symmetry concerns. In sample 2, those with appearance-related symmetry concerns reported poorer mental health-related quality of life, were more likely to have experienced lifetime suicidal ideation, had better BDD-related insight, and were less likely to have a lifetime eating disorder. In both samples, participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were more likely to have lifetime OCD but not OCD-related symmetry obsessions. Thus, symmetry is a common appearance concern in BDD that is associated with comorbid OCD but not with OCD symmetry concerns specifically, suggesting that symmetry concerns may have a different mechanism/pathophysiology in BDD versus OCD.

  3. When Free Is Not for Me: Confronting the Barriers to Use of Free Quitline Telephone Counseling for Tobacco Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine; Brackman, Sharon; Lercara, Charnette; Cottoms, Naomi; Olson, Mary; Panissidi, Luana; Pittman, Jami; Stayna, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Remarkable disparities in smoking rates in the United States contribute significantly to socioeconomic and minority health disparities. Access to treatment for tobacco use can help address these disparities, but quitlines, our most ubiquitous treatment resource, reach just 1%–2% of smokers. We used community-based participatory methods to develop a survey instrument to assess barriers to use of the quitline in the Arkansas Mississippi delta. Barriers were quitline specific and barriers to cessation more broadly. Over one-third (34.9%) of respondents (n = 799) did not have access to a telephone that they could use for the quitline. Respondents reported low levels of knowledge about the quitline, quitting, and trust in tobacco treatment programs as well as considerable ambivalence about quitting including significant concerns about getting sick if they quit and strong faith-based beliefs about quitting. These findings suggest quitlines are not accessible to all lower socioeconomic groups and that significant barriers to use include barriers to cessation. These findings suggest targets for providing accessible tobacco use treatment services and addressing concerns about cessation among lower income, ethnic minority, and rural groups. PMID:26703662

  4. When Free Is Not for Me: Confronting the Barriers to Use of Free Quitline Telephone Counseling for Tobacco Dependence.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Christine; Brackman, Sharon; Lercara, Charnette; Cottoms, Naomi; Olson, Mary; Panissidi, Luana; Pittman, Jami; Stayna, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable disparities in smoking rates in the United States contribute significantly to socioeconomic and minority health disparities. Access to treatment for tobacco use can help address these disparities, but quitlines, our most ubiquitous treatment resource, reach just 1%-2% of smokers. We used community-based participatory methods to develop a survey instrument to assess barriers to use of the quitline in the Arkansas Mississippi delta. Barriers were quitline specific and barriers to cessation more broadly. Over one-third (34.9%) of respondents (n = 799) did not have access to a telephone that they could use for the quitline. Respondents reported low levels of knowledge about the quitline, quitting, and trust in tobacco treatment programs as well as considerable ambivalence about quitting including significant concerns about getting sick if they quit and strong faith-based beliefs about quitting. These findings suggest quitlines are not accessible to all lower socioeconomic groups and that significant barriers to use include barriers to cessation. These findings suggest targets for providing accessible tobacco use treatment services and addressing concerns about cessation among lower income, ethnic minority, and rural groups. PMID:26703662

  5. Male sexual health concerns in Muong Khen, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phong, Vu Hong

    2008-06-01

    Male sexual health concerns are often construed in the medical literature as linked only to genital and reproductive difficulties and malfunctions. However, in reality, male sexual health concerns encompass a broader range of issues and should not be so narrowly conceived. This paper explores men's perceptions of sexual health concerns in Muong Khen, a rural town in northwestern Vietnam. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Findings suggest that men's sexual health concerns are strongly related to worries about economic problems, excessive drinking, men's beliefs about how their bodies work and the hegemonic notion that a man should be responsible for his family's economic well-being.

  6. 12 CFR 202.5 - Rules concerning requests for information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant's creditworthiness. (3) Childbearing, childrearing. A creditor shall not inquire about birth control practices, intentions concerning the bearing or rearing of children, or capability to...

  7. 12 CFR 202.5 - Rules concerning requests for information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... applicant's creditworthiness. (3) Childbearing, childrearing. A creditor shall not inquire about birth control practices, intentions concerning the bearing or rearing of children, or capability to...

  8. 12 CFR 202.5 - Rules concerning requests for information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant's creditworthiness. (3) Childbearing, childrearing. A creditor shall not inquire about birth control practices, intentions concerning the bearing or rearing of children, or capability to...

  9. 12 CFR 202.5 - Rules concerning requests for information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... applicant's creditworthiness. (3) Childbearing, childrearing. A creditor shall not inquire about birth control practices, intentions concerning the bearing or rearing of children, or capability to...

  10. A Manual for Scoring the Teacher Concerns Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Frances F.; Case, Carol

    This manual provides instructions for scoring the Teacher Concerns Statement, a questionnaire for pre- and inservice teachers consisting of one open-ended question asking for the respondent's concerns when he/she thinks about teaching. The Questionnaire, a copy of which is provided, consists of five questions asking for back ground information…

  11. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607... Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized representative of a private entity responsible for developing a model code, the Assistant Attorney General may review...

  12. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607... Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized representative of a private entity responsible for developing a model code, the Assistant Attorney General may review...

  13. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607... Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized representative of a private entity responsible for developing a model code, the Assistant Attorney General may review...

  14. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607... Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized representative of a private entity responsible for developing a model code, the Assistant Attorney General may review...

  15. 32 CFR 643.51 - Additional items concerning leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional items concerning leasing. 643.51... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.51 Additional items concerning leasing. In addition to the general and... leasing of Army real estate....

  16. Career Concerns, Values, and Role Salience in Employed Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda

    1995-01-01

    Tests Super's model of career adaptability by examining the relationship between career development concerns, values, and role salience among cement factory workers (n=881). They responded to the Adult Career Concerns Inventory, the Values Inventory, and the Salience Inventory. Results supported both Super's model of career adaptation and his…

  17. 28 CFR 51.31 - Communications concerning voting suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications concerning voting suits... ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Communications From Individuals and Groups § 51.31 Communications concerning voting suits. Individuals and groups are urged to notify...

  18. 28 CFR 51.29 - Communications concerning voting changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications concerning voting changes... ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Communications From Individuals and Groups § 51.29 Communications concerning voting changes. Any individual or group may send to the...

  19. Perceptions of Secondary Mathematics Teachers Concerning Influences on Pedagogical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Secondary Math Teachers (SMTs) concerning the influences that affect teaching practices and also investigate the possible existence of pluralistic ignorance concerning the way SMTs perceive the effects of influences on their own teaching practices versus the way they perceive the effects…

  20. An Information Search Model of Evaluative Concerns in Intergroup Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorauer, Jacquie D.

    2006-01-01

    In an information search model, evaluative concerns during intergroup interaction are conceptualized as a joint function of uncertainty regarding and importance attached to out-group members' views of oneself. High uncertainty generally fosters evaluative concerns during intergroup exchanges. Importance depends on whether out-group members'…

  1. Concerns of Teachers about Technology Integration in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuliang; Huang, Carol

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the current trend and pattern of teachers' concerns about technology integration. Eighty-six in-service teachers in a graduate course participated in the study at a midwestern state university during the summer semester of 2002. The Stages of Concerns (SoC) Questionnaire was used to assess teachers' seven stages…

  2. Time Will Tell on Issues Concerning Faculty and Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansah, Angela O.; Johnson, James T.

    2003-01-01

    Technology-based distance education (TBDE) is increasingly being used to supplement higher education needs and this is raising a variety of concerns in universities. This study examined the differences in the concerns expressed by instructional faculty of three comparable universities that differ primarily in their stages of implementing distance…

  3. Treatment of environmental concerns expressed by the public

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report describes the means of dealing with environmental concerns addressed by the public. A number of specific concerns and their linkage to scientific/pollution issues are listed, as are a number of other environmental issues and their impacts.

  4. 37 CFR 10.31 - Communications concerning a practitioner's services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications concerning a... Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.31 Communications concerning a practitioner's services. (a) No practitioner shall with respect to any prospective business before the...

  5. Some Observations Concerning the Community College and Its Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a discussion on how to create an optimum learning environment in the community college, 50 undergraduates were surveyed as to possible issues for campus unrest. The resulting list suggested that community college students are short-sighted, concerned with the immediate (such as parking) and have little concern for large social matters.…

  6. 10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. 431.152 Section 431.152 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152 Definitions concerning...

  7. 5 CFR 370.107 - Details to small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details to small business concerns. 370.107 Section 370.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 370.107 Details to small business concerns. (a) The head of...

  8. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1016 Advance information concerning service... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 7 CFR 54.15 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54.15... Service § 54.15 Advance information concerning service rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  10. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false News releases concerning international... RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.109 News releases concerning international activities. (a) Releases of information involving NASA activities, views, programs, or projects...

  11. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true News releases concerning international... RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.109 News releases concerning international activities. (a) Releases of information involving NASA activities, views, programs, or projects...

  12. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false News releases concerning international... RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.109 News releases concerning international activities. (a) Releases of information involving NASA activities, views, programs, or projects...

  13. Students' Concern about Indebtedness: A Rank Based Social Norms Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Wood, Alex M.; Maltby, John; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new model of students' concern about indebtedness within a rank-based social norms framework. Study 1 found that students hold highly variable beliefs about how much other students will owe at the end of their degree. Students' concern about their own anticipated debt--and their intention of taking on a part-time job during…

  14. Coitally Active University Students: Sexual Behaviors, Concerns, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Carol A.; Davidson, J. Kenneth., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    Examined behaviors, attitudes, and concerns of students coitally active. Differences between genders included male dissatisfaction with infrequent opportunities for sexual intercourse, lack of variety of sex partners, and insufficient oral-genital stimulation. Female concerns were lack of stimulation to their breasts, painful sexual intercourse,…

  15. Self-Reported Sexual Functioning Concerns among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambling, Rachel B.; Reckert, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Researchers who have studied sexual functioning concerns do not often focus their research on undergraduate populations, perhaps due to perceptions of universal sexual health among this population. The current study examined prevalence and type of sexual functioning concerns in a sample of 347 male and female undergraduate students. Sexual…

  16. The Impact of Adolescent Concerns on Their Academic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huan, Vivien S.; See, Yeo Lay; Ang, Rebecca P.; Har, Chong Wan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the contributing role of the different aspects of adolescent concerns on the academic stress of youths in Singapore. Data was obtained using two self-report measures: the Adolescent Concerns Measure and the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory. The study examined four different aspects of adolescent…

  17. Developer's Concerns about Staff Retreat Create Opportunity and Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with a staff developer's concerns about Bill Stewart's staff retreat, and how these concerns create opportunity and obligation. The author presents views from a superintendent and two staff developers on the staff retreat. Aside from these, the author talks about a superintendent named Darlene Preston, and her course of action.…

  18. Functional Communication Patterns and Relational Concern in Interpersonal Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Stephen J.; Miller, Larry D.

    A study explored the relationship between the functional communication patterns occurring in conflict and post conflict impressions of relational concern. The first part of the study involved the development and testing of an instrument to measure perceived relational concern, while the second part investigated whether varying styles of functional…

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-14 - Disputes Concerning Labor Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disputes Concerning Labor Standards. 52.222-14 Section 52.222-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-14 Disputes Concerning...

  20. 48 CFR 52.222-14 - Disputes Concerning Labor Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disputes Concerning Labor Standards. 52.222-14 Section 52.222-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-14 Disputes Concerning...

  1. 28 CFR 36.608 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.608 Section 36.608 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Certification of State Laws or Local Building Codes § 36.608 Guidance concerning...

  2. 42 CFR 423.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 423... Marketing Requirements § 423.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing Materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  3. 42 CFR 422.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 422... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Advantage Marketing Requirements § 422.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart—...

  4. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  5. 28 CFR 51.29 - Communications concerning voting changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Groups § 51.29 Communications concerning voting changes. Any individual or group may send to the Attorney... or group, describing the alleged change affecting voting and setting forth evidence regarding whether... individuals or groups concerning any change affecting voting may be sent at any time; however, individuals...

  6. Principals' Concerns Regarding the Implementation of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier Pelfrey, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Stages of Concern (SoC) that school principals have toward change and then report participants' behavior relevant to their Level of Use (LoU) of an innovation. An understanding of principals' concerns regarding change suggested a variety of factors that impede educational leaders'…

  7. States Address Concerns about Concussions in Youth Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreck, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) reviewed legislation in the 50 states to see how state leaders are responding to concerns about concussions in youth sports. This report reviews state responses to concussion concerns, and provides examples of provisions put in place by California, Connecticut, and Texas. Three emerging innovations are…

  8. 28 CFR 51.31 - Communications concerning voting suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications concerning voting suits. 51.31 Section 51.31 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE... Chief, Voting Section, Civil Rights Division, of litigation concerning voting in jurisdictions...

  9. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  10. Some Applied Research Concerns Using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Fraas, John W.

    The intention of this paper is to provide an overall reference on how a researcher can apply multiple linear regression in order to utilize the advantages that it has to offer. The advantages and some concerns expressed about the technique are examined. A number of practical ways by which researchers can deal with such concerns as…

  11. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  12. 28 CFR 51.29 - Communications concerning voting changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General that disclosure of the identity of an individual who provided information regarding a change... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications concerning voting changes... Groups § 51.29 Communications concerning voting changes. Any individual or group may send to the...

  13. Economic Strain and Community Concerns in Three Meatpacking Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalla, Rochelle L.; Cramer, Sheran; Stanek, Kaye

    2002-01-01

    In three rural Nebraska communities experiencing rising inmigration of Hispanic families, newcomers and long-term residents were interviewed concerning personal financial strain; concerns with community issues such as language barriers and interethnic conflict; nutritional habits; and access to health care, education and training, and social…

  14. 21 CFR 21.10 - Policy concerning records about individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy concerning records about individuals. 21.10 Section 21.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY General Provisions § 21.10 Policy concerning records about individuals....

  15. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this grou...

  16. 42 CFR 423.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 423... Marketing Requirements § 423.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing Materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  17. 42 CFR 422.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 422... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Advantage Marketing Requirements § 422.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart—...

  18. Battered Women's Concern for Their Pets: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Elizabeth B.; Faver, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Building on the foundation of previous research about battered women's experiences with animal abuse, this study takes a closer look at: (1) the factors associated with battered women's concern for their pets and (2) decision making associated with this concern. Quantitative survey data of in-shelter domestic violence victims as well as…

  19. 33 CFR 148.300 - What does this subpart concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart concern? 148.300 Section 148.300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Licenses § 148.300 What does this subpart concern?...

  20. 5 CFR 370.107 - Details to small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Details to small business concerns. 370.107 Section 370.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 370.107 Details to small business concerns. (a) The head of...

  1. Effects of Newspaper Coverage on Neighborhood and Community Issue Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kim A.

    A study examined the relationship between newspaper coverage of issues and public concern about them at the neighborhood and community-wide levels in an urban area. It was hypothesized that (1) newspaper coverage of issues would be more strongly related to concern about perceived community than neighborhood issues, (2) newspaper coverage would…

  2. 42 CFR 422.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 422... Marketing Requirements § 422.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  3. 42 CFR 423.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 423... Part D Marketing Requirements § 423.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing Materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  4. 42 CFR 422.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 422... Marketing Requirements § 422.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  5. 42 CFR 423.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 423... Part D Marketing Requirements § 423.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing Materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  6. 42 CFR 423.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 423... Part D Marketing Requirements § 423.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing Materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  7. 42 CFR 422.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 422... Marketing Requirements § 422.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart— Marketing materials. Marketing materials include any informational materials targeted to...

  8. Environmental Worldview and Concern of College Students in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Glenn L. Sia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Most people profess to care for the environment, but there is considerable diversity on what people generally care for and the reasons for their concern. This study aims to understand college students' worldviews, attitudes, and perceptions and determine the factors affecting their environmental concern. The study aims to focus on college…

  9. Environmental Concern and Involvement of Individuals in Selected Voluntary Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Michael A.; Ostergren, David.

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined environmental concern and involvement of individuals in two voluntary associations, the International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) and National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Inc. (NOHVCC). Environmental concerns were assessed using the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP). When compared, results from 10 of 12…

  10. Jaguar critical habitat designation causes concern for Southwestern ranchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, Colleen; Lien, Aaron M.; Vanasco, Wendy T.; Laura Lopez-Hoffman,; Ruyle, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The designation of jaguar critical habitat in April 2014 in southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico created concern for livestock ranchers in the region. We interviewed ranchers to understand their concerns with the jaguar critical habitat designation and their attitudes toward jaguars, wildlife conservation, and resource management in general. Ranchers we interviewed were concerned about direct impacts of designated critical habitat on ranching, as well as possible alternative agendas of critical habitat advocates and issues specific to the borderlands region. The ranchers were less concerned about the presence of jaguars but were more concerned about possible limiting effects of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), distrust of government entities, and litigious environmental groups. To maximize effectiveness, government agencies should work to foster trust in the ranching community, be cognizant of sensitive issues specific to the region that may challenge endangered species conservation goals, recognize the opportunity to work with ranchers for endangered species management, and provide outreach about implications of the ESA.

  11. Globalization, pharmaceutical pricing, and South African health policy: managing confrontation with U.S. firms and politicians.

    PubMed

    Bond, P

    1999-01-01

    Brewing since the advent of South African democracy in 1994 and promises of health sector transformation, an extraordinary drug war between President Nelson Mandela's African National Congress government and U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers took on global proportions in 1998-1999. Within months of the passage of South African legislation aimed at lowering drug prices, the U.S. government quickly applied powerful pressure points to repeal a clause allowing potential importation of generic substitutes and imposition of compulsory licensing. At stake were not only local interpretations of patent law and World Trade Organization rules on Trade in Intellectual Property, but international power relations between developing countries and the pharmaceutical industry. In reviewing the ongoing debate, this article considers post-apartheid public health policy, U.S. government pressure to change the law, and pharmaceutical industry interests and links to the U.S. government, and evaluates various kinds of resistance to U.S. corporate and government behavior. The case thus raises--not for the first time--concerns about contemporary imperialism ("globalization"), the role of the profit motive as an incentive in vital pharmaceutical products, and indeed the depth of "democracy" in a country where high-bidding international drug firms have sufficient clout to embarrass Vice President Al Gore by pitting him against the life-and-death interests of millions of consumers of essential drugs in South Africa and other developing countries. PMID:10615573

  12. Globalization, pharmaceutical pricing, and South African health policy: managing confrontation with U.S. firms and politicians.

    PubMed

    Bond, P

    1999-01-01

    Brewing since the advent of South African democracy in 1994 and promises of health sector transformation, an extraordinary drug war between President Nelson Mandela's African National Congress government and U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers took on global proportions in 1998-1999. Within months of the passage of South African legislation aimed at lowering drug prices, the U.S. government quickly applied powerful pressure points to repeal a clause allowing potential importation of generic substitutes and imposition of compulsory licensing. At stake were not only local interpretations of patent law and World Trade Organization rules on Trade in Intellectual Property, but international power relations between developing countries and the pharmaceutical industry. In reviewing the ongoing debate, this article considers post-apartheid public health policy, U.S. government pressure to change the law, and pharmaceutical industry interests and links to the U.S. government, and evaluates various kinds of resistance to U.S. corporate and government behavior. The case thus raises--not for the first time--concerns about contemporary imperialism ("globalization"), the role of the profit motive as an incentive in vital pharmaceutical products, and indeed the depth of "democracy" in a country where high-bidding international drug firms have sufficient clout to embarrass Vice President Al Gore by pitting him against the life-and-death interests of millions of consumers of essential drugs in South Africa and other developing countries.

  13. How Early Do Parent Concerns Predict Later Autism Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Steinfeld, Mary Beth; Hill, Monique M.; Cook, Ian; Hutman, Ted; Macari, Suzanne; Rogers, Sally J.; Sigman, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between parent concerns about development in the first year and a half of life and later autism diagnostic outcomes. Method Parent concerns about development were collected for infants at high and low risk for autism, using a prospective, longitudinal design. Parents were asked about developmental concerns at study intake and when their infant was 6, 12, and 18 months. Infants were then followed up until 36 months, when diagnostic status was determined. Results By the time their child was 12 months, parents who have an older child with autism reported significantly more concerns in autism spectrum disorders-related areas than parents of children with typical outcomes. These concerns were significantly related to independent measures of developmental status and autism symptoms and helped predict which infants would later be diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorders. At 6 months, however, the concerns of parents who have an older child with autism do not predict outcome well. Conclusion Explicitly probing for parent concerns about development is useful for identifying children in need of closer monitoring and surveillance, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. PMID:19827218

  14. Identity-Driven Differences in Stakeholder Concerns about Hunting Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Michelle L.; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management. PMID:25464276

  15. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    PubMed

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management. PMID:25464276

  16. Synthesis of common management concerns associated with dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tullos, Desiree D.; Collins, Mathias J.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Managers make decisions regarding if and how to remove dams in spite of uncertainty surrounding physical and ecological responses, and stakeholders often raise concerns about certain negative effects, regardless of whether or not these concerns are warranted at a particular site. We used a dam-removal science database supplemented with other information sources to explore seven frequently-raised concerns, herein Common Management Concerns (CMCs). We investigate the occurrence of these concerns and the contributing biophysical controls. The CMCs addressed are: degree and rate of reservoir sediment erosion, excessive channel incision upstream of reservoirs, downstream sediment aggradation, elevated downstream turbidity, drawdown impacts on local water infrastructure, colonization of reservoir sediments by non-native plants, and expansion of invasive fish. Biophysical controls emerged for some of the concerns, providing managers with information to assess whether a given concern is likely to occur at a site. To fully assess CMC risk, managers should concurrently evaluate site conditions and identify the ecosystem or human uses that will be negatively affected if the biophysical phenomenon producing the CMC occurs. We show how many CMCs have one or more controls in common, facilitating the identification of multiple risks at a site, and demonstrate why CMC risks should be considered in the context of other factors like natural watershed variability and disturbance history.

  17. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    PubMed

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  18. Evaluation of pharmaceutical concerns in Germany: frequency and potential reasons

    PubMed Central

    Gradl, Gabriele; Krieg, Eva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic substitution can have unintended consequences. In Germany, brand name to generic or generic to generic switching is mainly driven by rebate contracts. Frequent switching may raise concerns about bio- and therapeutic equivalence. Expected patient confusion may result in compromised medication adherence or new onset of other drug-related problems. Since 2008, pharmacists are allowed to deviate from rebate contracts by denying substitution due to pharmaceutical concerns on an individual basis. Objectives: To explore the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in Germany between July 2011 and December 2013 and to identify the medicines most frequently related to pharmaceutical concerns in 2013. Methods: We analyzed documented pharmaceutical concerns in all prescribed drugs at the expense of any statutory health insurance company requiring pharmacies’ generic substitution according to rebate contracts. Results: Since July 2011, the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in relation to prescribed drug products with rebate contracts requiring substitution increased consistently and doubled between July 2011 and July 2013. Overall in 2013, the trend of the two previous years continued and reached approximately 1.5%. The most affected drugs/drug classes were thyroid hormones (in particular combinations with iodide; 15.9%) followed by ondansetron (12.5%), and levothyroxine (11.3%). For all drugs/drug classes under investigation, product-, patient- or disease-related aspects could be identified which are potential reasons to deny substitution and to document pharmaceutical concerns. Conclusions: Although there is no electronic recording of the specific reasons for pharmaceutical concerns in claims data, our analyses support the assumption that pharmacists make use of this instrument based on individual clinical decisions and as required by contract. Pharmaceutical concerns are, therefore, an important instrument for pharmacies to refuse

  19. Animal welfare and society concerns finding the missing link.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Temple

    2014-11-01

    Young adults in developed countries are distanced from agriculture and the meat industry needs to do a better job of communicating with them. A major welfare concern is slaughter without stunning. Other concerns, such as poor stunning or high levels of bruising, can be easily corrected by management who is committed to maintaining high standards. Another concern is biological system overload, occurring when animals are bred for more productivity. Researchers and industry need to determine optimum production levels instead of maximums. Retailers are major drivers of animal welfare standards enforcement and they respond to pressure from both activists and consumers. PMID:24928166

  20. Radiolysis Concerns for Water Shielding in Fission Surface Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Anghaie, Samim

    2008-01-21

    This paper presents an overview of radiolysis concerns with regard to water shields for fission surface power. A review of the radiolysis process is presented and key parameters and trends are identified. From this understanding of the radiolytic decomposition of water, shield pressurization and corrosion are identified as the primary concerns. Existing experimental and modeling data addressing concerns are summarized. It was found that radiolysis of pure water in a closed volume results in minimal, if any net decomposition, and therefore reduces the potential for shield pressurization and corrosion.