Science.gov

Sample records for confronting industry-distributional concerns

  1. Achieving Affective Competencies through the Teacher Concerns-Self Confrontation Model of Personalized Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Frances F.

    A three-level model was derived from the literature on motivation and behavior change processes and from specific research on teacher concerns and self-confrontation. Teacher concerns comprise the first level of the model: concerns about self, task, and pupils. Self-confrontation feedback and behavior change procedures comprise the second level:…

  2. Indian Education Confronts the Seventies. Five Volumes, Volume V: Future Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr., Ed.

    As the fifth volume in a five-volume series of position papers on Indian education, this publication presents six papers relative to future concerns in Indian education. Papers are titled as follows: (1) "Bilingual and Bicultural Education for American Indians" (revitalization of Indian "life" principles via…

  3. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    PubMed

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-07-16

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996-2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary.

  4. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996–2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844

  5. Confronting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  6. Confronting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  7. Confronting Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, Loren B.; Bertsch, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    Since no school district is immune to death, the concepts of death and dying, stress management, and suicide should be worked into the curriculum beginning in the fourth grade. Advice is given concerning planning for potential tragedy, responding to a student's or staff member's death, and establishing memorials. Two figures cite teenage suicide…

  8. Confronting Poor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bruce L.

    Responsible and effective administrative leadership requires confronting those members of the teaching staff who are a negative influence on the institution. Importantly, the absence of expressed appreciation for good work can have a devastating impact on a principal's image if he or she suddenly begins to confront poor performances. Actually, the…

  9. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  10. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  11. Existential Confrontation and Religiosity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, P. J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that religious intrinsicness predicts failure to confront existential problems and an interactional orientation promotes the opposite influence. Results from 94 male and 107 female college students failed to support hypothesis that orthodox, intrinsic individuals are rigid in their approach to existential questions in life.…

  12. Confronting Islamophobia in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramarajan, Dhaya; Runell, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    The "Religion and Diversity Education" program of the Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding includes innovative training for elementary and high school educators on addressing religious pluralism in school. This paper highlights the program and its curricula which confront Islamophobia by teaching students concrete skills for living in…

  13. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  14. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  15. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  16. The Pedagogy of Value-Confrontation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry Goldwyn

    This paper describes the basic principles and objectives of an educational approach based on "values confrontation" and evaluates its impact on student values, feelings, and behavior. After stressing the importance of forming a modern pedagogy concerned with developing rational thinking and deeper personal and social awareness, the paper…

  17. Confronting the disruptive physician.

    PubMed

    Linney, B J

    1997-01-01

    Ignoring disruptive behavior is no longer an option in today's changing health care environment. Competition and managed care have caused more organizations to deal with the disruptive physician, rather than look the other way as many did in years past. But it's not an easy task, possibly the toughest of your management career. How should you confront a disruptive physician? By having clearly stated expectations for physician behavior and policies in place for dealing with problem physicians, organizations have a context from which to address the situation.

  18. Industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Yorifuji, Takashi; Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Hiransuthikul, Narin; Doi, Hiroyuki; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    In industrializing countries, occupational safety and health have been affected by globalization. However, a lack of reliable data prevents evaluation of this situation. Therefore, we examined industrial distributions and risks of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand, which is one of the few industrializing countries that compiles nationwide data. Data on workers who made claims for occupational injuries from 2007 to 2009 were extracted from the Workmen's Compensation Fund records in Thailand. Among 501,334 claimants, we evaluated the industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries (i.e., permanent disability and death). We then examined the associations between industry and those injuries, using proportionate ratios (PRs) between each industrial category and the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The number of workers in manufacturing making claims for severe occupational injuries was the largest among all industrial categories (319,114/501,334 injuries), although the total number of occupational injuries recently declined. Additionally, workers in manufacturing experienced severe occupational injuries more often compared with the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The PRs (95% confidence interval) for manufacturing were 1.17 (1.14-1.20) in men and 1.33 (1.27-1.38) in women. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the results did not substantially change. Manufacturing seems to have the largest burden of occupational injuries in industrializing countries like Thailand.

  19. Helping Counselors Learn to Confront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamminen, Armas W.; Smaby, Marlowe H.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a model for training counselors to learn to confront empathetically. Describes a confrontation training scale that includes inadequate responses of acquiescing and scolding and the progressively more effective responses of recognizing ineffective behavior, realizing its negative consequences, and committing to change. Suggests confronting…

  20. Confrontation--Catalyst for Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Vincent M., Jr.

    The main question discussed in this paper is whether the confrontations which have been taking place on college campuses these past few years provide the basis for a new consensus which will enable all to move forward with confidence and a renewed sense of achievement. In discussing these confrontations, however, several fallacies need to be…

  1. Constructive Confrontation. EMU Labor Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Here's How, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Personnel management constitutes a substantial proportion of the elementary school principal's responsibilities. Constructive ways in which principals can identify and effectively confront deterioration of staff job performance are discussed in this newsletter. Effective interpersonal confrontation involves preparation, active listening,…

  2. Misunderstandings Concerning Genetics Among Patients Confronting Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Critical questions arise about misunderstandings of genetics. We interviewed for 2 h each, 64 individuals who had or were at risk for Huntington’s disease (HD), breast cancer or Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. These individuals revealed various misunderstandings that can affect coping, and testing, treatment and reproductive decisions. A therapeutic misconception about testing appeared: that testing would be helpful in and of itself. Many believed they could control genetic disorders (even HD), yet these beliefs were often incorrect, and could impede coping, testing, and treatment. Misunderstandings about statistics and genetics often fueled each other, and reflected denial, and desires for hope and control. Emotional needs can thus outweigh understandings of genetics and statistics, and providers’ input. Individuals often maintained non-scientific beliefs, though embarrassed by these. These data have implications for care, and public and professional education. Misunderstandings’ persistence, despite realization of their inaccuracy, suggests that providers need to address not just cognitive facts, but underlying emotional issues. PMID:20512408

  3. Confronting Asian Concerns in Engaging Learners to Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Ganakumaran

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that cultural emphasis on education plays a major role in explaining Asian students' achievement. While Asian parents often view education as the main vehicle for upward social mobility, the social and cultural make-up of Asian societies and the context within which education is conducted in Asia often clash with the…

  4. Concern for truth: driving defensively when confronting a zombie epidemic.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The newly approved drug Diclegis(®), indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, has a very interesting background story going back more than 50 years, in which science, celebrity individuals, the media, and the courts crossed paths. The story illustrates how concepts of truth, evidence, objectivity, and disinterested inquiry can become distorted in various ways, and this is especially relevant and prevalent in today's media environment of cable television, talk radio, and especially the Internet.

  5. Valuing Confrontations with the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joseph T.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests teaching methods and materials for use by high school and college social studies teachers as they help students develop valuing skills. Entitled Valuing Confrontation With The Future (VCF), the materials promote consideration of provocative episodes such as electrical stimulation of the human brain and a congressional ban on large pets…

  6. Managing Confrontations Safely and Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Most Monday mornings are noisy affairs where students and staff members are catching up on the events of the weekend. Sometimes these events are disputes that have festered over the weekend and are now ready to get settled. When a confrontation between students occurs, noise levels accelerate, students begin running, and an unnerving combination…

  7. Self-Confrontation of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.

    Simply presenting information that displays clearly any discrepancy between a teacher's ideal and actual classroom performance does not, in itself, promise constructive change. This is true in part because teachers confronted with such discrepancies often experience anxiety. Teachers who wish to change often find it difficult to behave differently…

  8. Self-Confrontation of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.

    Simply presenting teachers with information about discrepancies between their ideal and their actual classroom performances does not, in itself, lead to constructive change. In part, this is because teachers confronted with such discrepancies experience dissonance which often gives rise to anxiety. This paper discusses the psychological processes…

  9. Managing Confrontations Safely and Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Most Monday mornings are noisy affairs where students and staff members are catching up on the events of the weekend. Sometimes these events are disputes that have festered over the weekend and are now ready to get settled. When a confrontation between students occurs, noise levels accelerate, students begin running, and an unnerving combination…

  10. Discussion: Confronting theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Hugh; Hayato, Yoshinari; Sobczyk, Jan

    2015-05-15

    This session focused on the current status of neutrino event generators, in practical terms the tool through which ‘theory confronts experiment’. Comparisons of event generators, both in terms of input physics, and in terms of produced distributions, has been a staple of this conference series, and the activities in this area are summarized. In addition, we discuss the highest priorities for model development, discuss the changing needs of experimental users, and comment on challenges and needs for the road ahead.

  11. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.; Nair, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination. PMID:22028525

  12. Confronting shibboleths of dental education.

    PubMed

    Masella, Richard S

    2005-10-01

    Shibboleths are common expressions presented as indisputable truths. When used in educational discussions, they reflect "motherhood and apple pie" viewpoints and tend to bring debate to a halt. Use of shibboleths may precede a desired imposition of "locksteps" in educational programming and are easily perceived as paternalistic by recipients. Nine shibboleths are presented as common beliefs of dental faculty and administrators. Evidence contradicting the veracity of the "obvious truths" is offered. The traditional "splendid isolation" of dentistry contributes to parochialism and belief in false shibboleths. Sound principles of higher and health professions education, student learning, and dental practice apply to dental education as to all health disciplines. Student passivity in dental education is not the best preparation for proficiency in dental practice. The master teacher possesses a repertoire of methodologies specific to meeting defined educational objectives. Active learning experiences bear close resemblances to professional duties and responsibilities and internally motivate future doctors of dental medicine. The difficulty in achieving curricular change leads to curricular entrenchment. Dentistry and dental education should not trade their ethical high ground for the relatively low ethical standards of the business world. Principles of professional ethics should govern relationships between dentists, whether within the dental school workplace or in practice. Suggestions are made on how to confront shibboleths in dental school settings.

  13. Grassroots Strategies for Confronting Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanein, Neva

    1993-01-01

    Describes strategies used by the Biotechnology Working Group during their efforts to influence state and local policy concerning biotechnology issues. Strategies address methods for framing the issue, educating self and others, recruiting allies, and developing citizen pressure. (MDH)

  14. Confronting the Problem of Embodiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Embodiment has become an important construct for those in disciplines and specialty areas concerned with the form and function of the human body. This article suggests that accounts of embodiment have collapsed into an exclusionary framework that locates culture and cognition on oppositional terms. For some scholars, embodiment represents the…

  15. Confronting the Problem of Embodiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Embodiment has become an important construct for those in disciplines and specialty areas concerned with the form and function of the human body. This article suggests that accounts of embodiment have collapsed into an exclusionary framework that locates culture and cognition on oppositional terms. For some scholars, embodiment represents the…

  16. Cryogenic moderator simulations : confronting reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-06

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities.

  17. Gauge-flation confronted with Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Namba, Ryo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Peloso, Marco E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity γ ≡ g{sup 2}Q{sup 2}/H{sup 2} (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For γ < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strong tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n{sub s} is too low at small γ, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large γ. No value of γ leads to acceptable values for n{sub s} and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with γ was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. When the pseudo-scalar can be integrated out, one recovers the model of Gauge-flation plus corrections. It was shown that this identification is very accurate at the background level, but differences emerged in the literature concerning the perturbations of the two models. On the contrary, our results show that the analogy between the two models continues to be accurate also at the perturbative level.

  18. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    PubMed

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Confronting Racial Hatred to Make Schools Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukamneuth, Sengsouvanh

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to confront racial tensions that sometimes arise among students from different racial groups. Here, the author presents a four-year study conducted by the Social Policy Research Associates, funded in part by Carnegie Corporation of New York, on school-based strategies for addressing intergroup relations…

  20. Macroeconomic Issues Confronting the Next President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solow, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies economic issues that confronted the United States in the late 1980's and discusses how the president might deal with them. Highlights the following issues: recession, rising price levels, the budget deficit, international trade imbalance, and revival of U.S. long-term growth. (GEA)

  1. Opening Spaces for Confrontive Encounters with Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Diane D.

    A literature class can be successfully taught and organized around content that confronts oppressions (subtle, moral and intellectual forms of discrimination) and empowers students to critique their conceived worlds which are often at odds with their perceived realities. First, selected writings for examination illuminate life in a resistant world…

  2. The Church Confronting Adult Depression: A Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCandless, J. Bardarah

    1991-01-01

    Claims local Protestant church leaders can confront problem of depression by providing parishioners with information about symptoms and reasons for depression; distorted understandings and uses of biblical ideas about perfection, self-denial, surrender, and expressions of anger and grief; and principles of parenting that encourage children's…

  3. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, John; Zack, David R.

    This annual publication seeks to inform interested readers about important concerns of currently confronting the United States. An introduction provides: a brief discussion of individuals in the Reagan Administration; a list of the leadership positions and committees in the 100th Congress--the reader must fill in the person for each position; a…

  4. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, John; Zack, David R.

    This annual publication seeks to inform interested readers about important concerns of currently confronting the United States. An introduction provides: a brief discussion of individuals in the Reagan Administration; a list of the leadership positions and committees in the 100th Congress--the reader must fill in the person for each position; a…

  5. Who confronts prejudice?: the role of implicit theories in the motivation to confront prejudice.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2010-07-01

    Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.

  6. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  7. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE

    PubMed Central

    LYON, THOMAS D.; DENTE, JULIA A.

    2014-01-01

    After the Supreme Court’s ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant’s right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children’s evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child’s vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities. PMID:25364063

  8. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  9. Confronting Drowsy Driving: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Morgenthaler, Timothy; Chervin, Ronald; Carden, Kelly; Kirsch, Douglas; Kristo, David; Malhotra, Raman; Martin, Jennifer; Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene; Weaver, Terri; Wise, Merrill

    2015-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious public health concern which is often difficult for individual drivers to identify. While it is important for drivers to understand the causes of drowsy driving, there is still insufficient scientific knowledge and public education to prevent drowsy driving. As a result, the AASM is calling upon institutions and policy makers to increase public awareness and improve education on the issue, so our society can better recognize and prevent drowsy driving. The AASM has adopted a position statement to educate both healthcare providers and the general public about drowsy driving risks and countermeasures. Citation: Watson NF, Morgenthaler T, Chervin R, Carden K, Kirsch D, Kristo D, Malhotra R, Martin J, Ramar K, Rosen I, Weaver T, Wise M. Confronting drowsy driving: the american academy of sleep medicine perspective. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1335–1336. PMID:26414989

  10. Dialogic Considerations of Confrontation as a Counseling Activity: An Examination of Allen Ivey's Use of Confronting as a Microskill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Zeman, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine confrontation as a communication skill practiced and described by counselor educator Allen Ivey. Seeing confrontation as a dialogic activity completed interactionally, they use conversation analysis to examine 2 passages where Ivey used confrontation in his teaching tapes. Their microanalyses highlight some important and…

  11. The four-meter confrontation visual field test.

    PubMed

    Kodsi, S R; Younge, B R

    1992-01-01

    The 4-m confrontation visual field test has been successfully used at the Mayo Clinic for many years in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test. The 4-m confrontation visual field test is a test of macular function and can identify small central or paracentral scotomas that the examiner may not find when the patient is tested only at 0.5 m. Also, macular sparing in homonymous hemianopias and quadrantanopias may be identified with the 4-m confrontation visual field test. We recommend use of this confrontation visual field test, in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test, on appropriately selected patients to obtain the most information possible by confrontation visual field tests.

  12. The corporate board: confronting the paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Demb, A; Neubauer, F F

    1992-06-01

    Corporate governance and the role of boards is a topic hotly debated in boardrooms, associations and media across the industrialized world. However intense, discussions are largely national phenomena due to the widespread belief that boards cannot be compared on an international plane. The authors argue the contrary: that there is a great deal to be learned from such comparisons because boards in different countries are more similar than they are different. Insights are drawn from a four-year study the authors have conducted involving boards from eight countries. The full results have been published earlier this year by Oxford University Press, as The Corporate Board; Confronting the Paradoxes.

  13. Fireballs and cannonballs confront GRB 991208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon; de Rújula, A.

    2003-06-01

    The broad band afterglow of GRB 991208 provides a good case for a three-sided confrontation: the data, the generally-accepted fireball models of GRBs, and the cannonball (CB) model. Follow-up radio measurements for this GRB have been recently reported. These new data challenge the fireball models and disagree with their predictions, based on earlier broad-band observations, but they are in very good agreement with the predictions of the CB model, based on the same earlier data, and involving many fewer parameters.

  14. Confronting Therapeutic Failure: A Conversation Guide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We reflect on the impact of bad news on both clinician and patient in the setting of cancer treatment failure. We review the classic six-step SPIKES (setting, perception, invitation for information, knowledge, empathy, summarize and strategize) protocol for giving bad news that has been widely adopted since it was first published in this journal in 2005. The goal of such a conversation guide is to describe both the process and the tasks that constitute vital steps for clinicians and to comment on the emotional impact of the conversation on the clinician. Confronting therapeutic failure is the hardest task for oncologists. We offer practical tips derived from a thorough review of the evidence and our clinical experience. Implications for Practice: Discussing the failure of anticancer therapy remains a very difficult conversation for oncologists and their patients. In this article, the process of confronting this failure is broken down into various components, and practical tips are provided for clinicians following a classic protocol for breaking bad news. Also addressed are the emotions of the oncologist and the reasons why these conversations are typically so hard. These insights are based on solid research intended to deepen the therapeutic connection between physician and patient. PMID:26099747

  15. When Professors Confront Themselves: Towards a Theoretical Conceptualization of Video Self-Confrontation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlberg, Arye

    1983-01-01

    Two explanations of the underlying process in faculty self-evaluation by videotape recording are outlined and integrated into one conceptualization. One theory is based on affect: self-confrontation, dissonance, stress, distress, and eustress. The second is based on a cognitive and information processing approach and includes feedback,…

  16. Cultural Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cultural concerns in human resource development (HRD). "Race, Gender, and Mentoring Patterns" (Linda M. Hite) examines mentoring patterns and opportunities among black female professionals and reports results reinforcing the need for increased availability of same-sex, same-race mentors in…

  17. Confronting infertility in Iranian clients: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mitra; Mohammadi, Eesa; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges; Zarei, Faezeh

    2017-02-10

    The present study examined how infertile Iranian clients confront infertility. Research on infertility has confirmed the significance of a socio-cultural context in the formation of responses to infertility. This study used the grounded theory approach to explore the experiences of infertile individuals presenting at the Royan Institute in Iran from October 2013 to September 2014. Clients with infertility of at least two years in duration were recruited using purposive sampling followed by theoretical sampling. A total of 41 interviews were conducted with 36 people. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews and field notes. Data analysis was performed using MAXQDA 2007. A sense of 'insecurity about personal and family identity' shaped in the context of 'facing the cultural-economic dilemmas' was identified as the main concern of infertile clients. The clients dealt with this concern through a series of strategies that included gradual acceptance of infertility, seeking information and consultation, pursuing treatment, focusing on saving the marriage, self-control and resilience and fighting inner turmoil. All these approaches suggest 'protecting personal and family identity' as the core concept. The findings highlight the need for the health care system to treat infertility as a broad concept than mere individual and biological dysfunction.

  18. Confronting Therapeutic Failure: A Conversation Guide.

    PubMed

    Morgans, Alicia K; Schapira, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    We reflect on the impact of bad news on both clinician and patient in the setting of cancer treatment failure. We review the classic six-step SPIKES (setting, perception, invitation for information, knowledge, empathy, summarize and strategize) protocol for giving bad news that has been widely adopted since it was first published in this journal in 2005. The goal of such a conversation guide is to describe both the process and the tasks that constitute vital steps for clinicians and to comment on the emotional impact of the conversation on the clinician. Confronting therapeutic failure is the hardest task for oncologists. We offer practical tips derived from a thorough review of the evidence and our clinical experience.

  19. Hypochondriacal Concerns: Management Through Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio; Wise, Thomas N.; Williams, Darren E.

    2000-01-01

    The medically unexplained complaint is often a symptom of hypochondriacal concerns. Patients with hypochondriasis may be managed with either naive realism or consideration of morbid categorization or via dimensional assessment of illness beliefs and behaviors. Naive realism will foster focus somatization and promote regression as well as lead to needless tests and treatments. Attention to categorical entities such a major depression or anxiety disorders will alert the clinician to comorbid psychiatric disorders that respond to traditional psychiatric treatments. Finally, by assessing the domains of illness behaviors such as disease conviction, beliefs in organic versus psychological causes, and denial, the clinician can document and then confront abnormal cognitive schema that revolve around somatic concerns that are a proxy for psychosocial difficulties. PMID:15014644

  20. Confronting Violence through the Arts: A Thematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Alice

    2005-01-01

    When art, music, and poetry are integrated into the art room, children can confront difficult themes in works of art and process information in highly personal ways (Jewitt & Kress, 2003). An arts classroom gives children the time and place to confront images of war and violence and decode the multiple levels of meaning (Arnold, 1997) found within…

  1. Confronting Abusers: The Opinions of Clinicians and Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Kate; Ainscough, Carolyn; Toon, Kay

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores direct and symbolic forms of survivors confronting their abusers via a review of the current literature and the self-report of 12 female survivors, post-therapy. Six of the survivors had chosen to directly confront their abusers and six had not. Their experiences and opinions are presented with a discussion of important issues…

  2. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shift Lieutenant), a designated mental health professional, and others shall confer and gather pertinent... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation...

  3. Momentum--"Helping Teachers Grow: Confronting Inappropriate Teaching Behavior."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay

    1989-01-01

    Discusses confrontations which lead to growth in day care teachers. The steps of confrontation discussed include: (1) identifying the problem; (2) describing the desired behavior and how it will come about; (3) determining how the successfulness of the change will be measured. (RJC)

  4. Confronting Violence through the Arts: A Thematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Alice

    2005-01-01

    When art, music, and poetry are integrated into the art room, children can confront difficult themes in works of art and process information in highly personal ways (Jewitt & Kress, 2003). An arts classroom gives children the time and place to confront images of war and violence and decode the multiple levels of meaning (Arnold, 1997) found within…

  5. Confronting Perpetrators of Prejudice: The Inhibitory Effects of Social Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Stewart, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent to which social costs influence whether or not targets of prejudice confront individuals who behave in a prejudiced manner during interpersonal interactions. Consistent with our predictions, we found that although women believe they will confront perpetrators of prejudice regardless of the…

  6. Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK

    SciTech Connect

    Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit E-mail: phongpichit.ch@wu.ac.th

    2014-06-01

    We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small.

  7. Confronting mortality: faith and meaning across cultures.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Kellehear, Allan; Kripal, Jeffrey J; Leary, Lani

    2014-11-01

    Despite advances in technology and medicine, death itself remains an immutable certainty. Indeed, the acceptance and understanding of our mortality are among the enduring metaphysical challenges that have confronted human beings from the beginning of time. How have we sought to cope with the inevitability of our mortality? How do various cultural and social representations of mortality shape and influence the way in which we understand and approach death? To what extent do personal beliefs and convictions about the meaning of life or the notion of an afterlife affect how we perceive and experience the process of death and dying? Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion on death, dying, and what lies beyond that included psychologist Lani Leary, professor of philosophy and religion Jeffrey J. Kripal, and sociologist Allan Kellehear. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred February 5, 7:00-8:30 pm, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  9. When Do We Confront? Perceptions of Costs and Benefits Predict Confronting Discrimination on Behalf of the Self and Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Jessica J.; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2012-01-01

    Across two studies, we tested whether perceived social costs and benefits of confrontation would similarly predict confronting discrimination both when it was experienced and when it was observed as directed at others. Female undergraduate participants were asked to recall past experiences and observations of sexism, as well as their confronting…

  10. Confronting reanalysis datasets with independent radiosonde observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlton, Graeme; Harrison, Giles; Williams, Paul; Nicoll, Keri

    2014-05-01

    Reanalysis datasets are used for a broad range of research purposes in the atmospheric sciences, from studying climate change to examining extreme rainfall events. However, it is often difficult to verify the quality of such datasets, because verification requires the reanalysis data to be confronted with high-quality independent (i.e. unassimilated) observations, which are rare. We have been launching calibrated Vaisala RS92 radiosondes from the University of Reading, UK for the past three years. None of the data from these launches has been assimilated into any forecasts or reanalysis products. The sondes have random ascent trajectories over southern England, making them ideal to cross check the accuracy of the reanalysis data in this region. In this study, our radiosonde observations of temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, zonal wind, meridional wind, and pressure surface height are compared with the corresponding data from two widely used reanalysis datasets: ERA-Interim and NCEP. The comparison was done at grid points and pressure levels given by the radiosonde's telemetry data. The temperatures, horizontal winds, and pressure surface heights from the reanalysis datasets show excellent agreement with the radiosonde observations. Values of the specific humidity show reasonable agreement, but values of the relative humidity show poor agreement. The stated error tolerance of the radiosonde's humidity sensors is too small to account for the poor correlation in these results. We conclude that, although reanalysis estimates of temperature and wind may be taken to be representative of the values locally within the reanalysis grid box, values of relative humidity may not. Therefore, in studies of local hydrology, reanalysis humidity data must be used with caution.

  11. Confronting Misinformation in Climate Change Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Among the many challenges faced by climate change educators is the highly politicized nature of the subject matter (e.g. McCright and Dunlap, 2011) and the associated misinformation from key media outlets and websites (e.g. see Oreskes and Conway, 2010). Students typically do not enter the classroom as 'blank slates', but often have already formed some opinion about climate change which may or may not be based on reputable sources. Further, many students have lives outside the classroom and/or off campus, and even those who do live in an isolated bubble of campus life will eventually graduate. Thus, providing students with a level of climate change knowledge and understanding robust enough to cope with misinformation may be an important goal for educators. This paper presents a case study of the direct use of climate change misinformation as a college-level classroom activity. Some research from other fields (notably psychology) has found that directly addressing misconceptions in the classroom can be the most effective means of dispelling them (Kowalski and Taylor, 2009). However, directly confronting misinformation in the classroom carries inherent risks, such as reinforcing misconceptions (e.g. Cook and Lewandowsky, 2011). This paper therefore considers approaches to minimizing those risks while attempting to maximize the possible benefits. This paper argues that use of misinformation as a teaching tool can provide useful exercises in critical thinking, testing of content knowledge, and consideration of the nature of science. Cook, J. and S. Lewandowsky. 2011. The Debunking Handbook. Online publication available www.skepticalscience.com/docs/Debunking_Handbook.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2012. Kowalski, P. and A.K. Taylor. 2009. DOI: 10.1080/00986280902959986. McCright, A., and R.T. Dunlap. 2011. The politicization of climate change and polarization in the American public's views of global warming, 2001-2010. The Sociological Quarterly 52:2, 155-194. Oreskes, N. and E

  12. Creationists and Evolutionists: Confrontation in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the conflict between evolutionists'' and creationists'' concerning the content of biology textbooks based on the Science Framework for California Public Schools, and discusses the positions that have to be resolved by the California Board of Education. (AL)

  13. Confronting the Pedagogical Challenge of Cyber Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanewald, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Cyber violence and the antidote of cyber safety are fast becoming a global concern for governments, educational authorities, teachers, parents and children alike. Despite substantial funding for information dissemination on preventative strategies and the development of electronic responses to hinder perpetrators, the phenomenon of cyber violence…

  14. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shift Lieutenant), a designated mental health professional, and others shall confer and gather pertinent... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance...

  15. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shift Lieutenant), a designated mental health professional, and others shall confer and gather pertinent... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance...

  16. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shift Lieutenant), a designated mental health professional, and others shall confer and gather pertinent... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance...

  17. A Therapeutic Confrontation Approach to Treating Patients with Factitious Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedel, Kenneth R.

    1971-01-01

    Patients suffering from factitious illness present complex problems for themselves and hospital personnel. This article describes a multidisciplinary intervention through confrontation approach that has proved to be successful with such patients. (Author)

  18. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... knowledge they have gained about the inmate and the incident, determine if use of force is necessary....

  19. Confronting quasi-exponential inflation with WMAP seven

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B. E-mail: pal@th.physik.uni-bonn.de

    2012-04-01

    We confront quasi-exponential models of inflation with WMAP seven years dataset using Hamilton Jacobi formalism. With a phenomenological Hubble parameter, representing quasi exponential inflation, we develop the formalism and subject the analysis to confrontation with WMAP seven using the publicly available code CAMB. The observable parameters are found to fair extremely well with WMAP seven. We also obtain a ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes which may be detectable in PLANCK.

  20. Confrontational scavenging as a possible source for language and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of language and the high degree of cooperation found among humans seems to require more than a straightforward enhancement of primate traits. Some triggering episode unique to human ancestors was likely necessary. Here it is argued that confrontational scavenging was such an episode. Arguments for and against an established confrontational scavenging niche are discussed, as well as the probable effects of such a niche on language and co-operation. Finally, several possible directions for future research are suggested. PMID:21933413

  1. Confronting dark energy models using galaxy cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Basilakos, S.; Plionis, M.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2010-10-15

    The mass function of cluster-size halos and their redshift distribution are computed for 12 distinct accelerating cosmological scenarios and confronted to the predictions of the conventional flat {Lambda}CDM model. The comparison with {Lambda}CDM is performed by a two-step process. First, we determine the free parameters of all models through a joint analysis involving the latest cosmological data, using supernovae type Ia, the cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and baryon acoustic oscillations. Apart from a braneworld inspired cosmology, it is found that the derived Hubble relation of the remaining models reproduces the {Lambda}CDM results approximately with the same degree of statistical confidence. Second, in order to attempt to distinguish the different dark energy models from the expectations of {Lambda}CDM, we analyze the predicted cluster-size halo redshift distribution on the basis of two future cluster surveys: (i) an X-ray survey based on the eROSITA satellite, and (ii) a Sunayev-Zeldovich survey based on the South Pole Telescope. As a result, we find that the predictions of 8 out of 12 dark energy models can be clearly distinguished from the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, while the predictions of 4 models are statistically equivalent to those of the {Lambda}CDM model, as far as the expected cluster mass function and redshift distribution are concerned. The present analysis suggests that such a technique appears to be very competitive to independent tests probing the late time evolution of the Universe and the associated dark energy effects.

  2. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  3. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  4. Spontaneous Concern about Nuclear War: Value Priority Differences in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Dan

    The devastation of a nuclear confrontation between the superpowers would clearly change the world in catastrophic ways. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the value priorities for individuals who spontaneously expressed a concern about nuclear war and those who did not. A written questionnaire was administered to a sample of…

  5. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  6. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  7. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  8. Confronting the caring crisis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Li, Jiping; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Yangjuan; Song, Jianhua

    2013-10-01

    In light of the call for humanistic caring in the contemporary health care system globally and in China, the issue of improving the caring skills that are essential to student success, high-quality nursing practice and positive patient outcomes is at the forefront of nursing education. The aim of this mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative study was to investigate baccalaureate nursing students' caring ability in the context of China and to explore the role of clinical practice learning in the development of students' caring skills. A two-phase, descriptive study utilising a mixed methodology consisting of a caring ability survey and focus group interviews was conducted. In the quantitative phase, 598 baccalaureate nursing students at two colleges in Yunnan Province in southwest China were surveyed using the Caring Ability Inventory (CAI). In the qualitative phase, 16 of the students who had participated in the quantitative phase were interviewed. Students obtained lower scores on the CAI than have been reported elsewhere by other researchers. In addition, students in the clinical stage of training scored lower than students in the pre-clinical stage. Three themes concerning facilitation by and three themes concerning the obstructive effects of clinical practice learning in the development of caring ability were identified. Themes pertaining to facilitation were: (i) promoting a sense of professional responsibility and ethics; (ii) providing an arena in which to practise caring, and (iii) learning from positive role models. Themes pertaining to obstruction were: (i) a critical practice learning environment; (ii) encountering inappropriate clinical teachers, and (iii) experiencing shock at the contrast between an idealised and the real environment. The key to developing students' ability to care lies in highlighting caring across the entire health care system. By diminishing exposure to negative role models, and adopting appropriate pedagogical ideas about

  9. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another – from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a ‘lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds. PMID:24322528

  10. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Neil F; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-10

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a 'lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  11. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a `lone wolf' identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  12. Third world programs confront adolescent fertility.

    PubMed

    1978-08-01

    Recently, there have been efforts to identify workable youth programs and effective research projects that could deal with the problem of adolescent fertility. Typical objectives identified at various conferences concerned with this problem included the following: 1) focus attention on the adverse medical and socioeconomic efforts of early pregnancy; 2) draw attention to the current dimensions of adolescent fertility and its changing patterns; 3) encourage development of programs; and 4) impress decision makers with the importance of programs for adolescents. These conferences express a sense of urgency in developing programs before teen-age pregnancy reaches epidemic proportions. Most of the projects already underway are still pilot efforts and have an impact on a very small sector of the population. Yet, they are positive steps toward a solution of the rising problems of adolescent fertility and help to identify workable solutions. A few of these projects -- underway in Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Cost Rica, Guatemala and Mexico -- are reviewed. The consensus of all conferences held to date has been that cross-cultural interchanges is crucial to the spread of programs and ideas that can be adapted to local conditions. 2 key recommendations have emerged from a meeting of donor and support agencies held in Washington, D.C. in May: 1) a major conference should take place during the International Year of the Child (1979) that would focus on early sexual activity and fertility and 2) an Adolescent Fertility Council should be appointed. An Adolescent Fertility Council would provide a structure to correlate and stimulate interaction, while recognizing that country and culture specific programs are essential.

  13. Leader Confrontation and Member Change in Encounter Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Charles

    1980-01-01

    The most effective group leaders are those perceived as highly energetic, supportive, and flexible in their style, who provide stimulation for the group and opportunity for emotional expression and closeness. This positive confronting style is contrasted with an intrusive-aggressive or challenging style. (Author/JMF)

  14. Taking versus Confronting Visual Perspectives in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Merzsch, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 3-year-olds can take other people's visual perspectives not only when they perceive different things (Level 1) but even when they see the same thing differently (Level 2). One hypothesis is that 3-year-olds are good perspective takers but cannot confront different perspectives on the same object (Perner, Stummer,…

  15. Challenge, Confrontation, and Exhortation as Intentional Invitations by Professional Helpers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines intentional invitations that challenge, confront, exhort, and persuade people to change their behaviors. Assumes that the sender controls the "intention" and that the receiver determines the degree of "inviting." Suggests that elements of the invitational model serve as a framework to create acceptable inducements in…

  16. Confronting Bias through Teaching: Insights from Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittle, Chelsea; Maddox, Keith B.

    2017-01-01

    Research in social psychology has the potential to address real-world issues involving racial stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Literature on confrontation suggests that addressing racism can be seen as a persuasive act that will allow for more effective interpersonal interactions. In this article, we explore the persuasive…

  17. Widening Participation: Challenges Confronting a Research-Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthill, Michael; Schmidt, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the challenges confronting a research-intensive Australian university in responding to the "widening participation" agenda outlined in the recent "Review of Higher Education". The university argued that it is not possible to respond effectively to this agenda without having a clear understanding of the…

  18. Facilitating Personality Change with Audiovisual Self-confrontation and Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alker, Henry A.; And Others

    Two studies are reported, each of which achieves personality change with both audiovisual self-confrontation (AVSC) and supportive, nondirective interviews. The first study used Ericksonian identity achievement as a dependent variable. Sixty-one male subjects were measured using Anne Constantinople's inventory. The results of this study…

  19. Emergent Voices: Confronting Sociopolitical Elements in Preservice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erchick, Diana B.; Kos, Raylene

    2003-01-01

    When teacher educators approach their work in preservice methods classrooms, they may confront more than teaching and learning voices in those classrooms. The likelihood of this is increased in those contexts where the teacher educators maintain a commitment to education that addresses cultural issues. In this article, the authors introduce their…

  20. New Times for Multimodality? Confronting the Accountability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    As new times become hard times, there may be little time for multimodality in school unless educators confront the accountability culture. This commentary reviews the arguments for multimodal transformations of school literacy curricula and explores the potential of reflective talk about multimodal meaning-making as an assessment practice. Talking…

  1. Identity Pole: Confronting Issues of Personal and Cultural Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciminero, Sandra Elser

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the "Identity Pole" was to explore the big idea of identity. Students would confront issues of personal and cultural meaning, and draw upon interdisciplinary connections for inspiration. The author chose to present totem poles of the Northwest Coast Native Americans/First Nations of Canada, as well as school, state and national…

  2. Taking versus Confronting Visual Perspectives in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Merzsch, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 3-year-olds can take other people's visual perspectives not only when they perceive different things (Level 1) but even when they see the same thing differently (Level 2). One hypothesis is that 3-year-olds are good perspective takers but cannot confront different perspectives on the same object (Perner, Stummer,…

  3. Marmoset conspecific confrontation: an ethologically-based model of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cilia, J; Piper, D C

    1997-09-01

    A method of measuring confrontation-induced behavioural changes in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) together with automated monitoring of locomotor activity has been developed as a possible model of anxiety. Recording both affiliative and agonistic behaviours between male/female pairs of marmosets and using diazepam as a reference drug, it has been possible to define a profile of behavioural changes which could be regarded as representing an anxiolytic response. Unfamiliar male/female pairs of marmosets were brought into close (non-contact) proximity in a controlled environment, in which their locomotor activity was recorded automatically. Simultaneously, their interactive behaviour was assessed by an independent observer via closed-circuit television. The following behaviours were analysed: aggressive postures, allogrooming, scratching, anxiety-related behaviours, social contact and self-grooming. Administration of diazepam at 1 and 3.5 mg/kg PO induced a significant (compared to control) reduction in scratching, aggressive behaviours, anxiety-related behaviours and an increase in allogrooming without affecting locomotor activity during confrontation. Differing responses dependent on gender were not found, nor did gender influence the effect of treatment on behaviour. Habituation to repeated confrontation did not occur. The results from this study demonstrate that this method can be used to measure anxiolytic activity in an objective manner.

  4. Female genital cutting: confronting cultural challenges and health complications across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Tzeghai, Ghebre E; Azuka, Charles E; Sobel, Jack D; Ledger, William J

    2015-01-01

    Female genital cutting affects over 140 million women worldwide. Prevalent in certain countries of Africa and the Middle East, the practice continues among immigrants to industrialized countries. Female genital cutting is a deeply rooted tradition that confers honor on a woman and her family, yet also a traumatic experience that creates significant dermatological, gynecological, obstetric and infectious disease complications. Little is known about postmenopausal health in cut women. The international community views this practice as a human rights violation. In addition to genital health complications, the medical community must confront an understudied concern of what happens as this population ages. These challenges must be addressed to provide optimal care to women affected by female genital cutting.

  5. Confronting human papilloma virus/oropharyngeal cancer: a model for interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Fried, Jacquelyn L

    2014-06-01

    A collaborative practice model related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancer highlights the role of the dental hygienist in addressing this condition. The incidence of HPV associated head and neck cancer is rising. Multiple professionals including the dental hygienist can work collaboratively to confront this growing public health concern. A critical review applies the growth and utilization of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) to multi-disciplinary models addressing the human papilloma virus and oropharyngeal cancers. A model related to HPV associated oropharyngeal cancer addresses an oral systemic condition that supports the inclusion of a dental hygienist on collaborative teams addressing prevention, detection, treatment and cure of OPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban inclusion as wellbeing: Exploring children's accounts of confronting diversity on inner city streets.

    PubMed

    Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Carroll, Penelope

    2015-05-01

    The diversity of people living in a city is often most visible on inner city streets. These streets are also the neighbourhood environment of children who live in the central city. In the past, the wellbeing and sensibilities of children have been marginalised in planning practices in western cities but this is beginning to change with child-friendly and inclusive city discourses now more common. In this paper we report on children's experiences confronting diversity in inner-city Auckland. In 2012, 40 inner-city children, 9-12 years, participated in walking interviews in their local streets and school-based focus group discussions. As the children talked about their lives, moving and playing around neighbourhood streets, many described distress and discomfort as they confronted homelessness, drunkenness, and signs of the sex industry. A few older children also described strategies for coping with these encounters, an emerging acceptance of difference and pride in becoming streetwise. New Zealand (NZ) has a history of progressive social policy. In 2003, it became the first country in the world to decriminalise all forms of prostitution. Securing the health and human rights of sex workers were the primary drivers of the reforms. Similar concerns for health and rights underpin broadly inclusive local policies towards homelessness. To promote the health and wellbeing of inner city children their presence on city streets, alongside those of other marginalised groups, needs to be at the forefront of planning concerns. However we conclude that there are inherent tensions in promoting a child-friendly city in which diversity and inclusiveness are also valued.

  7. Details of a confrontation between two wild wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A confrontation was photographed and video-taped at close range between a wild alpha mate wolf (Canis lupus) of known history and an alien adult on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. For 100-110 seconds the two stood near each other, maneuvered around, and snapped at each other until the alien fled. The alpha and his mate, who suddenly joined the encounter, chased the other wolf for 1.2 km and gave up without inflicting wounds. Discussed are possible reasons why this wolf was not killed, while other alien wolves have been.

  8. [The people's mentality confronting plague in the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu

    2013-03-01

    The social influence of plague was not only confined to its pathogenicity, but also its close relationship with the people's mentality. According to the historical materials of the Ming Dynasty, there were 2 kinds of mentalities when confronting with the prevalence of plague: negative and positive. The former included fear, helplessness, depression and superstition etc., and the latter included intelligence, consolation, thanksgiving and vigour etc. The negative passive mentality didn't help to fight effectively against the plague, or might even aggravate its prevalence. However, the positive mentality helped ameliorate and control the plague, and also the rehabilitation of the order of production and living order after the plague.

  9. Thermal physics in practice and its confrontation with school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vochozka, Vladimír; Tesař, Jiří; Bednář, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Concepts of heat, specific heat capacity and other terms of thermal physics are very abstract. For their better understanding it is necessary in teaching to include newly conceived experiments focused on the everyday experience of students. The paper evaluates the thermal phenomena with the help of infrared camera, respectively surface temperature sensors for on-line measurement. The article focuses on the experimental verification of the law of conservation of energy in thermal physics, comparing specific heat capacity of various substances and their confrontation with established experience of pupils.

  10. Robotic swarm concept for efficient oil spill confrontation.

    PubMed

    Kakalis, Nikolaos M P; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2008-06-15

    This paper examines the behaviour of a distributed system/robotic swarm concept for the effective confrontation of oil spills. The system described consists of a number of identical robotic units of high-power autonomy that recover oil mechanically and are able to communicate with each other. A mathematical model that accounts for a multitude of oil weathering processes and for the concerted action of the autonomous units is implemented for this investigation. Computational assessment of the robotic swarm in weathering oil spills indicates the potential effectiveness of the method.

  11. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes. PMID:26989665

  12. An Experimental Study of the Clinical Acquisition of Behavioral Principles by Videotape Self-Confrontation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Univ., CO.

    To determine the effect of videotape self-confrontation as a training device for speech clinicians, 30 students participated in a 12 month study. Ten experimental subjects were assigned to single confrontation, 10 to double confrontation, and 10 were control subjects. Each confrontation subject used a therapy matrix and scored his therapy session…

  13. The History of Science as a Tool To Identify and Confront Pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Seth C.

    2007-06-01

    Many are concerned by the widespread popularity pseudoscience has achieved in modern society. While it is easy to dismiss such beliefs as belonging to the uneducated, numerous studies have shown that such beliefs are not significantly reduced by a university education. In fact, one study found that belief in astrology was largely unaffected by the completion of a U.S. science degree: students who commenced a degree program believing in astrology finished that program still believing in it. This illustrates the extent to which even a successful science education has failed to transform students’ intellectual outlook, and should raise sharp concern as to the deficiencies in our present science curriculum. Over the years various authors have given sound justification for the inclusion of a historical component in science programs. I would like to add to these arguments the fact that knowledge of science history allows one to more easily identify and confront pseudoscience and that rectifying the current deficiency of historical context in our science education may be an effective approach to change the way students view claims and ideas presented to them.

  14. The dispersal of planet-forming discs: theory confronts observations

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Discs of gas and dust around million-year-old stars are a by-product of the star formation process and provide the raw material to form planets. Hence, their evolution and dispersal directly impact what type of planets can form and affect the final architecture of planetary systems. Here, we review empirical constraints on disc evolution and dispersal with special emphasis on transition discs, a subset of discs that appear to be caught in the act of clearing out planet-forming material. Along with observations, we summarize theoretical models that build our physical understanding of how discs evolve and disperse and discuss their significance in the context of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. By confronting theoretical predictions with observations, we also identify the most promising areas for future progress. PMID:28484640

  15. Loop quantum cosmology: confronting the hybrid quantization approach with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Javier; Martin de Blas, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In loop quantum cosmology there are several approaches for the confrontation of the theory with observations. Here, we focus on the hybrid quantization approach. We provide an exhaustive analysis including scalar and tensor perturbations on effective (quantum-mechanically corrected) homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies coupled to a massive scalar field. We compute the primordial power spectrum of the perturbations at the end of inflation for a set of initial vacuum states defined at the deep quantum regime of the cosmological model. We then analyze the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the consistency relation between this quantity and the spectral index of the tensor power spectrum. Eventually, we compute the temperature-temperature, electric-electric, temperature-electric and magnetic-magnetic correlation functions predicted by this approach and compare them with present observations.

  16. Confronting as autonomy promotion: Speaking up against discrimination and psychological well-being in racial minorities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  18. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  19. Art as Social Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  20. LGBT Caregiver Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    LGBT CAREGIVER CONCERNS IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR LGBT CAREGIVERS LGBT CAREGIVER CONSIDERATIONS As a caregiver for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, you will face various challenges. Some are common among all ...

  1. Sex-Role Orientation and the Willingness to Confront Existential Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between sex-role orientation and willingness to confront existential issues in undergraduate students (N=88). Results indicated masculine men and feminine women reported the least willingness to confront existential issues; androgynous men were most receptive to facing existential issues. (Author/ABL)

  2. Confrontation Avoidance in Island Cultures: Some Observations in Guam and Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, C. Christopher; Carey, Edwin

    The avoidance of interpersonal confrontations is a behavioral pattern which seems to be common to small homogeneous island cultures. At the University of Guam, a quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate this confrontation avoidance phenomenon in Guam and Micronesia. This paper presents a description of that study and a discussion of…

  3. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    PubMed

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Reynolds, John D; Darimont, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  4. Sleep apnoea patients have higher mortality when confronting sepsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Chen, Yung-Tai; Wu, Li-An; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lee, Yu-Chin; Chou, Kun-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is essential for the maintenance of an intact immune function. Patients with sleep apnoea experience frequent sleep interruption due to apnoea-related arousals, possibly adversely impacting their immunity and affecting their outcomes when confronting sepsis. This case-control study aimed to compare the outcomes of sepsis patients with and without sleep apnoea. From 2000 to 2009, 168 sleep apnoea patients who were first admitted for sepsis were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Also, 672 sepsis patients without sleep apnoea, who were matched by age, gender and Charlson's comorbidity index scores, served as controls. Hospital outcomes of the two groups were compared. Binary logistic regression was employed for multivariate analysis. The mortality rates of sepsis patients with and without sleep apnoea were 60.1% and 47.9%, respectively (P = 0. 005). After multivariate adjustment, sleep apnoea (OR: 1.805, 95% CI: 1.227-2.656, P = 0.003), presence of shock (OR: 3.600, 95% CI: 2.144-6.046, P < 0.001) and number of organs with dysfunction (OR: 1.591, 95% CI: 1.087-2.329, P = 0.017) were found to be independently associated with mortality. Sleep apnoea patients who needed continuous positive airway pressure treatment had an even higher risk of mortality. Sepsis patients with sleep apnoea may have poorer hospital outcomes than those without sleep apnoea. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Confronting the concordance model of cosmology with Planck data

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-01-01

    We confront the concordance (standard) model of cosmology, the spatially flat ΛCDM Universe with power-law form of the primordial spectrum with Planck CMB angular power spectrum data searching for possible smooth deviations beyond the flexibility of the standard model. The departure from the concordance cosmology is modeled in the context of Crossing statistic and statistical significance of this deviation is used as a measure to test the consistency of the standard model to the Planck data. Derived Crossing functions suggest the presence of some broad features in angular spectrum beyond the expectations of the concordance model. Our results indicate that the concordance model of cosmology is consistent to the Planck data only at 2 to 3σ confidence level if we allow smooth deviations from the angular power spectrum given by the concordance model. This might be due to random fluctuations or may hint towards smooth features in the primordial spectrum or departure from another aspect of the standard model. Best fit Crossing functions indicate that there are lack of power in the data at both low-ℓ and high-ℓ with respect to the concordance model. This hints that we may need some modifications in the foreground modeling to resolve the significant inconsistency at high-ℓ. However, presence of some systematics at high-ℓ might be another reason for the deviation we found in our analysis.

  6. Confronting DGP braneworld gravity with cosmico observations after Planck data

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lixin

    2014-02-01

    The normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld gravity with brane tension is confronted by the currently available cosmic observations from the geometrical and dynamical perspectives. On the geometrical side, the type Ia supernova as standard candle, the baryon acoustic oscillation as standard ruler and the cosmic microwave background measurement from the first released 15.5 months data were used to fix the background evolutions. On the dynamical side, the redshift space distortion data will be used to determine the evolution of the matter perturbation. Through a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we found the dimensionless crossover scale Ω{sub r{sub c}} = 1/(4H{sup 2}{sub 0}r{sup 2}{sub c}) = 0.00183{sub −0.00183}{sup +0.000338} in a spatially flat normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld. This result suggests that the crossover scale r{sub c} should be around 12H{sup −1}{sub 0} which is consistent with the previous result r{sub c} > 3H{sup −1}{sub 0} and greater. It also implies that the five-dimensional gravity effect is weak to be observed in H{sup −1}{sub 0} scale.

  7. Confronting Uncertainty in Wildlife Management: Performance of Grizzly Bear Management

    PubMed Central

    Artelle, Kyle A.; Anderson, Sean C.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Paquet, Paul C.; Reynolds, John D.; Darimont, Chris T.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone – discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels – led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty. PMID:24223134

  8. Confronting two-sex demographic models with data.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Inouye, Brian D

    2011-11-01

    Most population dynamics models explicitly track the density of a single sex. When the operational sex ratio can vary, two-sex models may be needed to understand and predict population trajectories. Various functions have been proposed to describe the relative contributions of females and males to recruitment, and these functions can differ qualitatively in the patterns that they generate. Which mating function best describes the dynamics of real populations is not known, since alternative two-sex models have not been confronted with experimental data. We conducted the first such comparison, using laboratory populations of the bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Manipulations of the operational sex ratio and total density provided strong support for a demographic model in which the birth rate was proportional to the harmonic mean of female and male densities, and females, males, and their offspring made unique contributions to density dependence. We offer guidelines for transferring this approach to other, less tractable systems in which possibilities for sex ratio manipulations are more limited. We show that informative experimental designs require strong perturbations of the operational sex ratio. The functional form of density dependence (saturating vs. over-compensatory) and the relative contributions of each sex to density dependence can both determine in which direction and at which population densities such perturbations would be most informative. Our experimental results and guidelines for design strategies promote synthesis of two-sex population dynamics theory with empirical data.

  9. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Kontić, Branko Dermol, Urška

    2015-01-15

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects.

  10. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    PubMed

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Confronting safety gaps across labor and delivery teams.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, David G; Lyndon, Audrey; Kennedy, Holly Powell; O'Keeffe, Daniel F; Zlatnik, Marya G

    2013-11-01

    We assessed the occurrence of 4 safety concerns among labor and delivery teams: dangerous shortcuts, missing competencies, disrespect, and performance problems. A total of 3282 participants completed surveys, and 92% of physicians (906 of 985), 93% of midwives (385 of 414), and 98% of nurses (1846 of 1884) observed at least 1 concern within the preceding year. A majority of respondents said these concerns undermined patient safety, harmed patients, or led them to seriously consider transferring or leaving their positions. Only 9% of physicians, 13% of midwives, and 13% of nurses shared their full concerns with the person involved. Organizational silence is evident within labor-and-delivery teams. Improvement will require multiple strategies, used at the personal, social, and structural levels.

  12. Confronting Safety Gaps across Labor and Delivery Teams

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, David G.; Lyndon, Audrey; Kennedy, Holly Powell; O’Keeffe, Dan; Zlatnik, Marya G.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the occurrence of four safety concerns among labor and delivery teams: dangerous shortcuts, missing competencies, disrespect, and performance problems. 3282 participants completed surveys. 92% of physicians (906/985), 93% of midwives (385/414), and 98% of nurses (1846/1884) observed at least one concern within the preceding year. A majority of respondents said these concerns undermined patient safety, harmed patients, or led them to seriously consider transferring or leaving their positions. Only 9% of physicians, 13% of midwives, and 13% of nurses shared their full concerns with the person involved. Organizational silence is evident within labor and delivery teams. Improvement will require multiple strategies, employed at the personal, social, and structural levels. PMID:23871951

  13. Expression of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien

    2016-08-01

    This is a note of a temporary expression of concern related to the publication titled, "Sapphirine and fluid inclusions in Tel Thanoun mantle xenoliths, Syria" by Ahmad Bilal, which appeared in Journal of African Earth Sciences, 116 (2016) 105-113.

  14. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  15. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  16. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  17. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  18. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  19. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  20. Antisocial Conduct: Whose Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Sula

    1987-01-01

    Outlines differing perspectives of practitioners in child psychiatry and general psychiatry concerning antisocial behavior. Discusses changes in attitudes toward deviancy in the United Kingdom since 1967. Urges strengthening of links in training, research, and practice between subspecialties of psychiatry and renewal of psychiatric interest in the…

  1. Expression of concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    This is an expression of concern related to the following publications: Nanostructures formed by cyclodextrin covered procainamide through supramolecular self assembly - Spectral and molecular modeling study (2015) Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 136 (PB), pp. 875-883, by Rajendiran, N., Mohandoss, T., Sankaranarayanan, R.K.

  2. US IRBs confronting research in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, US-sponsored research is carried out in developing countries, but how US Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) approach the challenges they then face is unclear. METHODS I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each, with 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators and members. I contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs in the United States (US) (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 (55%). RESULTS US IRBs face ethical and logistical challenges in interpreting and applying principles and regulations in developing countries, given economic and health disparities, and limited contextual knowledge. These IRBs perceive wide variations in developing world IRBs/RECs’ quality, resources and training; and health systems in some countries may have long-standing practices of corruption. These IRBs often know little of local contexts, regulations and standards of care, and struggle with understandings of other cultures’ differing views of autonomy, and risks and benefits of daily life. US IRBs thus face difficult decisions, including how to interpret principles, how much to pay subjects and how much sustainability to require from researchers. IRB responses and solutions include trying to maintain higher standards for developing world research, obtain cultural expertise, build IRB infrastructure abroad, communicate with foreign IRBs, ‘negotiate’ for maximum benefits for participants and fearing ‘worst-case scenarios’. CONCLUSIONS US IRBs confront a series of tensions and dilemmas in reviewing developing world research. These data have important implications for increased education of IRBs/RECs and researchers in the US and abroad, and for research and practice. PMID:22515423

  3. Scalar doublet models confront τ and b anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, James M.

    2016-04-01

    There are indications of a possible breakdown of the standard model, suggesting that τ lepton interactions violate flavor universality, particularly through B meson decays. BABAR, Belle, and LHCb report high ratios of B →D(*)τ ν . There are long-standing excesses in B →τ ν and W →τ ν decays and a deficit in inclusive τ to strange decays. We investigate whether two Higgs doublet models with the most general allowed couplings to quarks, and a large coupling to τ leptons, can explain these anomalies while respecting other flavor constraints and technical naturalness. Fits to B →D(*)τ ν data require couplings of the new Higgs doublet to down-type quarks, opening the door to many highly constrained flavor-changing neutral current processes. We confront these challenges by introducing a novel ansatz that relates the new up- and down-type Yukawa couplings, and demonstrate viable values of the couplings that are free from fine-tuning. LEP and LHC searches for new Higgs bosons decaying via H0→τ+τ- and H±→τ±ν allow a window of masses mH=[100 - 125 ] GeV and m±˜100 GeV that is consistent with the predictions of our model. Contamination of the W+→τ+ν signal by H+→τ+ν decays at LEP could explain the apparent W →τ ν excess. We predict that the branching ratio for Bs→τ+τ- is not far below its current limit of several percent. An alternative model with decays of B →D(*)τ νs to a sterile neutrino is also argued to be viable.

  4. US IRBs confronting research in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    Increasingly, US-sponsored research is carried out in developing countries, but how US Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) approach the challenges they then face is unclear. I conducted in-depth interviews of about 2 hours each, with 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators and members. I contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs in the United States (US) (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 (55%). US IRBs face ethical and logistical challenges in interpreting and applying principles and regulations in developing countries, given economic and health disparities, and limited contextual knowledge. These IRBs perceive wide variations in developing world IRBs/RECs' quality, resources and training; and health systems in some countries may have long-standing practices of corruption. These US IRBs often know little of local contexts, regulations and standards of care, and struggle with understandings of other cultures' differing views of autonomy, and risks and benefits of daily life. US IRBs thus face difficult decisions, including how to interpret principles, how much to pay subjects and how much sustainability to require from researchers. IRB responses and solutions include trying to maintain higher standards for developing world research, obtain cultural expertise, build IRB infrastructure abroad, communicate with foreign IRBs, and 'negotiate' for maximum benefits for participants and fearing 'worst-case scenarios'. US and foreign IRBs confront a series of tensions and dilemmas in reviewing developing world research. These data have important implications for increased education of IRBs/RECs and researchers in the US and abroad, and for research and practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Confronting Models with Data: The GEWEX Cloud Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David; Curry, Judith; Duynkerke, Peter; Krueger, Steven; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Ryan, Brian; Starr, David OC.; Miller, Martin; Rossow, William; Tselioudis, George

    2002-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS; GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) was organized to promote development of improved parameterizations of cloud systems for use in climate and numerical weather prediction models, with an emphasis on the climate applications. The strategy of GCSS is to use two distinct kinds of models to analyze and understand observations of the behavior of several different types of clouds systems. Cloud-system-resolving models (CSRMs) have high enough spatial and temporal resolutions to represent individual cloud elements, but cover a wide enough range of space and time scales to permit statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. Results from CSRMs are compared with detailed observations, representing specific cases based on field experiments, and also with statistical composites obtained from satellite and meteorological analyses. Single-column models (SCMs) are the surgically extracted column physics of atmospheric general circulation models. SCMs are used to test cloud parameterizations in an un-coupled mode, by comparison with field data and statistical composites. In the original GCSS strategy, data is collected in various field programs and provided to the CSRM Community, which uses the data to "certify" the CSRMs as reliable tools for the simulation of particular cloud regimes, and then uses the CSRMs to develop parameterizations, which are provided to the GCM Community. We report here the results of a re-thinking of the scientific strategy of GCSS, which takes into account the practical issues that arise in confronting models with data. The main elements of the proposed new strategy are a more active role for the large-scale modeling community, and an explicit recognition of the importance of data integration.

  6. The accuracy of confrontation visual field test in comparison with automated perimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L. N.; Baloh, F. G.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of confrontation visual field testing was determined for 512 visual fields using automated static perimetry as the reference standard. The sensitivity of confrontation testing excluding patchy defects was 40% for detecting anterior visual field defects, 68.3% for posterior defects, and 50% for both anterior and posterior visual field defects combined. The sensitivity within each group varied depending on the type of visual field defect encountered. Confrontation testing had a high sensitivity (75% to 100%) for detecting altitudinal visual loss, central/centrocecal scotoma, and homonymous hemianopsia. Confrontation testing was fairly insensitive (20% to 50% sensitivity) for detecting arcuate scotoma and bitemporal hemianopsia. The specificity of confrontation testing was high at 93.4%. The high positive predictive value (72.6%) and negative predictive value (75.7%) would indicate that visual field defects identified during confrontation testing are often true visual field defects. However, the many limitations of confrontation testing should be remembered, particularly its low sensitivity for detecting visual field loss associated with parasellar tumors, glaucoma, and compressive optic neuropathies. PMID:1800764

  7. Confronting AIDS. Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This book is addressed to anyone involved with or affected by the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, including legislators, researchers, health care personnel, insurance providers, educators, health officials, executives in the pharmaceutical industry, blood bank administrators, and other concerned individuals. The following…

  8. Confronting the challenges of discovery of novel antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B

    2014-08-15

    Bacterial resistance is inevitable and is a growing concern. It can be addressed only by discovery and development of new agents. However the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents are at an all time low. This article broadly examines the historical as well as current status of antibacterial discovery and provides some perspective as how to address some of the challenges.

  9. Confronting AIDS. Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This book is addressed to anyone involved with or affected by the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, including legislators, researchers, health care personnel, insurance providers, educators, health officials, executives in the pharmaceutical industry, blood bank administrators, and other concerned individuals. The following…

  10. [Adolescent confronting cancer and its place in the family].

    PubMed

    Chavand, Aurélie; Grandjean, Hélène; Vignes, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Adolescent medicine is expanding in Europe with particular attention being given to cancer of adolescents and its treatment. At a time where specialised units for adolescents are being born, it is essential to collect the current knowledge on the pathological impact of the illness in this age period whose limits themselves are often blurred (13-21 years or 15-25 years). Adolescence is a transition between childhood and adulthood, during which one seeks psychological and emotional development. Cancer, by its direct repercussion on the adolescent and also by the disorganisation of the family, can involve risks impending the process of maturation and can also be a purveyor of psychological after-affects. The occurrence of the illness can isolate the adolescent and leak to a restriction of the psychological investment. The reality of possible death can hinder the ill adolescent from developing his natural opposition to the adults who represent authority such as parents or nurses, thereby hindering access to autonomy, independence and identity construction. One can find oneself locked in a state of trouble, confusion, becoming a stranger to oneself, with an impression of distance waxing between the young patient and others. The parents find themselves weakening and must make calls on their supporters. The siblings see their daily life becoming more unsettled and find themselves confronted by parents less available and reassuring. The impact on the brothers and sisters vary depending on their age and the capacity of the parent's adaptation. From the onset, adolescents struck by cancer necessitate an adaptation of the medical staff. The medical information, the treatment and the aid-care contracts must be approved by the adolescent himself but the parent's involvement remains essential. It is necessary to create an alliance of three. Conflicts and rivalry occur frequently between parents and the medical staff. One must study the possibility of creating a place adapted to

  11. The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, R.; Atwood-Blaine, D.

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses a professional development workshop for K-12 science teachers entitled "The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom." This workshop was conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), which has the primary goal to understand and predict the role of polar ice sheets in sea level change. The specific objectives of this summer workshop were two-fold; first, to address the need for advancement in science technology engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and second, to address the need for science teacher training in climate change science. Twenty-eight Kansas teachers completed four pre-workshop assignments online in Moodle and attended a one-week workshop. The workshop included lecture presentations by scientists (both face-to-face and via video-conference) and collaboration between teachers and scientists to create online inquiry-based lessons on the water budget, remote sensing, climate data, and glacial modeling. Follow-up opportunities are communicated via the CReSIS Teachers listserv to maintain and further develop the collegial connections and collaborations established during the workshop. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results indicate that this workshop was particularly effective in the following four areas: 1) creating meaningful connections between K-12 teachers and CReSIS scientists; 2) integrating distance-learning technologies to facilitate the social construction of knowledge; 3) increasing teachers' content understanding of climate change and its impacts on the cryosphere and global sea level; and 4) increasing teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about teaching climate science. Evaluation methods included formative content understanding assessments (via "clickers") during each scientist's presentation, a qualitative evaluation survey administered at the end of the workshop, and two quantitative evaluation instruments administered pre- and post- workshop. The first of these

  12. Fireball and Cannonball Models of Gamma-Ray Bursts Confront Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Arnon

    2006-12-01

    The two leading contenders for the theory of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows, the Fireball and Cannonball models, are compared and their predictions are confronted, within space limitations, with key observations, including recent observations with SWIFT.

  13. Value self-confrontation as a method to aid in weight loss.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S H; Inbar-Saban, N

    1988-03-01

    The impact on weight loss of an adaptation of the Rokeach (1973) value self-confrontation method was investigated in a field experiment. This method confronts people who have ranked their own values with information about the value priorities that discriminate between a positive and a negative reference group. A preliminary study revealed that successful weight losers differ from unsuccessful weight losers in valuing "wisdom" more than "happiness." Eighty-seven overweight adults were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: value self-confrontation, group discussion, or non-treatment control. Value self-confrontation subjects lost more weight than the other subjects over 2 months, and this weight loss persisted for an additional year. Changes in value priorities during the first 2 months suggest that weight loss was mediated by an increase in the importance attributed to wisdom relative to happiness. Implications for the theory of value-behavior relations and for practical application in weight loss programs are discussed.

  14. Notification: Key Management Challenges Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    June 9, 2014. The OIG is beginning work to update the fiscal year 2014 list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  15. Principles of confrontational counselling in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Kotz, D; Huibers, M J H; Vos, R; van Schayck, C P; Wesseling, G

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem. The use of spirometry for early detection of COPD is a current issue of debate because of lack of convincing evidence of the additional positive effect of spirometry on smoking cessation. In this article, we present conditions under which early detection of COPD and confrontation may be effective, highlighting the principles of "confrontational counselling". Confronting patients with COPD is not an isolated approach but should be integrated into state-of-the-art smoking cessation treatment. Confrontational counselling should consist of several counselling sessions on an individual, face-to-face level, under supervision of a trained smoking cessation specialist, and in combination with evidence-based pharmacological treatment for smoking cessation.

  16. Crowd Confrontation and Non-Lethal Weapons: A Literature Review and Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Crowd Confrontation and Non-Lethal Weapons A literature review and conceptual model A. Frini L. Stemate S . Larochelle DRDC CORA G. Toussaint...Confrontation and Non-Lethal Weapons A literature review and conceptual model A. Frini L. Stemate S . Larochelle DRDC CORA G. Toussaint R. Lecocq...significant factors influencing the behaviour of individuals in a crowd. The model is proposed as a starting point for the future research efforts of

  17. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    PubMed Central

    O’ Callaghan, Karen A.M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  18. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  19. The Elephant in the Room: Confronting Ideology and Armed Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    broken down several times over the course of the standoff that had started in the town of Roundup and ended up 120 miles away in Jordan. Before it was...massive economic disruptions brought on by globalization. For most Patriots, the crisis began in the late 1970s. Globalization drove prices for crops so...rate, desperate farmers were all too ready to submit to an alternate form of government that promised to look out for their concerns. This alternate

  20. Geoengineering: A humanitarian concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Pablo; van Aalst, Maarten K.

    2017-02-01

    The humanitarian sector is active at the global frontline of climate impacts, and has a track record in influencing the climate change policy agenda. Geoengineering is a humanitarian concern: the potential for deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system has major implications in terms of impacts on the most vulnerable. Yet, so far the humanitarian community has largely been absent from geoengineering deliberations. Geoengineering may be perceived as too theoretical, too complex, and not imminent enough to merit attention. However, early engagement by the sector is imperative to ensure that humanitarian considerations are integrated into policy decisions. Those who can suffer the worst outcomes need to be involved; especially given the plausibility of "predatory geoengineering" where recklessly self-concerned actions may result in harmful consequences to others. This paper explores the humanitarian dimensions of geoengineering, specifically relating to solar radiation management (SRM). Drawing from the engagement of the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre in SRM discussions, we discuss how to improve linkages between science, policy and humanitarian practice. We further propose the creation of a geoengineering risk management framework to ensure that the interests of the most vulnerable are considered and addressed - including the voices of all stakeholders.

  1. Confronting conflict: addressing institutional conflicts of interest in academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Individual conflicts of interest are rife in healthcare, and substantial attention has been given to address them. Yet a more substantive concern-institutional conflicts of interest ("ICOIs") in academic medical centers ("AMCs") engaged in research and clinical care-have yet to garner sufficient attention, despite their higher stakes for patient safety and welfare. ICOIs are standard in AMCs, are virtually unregulated, and have led to patient deaths. Upon review of ICOIs, we find a clear absence of substantive efforts to confront these conflicts. We also assess the Jesse Gelsinger case, which resulted in the death of a study participant exemplifying a deep-seated culture of institutional indifference and complicity in unmanaged conflicts. Federal policy, particularly the Bayh-Dole Act, also creates and promotes ICOIs. Efforts to address ICOIs are narrow or abstract, and do not provide for a systemic infrastructure with effective enforcement mechanisms. Hence, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive proposal to address ICOIs utilizing a "Centralized System" model that would proactively review, manage, approve, and conduct assessments of conflicts, and would have independent power to evaluate and enforce any violations via sanctions. It would also manage any industry funds and pharmaceutical samples and be a condition of participation in public healthcare reimbursement and federal grant funding. The ICOI policy itself would provide for disclosure requirements, separate management of commercial enterprise units from academic units, voluntary remediation of conflicts, and education on ICOIs. Finally, we propose a new model of medical education-academic detailing-in place of current marketing-focused "education." Using such a system, AMCs can wean themselves from industry reliance and promote a culture of accountability and independence from industry influence. By doing so, clinical research and treatment can return to a focus on patient care, not profits.

  2. Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren; Goldthau, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    All too often, energy policy and technology discussions are limited to the domains of engineering and economics. Many energy consumers, and even analysts and policymakers, confront and frame energy and climate risks in a moral vacuum, rarely incorporating broader social justice concerns. Here, to remedy this gap, we investigate how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making by reframing five energy problems — nuclear waste, involuntary resettlement, energy pollution, energy poverty and climate change — as pressing justice concerns. We conclude by proposing an energy justice framework centred on availability, affordability, due process, transparency and accountability, sustainability, equity and responsibility, which highlights the futurity, fairness and equity dimensions of energy production and use.

  3. [Unpublished documents concerning Dupuytren].

    PubMed

    Boulinier, G

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper is proposed a first incursion in various archives - mainly notarial ones - concerning Dupuytren and his close relatives, investigated by the author. They will be more thoroughly dealt with in a forthcoming book. These documents give us a better knowledge of various events of Dupuytren's public and private life. They namely disclose the great challenge shown by the surgeon-in-chief of the Hôtel-Dieu in marrying his daughter Adeline in the midst of the Paris cholera epidemic in 1832. They show moreover in this unusual character the essential role continually played by some preoccupations such as nobility, power, religion and wealth, amidst a family of which he is the only member to have shown the ambition to become famous in the medical field.

  4. Ethics of environmental concern

    SciTech Connect

    Attfield, R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of ideas and a philosophical investigation into normative ethics and some of its applications focus in this book on environmental concerns. Part one explores moral traditions, which may appear deficient because traditions have been misrepresented. Attitudes and ideas toward ecological problems have a basis in Jewish and Christian stewardship traditions. Part two re-examines moral principles in light of scientific discoveries that have generated and revealed new side effects of human actions on the complex systems of nature. If all worthwhile life is of intrinsic value, it is necessary to reassess and broaden the human obligation to ecology. The author disagrees with the movement to focus environmental ethics on the biosphere as an organic whole rather than on fellow creatures, although his principles embody constraints in the interests of future creaters. The book concludes with an assessment of principles on pollution, resources, population, and preservation. 302 references.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection confronts the law, ethics and society.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, H L

    1993-01-01

    The full panorama of the AIDS problem is filled with contradictions. There are those who consider the AIDS sufferers--primarily gays and intravenous drug abusers--as "the bad group". Yet, there are also innocent victims: recipients of blood and blood products and the unknowing sex partners. Regardless of the circumstances under which they contracted the disease, many AIDS sufferers are hated because they are perceived as menaces. Such feelings are triggered by raw emotions, hysteria, anxiety, insecurity, fear, even phobias and paranoia in those who do not have, and who often do not understand the disease. This frequently results in discrimination and bias that may be aggravated by scientific and societal ignorance. Education of those who do and do not have AIDS is hampered by underlying economic problems: poverty, indigence and low social status, as well as taboos regarding discussion of sex and contraception. No disease in this country has created a greater dilemma among the public or the professions concerned with and involved in its care and management, as AIDS. A study of the magnitude of the problem and its impact reveals that it is beset by a "damned if you do, and damned if you don't" result, with the bottom line ultimately involving the benefit versus risk rule. An overview of the AIDS problem reveals particular areas of medical, societal, legal and ethical-moral concern that frequently overlap.

  6. Anesthetic Concerns of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are acutely aware of the fact that, although a given surgical procedure may be relatively simple, the required anesthetic care is, in certain cases, extremely complex. This principle is particularly evident when one ponders the difficulties involved in providing even basic anesthetic care in microgravity. In this issue some of these difficulties through the evaluation of airway management techniques during water immersion are confronted, a simulation of the gravito-inertial conditions of space flight. As prelude for this paper, I would like to outline some of the challenges to be overcome before surgical, anesthetic, and critical care can be delivered beyond our home planet.

  7. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology.

    PubMed

    Phair, Robert D

    2014-11-05

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist-electrical engineer-systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a future in which teams of experimentalists and modelers build-and subject to exhaustive experimental tests-models covering the entire spectrum from molecular cell biology to human pathophysiology. There is, in my view, no technical obstacle to this future, but it will require some plasticity in the biological research mind-set.

  8. Genetics and attribution issues that confront the microbial forensics field.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce

    2004-12-02

    The commission of an act of bioterrorism or biocrime is a real concern for law enforcement and society. Efforts are underway to develop a strong microbial forensic program to assist in identifying perpetrators of acts of bioterrorism and biocrimes, as well as serve as a deterrent for those who might commit such illicit acts. Genetic analyses of microbial organisms will likely be a powerful tool for attribution of criminal acts. There are some similarities to forensic human DNA analysis practices, such as: molecular biology technology, use of population databases, qualitative conclusions of test results, and the application of QA/QC practices. Differences include: database size and composition, statistical interpretation methods, and confidence/uncertainty in the outcome of an interpretation.

  9. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  10. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  11. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  12. Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed.

  13. Preoperative assessment of confrontation naming ability and interictal paraphasia production in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schefft, Bruce K; Testa, S Marc; Dulay, Mario F; Privitera, Michael D; Yeh, Hwa-Shain

    2003-04-01

    The present study examined the diagnostic utility of confrontation naming tasks and phonemic paraphasia production in lateralizing the epileptogenic region in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Further, the role of intelligence in moderating the diagnostic utility of confrontation naming tasks was assessed. Eighty patients with medically intractable complex partial seizures (40 left TLE, 40 right TLE) received the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Visual Naming subtest (VNT) of the Multilingual Aphasia Examination. The BNT was diagnostically more sensitive than the VNT in identifying left TLE (77.5% vs 17.5%, respectively). The utility of BNT performance and paraphasias was maximal in patients with Full Scale IQs >or=90 who were 6.8 times more likely to have left TLE than patients without paraphasias. Preoperative assessment of confrontation naming ability and phonemic paraphasia production using the BNT provided diagnostically useful information in lateralizing the epileptogenic region in left TLE.

  14. Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women's Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Melanie M; Friedman, Carly K; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-10-01

    Factors related to young women's reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female undergraduates (M = 19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action) and situational factors (familiarity and status of perpetrator, type of sexism) were tested as predictors in a logistic regression. Women were less likely to report confronting sexism if (1) they did not identify as feminists, (2) the perpetrator was unfamiliar or high-status/familiar (vs. familiar/equal-status), or (3) the type of sexism involved unwanted sexual attention (vs. sexist comments).

  15. Confronting moral pluralism in posttraditional Western societies: bioethics critically reassessed.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2011-06-01

    In the face of the moral pluralism that results from the death of God and the abandonment of a God's eye perspective in secular philosophy, bioethics arose in a context that renders it essentially incapable of giving answers to substantive moral questions, such as concerning the permissibility of abortion, human embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, etc. Indeed, it is only when bioethics understands its own limitations and those of secular moral philosophy in general can it better appreciate those tasks that it can actually usefully perform in both the clinical and academic setting. It is the task of this paper to understand and reevaluate bioethics by understanding these limits. Academic bioethicists can analyze ideas, concepts, and claims necessary to understanding the moral questions raised in health care, assessing the arguments related to these issues, and provide an understanding of the different moral perspectives on bioethical issues. In the clinical setting, bioethicists can provide legal advice, serve as experts on IRBs, mediating disputes, facilitating decision-making and risk management, and clarifying normative issues. However, understanding this is only possible when one understands the history, genesis, and foundations of bioethics and its inability to provide a resolution to postmodern moral pluralism.

  16. USA-France: Confronting two perspectives on shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.; Fellous, J.

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting shale gas and oil can be seen from very different perspectives, whether you live in the US where it is a decade long reality shaping the country's energy landscape or in France, where it is banned by law since 2011. Beyond this situation, the overall legal framework that regulates (or not) environmental and water protection, the use of chemicals, land ownership and the exploitation of underground mineral resources, the attribution of licenses for exploration and exploitation, etc. in Europe (and particularly in France, the only European country with Bulgaria where hydraulic fracturation is strictly forbidden) and in the US is at complete variance. This presentation will discuss subsequent attitudes vis-à-vis exploration, exploitation, scientific research on shale gas and fracking, and public activism that has arisen as a result of environmental, socioeconomic and human concerns. It will compare and contrast the different views and look at lessons that can be learned from those differences. This work is building upon the experience of the authors who have studied the issues relating to energy, water, population and climate and their connections, as seen from both sides of the Atlantic.

  17. Z_c(3900): confronting theory and lattice simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Fernandez-Soler, Pedro; Nieves, Juan

    2016-10-01

    We consider a recent T-matrix analysis by Albaladejo et al. (Phys Lett B 755:337, 2016), which accounts for the J/ψ π and D^*bar{D} coupled-channels dynamics, and which successfully describes the experimental information concerning the recently discovered Z_c(3900)^± . Within such scheme, the data can be similarly well described in two different scenarios, where Z_c(3900) is either a resonance or a virtual state. To shed light into the nature of this state, we apply this formalism in a finite box with the aim of comparing with recent Lattice QCD (LQCD) simulations. We see that the energy levels obtained for both scenarios agree well with those obtained in the single-volume LQCD simulation reported in Prelovsek et al. (Phys Rev D 91:014504, 2015), thus making it difficult to disentangle the two possibilities. We also study the volume dependence of the energy levels obtained with our formalism and suggest that LQCD simulations performed at several volumes could help in discerning the actual nature of the intriguing Z_c(3900) state.

  18. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  19. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  20. Assessing benefits, costs, and disparate racial impacts of confrontational proactive policing.

    PubMed

    Manski, Charles F; Nagin, Daniel S

    2017-08-29

    Effective policing in a democratic society must balance the sometime conflicting objectives of public safety and community trust. This paper uses a formal model of optimal policing to explore how society might reasonably resolve the tension between these two objectives as well as evaluate disparate racial impacts. We do so by considering the social benefits and costs of confrontational types of proactive policing, such as stop, question, and frisk. Three features of the optimum that are particularly relevant to policy choices are explored: (i) the cost of enforcement against the innocent, (ii) the baseline level of crime rate without confrontational enforcement, and (iii) differences across demographic groups in the optimal rate of enforcement.

  1. States, Congress confront abortion services under Medicaid, health care plan.

    PubMed

    1994-01-13

    Abortion coverage under various health care reform proposals has dominated the political reproductive rights debate, while poor women's access to abortion under Medicaid presents a current practical concern. Under the Clinton administration's proposed Health Security Act, abortion would be covered under "services for pregnant women," and Medicaid would eventually be incorporated into the national health plan. A final version is a long way off. For now, the Hyde amendment, limiting Medicaid coverage of abortion, controls the issue. Congress has made only negligible progress in freeing federal funds for Medicaid abortions: only in situations of life endangerment, rape, or incest. States are required to cover abortions that are medically necessary under the new guidelines, which now include pregnancy arising from rape and incest. The federal policy defers to state law on the definition of rape and incest, allowing for reasonable reporting or documentation requirements, while disallowing unduly burdensome regulations by allowing the treating physician reimbursement when the physician certifies that the patient was unable for physical or psychological reasons to comply with the requirement. States disagreeing with the new abortion policy immediately registered their opposition. Utah's health department, which has a "life only" law, has pledged not to implement the new federal policy until there is further clarification. The Health Care Financing Administrator responded by writing that "the decision to implement this policy nationwide was not discretionary." Congress chose not to add statutory language deferring to the states, and under U.S. Constitutional law, where state law or policy conflicts with federal law, federal law takes precedence. The next battle will certainly center on attempts to amend the Hyde amendment itself as well as health care legislation along the "states' option" lines.

  2. Common menstrual concerns of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Symptoms associated with menstruation are among the most common concerns of adolescent women. However, the factual information that adolescent women need is not always available to them. Physicians can do much to correct the myths and misinformation that the teenager may have concerning her menstrual cycle. This paper addresses clinical office concerns about normal menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. PMID:20401253

  3. Citizen-sensor-networks to confront government decision-makers: Two lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Carton, Linda; Ache, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents one emerging social-technical innovation: The evolution of citizen-sensor-networks where citizens organize themselves from the 'bottom up', for the sake of confronting governance officials with measured information about environmental qualities. We have observed how citizen-sensor-networks have been initiated in the Netherlands in cases where official government monitoring and business organizations leave gaps. The formed citizen-sensor-networks collect information about issues that affect the local community in their quality-of-living. In particular, two community initiatives are described where the sensed environmental information, on noise pollution and gas-extraction induced earthquakes respectively, is published through networked geographic information methods. Both community initiatives pioneered in developing an approach that comprises the combined setting-up of sensor data flows, real-time map portals and community organization. Two particular cases are analyzed to trace the emergence and network operation of such 'networked geo-information tools' in practice: (1) The Groningen earthquake monitor, and (2) The Airplane Monitor Schiphol. In both cases, environmental 'externalities' of spatial-economic activities play an important role, having economic dimensions of national importance (e.g. gas extraction and national airport development) while simultaneously affecting the regional community with environmental consequences. The monitoring systems analyzed in this paper are established bottom-up, by citizens for citizens, to serve as 'information power' in dialogue with government institutions. The goal of this paper is to gain insight in how these citizen-sensor-networks come about: how the idea for establishing a sensor network originated, how their value gets recognized and adopted in the overall 'system of governance'; to what extent they bring countervailing power against vested interests and established discourses to the table and

  4. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  5. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  6. Confronting water in an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David; Trottier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    SummaryTrans-boundary water agreements are usually conceived as allocation agreements. In other words, water is treated as if it were a pie to be divided among the riparian states. The treatment of water as if it were as immobile as land may be useful in the short term, but it is fundamentally flawed as a means to avoid conflict as well as to ensure efficient, equitable, and sustainable management of water over the long term. This article proposes to avoid quantitative allocations within international water agreements, whether they be presented as percentage or fixed allocations or whether or not accompanied by a periodic revision clause. It proposes instead an ongoing joint management structure that allows for continuous conflict resolution concerning water demands and uses in a manner that effectively de-nationalises water uses. As well, it builds on existing, functioning institutions that are already active over a variety of scalar levels. It disaggregates what is usually perceived as a national water demand into its component institutions and re-aggregates them within an international institutional context. Though this approach for building trans-boundary water agreements can prove useful in any geographical situation, this article uses the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a model. It proposes to respect the existing differences in the institutional management of water between the two entities and to reach four general objectives: economic efficiency, social and political equity, ecological sustainability, and the ability to implement the agreement in practice. The institutional design and proposed mechanisms follow five key principles for shared management: water allocations that are not fixed but variable over time; equality in rights and responsibilities; priority for demand management over supply management; continuous monitoring of water quality and quantity; and mediation among competing uses of fresh water. This institutional structure balances water

  7. A study of the concerns of science teachers regarding an implementation of ISCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert K.; Hall, Gene

    The federal government has responded to public interest in science education by supporting the development of science curricula, but a 1978 survey reports a low extent of actual use. A conceptual model which provides insight into the individual concerns that teachers adopting a new program might express was employed in a study of science teachers adopting ISCS. Recommendations for implementations, based on study findings are: Strategies for implementation should be correlated to concerns and should change as concerns shift; training in skills should be graduated and continuous; personal support is essential; and, furthermore, evaluation of effects should be delayed until early teacher concerns have been resolved. The concerns concept seems a promising tool for understanding critical problems of an adoption process. It can be useful in guiding the implementation of educational innovations by helping to alleviate trauma individuals face when confronted with such change.

  8. Students' Alternative Conceptions about the Lotus Effect: To Confront or to Ignore?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubisch, Franziska; Heyne, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    At the botanical garden of the University of Würzburg, we conducted practical lessons on bionics, focused on the lotus effect, with 260 students. Those approx. 14 years old, 8th-grade mid-level students were divided into two groups. During an instructional discussion about the topic, one group was confronted with their alternative conceptions…

  9. Educating Women Students in the Academy to Confront Gender Discrimination and Contribute to Equity Afterward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen

    2010-01-01

    We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…

  10. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This annual publication seeks to inform interested readers about issues currently confronting the United States. The introductory section briefly discusses the 101st Congress, members of the Bush administration, and the Supreme Court. The federal budget process is also discussed in this section. The section on domestic policy issues contains the…

  11. Challenges Confronting Female Intercollegiate Athletic Directors of NCAA Member Institutions by Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarterman, Jerome; DuPree, Aimee D.; Willis, Kimberly Pettaway

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the major challenges confronting female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs of NCAA member institutions. A 34-item questionnaire was mailed to 169 female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs. Of the 169 directors…

  12. "I Was Gone on Debating": Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1995-01-01

    States that Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam relied heavily upon debate as a form of public address through which to enact and publicize confrontation with other civil rights organizations. Examines Malcolm X's first experience and training in debate as a prison inmate and later public experiences. Provides detailed accounts and analysis of his…

  13. Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stob, Paul

    2012-01-01

    On May 31, 1897, William James, one of America's most influential philosophers and psychologists, delivered the first civic oration of his career. The principal orator at the dedication of the Robert Gould Shaw memorial in Boston, James did what commemorative speakers are not supposed to do. He chose to be confrontational and divisive in a…

  14. Multichannel fNIRS Assessment of Overt and Covert Confrontation Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriai-Izawa, Ayano; Dan, Haruka; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Oguro, Keiji; Yokota, Hidenori; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2012-01-01

    Confrontation naming tasks assess cognitive processes involved in the main stage of word production. However, in fMRI, the occurrence of movement artifacts necessitates the use of covert paradigms, which has limited clinical applications. Thus, we explored the feasibility of adopting multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to…

  15. Laughing with and at Patients: The Roles of Laughter in Confrontations in Addiction Group Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arminen, Ilkka; Halonen, Mia

    2007-01-01

    In Minnesota treatment, the therapists aim at breaking clients' denial to encourage them to accept their addiction. However, the confrontation is risky since, instead of making the patient ready for a change, it may strengthen resistance against the diagnosis of addiction and the treatment recommendations. We will explore the role of laughter in…

  16. Students' Alternative Conceptions about the Lotus Effect: To Confront or to Ignore?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubisch, Franziska; Heyne, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    At the botanical garden of the University of Würzburg, we conducted practical lessons on bionics, focused on the lotus effect, with 260 students. Those approx. 14 years old, 8th-grade mid-level students were divided into two groups. During an instructional discussion about the topic, one group was confronted with their alternative conceptions…

  17. Challenges Confronting Female Intercollegiate Athletic Directors of NCAA Member Institutions by Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarterman, Jerome; DuPree, Aimee D.; Willis, Kimberly Pettaway

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the major challenges confronting female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs of NCAA member institutions. A 34-item questionnaire was mailed to 169 female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs. Of the 169 directors…

  18. Perceptual, Evaluative and Behavioral Changes Through Externally Mediated Self-Confrontation; Explorations and Experiments in Microsettings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    1974-01-01

    The development and application of the idea of microteaching in research and education is described in this report. It examines the use of different feedback devices for self-control and self-direction. The main conclusions reached are: (1) externally mediated self-confrontation via CCTV/VR is a therapeutic treatment; and (2) microsetting models…

  19. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

  20. Understanding and Confronting Alcohol-Induced Risky Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornier, Lucien J.; Fauquier, Katharine J.; Field, April R.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting alcohol abuse is a challenge for most higher education institutions. Each year, students are admitted to hospitals for issues arising from the misuse of alcohol. The deaths of some engaged in alcohol related activities is especially worrisome. Factors such as age and financial standing could impact the likelihood of abuse. So-called…

  1. Post Stereotypes: Deconstructing Racial Assumptions and Biases through Visual Culture and Confrontational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Yuha

    2015-01-01

    The Post Stereotypes project embodies confrontational pedagogy and involves postcard artmaking designed to both solicit expression of and deconstruct students' racial, ethnic, and cultural stereotypes and assumptions. As part of the Cultural Diversity in American Art course, students created postcard art that visually represented their personal…

  2. The Effects of Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Stimuli on the Confrontation-Naming Performance of Aphasics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Wright, Judith M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of semantic grouping on confrontation-naming performances of 16 fluent and 10 nonfluent aphasic adults was examined. Performances were not uniformly facilitated in one naming condition over the other. Some patients, however, did appear to display performance discrepancies between the two conditions. (Author/CL)

  3. The Dilemmas of Peer Relationships Confronting Mathematically Gifted Female Adolescents: Nine Cases in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-Yao

    2011-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…

  4. Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stob, Paul

    2012-01-01

    On May 31, 1897, William James, one of America's most influential philosophers and psychologists, delivered the first civic oration of his career. The principal orator at the dedication of the Robert Gould Shaw memorial in Boston, James did what commemorative speakers are not supposed to do. He chose to be confrontational and divisive in a…

  5. La Grippe and World War I: conflict participation and pandemic confrontation.

    PubMed

    Steele, B J; Collins, C D

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether a nation-state's participation in conflict influences its ability to confront global pandemic or disease. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed. First, increased levels of conflict participation lead to increased abilities of states to confront pandemics. A second and alternative hypothesis is that increased conflict participation decreases the ability of states to confront pandemics. The hypotheses are tested through the ultimate case of war and pandemic: the 1918 Influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu or 'La Grippe') that killed 20-100 million people worldwide. Using simple correlation and case illustrations, we test these hypotheses with special focus upon the ability of the participant countries to confront the pandemic. The findings suggest, in a limited and varied fashion, that while neutral countries enjoyed the lowest levels of pandemic deaths, of the participant countries greater levels of conflict participation correlate with lower levels of pandemic deaths. The paper concludes with some propositions regarding the relationship between the current 'war on terror' and prospective pandemics such as avian flu.

  6. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  7. Confronting Challenges to the Liberal Arts Curriculum: Perspectives of Developing and Transitional Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Patti McGill

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research on higher education in developing and transitional countries is often focused on such issues as access, finance, student mobility and the impact of globalization, but there has been little attention to curriculum and the forces that shape it. Confronting Challenges to the Liberal Arts Curriculum fills an important gap in the…

  8. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  9. Three Misconceptions about Radiation--And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi--all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with…

  10. Confronting the Universal Disbelief that Poor Children Can Achieve at High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In her first year as superintendent of the Atlanta Public Schools, Beverly Hall encountered what she describes as the nearly universal disbelief that poor children of color can achieve high levels of learning. This chapter recounts how she confronted this and other obstacles and challenges as the new leader of the Atlanta Public Schools. Hall is…

  11. Self-Confrontation Via Closed-Circuit Television in Teacher Training: Results, Implications and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    Externally mediated self-confrontation by means of closed-circuit television and videotape recording has become a popular technique for letting student teachers discover for themselves the way in which their own behavior influences the teaching processes. This paper not only studies the way in which the student teacher perceives and evaluates his…

  12. Confronting Delinquency: Probations Officers' Use of Coercion and Client-Centered Tactics to Foster Youth Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalbe, Craig S.; Maschi, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Youthful compliance with juvenile court mandates is a cornerstone of effective probation practice. Despite this, research has not examined probation strategies for encouraging and enforcing youthful compliance with probation conditions. This study describes the use of confrontational tactics and client-centered approaches reported by probation…

  13. Self Confrontation Counseling: A Selective Review With Implications for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Frances F.; And Others

    This report reviews relevant educational literature and current practices to discover the relationship between personal change and self confrontation. Five areas of study include a) outcomes, b) help for whom, c) the helpful situation, d) the helpful treatment, and e) the helpful helper. The first section briefly describes the outcomes of self…

  14. Academic Misconduct: A Goals-Plans-Action Approach to Peer Confrontation and Whistle-Blowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Denbow, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Academic misconduct is a serious, pervasive, communication phenomenon on college campuses. In this study, the goals-plans-action model (Dillard, 1990) was used as a theoretical framework to investigate peer confrontation of cheating and whistle-blowing to a course instructor. In an experiment, participants were asked to respond to measures of…

  15. Self-concept, Communication Apprehension and Self-confrontation: A Relational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburger, Craig Alan; Daniel, Arlie V.

    A study examined the relationship between the personality constructs of self-concept and communication apprehension and the use of self-confrontation (self-viewing of videotaped speeches) as a potential self-concept enhancement strategy. The question of whether the constructs of self-concept and communication apprehension overlap was investigated…

  16. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  17. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This annual publication seeks to inform interested readers about issues currently confronting the United States. The introductory section briefly discusses the 101st Congress, members of the Bush administration, and the Supreme Court. The federal budget process is also discussed in this section. The section on domestic policy issues contains the…

  18. "I Was Gone on Debating": Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1995-01-01

    States that Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam relied heavily upon debate as a form of public address through which to enact and publicize confrontation with other civil rights organizations. Examines Malcolm X's first experience and training in debate as a prison inmate and later public experiences. Provides detailed accounts and analysis of his…

  19. Retrieving Possibilities: Confronting a Forgetfulness and Deformation of Teaching/Learning Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latta, Margaret Macintyre

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on data collected in a one-year research project focusing on elucidating theory/practice relations in learning to teach. As a teacher educator I grapple with the nature and role of teaching methodology. The notion of method, with its implied order and certainty, is confronted alongside prospective teachers throughout their…

  20. Confronting the Global and the Local--A Case Study of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2004-01-01

    While most national systems of higher education are confronting seemingly convergent global pressures, specific national or local issues still mark the distinct features of each system. Hence, higher education, in places, has been enmeshed in the tensions between national issues and global pressures. In China, both the global influence sand…

  1. The Learning Disabled Delinquent: Teaching Socially Appropriate Reactions to Confrontations for Negative Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Darrell J.

    1982-01-01

    A private psychiatric hospital program is described which cooperates with referring probation officers to develop socially appropriate reactions in learning disabled delinquents by confronting them with their negative behaviors. A case study involving systematic reinforcement, social skills training, and cognitive restructuring in a token economy…

  2. "Do You Remember": Confronting Post-9/11 Censorship through Critical Questioning and Poetic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2008-01-01

    Jeanine M. Staples led a group of students, ages fourteen to eighteen, in developing a critical stance about words and images found in 9/11 media. Through questions, comments, and declarations toward these texts, the students labeled as "disengaged" actively participated in constructing a collaborative poem to confront repressive thinking.…

  3. Multichannel fNIRS Assessment of Overt and Covert Confrontation Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriai-Izawa, Ayano; Dan, Haruka; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Oguro, Keiji; Yokota, Hidenori; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2012-01-01

    Confrontation naming tasks assess cognitive processes involved in the main stage of word production. However, in fMRI, the occurrence of movement artifacts necessitates the use of covert paradigms, which has limited clinical applications. Thus, we explored the feasibility of adopting multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to…

  4. Confronting Challenges to the Liberal Arts Curriculum: Perspectives of Developing and Transitional Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Patti McGill

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research on higher education in developing and transitional countries is often focused on such issues as access, finance, student mobility and the impact of globalization, but there has been little attention to curriculum and the forces that shape it. Confronting Challenges to the Liberal Arts Curriculum fills an important gap in the…

  5. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  6. Confronting the Unknown: Principal Preparation Training in Issues Related to Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelle, Pamela; Bilton, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines principal preparation programs from the perspective of readiness to confront and/or support special education issues at the school building level. The purpose of this research was to answer the following questions: (1) What is the principal's readiness level upon program completion in dealing with special education issues in…

  7. Markets, Equality and Democratic Education: Confronting the Neoliberal and Libertarian Reconceptualisations of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    The global emergence of market liberalism marks an effort to decouple the link between citizenship and the welfare state and to rearticulate people's identity as homo economicus, as independent citizens having the right to property and the freedom to choose in the marketplace. Confronting this phenomenon, this paper reviews neoliberal and…

  8. "Do You Remember": Confronting Post-9/11 Censorship through Critical Questioning and Poetic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2008-01-01

    Jeanine M. Staples led a group of students, ages fourteen to eighteen, in developing a critical stance about words and images found in 9/11 media. Through questions, comments, and declarations toward these texts, the students labeled as "disengaged" actively participated in constructing a collaborative poem to confront repressive thinking.…

  9. Confronting Delinquency: Probations Officers' Use of Coercion and Client-Centered Tactics to Foster Youth Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalbe, Craig S.; Maschi, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Youthful compliance with juvenile court mandates is a cornerstone of effective probation practice. Despite this, research has not examined probation strategies for encouraging and enforcing youthful compliance with probation conditions. This study describes the use of confrontational tactics and client-centered approaches reported by probation…

  10. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Practices of Superintendents Confronted by District Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noppe, Rene; Yager, Stuart; Webb, Carol; Sheng, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the decision-making and problem-solving approaches most frequently used by school superintendents in two mid-western states when confronted with district dilemmas. The research replicated a study conducted by Polka, Litchka, Caizi, Denig and Mete (2011) in five Mid-Atlantic states. The survey used in both…

  11. Three Misconceptions about Radiation--And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi--all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with…

  12. What Pediatric Primary Care Clinicians Can Do When Confronting Aggressive Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stringham, Peter; Spivak, Howard

    1994-01-01

    Violence is a serious problem confronting primary care practitioners. This paper presents office-based primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies for dealing with relationship and street violence and gives practical skills for practitioners to respond to patients who are aggressive. PMID:19313103

  13. Post Stereotypes: Deconstructing Racial Assumptions and Biases through Visual Culture and Confrontational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Yuha

    2015-01-01

    The Post Stereotypes project embodies confrontational pedagogy and involves postcard artmaking designed to both solicit expression of and deconstruct students' racial, ethnic, and cultural stereotypes and assumptions. As part of the Cultural Diversity in American Art course, students created postcard art that visually represented their personal…

  14. The Development of Clinical Skills in Speech Pathology by Audiotape and Videotape Self-Confrontation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Daniel R.; Stech, Ernest L.

    An initial study with 30 students in clinical speech pathology training found videotape confrontation to be a powerful clinical training technique. This subsequent study, using 20 additional students, was designed to compare the effectiveness of audiotape and videotape, and to ascertain whether videotape self-confrontation (single and double…

  15. Mathematical Problems Concerning Rhythmic Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    experimental on forced chains oscillators, motivated by problems concerning the lamprey CPG for undulatory locomotion. Work continued with K. Sivard on...problems concerning the lamprey CPG for undulatory locomotion [1,2]. Work continued with K. Sigvard on interpretation of experiment, and we are preparing

  16. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  17. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  18. Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J; Woods, Charles R; Marshall, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about specific vaccine safety concerns in the state of Kentucky. An Internet-based survey focusing on parental vaccine safety concerns and potential vaccine risk communication strategies was sent to all members of the Kentucky Chapter of the Amerian Academy of Pediatrics. There were 121 respondents who routinely administered childhood vaccines. Of these, 85% reported parental concern about the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Concerns about the influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were also frequent. Of the respondents, 46% noted parental skepticism about all vaccines in general. However, refusal of all vaccines was uncommon in most practices (median 1%, interquartile range 1%-3%). The belief that vaccines cause autism was the most prevalent parental concern, reported by 70% of pediatricians. Physicians also reported that a list of reliable vaccine information Websites and pamphlets addressing common vaccine safety concerns would be the most helpful materials to use during their discussions with concerned parents. These findings suggest that specific information about the MMR, influenza, and HPV vaccines, as well as data refuting the putative link between vaccines and autism would be useful to physicians who administer vaccinations. Respondents were especially interested in reliable vaccine information on the Internet. The Websites listed below offer accurate scientific information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

  19. Confronting Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, as schools first started getting widespread access to the internet, many administrators saw the potential in this new technology, but also huge risks and liabilities. While billions were being spent on hardware and connectivity, the mainstream media was fueling parental fears with stories of online predators…

  20. Confronting Ableism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehir, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Society's pervasive negative attitude about disability--which the author terms ableism--often makes the world an unwelcoming and inaccessible place for disabled people. An abelist perspective asserts that it is preferable for a child to read print rather than Braille, walk rather than use a wheelchair, spell independently rather than use a…

  1. Confronting Ableism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehir, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Society's pervasive negative attitude about disability--which the author terms ableism--often makes the world an unwelcoming and inaccessible place for disabled people. An abelist perspective asserts that it is preferable for a child to read print rather than Braille, walk rather than use a wheelchair, spell independently rather than use a…

  2. Confronting Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, as schools first started getting widespread access to the internet, many administrators saw the potential in this new technology, but also huge risks and liabilities. While billions were being spent on hardware and connectivity, the mainstream media was fueling parental fears with stories of online predators…

  3. Confronting Colorblindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Colorblindness is socially acceptable bias that lives in our personal and institutional beliefs. Its existence inhibits our ability to recognize and respond to the realities of the lives of students of color. The author outlines several activities that educators can use to surface beliefs about race during staff meetings and the like.

  4. Confronting Deregulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madget, James

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how schools can capitalize on new opportunities for cost savings and improved service in a deregulated electric industry. It discusses strategies for preparing to buy electrical power on the open market and examines two forms of purchasing called "wholesale-wheeling" and "retail-wheeling." Steps in conducting a…

  5. The Confrontation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Martin

    The New York City school teachers strike of 1968 was the outcome of a conflict which had been growing since the establishment of the Ocean Hill-Brownsville experiment in decentralized school administration. This conflict developed over the Local Governing Board's desire to clearly establish its authority to hire and fire employees of the district,…

  6. Confronting Colorblindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Colorblindness is socially acceptable bias that lives in our personal and institutional beliefs. Its existence inhibits our ability to recognize and respond to the realities of the lives of students of color. The author outlines several activities that educators can use to surface beliefs about race during staff meetings and the like.

  7. Parental self-support: A study of parents' confront strategy when giving birth to premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadi, Faranak; Kamali, Mohammad; Borimnejad, Leili; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Rasti, Mehdi; Shafaroodi, Narges; Rafii, Foroogh; Askari Kachoosangi, Reihaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to understand the confront strategies of parents of premature infants hospitalized in NICU. Methods: This study was performed using qualitative content analysis approach. Twelve participants including nine parents whose infants were hospitalized in NICU, two nurses and one physician, all selected by purposive sampling method were interviewed by a female expert occupational therapist. Data were gathered by semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed by inductive content analysis approach. Results: One category, six subcategories and twenty one themes emerged from data analysis expressed confront strategies of parents of premature infants admitted in NICU. These categories were: taking assurance, stop thinking to bad things, diverting mind, taking supports, emotional expression, complaining from staff. Conclusion: Premature infant's parents announced that they do not receive adequate formal support to manage their feelings and needs. So, they seek for other informal resources of support and apply some special strategies including self-support. PMID:25664283

  8. Context effects on verb production in specific language impairment (SLI): confrontation naming versus connected speech.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2014-11-01

    A handful of studies have shown that verbs are more vulnerable than nouns to retrieval deficits on picture-based naming tasks for children with specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of this study was to examine if the disproportionate verb as opposed to noun production deficit reported for naming is also found in connected speech. Sixteen children participated in the study: eight children diagnosed with SLI (mean age: 6:3 years) and eight typically language developing (TLD, mean age: 5:9 years) controls. Verb and noun production was measured in connected speech and compared to picture confrontation naming. Both groups of children showed a significant difficulty naming verbs compared to nouns. In contrast, they did not differ on the total number of both verb tokens and verb types produced in connected speech. The findings indicate that the previously reported verb retrieval difficulties in SLI are a product of the confrontation naming task demands rather than a true verb deficit.

  9. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. No reason to talk about it: Families confront the nuclear taboo

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, D.S.; Zeitlin, S.

    1987-01-01

    Based on interviews with families from various ethnic and economic backgrounds, the authors look at the effect of the nuclear threat on family life, exploring such issues as how parents deal with their children's fears about the threat of nuclear war and the difficulty adolescents have committing themselves to the adult community in the nuclear age. Using Erik Erikson's stages of development as a framework, they move from early childhood to old age in their analysis of how families confront the nuclear issue.

  11. Effects of social defeat on sleep and behaviour: importance of the confrontational behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinn Rød, Anne Marie; Murison, Robert; Mrdalj, Jelena; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Øvernes, Leif Arvid; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-29

    We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress levels of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and allowed 3weeks of recovery. Rats in the SD group (n=10) were exposed to 1hour SD on two consecutive days, while control rats (n=10) were left undisturbed. Telemetric sleep recordings were performed before SD (day -1), day 1 post SD, and once weekly for 3weeks thereafter. The open field emergence test was performed on day 9 and weekly for 2weeks thereafter. Blood samples for measures of corticosterone responsiveness were drawn after the last emergence test (day 23). Acoustic startle responses were tested on day 24 post SD. Overall, SD rats as a group were not affected by the social conflict. Effects of SD seemed, however, to vary according to the behaviours that the intruder displayed during the social confrontation with the resident. Compared to those SD rats showing quick submission (SDS, n=5), SD rats fighting the resident during one or both SD confrontations before defeat (SDF, n=5) showed more fragmented slow wave sleep, both in SWS1 and SWS2. They also showed longer latency to leave the start box and spent less time in the open field arena compared to SDS rats. In the startle test, SDF rats failed to show response decrement at the lowest sound level. Our results indicate that how animals behave during a social confrontation is more important than exposure to the SD procedure itself, and that rapid submission during a social confrontation might be more adaptive than fighting back.

  12. Nurse-to-nurse hostility, confrontational anxiety, and emotional intelligence: an integral, descriptive pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tommie L; Argentino, Daniela

    2010-08-01

    Nurse-to-nurse hostility (NNH) is an emotional challenge within a group and has a negative impact on performance, nurse satisfaction/retention, health, and patient safety. The purpose of this study was to explore confrontational anxiety scores (CAS) of acute care nurses, including perianesthesia nurses, resulting from NNH by asking: In combined groups, will high levels of individual emotional intelligence (EI) and group emotional competence (GEC) be associated with low CAS and will there be a difference in CAS between military and civilian nurses? Data were gathered from two valid and reliable self-report questionnaires. Participants rated confrontational anxiety from 1 to 5, yielding the CAS. The hypotheses were tested via t test with alpha set at 0.05 and 0.9 powered for combined groups testing. The study was underpowered for individual groups. Statistical significance (P = .02) was found in subscales "Regulation of Emotion," "Norms for Confronting Members," and "Team Self-evaluation." No statistically significant difference in CAS was found between the two populations. The results support the need to improve EI and GEC to achieve constructive and appropriate member behavior during interactions (ie, reduce anxiety and occurrence of NNH) to preserve group trust, effectiveness, and collaboration, therefore positively impacting performance, nurse satisfaction/retention, health, and patient safety. (c) 2010 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Confrontation and Avoidance Coping in Response to Workplace Incivility.

    PubMed

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Cameron, Ann-Frances; Gervais, Loie; Bozeman, Jennifer

    2017-02-13

    Workplace incivility has significant adverse consequences for targets. However, we know remarkably little about how targets of incivility cope and even less about which coping strategies are effective. Drawing on the coping process of the transactional model of stress, we examine confrontation as a form of problem-focused coping and avoidance as a form of emotion-focused coping in response to incivility. We examine the effects of these coping strategies on reoccurrence of incivility, incivility enacted by targets, psychological forgiveness, and emotional exhaustion. Focusing on the target's perspective of a series of uncivil interactions between a target and perpetrator, we conducted a 3-wave study of employees from various occupations. Employing the critical incident technique, participants reported on an incident of workplace incivility, and then answered a series of questions over 3 waves of data collection regarding their interactions with this perpetrator. Our findings suggest that confrontation and avoidance are ineffective in preventing reoccurrence of incivility. Avoidance can additionally lead to increased emotional exhaustion, target-enacted incivility, and lower psychological forgiveness. However, confrontation coping has promise with regards to eliciting positive outcomes such as psychological forgiveness that are beneficial to interpersonal workplace relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  15. Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... breastfeeding is not necessary. My baby bites during breastfeeding. Can I stop it? Babies will often play ...

  16. Transactional Analysis--Some Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilcourse, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Some causes for concern in connection with the accelerating use of transactional analysis in industrial and business organizations are examined, with suggestions for partial solution of its problems. (MF)

  17. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  18. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  19. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  20. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  1. Notification: Key Management Challenges Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board - FY2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    January 21, 2016. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2016 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  2. The Problems That the Classroom Teachers Working in Villages and County Towns Confront in Educational Inspection and Their Opinions Concerning the Effect of These Problems on Their Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem, Ali Riza; Yaprak, Meral

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish that the problems of education supervision of the class teachers working in the village and township centre in Denizli and their opinions about these problems affect their performance. 321 class teachers working in official primary schools in townships of Denizli and 272 class teachers working in…

  3. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    PubMed Central

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  4. Empathic concern drives costly altruism.

    PubMed

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-15

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern--and not trait personal distress--motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Consumer Concerns: Newcomer's Guide. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jean

    A bilingual pamphlet containing practical law-related information for recent Russian Jewish immigrants to New York City, this document addresses consumer concerns. Following a brief description of the Newcomer series, 15 questions are listed, each followed by an answer. Questions asked include the meaning of the terms consumer and contract;…

  6. Sex Education, Concerns and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert M.

    The general concern over an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and the government's need to educate and protect its citizens from this disease seem to have softened resistance to sex education in schools. The only viable defense against AIDS seems to be education, since there are no vaccines or effective treatments. Still, some…

  7. Teaching Online: Discovering Teacher Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Glenda C.; Dunn, Karee E.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the degree to which teachers are interested in or value online K-12 education. This is an unfortunate gap in the literature, as online education has been and continues to be a swiftly growing component of the K-12 learning community. This exploratory study sought to measure K-12 preservice and inservice teacher concerns about…

  8. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  9. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  10. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  11. Children's Views Concerning Phase Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; Travis, Anthony S.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on answers by children (grades 1-9, n=83) to oral and written questions concerning the phase change from liquid to gas. The development of concepts was followed, proceeding from concrete to abstract ideas. Many students were found to experience difficulties in problem solving even though they may have had the necessary level…

  12. Quality of life and satisfaction after multilevel surgery in cerebral palsy: confronting the experience of children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Stephan-Carlier, A; Facione, J; Speyer, E; Rumilly, E; Paysant, J

    2014-12-01

    If the benefits of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMS) in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy have already been validated, especially in terms of functional outcomes, fewer studies have evaluated SEMS in terms of quality of life and satisfaction with surgical outcomes, especially pertaining to the opinions of children and their family. The objectives of this study were to confront the perceptions of parents and the experience of their operated children in terms of quality of life and surgical outcomes. This was an observational, descriptive, single-center study conducted in a regional Pediatric Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) center, which is considered a reference center in this region of France. The subjects recruited were ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) who had SEMS between 2009 and 2011, and one of their parents. The specific "child" and "parent" CP-related modules of the DISABKIDS questionnaire were used to assess these children's quality of life post-surgery. Perceptions of parents and children regarding gait evolution and satisfaction with surgical outcomes were analyzed via a questionnaire developed by the author. Regarding quality of life and surgical outcomes, the correlation between the perception of parents and experience of children was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa values (PABAK). Twelve children (83% of them boys) and their parents participated in the study. For the DISABKIDS questionnaire, a moderate correlation was found regarding functional impact (ICC=0.58; P<0.0178) but a high correlation was reported for the communication item of the questionnaire (ICC=0.73; P=0.0025). Regarding satisfaction with surgical outcomes, results showed a good correlation (PABAK=0.64). Concerning quality of life and satisfaction with surgical outcomes, our study showed a good or even high correlation between parents' perceptions and their child's experience. It is

  13. Impact of social confrontation on rat CD4 T cells bearing different CD45R isoforms.

    PubMed

    Stefanski, V; Solomon, G F; Kling, A S; Thomas, J; Plaeger, S

    1996-12-01

    The impact of social defeat on lymphocyte subpopulations and T helper subsets was investigated in Long Evans rats. CD4 T helper cell subsets with distinct functional properties and different cytokine profiles can be distinguished by using the mAbs OX-22 (anti-CD45RC) and OX-7 (anti-CD90, Thy1.1). Male intruders were exposed for 2, 6, or 48 h to aggressive resident pairs. All intruders were attacked upon introduction and were defeated as indicated by frequent display of full submissive postures. After 2 and 48 h of confrontation, drastic but differential effects on blood leukocyte numbers, CD4 and CD8a cells, and CD4 subsets were evident. However, after 6 h of confrontation most lymphocyte subset numbers corresponded to baseline levels. Focusing on CD4 subsets after 2 h of confrontation, we demonstrated that only the number of the CD45RC-CD90(-) subset declines, whereas neither the number of the CD45RC+CD90(-) subset nor the number of the CD45RC-CD90(+) subset (recent thymic emigrants) was influenced. Con A stimulation of sorted subsets identified the CD45RC-CD90(-) as a poor producer of IFN-gamma. The data clearly demonstrate that social factors might differentially influence not only T cell subsets but also T helper cell subsets with distinct cytokine profiles in a possibly time-dependent manner. Such a stress-induced shift toward a CD45RC+CD90(-)-dominated milieu may have important consequences in interpreting results obtained from mitogenic stimulation of blood lymphocytes and cytokine production profiles measured after such a stimulation. In addition, a shift toward a CD45RC+CD90(-) dominance may modify the type and magnitude of immune response, at least temporarily.

  14. Migration and interaction tracking for quantitative analysis of phagocyte-pathogen confrontation assays.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Susanne; Dietrich, Stefanie; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2017-02-01

    Invasive fungal infections are emerging as a significant health risk for humans. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading micro-organisms and involves the recruitment of phagocytes, which engulf and kill pathogens, to the site of infection. To gain a quantitative understanding of the interplay between phagocytes and fungal pathogens, live-cell imaging is a modern approach to monitor the dynamic process of phagocytosis in time and space. However, this requires the processing of large amounts of video data that is tedious to be performed manually. Here, we present a novel framework, called AMIT (algorithm for migration and interaction tracking), that enables automated high-throughput analysis of multi-channel time-lapse microscopy videos of phagocyte-pathogen confrontation assays. The framework is based on our previously developed segmentation and tracking framework for non-rigid cells in brightfield microscopy (Brandes et al., 2015). We here present an advancement of this framework to segment and track different cell types in different video channels as well as to track the interactions between different cell types. For the confrontation assays of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and Candida glabrata considered in this work, the main focus lies on the correct detection of phagocytic events. To achieve this, we introduced different PMN states and a state-transition model that represents the basic principles of phagocyte-pathogen interactions. The framework is validated by a direct comparison of the automatically detected phagocytic activity of PMNs to a manual analysis and by a qualitative comparison with previously published analyses (Duggan et al., 2105; Essig et al., 2015). We demonstrate the potential of our algorithm by comprehensive quantitative and multivariate analyses of confrontation assays involving human PMNs and the fungus C. glabrata.

  15. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  16. Police confrontations among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Ti, Lianping; Wood, Evan; Shannon, Kate; Feng, Cindy; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Street-level policing has been recognized as a driver of health-related harms among people who inject drugs (IDU). However, the extent of interaction between police and street-involved youth has not been well characterized. We examined the incidence and risk factors for police confrontations among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. Using data derived from participants enrolled in the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS) between 2005 and 2011, we assessed factors associated with being stopped, searched, or detained by police without arrest in the previous six months using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with logit link for binary outcomes. Among 991 participants followed during the study period, 440 (44.4%) reported being stopped, searched, or detained by police for an incidence density of 49.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.42-65.01) per 100 person years. In multivariate GEE analyses, factors associated with police confrontations included: male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.35), homelessness (AOR=2.05), recent incarceration (AOR=1.78), daily cannabis use (AOR=1.31), daily heroin injecting (AOR=1.36), crack pipe/syringe sharing (AOR=1.61), injection drug use (AOR=1.37), public drug use (AOR=2.19), sex work involvement (AOR=1.67), and drug dealing (AOR=1.49) (all p<0.05). In total, 19.0% of participants reported that police confiscated their drug paraphernalia without arresting them. Additionally, 16.9% of individuals reported experiencing violence at the hands of police. We found that various factors, such as homelessness and markers of more severe addiction, increased the likelihood of being confronted by police, and police confrontations were associated with markers of health-related harm among street youth. These findings highlight the need for social and structural interventions that best enable police to fulfil public safety and public order objectives without negatively influencing health behaviours of street youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  17. Confronting Space Debris: Strategies and Warnings from Comparable Examples Including Deepwater Horizon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Horizon (DH) was an ultra deepwater , semisubmers- ible offshore drilling rig contracted to BP by its owner, Transocean. The rig was capable of...Warnings from Comparable Examples Including Deepwater Horizon 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...research quality and objectivity. StrategieS and WarningS from Comparable exampleS inCluding deepWater Horizon Confronting SpaCe DebriS dave baiocchi

  18. Reaction-diffusion dynamics: confrontation between theory and experiment in a microfluidic reactor.

    PubMed

    Baroud, Charles N; Okkels, Fridolin; Ménétrier, Laure; Tabeling, Patrick

    2003-06-01

    We confront, quantitatively, the theoretical description of the reaction-diffusion process of a second-order reaction to experiment. The reaction at work is Ca(2+)/CaGreen, a fluorescent tracer for calcium. The reactor is a T-shaped microchannel, 10 microm deep, 200 microm wide, and 2 cm long. The experimental measurements are compared with the two-dimensional numerical simulation of the reaction-diffusion equations. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. From this study, one may propose a method of measurement of various quantities, such as the kinetic rate of the reaction, in conditions yet inaccessible to conventional methods.

  19. Confronting Subjective Criteria in the Evaluation of Computer-Based Critiquing Advice

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Michael A.; Miller, Perry L.; Fisher, Paul R.; Weltin, Gregory G.; Swett, Henry A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a need for formal evaluation in the development of any computer-based expert systems. This may be quite difficult when judging a critiquing system, that is, a system which responds to a proposed management strategy with an explanatory prose discussion of the advisability of that approach. DxCON is an expert system which produces prose critiques discussing the radiologic workup of obstructive jaundice. This paper briefly describes DxCON, and then focuses on a study performed to validate its knowledge. The need to confront subjective as well as objective criteria in the evaluation of expert critiquing systems is explored.

  20. Accountable care organizations: legal concerns.

    PubMed

    Sanbar, S Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) shared savings program has serious concerns about anti-trust and anti-fraud laws. Additionally, ACOs present several other legal concerns relating to the duties and responsibilities of the physician-hospital partnership. The federal regulations hold physicians who participate in the ACO shared savings program to the highest standards of care without offering them protection from liability. The structure and procedures required of ACOs may be detrimental and may significantly impact the liability of its contracting physicians. Therefore, it behooves physicians to obtain legal advice regarding one's estate planning and legal asset protection or wealth management techniques, and to thoroughly review the agreement with one's attorney before signing a contract with an ACO.

  1. The process of confrontation with disability in patients with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Gholamhossein; Kouchaki, Anahita; Malekian, Azadeh; Aminorro’aya, Mahin; Boroujeni, Ali Zargham

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal injury can establish severe psychological outcomes for the patient and his/her family which requires high adjustment. Health system staff would be able to play their roles well in caring these patients provided with knowing what steps spinal injured people should pass to handle their disability and also what assistance they need in what stages from what sources. This study aimed to explain the process of confrontation with disability in spinal cord injured patients. METHODS: This was a qualitative study with grounded theory approach which was performed in Strauss and Corbin proposed method on twenty people with spinal cord injury who had past at least three months from their spinal injury. Sampling was done in purposive and theoretical method, and analysis of the results was also performed during constant comparative process. RESULTS: Central concept in the data was support which was associated with other concepts and affected them. The patients, with the help of internal and external support could overcome their main problem that was disability feeling and dependency on others and find a new definition for the self, and ultimately achieve the sense of independence and autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the process of confrontation with disability along with better understanding of spinal cord injured people would help health system staff to actualize and support their potentials much better through strengthening internal resources and providing appropriate supportive services of each individual. PMID:22069411

  2. Examining the benefits of learning based on an audience response system when confronting emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; García, Ana Belén Sánchez; Montesinos, María José López; Jiménez, Juan José López

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an empirical study on the effectiveness of the use of an audience response system called SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia on a nursing course. A total of 130 students of mixed gender, age, and computer experience and educational background on a third-year course in nursing administration and management participated in the study. The benefits of an audience response system as regards learning how to confront emergency situations were studied. The innovative aspect of the proposal is twofold: (1) the use of a smartphone to respond to the questions and (2) the analysis of the students' response time when confronting critical situations while managing nursing resources. A positive impact on the students' performance was revealed in their final assessments. Our findings show that SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia increases student participation and aids in identifying and correcting misconceptions. The students found SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia to be very motivating and wanted it to be used in additional lectures. Further research is required to study the effectiveness of SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia for it to be widely used in other disciplines.

  3. Antifungal activity change of Streptomyces rimosus MY02 mediated by confront culture with other microorganism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jicheng; Liu, Qiu; Chen, Chao; Qi, Xiaohui

    2017-03-01

    Streptomyces rimosus can produce antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics, which have important applications in medicine and agriculture. Seventy-nine microbial strains were employed to assay interaction between S. rimosus MY02 and different fungi, actinomyces, and bacteria when confront cultured on solid media. The results showed that the presence of a microorganism might affect the activity of another one. When S. rimosus MY02 confront cultured with other microorganisms, the inductive effect might be positive or negative. In this study, fungi showed to be effective elicitors, with a highest inductivity rate of 90.1%, and all of fungi showed positive induction behavior. Followed by bacteria with 59.6% of the tested bacterial strains showing positive inductivity, and the highest inductivity was 54.9%. Only six actinomyces (counting for 40% of the tested actinomyces strains) showed positive inductivity, and the highest induction rate of the strain NK413 was 34.1%. We also found that growth of most of bacteria or actinomyces which showed negative inductivity were similar or better than that of the strain MY02. However, the growth status of the strains was not positive related to inducing ability directly.

  4. Rapid changes in cellular immunity following a confrontational role-play stressor.

    PubMed

    Naliboff, B D; Solomon, G F; Gilmore, S L; Fahey, J L; Benton, D; Pine, J

    1995-09-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown several immune system changes consistently associated with brief stress including increases in circulating natural killer (NK) cell numbers, increases in NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC), increases in suppressor cytotoxic (CD8) T cell numbers, and decreases in the in vitro proliferative response to mitogen stimulation. In the present study, we use a confrontational role-play, which brings out responses varying from assertion to capitulation and examine the psychological, behavioral, physiological, and immune system responses to this task compared to a resting control task. Compared to the control condition, the brief confrontational role-play led to significant subjective and physiological arousal and increases in circulating NK (CD16, CD56) as well as large granular lymphocyte (CD57) cells and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD8). There were also significant relationships between stress-related increases in the cardiovascular measures and the numbers of circulating NK cells. These findings support sympathetic nervous system activation as a primary mechanism for increases in NK cell numbers under challenge. These role-play results are generally consistent with those from other laboratory tasks such as mental arithmetic. However, in contrast to previously examined brief stressors, the role-play led to decreased NKCC adjusted for percentage of NK cells. This apparent differential change in NK cytotoxicity across different types of activating experimental tasks points to the importance of examining dimensions of the behavioral and emotional response to challenge or threat in addition to that of autonomic arousal.

  5. Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

  6. An Inquiry into Teacher Concerns in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yih-fen; Reeves, Carolyn

    This study identified concerns of teachers in Taiwan and contrasted concerns of these teachers with the 56 concerns which comprise the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC), Form B, developed in the United States. A total of 294 teachers (155 preservice teachers and 139 inservice teachers) completed a Chinese version of the Survey of Teacher Concerns.…

  7. [Meaning of family confrontation for nurses of intensive care units for adult people - Medellín 2013].

    PubMed

    Montoya Tamayo, D P; Monsalve Ospina, T P; Forero Pulido, C

    2015-01-01

    To comprehend the meaning nurses give to family confrontation, from their experiences while patients are in adult intensive care units in Medellin 2013. A qualitative research study was carried out using a phenomenological approach and theoretical convenience sampling of subjects was used. Interviews with open questions were conducted with nurses that worked in different intensive care units in the city of Medellin, with more than one year of experience in these units. The information was coded and categorised to perform the analysis, and some concept maps were created for the final report. This study showed that nurses focus their care on the critical patient and not on the patient's family. They considered that there is family confrontation when its members comprehend the processes that are carried out in the intensive care unit, and can contribute to the patient's care, while if families do not have confrontations, it is because they do not understand the process, or feel desperate or are absent. The interventions that nurses consider must be done to help in the family confrontation are: information, interdisciplinary support, visits, and companionship. For the nurses, family confrontation means that family members understand, comprehend, accept, know, bear and go on with the situation; therefore, they can make good decisions regarding the patient's care in the adult intensive care units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Customer concerns regarding satellite servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The organization of orbital servicing of satellites is discussed. Provision of servicing equipment; design interfaces between the satellite and the servicing equipment; and the economic viability of the concept are discussed. The proposed solution for satisfying customer concerns is for the servicing organizations to baseline an adequate inventory of servicing equipment with standard interfaces and established servicing costs. With this knowledge, the customer can conduct tradeoff studies and make programmatic decisions regarding servicing options. A dialog procedure between customers and servicing specialists is outlined.

  9. Customer concerns regarding satellite servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The organization of orbital servicing of satellites is discussed. Provision of servicing equipment; design interfaces between the satellite and the servicing equipment; and the economic viability of the concept are discussed. The proposed solution for satisfying customer concerns is for the servicing organizations to baseline an adequate inventory of servicing equipment with standard interfaces and established servicing costs. With this knowledge, the customer can conduct tradeoff studies and make programmatic decisions regarding servicing options. A dialog procedure between customers and servicing specialists is outlined.

  10. Io. [theories concerning volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the continuing investigation of Io is presented. Gravitational resonance is discussed as the cause of Io's volcanism, and the volcanic activity is explained in terms of sulfur chemistry. Theories concerning the reasons for the two main types of volcanic eruptions on Io are advanced and correlated with geographical features of the satellite. The sulfur and silicate models of the calderas are presented, citing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Problems of the gravitational resonance theory of Io's heat source are then described. Finally, observations of Io planned for the Galileo mission are summarized.

  11. Employers' concerns regarding research participation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alicia M; Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime R; Venditti, Pat; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2008-01-01

    Occupational health research depends on the cooperation and participation of employers. The authors describe employers' reasons for non-participation in a prospective study examining risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and the usefulness of preplacement, post-offer nerve conduction screening. Companies were contacted to solicit participation. Non-participation explanations were reviewed. Of 73 eligible employers, 58 declined participation (participation rate: 20.5%). Reasons for non-participation included lack of interest (32.8%), liability concerns (awareness of CTS may increase workers' compensation claims) (22.4%), time constraints (19%), lack of direct benefit to the employer (8.6%), and company policy restraints (6.9%). Data from one employer were reviewed to determine whether workers' compensation claims for upper extremity disorders increased as a result of study participation. Claim rates showed no change in trend pre- and post-study inception. Expanding much-needed research to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses requires addressing employers' concerns and promoting research benefits.

  12. Zika virus: Future reproductive concerns.

    PubMed

    Novak, Christopher M; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Burd, Irina

    2017-02-01

    The pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family, has become a major public health concern. Reproductive specialists are particularly concerned over the spread of ZIKV as it is now known to have both sexual and transplacental routes of transmission resulting in fetal congenital abnormalities. Other members of the Flaviviridae family, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (which primarily affects cattle), are well known to reproductive specialists as both sexually transmitted illnesses that are capable of vertical transmission. Congenital infection with BVDV also has a predilection for neuro-teratogenicity as has been seen with ZIKV. HCV and BVDV are also known to be capable of persistent infection in offspring. Could this be the case with ZIKV? Examining what we know about HCV and BVDV, in addition to what we have already learned about ZIKV, may answer some of the questions that remain about ZIKV. Herein, we review the current literature as it pertains to ZIKV vertical transmission and neuro-teratogenicity and compare it to what is known about HCV and BVDV.

  13. Appearance concerns in ophthalmic patients

    PubMed Central

    James, H; Jenkinson, E; Harrad, R; Ezra, D G; Newman, S

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to determine the psychosocial and appearance-related concerns of a sample of ophthalmic patients by measuring a range of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Methods Standardized psychological measures including anxiety, depression, appearance-related distress, self-discrepancy, appearance salience and valence were administered to 98 participants attending ophthalmic outpatient clinics in either London, Bristol, Sheffield or Bradford. Differences between groups were explored using t-tests and ANOVA, relationships between all variables were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Although mean scores for psychological adjustment were within the normal range, some participants were experiencing considerable levels of generalized anxiety. Being older, male, and married or living with a partner was related to significantly better adjustment. Better adjustment was also related to a less visible area of concern, greater disguisability of the affected area, a more positive evaluation of their own appearance, less engagement in comparing themselves with others, greater feelings of being accepted by others, appearance being less important to their self-concept, and a smaller discrepancy between the persons ideal and actual appearance. Conclusions A majority of ophthalmic patients adjust positively to the demands placed on them. By identifying the variables that are associated with successful adaptation, the specific psychological interventions and appropriate systems of support can be put in place to help those who are adversely affected. PMID:21597486

  14. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  15. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  16. UNITY: Confronting Supernova Cosmology's Statistical and Systematic Uncertainties in a Unified Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Boone, K.; Chappell, G.; Currie, M.; Deustua, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Fruchter, A.; Hayden, B.; Lidman, C.; Nordin, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Saunders, C.; Sofiatti, C.; Supernova Cosmology Project, The

    2015-11-01

    While recent supernova (SN) cosmology research has benefited from improved measurements, current analysis approaches are not statistically optimal and will prove insufficient for future surveys. This paper discusses the limitations of current SN cosmological analyses in treating outliers, selection effects, shape- and color-standardization relations, unexplained dispersion, and heterogeneous observations. We present a new Bayesian framework, called UNITY (Unified Nonlinear Inference for Type-Ia cosmologY), that incorporates significant improvements in our ability to confront these effects. We apply the framework to real SN observations and demonstrate smaller statistical and systematic uncertainties. We verify earlier results that SNe Ia require nonlinear shape and color standardizations, but we now include these nonlinear relations in a statistically well-justified way. This analysis was primarily performed blinded, in that the basic framework was first validated on simulated data before transitioning to real data. We also discuss possible extensions of the method.

  17. The Arab Spring: confronting the challenge of non-communicable disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bayard; Patel, Preeti; Dahab, Maysoon; McKee, Martin

    2013-05-01

    This Commentary considers the health system and policy challenges of addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia, countries in the process of re-framing state policies and institutions, including in the health sector. Against this backdrop, a neglected issue of the rapidly rising burden of NCDs threatens both health and economic development. Tackling this worrisome rise in NCDs has been impeded by inadequate policies. Weak health systems, little attention to determinants of health, and limited access to affordable health care complicate effective responses to NCDs, especially in a fragile transitional phase. There remains an opportunity to confront the neglected challenge of NCDs by substantially strengthening policies and scaling up comprehensive health systems to more effectively address the causes and treatment of NCDs, including mental health, ultimately to improve population health overall.

  18. Memory for names test provides a useful confrontational naming task for aging and continuum of dementia.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Robert M; Martin, Corby K; Correa, John B; Davis, Allison B; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Foil, Heather C; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1-2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

  19. Screening for invasion of the individual human brain tumour in an autologous confrontation system in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, L

    1999-01-01

    Invasiveness is the major cause of death in patients bearing a brain tumour. The invasiveness or infiltrative capacity of a primary brain tumour has a prognostic value for the evaluation of the process in vivo. So a model to imitate invasion might give information on the in vivo behaviour and outcome of the disease for the individual patient. The developed in vitro model represents an assay in which the patients' brain tumour-derived cells are confronted with connective tissue from the patient himself, i.e. an autologous system to evaluate the individual behaviour of the tumour, in contrast to other invasion models. The test can be applied with tumour-derived material collected by a stereotactic biopsy.

  20. Cooperation not confrontation: the imperative of a nuclear age. The message from Budapest.

    PubMed

    Lown, B; Chazov, E

    1985-08-02

    Reprinted here is the text of a speech to the Fifth Congress of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), delivered in Budapest on 29 June 1985 by the group's co-founders, Dr. Bernard Lown from the United States and Dr. Eugene Chazov from the U.S.S.R. After reminding the delegates that 1985 marked the 40th anniversary of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the founding of the United Nations, the two physicians review the work of the IPPNW in alerting the world to the dangers of nuclear warfare. They warn that the chances of nuclear confrontation have increased, and urge their colleagues to foster cooperation between East and West. Lown and Chazov identify nuclear war as the greatest public health threat of all, and call for a moratorium on all nuclear explosions.

  1. The Continuous Confrontation of Caregiving as Described in Real-Time Online Group Chat.

    PubMed

    Male, Dana A; Fergus, Karen D; Stephen, Joanne E

    2015-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the caregiver experience has been informed primarily by guided inquiry in the form of interviews and surveys, yielding information that is limited by the scope of researchers questions. The intent of this study was to explore the experience of caring for a loved one with advanced-stage cancer by means of participant-determined communication, using interactive, text-based transcripts from synchronous online support groups. Grounded theory analysis of the group transcripts yielded the core category continuous confrontation, characterized by major challenges (unrelenting assault, a new us, and the costs of caregiving) and minor triumphs (refuelling and living more intentionally). This unique method of data collection allowed for an especially candid, intersubjective group account of what it is to be a caregiver for an ill loved one without compromising the details that caregivers themselves consider important.

  2. Antibody persistence and T-cell balance: Two key factors confronting HIV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, George K.; DeVico, Anthony L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for a prophylactic AIDS vaccine is ongoing, but it is now clear that the successful vaccine must elicit protective antibody responses. Accordingly, intense efforts are underway to identify immunogens that elicit these responses. Regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection, be it neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, antibody persistence and appropriate T-cell help are significant problems confronting the development of a successful AIDS vaccine. Here, we discuss the evidence illustrating the poor persistence of antibody responses to Env, the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, and the related problem of CD4+ T-cell responses that compromise vaccine efficacy by creating excess cellular targets of HIV-1 infection. Finally, we propose solutions to both problems that are applicable to all Env-based AIDS vaccines regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection. PMID:25349379

  3. Memory for Names Test Provides a Useful Confrontational Naming Task for Aging and Continuum of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Robert M.; Martin, Corby K.; Correa, John B.; Davis, Allison B.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Foil, Heather C.; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1–2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21304184

  4. Trauma from occlusion. Restorative concerns.

    PubMed

    Neff, P

    1995-04-01

    Trauma from occlusion and restorative concerns may affect the tooth itself, the supporting structures inside and around the tooth's immediate structures, and the total articulating system, which includes the neuromuscular system, the temporomandibular joints, and other systems such as the impairment of hearing or vision and many other peripheral conditions. A thorough examination and a differential diagnosis procedure is essential to restore the health of the articulating system and reverse peripheral condition. This includes the ability to restore the individual tooth in its best anatomic position as a complement to the articulating system using all individual disciplines of dentistry in the finest abilities of treatment and the ability to share and distinguish the possible parafunctional habits and the need for behavioral understanding, support, and management to limit or lessen the wear and destruction of the individual tissues and to restore a healthier physical support.

  5. HEPA filter concerns - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.F.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.

  6. Concerns About STEM Education Restructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    Several education experts told Eos that they generally favored some improvements in U.S. federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, but they also expressed concern about the Obama administration's proposed STEM reorganization plan as it affects the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). John Farrington, chair of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) panel that issued a review of the NOAA education program in 2010, told Eos that he is confident that a considerable amount of thought went into this proposal to consolidate the K-12 STEM efforts, that consolidation could make for greater efficiencies, and that a positive aspect of having the Department of Education (ED) as a lead is that STEM education should not be considered as separate from the education of the student as a whole.

  7. Undergraduate Course on Global Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, G. A.; Weidner, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    GEO 311: Geoscience and Global Concerns is an undergraduate course taught at Stony Brook University during each fall semester. The class meets twice per week, with one session consisting of a lecture and the other, an interactive activity in a computer laboratory that engages the students in exploring real world problems. A specific concern or issue serves as a focus during each session. The students are asked to develop answers to a series of questions that engage them in identifying causes of the problem, connections with the Earth system, relationships to other problems, and possible solutions on both a global and local scale. The questions are designed to facilitate an integrated view of the Earth system. Examples of topics that the students explore during the laboratory sessions are: 1) fossil fuel reserves and consumption rates and the effect of their use on climate, 2) alternative sources of energy and associated technologies, such as solar photovoltaics, nuclear energy, tidal power, geothermal energy, and wind power, 3) effects of tsunamis and earthquakes on human populations and infrastructure, 4) climate change, and 5) hurricanes and storms. The selection and scheduling of topics often takes advantage of the occurrence of media attention or events that can serve as case studies. Tools used during the computer sessions include Google Earth, ArcGIS, spreadsheets, and web sites that offer data and maps. The students use Google Earth or ArcGIS to map events such as earthquakes, storms, tsunamis, and changes in the extent of polar ice. Spreadsheets are employed to discern trends in fossil fuel supply and consumption, and to experiment with models that make predictions for the future. We present examples of several of these activities and discuss how they facilitate an understanding of interrelationships within the Earth system.

  8. "Not a nice experience, not at all": Underprivileged women's experiences of being confronted with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Maree, Johanna E; Langley, Gayle; Nqubezelo, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    Research on women's experiences of cervical cancer as a health problem focuses primarily on cervical screening, while their experiences of cervical cancer as a disease seem to be underresearched. This study addresses this understudied area and aims to yield insight into the experiences of underprivileged women confronted with this disease. Our study was qualitative, exploratory, and contextual with descriptive and interpretive elements. The context of the study was a radiation oncology department at an academic hospital in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The target population was all patients diagnosed with cervical cancer referred for treatment at the specific hospital. Convenience sampling selected participants typical of the population. Nineteen open-ended unstructured interviews were conducted after demographic data were collected. One question was posed: "Please tell me what made you think there was something wrong with you?" Thematic analyses were used to analyze the data. The average age of participants was 47.2 years, with a youngest participant of 29 and oldest of 70. Three themes arose from the data: experiencing the symptoms of cervical cancer, hearing the bad news, and what remained unsaid. Being confronted with cervical cancer is a traumatic experience. Women suffer unexplained, severe, humiliating vaginal bleeding and unrelieved pain. They have to face a dual healthcare system: on the one hand, unaffordable effective private healthcare and, on the other, the free-of-cost public healthcare that failed them. The bad news of their cervical cancer is most commonly broken in a kind and sympathetic manner, yet misunderstandings and a need for additional information prevail after the bad news conversation. Having to inform their families of their cancer adds to their suffering.

  9. Confrontation of the cybernetic definition of a living individual with the real world.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The cybernetic definition of a living individual proposed previously (Korzeniewski, 2001) is very abstract and therefore describes the essence of life in a very formal and general way. In the present article this definition is reformulated in order to determine clearly the relation between life in general and a living individual in particular, and it is further explained and defended. Next, the cybernetic definition of a living individual is confronted with the real world. It is demonstrated that numerous restrictions imposed on the cybernetic definition of life by physical reality imply a number of particular properties of life that characterize present life on Earth, namely: (1) a living individual must be a dissipative structure (and therefore a low-entropy thermodynamic system out of the state of equilibrium); (2) spontaneously-originated life must be based on organic compounds; (3) evolutionarily stable self-dependent, free-living individuals must have some minimal level of complexity of structure and function; (4) a living individual must have a record of identity separated from an executive machinery; (5) the identity of living individuals must mutate and may evolve; (6) living individuals may collect and accumulate information in subsequent generations over very long periods of time; (7) the degree of complexity of a living individual reflects the degree of complexity of its environment (ecological niche) and (8) living individuals are capable of supple adaptation to varying environmental conditions. Thus, the cybernetic definition of a living individual, when confronted with the real physical world, generates most of the general properties of the present life on Earth.

  10. Confronting patients about insufficient effort: the impact on subsequent symptom validity and memory performance.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Yana; Chelune, Gordon; Franchow, Emilie I; Thorgusen, Sommer R

    2012-01-01

    Symptom validity tests (SVTs) are commonly used to assess effort in neuropsychological evaluations. However, no empirical research or official guidelines exist about how clinicians should proceed if a patient produces a non-valid SVT result. The purpose of this study was to examine whether confronting patients immediately after scoring in a non-valid range on a SVT would have an impact on subsequent symptom validity and memory tests performance. Archival patient data for 507 adults with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) (ages 18-76) were examined. All patients completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd edition (WMS III), and the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI II). Although the majority (89%) of patients produced valid VSVT scores (the Valid group), 56 patients produced non-valid VSVT scores. Due to a change in clinical procedure, 28 of the 56 were confronted regarding their non-valid VSVT performances and were asked to complete the test a second time (the CONF group), while the remaining 28 proceeded with testing as usual following a non-valid score (the N-CONF group). Results showed that 68% of the CONF group produced valid VSVT scores on re-administration, as well as memory performances that were comparable to those of the Valid group. In contrast the N-CONF group produced memory scores that were significantly below the Valid group. This is the first study to provide empirical support for the effectiveness of intervention when patients exhibit inadequate effort on SVTs in clinical, non-forensic settings.

  11. Introduction to a special section on ecohydrology of semiarid environments: Confronting mathematical models with ecosystem complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoray, Tal; Assouline, Shmuel; Katul, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Current literature provides large number of publications about ecohydrological processes and their effect on the biota in drylands. Given the limited laboratory and field experiments in such systems, many of these publications are based on mathematical models of varying complexity. The underlying implicit assumption is that the data set used to evaluate these models covers the parameter space of conditions that characterize drylands and that the models represent the actual processes with acceptable certainty. However, a question raised is to what extent these mathematical models are valid when confronted with observed ecosystem complexity? This Introduction reviews the 16 papers that comprise the Special Section on Eco-hydrology of Semiarid Environments: Confronting Mathematical Models with Ecosystem Complexity. The subjects studied in these papers include rainfall regime, infiltration and preferential flow, evaporation and evapotranspiration, annual net primary production, dispersal and invasion, and vegetation greening. The findings in the papers published in this Special Section show that innovative mathematical modeling approaches can represent actual field measurements. Hence, there are strong grounds for suggesting that mathematical models can contribute to greater understanding of ecosystem complexity through characterization of space-time dynamics of biomass and water storage as well as their multiscale interactions. However, the generality of the models and their low-dimensional representation of many processes may also be a "curse" that results in failures when particulars of an ecosystem are required. It is envisaged that the search for a unifying "general" model, while seductive, may remain elusive in the foreseeable future. It is for this reason that improving the merger between experiments and models of various degrees of complexity continues to shape the future research agenda.

  12. Active defense scheme against DDoS based on mobile agent and network control in network confrontation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Rong; Li, Junshan; Ye, Xia; Wang, Rui

    2013-03-01

    In order to effective defend DDoS attacks in network confrontation, an active defense scheme against DDoS is built based on Mobile Agent and network control. A distributed collaborative active defense model is constructed by using mobile agent technology and encapsulating a variety of DDoS defense techniques. Meanwhile the network control theory is applied to establish a network confrontation's control model for DDoS to control the active defense process. It provides a new idea to solve the DDoS problem.

  13. Future Directions for EC Education: 10 Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Colin

    2009-01-01

    What are the problems that early childhood educators are trying to answer? In this article, the author presents his ten concerns for early childhood teacher education: (1) A concern about policymakers' pottery wheels; (2) A concern about "white shoe" education evangelists; (3) A concern that increasing control may cripple autonomy and…

  14. Future Directions for EC Education: 10 Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Colin

    2009-01-01

    What are the problems that early childhood educators are trying to answer? In this article, the author presents his ten concerns for early childhood teacher education: (1) A concern about policymakers' pottery wheels; (2) A concern about "white shoe" education evangelists; (3) A concern that increasing control may cripple autonomy and…

  15. Nanoparticles: Is Toxicity a Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pragna

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology involving manipulation of atoms and molecules at the nanoscale is one of the frontier areas of research in modern science. During the last few years, nanotechnology has witnessed breakthroughs in the fields of medicine, environment, therapeutics, drug development and biotechnology. This is due to the unique properties of nanomaterials (e.g. chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic, and biological) which make them desirable for commercial and medical applications. Considering the theory and practice of using nanoparticles, nanotechnology has a great potential in improving treatment of various disorders and in vitro diagnostics. However, there is not much information available on the toxicity of nanoparticles in relation to human health. Toxic effect of nanomaterials on humans is the primary concern of the health industry. Nanomaterials are able to cross biological membranes and access cells, tissues and organs that larger-sized particles normally cannot. Nanomaterials can gain access to the blood stream via inhalation or ingestion. This may lead to both genotoxicity and biochemical toxicity. In this review we try to show which types, sizes and concentrations of nanoparticles are safe for human use and this will help in developing diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic models using nanoparticles. PMID:27683397

  16. Myths Concerning Alpine Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert J.; Ettlinger, Carl F.; Shealy, Jasper E.

    2009-01-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children’s equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions. PMID:23015911

  17. Cholera: a great global concern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.

  18. Myths concerning alpine skiing injuries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert J; Ettlinger, Carl F; Shealy, Jasper E

    2009-11-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children's equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions.

  19. Business Education Students' Evaluation of the Benefits and Challenges Confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme in Edo and Delta States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumese, H. A.; Ediagbonya, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This research paper specifically investigated Business Education students' evaluation of the benefits and challenges confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) in Edo and Delta States. Two research questions were raised to guide the study and were answered descriptively. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for…

  20. The Effects of Value Confrontation and Reinforcement Counseling on the Career Planning Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Post-tests show that the value confrontation procedure resulted in significantly greater frequency of information seeking for internally controlled subjects when compared to the reinforcement counseling and control procedures. Examines two procedures designed to enhance the career planning attitudes and behavior of rural adolescent males.…

  1. Who Gets Blamed for Intimate Partner Violence? The Relative Contributions of Perpetrator Sex Category, Victim Confrontation, and Observer Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cindy; Moore, Todd; Crone, Travis; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Rhatigan, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of perpetrator sex category, victim confrontation, observer sex category, and observer attitudes on attributions of blame and behavioral stability for partner violence. Data were collected from 728 college-aged students enrolled at 2 universities in the United States. Results demonstrated that males and…

  2. A C2 System for ’Winning hearts and Minds’: Tools for Confrontation and Collaboration Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    article in September 2004 (Greg Jaffe, “On Ground in Iraq, Capt. Ayers writes his own playbook”, WSJ , September 22 2004). To the average newspaper...East Illustration.’ CCRTS Symposium, 2002. 7. Baan A, Howard N, Tait A, ‘ “ COM as Shooter" - Operational Planning using C2 for Confronting and

  3. The Guiding Effects of a Critical Reading Program on the Use of External Reading Strategies When Confronting an Ironical Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabay, Aysegul

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a sample of 60 pre-service teachers to examine the guiding effects of understanding critical reading theories on using external reading strategies such as note-taking and underlining when confronting an ironical literary text. The study broke down the teachers into one control group of 30 teachers and one experimental group of…

  4. Cell phones and health concerns: impact of knowledge and voluntary precautionary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The article explores how voluntary precautionary recommendations for cell phone usage influence people's health concerns and behavior. An experimental study using a sample of Swiss citizens (N=408) was conducted. Three different versions of a newly developed booklet, which focused on common misconceptions in regard to mobile communication, and an existing booklet were tested. The experimental design addressed questions of the potential effects of knowledge, precautionary recommendations, and sender identity on health concerns and transfer of the proposed recommendations. Participants' perceptions were measured three times: immediately before and after reading the booklet, and two weeks later. The reading of the booklets increased participants' knowledge considerably and led to perceptual changes. In regard to cell phones, health concerns increased after the reading and stayed at a higher level even after two weeks. The negative perception of base stations, in contrast, tended to decrease. Neither the identity of the sender nor the omission of precautionary recommendations had significant effects on health concerns. Provision of specific recommendations enhanced readers' behavioral changes. Confrontation with information per se, and not precautionary recommendations, influenced the public's health concerns. These changes should not prevent the provision of precautionary recommendations because, in the face of scientific uncertainty, these are the only means through which to enable users to make informed decisions.

  5. Raising Black Children. Two Leading Psychiatrists Confront the Educational, Social, and Emotional Problems Facing Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.; Poussaint, Alvin F.

    This book responds to nearly 1,000 commonly asked questions concerning a child's development from infancy to adolescence, as it applies to black children. Common parental concerns are discussed from sibling rivalry to setting a curfew, as well as advice for parents and teachers who must foster healthy self-esteem in black children living within a…

  6. Confronting the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge of Finnish Net Generation Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Pontinen, Susanna; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti; Hacklin, Stina

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner…

  7. Non-anthropocentric Reasoning in Children: Its incidence when they are confronted with ecological dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, António; Vasconcelos, Clara Maria; Strecht-Ribeiro, Orlando; Torres, Joana

    2013-01-01

    This study used an individual structured interview to (1) verify the incidence of non-anthropocentric reasoning in 123 children attending the 3rd and 4th years in three primary schools in the Lisbon area (Portugal), when they are confronted with ecological dilemmas and (2) establish those places they frequented which permit animal contact. The results show a greater incidence of non-anthropocentric reasoning than that obtained in other international studies. This may be related to the focus of the questions asked, which invited children to imagine themselves as another animal or to present situations where human interaction is unfair. This incidence was found independently of gender, school origin and whether or not pets were owned, even with the more biologically complex animals. School year was the only variable proven to make a difference in conceptually more demanding questions. We also verified that the children's general past experience of nature is essentially aligned to 'controlled environments depending on ongoing human management', confirming a decline in direct contact with 'natural and semi-natural environments'. However, this type of experience does not seem to exert a negative influence on their non-anthropocentric reasoning.

  8. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    PubMed

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank.

  9. Activity confrontation methods: A reflexive and metacognitive approach for interprofessional collaboration training.

    PubMed

    Aiguier, Gregory; Oboeuf, Alexandre; Cobbaut, Jean-Philippe; Vanpee, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Integration of interprofessional collaboration into healthcare education and training programmes has become a fundamental issue. Its objective is to learn how to collectively build collaborative care practice that addresses the uniqueness of each context and the specific situation of the patient. It is also about understanding the process of collectively building collaborative care practice in order to be able to apply it in different contexts. This article describes a study that aimed to examine the value of relying on activity confrontation methods to develop training. These methods consist of filming practitioners during an activity and encouraging them to analyse it. It was found that these methods encourage reflexive analysis of the motives for pursuing interprofessional action (identifying constitutive factors) but also a metacognitive approach on the conditions of learning (p < 0.01). In addition to the educational dimensions (methods and leadership positions) and organisational dimensions (frameworks), it was found that the patient's role is essential in developing interprofessional care practice and training (p < 0.01). Given the nature of these findings, this article goes on to suggest that the patient must be considered a "partner" in development and delivery of interprofessional learning and care.

  10. Tameness and stress physiology in a predator-naive island species confronted with novel predation threat.

    PubMed

    Rödl, Thomas; Berger, Silke; Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2007-02-22

    Tame behaviour, i.e. low wariness, in terrestrial island species is often attributed to low predation pressure. However, we know little about its physiological control and its flexibility in the face of predator introductions. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galapagos Islands are a good model to study the physiological correlates of low wariness. They have lived virtually without predation for 5-15 Myr until some populations were first confronted with feral cats and dogs some 150 years ago. We tested whether and to what extent marine iguanas can adjust their behaviour and endocrine stress response to novel predation threats. Here, we show that a corticosterone stress response to experimental chasing is absent in naive animals, but is quickly restored with experience. Initially, low wariness also increases with experience, but remains an order of magnitude too low to allow successful escape from introduced predators. Our data suggest that the ability of marine iguanas to cope with predator introductions is limited by narrow reaction norms for behavioural wariness rather than by constraints in the underlying physiological stress system. In general, we predict that island endemics show flexible physiological stress responses but are restricted by narrow behavioural plasticity.

  11. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Basilakos, Spyros; Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan E-mail: fbauerphysik@eml.cc

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class (F{sup n}{sub m}) of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F{sup n}{sub m} found by this method with the standard or concordance ΛCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model.

  12. Confrontation Between a Quantized Periods of Some Exo-planetary Systems and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Morcos, Abd

    2012-07-01

    Confrontation Between a Quantized Periods of Some Exo-planetary Systems and Observations A.B. Morcos Corot and Kepler were designed to detect Earth-like extra solar planets. The orbital elements and periods of these planets will contain some uncertainties. Many theoretical treatments depend on the idea of quantization were done aiming to find orbital elements of these exoplenets. In the present work, as an extension of previous works, the periods of some extoplanetary systems are calculated by using a simple derived formula. The orbital velocities of some of them are predicted . A comparison between the calculated and observed data is done References 1-J.M. Barnothy , the stability of the Solar System and of small Stellar Systems . (Y.Kazai edn,IAU,1974). 2-L.Nottale,Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics,Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity,( World Scientific, London,1994). 3-L. Nottale, A&A Lett. 315, L9 (1996). 4-L. Nottale, G. Schumacher and J. Gay, A&A , 322, 1018 , (1997). 5-L. Nottale, A&A , 361, 379 (2000). 6-A.G. Agnese and R.Festa, arXiv:astro-ph/9807186v1, (1998). 7-A.G. Agnese and R.Festa, arXiv:astro-ph/9910534v2. (1999). 8- A.B.Morcos, MG 12 , France (2009). 9- A.B.Morcs, Cospar 38 , Bremen , Germany (2010)

  13. [Confrontation of knowledge on alcohol concentration in blood and in exhaled air].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jiřina; Šikuta, Ján; Šidlo, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper give a brief historical overview of the development of experimental alcohology in the former Czechoslovakia. Enhanced attention is paid to tests of work quality control of toxicological laboratories. Information on results of control tests of blood samples using the method of gas chromatography in Slovakia and within a world-wide study "Eurotox 1990" is presented. There are pointed out the pitfalls related to objective evaluation of the analysis results interpreting alcohol concentration in biological materials and the associated need to eliminate a negative influence of the human factor. The authors recommend performing analyses of alcohol in biological materials only at accredited workplaces and in the case of samples storage to secure a mandatory inhibition of phosphorylation process. There are analysed the reasons of numerical differences of analyses while taking evidence of alcohol in blood and in exhaled air. The authors confirm analysis accuracy using the method of gas chromatography along with breath analysers of exhaled air. They highlight the need for making the analysis results more objective also through confrontation with the results of clinical examination and with examined circumstances. The authors suggest a method of elimination of the human factor, the most frequently responsible for inaccuracy, to a tolerable level (safety factor) and the need of sample analysis by two methods independent of each other or the need of analysis of two biological materials.

  14. Tameness and stress physiology in a predator-naive island species confronted with novel predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Rödl, Thomas; Berger, Silke; Michael Romero, L; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Tame behaviour, i.e. low wariness, in terrestrial island species is often attributed to low predation pressure. However, we know little about its physiological control and its flexibility in the face of predator introductions. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands are a good model to study the physiological correlates of low wariness. They have lived virtually without predation for 5–15 Myr until some populations were first confronted with feral cats and dogs some 150 years ago. We tested whether and to what extent marine iguanas can adjust their behaviour and endocrine stress response to novel predation threats. Here, we show that a corticosterone stress response to experimental chasing is absent in naive animals, but is quickly restored with experience. Initially, low wariness also increases with experience, but remains an order of magnitude too low to allow successful escape from introduced predators. Our data suggest that the ability of marine iguanas to cope with predator introductions is limited by narrow reaction norms for behavioural wariness rather than by constraints in the underlying physiological stress system. In general, we predict that island endemics show flexible physiological stress responses but are restricted by narrow behavioural plasticity. PMID:17476779

  15. Confronting AeroCom models with particle size distribution data from surface in situ stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Stephen; Fiebig, Markus; Mann, Graham; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The size distribution is the most important property for describing any interaction of an aerosol particle population with its surroundings. In first order, it determines both, the aerosol optical properties quantifying the direct aerosol climate effect, and the fraction of aerosol particles acting as cloud condensation nuclei quantifying the indirect aerosol climate effect. Aerosol schemes of modern climate models resolve the aerosol particle size distribution (APSD) explicitly. In improving the skill of climate models, it is therefore highly useful to confront these models with precision APSD data observed at surface stations. Corresponding previous work focussed on comparing size integrated, seasonal particle concentrations at selected sites with ensemble model averages to assess overall model skill. Building on this work, this project intends to refine the approach by comparing median particle size and integral concentration of fitted modal size distributions. It will also look at skill differences between models in order to find reasons for matches and discrepancies. The presentation will outline the project, and will elaborate on input requested from modelling groups to participate in the exercise.

  16. The threat at home: Confronting the toxic legacy of the U. S. Military

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental problems that confront the military--and the communities where military facilities are located--are as varied and diverse as the military itself. Past waste management and mismanagement practices have led to large-scale contamination of soil and groundwater with toxic or hazardous fuels, solvents, trace metals, pesticides, explosives, and propellants. Nuclear production facilities generate mixed wastes, which contain both radioactive and toxic contaminants. Test sites and proving grounds are known to contain a large number of unexploded munitions buried in the soil, and a number of arsenals and ammunition plants store chemical weapons agents, which are no longer needed, such as mustard gas and nerve agents. The book is divided into three parts--[open quotes]The Threat[close quotes], [open quotes]Secret Legacies[close quotes], and [open quotes]Facing the Future[close quotes]. Shulman devotes separate chapters to individual facilities and sites, describing the environmental degradation and damage that has occurred. Through interviews with private citizens, the author portrays the anger and suspicion that exist in surrounding communities. The author describes the frustration of Congressional committees as well as military and contract personnel involved in cleanup, who decry the lack of guidance from the Pentagon.

  17. Current challenges for confronting the public health problem of snakebite envenoming in Central America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a serious public health problem in Central America, where approximately 5,500 cases occur every year. Panama has the highest incidence and El Salvador the lowest. The majority, and most severe, cases are inflicted by the pit viper Bothrops asper (family Viperidae), locally known as ‘terciopelo’, ‘barba amarilla’ or ‘equis’. About 1% of the bites are caused by coral snakes of the genus Micrurus (family Elapidae). Despite significant and successful efforts in Central America regarding snakebite envenomings in the areas of research, antivenom manufacture and quality control, training of health professionals in the diagnosis and clinical management of bites, and prevention of snakebites, much remains to be done in order to further reduce the impact of this medical condition. This essay presents seven challenges for improving the confrontation of snakebite envenoming in Central America. Overcoming these challenges demands a coordinated partnership of highly diverse stakeholders though inter-sectorial and inter-programmatic interventions. PMID:24602234

  18. Evolution of oral and written confrontation naming errors in aphasia. A retrospective study on vascular patients.

    PubMed

    Basso, A; Corno, M; Marangolo, P

    1996-02-01

    Impaired naming is a common finding in aphasia but while it is known that naming errors diminish over time, longitudinal studies are rare. In this retrospective study, naming errors of 84 vascular aphasic patients are studied. Errors in oral and written confrontation naming tasks in two successive evaluations are tabulated and coded into one of 10 error types. No Response, Word-Finding Difficulty, Semantic Paraphasia, Unrelated Paraphasia, Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasia, Neologism, Paraphasic Jargon, Phonemic/Neologistic Jargon, Stereotypy, and Other. All analyses were carried out on the difference scores, that is, the score in the second examination minus the score in the first examination. Results indicate that there is a significant decrease of No Responses (in oral and written naming) and Neologisms (in oral naming), and a significant increase of Orthographic Paraphasias in written naming. Moreover, the difference score for Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasias was higher in written than oral naming. The difference scores for the other types of error were not statistically significant.

  19. Sex and Prevention Concerns for Positive People

    MedlinePlus

    ... with any comments or concerns. February 17, 2011 Sex and prevention concerns for positive people Facebook Twitter ... partner, and vice versa. The reality of safer sex You put yourself at risk for infections through ...

  20. Moral Judgment and Concern About Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on two studies relating moral development to concern about nuclear war and to antinuclear activism. Two Dutch samples tested the following hypothesis: the higher the level of moral judgment, the more concern there is about nuclear arms. (LHW)

  1. Modeling Environmental Concern: Theory and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    1993-01-01

    Human concern for the quality and protection of the natural environment forms the basis of successful environmental conservation activities. Considers environmental concern research and proposes a model that incorporates the multiple dimensions of research through which environmental concern may be evaluated. (MDH)

  2. Writing Centre Tutoring Sessions: Addressing Students' Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Roger; Kathpalia, Sujata S.; Koo, Swit Ling

    2016-01-01

    The guiding principle behind university writing centres is to focus on the process of writing rather than the finished product, prioritising higher order concerns related to organisation and argumentation of texts rather than lower order concerns of grammar and punctuation. Using survey-based data, this paper examines students' concerns regarding…

  3. Writing Centre Tutoring Sessions: Addressing Students' Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Roger; Kathpalia, Sujata S.; Koo, Swit Ling

    2016-01-01

    The guiding principle behind university writing centres is to focus on the process of writing rather than the finished product, prioritising higher order concerns related to organisation and argumentation of texts rather than lower order concerns of grammar and punctuation. Using survey-based data, this paper examines students' concerns regarding…

  4. 12 CFR 347.106 - Going concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Going concerns. 347.106 Section 347.106 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.106 Going concerns. Going concerns. If a bank acquires an equity interest in a...

  5. Concerns of Teachers About Educational Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Heller, Marvin

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study assessing affective needs of inservice teachers seeking a formal introduction to educational computing. Interpretation of participating teachers' questionnaire responses indicate teachers' concerns were most intense in the areas of awareness, information, and personal concerns. These concerns have implications for inservice…

  6. The Concerns of the Marketing Education Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Patrick J.

    This report describes a 2-year study designed to determine how various groups within the marketing education profession viewed important professional concerns. Issues addressed in the three primary research questions were: the nature of the concerns of the professional community; whether the concerns varied based on affiliation with marketing…

  7. Confronting structural violence in sex work: lessons from a community-led HIV prevention project in Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Argento, Elena; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Robert; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima, Mary; Sreeram, S V; Hafeezur, Rahman Syed; O'Neil, John

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from community-led HIV prevention projects suggests that structural interventions may result in reduced rates of HIV and STIs. The complex relationship between empowerment and confronting stigma, discrimination and physical abuse necessitates further investigation into the impact that such interventions have on the personal risks for sex workers. This article aims to describe lived experiences of members from a sex worker's collective in Mysore, India and how they have confronted structural violence. The narratives highlight experiences of violence and the development and implementation of strategies that have altered the social, physical, and emotional environment for sex workers. Building an enabling environment was key to reducing personal risks inherent to sex work, emphasizing the importance of community-led structural interventions for sex workers in India.

  8. [French data from the Continuing to Confront COPD (C2C) survey].

    PubMed

    Roche, N; Ajjouri, R; Compagnon, A; Van Der Molen, T; Mullerova, H

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the French data which contributed to the international "Continuing to Confront COPD" (C2C) survey conducted in 2013 across 12 countries. Its objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms and impact of COPD on health status, daily activities and working life in adults identified with the study definition as COPD; i.e., reporting a diagnosis of COPD, emphysema, chronic bronchitis (CB) or symptoms of CB either currently present or for which they had been treated in the past. Subjects 40 years or older were screened using random-digit-dialing and those fulfilling the study COPD definition were invited to complete the full survey. The proportion of respondents with COPD (according to study definition) in France was estimated at 7.5%. Among 300 respondents with COPD and complete questionnaire data, 48% were male, 44% aged over 70years, 45% were overweight and 72% had a smoking history. COPD had a severe or very severe impact (COPD assessment test score>20) on health for 43%. Dyspnea (mMRC ≥ 1) was reported by 70% and a limitation of at least 20% of daily activities by 65%. The mean number of exacerbations was 2/year and 16% had been admitted to hospital for respiratory problems during the past year. However, using direct questions, 80% subjects considered that they had mild to moderately severe disease and 78% reported an acceptable health status. The impact of COPD is markedly underestimated by respondents with COPD despite a high level of symptoms, poor health status and frequent exacerbations as assessed with validated measures. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy at the High School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high school students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based climate curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of climate literacy and develop into climate literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and Climate, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about climate and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and climate occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.

  10. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Paula Madeira; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Vasconcelos, Mailton; Ascoli, Bruna Maria; Menegolla, Ana Paula; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2017-01-01

    Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  11. Development of the Senior Concerns Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistilli, Matthew D.; Taub, Deborah J.; Bennett, Deborah E.

    2003-01-01

    Created and tested the Senior Concerns Survey. An exploratory factor analysis revealed four areas of concern for college seniors: career related concerns, change and loss related concerns, graduate/professional school related concerns, and support related concerns. (EV)

  12. Environmental risk perception, environmental concern and propensity to participate in organic farming programmes.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper aims to identify the factors underlying farmers' propensity to participate in organic farming programmes in a Romanian rural region that confronts non-point source pollution. For this, we employ structural equation modelling with latent variables using a specific data set collected through an agri-environmental farm survey in 2001. The model includes one 'behavioural intention' latent variable ('propensity to participate in organic farming programmes') and five 'attitude' and 'socio-economic' latent variables ('socio-demographic characteristics', 'economic characteristics', 'agri-environmental information access', 'environmental risk perception' and 'general environmental concern'). The results indicate that, overall, the model has an adequate fit to the data. All loadings are statistically significant, supporting the theoretical basis for assignment of indicators for each latent variable. The significance tests for the structural model parameters show 'environmental risk perception' as the strongest determinant of farmers' propensity to participate in organic farming programmes.

  13. Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Concerns for Cadmium Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking Concerns for Cadmium Replacement by Scott M. Grendahl ARL-TR-3099 December 2003...5069 ARL-TR-3099 December 2003 Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Concerns for Cadmium Replacement Scott M. Grendahl Weapons and...Concerns for Cadmium Replacement 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 181E31 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grendahl, S.M. (ARL) 5f

  14. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1989 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R., Ed.

    This book investigates a variety of contemporary issues, both domestic U.S. concerns and those of an international focus that involve the United States. The introduction develops the context of the book by discussing the Reagan legacy, the 101st Congress, the Supreme Court, and the making of the U.S. federal budget. The domestic policy issues of…

  15. "I Just Don't like that Kid": Confronting and Managing Personal Feelings about Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Sue

    2008-01-01

    All good teachers try hard to treat each child fairly and kindly, with care and concern. Indeed, they are ethically obliged to do so (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC], 2005). As they are human, however, they may occasionally meet a child to whom they react negatively. It is not something to be proud of, but they…

  16. Confronting Our Discomfort: Clearing the Way for Anti-Bias in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Tamar

    Despite having a genuine concern about racism and oppression, many early childhood teachers encounter significant feelings of discomfort as they try to implement antibias values in their classrooms. Based on the view that it is not possible to authentically teach children about acceptance without engaging in reflection upon one's own values and…

  17. Taking a Stand: Confronting the Costs and Benefits of Divestment. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neururer, Julie

    Nonmonetary costs of the divestiture from U.S. corporations that do business with South Africa are examined, based on four case studies of colleges. Hidden costs concern the realm of beliefs, values, and perceptions and include the costs to: community standards, public relations, corporate links, institutional identity, cohesion, social…

  18. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  19. "I'm Just Going to Buy That!": Confronting Consumerism in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Elizabeth; Steele, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    As educators at a faculty of education, the authors found that teacher candidates (TCs) invariably purchased new materials whenever they had an assignment requiring some form of construction activity. They were concerned about this learned, consumer behavior; lessons of moderation in using the Earth's resources are important elements of…

  20. Confronting Cyber-Bullying: What Schools Need to Know to Control Misconduct and Avoid Legal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shariff, Shaheen

    2009-01-01

    This book is directed to academics, educators, and government policy-makers who are concerned about addressing emerging cyber-bullying and anti-authority student expressions through the use of cell phone and Internet technologies. There is a current policy vacuum relating to the extent of educators' legal responsibilities to intervene when such…

  1. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1996 Edition [and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This book accompanied by the Teacher's guide, focuses on policy issues being discussed and debated by U.S. policymakers. The book provides essays on current issues facing the nation and the world. Ten chapters highlight domestic policy issues and 10 chapters are about foreign policy issues. This book informs readers about important concerns of…

  2. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  3. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1989 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R., Ed.

    This book investigates a variety of contemporary issues, both domestic U.S. concerns and those of an international focus that involve the United States. The introduction develops the context of the book by discussing the Reagan legacy, the 101st Congress, the Supreme Court, and the making of the U.S. federal budget. The domestic policy issues of…

  4. Higher Education's Revolving Door: Confronting the Problem of Student Drop out in US Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barefoot, Betsy O.

    2004-01-01

    The high rate of student dropout between the first and second year of college is a major concern for the majority of US colleges and universities. But dropout (or stop out) from higher education affects students in different ways, depending upon a number of factors. Although for the last 30 years, educational researchers have studied the dropout…

  5. Confronting Cyber-Bullying: What Schools Need to Know to Control Misconduct and Avoid Legal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shariff, Shaheen

    2009-01-01

    This book is directed to academics, educators, and government policy-makers who are concerned about addressing emerging cyber-bullying and anti-authority student expressions through the use of cell phone and Internet technologies. There is a current policy vacuum relating to the extent of educators' legal responsibilities to intervene when such…

  6. Confronting Dominant Whiteness in the Primary Classroom: Progressive Student Teachers' Dilemmas and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about new teachers' capacity to address diversity in their classrooms are growing in many parts of the West, and there is some consensus that one aspect of the problem is the narrow range of cultural and social backgrounds from which teacher candidates are drawn. Yet a minority of socially aware teachers, from all backgrounds, continue to…

  7. Current Issues: Critical Issues Confronting the Nation and the World. 1996 Edition [and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This book accompanied by the Teacher's guide, focuses on policy issues being discussed and debated by U.S. policymakers. The book provides essays on current issues facing the nation and the world. Ten chapters highlight domestic policy issues and 10 chapters are about foreign policy issues. This book informs readers about important concerns of…

  8. "I'm Just Going to Buy That!": Confronting Consumerism in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Elizabeth; Steele, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    As educators at a faculty of education, the authors found that teacher candidates (TCs) invariably purchased new materials whenever they had an assignment requiring some form of construction activity. They were concerned about this learned, consumer behavior; lessons of moderation in using the Earth's resources are important elements of…

  9. Confronting Dominant Whiteness in the Primary Classroom: Progressive Student Teachers' Dilemmas and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about new teachers' capacity to address diversity in their classrooms are growing in many parts of the West, and there is some consensus that one aspect of the problem is the narrow range of cultural and social backgrounds from which teacher candidates are drawn. Yet a minority of socially aware teachers, from all backgrounds, continue to…

  10. Concerns of anophthalmic patients wearing artificial eyes.

    PubMed

    Pine, Keith; Sloan, Brian; Stewart, Joanna; Jacobs, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    To identify the concerns of experienced artificial eye wearers and investigate whether these had changed since they lost their eye. A retrospective study of private practice patients. Sixty-three experienced artificial eye wearers. An anonymous questionnaire was posted to participants. Paired Wilcoxon tests were used to investigate changes to concern levels over time. Ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate associations of demographic variables with concern levels. Changes in level of concern over time. At the time of initial eye loss, participants were mainly concerned about the health of their remaining eye, coping with monocularity and receiving good advice. Between initial eye loss and the present, reductions in concern occurred with judging distance, peripheral vision, appearance, receiving good advice, comfort, retention, colour and movement of the artificial eye, fullness of orbit, loss of balance and postoperative pain. Patients whose jobs involved the public were more concerned about appearance and reduced visual range than those in other occupations. Participants' chief present-day concerns were health of the remaining eye and watering, crusting and discharge. All results above had a probability <0.05. The study emphasized patients' concerns about the health of their remaining eye and their need for good advice at time of eye loss. Knowledge that their initial concerns about judging distance, reduced peripheral vision and appearance all decrease over time may help clinicians in counselling these patients. Watering, crusting and discharge was the chief present-day concern after health of the remaining eye. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Grant; Toniolo, Viola; Ainley, David G; Parkinson, Claire L; Arrigo, Kevin R; Trathan, Phil N

    2010-07-01

    Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) spans approximately 22 degrees. Penguins from northern colonies may not migrate, but due to the high latitude of Ross Island colonies, these penguins almost certainly undertake the longest migrations for the species. Previous work has suggested that Adélies require both pack ice and some ambient light at all times of year. Over a three-year period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated characteristics of migratory routes and wintering locations of Adélie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin. We acquired data from 3-16 geolocation sensor tags (GLS) affixed to penguins each year at both Cape Royds and Cape Crozier in 2003-2005. Migrations averaged 12760 km, with the longest being 17 600 km, and were in part facilitated by pack ice movement. Trip distances varied annually, but not by colony. Penguins rarely traveled north of the main sea-ice pack, and used areas with high sea-ice concentration, ranging from 75% to 85%, about 500 km inward from the ice edge. They also used locations where there was some twilight (2-7 h with sun < 6 degrees below the horizon). We report the present Adélie Penguin migration pattern and conjecture on how it probably has changed over the past approximately 12000 years, as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet withdrew southward across the Ross Sea, a situation that no other Adélie Penguin population has had to confront. As sea ice extent in the Ross Sea sector decreases in the near future, as predicted by climate models, we can expect further changes in the migration patterns of the Ross Sea penguins.

  12. Confronting multi-year idealized LES with measurements at a mid-latitude meteorological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemann, V.; Neggers, R.; Wegener, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) at permanent meteorological sites is increasingly being used for the evaluation and improvement of parameterizations of fast boundary-layer physics for weather and climate models. Typically, idealized LES are generated that represent fine-scale downscalings of a large-scale model state at locations of interest, resolved at temporal and spatial resolutions at which turbulence and boundary layer clouds can be expected to be resolved. The setup relies on prescribed large-scale forings in combination with continuous nudging, at a time-scale large enough to allow the resolved fast physics to have enough freedom to establish their own, unique state. This study critically assesses the representativeness of such long-term LES, and asks to what degree the continuous nudging affects the budgets of thermodynamic state variables. To this purpose long-term, multi-year LES is confronted with relevant observations at a European midlatitude continental site. The large-scale advective forcings and surface properties used to drive the LES are derived from analyses of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Evaluated aspects of the boundary layer include near-surface meteorology, vertical structure, and bulk properties including clouds. The evaluation focuses on the diurnal cycle, with the oservational datasets derived from state-of-the-art instrumentation at the Juelich Observatory for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE) in Germany. Conditional sampling is used to highlight results for regimes of interest, including the clear convective and shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We find that the LES is able to reproduce the observed amplitude and time-variation of key boundary layer properties, including clouds. Budget studies of the thermodynamic state variables reveal that a rough balance exists between the prescribed larger-scale advection and the turbulence/convection as resolved by the

  13. Adolescent Health Concerns and Influences in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nancy T.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    1994-01-01

    Ninth and twelfth graders were surveyed to identify their health concerns and primary sources of learning about health. Results were consistent with current epidemiological data. There were statistically significant differences by grade and gender. The most prevalent concerns were weight, staying healthy, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually…

  14. Common Concerns of School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study assessed common concerns of school-age children. Participating were 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5. Concerns were spontaneously generated by children during Phase 1 of the study, and common stressors most frequently mentioned were ranked on a 10-item rank-order task during Phase 2. In Phase 3, children completed questionnaires…

  15. Public Concern with Environmental Problems: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Adrienne

    This bibliography presents representative literature pertaining to public concerns with environmental problems since the National Environmental Policy Act became law. Items cited deal with various aspects and manifestations of public concern. Items include: (1) sociological studies of the process of attitude formation; (2) attitude surveys; (3)…

  16. Problems and Concerns Among Medical Students--1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Marc T.; Zimet, Carl N.

    1976-01-01

    Students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine were surveyed using an inventory of problems and concerns relating to their personal and academic lives. The survey revealed that among chief student concerns are a lack of personal freedom, excessive academic pressures, and feelings of dehumanization. (Editor/LBH)

  17. Addressing Teachers' Concerns about Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martie; Ngxola, Nonyameko

    2009-01-01

    Evolution was introduced into the senior secondary school Life Sciences curriculum in South Africa for the first time in 2008. Research in other countries shows that evolution is an extremely controversial topic to teach, raising serious concerns for teachers. Curriculum change theory dealing with "stages of concern" suggests that…

  18. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  19. Changes in Teachers' Concerns about Educational Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study identified teachers' attitudes about educational computing and investigated the effects of a university-offered inservice teacher education course on these concerns. Affective changes in teachers enrolled in the course were measured using the Stages of Concern Questionnaire, and implications of the findings for designers of such courses…

  20. Addressing Teachers' Concerns about Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martie; Ngxola, Nonyameko

    2009-01-01

    Evolution was introduced into the senior secondary school Life Sciences curriculum in South Africa for the first time in 2008. Research in other countries shows that evolution is an extremely controversial topic to teach, raising serious concerns for teachers. Curriculum change theory dealing with "stages of concern" suggests that…

  1. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  2. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  3. Confronting death: perceptions of a good death in adults with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Travonia; Schumacher, Mitzi; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M; Arnold, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Investigations regarding patients' concerns about death have focused on the importance of autonomy, resolution of concerns, family relationships, and religiosity, and relied on data from physicians, nurses, family members, and healthy older adults. Few studies have focused on patients with diseases that have short-term survival rates. This study examined lung cancer patients' perceptions of a good death. One hundred lung cancer patients answered open-ended questions about what a good death was and completed measures assessing coping, spirituality, religious coping, and life satisfaction. Content analysis revealed 4 themes describing a good death: (a) during sleep, (b) pain-free, (c) peaceful, and (d) quick. These findings have implications for those caring for terminally ill patients as the 4 themes differ from those derived from studies of more heterogeneous patients, their families, and health care providers.

  4. Are empathy and concern psychologically distinct?

    PubMed

    Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Understanding and dealing with parental vaccine concerns.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Linda

    Parents often worry more about vaccines than the diseases they prevent. This article highlights the issues that commonly concern parents and suggests appropriate information that nurses can give to reassure them and promote vaccination.

  6. Counterexamples concerning a weighted L^2 projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinchao

    1991-10-01

    Counterexamples are given to show that some results concerning a weighted {L^2} projection presented earlier by Bramble and the author are sharp, i.e., that certain error and stability estimates are impossible in some cases.

  7. Contaminants of Emerging Concern - Methods Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Analytical methods developed by EPA to identify and measure certain contaminants of emerging concern. These methods are not approved under 40 CFR Part 136, but may be of interest to regulated entities, permitting authorities, and the public.

  8. Issues and concerns of healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Burst, H V

    1987-01-01

    The issues and concerns of the 85 percent of essentially healthy women who have normal pregnancies and births are reviewed. The importance of their issues in relation to their health care and outcomes is discussed. PMID:3120221

  9. 78 FR 23247 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... control system to monitor ongoing performance with measurable criteria. The plan must also include an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Policy Statement Concerning Assistance AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation....

  10. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern or environmental emerging contaminants, are chemicals, products and materials that are detected with increasing frequency in all environmental media including surface, ground water and drinking water. Examples of these contaminants include pharmac...

  11. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern or environmental emerging contaminants, are chemicals, products and materials that are detected with increasing frequency in all environmental media including surface, ground water and drinking water. Examples of these contaminants include pharmac...

  12. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  13. Political, economic and environmental concerns: discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Guy C. G.; Dear, Felicity F.

    2017-06-01

    This session concerned the political, economic and environmental impact on the hydrogen economy due to hydrogen embrittlement. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  14. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exploitation? Other Safety Concerns? History of Adult Protective Services Get Connected Join Now Annual Conference World Elder Abuse Awareness Day Job Announcements Events Calendar Member Listserv Research Listserv Networking Groups Banks and APS Get Involved Elder Financial Exploitation National ...

  15. Environmental concerns of supply chain sustainability (SCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Omar, Badrul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Pauzi, Nur Fazlinda Mohd; Hasan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2017-04-01

    Environment concern is one important aspect for supply chain sustainability (SCS). Nowadays, company's activities give a lot of impact on the environment. Through these activities, there are other SCS issue of environment were identified. In this paper, the proposed SCS issue of environmental concern will be determined from Corporate Sustainability Report (CSR). Using a total weightage of 0.333 (after dividing into three aspects of sustainability), each proposed issues will be classified according to the company activities in order to determined weightage for each issue. Those weightages then will be used in developing of score metric for SCS in design phase. Result shows that the carbon footprint is the major concern for SCS of environment while environmental management system is a lowest concern for SCS environment.

  16. Family Problems concerning the Mentally Retarded Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klackenberg, Gunnar

    1969-01-01

    A mentally handicapped child causes familial pressures: concerns over future pregnancies, emotional strain, and the necessity for an ultimate decision on whether or not the child should be institutionalized. (JF)

  17. Lenin's Concern for the Growing Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibanov, T. P.

    1970-01-01

    Lenin demonstrated his concern for youth and their education by exposing tsarism, initiating numerous plans and programs for improving the system of upbringing and education, and by emphasizing the importance of youth in the revolutionary struggle. (JB)

  18. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Erika J; Tu, Kelly M; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. The study used a cross-sectional design. The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents' sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed.

  19. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed. PMID:27695706

  20. What makes an orienteer an expert? A case study of a highly elite orienteer's concerns in the course of competition.

    PubMed

    Macquet, Anne-Claire; Eccles, David W; Barraux, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a highly elite orienteer's cognitive activity over the course of two international competitions. We characterize the orienteer's concerns in relation to the problems raised during the competitions. The participant wore a head-mounted video camera throughout the competitions to enable the capture of an events record from the participant's perspective. During a post-performance self-confrontation interview, the participant was played the video and asked to describe his activity in relation to the events observed. The interview data were then used to identify the orienteer's concerns at each instant during the races. These "local" concerns were then compared and subsequently classified to characterize the typical concerns of the participant. Results showed three typical concerns: (a) find the controls faster than the opponents; (b) optimize running pace throughout the race; and (c) reflect on actions undertaken during performance. Results suggest the performer used a range of knowledge-driven strategies that enhanced the efficiency of task performance, and flexibly switched between strategies and decision-options in the face of presented changes in the task status. He also engaged in various reflective processes concurrent with performance that augmented the use of these strategies. In conclusion, this study provides insight into the cognitive processes underlying expert performance in sports characterized by decision-making under complexity, uncertainty, and time pressure.

  1. Issues Confronting Rural Pharmacies after a Decade of Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Fred; Salako, Abiodun; Mueller, Keith

    2017-04-01

    Purpose. The RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis has been monitoring the status of rural independent pharmacies since the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2005. After a decade of Part D, we reassess in this brief the issues that concern rural pharmacies and may ultimately challenge their provision of services. This reassessment is based on survey responses from rural pharmacists. Key Findings: (1) Rural pharmacists indicated that two challenges--direct and indirect remuneration (DIR) fees, and delayed maximum allowable cost (MAC) adjustment--ranked highest on scales of both magnitude and immediacy. Nearly eighty (79.8) percent of respondents reported DIR fees as a very large magnitude challenge, with 83.3 percent reporting this as a very immediate challenge. Seventy-eight percent of respondents reported MACs not being updated quickly enough to reflect changes in wholesale drug costs as a very large magnitude challenge, with 79.7 percent indicating it as a very immediate challenge. (2) Medicare Part D continues to be a concern for rural pharmacies--58.8 percent of pharmacists said being an out-of-network pharmacy for Part D plans was a very large magnitude challenge (an additional 29.0 percent said large magnitude) and 60.5 percent said it was a very immediate challenge (an additional 28.1 percent said moderately immediate). (3) Pharmacy staffing, competition from pharmacy chains, and contracts for services for Medicaid patients were less likely to be reported as significant or immediate challenges.

  2. Retaining nurses through conflict resolution. Training staff to confront problems and communicate openly can improve the work climate.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A R; Bushardt, S C; Jones, M A

    1993-06-01

    The way nurses resolve conflict may be leading them to quit their jobs or leave the profession altogether. Conflict is inevitable in a dynamic organization. What is important is not to avoid conflict but to seek its resolution in a constructive manner. Organizational conflict is typically resolved through one of five strategies: withdrawal, force, conciliation, compromise, or confrontation. A recent study of nurses in three different hospitals showed that the approach they use most is withdrawal. This might manifest itself in a request to change shifts or assignments and may lead to a job change and, eventually, abandonment of the field altogether. Given this scenario, changing nurses' conflict resolution style may help administrators combat the nursing shortage. Healthcare organizations must examine themselves to determine why nurses so frequently use withdrawal; then they must restructure work relationships as needed. Next, organizations need to increase nurses' awareness of the problem and train them to use a resolution style more conducive to building stable relationships: confrontation. Staff should also be trained in effective communications skills to develop trust and openness in their relationships.

  3. When confrontational images may be counter productive: reinforcing the case for pre-testing communications in sensitive areas.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Fielder, Lynda; Ouschan, Robyn

    2008-08-01

    White Ribbon Day is an international campaign that encourages men to speak out about and demonstrate their opposition to violence against women by wearing a white ribbon on 25 November. This study assesses the effectiveness of a graphic confrontational image in the Australian 2006 campaign versus an alternative non-violent image to motivate men to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. An intercept survey was conducted with a sample of 45 males aged 30-49 years recruited in an inner city suburban shopping strip. Respondents were presented with two alternatives: a graphic 'amputated arm' image and a non-violent 'father-daughter' image. The primary dependent variable was the relative ability of the two alternatives in motivating respondents to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. The vast majority of respondents nominated the 'father-daughter' as image being more motivating than the 'amputated arm' image to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day: 84% vs 9%. The bland 'father-daughter' image was far more motivating than the macabre/violent 'amputated arm' image in motivating men to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. This is contrary to the UNIFEM Australia and White Ribbon Day assertion that 'confrontational/provocative' images are necessary to achieve this behaviour.

  4. Concern as Motivation for Protection: An Investigation of Mothers’ Concern About Daughters’ Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    NEUBERGER, LINDSAY; SILK, KAMI J.; YUN, DOSHIK; BOWMAN, NICHOLAS DAVID; ANDERSON, JENNIFER

    2012-01-01

    The current study surveyed mothers with daughters (N=386) to investigate how mothers’ concern about their daughters’ breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using Protection Motivation Theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers’ concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. Additionally, a content analysis of mothers’ open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters’ breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns as well as trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. Implications for incorporating mothers’ concerns into breast cancer prevention messages are discussed as a novel strategy for campaign designers. PMID:22070448

  5. Confronting hysteresis: Wood based river rehabilitation in highly altered riverine landscapes of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Andrew P.; Howell, Timothy; Abbe, Tim B.; Arthington, Angela H.

    2006-09-01

    values in the control were around 1.5% and 1%, respectively. Two indices of morphologic diversity were measured for each bed survey: the standard deviation of 3D residuals of change compared with the baseline survey (SD iΔ3D); and the standard deviation of thalweg residuals from the line of best fit (SD iTR). The SD iΔ3D index shows both reaches increased in complexity through the study with the treatment increasing more than the control (0.37 and 0.29, respectively). The SD iTR index does not detect clear changes because of the low signal to noise ratio, however, it does suggest the test reach was more complex than the control at the outset. The observed increase in fish abundance after the first 12 months of monitoring, reported previously, is now far less distinct 4 years on — a pattern seemingly reflecting the relatively minor increases in critical pool habitat and habitat diversity over the same period. Although no significant differences were detectable in fish species richness or total abundance from the reach aggregate data after 4 years, analysis of individual structures show them to be high quality habitat for native fish compared to the rest of the reach and the upstream control. These results highlight the challenges river managers face in achieving measurable improvements in the health of aquatic ecosystems in highly altered rivers. Managers must confront hysteresis in a biophysical and institutional sense when attempting to reverse the degradation of rivers. The scale of treatment implemented in this experiment was at the upper end of the spectrum of rehabilitation efforts currently being undertaken in Australia, suggesting that far greater resources and longer timescales are required to achieve the levels of improvement in the diversity of stream habitat expected by the community. The study also highlights problems with the strategy of attempting to meet multiple objectives within a reach scale rehabilitation project. While this treatment successfully

  6. Medical information concerning an infant's congenital anomaly: Successful communication to support parental adjustment and transition.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana; Nazaré, Bárbara; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    When a diagnosis of congenital anomaly (CA) is made, parents are confronted with new and complex medical information, which may impact their parental adjustment. However, few studies have explored the role of information concerning the CA in parental adjustment, during the transition to parenthood. This study aimed to characterize both parents' perceptions of information concerning the CA and to investigate their role in maternal and paternal adjustment, one month after the disclosure and six months post-birth. Thirty six couples whose infants were prenatally- or postnatally diagnosed with a CA participated in this prospective longitudinal study. During both assessment times (Time 1: one-month after the disclosure; Time 2: six-month post-birth), they answered the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, the EUROHIS-QOL-8, and other specific questions to assess parents' information perceptions. Mothers were more satisfied than fathers (p < .01) with the amount of information that was received at the disclosure, although mothers and fathers reported similar levels of comprehension of information. Six-month post-birth, both parents were similarly satisfied with the information that was received, although mothers sought significantly more (p < .01) additional information. Both maternal and paternal adjustment were significantly associated with maternal perceptions of information concerning CA. Health professionals should recognize the important role of information concerning CA in parental adjustment and tailor their communication practices in order to promote parents' satisfaction and comprehension of the medical information. Despite the prominent influence of maternal perceptions on parental adjustment, both parents should be included in the communication process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Corporate Funding for Schools of Public Health: Confronting the Ethical and Economic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.

  8. Love is all you need? Focusing on adolescents' life concerns from an ecological point of view.

    PubMed

    Kloep, M

    1999-02-01

    Focal theory, in trying to explain why the majority of young people cope comparatively well with the variety of transitional tasks they are confronted with during adolescence, suggests that adolescents deal with only one issue at a time: concerns about heterosexual relationships peak around 11, concerns about peer acceptance around 15, and about relationship to and independence from parents at 15 for girls and 17 for boys. However, the model has been criticized for not taking into account economic problems and unemployment. The present study sets out to empirically test the implications of focal theory with a large Swedish sample of 1217 adolescents between 11 and 20 by means of a school-based questionnaire. Young people answered how often they worry about relationship, economic, global and other personal issues. Results show that focal theory should not be taken literally with regard to certain age-related sequences of problems. However, the main concept proposed by Coleman, i.e. that the number of problems dealt with has implications for adolescents' psychological well-being, is strongly supported by the data in this study. Finally, the notion that young people can choose how many issues they focus upon at a time is critically discussed. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  9. A critical analysis of the failure of nurses to raise concerns about poor patient care.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc

    2016-10-28

    The occurrence of poor patient care is emerging as one of the most significant, challenging, and critical issues confronting contemporary nursing and those responsible for the provision of health care more generally. Indeed, as a consequence of the increased recognition of the manner in which nurses can be implicated in the occurrence of poor patient care, there has been sustained critical debate that seeks to understand how such healthcare failings can occur and, in particular, why nurses seemingly fail to intervene, raise concerns, and effectively respond to prevent the occurrence and continuation of such poor patient care. In seeking to contribute to this critical discussion, and in contrast to those "situational explanations" that maintain that the failure to raise concerns is a consequence of the contextual factors and challenging conditions to which nurses can be subject in the clinical setting, this paper will provide a resolutely philosophical analysis of that failure. In particular, it will draw upon the work of Jean-Paul Sartre-the French philosopher generally regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century-in order to propose that his work can be productively recontextualized to provide a detailed, challenging, and provocative critical analysis of the occurrence and continuation of poor patient care and the role of individual nurse practitioners in such healthcare failings.

  10. Confronting Complexity: Adaptation Strategies for Managing Biodiversity in the Face of Rapid Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graumlich, L.; Cross, M.; Tabor, G.; Enquist, C.; Rowland, E.

    2008-12-01

    There is no doubt that the montane landscapes of the Western US are being transformed by a complex interplay of changing climate, growing urban centers, altered disturbance regimes and invasive species. Among this suite of drivers of change, climate change has emerged as a critical concern of managers and agencies concerned with protected areas and protected species. These managers are under intensifying pressure to come up with scientifically robust and socially acceptable plans for adaptation to climate change. Those charged with managing biodiversity in the face of change have turned to the scientific community for decision support tools that they can implement immediately to proactively address adaptation. Broadly speaking, this is good news for that part of the scientific community that is keen to engage in translational science, even if the timeline is a bit breathtaking. A key challenge in this endeavor is to find common ground between all those issues that define complexity for the scientific community (e.g., nonlinearity, thresholds, cross-scale interactions) and a range of issues that define complexity for the management community (e.g., multiple jurisdictions, regulatory issues, values of diverse stakeholders). In this talk, we reflect on emerging strategies that seek to infuse adaptation into climate change into landscape scale conservation planning in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Southwestern US. We describe how climate change challenges current adaptive management practices to 1) anticipate a broad range of climate trajectories, including no-analog scenarios, and 2) to actively incorporate new information from positive outcomes and negative consequences of management interventions. The success of such adaption hinges on public understanding and acceptance of the process of adaption, which, in turn, demands even greater attention to be paid to increasing public understanding of the intersection of climate change and the role of

  11. Biomarker Validation: Common Data Analysis Concerns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker validation, like any other confirmatory process based on statistical methodology, must discern associations that occur by chance from those reflecting true biological relationships. Validity of a biomarker is established by authenticating its correlation with clinical outcome. Validated biomarkers can lead to targeted therapy, improve clinical diagnosis, and serve as useful prognostic and predictive factors of clinical outcome. Statistical concerns such as confounding and multiplicity are common in biomarker validation studies. This article discusses four major areas of concern in the biomarker validation process and some of the proposed solutions. Because present-day statistical packages enable the researcher to address these common concerns, the purpose of this discussion is to raise awareness of these statistical issues in the hope of improving the reproducibility of validation study findings. PMID:25001264

  12. Reciprocal Suffering: Caregiver Concerns During Hospice Care

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Burt, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Context For many hospice caregivers, the constancy and difficulty of caregiving impact their physical quality of life and cause depression, psychological distress, guilt, loneliness, and restrictions on social activities. Objectives Deviating from traditional unidimensional research on hospice caregivers, this study explored the transactional nature of reciprocal suffering by examining caregiver concerns through four dimensions: physical, psychological, social, and spiritual. Methods Researchers analyzed audiotapes of intervention discussions between hospice caregivers and research social workers. Results Results indicated that of the 125 pain talk utterances, the majority referenced psychological concern (49%), followed by physical (28%), social (22%), and spiritual (2%). Reflections on concerns revealed a global perspective of caregiving, which highlighted the patient’s needs juxtaposed to the caregiver’s recognized limitations. Conclusion By examining the reciprocal nature of suffering for caregivers, this study reinforced the need for assessing caregivers in hospice care, with specific emphasis on the importance of providing caregiver education on pain management. PMID:21146356

  13. The Problems and Concerns of Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Stewart, Moira A.

    1984-01-01

    Middle age is not defined solely by chronological age, but is a product of biological, social, and psychological factors. As a period in the life cycle, middle age poses many obstacles, or developmental tasks, to personal growth. Failure to deal successfully with these tasks may have a negative impact on a person's physical and psychological health. The family physician's role should be to learn the middle-aged patient's problems and concerns, to allow him to express such concerns, and to help place problems in perspective. PMID:21278990

  14. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  15. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  16. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  17. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: methods, COPD prevalence, and disease burden in 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Sarah H; Muellerova, Hana; Mannino, David M; Menezes, Ana M; Han, MeiLan K; van der Molen, Thys; Ichinose, Masakazu; Aisanov, Zaurbek; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Davis, Kourtney J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and burden of COPD globally and to update findings from the Confronting COPD International Survey conducted in 1999–2000. Materials and methods Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in 12 countries worldwide were identified through systematic screening of population samples. Telephone and face-to-face interviews were conducted between November 2012 and May 2013 using a structured survey that incorporated validated patient-reported outcome instruments. Eligible patients were adults aged 40 years and older who were taking regular respiratory medications or suffered with chronic respiratory symptoms and reported either 1) a physician diagnosis of COPD/emphysema, 2) a physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, or 3) a symptom-based definition of chronic bronchitis. The burden of COPD was measured with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnea Scale. Results Of 106,876 households with at least one person aged ≥40 years, 4,343 respondents fulfilled the case definition of COPD and completed the full survey. COPD prevalence ranged from 7% to 12%, with most countries falling within the range of 7%–9%. In all countries, prevalence increased with age, and in all countries except the US was greater among men (range 6%–14%) than among women (range 5%–11%). A significant disease burden was observed when considering COPD symptoms or health status, and showed wide variations across countries. Prevalence of moderate-to-severe dyspnea (mMRC scale ≥2) ranged from 27% to 61%, and mean CAT score ranged from 16.0 to 24.8, indicating medium-to-high impairment. Conclusion This survey, representing 12 countries, showed similar rates of estimated COPD prevalence across countries that were higher than those reported a decade ago in the original Confronting COPD International Survey. A significant burden of COPD was

  18. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  19. Safety Concerns Surrounding Quinolone Use in Children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Karisma; Goldman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are highly effective antibiotics with many desirable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties including high bioavailability, large volume of distribution, and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Despite their attractive profile as anti-infective agents, their use in children is limited, primarily due to safety concerns. In this review we highlight the pharmacological properties of fluoroquinolones and describe their current use in pediatrics. In addition, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the safety data associated with fluoroquinolone use in children. Although permanent or destructive arthropathy remains a significant concern, currently available data demonstrate that arthralgia and arthropathy are relatively uncommon in children and resolve following cessation of fluoroquinolone exposure without resulting in long-term sequelae. The concern for safety and risk of adverse events associated with pediatric fluoroquinolone use is likely driving the limited prescribing of this drug class in pediatrics. However, in adults, fluoroquinolones are the most commonly prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics, resulting in the development of drug-resistant bacteria that can be challenging to treat effectively. The consequence of misuse and overuse of fluoroquinolones leading to drug resistance is a greater, but frequently overlooked, safety concern that applies to both children and adults and one that should be considered at the point of prescribing. PMID:26865283

  20. Developing Effective Extension Agents: Experience Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    This paper is a description of the requirements placed on persons selected to fill the role of extension agents for the purpose of penetrating an educational environment, installing change in an educational organization, and completing tasks as a resource outside of the education establishment. These experience concerns are summarized by…

  1. Connecting Legal Discourse with Real World Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Nigel

    This paper reports on the strategies used by an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher to help law students whose first language is Chinese in an English-for-law course learn and understand how to negotiate legal texts and ordinances and connect them with the concerns of people in the real world. The example of the recently enacted Human Organ…

  2. Groups concerned about Congress and criticism

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-12-07

    Environmental groups are concerned about the impact a Republican-dominated Congress will have on their activities. The Republican agenda would {open_quotes}severely undercut public health and environmental protection, {close_quotes} says the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington).

  3. Serendipity, Eighth Grade Concerns, and Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Josie; Pros, Jennifer; Marshall, Joan

    Graduate students (N=13) in a counselor education program in New York State participated in a study about what they thought were the main concerns of eighth grade students. A needs assessment is often a helpful method for counselors to plan and deliver services. The responses of the school counselor trainees were very different from the responses…

  4. Sagebrush-associated species of conservation concern

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Matthias Leu; Steven T. Knick; Michael J. Wisdom

    2011-01-01

    Selection of species of concern is a critical early step in conducting broad-scale ecological assessments for conservation planning and management. Many criteria can be used to guide this selection, such as conservation status, existing knowledge base, and association with plant communities of interest. In conducting the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA), we...

  5. Adolescent Homosexuality and Concerns Regarding Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Therese W.

    2003-01-01

    With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…

  6. Teacher Concerns: Developmental Changes in Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Margaret W.

    This paper demonstrates how issues of lifelong development are cogent at the undergraduate level by discussing the results of a study which explored individual differences among the preservice population. Fuller's developmental model of teachers' concerns combined with theories of life-span development provided the conceptual and operational bases…

  7. Employer Concerns Regarding Workers with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; Johnson, Virginia Anne

    More than 90 surveys conducted during the past 40 years covering a variety of disabling conditions and employers' concerns regarding workers with these conditions were reviewed. The goal of this review is to identify, develop, test, and disseminate interventions for rehabilitation practitioners to use in job development and placement. The review…

  8. Understanding Teachers' Concerns about Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Monika; Das, Ajay; Sharma, Sushama; Tiwari, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon,…

  9. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  10. Current Concerns for Austrian School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz-Viechtbauer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes four recent concerns of the Austrian Institute for School and Sport Facilities, which is responsible for current issues and problems related to educational buildings in the country: schools as low energy buildings, electromagnetic fields and school buildings, chairs and tables for educational buildings, and school grounds (learnscapes).…

  11. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  12. Systems Analysts in Higher Education: Some Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John W.

    This paper focuses on the concerns associated with the use of systems analysis in higher education. One fear is that systems analysis will increase the need for centralized authority and highly structured activity, thus contributing to further alienation and dehumanization. A second objection pertains to the increased requirement for specifying…

  13. Current Concerns for Austrian School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz-Viechtbauer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes four recent concerns of the Austrian Institute for School and Sport Facilities, which is responsible for current issues and problems related to educational buildings in the country: schools as low energy buildings, electromagnetic fields and school buildings, chairs and tables for educational buildings, and school grounds (learnscapes).…

  14. Universalism Values: Blueprint for Environmental Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Empirical research has consistently shown human values to be significantly related to both attitudes and behaviors. This paper unites the value theories of several researchers into an explanation of environmental concern, and provides some preliminary data to support the model. Attitudes toward environmental choices should be determined by…

  15. Understanding Teachers' Concerns about Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Monika; Das, Ajay; Sharma, Sushama; Tiwari, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon,…

  16. Legal Concerns in Community College Employment Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    The American community college has posed, for a period of time, some distinctively unique concerns pertaining to legal issues. However, the most pressing legal issues facing community colleges now are those regarding personnel. The diversity of programs community colleges offer require that personnel (specifically faculty) come to the institution…

  17. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  18. Religious Cults: Family Concerns and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer; Zemel, Jacqueline L.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of religious cults are generally protected by the First Amendment but have caused concern and controversy. Legal pressure can be used in cases of fraud and misrepresentation but the best prevention is education and information for young adults, educators, and families. (JAC)

  19. New Developments of the Shared Concern Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikas, Anatol

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and describes new developments in the Shared Concern method (SCm), a tool for tackling group bullying amongst teenagers by individual talks. The psychological mechanisms of healing in the bully group and what hinders the bully therapist in eliciting them have become better clarified. The most important recent advancement of the SCm…

  20. Food and Population: A Global Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes the current situation concerning food production and likely prospects for feeding a hungry and growing population. Discusses the importance of technology transfer, international grain reserves, encouraging farm productivity, land ownership patterns, and a reduction of rapid population growth. (CT)

  1. National New Teacher Study: Beginning Teachers' Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Denise G.; Melnick, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed first- and second-year teachers nationwide regarding concerns in four areas: classroom management, time management, communication with parents, and academic preparation. Data on 273 teachers indicated that new teachers needed more direct experience in school settings and continued assistance in discipline, time management, and…

  2. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  3. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  4. Statistics Concerning Indian Education: Fiscal Year 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Statistics concerning Indian education are published annually by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and are made available following the close of the school term which the statistics cover. In this annual report for 1970, after a brief historical account of the BIA role in Indian education, 28 pages of statistics are given on enrollment and…

  5. Internet Review: Educator Concerns regarding Cyberspace Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czubaj, Camilia Anne

    2004-01-01

    The five educator concerns regarding cyberspace curricula identified on the Internet are teacher training, resources, attitudes. software, and reproduction rights. Several web sites are discussed that list training opportunities. Other web sites offer educators interactive multimedia materials. Self-training can be accomplished with web sites that…

  6. Industrialized farm animal production: health concerns.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A

    2014-05-01

    Modern livestock farming industry practice continues to cause concern about hazardous exposures among workers and nearby residents. Occupational and environmental health nurses can join other advocates and encourage policies that protect workers, communities, and the environment from confined animal feeding operations health hazards.

  7. Writing as a College-Wide Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweet, Roald D.

    English department members at Augustana College decided to make writing a college-wide concern. They began by attempting to change the perceptions of the faculty, including that of the English department, which consisted of members trained entirely in literature rather than in composition. The approach to the rest of the faculty began with an…

  8. General Beliefs and Environmental Concern: Transatlantic Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Anna; Ohman, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to empirically test whether grouping people according to their general beliefs, combined with positional factors, can explain environmental concern, and whether there are country differences in this respect. The study is based on the United States, Canadian, Norwegian, and Swedish parts of The International Social Survey…

  9. Community Concerns Survey, 1977 (Analysis of Results).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham Urban League, AL.

    A survey of community concerns was administered to 674 households in Birmingham, Alabama. Survey questions focused on the costs of goods and services, crime, welfare and other social aid, local government, housing, education, police community relations, health, unemployment, and income. High costs of utilities, health care, and housing were of…

  10. Adolescent Homosexuality and Concerns Regarding Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Therese W.

    2003-01-01

    With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…

  11. Integrating School Curricula With Social Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Florence J.,; Ross, John A.

    1984-01-01

    The attempt to integrate school curricula with social concerns is a recurring motif in North American education. Impediments to integration can be reduced by incorporating a cognitive approach to social issues analysis. The approach was tested with 4seven9 grade 7-10 students in two Ontario, Canada, school systems with positive results. (MM)

  12. PROJECT CONCERN, HARTFORD'S EXPERIMENTAL BUSING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAW, PEG

    THIS REPRINTED SERIES OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES ABOUT PROJECT CONCERN, HARTFORD'S EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM WHICH BUSES INNER CITY CHILDREN TO SUBURBAN SCHOOLS, IS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ANECDOTAL REPORTS FROM MOTHERS, CHILDREN, AND TEACHERS. THE INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES DEAL WITH THE CHILDREN'S REACTIONS TO THE BUSING AND TO THEIR NEW SCHOOLS, THEIR ADJUSTMENT,…

  13. Assessing Graduate Assistant Teacher Communication Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feezel, Jerry D.; Myers, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Finds that graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) experience eight interrelated types of communication concern (self, task, impact, role conflict, teaching, area knowledge, procedural knowledge, and time management). Shows that GTA variables of expected duties, prior teaching experience, newness to area, foreign or domestic birth, and age are likely…

  14. Marking Identifiable Scripts: Following up Student Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Cathy; Stefaniak, John; Corrigan, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Medical student concern that the submission of named examination scripts to examiners could cause bias initiated a study on the effect of identified and de-identified scripts on assessment outcome. Methods: Data were collected from a convenience examination sample of Year 1 (n = 88 students; n = 29 questions) and Year 2 scripts (n =…

  15. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns Page Content ​​​​As a parent, ... should have their children vaccinated. FAQs About All Preteen Vaccines Do adolescent vaccines have serious side effects? ...

  16. New Developments of the Shared Concern Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikas, Anatol

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and describes new developments in the Shared Concern method (SCm), a tool for tackling group bullying amongst teenagers by individual talks. The psychological mechanisms of healing in the bully group and what hinders the bully therapist in eliciting them have become better clarified. The most important recent advancement of the SCm…

  17. Marking Identifiable Scripts: Following up Student Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Cathy; Stefaniak, John; Corrigan, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Medical student concern that the submission of named examination scripts to examiners could cause bias initiated a study on the effect of identified and de-identified scripts on assessment outcome. Methods: Data were collected from a convenience examination sample of Year 1 (n = 88 students; n = 29 questions) and Year 2 scripts (n =…

  18. [Pharmaceutical advice concerning different pharmaceutical dosage forms].

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the commonly applied types of drug uptake and the pharmacists' advice concerning a certain dosage form. The manuscript also deals with the modified release dosage forms and their abbreviations in the name of the marketing authorized products.

  19. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Faculty Concerns and Faculty Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoungsook; Cho, YoonJung; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how college faculty characteristics are related to their teaching concerns based on Fuller's model of teacher concern (self, task, and impact concern). Fuller's model was supported by self and task concerns, though impact concern did not follow the model. Impact concern was the highest among the three…

  1. “Am I my genes?”: Questions of identity among individuals confronting genetic disease

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore many questions raised by genetics concerning personal identities that have not been fully investigated. Methods We interviewed in depth, for 2 hours each, 64 individuals who had or were at risk for Huntington disease, breast cancer, or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Results These individuals struggled with several difficult issues of identity. They drew on a range of genotypes and phenotypes (e.g., family history alone; mutations, but no symptoms; or symptoms). They often felt that their predicament did not fit preexisting categories well (e.g., “sick,” “healthy,” “disabled,” “predisposed”), due in part to uncertainties involved (e.g., unclear prognoses, since mutations may not produce symptoms). Hence, individuals varied in how much genetics affected their identity, in what ways, and how negatively. Factors emerged related to disease, family history, and other sources of identity. These identities may, in turn, shape disclosure, coping, and other health decisions. Conclusions Individuals struggle to construct a genetic identity. They view genetic information in highly subjective ways, varying widely in what aspects of genetic information they focus on and how. These data have important implications for education of providers (to assist patients with these issues), patients, and family members; and for research, to understand these issues more fully. PMID:20010365

  2. Confronting the realities of wastewater aquaculture in peri-urban Kolkata with bioeconomic modelling.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater reuse for aquaculture is a reality in several Asian countries, however, traditional practices face constraints including inadequate or contaminated wastewater inputs and growing concern over health risks. Based on Kolkata and a wastewater flow of 550,000m(3)d(-1), rational and conventional designs for lagoon-based wastewater treatment and reuse through aquaculture were compared using bioeconomic modelling. Outcomes showed the rational design required a larger area than the conventional or traditional systems, but that financial returns, nutrient retention and fish production were higher; gross fish production employing rational and conventional designs was 45,500 and 11,560t, respectively. However, limited land availability and constraints to reconfiguring the existing system make implementation of the rational design unlikely. Findings suggest traditional practices could be enhanced by adopting wastewater treatment prior to reuse, modifying fish production strategies, and monitoring to safeguard health. Bioeconomic modelling constitutes a useful tool in comparing treatment and reuse options, permitting the sensitivity of financial returns to changing costs and recent revisions to WHO guidelines for safe wastewater reuse to be assessed, however, social and environmental consequences demand consideration.

  3. Confronting lepton flavor universality violation in B decays with high-pT tau lepton searches at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faroughy, Darius A.; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.

    2017-01-01

    We confront the indications of lepton flavor universality (LFU) violation observed in semi-tauonic B meson decays with new physics (NP) searches using high pT tau leptons at the LHC. Using effective field theory arguments we correlate possible non-standard contributions to semi-tauonic charged currents with the τ+τ- signature at high energy hadron colliders. Several representative standard model extensions put forward to explain the anomaly are examined in detail: (i) weak triplet of color-neutral vector resonances, (ii) second Higgs doublet and (iii) scalar or (iv) vector leptoquark. We find that, in general, τ+τ- searches pose a serious challenge to NP explanations of the LFU anomaly. Recasting existing 8 TeV and 13 TeV LHC analyses, stringent limits are set on all considered simplified models. Future projections of the τ+τ- constraints as well as caveats in interpreting them within more elaborate models are also discussed.

  4. Cooperation versus confrontation: a comparison of approaches to environmental risk management in Japan and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Covello, V.T.; Kawamura, K.; Boroush, M.; Ikeda, S.; Lynes, P.F.; Minor, M.S.

    1988-06-01

    This paper compares approaches to environmental risk management in Japan and the US. The paper includes a historical examination of two case studies of environmental risk management: synthetic detergents and lead in gasoline. In addition, the paper discusses several important differences between Japan and the US, including (a) different attitudes toward separating environmental risk management from environmental risk assessment, and (b) different approaches toward environmental risk management. Specifically, the Japanese approach is based largely on a cooperative model of risk management, with a strong emphasis on negotiation and consensus-building, while the US approach is based largely on a confrontational model of risk management, with a strong emphasis on rigorous scientific analysis and open adversarial processes.

  5. Limitations of cadaveric organ donation on judicial cases and problems confronted in autopsy: Istanbul data in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Arslan, M N; Esen Melez, I; Melez, D O; Cavlak, M; Gur, A

    2014-04-01

    Organ transplantation is one of the most important services of modern medicine to the humanity. In judicial death cases the interaction between judicial needs and transplantation needs is inevitable and both should be provided in a short time before the decomposition of the body. Thus, the description of this interaction and the algorithm which should be carried out to manage these cases are important. Aim of this study is to determine the problems confronted in forensic autopsies and to determine what to do for both judicial processes' and cadaveric organ donations' not becoming limited due to each other. With these aims, autopsy case archive of the Council of Forensic Medicine Istanbul Morgue Department was reviewed, between the years 2009 and 2011, to reveal the number of organ donors among autopsy cases and also to find out the judicial problems confronted during autopsies. Among 12,016 judicial death cases referred to Istanbul Morgue Department in 3 years, 35 cases were found to have undergone cadaveric solid organ harvesting procedure and 307 cases cornea-only harvesting procedure. Manner of deaths for organ donor cases were blunt trauma due to traffic accident in 20 cases, firearm injury in 3 cases, stabbing in 2 cases, suspicious criminal battery in 4 cases and fatal falls in 5 cases. Only 1 case was suspected to have died due to high dose insulin administration. Through the whole data presented in this study, it can be concluded that consulting with the Forensic Medicine Expert not only for the autopsies but also during the clinical process of a judicial case, who is a candidate to be an organ donor, is absolutely important. The early contribution of the Forensic Medicine Expert would provide help to plan both the judicial process and the transplantation process which needs urgent decisions. A Forensic Medicine Expert may be an organ harvest team member performing initial investigations on the cause of death and collecting some of the toxicological

  6. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys: comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M; Landis, Sarah H; Han, MeiLan K; Muellerova, Hana; Aisanov, Zaurbek; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M; Davis, Kourtney J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD. Results Most physicians (79%) responded that the long-term health outlook for patients with COPD has improved over the past decade, largely attributed to the introduction of better medications. However, patient access to medication remains an issue in many countries, and some physicians (39%) and patients (46%) agreed/strongly agreed with the statement “there are no truly effective treatments for COPD”. There was strong concordance between physicians and patients regarding COPD management practices, including the use of spirometry (86% of physicians and 76% of patients reporting they used/had undergone a spirometry test) and smoking cessation counseling (76% of physicians reported they counseled their smoking patients at every clinic visit, and 71% of smoking patients stated that they had received counseling in the past year). However, the groups differed in their perception about the role of smoking in COPD, with 78% of physicians versus 38% of patients strongly agreeing with the statement “smoking is the cause of most cases of COPD”. Conclusion The Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys demonstrate that while physicians and patients largely agreed about COPD management practices and the need for more effective treatments for COPD

  7. Continuing to confront COPD International Surveys: comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ana M; Landis, Sarah H; Han, MeiLan K; Muellerova, Hana; Aisanov, Zaurbek; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M; Davis, Kourtney J

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians' attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD. Most physicians (79%) responded that the long-term health outlook for patients with COPD has improved over the past decade, largely attributed to the introduction of better medications. However, patient access to medication remains an issue in many countries, and some physicians (39%) and patients (46%) agreed/strongly agreed with the statement "there are no truly effective treatments for COPD". There was strong concordance between physicians and patients regarding COPD management practices, including the use of spirometry (86% of physicians and 76% of patients reporting they used/had undergone a spirometry test) and smoking cessation counseling (76% of physicians reported they counseled their smoking patients at every clinic visit, and 71% of smoking patients stated that they had received counseling in the past year). However, the groups differed in their perception about the role of smoking in COPD, with 78% of physicians versus 38% of patients strongly agreeing with the statement "smoking is the cause of most cases of COPD". The Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys demonstrate that while physicians and patients largely agreed about COPD management practices and the need for more effective treatments for COPD, a gap exists about the causal role of

  8. Caregivers Confronted With the Withdrawal of Artificial Nutrition at the End of Life: Prevalence of and Reasons for Experienced Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Piot, Elise; Leheup, Benoît F; Goetz, Christophe; Quilliot, Didier; Niemier, Jean-Yves; Wary, Bernard; Ducrocq, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Withdrawing artificial nutrition in palliative care is an issue that often leads to ethical dilemmas among health care providers, despite clinical guidelines. To describe the experience of health care providers confronted with the withdrawing of artificial nutrition at the end of life and identifying the factors related to the level of ethical dilemmas. Cross-sectional survey questionnaire of all the nurses and nurses' aides working in medicine, surgery, and palliative care departments of a regional hospital and who have already been confronted with the withdrawal of artificial nutrition. Of 818 questionnaires sent, 274 were returned (response rate 33.5%); 60% (163) of the care providers who responded were involved in withdrawing artificial nutrition at the end of life. Among these, 42 (25.8%) had always or often been affected with ethical dilemmas, and 97 (60%) responded that withdrawing artificial nutrition had always or often been preceded by a multidisciplinary discussion. Items significantly associated with a high level of ethical dilemmas were (1) existence of differences in opinion within the health care team, (2) lack of information regarding the indication of the withdrawal of artificial nutrition, (3) feeling uncomfortable with the patient and his or her relatives, (4) guilt, (5) feeling of abandonment of care, and (6) uneasiness. Health care providers seem to have a lack of information and consensus regarding the withdrawal of artificial nutrition at the end of life. The ethical dimension of withdrawing artificial nutrition in palliative care has a strong impact on care providers, regardless of the circumstances of the withdrawal. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSE RESPONSE: LONG OVERDUE CONFRONTATION WITH THE EFFECTS OF IONISATION DENSITY.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Y S; Eliyahu, I; Oster, L

    2016-12-01

    The reader will time-travel through almost seven decades of kinetic models and mathematical simulations of thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics based on the band-gap theory of the solid state. From post-World-War II, ideas concerning electron trapping mechanisms to the highly idealised one trap-one recombination (OTOR) model first elaborated in 1956 but still in 'high gear' today. The review caresses but purposely avoids in-depth discussion of the endless stream of papers discussing the intricacies of glow peak shapes arising from first-order, second-order, mixed-order and general-order kinetics predominantly based on non-interacting systems, and then on to the more physically realistic scenarios that have attempted to analyse complex systems involving ever greater numbers of interacting trapping centres, luminescent centres and non-luminescent centres. The review emphasises the difficulty the band-gap models have in the simulation of dose response linear/supralinear behaviour and especially the dependence of the supralinearity on ionisation density. The significance of the non-observation of filling-rate supralinearity in the absorption stage is emphasised since it removes from consideration the possibility of TL supralinearity arising from irradiation stage supralinearity. The importance of the simultaneous action of both localised and delocalised transitions has gradually penetrated the mindset of the community of kinetic researchers, but most simulations have concentrated on the shape of glow peaks and the extraction of the glow peak parameters, E (the thermal activation energy) and s (the attempt-to-escape frequency). The simulation of linear/supralinear dose response and its dependence on ionisation density have been largely avoided until recently due to the fundamental schism between the effects of ionisation density and some basic assumptions of the band-gap model. The review finishes with an in-depth presentation and discussion of the most recent

  10. Public land and natural resource issues confronting animal scientists and livestock producers.

    PubMed

    Vavra, M

    1998-09-01

    Livestock producers using public lands in the West were once concerned primarily with efficient systems for livestock production. Historically, this concept began in 1934 with the passage of the Taylor Grazing Act. Management activities on public lands continued to focus on sustainable livestock production until the 1970s, when the public began to demand enforcement of the Multiple Use Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. During this time, species listing under the Endangered Species Act became more active. Unfortunately, so many species are listed or are being considered for listing that it becomes impossible to develop biological information on causative factors for listing or recovery plans for each one. Peer-reviewed science that addresses management needs is often unavailable, and articles from the gray literature have been used in management plans for both threatened and endangered species and for public land. Personal biases of both scientists and land managers can influence the development of land management plans, especially in cases in which scientific information is minimal. The Land Grant System is well positioned to develop research applicable for public lands. Animal scientists need to be involved in interdisciplinary teams. Livestock producers need to overcome the stigma that livestock grazing is not a sustainable use. Rangeland in poor condition, whether public or private, should be improved if livestock managers are to change the public perception that grazing degrades rangeland. To accomplish this, education and peer pressure should be used. Another approach needed is activism on the part of producers and animal scientists. The public is demanding a voice in public land management. Working groups seem to be the emerging pathway to cooperatively develop management plans.

  11. Confronting stillbirths and newborn deaths in areas of conflict and political instability: a neglected global imperative.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul H; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite considerable improvements in reproductive and newborn health throughout the world, relatively poor outcomes persist in areas plagued by conflict or political instability. To assess the contribution of areas of conflict and instability to global patterns of stillbirths and newborn deaths and to identify opportunities for effective intervention in these areas. Analysis of the available data on stillbirths and neonatal mortality in association with conflict and governance indicators, and review of epidemiological and political literature pertaining to the provision of health and public services in areas of conflict and instability. Of the 15 countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates in the world, 14 are characterized by chronic conflict or political instability. If India and China are excluded, countries experiencing chronic conflict or political instability account for approximately 42% of all neonatal deaths worldwide. Efforts to address adverse reproductive and newborn outcomes in these areas must adapt recommended intervention protocols to the special security and governance conditions associated with unstable political environment. Despite troubling relative and absolute indicators, the special requirements of improving reproductive and neonatal outcomes in areas affected by conflict and political instability have not received adequate attention. New integrated political and technical strategies will be required. This should include moving beyond traditional approaches concerned with complex humanitarian emergencies. Rather, global efforts must be based on a deeper understanding of the specific governance requirements associated with protracted and widespread health requirements. A focus on women's roles, regional strategies which take advantage of relative stability and governance capacity in neighbouring states, virtual infrastructure, and assistance regimens directed specifically to unstable areas may prove useful.

  12. Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hardon, A P; Akurut, D; Comoro, C; Ekezie, C; Irunde, H F; Gerrits, T; Kglatwane, J; Kinsman, J; Kwasa, R; Maridadi, J; Moroka, T M; Moyo, S; Nakiyemba, A; Nsimba, S; Ogenyi, R; Oyabba, T; Temu, F; Laing, R

    2007-05-01

    Adherence levels in Africa have been found to be better than those in the US. However around one out of four ART users fail to achieve optimal adherence, risking drug resistance and negative treatment outcomes. A high demand for 2nd line treatments (currently ten times more expensive than 1st line ART) undermines the sustainability of African ART programs. There is an urgent need to identify context-specific constraints to adherence and implement interventions to address them. We used rapid appraisals (involving mainly qualitative methods) to find out why and when people do not adhere to ART in Uganda, Tanzania and Botswana. Multidisciplinary teams of researchers and local health professionals conducted the studies, involving a total of 54 semi-structured interviews with health workers, 73 semi-structured interviews with ARTusers and other key informants, 34 focus group discussions, and 218 exit interviews with ART users. All the facilities studied in Botswana, Tanzania and Uganda provide ARVs free of charge, but ART users report other related costs (e.g. transport expenditures, registration and user fees at the private health facilities, and lost wages due to long waiting times) as main obstacles to optimal adherence. Side effects and hunger in the initial treatment phase are an added concern. We further found that ART users find it hard to take their drugs when they are among people to whom they have not disclosed their HIV status, such as co-workers and friends. The research teams recommend that (i) health care workers inform patients better about adverse effects; (ii) ART programmes provide transport and food support to patients who are too poor to pay; (iii) recurrent costs to users be reduced by providing three-months, rather than the one-month refills once optimal adherence levels have been achieved; and (iv) pharmacists play an important role in this follow-up care.

  13. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  14. Environmental concerns gaining importance in industry operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that environmental concerns have leapt to the forefront of industry's concerns in operating in Latin America. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro June 3-14 focused a strong world spotlight on the region's environmental and commercial resources. Protection of the region's rain forests, which accounts for a huge share of the world's total, is emerging as an especially contentious issue. Ecuador's Oriente region may well prove the litmus test of how or whether oil and gas companies are able to operate in Latin American rain forests. Controversy over industry operations in the Oriente have heated to the point that environmentalist and native groups have routinely picketed company offices in Quito and used mass fundraiser mailings in North America.

  15. WMPO project issues and public concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Vieth, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    The Governor of Nevada was notified in 1983 that the Yucca Mountain site is a potentially acceptable site for a nuclear waste storage site. A series of public hearings held produced nearly 400 comments on issues concerning the site nomination. Areas of primary public concern are the impact of the proposed nuclear site on tourism, transportation, and socioeconomic impact on adjacent communities. Results of recent studies showed no impact of high-level waste transport on tourism in the Las Vegas area and on analysis of data accumulated over the 25 to 30 years that high-level radioactive wastes have been transported on Nevada highways showed that no one has been evacuated from their home as the result of an accident involving radioactive waste. A comparison of the possible effects of construction of a nuclear waste storage facility at the Yucca mountain site with the effects of Nevada Test Site indicate that the impact on communities will be minimal.

  16. Consumer perceptions and concerns about food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, C M

    1999-01-01

    More consumers are concerned about microbiological hazards than any other area. Pesticide residues generate concern, especially among low income consumers with less formal education. Use of antibiotics and hormones in animal production is considered a serious hazard by fewer consumers. Consumer attitudes are influenced by media coverage. An increasing number of consumers expect food producers and retailers to assume a major role in providing safe food. A majority of consumers express interesting in purchasing irradiated food when specific benefits are described and the percentage increases when irradiation is more fully described. In actual market experiences, irradiated produce and poultry have been well received. Similarly, most consumers are positive toward biotechnology, with greatest support for environmental applications. The scientific community should use the media to reach the public with information identifying risks and protective strategies, including the use of new technology.

  17. Aluminum in Vaccines: Addressing Parents' Concerns.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    With myriad frightening stories on the Internet about vaccines, parents are frequently presenting to the pediatrician with questions about the safety of vaccine ingredients, and pediatricians need to be ready to listen to families with a kind ear. Pediatricians must also feel prepared to offer thoughtful, knowledgeable advice, appreciating the parent's concerns and educating them about the irrefutable benefits as well as the potential risks of vaccination. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e231-e233.].

  18. Panglobalism and pandemics: ecological and ethical concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, Holmes

    2005-01-01

    A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital, and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature. PMID:17132337

  19. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  20. Relation of dreams to waking concerns.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rosalind; Agargun, Mehmet Y; Kirkby, Jennifer; Friedman, Julie Kabat

    2006-03-30

    To test that dreams are influenced by the pre-sleep waking emotional concerns of the sleeper and have an effect on waking adaptation, 20 depressed and 10 control subjects, who were all going through a divorce, were enrolled in a repeated measures study lasting 5 months. A Current Concerns test was administered on three occasions before nights when every REM period was interrupted to record recalled mental content. The degree of waking concern about the ex-spouse correlated significantly with the number of dreams in which the former partner appeared as a dream character. Those who were in remission at the follow-up evaluation had a higher percentage of well-developed dreams than those who remained depressed. Dreams of the former spouse reported by those in remission differed from those who remained depressed in the expression of dream affect and in the within-dream linkage among units of associated memory material. Dreams of the former spouse that are reported by those who are not in remission lack affect and connection to other memories.

  1. Recent safety concerns with proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joan; Yuan, Yuhong Cathy; Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Howden, Colin W

    2012-02-01

    There have been recent concerns about the safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). We focus here on 3 specific concerns-the possible interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel, the postulated link between PPI use and fractures, and the possibility that long-term PPI use might lead to hypomagnesemia. There is evidence for an in vitro interaction between clopidogrel and at least some PPIs. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned against the use of certain PPIs by patients on clopidogrel. However, a randomized controlled trial that compared clopidogrel alone with the combination of clopidogrel and omeprazole found no increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes and a reduction in the rate of adverse gastrointestinal outcomes attributable to omeprazole. PPI use may be a weak risk factor for certain fractures, but the quality of evidence is relatively poor and there is a strong possibility of confounding. The mechanism whereby PPI use might increase fracture risk is unknown. Currently, no additional measures concerning calcium supplementation or bone mineral density monitoring are recommended for patients on a PPI. The FDA has suggested monitoring serum magnesium levels in patients on PPI therapy. The mechanism and frequency of PPI-induced hypomagnesemia are unclear. PPI treatment should not be withheld from patients who genuinely require it, but the PPI should be taken in the lowest effective dose and only for as long as clinically indicated. The same is, of course, true for all medicines. The benefits of PPI therapy greatly outweigh the risks.

  2. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  3. Body image concerns after colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Claire

    Body image is understood to be a person's perception of his or her own physical appearance although, as this article highlights, it embraces a greater range of bodily attributes than is often appreciated. It can be significantly affected by a diagnosis of colorectal cancer and subsequent treatment, which may modify the way the body looks, feels and functions. One of the major aesthetic and functional consequences of colorectal cancer surgery is the possibility of stoma formation, which is of particular concern to many. However, the range of other bodily effects following surgery should not be overlooked, not least because of they may result in distress. While concerns about changes in body image generally decrease over time, people recovering from cancer treatment often feel their relationship with their body has been permanently altered. Specialist support is often required when adjusting to any changes in bodily appearance and function. Care outcomes can be improved by having a sound understanding of the body image concerns likely to arise following treatment, as well as the skills to identify and support patients at risk of altered body image. This article provides guidance to nurses caring for individuals who may be experiencing distress over how their body is now perceived by themselves and others following colorectal cancer surgery.

  4. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  5. Adolescent attitudes, beliefs, and concerns regarding breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Antonia M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes, beliefs, and concerns of pregnant and postpartum adolescents regarding breastfeeding. Audiotaped focus groups of low-income, largely minority pregnant and postpartum adolescents were conducted and transcripts analyzed using content analysis techniques. Major themes identified were in the area of beliefs, such as "They say" it's healthy, or "It hurts"; attitudes, such as breastfeeding is the mother's "choice" and "The baby comes first"; and concerns such as privacy, and "Breastfeeding leads to dependency." Adolescents can be encouraged to breastfeed, but require appropriate education beyond what they have heard from others. Myths such as pain during breastfeeding need to be addressed. Since teens want to learn but not be told what to do, active learning strategies such as guided Internet searches could be helpful to guide them into discovery of the benefits of breastfeeding. Since all the teens in this study felt that "the baby comes first," emphasizing the benefits of breastfeeding for the baby should predominate educational efforts. Concerns related to physical exposure while breastfeeding can be addressed antenatally through discussing creative strategies to maintain modesty. This study suggests that, in the postpartum hospital setting, adopting a sensitive, initially "hands-off' approach to supporting breastfeeding might be more well-accepted than tactile assistance, and that following the initial establishment of a milk supply, various levels of breastfeeding exclusivity should be considered as potentially acceptable infant feeding patterns.

  6. From flood-event to climate in an alpine context (Arve valley, France): methodological issues toward the confrontation of historical documentation and geological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélo, Alain; Ployon, Estelle; Wilhelm, Bruno; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    Floods are complex multifactor events. As it can occur randomly on a given region, a given singular event does not clearly inform about climate variations. On the contrary, long-time series of well documented events, each one being replaced in its historical and geographical context, should bring valuable information. Such successions can be built-up using heterogeneous historical documentation taken from various social contexts. This is the case of small drainage basin of river Arve and its tributaries (Northern French Alps), on which this paper will focus. We used a plentiful and rich documentation which was elaborated quite exclusively to report damages in the aim of claiming tax abatement. As a consequence each text requires a hard critic to reach the necessary objectivity. The analysis of 18th century treasury archives led first to a geographical reconstruction of floods impacts and second to an unambiguous chronology of events. The contrasted morphology of river Arve drainage basin generates various types of floods, depending on geographical situations: summer flash-floods in the higher parts of valleys (Chamonix, Sixt) or torrential tributaries (Borne); autumn large floods in lower parts (Bonneville); some unusual events concern the whole basin (1733, 1778...). The constitution of long continuous series was thus possible. However, this does not allow evidencing any trend because most of the events are randomly-distributed flash-floods. In return, meteorological contextualization of each event replaces it in a larger climatic perception. Using this way (meteorological archives, comparisons with recently well-documented event) led us to corroborate connections between flood events and changing patterns. In order to go a step further, we led a pilot-study aiming at representing our data in space-time information system using concepts and tools of time geography. This study was limited to year 1930 AD which was rich in various meteorological events leading to

  7. Confronting models of star formation quenching in galaxy clusters with archival Spitzer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Gregory

    Large scale structures in the universe form hierarchically: small structures merge to form larger ones. Over the same epoch where these structures experience significant growth, the fraction of star forming galaxies within them decreases, and at a faster rate than for field galaxies. It is now widely accepted that there must be physical processes at work in these dense environments to actively quench star formation. However, despite no shortage of candidate mechanisms, sophisticated cosmological simulations still cannot reproduce the star formation rate distributions within dense environments, such as galaxy clusters. Insufficient observational constraints are a primary obstacle to further progress. In particular, the interpretation of observations of nearby clusters relies on untested assumptions about the properties of galaxies before they entered the dense cluster environment at higher redshifts. Clearly, direct constraints on these properties are required. Our group has assembled two data sets designed to address these concerns. The first focuses on an intermediate wide-field cluster sample and the second focuses on a well-matched low-redshift cluster sample. We will use these samples, along with sophisticated models of hierarchical galaxy formation, to meet the following objectives: 1. Directly measure the SFR distribution of the progenitors of present-day cluster galaxies. We will use ground-based spectroscopy to identify cluster members within four virial radii of eight intermediate-redshift clusters. We will couple this with archival Spitzer/MIPS data to measure the SFRs of galaxies out to the cluster outskirts. 2. Measure the SFR distribution of the present-day cluster galaxies using Spitzer and WISE. Robust N-body simulations tell us statistically which galaxies at intermediate redshifts will have entered the cluster virial radius by the current epoch. By combining our wide-field coverage at high redshift with our local cluster sample, we will determine

  8. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-08

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans.

  9. Confronting the Challenges of the Digital Era. Proceedings of the Membership Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (133rd, Washington, DC, October 14-16, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhalla, Nicole, Ed.; Barrett, Jaia, Ed.; Wetzel, Karen A., Ed.

    The 133rd meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) focused on strategies for confronting critical challenges associated with the digital era and for fostering understanding from university leaders and supporters regarding the resources needed to perform successfully in this print plus digital environment. Program Session I,…

  10. Confronting the Challenges of the Digital Era. Proceedings of the Membership Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (133rd, Washington, DC, October 14-16, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhalla, Nicole, Ed.; Barrett, Jaia, Ed.; Wetzel, Karen A., Ed.

    The 133rd meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) focused on strategies for confronting critical challenges associated with the digital era and for fostering understanding from university leaders and supporters regarding the resources needed to perform successfully in this print plus digital environment. Program Session I,…

  11. College Perspective '77: Confrontation or Collegiality. Proceedings, Annual International Institute on the Community College (8th, Lambton College, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, June 13-16, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgrosso, George M., Ed.; And Others

    Papers and addresses on aspects of confrontation affecting community college productivity and viability are presented. Keynote speeches include: "Learning to Live While Learning to Make a Living" by George J. Bullied; "Communication and Collegiality" by Charles M. Galloway; "Is Education the One Profession Immune to…

  12. Trapped in a Moral Order: Moral Identity, Positioning and Reflexivity in Stories of Confrontation among Latin American Teenage School Girls in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patiño-Santos, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the forms of reflexivity that emerge in the conversational narratives of Latin American teenage school girls co-produced during sociolinguistic interviews, in a multicultural school in the centre of Madrid. The narratives about confrontation at school portray the girls' actions and ways of making sense of such behaviours, in…

  13. The Politics of Knowledge and the Revitalization of American Democracy: A Response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Cary

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex." Henry Giroux has written a provocative assessment of the contemporary challenges facing the United States as a society, which over the course of the 20th century had assumed the role of leader and exemplar…

  14. Using Performance Ethnography to Confront Issues of Privilege, Race, and Institutional Racism: An Account of an Arts-Based Teacher Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierros, Edward Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Preservice student teachers engaged in a collaborative research initiative to examine the memory of the 1954 "Brown v. Topeka Board of Education" decision that culminated in a public performance. Ethnographic data were translated into performance texts through students' performances that confronted issues of privilege, race, and institutional…

  15. Child Health, Medicaid, and Welfare "Reform." Report III, Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local government, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a…

  16. Confrontation (A Human Relations Training Unit and Simulation Game for Teacher and Administrators in a Multi-Ethnic Elementary and High School). Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    The inservice teacher and administrator education program described here is intended to make teachers aware of the problems they may encounter in a multicultural, multiethnic school setting. The inservice topic is human relations, with the subject of black/white confrontation the main focus. This descriptive report provides additional information…

  17. Valuable but Threatening: The Reduced Effect of Incremental Theory on Challenge-Confronting Tendencies for Students Who Fear Being Laughed at

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Research has widely demonstrated that an incremental theory of intelligence is beneficial for students in achievement settings. The present study examined whether this theory can help students with high gelotophobia (i.e., the fear of being laughed at) confront challenges and clarified possible underlying processes. Theories of intelligence…

  18. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Creating Moral Crisis and the Role of the University in Confronting It from the View Point of Qassim University Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Smadi, Hend Sam'an Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at recognizing the effect of the social networking sites (henceforth snss) in creating moral crisis and the role of the university in its confrontation from the view point of faculty members at Qassim University. Two tests were constructed; the first included (29 items) developed to identify the role of snss in creating moral…

  19. Child Welfare in the Context of Welfare "Reform." Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States. Report V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local governments, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a…

  20. Challenges Confronting American Indian Youth. Oversight Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs received testimony from American Indian youth about the problems confronting Indian young people on reservations and in urban areas and about their own personal experiences with such problems. Witnesses included college and high school students representing various youth councils and youth organizations at a…