... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...
This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.
Sparks, Susan E
Glycosylation is an essential process by which sugars are attached to proteins and lipids. Complete lack of glycosylation is not compatible with life. Because of the widespread function of glycosylation, inherited disorders of glycosylation are multisystemic. Since the identification of the first defect on N-linked glycosylation in the 1980s, there are over 40 different congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases. This review will include defects of N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation and disorders of combined N- and O-linked glycosylation. PMID:23776380
Higgins, C.B.; Silverman, N.H.; Kersting-Somerhoff, B.A.
The book covers the tomographic anatomy of the normal and congenitally malformed heart and tomographic imaging of the normal heat. It then compares echocardiographic evaluation and the use of MR imaging in the diagnosis and evaluation of individual congenital cardiac malformations.
Putotto, Carolina; Unolt, Marta; Caiaro, Angela; Marino, Dario; Massaccesi, Valerio; Marino, Bruno; Digilio, Maria Cristina
Are there gender differences in prevalence, surgical results and long-term survival of patients with congenital heart disease? Available literature data allow us to state what follows. At birth there is a mild but significant prevalence of congenital heart disease in females. The most severe congenital heart diseases are less frequent in girls, but when they are present in females, they are linked to a higher surgical mortality rate, due perhaps to lower weight at birth and to the prevalence of extracardiac malformations and/or of associated genetic syndromes. On the other hand, in adults, surgery for congenital heart disease is at higher risk in males, and so the long-term survival rate is higher in females. Particular psychological attitudes, a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as well as specific problems linked to the reproductive function characterize congenital heart disease in adult women. The knowledge and analysis of these data are essential for a correct management of congenital heart disease in neonates, children and adults.
Holoshitz, Noa; Kenny, Damien; Hijazi, Ziyad M
The evolution of congenital cardiac surgery has seen significant innovative advances in collaborative efforts between congenital cardiac surgeons and interventionalists to provide the least invasive intervention with the greatest hemodynamic benefit for patients with congenital heart disease. This review looks at how this collaborative approach has evolved and is being applied to treat a number of congenital conditions across the age ranges.
Developmental genetics of congenital heart diseases has evolved from analysis of serial slices in embryos towards molecular genetics of cardiac morphogenesis with a dynamic view of cardiac development. Genetics of congenital heart diseases has also changed from formal genetic analysis of familial recurrences or population-based analysis to screening for mutations in candidates genes identified in animal models. Close cooperation between molecular embryologists, pathologists involved in heart development and pediatric cardiologists is crucial for further increase of knowledge in the field of cardiac morphogenesis and genetics of cardiac defects. The genetic model for congenital heart disease has to be revised to favor a polygenic origin rather than a monogenic one. The main mechanism is altered genic dosage that can account for heart diseases in chromosomal anomalies as well as in point mutations in syndromic and isolated congenital heart diseases. The use of big data grouping information from cardiac development, interactions between genes and proteins, epigenetic factors such as chromatin remodeling or DNA methylation is the current source for improving our knowledge in the field and to give clues for future therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Manso, Begoña; Gran, Ferrán; Pijuán, Antonia; Giralt, Gemma; Ferrer, Queralt; Betrián, Pedro; Albert, Dimpna; Rosés, Ferrán; Rivas, Nuria; Parra, Montserrat; Girona, Josep; Farrán, Inmaculada; Casaldáliga, Jaume
Since the creation of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Units and of the High Obstetric Risk Units, there has been increasing interest in hemodynamic and obstetric outcomes in pregnant woman with congenital heart disease. Retrospective descriptive study of 56 women with congenital heart disease aged (mean [range]) 25 (18-40) years, who experienced a total of 84 pregnancies between January 1992 and August 2006. The women were divided into three pregnancy risk groups: A, low-risk; B, moderate-risk, and C, high-risk. The incidence of complications during pregnancy was 1.6%, 15%, and 20% in groups A, B, and C, respectively; the incidence during the puerperium was 2%, 23%, and 50%, respectively; and maternal mortality was 0%, 7.6%, and 25%, respectively. Overall, 69 children were born, and the prematurity rates in the three groups were 11%, 15%, and 100%, respectively. The following risk factors were studied: pulmonary hypertension, cyanosis, arrhythmia, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, right ventricular dilatation, systemic right ventricle, and anticoagulation therapy. The risk factor most significantly associated with maternal or fetal morbidity or mortality was found to be pulmonary hypertension. Risk stratification in pregnant women with congenital heart disease provides prognostic information that can help multidisciplinary teams to target care to achieve the best results.
The story of congenital heart disease is one of the major successes of medicine in the last 50 years. Heart conditions previously associated with early death are now successfully treated. Many of these women are now in their child-bearing years wishing to have children of their own. All of these women should be offered comprehensive pre-conception counselling by a dedicated multi-disciplinary team. Each woman will present a unique set of cardiac and obstetric challenges that require an individualised assessment of risk and a carefully documented care plan. In this chapter, I describe the most common forms of congenital heart disease and the specific issues that should be assessed before conception. I present a systematic approach to risk stratification and care planning. These lesions range from mild disease with little implications for pregnancy to those with a sizable risk of maternal mortality or complications. I will also discuss fetal risk factors.
Fletcher, B.D.; Jacobstein, M.D.
Focusing primarily on MR imaging of the heart, this book covers other diagnostic imaging modalities as well. The authors review new technologies and diagnostic procedures pertinent to congenital heat disease and present each congenital heat abnormality as a separate entity.
Richards, Ashleigh A; Garg, Vidu
Cardiovascular malformations are the most common type of birth defect and result in significant mortality worldwide. The etiology for the majority of these anomalies remains unknown but genetic factors are being recognized as playing an increasingly important role. Advances in our molecular understanding of normal heart development have led to the identification of numerous genes necessary for cardiac morphogenesis. This work has aided the discovery of an increasing number of monogenic causes of human cardiovascular malformations. More recently, studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms and submicroscopic copy number abnormalities as having a role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease. This review discusses these discoveries and summarizes our increasing understanding of the genetic basis of congenital heart disease. PMID:21532774
Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, K D; Rao, Madan Mohan
We report a female newborn baby who presented with vomiting and abdominal distension on day 21 of life. Examination revealed facial puffiness, open posterior fontanelles, dry skin, cold peripheries and prominent abdominal veins with visible peristalsis. Barium enema revealed dilated proximal colon, empty rectum, funnel like transition zone between proximal dilated and distal constricted bowel. Serum TSH level was >;150 uIU/mL. Biopsy revealed aganglionic segment suggesting Hirschsprungs disease, an unusual association with congenital hypothyroidism.
Martínez Quintana, E; Agredo Muñoz, J; Rodríguez González, F; Nieto Lago, V
Congenital heart diseases are a frequent cause of cardiology consultation. New diagnostic and therapeutic techniques have allowed greater survival and quality of life of patients who wish to participate in sports. What they can do is not always easy to determine. Guidelines are helpful at the time of deciding, although finally is the doctor the one that must determine in each case the situation of the patient and the type of exercise they can do depending on the severity and type of cardiopathy.
van der Bom, Teun; Zomer, A Carla; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Meijboom, Folkert J; Bouma, Berto J; Mulder, Barbara J M
Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns. Advances in cardiovascular medicine and surgery have enabled most patients to reach adulthood. Unfortunately, prolonged survival has been achieved at a cost, as many patients suffer late complications, of which heart failure and arrhythmias are the most prominent. Accordingly, these patients need frequent follow-up by physicians with specific knowledge in the field of congenital heart disease. However, planning of care for this population is difficult, because the number of patients currently living with congenital heart disease is difficult to measure. Birth prevalence estimates vary widely according to different studies, and survival rates have not been well recorded. Consequently, the prevalence of congenital heart disease is unclear, with estimates exceeding the number of patients currently seen in cardiology clinics. New developments continue to influence the size of the population of patients with congenital heart disease. Prenatal screening has led to increased rates of termination of pregnancy. Improved management of complications has changed the time and mode of death caused by congenital heart disease. Several genetic and environmental factors have been shown to be involved in the etiology of congenital heart disease, although this knowledge has not yet led to the implementation of preventative measures. In this Review, we give an overview of the etiology, birth prevalence, current prevalence, mortality, and complications of congenital heart disease.
Aubry, P; Demian, H
Gender influences the clinical presentation and the management of some acquired cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, resulting in different outcomes. Differences between women and men are also noticed in congenital heart disease. They are mainly related to the prevalence and severity of some congenital heart defects at birth, and in adulthood to the prognosis, incidence of Eisenmenger syndrome and risks of pregnancy. The role of gender on the risk of operative mortality of congenital heart surgery remains debated. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lara, Diego A; Lopez, Keila N
Public health research is an integral part of the study of congenital heart disease. While this type of research has become more popular, particularly over the past decade, it has a history that stretches back to almost the beginnings of pediatric cardiology as a field. This review aims to introduce the concepts and methodologies of public health and how they relate to congenital heart disease, describe some of the challenges of traditional research methods in congenital heart disease, describe the history of public health research, and demonstrate the relevance of public health research, particularly databases, to pediatric cardiology fellows.
With the rapid increase in knowledge on the genetic origin of diseases within the gastrointestinal tract the number of congenital diseases, which already manifest during childhood have drastically increased. Due to the large application of molecular genetics the number is steadily increasing. To make the access to these rare diseases fast and efficient the data base of the National Library of Medicine (Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man - OMIN) is a very helpful online tool, with which all these disease entities can be found easily (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). Detailed tables are given to find most of the congenitally inherited disease, which affect the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of congenital diarrheas with disturbances of digestion, hydrolysis, absorption and secretion is described in detail: lactose intolerance, sucrose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, fructose malabsorption, trehalase and enterokinase deficiency, congenital chloride and sodium diarrhea, congenital hypomagnesaemia, primary bile acid malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica and Menke's syndrome. Also described in detail are diseases with structural anomalies of the intestine like microvillous inclusion disease, congenital tufting enteropathy and IPEX syndrome. The diagnosis in the disturbances of carbohydrate hydrolysis or absorption can be established by H2-breath tests after appropriate sugar challenge. Treatment consists of elimination of the responsible sugar from the diet. The diagnosis of the congenital secretory diarrheas is established by investigation of electrolytes in blood and stool. Substitution of high doses of the responsible mineral can improve the clinical outcome. In acrodermatitis enteropathica low serum zinc level together with the typical skin lesions guide to the diagnosis. High doses of oral zinc aspartate can cure the symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis of structural congenital lesions of the intestine can be established by histology and
... right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries , Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome , interrupted aortic arch, ... Testing Registry: Congenital heart disease Genetic Testing Registry: Ebstein's anomaly Genetic Testing Registry: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome ...
Mulvihill, John J.
Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)
McCulley, David J; Black, Brian L
Congenital heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Mutations in numerous transcription factors have been identified in patients and families with some of the most common forms of cardiac malformations and arrhythmias. This review discusses transcription factor pathways known to be important for normal heart development and how abnormalities in these pathways have been linked to morphological and functional forms of congenital heart defects. A comprehensive, current list of known transcription factor mutations associated with congenital heart disease is provided, but the review focuses primarily on three key transcription factors, Nkx2-5, GATA4, and Tbx5, and their known biochemical and genetic partners. By understanding the interaction partners, transcriptional targets, and upstream activators of these core cardiac transcription factors, additional information about normal heart formation and further insight into genes and pathways affected in congenital heart disease should result. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macartney, F J
Only those congenital defects carrying a very low risk of complication (either before or after surgical correction) were considered. Atrial Septal Defects--(a) Ostium primum defects should be treated with caution either before or after surgical correction because of the risk of progressive conduction disorders and mitral regurgitation. (b) Ostium secundum defects could be considered for licensing (if the defect is small) or with surgical repair if the right ventricular systolic pressure is normal. (c) Sinus venosus defects--if too small to require surgical repair, licensing may be considered provided ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring shows no evidence of arrhythmias. Surgery increases the risk of sino-atrial disease, thus licensing should be permitted only where there is no evidence of arrhythmia and adequate cardiological follow-up is possible. Ventricular Septal Defects--Subjects with very small defects not requiring surgical closure may be considered for licensing. Subjects who have had surgical closure have a risk of arrhythmias and should be carefully evaluated. Pulmonary Stenosis--If mild (either before or after surgery) may be licensed, but regular assessment perhaps including right heart catheterization is needed to demonstrate stability of the lesion. Persistent Ductus Arteriosus--Surgical closure should be recommended on diagnosis and need not affect licensing. Isolated Bicuspid Aortic Valve--Need not debar from licensing, but careful annual examination (with electrocardiogram 2-D echocardiography and fluroscopy ) is required to detect calcification, stenosis or regurgitation. Coarctation of aorta--Subjects who have had a repair before the age of 12 years may be considered for licensing after examination of other risk factors (blood pressure at rest and on exercise in particular). Those repaired over the age of 12 may be considered for restricted licensing if normotensive. These recommendations will need review in the light of further long
Ko, Jung Min
Recent research has demonstrated that genetic alterations or variations contribute considerably to the development of congenital heart disease. Many kinds of genetic tests are commercially available, and more are currently under development. Congenital heart disease is frequently accompanied by genetic syndromes showing both cardiac and extra-cardiac anomalies. Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of birth defects, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy and childhood. This review introduces common genetic syndromes showing various types of congenital heart disease, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Noonan syndrome. Although surgical techniques and perioperative care have improved substantially, patients with genetic syndromes may be at an increased risk of death or major complications associated with surgery. Therefore, risk management based on an accurate genetic diagnosis is necessary in order to effectively plan the surgical and medical management and follow-up for these patients. In addition, multidisciplinary approaches and care for the combined extra-cardiac anomalies may help to reduce mortality and morbidity accompanied with congenital heart disease.
Oliver Ruiz, José María; Mateos García, Marta; Bret Zurita, Montserrat
Improvements in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of congenital heart disease during infancy and childhood have resulted in an outstanding increase in the prevalence of these entities during adulthood. Congenital heart disease in the adult represents a new diagnostic challenge to the consultant cardiologist, unfamiliar with the anatomical and functional complexities of cardiac malformations. Assessment of adult congenital heart disease with imaging techniques can be as accurate as in children. However, these techniques cannot substitute for a detailed clinical assessment. Physical examination, electrocardiography and chest x-rays remain the three main pillars of bedside diagnosis. Transthoracic echocardiography is undoubtedly the imaging technique which provides most information, and in many situations no additional studies are needed. Nevertheless, ultrasound imaging properties in adults are not as favorable as in children, and prior surgical procedures further impair image quality. Despite recent advances in ultrasound technologies such as harmonic or contrast imaging, other diagnostic procedures are sometimes required. Fortunately, transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are easily performed in the adult, and do not require anaesthetic support, in contrast to pediatric patients. These techniques, together with nuclear cardiology and cardiac catheterization, complete the second tier of diagnostic techniques for congenital heart disease. To avoid unnecessary repetition of diagnostic procedures, the attending cardiologist should choose the sequence of diagnostic techniques carefully; although the information this yields is often redundant, it is also frequently complementary. This article aims to compare the diagnostic utility of different imaging techniques in adult patients with congenital heart disease, both with and without prior surgical repair.
Minamata disease is alkylmercury poisoning causing Hunter-Russell syndrome due to ingestion of seafood polluted by industrial waste. Two epidemics occurred in Minamata (1956) and Niigata (1965), Japan. Many infants with "cerebral palsy" in villages where adult cases occurred were established as having congenital Minamata disease. Developing brains were affected by alkylmercury through transplacental exposure and even by breastfeeding. This report reviews the history, clinical features, pathology, epidemiology, metal analysis, experiments, and sociolegal aspects of congenital Minamata disease. Many victims are still alive and their present conditions are reviewed.
Ware, Stephanie M.; Jefferies, John Lynn
There has been remarkable progress in understanding the genetic basis of cardiovascular malformations. Chromosome microarray analysis has provided a new tool to understand the genetic basis of syndromic cardiovascular malformations resulting from microdeletion or microduplication of genetic material, allowing the delineation of new syndromes. Improvements in sequencing technology have led to increasingly comprehensive testing for aortopathy, cardiomyopathy, single gene syndromic disorders, and Mendelian-inherited congenital heart disease. Understanding the genetic etiology for these disorders has improved their clinical recognition and management and led to new guidelines for treatment and family-based diagnosis and surveillance. These new discoveries have also expanded our understanding of the contribution of genetic variation, susceptibility alleles, and epigenetics to isolated congenital heart disease. This review summarizes the current understanding of the genetic basis of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart disease and highlights new diagnostic and management recommendations. PMID:22822471
Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes
Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454
Cyanosis is negative predictor of survival in adult patients with congenital heart disease. When cyanosis is secondary to heart or lung disease, chronic hypoxiemia result in hematologic, neurologic, renal and reumatic complications . Is important,for the optimization of therapeutics procedure, the follow up of heart disease and of oxygen saturation and blood work. For the care of this patients are required specialized centers with a multidisciplinary team of experts.
Krieger, Eric V; Leary, Peter J; Opotowsky, Alexander R
Patients with adult congenital heart disease have an increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. There are several mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension in patients with adult congenital heart disease, and understanding them requires a systematic approach to define the patient's hemodynamics and physiology. This article reviews the updated classification of pulmonary hypertension in patients with adult congenital heart disease with a focus on pathophysiology, diagnostics, and the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in special adult congenital heart disease populations.
Baum, V C
In adults with congenital heart disease who are confronted with noncardiac surgery, perioperative risks can be reduced, often appreciably, when problems inherent to this patient population are anticipated. The first necessity is to clarify the diagnosis and to be certain that appropriate information is obtained from a cardiologist with adequate knowledge of congenital heart disease in adults. Physiology and anatomy can vary significantly among patients who superficially carry identical diagnoses. Elective noncardiac surgery should be preceded by clinical assessment including review of clinical and laboratory data and securing the results of necessary diagnostic studies. Preoperative assessment should be performed far enough in advance of the anticipated date of surgery to allow critical assessment of the data and potential discussions with colleagues. Appropriate cardiovascular laboratory studies to be obtained or reviewed include electrocardiograms, chest radiographs, echocardiograms, and cardiac catheterization data, which may include specialized intracardiac electrophysiologic testing. Congenital heart disease in adults is a new and evolving area of special interest and expertise in cardiovascular medicine. Multidisciplinary centers for the care of these patients are being developed. The 22nd Bethesda Conference recommended that these centers include among their consultants anesthesiologists with special expertise in managing patients with congenital heart disease. These anesthesiologists can have the option of serving either as the attending anesthesiologists when patients require noncardiac surgery or as consultants and resource individuals to other anesthesiologists.
Freud, Lindsay R; Tworetzky, Wayne
This article discusses the rationale, patient selection, technical aspects, and outcomes of percutaneous, ultrasound-guided fetal cardiac intervention (FCI) for structural congenital heart disease. FCI is most commonly performed for three forms of congenital heart disease: severe aortic stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and HLHS with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum. For severe aortic stenosis and pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, the goal of intervention is to alter the natural history such that a biventricular circulation may be achieved postnatally. A growing number of patients have achieved a biventricular circulation; however, patient selection and postnatal management strategy are essential for success. HLHS with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum is one of the most lethal forms of congenital heart disease, and the goal of FCI is to improve survival. Although the creation of an atrial communication in utero is technically feasible and may permit greater stability in the immediate postnatal period, significant improvements in survival have not yet been reported. FCI is an evolving form of treatment for congenital heart disease that holds promise for select patients. Critical evaluation of both short and long-term outcomes is warranted.
DeBowes, R M; Gaughan, E M
Equine congenital dental deformities are not limited merely to those presented here; however, the examples discussed offer the reader an appreciation for the range of severity and complexity that may be found in affected horses. The veterinarian is obligated to provide the best possible care for the patient and to relieve animal suffering. The lack of definitive evidence for heritability of many of these defects can place the veterinarian in an untenable position, particularly when presented with literature that proclaims or suggests without evidence that a particular condition is inherited. In such cases, the veterinarian is encouraged to counsel owners, citing substantiated medical information, and to recommend that owners make the decision to eliminate the affected animals' ability to reproduce.
Bouma, Berto J; Mulder, Barbara J M
Congenital heart disease is the most frequently occurring congenital disorder affecting ≈0.8% of live births. Thanks to great efforts and technical improvements, including the development of cardiopulmonary bypass in the 1950s, large-scale repair in these patients became possible, with subsequent dramatic reduction in morbidity and mortality. The ongoing search for progress and the growing understanding of the cardiovascular system and its pathophysiology refined all aspects of care for these patients. As a consequence, survival further increased over the past decades, and a new group of patients, those who survived congenital heart disease into adulthood, emerged. However, a large range of complications raised at the horizon as arrhythmias, endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure, and the need for additional treatment became clear. Technical solutions were sought in perfection and creation of new surgical techniques by developing catheter-based interventions, with elimination of open heart surgery and new electronic devices enabling, for example, multisite pacing and implantation of internal cardiac defibrillators to prevent sudden death. Over time, many pharmaceutical studies were conducted, changing clinical treatment slowly toward evidence-based care, although results were often limited by low numbers and clinical heterogeneity. More attention has been given to secondary issues like sports participation, pregnancy, work, and social-related difficulties. The relevance of these issues was already recognized in the 1970s when the need for specialized centers with multidisciplinary teams was proclaimed. Finally, research has become incorporated in care. Results of intervention studies and registries increased the knowledge on epidemiology of adults with congenital heart disease and their complications during life, and at the end, several guidelines became easily accessible, guiding physicians to deliver care appropriately. Over the past decades
Yucel, Evin; DeFaria Yeh, Doreen
Advances in cardiac surgical interventions in infancy and childhood have led to an increased number of women with congenital heart disease of childbearing age. For these women, individualized preconception counseling and pregnancy planning should be a vital component of their medical management, and presentation for obstetric care may even be an opportunity to re-establish cardiovascular care for patients who have been lost to follow-up. These patients have unique cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, which is dependent upon the surgical intervention they may have undergone during childhood or adolescence. These factors are associated with a variety of long-term complications, and the normal hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask cardiac dysfunction and pose significant risk. Among three published risk assessment algorithms, the World Health Organization classification is the most sensitive in predicting maternal cardiovascular events in this population. Women with simple congenital heart defects generally tolerate pregnancy well and can be cared for in the community with careful monitoring. Conversely, women with complex congenital defects, with or without surgical repair and/or residual defects, should be managed in tertiary care centers under a multidisciplinary team of physicians experienced in adult congenital heart disease and high-risk obstetrics, who collaboratively participate in pregnancy planning, management, and care through childbirth and postpartum. Women who are cyanotic with oxygen saturation less than 85%, have significant pulmonary arterial hypertension of any cause, or have systemic ventricular dysfunction should be counseled to avoid pregnancy due to a very high risk of maternal and fetal mortality.
Hoffman, Julien Ie
Although the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is similar worldwide, the burden of supporting these patients falls more heavily on countries with high fertility rates. In a country with a fertility rate of about eight per woman, the population has to support four times as many children with CHD as in a country with a fertility rate of two. Countries with the highest fertility rates tend to have the lowest incomes per capita, thus accentuating the disparity. Countries with high fertility rates have more children with congenital heart disease per wage earner. Improving local health services and controlling infectious diseases (diarrhoeal illness, rheumatic fever, measles, rotoviral infection) are important but are mere 'band-aids' compared to improving education, empowering women and reducing birth rates.
Tarp, Julie Bjerre; Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Engstrøm, Thomas; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Søndergaard, Lars
Improved treatment options in paediatric cardiology and congenital heart surgery have resulted in an ageing population of patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). The risk of acquired heart disease such as atherosclerosis increases with age.Previous studies have speculated whether patients with CCHD are protected against atherosclerosis. Results have shown that the coronary arteries of patients with CCHD are free from plaques and stenosis. Decreased carotid intima-media thickness and low total plasma cholesterol may indicate a reduced risk of later development of atherosclerosis. However, the evidence is still sparse and questionable, and a reasonable explanation for the decreased risk of developing atherosclerosis in patients with CCHD is still missing.This review provides an overview of what is known about the prevalence and potential causes of the reduced risk of atherosclerosis in patients with CCHD.
For more than 20 years, interventional cardiac catheterization has considerably increased in the therapeutic management of simple congenital heart disease in childhood. It is possible to correct pulmonary or aortic valvar stenosis, to close a persistent shunt as patent arterial duct or atrial septal defect. Sometimes, it can replace surgical repair and can be proposed as a first line treatment. Interventional cardiac catheterisation has several advantages for the patient: no thoracotomy, no scar, shorter hospital stay, less painful, lower morbidity and reduced cost. These techniques have also benefited from miniaturization and evolution of the occluders with time. Gene therapy, tissue engineering and new imaging modality (MRI, endovascular echo) will be the future of interventional cardiac catheterization which will occupy a more important place in the treatment of congenital heart disease in children.
Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cecile
Pulmonary hypertension complicates the course of many children and adults with congenital heart diseases (CHDs). The increase in pulmonary pressure associated with CHD is secondary to either increased pulmonary blood flow or increased postcapillary pressures. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is in the vast majority associated with congenital cardiac shunts. Despite major advances in the understanding of the regulation of the pulmonary vascular bed and the pulmonary endothelial lesions leading to pulmonary vascular disease, despite the advances in surgical repair and the discovery of potential therapies in the pre- and postoperative period, pulmonary hypertension still carries a significant mortality and morbidity in patients with CHD. The recent introduction of targeted therapies in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension has led to a renewed interest in pulmonary hypertension associated with CHD and this particularly for the most advanced form, the so-called Eisenmenger syndrome (ES). This review summarizes the current knowledge on pulmonary hypertension associated with CHD, focusing on the pathophysiology and treatment of ES.
Bhatt, Ami B; DeFaria Yeh, Doreen
Most women with known congenital heart disease can have successful pregnancy, labor, and delivery. Preconception assessment is essential in understanding anatomy, repairs, and current physiology, all of which can influence risk in pregnancy. With that foundation, a multidisciplinary cardio-obstetric team can predict and prepare for complications that may occur with superimposed hemodynamic changes of pregnancy. Individuals with Eisenmenger syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, cyanosis, significant left heart obstruction, ventricular dysfunction, or prior major cardiac event are among the highest risk for complications.
The spectrum of congenital heart disease (CHD) seen in the adult varies widely. Malformations range from mild anomalies requiring no intervention to extremely complex pathologies characterized by the presence of multiple coexistent defects. Echocardiography represents the primary noninvasive imaging modality in the assessment of these lesions. The transesophageal approach expands the applications of echocardiography by allowing the acquisition of anatomic and functional information that may not be obtainable by transthoracic imaging. PMID:28074821
Robbers-Visser, Daniëlle; Luijnenburg, Saskia E; van den Berg, Jochem; Moelker, Adriaan; Helbing, Willem A
In patients with coronary arterial disease, stress imaging is able to demonstrate abnormalities in the motion of the ventricular walls, and abnormalities in coronary arterial perfusion not apparent at rest. It can also provide information on prognostic factors. In patients with congenitally malformed hearts, stress imaging is used to determine contractile reserve, abnormalities of mural motion, and global systolic function, but also to assess diastolic and vascular function. In most of these patients, stress is usually induced using pharmacological agents, mainly dobutamine given in varying doses. The clinical usefulness of abnormal responses to the stress induced in such patients has to be addressed in follow-up studies. The abnormal stress might serve as surrogate endpoints, predicting primary endpoints at an early stage, which are useful for stratification of risk in this population of growing patients. We review here the stress imaging studies performed to date in patients with congenitally malformed hearts, with a special emphasis on echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Maughan, Elizabeth; Lesage, Flore; Butler, Colin R; Hynds, Robert E; Hewitt, Richard; Janes, Sam M; Deprest, Jan A; Coppi, Paolo De
Regenerative medicine offers hope of a sustainable solution for severe airway disease by the creation of functional, immunocompatible organ replacements. When considering fetuses and newborns, there is a specific spectrum of airway pathologies that could benefit from cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. While hypoplastic lungs associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) could benefit from cellular based treatments aimed at ameliorating lung function, patients with upper airway obstruction could take advantage from a de novo tissue engineering approach. Moreover, the international acceptance of the EXIT procedure as a means of securing the precarious neonatal airway, together with the advent of fetal surgery as a method of heading off postnatal co-morbidities, offers the revolutionary possibility of extending the clinical indication for tissue-engineered airway transplantation to infants affected by diverse severe congenital laryngotracheal malformations. This article outlines the necessary basic components for regenerative medicine solutions in this potential clinical niche. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
D'Souza, Rohan; Sermer, Mathew; Silversides, Candice K
Due to advances in paediatric congenital heart surgery, there are a growing number of women with congenital heart disease (CHD) reaching childbearing age. Pregnancy, however, is associated with haemodynamic stresses which can result in cardiac decompensation in women with CHD. Many women with CHD are aware of their cardiac condition prior to pregnancy, and preconception counselling is an important aspect of their care. Preconception counselling allows women to make informed pregnancy decisions, provides an opportunity for modifications of teratogenic medications and, when necessary, repair of cardiac lesions prior to pregnancy. Less commonly, the haemodynamic changes of pregnancy unmask a previously unrecognised heart lesion. In general, pregnancy outcomes are favourable for women with CHD, but there are some cardiac lesions that carry high risk for both the mother and the baby, and this group of women require care by an experienced multidisciplinary team. This review discusses preconception counselling including contraception, an approach to risk stratification and management recommendations in women with some common CHDs.
Congenital diseases of the aorta tend to be obstructive when they present early in life, and aneurysmal when they present later in life. The latter group also tends to be associated with connective tissue disorders and with repaired conotruncal lesions. The indications for intervention in the aneurysm group are still in evolution but are clearly age- and lesion-dependant. Disorders such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Turner syndrome may deserve aggressive prophylactic surgery, as well as Marfan syndrome to a lesser extent. The natural history of the dilated aorta after repair of congenital heart lesions is probably more benign than de novo aneurysms and therefore should be treated conservatively. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mazor Dray, Efrat; Marelli, Ariane J
This article reviews the changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease summarizing its impact on the demographics of the congenital heart disease population and the progress made in order to improve outcomes in this patient population. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease can be modified by many factors. As a result of decreasing mortality and increasing survival in all forms of congenital heart disease, the median age of patients has increased and adults now compose two-thirds of patients with congenital heart disease. Disease burden and resulting health services utilization increase significantly across the lifespan. Bridging the gap between policy and quality of care can be improved by referral to specialized adult congenital heart disease centers and planning delivery of specialized services that are commensurate with population needs, program accreditation criteria and certified training of designated workforce.
Scansen, Brian A; Schneider, Matthias; Bonagura, John D
Feline congenital heart disease is less commonly encountered in veterinary medicine than acquired feline heart diseases such as cardiomyopathy. Understanding the wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular disease demands a familiarity with a variety of lesions, occurring both in isolation and in combination, along with an appreciation of complex nomenclature and variable classification schemes. This review begins with an overview of congenital heart disease in the cat, including proposed etiologies and prevalence, examination approaches, and principles of therapy. Specific congenital defects are presented and organized by a sequential segmental classification with respect to their morphologic lesions. Highlights of diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis are offered. It is hoped that this review will provide a framework for approaching congenital heart disease in the cat, and more broadly in other animal species based on the sequential segmental approach, which represents an adaptation of the common methodology used in children and adults with congenital heart disease.
Naidu, Pavithra; Grigg, Leeanne; Zentner, Dominica
Retrospective ascertainment of the causes of mortality in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) cohort of the Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH). Deceased patients (n=73) of the 2519 ACHD patients in the Royal Melbourne Hospital registry (commenced in 1991) were identified. Retrospective analysis was undertaken. Age, gender of deceased individuals, and frequency and cause of death in different congenital diagnosis groups was explored. Between 1991 and 2015, death occurred in 3.3% of the ACHD cohort. Median age at death was 32years (IQR 26-41.5) and 51% were male. The most frequent underlying cardiac conditions were Eisenmenger's syndrome (22%), pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect+/-major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (12%), Tetralogy of Fallot (10%), transposition of great arteries (TGA) with intact ventricular septum (8%), single ventricle (8%) and congenitally corrected TGA (5%). The cause of death was available from medical records in 60 (82%) of the 73 patients. The majority of deaths were due to cardiac causes (67%) including sudden death (40%), heart failure (13%), and documented ventricular arrhythmias (8%). The most common non-cardiac cause of death was sepsis (10%). The majority of deaths in this group were due to cardiac causes with sudden death and heart failure being the most common. Identification of risk factors for sudden death might assist identification of patients who may benefit from preventative therapies including implantable cardiac defibrillator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mansour, A M; Bitar, F F; Traboulsi, E I; Kassak, K M; Obeid, M Y; Megarbane, A; Salti, H I
To describe the ocular findings in subjects with congenital heart disease (CHD). In a prospective study, the same observer examined 240 consecutive patients with CHD admitted to the medical centre. Two independent geneticists performed identification of syndromes. The commonest anatomic cardiac anomalies were ventricular or atrial septal defects (62), tetralogy of Fallot (39), pulmonary stenosis (25), and transposition of the great arteries (24). The heart lesions were divided physiologically into volume overload (90), cyanotic (87), and obstructive (63). In all, 105 syndromic subjects included the velocardiofacial syndrome (18), Down's syndrome (17), CHARGE association (6), DiGeorge syndrome (5), Williams syndrome (3), Edwards syndrome (3), Noonan syndrome (3), VACTERL association (2), and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13) (2). The paediatric team recognized 51 patients as syndromic. Two independent geneticists recognized additional 54 patients as syndromic. Positive eye findings were present in 55% (132) and included retinal vascular tortuosity (46), optic disc hypoplasia (30), trichomegaly (15), congenital ptosis (12), strabismus (11), retinal haemorrhages (8), prominent eyes (7), and congenital cataract (6). There was a strong correlation between the retinal vascular tortuosity and both a low haematocrit (P=0.000) and a low arterial oxygen saturation (P=0.002). Patients with CHD are at a high risk for ocular pathology and need screening for various ocular abnormalities.
Muntean, Iolanda; Togănel, Rodica; Benedek, Theodora
Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital anomaly, representing an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Congenital heart disease represents a group of heart anomalies that include septal defects, valve defects, and outflow tract anomalies. The exact genetic, epigenetic, or environmental basis of congenital heart disease remains poorly understood, although the exact mechanism is likely multifactorial. However, the development of new technologies including copy number variants, single-nucleotide polymorphism, next-generation sequencing are accelerating the detection of genetic causes of heart anomalies. Recent studies suggest a role of small non-coding RNAs, micro RNA, in congenital heart disease. The recently described epigenetic factors have also been found to contribute to cardiac morphogenesis. In this review, we present past and recent genetic discoveries in congenital heart disease.
Wood, John C
Cardiac MRI (CMR) is replacing diagnostic cardiac catheterization as the modality of choice for anatomic and functional characterization of congenital heart disease (CHD) when echocardiographic imaging is insufficient. In this manuscript, we discuss the principles of anatomic imaging of CHD, placing emphasis on the appropriate choice and modification of pulse sequences necessary to evaluate infants and small children. Clinical examples are provided to illustrate the relative strengths and shortcomings of different CMR imaging techniques. Although cardiovascular function and flow techniques are not described, their role in evaluating the severity of anatomic defects is emphasized. Anatomic characterization represents the first component of a carefully-planned, integrated CMR assessment of CHD.
Twomey, Darragh J; Sanders, Prashanthan; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C
Macroreentrant atrial tachycardia is a common complication following surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD), and is often highly symptomatic with potentially significant hamodynamic consequences. Medical management is often unsuccessful, requiring the use of invasive procedures. Cavotricuspid isthmus dependent flutter is the most common circuit but atypical circuits also exist, involving sites of surgical intervention or areas of scar related to abnormal hemodynamics. Ablation can be technically challenging, due to complex anatomy, and difficulty with catheter stability. A thorough assessment of the pa-tients status and pre-catheter ablation planning is critical to successfully managing these patients. PMID:25308809
A genetic background is discussed in many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with a disposition in addition to environmental factors. The pathophysiology of most hereditary diseases is unknown although the mode of inheritance is established. Biochemical analysis may show molecular defects or inborn lack of enzymes, cytogenetic studies may reveal chromosomal abnormalities. The knowledge of genetic factors in gastrointestinal disorders may contribute to the early detection of persons afflicted but not yet symptomatic, in some rare syndromes genetic counseling may become mandatory. Finally, there are many congenital malformations which may not cause symptoms for many years so that doubts may arise whether they are developmental anomalies or acquired conditions.
Graziani, Francesca; Delogu, Angelica Bibiana
The clinical approach to adults with congenital heart diseases (ACHDs) is unique in cardiovascular medicine because these patients encompass a broad range of presentations. Each patient, despite having similar diagnosis, will be anatomically and physiologically unlike others within ACHD population, in relation to the type of repair, age at repair, associated defects, with specific long-term risk factors and complications. Furthermore, as many patients will not complain of symptoms, clinical evaluation and diagnostic testing must also be based on the underlying main diagnostic category, with complete standardized lesion-specific clinical protocols, investigating all known risk factors specific for each congenital heart disease and performed as part of screening for significant long-term complications. The first part of this review will focus on clinical history, physical examination, and the most important diagnostic testing in ACHD population. The second part of the article will focus on some clinical issues we have to face in our daily practice, such as heart failure, cyanosis, and pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, as survival rates of ACHD population continue to improve and patients with this condition live longer, we will briefly report on a new clinical concern regarding the impact of acquired morbidities like coronary artery disease that appear to be of greater importance in defining outcome in older patients with ACHD.
De Feo, Stefania; Iacovoni, Attilio; Faggiano, Pompilio
Heart diseases are the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The number of patients with congenital heart diseases reaching childbearing age, as well as the proportion of women with acquired conditions, such as ischemic heart disease, becoming pregnant is constantly increasing. All women with known heart disease should have pre-pregnancy counseling, to assess maternal and fetal risk. Women at moderate or high risk should be under the care of a specialist prenatal team with experience in managing women with heart disease during pregnancy. Conditions that are considered at particularly high risk (mortality >10%) include Marfan syndrome with dilated aortic root, severe left ventricular dysfunction, severe left heart obstructive lesions, and pulmonary hypertension. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare and potentially fatal disease related to pregnancy and the postnatal period that presents with symptoms of congestion and/or hypoperfusion and may rapidly progress to acute and life-threatening heart failure. However, the majority of women with heart disease can tolerate pregnancy; therefore an adequate multidisciplinary approach with the gynecologist, anesthesiologist and cardiologist should be advocated in order to reduce maternal and fetal risks associated with pregnancy.
Woodward, Cathy S
Keeping children with congenital heart disease healthy is vital to their long-term survival and quality of life. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to keep these sometimes fragile children healthy before, between, and after their cardiac surgeries. Primary care visits should address developmental morbidity. Referral for in-depth evaluations and intervention should be initiated for children with hemodynamically significant heart disease. Infants may also experience poor feeding. Nutritional guidance may include fortifying formulas or enteral tube feedings. Attention to immunization status and prevention of winter illnesses and endocarditis may reduce complications in this high-risk group of children. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kimberlin, David W; Jester, Penelope M; Sánchez, Pablo J; Ahmed, Amina; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Michaels, Marian G; Ashouri, Negar; Englund, Janet A; Estrada, Benjamin; Jacobs, Richard F; Romero, José R; Sood, Sunil K; Whitworth, M Suzanne; Abzug, Mark J; Caserta, Mary T; Fowler, Sandra; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge; Storch, Gregory A; DeBiasi, Roberta L; Han, Jin-Young; Palmer, April; Weiner, Leonard B; Bocchini, Joseph A; Dennehy, Penelope H; Finn, Adam; Griffiths, Paul D; Luck, Suzanne; Gutierrez, Kathleen; Halasa, Natasha; Homans, James; Shane, Andi L; Sharland, Michael; Simonsen, Kari; Vanchiere, John A; Woods, Charles R; Sabo, Diane L; Aban, Inmaculada; Kuo, Huichien; James, Scott H; Prichard, Mark N; Griffin, Jill; Giles, Dusty; Acosta, Edward P; Whitley, Richard J
The treatment of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease with intravenous ganciclovir for 6 weeks has been shown to improve audiologic outcomes at 6 months, but the benefits wane over time. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of valganciclovir therapy in neonates with symptomatic congenital CMV disease, comparing 6 months of therapy with 6 weeks of therapy. The primary end point was the change in hearing in the better ear ("best-ear" hearing) from baseline to 6 months. Secondary end points included the change in hearing from baseline to follow-up at 12 and 24 months and neurodevelopmental outcomes, with each end point adjusted for central nervous system involvement at baseline. A total of 96 neonates underwent randomization, of whom 86 had follow-up data at 6 months that could be evaluated. Best-ear hearing at 6 months was similar in the 6-month group and the 6-week group (2 and 3 participants, respectively, had improvement; 36 and 37 had no change; and 5 and 3 had worsening; P=0.41). Total-ear hearing (hearing in one or both ears that could be evaluated) was more likely to be improved or to remain normal at 12 months in the 6-month group than in the 6-week group (73% vs. 57%, P=0.01). The benefit in total-ear hearing was maintained at 24 months (77% vs. 64%, P=0.04). At 24 months, the 6-month group, as compared with the 6-week group, had better neurodevelopmental scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition, on the language-composite component (P=0.004) and on the receptive-communication scale (P=0.003). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 19% of the participants during the first 6 weeks. During the next 4.5 months of the study, grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 21% of the participants in the 6-month group and in 27% of those in the 6-week group (P=0.64). Treating symptomatic congenital CMV disease with valganciclovir for 6 months, as compared with 6 weeks, did not improve hearing in the short term
Kimberlin, D.W.; Jester, P.M.; Sánchez, P.J.; Ahmed, A.; Arav-Boger, R.; Michaels, M.G.; Ashouri, N.; Englund, J.A.; Estrada, B.; Jacobs, R.F.; Romero, J.R.; Sood, S.K.; Whitworth, M.S.; Abzug, M.J.; Caserta, M.T.; Fowler, S.; Lujan-Zilbermann, J.; Storch, G.A.; DeBiasi, R.L.; Han, J.-Y.; Palmer, A.; Weiner, L.B.; Bocchini, J.A.; Dennehy, P.H.; Finn, A.; Griffiths, P.D.; Luck, S.; Gutierrez, K.; Halasa, N.; Homans, J.; Shane, A.L.; Sharland, M.; Simonsen, K.; Vanchiere, J.A.; Woods, C.R.; Sabo, D.L.; Aban, I.; Kuo, H.; James, S.H.; Prichard, M.N.; Griffin, J.; Giles, D.; Acosta, E.P.; Whitley, R.J.
BACKGROUND The treatment of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease with intravenous ganciclovir for 6 weeks has been shown to improve audiologic outcomes at 6 months, but the benefits wane over time. METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of valganciclovir therapy in neonates with symptomatic congenital CMV disease, comparing 6 months of therapy with 6 weeks of therapy. The primary end point was the change in hearing in the better ear (“best-ear” hearing) from baseline to 6 months. Secondary end points included the change in hearing from baseline to follow-up at 12 and 24 months and neurodevelopmental outcomes, with each end point adjusted for central nervous system involvement at baseline. RESULTS A total of 96 neonates underwent randomization, of whom 86 had follow-up data at 6 months that could be evaluated. Best-ear hearing at 6 months was similar in the 6-month group and the 6-week group (2 and 3 participants, respectively, had improvement; 36 and 37 had no change; and 5 and 3 had worsening; P = 0.41). Total-ear hearing (hearing in one or both ears that could be evaluated) was more likely to be improved or to remain normal at 12 months in the 6-month group than in the 6-week group (73% vs. 57%, P = 0.01). The benefit in total-ear hearing was maintained at 24 months (77% vs. 64%, P = 0.04). At 24 months, the 6-month group, as compared with the 6-week group, had better neurodevelopmental scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition, on the language-composite component (P = 0.004) and on the receptive-communication scale (P = 0.003). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 19% of the participants during the first 6 weeks. During the next 4.5 months of the study, grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 21% of the participants in the 6-month group and in 27% of those in the 6-week group (P = 0.64). CONCLUSIONS Treating symptomatic congenital CMV disease with valganciclovir for 6 months, as compared
Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook
Despite developments in surgical techniques and other interventions, right ventricular (RV) failure remains an important clinical problem in several congenital heart diseases (CHD). RV function is one of the most important predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with CHD. RV failure is a progressive disorder that begins with myocardial injury or stress, neurohormonal activation, cytokine activation, altered gene expression, and ventricular remodeling. Pressure-overload RV failure caused by RV outflow tract obstruction after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis, atrial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, and systemic RV failure after the Fontan operation. Volume-overload RV failure may be caused by atrial septal defect, pulmonary regurgitation, or tricuspid regurgitation. Although the measurement of RV function is difficult because of many reasons, the right ventricle can be evaluated using both imaging and functional modalities. In clinical practice, echocardiography is the primary mode for the evaluation of RV structure and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used for evaluating RV structure and function. A comprehensive evaluation of RV function may lead to early and optimal management of RV failure in patients with CHD.
Sun, RongRong; Liu, Min; Lu, Lei; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying
The congenital heart disease includes abnormalities in heart structure that occur before birth. Such defects occur in the fetus while it is developing in the uterus during pregnancy. About 500,000 adults have congenital heart disease in USA (WebMD, Congenital heart defects medications, www.WebMD.com/heart-disease/tc/congenital-heart-defects-medications , 2014). 1 in every 100 children has defects in their heart due to genetic or chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome. The excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy and use of medications, maternal viral infection, such as Rubella virus, measles (German), in the first trimester of pregnancy, all these are risk factors for congenital heart disease in children, and the risk increases if parent or sibling has a congenital heart defect. These are heart valves defects, atrial and ventricular septa defects, stenosis, the heart muscle abnormalities, and a hole inside wall of the heart which causes defect in blood circulation, heart failure, and eventual death. There are no particular symptoms of congenital heart disease, but shortness of breath and limited ability to do exercise, fatigue, abnormal sound of heart as heart murmur, which is diagnosed by a physician while listening to the heart beats. The echocardiogram or transesophageal echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, cardiac catheterization, and MRI methods are used to detect congenital heart disease. Several medications are given depending on the severity of this disease, and catheter method and surgery are required for serious cases to repair heart valves or heart transplantation as in endocarditis. For genetic study, first DNA is extracted from blood followed by DNA sequence analysis and any defect in nucleotide sequence of DNA is determined. For congenital heart disease, genes in chromosome 1 show some defects in nucleotide sequence. In this review the causes, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatments of congenital heart disease are described.
Killen, Stacy A S; Mouledoux, Jessica H; Kavanaugh-McHugh, Ann
Fetal cardiology is a rapidly evolving field. Imaging technology continues to advance as do approaches to in-utero interventions and care of the critically ill neonate, with even greater demand for improvement in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and arrhythmias. Reviewing the advances in prenatal diagnosis of CHD in such a rapidly developing field is a broad topic. Therefore, we have chosen to focus this review of recent literature on challenges in prenatal detection of CHD, challenges in prenatal counseling, advances in fetal arrhythmia diagnosis, and potential benefits to patients with CHD who are identified prenatally. As methods and tools to diagnose and manage CHD and arrhythmias in utero continue to improve, future generations will hopefully see a reduction in both prenatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Prenatal diagnosis can and should be used to optimize location and timing of delivery and postnatal interventions.
Herreman, G; Sauvaget, F; Généreau, T; Galezowski, N
Congenital heart block is rare; it is acquired in utero, definitive and, more often than not, complete. It can be diagnosed by the appearance of fetal bradycardia around the 23rd week of gestation, during ultrasonographic monitoring of pregnancy. Heart block is usually associated with the presence of anti-Ro and/or anti-La antibodies in the mother's serum. These maternal immunological abnormalities can be isolated or associated with an autoimmune disease, usually systemic lupus erythematosus, but also Sjögren's syndrome, or more rarely still, an as yet unclassified connective tissue disease. Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies cross the placental barrier and react with a fetal heart, leading to acute fetal myocarditis by the 17th week of gestation. When severe, it is lethal, otherwise it can result in degeneration and endocardial fibroelastosis, disrupting conduction and leading to congenital heart block. The ideal treatment would be prevention with corticosteroids. When the mother is Ro or La antibody-positive before pregnancy, elimination of these circulating antibodies can be attempted by treatment with 0.5 mg/kg body wt/d of prednisolone for 3 months. If the treatment is successful, corticotherapy can be prescribed early in the pregnancy to try to protect the fetus. However, there is not always a relationship between maternal anti-Ro antibodies and fetal heart block. If the Ro/La antibody-positive woman is already pregnant, but before her 17th week, it is possible to prescribe dexamethasone, which crosses the placenta and remains active, sometimes in association with plasmapheresis.
Correia, Marta; Fortunato, Fabiana; Martins, Duarte; Teixeira, Ana; Nogueira, Graça; Menezes, Isabel; Anjos, Rui
Complex congenital heart disease is a group of severe conditions. Prenatal diagnosis has implications on morbidity and mortality for most severe conditions. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of prenatal diagnosis and distance of residence and birth place to a reference center, on immediate morbidity and early mortality of complex congenital heart disease. Retrospective study of complex congenital heart disease patients of our Hospital, born between 2007 and 2012. There were 126 patients born with complex congenital heart disease. In 95%, pregnancy was followed since the first trimester, with prenatal diagnosis in 42%. There was a statistically significant relation between birth place and prenatal diagnosis. Transposition of great arteries was the most frequent complex congenital heart disease (45.2%), followed by pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (17.5%) and hypoplastic left ventricle (9.5%). Eighty-two patients (65.1%) had prostaglandin infusion and 38 (30.2%)were ventilated before an intervention. Surgery took place in the neonatal period in 73%. Actuarial survival rate at 30 days, 12 and 24 months was 85%, 80% and 75%, respectively. There was no statistically significant relation between prenatal diagnosis and mortality. Most patients with complex congenital heart disease did not have prenatal diagnosis. All cases with prenatal diagnosis were born in a tertiary center. Prenatal diagnosis did not influence significantly neonatal mortality, as already described in other studies with heterogeneous complex heart disease. prenatal diagnosis of complex congenital heart disease allowed an adequate referral. Most patients with complex congenital heart disease werenâÄôt diagnosed prenatally. This data should be considered when planning prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease.
Burchill, Luke J
Heart failure (HF) in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) is vastly different to that observed in acquired heart disease. Unlike acquired HF in which pharmacological strategies are the cornerstone for protecting and improving ventricular function, ACHD-related HF relies heavily upon structural and other interventions to achieve these aims. patients with ACHD constitute a small percentage of the total adult heart transplant population (∼3%), although the number of ACHD heart transplant recipients is growing rapidly with a 40% increase over the last two decades. The worldwide experience to date has confirmed heart transplantation as an effective life-extending treatment option in carefully selected patients with ACHD with end-stage cardiac disease. Opportunities for improving outcomes in patients with ACHD-related HF include (i) earlier recognition and referral to centres with combined expertise in ACHD and HF, (ii) increased awareness of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death risk in this population, (iii) greater collaboration between HF and ACHD specialists at the time of heart transplant assessment, (iv) expert surgical planning to reduce ischaemic time and bleeding risk at the time of transplant, (v) tailored immunosuppression in the post-transplant period and (vi) development and validation of ACHD-specific risk scores to predict mortality and guide patient selection. The purpose of this article is to review current approaches to diagnosing and treating advanced HF in patients with ACHD including indications, contraindications and clinical outcomes after heart transplantation.
Yang, X F; Zhang, Y F; Zhao, C F; Liu, M M; Si, J P; Fang, Y F; Xing, W W; Wang, F L
Congenital heart disease in children is a type of birth defect. Previous studies have suggested that the transcription factor, TBX20, is involved in the occurrence and development of congenital heart disease in children; however, the specific regulatory mechanisms are yet to be evaluated. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the TBX20 polymorphism and the occurrence and development of congenital heart disease. The TBX20 gene sequence was obtained from the NCBI database and the polymorphic locus candidate was predicted. Thereafter, the specific gene primers were designed for the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) of DNA extracted from the blood of 80 patients with congenital heart disease and 80 controls. The results of the PCR were subjected to correlation analysis to identify the differences between the amplicons and to determine the relationship between the TBX20 gene polymorphism and congenital heart disease. One of the single nucleotide polymorphic locus was found to be rs3999950: c.774T>C (Ala265Ala). The TC genotype frequency in the patients was higher than that in the controls, similar to that for the C locus. The odds ratio of the TC genotypes was above 1, indicating that the presence of the TC genotype increases the incidence of congenital heart diseases. Thus, rs3999950 may be associated with congenital heart disease, and TBX20 may predispose children to the defect.
Zeng, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ting; Tan, Li-Hua; Mei, Xi-Long; Sun, Jian-Ning
To study the relationship of the incidence of bronchial dysplasia (bronchial anomalous origin and bronchial stenosis) with congenital heart disease. A total of 185 children with congenital heart disease or bronchial dysplasia were enrolled. Bronchial dysplasia was identified by the 64-MSCT conventional scanning or thin slice scanning with three-dimensional reconstruction. Forty-five children (25.3%) had coexisting bronchial dysplasia and congenital heart disease. The incidence rate of bronchial dysplasia in children with congenital heart disease associated with ventricular septal defect was higher than in those without ventricular septal defect (33.7% vs 15.0%; P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence rate of bronchial dysplasia between the children with congenital heart disease who had a large vascular malformation and who did not. Bronchial dysplasia often occurs in children with congenital heart disease. It is necessary to perform a tracheobronchial CT scanning with three-dimensional reconstruction to identify tracheobronchial dysplasia in children with congenital heart disease, especially associated with ventricular septal defect.
Lin, Kimberly Y; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth
On March 16, 2012, the Ethics of the Heart 2012: Ethical and Policy Challenges in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease Conference took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first session focused on the ethics surrounding genetic testing in patients with congenital heart disease. Summarized here is the introductory presentation given by Dr Elizabeth Goldmuntz entitled "The Role of Genetic Testing in Congenital Heart Disease," followed by a case presentation given by Dr Lisa D'Alessandro. The case and the panel discussion that ensued highlight several ethical principles and challenges in this unique patient population.
Moss, A. J.
A number of practical office and bedside clues to cardiac disease in infants and children have been passed on through the years. They relate to the history, to the inspection and palpation components of the physical examination, and to knowledge of the specific cardiac defects that are likely to be associated with certain clinical syndromes. With the possible exception of coarctation of the aorta, the clues are not diagnostically specific. In many instances, however, they serve to narrow a broad array of diagnostic possibilities to 2 or 3 and, with the aid of other clues and auscultation, they can often be distinguished from one another. When a primary care physician is confronted with a child who has an incidental murmur that is "probably" innocent but could be organic, useful clues favoring an organic murmur are a history of congenital heart disease in a first-degree relative; a history of maternal rubella syndrome, alcohol use, or teratogenic drug use during pregnancy; a history of inappropriate sweating; a history of syncope, chest pain, or squatting; maternal diabetes mellitus; premature birth; birth at a high altitude; cyanosis; abnormal pulsations; recurrent bronchiolitis or pneumonia; chronic unexplained hoarseness; asymmetric facies with crying; and a physical appearance suggestive of a clinical syndrome. PMID:1574882
Woolf, Adrian S; Stuart, Helen M; Newman, William G
Lower urinary tract and/or kidney malformations are collectively the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children, and they are also likely to account for a major subset of young adults requiring renal replacement therapy. Advances have been made regarding the discovery of the genetic causes of human kidney malformations. Indeed, testing for mutations of key nephrogenesis genes is now feasible for patients seen in nephrology clinics. Unfortunately, less is known about defined genetic bases of human lower urinary tract anomalies. The focus of this review is the genetic bases of congenital structural and functional disorders of the urinary bladder. Three are highlighted. First, prune belly syndrome, where mutations of CHRM3, encoding an acetylcholine receptor, HNF1B, encoding a transcription factor, and ACTA2, encoding a cytoskeletal protein, have been reported. Second, the urofacial syndrome, where mutations of LRIG2 and HPSE2, encoding proteins localised in nerves invading the fetal bladder, have been defined. Finally, we review emerging evidence that bladder exstrophy may have genetic bases, including variants in the TP63 promoter. These genetic discoveries provide a new perspective on a group of otherwise poorly understood diseases.
Allan, Catherine K
Prevalence of congenital heart disease in the adult population has increased out of proportion to that of the pediatric population as survival has improved, and adult congenital heart disease patients make up a growing percentage of pediatric and adult cardiac intensive care unit admissions. These patients often develop complex multiorgan system disease as a result of long-standing altered cardiac physiology, and many require reoperation during adulthood. Practitioners who care for these patients in the cardiac intensive care unit must have a strong working knowledge of the pathophysiology of complex congenital heart disease, and a full team of specialists must be available to assist in the care of these patients. This chapter will review some of the common multiorgan system effects of long-standing congenital heart disease (eg, renal and hepatic dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, arrhythmias) as well as some of the unique cardiopulmonary physiology of this patient population.
Pengsaa, Krisana; Hattasingh, Weerawan
The seroprevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in pregnant women and the prevalence of congenital infection differ widely between countries. A few cases of congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosed after the neonatal period, with long-term sequelae, have been reported in Thailand. No data on the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis have been documented and no screening for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy has been undertaken in Thailand. A questionnaire enquiring about cases of congenital toxoplasmosis during 1995-2013 was distributed to paediatricians in referral and university hospitals in Thailand and the responses were analysed. Specific toxoplasma IgM antibody and clinical features were used for diagnosis. There were 20 cases - 13 most likely and seven suspected cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. Most patients had systemic manifestations, but only 25% of diagnosed patients exhibited the classic triad of hydrocephalus, cerebral calcification and chorioretinitis. One of the five deceased patients lived beyond the age of 13 years and died of a pulmonary infection. All 15 surviving cases developed deafness, visual impairment or developmental delay. Twenty cases of congenital toxoplasmosis are reported. Delayed diagnosis and treatment resulted in a poor outcome. The prevention of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis should be a priority in order to prevent a poor outcome in infected children.
Simpson, J M; Cook, A; Fagg, N L; MacLachlan, N A; Sharland, G K
Two familial cases of spondylothoracic dysostosis are reported. Both cases had severe congenital heart disease in addition to the skeletal malformations which are characteristic of the condition. Images PMID:7473656
Baños-González, Manuel A; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Peña-Duque, Marco A; Martínez-Ríos, Marco A; Valente-Acosta, Benjamín; Linares-López, Carlos; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; de la Peña-Díaz, Aurora
Congenital cardiac diseases are the most frequent congenital malformations. In adult patients, the mineralisation of the aorta due to cardiovascular disease is very common, but vascular mineralisation in paediatric cardiopathies is a topic less studied. This study shows that children with a complex congenital cardiopathy show a high degree of vascular mineralisation in the ascending aorta. This can be part of the cardiac failure pathophysiology due to congenital cardiopathies. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and degree of vascular mineralisation in samples of the ascending and descending aorta of children with complex congenital cardiopathies. We conducted a cross-sectional study. We obtained 34 vascular tissues from the autopsies of 17 children with congenital cardiac disease. We used a scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to analyse the vascular tissues. The amount of minerals was two times higher in the ascending aorta than in the descending aorta of children with congenital cardiac disease. The study provides evidence that vascular mineralisation can start at an early age, and that it is higher in the ascending aorta than in the descending aorta.
Burlet, A; Drukker, A; Guignard, J P
We performed renal function tests in 18 young patients, 1.8-14.6 years of age, with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). Glomerular filtration rate was normal (116 +/- 4.5 ml/min/1.73 m2), and renal plasma flow was decreased (410 +/- 25 ml/min/1.73 m2) with a rise in the filtration fraction (29 +/- 1.1%). The suggested pathophysiologic explanation of these findings is that the blood hyperviscosity seen in patients with CCHD causes an overall increase in renal vascular resistance with a rise in intraglomerular blood pressure. Despite a sluggish flow of blood in the glomerular capillary bed, the effective filtration pressure was adjusted to conserve the glomerular filtration rate. In addition to these renal hemodynamic parameters, we also studied renal acidification and tubular sodium and water handling during a forced water diuresis. Our data indicate that children with CCHD have a mild to moderate normal ion gap metabolic acidosis due to a low proximal tubular threshold for bicarbonate. Proximal tubular sodium and water reabsorption under these conditions were somewhat increased, though not significantly, probably due to intrarenal hydrostatic forces, in particular the rise in the oncotic pressure in the postglomerular capillaries in patients with high hematocrit values. The distal tubular functions such as sodium handling and acidification were not affected.
Molck, Miriam Coelho; Simioni, Milena; Paiva Vieira, Társis; Sgardioli, Ilária Cristina; Paoli Monteiro, Fabíola; Souza, Josiane; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina; Félix, Têmis Maria; Lopes Monlléo, Isabella; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera Lúcia
To identify pathogenic genomic imbalances in patients presenting congenital heart disease (CHD) with extra cardiac anomalies and exclusion of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS). 78 patients negative for the 22q11.2 deletion, previously screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) were tested by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). Clinically significant copy number variations (CNVs ≥300kb) were identified in 10% (8/78) of cases. In addition, potentially relevant CNVs were detected in two cases (993kb duplication in 15q21.1 and 706kb duplication in 2p22.3). Genes inside the CNV regions found in this study, such as IRX4, BMPR1A, SORBS2, ID2, ROCK2, E2F6, GATA4, SOX7, SEMAD6D, FBN1, and LTPB1 are known to participate in cardiac development and could be candidate genes for CHD. These data showed that patients presenting CHD with extra cardiac anomalies and exclusion of 22q11.2 DS should be investigated by CMA. The present study emphasizes the possible role of CNVs in CHD. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Godart, François; Houeijeh, Ali
Interventional cardiac catheterization has a major place in the management of congenital heart disease. Since the Rashkind atrioseptostomy in mid-1960s, many techniques have been developed. For some, it is necessary to close a cardiac or extracardiac shunt using occluder (double disc system, plug, coil…): closure of atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent arterial duct. For others, it is necessary to treat a valvular or vascular stenosis using a balloon catheter: dilatation of the pulmonary or the aortic valve, dilatation of aortic coarctation. For vascular stenosis, balloon angioplasty may be associated with stent implantation. Moreover, since more than 10 years, valve implantation can be performed: initially for pulmonic valve (the Melody™ valve from Medtronic or the Sapien™ valve from Edwards Lifesciences); but probably, most of the valves in the future could be implanted using appropriate tools and hybrid techniques combining cardiac catheterization and surgery. All these techniques were developed because of progress in fluoroscopy, and more recently association of different imaging techniques (echocardiography, MRI and CT) provides more information about the true anatomy. Interventional cardiac catheterization will continue to increase with use of new tools as 3D printing, tissue engineering and nano-techniques. It seems that from correction with open-heart surgery, many lesions could be repaired in future by hybrid techniques without opening the heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Houyel, Lucile; To-Dumortier, Ngoc-Tram; Lepers, Yannick; Petit, Jérôme; Roussin, Régine; Ly, Mohamed; Lebret, Emmanuel; Fadel, Elie; Hörer, Jürgen; Hascoët, Sébastien
With the advances in congenital cardiac surgery and postoperative care, an increasing number of children with complex congenital heart disease now reach adulthood. There are already more adults than children living with a congenital heart defect, including patients with complex congenital heart defects. Among these adults with congenital heart disease, a significant number will develop ventricular dysfunction over time. Heart failure accounts for 26-42% of deaths in adults with congenital heart defects. Heart transplantation, or heart-lung transplantation in Eisenmenger syndrome, then becomes the ultimate therapeutic possibility for these patients. This population is deemed to be at high risk of mortality after heart transplantation, although their long-term survival is similar to that of patients transplanted for other reasons. Indeed, heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease is often challenging, because of several potential problems: complex cardiac and vascular anatomy, multiple previous palliative and corrective surgeries, and effects on other organs (kidney, liver, lungs) of long-standing cardiac dysfunction or cyanosis, with frequent elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. In this review, we focus on the specific problems relating to heart and heart-lung transplantation in this population, revisit the indications/contraindications, and update the long-term outcomes.
Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Partensky, Christian; Jaeck, Daniel; Oussoultzoglou, Elie; Baulieux, Jacques; Boillot, Olivier; Lerut, Jan; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Hubert, Catherine; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Audet, Maxime; Ducerf, Christian; Gigot, Jean-François
Objective: To report clinical presentation, perioperative outcome, and long-term results of surgical management of congenital intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) dilatations (including Caroli disease) in a multi-institutional setting. Summary Background Data: Congenital IHBD dilatations are a rare congenital disorder predisposing to intrahepatic stones, cholangitis, and cholangiocarcinoma. The management remains difficult and controversial for bilobar forms of the disease or when concurrent congenital hepatic fibrosis is associated. Methods: From 1976 to 2004, 33 patients (range 11 to 79 years) were retrospectively enrolled. Disease extent into the liver was unilobar in 26 patients and bilobar in 7 patients (21%). Cholangiocarcinoma, congenital hepatic fibrosis, and intrahepatic stones were present in 2, 10, and 20 patients, respectively. Transplantations or liver resections were performed in 5 and 27 patients, respectively, whereas 1 asymptomatic patient was managed conservatively. Results: Postoperative mortality was nil. Postoperative complications occurred in 16 of 32 operated patients (50%) and additional procedures for residual stones were required in 5 patients. During a median follow-up of 80 months (1 patient being lost for follow-up) no patient developed metachronous carcinoma. Six patients (30%) developed recurrent intrahepatic stones but satisfactory late outcome was achieved in 27 patients (87%). Conclusions: Partial or total liver resection achieves satisfactory late outcome in congenital IHBD dilatations, when the affection is treated at an early stage and when the extent of liver resection is tailored to intrahepatic disease extent and takes into consideration the presence and severity of underlying chronic liver and renal diseases. PMID:17667502
Kamp, Anna N; LaPage, Martin J; Serwer, Gerald A; Dick, Macdonald; Bradley, David J
Many patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) acquire rhythm abnormalities related to their repair, most commonly intraatrial reentrant tachycardia (IART). Treatment of IART in CHD is often multifaceted, and may include medication, ablation, and pacing. Evidence regarding the use of antitachycardia pacing therapies is limited. The aim of the study is to define the use and efficacy of antitachycardia pacing in patients with CHD at a single center. Eighty implants were performed on 72 patients between 2000 and 2010. Follow-up data of more than 3 months were available for 56 patients; median follow-up time was 2.8 years. Twenty (36%) patients received successful antitachycardia pacing at a median 1.3 years postimplant. For those patients with IART after implant, antitachycardia pacing was successful in 57%. Patients with two-ventricle repairs were more likely to have successful antitachycardia pacing than those with one-ventricle palliation (45% vs. 17%, P = .04). Patients with documented IART had more successful antitachycardia pacing than those with no documented atrial tachycardia prior to implant (46% vs. 7%, P = .006). Early complications of antitachycardia pacemaker implant occurred in six patients (11%); late complications after implant occurred in three patients (5.6%). Of the initial 72 patients implanted, there were six deaths (8%). Antitachycardia pacing therapies were successful in the majority of CHD patients who had IART after implant. Patients without documented atrial tachycardia prior to implant were unlikely to require or receive successful therapy from antitachycardia pacemaker. Those patients postatrial switch procedure who had documented IART prior to implant had the highest incidence of successful antitachycardia pacing therapies. Antitachycardia pacemaker implantation is an adjunct to the management of IART in CHD patients, but may not benefit patients who have not yet demonstrated IART. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hayward, Robert M; Dewland, Thomas A; Moyers, Brian; Vittinghoff, Eric; Tanel, Ronn E; Marcus, Gregory M; Tseng, Zian H
Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are increasingly implanted in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), but little is known about implant-related complications and mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare pacemaker and ICD implantation complication rates between adults with and those without CHD using a comprehensive, statewide database. We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database to identify initial transvenous pacemaker and ICD implantations and implant-related complications in California hospitals from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. We calculated relative risks of implant-related complications by comparing those with and those without CHD using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, adjusting for age and medical comorbidities. We identified 105,852 patients undergoing pacemaker implantation, 1465 with noncomplex CHD and 66 with complex CHD. CHD was not associated with increased risk of pacemaker implant-related complications: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.14, P = .45. We identified 32,948 patients undergoing ICD implantation, 815 with noncomplex CHD and 87 with complex CHD. Patients with CHD had increased risk of ICD implant-related complications: aRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.76, P = .02. Patients with complex CHD had greater increased risk of ICD implant-related complications: aRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.16-3.95, P = .02. In patients receiving devices, CHD was associated with a trend toward lower 30-day in-hospital mortality after pacemaker (P = .07) and ICD (P = .19) implantation. Among adult patients undergoing device implantation in California, CHD was associated with increased risk of ICD implant-related complications, but not pacemaker implant-related complications or higher 30-day in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trevisan, Patrícia; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Koshiyama, Dayane Bohn; Zen, Tatiana Diehl; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.
OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between congenital heart defects and chromosomal abnormalities detected by the karyotype. DATA SOURCES: Scientific articles were searched in MEDLINE database, using the descriptors "karyotype" OR "chromosomal" OR "chromosome" AND "heart defects, congenital". The research was limited to articles published in English from 1980 on. DATA SYNTHESIS: Congenital heart disease is characterized by an etiologically heterogeneous and not well understood group of lesions. Several researchers have evaluated the presence of chromosomal abnormalities detected by the karyotype in patients with congenital heart disease. However, most of the articles were retrospective studies developed in Europe and only some of the studied patients had a karyotype exam. In this review, only one study was conducted in Latin America, in Brazil. It is known that chromosomal abnormalities are frequent, being present in about one in every ten patients with congenital heart disease. Among the karyotype alterations in these patients, the most important is the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). These patients often have associated extra-cardiac malformations, with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality, which makes heart surgery even more risky. CONCLUSIONS: Despite all the progress made in recent decades in the field of cytogenetic, the karyotype remains an essential tool in order to evaluate patients with congenital heart disease. The detailed dysmorphological physical examination is of great importance to indicate the need of a karyotype. PMID:25119760
Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Cervantes-Salazar, Jorge Luis; Curi-Curi, Pedro José; Ramírez-Marroquín, Samuel
Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. Reports of its prevalence around the world range from 2.1 to 12.3 for every 1000 newborns. Prevalence in our country remains unknown, but it probably occupies sixth place for mortality in infants less than a year old, and third place for mortality in those aged between 1 and 4 years. Based on birthrate, it is calculated that 10 to 12 000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. To understand the magnitude of the problem, it is important to identify the global number of newborns with some congenital cardiopathy each year and the type of malformation that they have, in order to determine the necessary resources and to plan their distribution. The main objective of regionalization is the justification of the resources with an emphasis in the specialized medical services to provide the best results for the patients. Hence, reason, based on the resources of each state, as well as their natality and infant mortality rates related to congenital cardiovascular pathology, we should proceed to regionalize the attention, and to simultaneously create a trustworthy database of the congenital cardiopathies. This should have many benefits, such as increase the number of total attended cases, improve the quality of attention, use appropriately the existent resources, and -surely- decrease the infant mortality.
Kaltenbrun, Erin; Tandon, Panna; Amin, Nirav M.; Waldron, Lauren; Showell, Chris; Conlon, Frank L.
Congenital heart defects affect nearly 1% of all newborns and are a significant cause of infant death. Clinical studies have identified a number of congenital heart syndromes associated with mutations in genes that are involved in the complex process of cardiogenesis. The African clawed frog, Xenopus, has been instrumental in studies of vertebrate heart development and provides a valuable tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying human congenital heart diseases. In this review, we discuss the methodologies that make Xenopus an ideal model system to investigate heart development and disease. We also outline congenital heart conditions linked to cardiac genes that have been well-studied in Xenopus and describe some emerging technologies that will further aid in the study of these complex syndromes. PMID:21538812
Book, Wendy M; Shaddy, Robert E
Heart failure is a common late complication in adults with congenital heart defects, both repaired and unrepaired. The onset of clinical heart failure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Some patients with congenital heart disease may benefit from medications shown to improve survival in the population with acquired heart failure, but these same therapies may be of no benefit to other patients. Further studies are needed to better guide the choice of medical therapies.
Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A
Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.
Ashraf, Mohd; Chowdhary, J; Khajuria, K; Reyaz, A M
A retrospective analysis of case-records data of 53,653 patients (0-18 years) over a two and half year period was conducted to ascertain the spectrum of congenital heart diseases. Two hundred and twenty one patients were found having congenital heart diseases; a prevalence of 4.1/1000. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most frequent lesion seen in 69 (31.2%), followed by patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in 36 (16.3%) children. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) was the most frequent cyanotic heart disease seen in 17 (7.8%) patients.
Hirokawa, Shinichiro; Uotani, Hideyuki; Okami, Hideo; Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Futatani, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Ikuo
A congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare developmental anomaly. It may represent failure of the branchial arches to fuse in the midline and presents at birth with a ventral midline defect of the skin of the neck. Congenital heart disease along with CMCC is rarer, and most of the cases reported are associated with chest wall defects or thoracic ectopia cordis. The authors report a case of a 5-month-old girl with CMCC and an atrial septal defect (ASD) and discuss the clinical presentation, embryologic development, and treatment.
Day, M J
Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have specific educational needs that are influenced by a variety of factors. This article identifies and discusses learning needs and factors that impact educational outcomes for the adult CHD patient population. Assessment techniques and an assessment tool are presented to guide the nurse through the process of assessing an adult patient seeking health care for this disease.
Fanning, Rebecca; O'Donnell, Brian; Lynch, Brian; Stephens, Michael; O'Donovan, Frances
We report on the perioperative management of anesthesia and analgesia in a child with sickle cell disease and a congenital myopathy, presenting for corrective orthopedic surgery. The case illustrates two valuable points of interest: the many benefits of regional anesthesia in complex medical cases and the successful use of tourniquets in children with sickle cell disease.
Panesar, Dilveer Kaur; Burch, Michael
Diastolic function is an important component of left ventricular (LV) function which is often overlooked. It can cause symptoms of heart failure in patients even in the presence of normal systolic function. The parameters used to assess diastolic function often measure flow and are affected by the loading conditions of the heart. The interpretation of diastolic function in the context of congenital heart disease requires some understanding of the effects of the lesions themselves on these parameters. Individual congenital lesions will be discussed in this paper. Recently, load-independent techniques have led to more accurate measurements of ventricular compliance and remodeling in heart disease. The combination of inflow velocities and tissue Doppler measurements can be used to estimate diastolic function and LV filling pressures. This review focuses on diastolic function and assessment in congenital heart disease. PMID:28261582
Congenital diarrhoeal disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited malabsorptive or secretory diseases typically appearing in the first weeks of life, which may be triggered by the introduction of distinct nutrients. However, they may also be unrecognised for a while and triggered by exogenous factors later on. In principle, they can be clinically classified as osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhoea. In recent years the disease-causing molecular defects of these congenital disorders have been identified. According to the underlying pathophysiology they can be classified into four main groups: 1) Defects of digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients or electrolytes 2) Defects of absorptive enterocyte differentiation or polarisation 3) Defects of the enteroendocrine cells 4) Defects of the immune system affecting the intestine. Here, we describe the clinical presentation of congenital intestinal diarrhoeal diseases, the diagnostic work-up and specific treatment aspects.
Velarde, César Náquira
American Trypanosomosis is an important parasitic infection in Peru. Human cases, reservoirs and vectors have been showed in two known geographic areas in the endemic zones: southwestern and northern and northeastern regions of the country; however vectors belonging to the three genera of triatominae: Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Rhodnius have been collected in almost all the territory. The serological surveys in blood banks in the southwestern region is 2-6% and human cases found out of the endemic areas show the possibility of congenital cases. The study of the prevalence is starting. This preliminary study performed on 3000 pregnant of Arequipa shows serological positives in 22 (0.7%) and only a newborn positive at IgM. This result indicates a probable low rate of congenital transmission and necessary to perform more studies.
Chou, Hsin-Hsu; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Chen, Lea-Hua; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Chung-Yi
Background: Information about known risk factors for congenital heart disease is scarce. In this population-based study, we aimed to investigate the relation between maternal chronic disease and congenital heart disease in offspring. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1 387 650 live births from 2004 to 2010. We identified chronic disease in mothers and mild and severe forms of congenital heart disease in their offspring from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance medical claims. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the associations of all cases and specific types of congenital heart disease with various maternal chronic diseases. Results: For mothers with the following chronic diseases, the overall prevalence of congenital heart disease in their children was significantly higher than for mothers without these diseases: diabetes mellitus type 1 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66–3.25), diabetes mellitus type 2 (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.60–3.12), hypertension (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.69–2.07), congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.45–3.80), anemia (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25–1.38), connective tissue disorders (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.19–1.62), epilepsy (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.08–1.74) and mood disorders (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11–1.41). The same pattern held for mild forms of congenital heart disease. A higher prevalence of severe congenital heart disease was seen only among offspring of mothers with congenital heart defects or type 2 diabetes. Interpretation: The children of women with several kinds of chronic disease appear to be at risk for congenital heart disease. Preconception counselling and optimum treatment of pregnant women with chronic disease would seem prudent. PMID:27729382
Chou, Hsin-Hsu; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Chen, Lea-Hua; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Chung-Yi
Information about known risk factors for congenital heart disease is scarce. In this population-based study, we aimed to investigate the relation between maternal chronic disease and congenital heart disease in offspring. The study cohort consisted of 1 387 650 live births from 2004 to 2010. We identified chronic disease in mothers and mild and severe forms of congenital heart disease in their offspring from Taiwan's National Health Insurance medical claims. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the associations of all cases and specific types of congenital heart disease with various maternal chronic diseases. For mothers with the following chronic diseases, the overall prevalence of congenital heart disease in their children was significantly higher than for mothers without these diseases: diabetes mellitus type 1 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-3.25), diabetes mellitus type 2 (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.60-3.12), hypertension (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.69-2.07), congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.45-3.80), anemia (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25-1.38), connective tissue disorders (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.19-1.62), epilepsy (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-1.74) and mood disorders (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41). The same pattern held for mild forms of congenital heart disease. A higher prevalence of severe congenital heart disease was seen only among offspring of mothers with congenital heart defects or type 2 diabetes. The children of women with several kinds of chronic disease appear to be at risk for congenital heart disease. Preconception counselling and optimum treatment of pregnant women with chronic disease would seem prudent. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Baum, V C; Perloff, J K
In adults with congenital heart disease who are confronted with noncardiac surgery, perioperative risks can be reduced, often appreciably, when problems inherent to this patient population are anticipated. The first necessity is to clarify the diagnosis and to be certain that appropriate information is obtained from a cardiologist with adequate knowledge of congenital heart disease in adults. Physiology and anatomy can vary significantly among patients who superficially carry identical diagnoses and would seem to fit under the same rubric. Elective noncardiac surgery should be preceded by clinical cardiovascular assessment, including reviewing clinical and laboratory data and securing necessary diagnostic studies. Preoperative assessment should be performed far enough in advance of the anticipated surgery to allow for critical assessment of the data. Appropriate cardiovascular laboratory studies to be obtained or reviewed include electrocardiograms, chest radiographs, echocardiograms, and cardiac catheterization data (which may include specialized intracardiac electrophysiologic testing). Congenital heart disease in adults is a new and evolving area of special interest and expertise in cardiovascular medicine. Multidisciplinary centers for the care of these patients are being developed. The 22nd Bethesda Conference recommended that these centers include anesthesiologists with special expertise in managing patients with congenital heart disease among their consultants. These anesthesiologists can function either as attending anesthesiologists when patients require noncardiac surgery, or as consultants and resource individuals to other anesthesiologists. Adults with congenital heart disease may present with age-related acquired cardiovascular and noncardiovascular disorders in addition to postoperative cardiac residua and sequelae, all of which require meticulous preoperative planning and consultation before noncardiac surgery is performed. We recommend that
The year 2004 was notable, as were the previous years, for advances in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of certain congenital cardiac diseases with studies carried out in the foetus, the child and the adult. Foetal cardiology is in constant development: the malformations are better detected, left ventricular function is evaluated by echocardiography, and, consequently, foetal cardiac failure can be treated. Interventional procedures have started in the foetus with results that require confirmation. In children and adults, publications of interventional catheterisation are as numerous as before: percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects, closure of patent foramen ovale in cases of transient ischaemic cerebral attacks, closure of congenital or acquired (iatrogenic, post-infarct or traumatic) ventricular septal defects, percutaneous valve replacement, maintenance of patent ductus arteriosus. Many other interventional procedures have been carried out in operated and unoperated congenital heart lesions: angioplasty, embolisation, valvular stenosis. Adult congenital heart disease may pose problems of arrhythmia, during pregnancy for example. Cardiac resynchronisation, which is well developed in adults with cardiac failure, also has indications in congenital heart disease of children and adults. Pregnancy is possible in women with tetralogy of Fallot, operated or not, with a maternal risk of left ventricular dysfunction and progression of pulmonary regurgitation. After a Mustard procedure, pregnancy may aggravate symptoms and NYHA Class but it is usually well tolerated. Finally, let's cite one publication which showed, if it was still necessary, that maternal and foetal risk in pregnancy is high in patients with an Eisenmenger syndrome.
Pennati, Giancarlo; Corsini, Chiara; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Migliavacca, Francesco
Mathematical modeling is a powerful tool to investigate hemodynamics of the circulatory system. With improving imaging techniques and detailed clinical investigations, it is now possible to construct patient-specific models of reconstructive surgeries for the treatment of congenital heart diseases. These models can help clinicians to better understand the hemodynamic behavior of different surgical options for a treated patient. This review outlines recent advances in mathematical modeling in congenital heart diseases, the discoveries and limitations these models present, and future directions that are on the horizon.
Canobbio, M M
The number of children with congenital heart disease surviving beyond adolescence is rapidly increasing. Consequently, pediatric health providers not only have to address medical issues associated with the cardiac condition but must begin to develop programs that assist adolescents and their families in dealing with special health care needs for the young patient to successfully move into the adult world. Transitional health-related issues facing the adolescent with congenital heart disease including medical follow-up, insurability, employability, sexuality, and reproduction are described. Discussion about advising and counseling both patient and parents is included.
Egbe, Alexander; Lee, Simon; Ho, Deborah; Uppu, Santosh; Srivastava, Shubhika
Background: There is a known association between congenital heart disease (CHD) and other congenital anomalies (CA). These associations have been altered by changes in prenatal factors in recent time. We reviewed the largest database of inpatient hospitalization information and analyzed the current association between common CHD diagnoses and other congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: Case-control study design. We reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 1998 to 2008 and identified all live births with CHD diagnosis (case) and live births without CHD diagnosis (control). We compared prevalence of associated congenital anomalies between the case and control groups. Results: Our cohort consisted of 97,154 and 12,078,482 subjects in the case and control groups, respectively. In the CHD population, prevalence of non-syndromic congenital anomaly (NSCA), genetic syndrome (GS), and overall extra-cardiac congenital anomaly (CA) were 11.4, 2.2, and 13.6%, respectively. In the control group, prevalence of NSCA, GS, and CA were 6.7, 0.3, and 7.0%, respectively. NSCA (odds ratio (OR): 1.88, confidence interval (CI): 1.73-1.94), GS (OR 2.52, CI 2.44-2.61), and overall CA (OR: 2.01, CI: 1.97-2.14) were strongly associated with CHD. Prevalence of GS and multiple organ-system CA decreased significantly over the study period. Conclusions: This is the largest and most comprehensive population-based study evaluating association between CHD and extra-cardiac malformation (ECM) in newborns. There was significant decrease in prevalence of GS and multiple CA over the study period. PMID:24987252
Mavroudis, Constantine; Deal, Barbara J
Certain congenital heart anomalies make patients more susceptible to arrhythmia development throughout their lives. This poses the question whether prophylactic arrhythmia surgery should be incorporated into reparative open heart procedures for congenital heart disease. There is currently no consensus on what constitutes a standard prophylactic procedure, owing to the questions that remain regarding lesions to be performed; energy sources to use; proximity of energy source or incisions to coronary arteries, sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node; circumstances for right atrial, left atrial, or biatrial appendectomy; and whether to perform a right, left, or biatrial maze procedure. These considerations are important because prophylactic arrhythmia procedures are performed without knowing if the patient will actually develop an arrhythmia in his or her lifetime. By reviewing and summarizing the literature, congenital heart disease patients who are at risk for developing atrial arrhythmias can be identified and lesion sets can be suggested in an effort to standardize experimental protocols for prophylactic arrhythmia surgery.
Deal, Barbara J.
Certain congenital heart anomalies make patients more susceptible to arrhythmia development throughout their lives. This poses the question whether prophylactic arrhythmia surgery should be incorporated into reparative open heart procedures for congenital heart disease. There is currently no consensus on what constitutes a standard prophylactic procedure, owing to the questions that remain regarding lesions to be performed; energy sources to use; proximity of energy source or incisions to coronary arteries, sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node; circumstances for right atrial, left atrial, or biatrial appendectomy; and whether to perform a right, left, or biatrial maze procedure. These considerations are important because prophylactic arrhythmia procedures are performed without knowing if the patient will actually develop an arrhythmia in his or her lifetime. By reviewing and summarizing the literature, congenital heart disease patients who are at risk for developing atrial arrhythmias can be identified and lesion sets can be suggested in an effort to standardize experimental protocols for prophylactic arrhythmia surgery. PMID:27709096
Janoušek, Jan; Kubuš, Peter
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment option for adult patients suffering heart failure due to idiopathic or ischemic cardiomyopathy associated with electromechanical dyssynchrony. There is limited evidence suggesting similar efficacy of CRT in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Due to the heterogeneity of structural and functional substrates, CRT implantation techniques are different with a thoracotomy or hybrid approach prevailing. Efficacy of CRT in CHD seems to depend on the anatomy of the systemic ventricle with best results achieved in systemic left ventricular patients upgraded to CRT from conventional pacing. Indications for CRT in patients with CHD were recently summarized in the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) Expert Consensus Statement on the Recognition and Management of Arrhythmias in Adult Congenital Heart Disease and are presented in the text.
Mari, Mariana Alievi; Cascudo, Marcelo Matos; Alchieri, João Carlos
Objective: To evaluate the child development and evaluate a possible association with the commitment by biopsychosocial factors of children with and without congenital heart disease. Methods: Observational study of case-control with three groups: Group 1 - children with congenital heart disease without surgical correction; Group 2 - children with congenital heart disease who underwent surgery; and Group 3 - healthy children. Children were assessed by socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire and the Denver II Screening Test. Results: One hundred and twenty eight children were evaluated, 29 in Group 1, 43 in Group 2 and 56 in Group 3. Of the total, 51.56% are girls and ages ranged from two months to six years (median 24.5 months). Regarding the Denver II, the children with heart disease had more "suspicious" and "suspect/abnormal" ratings and in the group of healthy children 53.6% were considered with "normal" development (P≤0.0001). The biopsychosocial variables that were related to a possible developmental delay were gender (P=0.042), child's age (P=0.001) and income per capita (P=0.019). Conclusion: The results suggest that children with congenital heart disease are likely to have a developmental delay with significant difference between children who have undergone surgery and those awaiting surgery under clinical follow-up. PMID:27074272
Townsend, Santiago Nava
Patients with surgical correction of congenital cardiopathies have a high incidence of macro-reentrant arrhythmias. In previous reports the incidence of atrial fibrillation or flutter is around 20% preoperatively and increases to 10% more after surgery. In Mustard and Senning procedures the incidence could be as high as 30%. The physiopathology of these arrhythmias is due to conduction block and heterogeneity of refractory periods due to scaring and fibrosis left by the surgical procedure. Radiofrequency ablation is a good treatment option in this patients, but with conventional approaches the percentage of success is lower and with higher recurrence. In our institution out of 39 patients with macro-reentrant atrial tachycardia, acute success was 77% in patients with isthmus dependent flutter and 44% if the Isthmus was not part of the circuit. Recurrence in both groups was 42%. New mappings systems like Localisa, CARTO an NavX, are useful to localize areas of scar and block, that produce multiple conduction channels that can participate in reentrant arrhythmias. Radiofrequency ablation of these channels is up to day the ideal approach for these patients. Arrhythmias in patients with congenital cardiopathies are frequent and complicate the evolutions of these patients. Radiofrequency ablation is the treatment of choice in centers with experience. The use of non fluoroscopic electroanatomic mapping systems is of great help in this setting.
Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) contributes to the formation to atherosclerosis, promotes inflammation and stimulates prothrombotic processes. One hundred seventeen adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients and 152 controls were studied to compare serum Lp(a) concentrations in different subgroups of congenital heart abnormalities. Analytically, Lp(a), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were studied. In congenital heart disease patients, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels were also determined. Thirty-nine (25.6%) patients in the control group and 33 (28.2) ACHD patients (2 hypoxemic and 31 nonhypoxemic) had a Lp(a) concentration higher than 30 mg/dL. No significant differences were seen between patients with Lp(a) concentration ≤30 or >30 mg/dL after performing a binary logistic regression multivariate analysis including as covariates all the variables that showed significance (P < .001) between the case and control groups (age, gender, CRP, and total, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) besides being congenital or not. Similarly, no significant differences were found between ACHD patients with Lp(a) concentration lower and higher than 30 mg/dL after performing a multivariate analysis in which age, sex, body mass index, LDL-cholesterol levels, and being or not hypoxemic were included as covariates. Pearson's correlation showed a significant positive correlation (0.27) between LDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) concentrations (P = .004) and between CRP and N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (0.19) in ACHD patients (P = .035). Adult congenital heart disease patients showed lower serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels than no-congenital patients although no significant differences were seen in Lp(a) concentrations between both groups. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…
The recognition of morphological stigmata other than cardiac, which are now known to be associated with congenital heart disease, coupled with a familial occurrence, may permit diagnosis of specific cardiac lesions at a very early age. Eleven such morphological associations have been reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 4 PMID:4400598
As in previous years, the end of 2005 and the year 2006 were very fruitful in publications on congenital heart disease in children and adults. Interventional cardiology is still the object of randomised and non-randomised trials in adults and children. The closure of the foramen ovale is still popular in the context of a cerebrovascular accident whether or not associated with migraine. Several articles have studied the percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects: different devices, different indications, complications, comparison with surgical closure. Some ventricular septal defects can be occluded by the percutaneous approach. Another subject of interest has been theuse of the cutting balloon in peripheral pulmonary stenosis and the implantation of stents in obstruction of conduits between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. The problem of arrhythmias in congenital heart disease is of increasing interest: the implantable automatic defibrillator, resynchronisation, thromboembolic complications, atrial flutter in babies. The outcome of congenital heart disease is a subject of great interest to paediatric cardiologists who follow up patients operated for transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot or complex congenital heart disease by Fontan's procedure in their infancy. The results in women operated in their childhood are of particular interest: fertility and pregnancy in different cardiac lesions, complications during and after pregnancy.
Greutmann, Matthias; Pieper, Petronella G
Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects. Major advances in open-heart surgery have led to rapidly evolving cohorts of adult survivors and the majority of affected women now survive to childbearing age. The risk of cardiovascular complications during pregnancy and peripartum depends on the type of the underlying defect, the extent and severity of residual haemodynamic lesions and comorbidities. Careful individualized, multi-disciplinary pre-pregnancy risk assessment and counselling, including assessment of risks in the offspring and estimation on long-term outcomes of the underlying heart defect, will enable informed decision making. Depending on the estimated risks, a careful follow-up plan during pregnancy as well as a detailed plan for delivery and postpartum care can reduce the risks and should be made by the multi-disciplinary team.
Eubanks, Jason David; Belding, Jon; Schnaser, Erik; Rowan, Andrew; Moffitt, Gable; Weaver, John; Reich, Michael S; Bechtel, Chris; Xie, Ke; Gande, Abhiram; Hohl, Justin; Braly, Brett; Hilibrand, Alan; Kang, James D
Symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) is reported in 25% of patients at 10 years postoperatively. Debate continues as to whether this degeneration is due to the natural history of the disk or the changed biomechanics after ACF. This study explored whether congenital stenosis predisposes patients to an increased incidence of ASD after ACF. A retrospective review of 635 patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy was performed; 364 patients had complete records for review. Patients underwent 1- to 5-level ACF (94 one-level, 145 two-level, 79 three-level, 45 four-level, and 1 five-level). Radiographs were evaluated for bony congenital stenosis using validated parameters, and ASD was measured according to Hilibrand's criteria and correlated with symptomatic ASD. Congenital stenosis was found in 21.7% of patients and radiographic ASD in 33.5%, with a significant association between these parameters. However, symptomatic ASD occurred in 11.8% of patients; no association between congenital stenosis and symptomatic ASD or myelopathy and ASD was found. Clinical results demonstrated excellent or good Robinson scores in 86.2% of patients and Odom scores in 87% of patients. Despite mostly excellent to good outcomes, symptomatic ASD is common after ACF. Although congenital stenosis appears to increase the incidence of radiographic ASD, it does not appear to predict symptomatic ASD.
Report from The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease (Part 1 - Procedural nomenclature).
Bergersen, Lisa; Everett, Allen Dale; Giroud, Jorge Manuel; Martin, Gerard R; Franklin, Rodney Cyril George; Béland, Marie Josée; Krogmann, Otto Nils; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; Gaynor, J William; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Henry Lane; Weinberg, Paul; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip
Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and on the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the first part of a two-part series. Part 1 will cover the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. This procedural nomenclature of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code will be used in the IMPACT Registry™ (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® of The American College of Cardiology. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.
Homsy, Jason; Zaidi, Samir; Shen, Yufeng; Ware, James S; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Karczewski, Konrad J; DePalma, Steven R; McKean, David; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Gorham, Josh; Jin, Sheng Chih; Deanfield, John; Giardini, Alessandro; Porter, George A; Kim, Richard; Bilguvar, Kaya; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Tikhonova, Irina; Mane, Shrikant; Romano-Adesman, Angela; Qi, Hongjian; Vardarajan, Badri; Ma, Lijiang; Daly, Mark; Roberts, Amy E; Russell, Mark W; Mital, Seema; Newburger, Jane W; Gaynor, J William; Breitbart, Roger E; Iossifov, Ivan; Ronemus, Michael; Sanders, Stephan J; Kaltman, Jonathan R; Seidman, Jonathan G; Brueckner, Martina; Gelb, Bruce D; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Lifton, Richard P; Seidman, Christine E; Chung, Wendy K
Congenital heart disease (CHD) patients have an increased prevalence of extracardiac congenital anomalies (CAs) and risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs). Exome sequencing of 1213 CHD parent-offspring trios identified an excess of protein-damaging de novo mutations, especially in genes highly expressed in the developing heart and brain. These mutations accounted for 20% of patients with CHD, NDD, and CA but only 2% of patients with isolated CHD. Mutations altered genes involved in morphogenesis, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation, including multiple mutations in RBFOX2, a regulator of mRNA splicing. Genes mutated in other cohorts examined for NDD were enriched in CHD cases, particularly those with coexisting NDD. These findings reveal shared genetic contributions to CHD, NDD, and CA and provide opportunities for improved prognostic assessment and early therapeutic intervention in CHD patients.
Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy.
Hartofilakidis, G; Babis, G C; Georgiades, G; Kourlaba, G
We studied the effect of trochanteric osteotomy in 192 total hip replacements in 140 patients with congenital hip disease. There was bony union in 158 hips (82%), fibrous union in 29 (15%) and nonunion in five (3%). The rate of union had a statistically significant relationship with the position of reattachment of the trochanter, which depended greatly on the pre-operative diagnosis. The pre-operative Trendelenburg gait substantially improved in all three disease types (dysplasia, low and high dislocation) and all four categories of reattachment position. A persistent Trendelenburg gait post-operatively was noticed mostly in patients with defective union (fibrous or nonunion). Acetabular and femoral loosening had a statistically significant relationship with defective union and the position of reattachment of the trochanter. These results suggest that the complications of trochanteric osteotomy in total hip replacement for patients with congenital hip disease are less important than the benefits of this surgical approach.
Bolger, Aidan P; Gatzoulis, Michael A
Injury to the myocardium disrupts geometric integrity and results in changes to intracardiac pressure, wall stress and tension, and the pattern of blood flow through the heart. Significant disruption to pump function results in heart failure which is defined in terms of symptoms: breathlessness and fatigue, signs of salt and water retention, and neurohormonal activation. This syndrome most commonly occurs in the context of injury due to ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy but because patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are born with sometimes gross distortions of cardiac anatomy they too are subject to the forces that drive heart failure. This paper explores the available data relating to the clinical and neurohormonal manifestations of heart failure in patients with congenital heart disease and describes how, by additionally exploring events at a cellular level, we may be able to arrive at a definition of heart failure relevant to this population.
Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Ren, Mei-hong; Song, Gui-ning
To investigate the association between congenital heart diseases and chromosome abnormalities. Patients with congenital heart diseases who underwent chromosome examinations during Jan 2006 and Dec. 2009 in the Center of Prenatal Diagnosis of Beijing University People's Hospital were recruited in the study. The association between chromosome karyotypes and types of congenital heart diseases was analyzed. Among the 49 patients with congenital heart diseases, trisomy 21 was established in 11 cases, trisomy 18 in 6 cases, trisomy 13 in 6 cases, trisomy 14 in 1 cases, trisomy 16 in 3 cases, trisomy 8 in 1 cases, trisomy 22 in 1 cases, sex chromosomal abnormalities in 8 cases, triploid in 2 cases, partial chromosomal trisomy in 8 cases, and 46,XX/XY, 5p-- in 2 cases. Chromosome abnormalities are associated with congenital heart diseases. Different abnormal chromosome karyotypes contribute to different types of congenital heart diseases. Prenatal chromosome examinations could be undertaken to detect congenital heart diseases.
Kawai, Toshinao; Malech, Harry L.
Purpose of review WHIM syndrome (WHIM) is a congenital immune deficiency with characteristic clinical features that include: susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection induced warts, condyloma acuminata and carcinomas; neutropenia, B cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinema related recurrent infections; and bone marrow myelokathexis characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and apoptosis. The purpose of this report is to review diagnosis and clinical management, and to highlight new findings about the genetic and biochemical abnormalities that cause WHIM. Recent findings Specific mutations identified in WHIM patients include heterozygous C-terminus deletional mutations of portions of the intracellular carboxy terminus of the chemokine receptor, CXCR4. WHIM leukocytes have enhanced responses to SDF1, the cognate ligand of CXCR4. Enhanced activity of CXCR4 delays release of mature neutrophils from the bone marrow resulting in neutropenia and senescence with apoptosis of mature neutrophils retained in the marrow. Recent reports of 2 patients with WHIM who do not have detectable mutations of CXCR4, but whose cells are hyper-responsive to SCF1 raise the possibility that there is more than one genetic basis for WHIM. One patient had low levels of G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) protein and mRNA, and the functional hyperactivity response to SDF1 was corrected by forced gene transfer mediated excess expression of GRK3, implicating defective GRK3 phosphorylation mediated downregulation of CXCR3 as the cause of WHIM in that patient. Summary The main subjects reviewed in this chapter include a detailed characterization of the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of WHIM; advances in understanding the genetic basis of WHIM; and review of new studies which delineate the biochemical consequence of WHIM mutations as resulting in hyperfunction of CXCR4 in response to SDF1. PMID:19057201
Fuenmayor, Gabriela; Redondo, Ana Carolina Costa; Shiraishi, Karen Saori; Souza, Rogerio; Elias, Patrícia Figueiredo; Jatene, Ieda Biscegli
Dyslipidemia is one of the main risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. Few data on the impacts of congenital heart diseases are available with regard to the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children. Our study evaluated the lipid profile in children with congenital heart disease at a referral center. From January 2011 to July 2012, 52 pediatric patients had their lipid, metabolic and clinical profiles traced. The mean age was 10.4 ± 2.8 years and male/female rate of 1.38:1. Our population had 53.8% patients with high levels of total cholesterol and 13.4% (CI 95 %, from 6.6 to 25.2%) of them also presenting LDL levels ≥ 130 mg/dL, which characterizes dyslipidemia. The group of dyslipidemic patients presented only two obese individuals. Our data show that the presence of congenital heart disease does not lead to higher risk associated with the prevalence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, the screening of this specific population should follow the regular pediatric guidelines, which are also independent of the nutritional status of the children tested. PMID:24061754
Subirana, M Teresa; Oliver, José M; Sáez, José M; Zunzunegui, José L
This article contains a review of some of the most important publications on congenital heart disease and pediatric cardiology that appeared in 2010 and up until September 2011. Of particular interest were studies on demographic changes reported in this patient population and on the need to manage the patients' transition from the pediatric to the adult cardiology department. This transition has given rise to the appearance of new areas of interest: for example, pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease, and the effect of genetic factors on the etiology and transmission of particular anomalies. In addition, this review considers some publications on fetal cardiology from the perspective of early diagnosis and, if possible, treatment. There follows a discussion on new contributions to Eisenmenger's syndrome and arrhythmias, as well as on imaging techniques, interventional catheterization and heart transplantation. Finally, there is an overview of the new version of clinical practice guidelines on the management of adult patients with congenital heart disease and of recently published guidelines on pregnancy in women with heart disease, both produced by the European Society of Cardiology.
Freilij, H L; Corral, R S; Katzin, A M; Grinstein, S
Detection and partial characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi soluble antigens (SAg) in urine, as well as demonstration of parasite circulating antigens (CAg) in serum from pediatric patients with acute (10 patients) and congenital (10 patients) Chagas' disease, are reported. Classical techniques for parasite detection and antibody serology were also conducted in both groups. Samples collected before the onset of parasiticidal drug treatment were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for SAg and CAg demonstration. The control population consisted of 6 children with acute toxoplasmosis, 6 with cutaneous leishmaniasis, and 20 healthy individuals. Patients with acute cases were 100% positive for both SAg and CAg, whereas patients with congenital disease were 80% CAg positive and 100% SAg positive. Controls yielded negative results in all cases. Partial characterization of SAg from two patients with acute disease was performed by iodination, affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Two different antigenic glycoproteins (80 kilodaltons, pI 6 to 6.5 and 55 kilodaltons, pI 6.5 to 7) were identified by these methods. Traditional serology and classical parasitologic tests failed, each in a different way, to provide an accurate diagnosis in the total of our patients. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for SAg detection proved to be the most effective procedure for achieving early and precise proof of infection in acute and congenital cases of Chagas' disease. Images PMID:3098778
Ladouceur, Magalie; Pontnau, Florence; Iserin, Laurence
The population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is continuously increasing with now a higher prevalence than that of the pediatric population. This concerns above all complex congenital heart diseases. Heart failure is the primary cause of death followed by arrhythmia, which is very common in ACHD. A specialized follow-up by dedicated centers is significantly associated with an improvement of survival of ACHD patients compared to non-expert follow-up. Extracardiac disorders (liver, kidney, respiratory) are frequent and require an accurate and specific management. The psychosocial impact, particularly the professional difficulties, is common and may require implementation of appropriate measures to improve the patient social life. Unplanned pregnancy and/or a lack of information about contraception may induce severe cardiovascular complications in ACHD women. Education about contraceptive methods at adolescence and pre-conceptional counseling are requested in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Qing-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Ping
Heart development comprises myocyte specification, differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. These processes are regulated by a group of core cardiac transcription factors in a coordinated temporal and spatial manner. Histone methylation is an emerging epigenetic mechanism for regulating gene transcription. Interplay among cardiac transcription factors and histone lysine modifiers plays important role in heart development. Aberrant expression and mutation of the histone lysine modifiers during development and in adult life can cause either embryonic lethality or congenital heart diseases, and influences the response of adult hearts to pathological stresses. In this review, we describe current body of literature on the role of several common histone methylations and their modifying enzymes in heart development, congenital and adult heart diseases.
CESARIO, DAVID; KEDIA, ROHIT; DESAI, NIRAV; ABOULHOSN, JAMIL; USLAN, DANIEL; BOYLE, NOEL; FUJIMURA, OSAMU; SHEHATA, MICHAEL; BUCH, ERIC; SHIVKUMAR, KALYANAM
Background Device extraction is a critical component in the treatment of patients with device-related infections. Due to complex anatomic considerations, device extraction in adults with congenital heart disease presents unique challenges to the electrophysiologist. Methods Here, we present a series of device-extraction cases performed in patients with transposition of the great arteries status post either Mustard or Senning surgical procedures that subsequently had permanent pacemakers placed and ultimately developed device-related infections. Results All of these patients eventually underwent successful laser extractions of their infected devices resulting in complete removal of all hardware and resolution of their infections. Conclusions These cases illustrate that endovascular device extraction has been safely and effectively performed in adult patients with congenital heart disease, though further studies are needed to determine the procedural risks and success rates of this procedure in this patient population. PMID:19272064
Del Fabbro, M; Francetti, L; Pizzoni, L; Weinstein, R L
An alteration of the immune system function is one of the main factors involved in the development of periodontal disease. Polymorpho-nuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) play a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response against bacterial challenge. The mechanism of neutralization of pathogen microorganisms by PMNs involves many different steps: adhesion to capillary endothelium in the inflamed region, trans-endothelial migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and, ultimately, bacterial killing by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. A defect in one of these steps leads to altered neutrophil function and, consequently, to a higher host susceptibility to periodontal tissue infection. The main intrinsic neutrophil diseases such as neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), are often related to severe and early-onset forms of periodontitis, as described by many evidences in the literature. Therefore PMN dysfunctions, both intrinsic and extrinsic, represent an important risk factor for periodontal disease. Studies on the basic molecular mechanisms of such dysfunctions, also in terms of genetic polymorphisms, recently allowed to identify some specific markers related to a higher susceptibility to the development of disease. Many researches have yet to be performed aiming to gain insight on the dynamics of PMN activation and interaction with other cells, in order to improve and modulate neutrophil function and to develop specific approaches for care and prevention of periodontal diseases.
Ho, J J
An analysis was done of available data from the Department of Statistics Malaysia, on the type of congenital abnormality contributing to death, to determine whether progress in health care over recent years was associated with any decline in mortality from congenital abnormality. A significant decline in death due to congenital abnormality was observed between 1991 and 1996. This was attributable to a decline in deaths due to congenital heart disease occurring because of improvements in cardiac surgical services for infants. In 1997 death due to congenital heart disease increased significantly. This could be attributed to improvements in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in the neonate.
Fahed, Akl C; Roberts, Amy E; Mital, Seema; Lakdawala, Neal K
Heart failure (HF) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in congenital heart disease (CHD), with increasing prevalence because of improved treatment options and outcomes. Genetic factors and acquired postnatal factors in CHD might play a major role in the progression to HF. This article proposes 3 routes that lead to HF in CHD: rare monogenic entities that cause both CHD and HF; severe CHD lesions in which acquired hemodynamic effects of CHD or surgery result in HF; and, most commonly, a combined effect of complex genetics in overlapping pathways and acquired stressors caused by the primary lesion. Published by Elsevier Inc.
El-Alameey, Inas R.; Ahmed, Hanaa H.; Tawfik, Sawsan M.; Hassaballa, Fawzia; Gawad, Ayman M. Abdel; Eltahlawy, Eman
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature in infants with congenital heart disease. AIM: This study was designed to evaluate age-dependent serum levels of antigliadin antibodies among malnourished Egyptian infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) and gastrointestinal symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case-control study conducted on 60 infants with established congenital heart disease. They were subdivided into cyanotic and acyanotic groups, and each group includes 30 patients compared with thirty apparently healthy infants of matched age, sex, and social class. Serum antigliadin antibodies levels were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: The mean age of introduction of cereals in the diet and appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms were six months. On comparison with controls, patients showed highly significant higher serum levels of antigliadin antibodies (P < 0.000). On analysing risk factors using odds ratio, the age at onset of GIT symptoms, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and distension had been found to be significantly associated with high serum antigliadin antibodies among malnourished CHD infants with a prediction of 95%. CONCLUSION: Serum IgA, IgM, and IgG class antibodies to gliadin play a significant role in the pathogenesis of malnutrition in infants with CHD. Gluten containing foods should never be introduced before the end of the six months. PMID:28293318
Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Yan; Li, Peiling; Wang, Tuanjie; Gao, Jun; Yao, Jinhua; Li, Shujun
Objective: To study the pathogen distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors of postoperative nosocomial infections among children with congenital heart disease. Methods: Three hundreds children with congenital heart disease admitted to our hospital to receive surgeries from February 2010 to February 2013 were selected. Results: A total of 120 children were tested as positive by sputum culture, with the infection rate of 40.0%. The top five most common pathogenic microorganisms included Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. S. epidermidis, S. aureus and Enterococcus were highly resistant to penicillin, azithromycin and erythromycin, moderately susceptible to levofloxacin and cefazolin, and completely susceptible to vancomycin. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that hospitalization stay length, combined use of antibiotics, systemic use of hormones, mechanical ventilation and catheter indwelling were the independent risk factors of postoperative nosocomial infections (P<0.05). Conclusion: Nosocomial infection, which was the most frequent postoperative complication of pediatric congenital heart disease, was predominantly induced by Gram-positive bacteria that were highly susceptible to cephalosporins and vancomycin. Particular attention should be paid to decrease relevant risk factors to improve the prognosis. PMID:24948978
Meyer, Sascha; Yilmaz, Umut; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Steinfeld, Robert; Meyberg-Solomayer, Gabriele; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara; Tzschach, Andreas; Gortner, Ludwig; Igel, Julia; Schofer, Otto
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) is characterized by a combination of retinopathy, dementia, and epilepsy. As a group, they encompass ten distinct biological and clinical entities and are the most common type of childhood neurodegenerative disease. Case reports. We demonstrate the clinical course of two neonates (brother and sister) with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) (CLN 10 disease) presenting with intractable seizures and respiratory insufficiency immediately after birth. Characteristic clinical, radiological and pathological findings of this form of NCL are presented. We conclude that the diagnosis of CLN10 should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in newborns presenting with respiratory insufficiency and severe epilepsy that is largely refractory to anti-epileptic drugs (AED) treatment. Because of the severity of CLN10 disease and futility of treatment, important ethical issues arise when caring for children with this clinical entity.
Masi, G; Brovedani, P
A most significant life event in the first years of life is a disease, especially if it is of early onset, severe, life threatening, with an uncertain prognosis, and with the necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Psychological implications are a significant parts of the illness, not a marginal component; they can affect prognosis and outcome. The authors describe the different psychological implications of an experience of chronic disease in children and adolescents and their families (parents and siblings). Congenital disease (for example congenital heart failure) has a peculiar significance: since it is diagnosed early, it influences mother-infant interactions from the beginning, in a crucial moment of the infant's psychological development; diagnostic and therapeutical interventions are early and frequent; congenital defects determine the strongest guilt feelings in the parents. Some specific psychological aspects can be described: the weakening of the Bodily self, the inhibition of thinking, the theories the child and the family formulates on the disease, the death feelings. Emotional features in children and adolescents with congenital cardiopathy are described: inhibition of emotions, marked anxiety, depressive reaction, with loneliness, low self-esteem and inadequacy, emotional lability, with oscillation between omnipotence and inadequacy; impulsiveness; weakness of self identity; especially in bodily Self. Some psychopathological aspects in children and adolescents with heart transplant and their families are also described. Intellectual level of patients with congenital heart disease is in the normal range, although significantly lower than normal controls. There is a positive correlation between worsening of intellectual functioning and clinical severity of the heart disease; this clinical severity is related both to restrictions in normal daily life activities, and blood oxygen saturation. It is hard to tease apart the role of
Deen, Jason F; Krieger, Eric V; Slee, April E; Arslan, Alex; Arterburn, David; Stout, Karen K; Portman, Michael A
Metabolic syndrome increases risk for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, and its prevalence increases with increasing age and body mass index. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are now living longer and accruing coronary artery disease risk factors. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in ACHD patients is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ACHD patients at our center to quantify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an ACHD population. Using case-control matching, we constructed a comparable control group from a population-based sample of 150 104 adults. International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. We used logistic regression to compare the risk of metabolic syndrome across the resulting cohorts, which were composed of 448 ACHD patients and 448 controls matched by age and sex. Mean age of both groups was 32.4±11.3 years, and 51.3% were female. Obesity was present in 16.1% of the ACHD patients and 16.7% of the controls. Metabolic syndrome was more common in ACHD patients than in controls (15.0% versus 7.4%; odds ratio 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.65). Our data suggest that metabolic syndrome is more common among adults with congenital heart disease than in the general population. Thus, patients with congenital heart disease should be screened for metabolic syndrome and risk factors mitigated where possible to prevent atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Preventive cardiology should be included during routine ACHD care. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Seckeler, Michael D; Thomas, Ian D; Andrews, Jennifer; Joiner, Keith; Klewer, Scott E
Adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD) now outnumber children with the disease. Thanks to medical advances over the past 75 years, many of these fatal childhood heart problems have changed to chronic medical conditions. As the population of adults with CHD increases, they will require increasingly complex medical, surgical and catheter-based therapies. In addition, social burdens including education, employment and insurability, which increase the societal costs of adult CHD, are now being recognized for adults living with CHD. This review summarizes the available literature on the economics of adult CHD.
Stewart, Garrick C; Mayer, John E
Heart transplantation has become an increasingly common and effective therapy for adults with end-stage congenital heart disease (CHD) because of advances in patient selection and surgical technique. Indications for transplantation in CHD are similar to other forms of heart failure. Pretransplant assessment of CHD patients emphasizes evaluation of cardiac anatomy, pulmonary vascular disease, allosensitization, hepatic dysfunction, and neuropsychiatric status. CHD patients experience longer waitlist times and higher waitlist mortality than other transplant candidates. Adult CHD patients undergoing transplantation carry an early hazard for mortality compared with non-CHD recipients, but by 10 years posttransplant, CHD patients have a slight actuarial survival advantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wijnmaalen, Adrianus P; Zeppenfeld, Katja
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is an important treatment modality to prevent ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrence in patients with repaired congenital heart disease. Identification and ablation of anatomic isthmuses has improved acute ablation outcome with excellent VT-free survival in those with preserved biventricular function. Reports on RFCA for VT in patients with infiltrative disease are sparse and cardiac sarcoidosis seems to be the most prevalent cause for ventricular arrhythmia. Patients with active and ongoing inflammation are at high risk for VT recurrence. RFCA reduces the number of VT but often multiple procedures are required and long-term VT-free survival is unfavorable in those with left ventricular dysfunction.
Chagas disease is a chronic infection that kills approximately 12,000 people a year. Mass migration of chronically infected and asymptomatic persons has caused globalization of Chagas disease and has made nonvectorial infection, including vertical and blood-borne transmission, more of a threat to human communities than vectorial infection. To control transmission, it is essential to test all pregnant women living in endemic countries and all pregnant women having migrated from, or having lived in, endemic countries. All children born to seropositive mothers should be tested not only within the first month of life but also at ~6 months and ~12 months of age. The diagnosis is made by identification of the parasite in blood before the age of 6 months and by identification of the parasite in blood and/or positive serology after 10 months of age. Follow up for a year is essential as a significant proportion of cases are initially negative and are only detected at a later stage. If the condition is diagnosed and treated early, the clinical response is excellent and the majority of cases are cured. PMID:24949443
Franklin, Rodney C G; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Krogmann, Otto N; Béland, Marie J; Aiello, Vera D; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; William Gaynor, J; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters Iii, Henry L; Weinberg, Paul; Anderson, Robert H
Clinicians working in the field of congenital and paediatric cardiology have long felt the need for a common diagnostic and therapeutic nomenclature and coding system with which to classify patients of all ages with congenital and acquired cardiac disease. A cohesive and comprehensive system of nomenclature, suitable for setting a global standard for multicentric analysis of outcomes and stratification of risk, has only recently emerged, namely, The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This review, will give an historical perspective on the development of systems of nomenclature in general, and specifically with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Finally, current and future efforts to merge such systems into the paperless environment of the electronic health or patient record on a global scale are briefly explored. On October 6, 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. In January, 2005, the International Nomenclature Committee was constituted in Canada as The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. This International Society now has three working groups. The Nomenclature Working Group developed The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code and will continue to maintain, expand, update, and preserve this International Code. It will also provide ready access to the International Code for the global paediatric and congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery communities, related disciplines, the healthcare industry, and governmental agencies, both electronically and in published form. The Definitions Working Group will write definitions for the terms in the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, building on the previously published definitions from the Nomenclature Working Group. The Archiving Working Group, also known as The Congenital Heart Archiving
Kuehl, Karen; Tucker, Alicia; Khan, Munziba; Goldberg, Paula; Anne Greene, E; Smith, Megan
Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are endemic in the United States and affect adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). Defining the burden of excess weight on the cardiovascular system in ACHD is the goal of this study. Limitation of exercise capacity due to overweight or obesity might be reversible with weight loss and improve quality of life for ACHD adults. Exercise tests performed using a Bruce protocol and measurement of maximum oxygen consumption were retrospectively reviewed on 418 CHD patients. OW and OB were defined as the 85-95 or > 95 percentile respectively for age and gender or by adult criteria. Severity of CHD was assigned based on criteria published in standard guidelines. 63 patients had mild, 198 moderate, and 157 severe heart disease. Each ACHD group was 32 to 34% OW or OB. Measured exercise time (ET) of CHD patients with moderate or severe heart disease was less than that of controls in each weight categories. However, OB or OW people have shorter ET than their normal weight peers with CHD. Multiple regression using ET as the dependent variable finds that female sex, relative BMI, and VE/VCO2 at peak exercise are all associated with lesser ET with high significance. Peak heart rate is associated with greater ET, with borderline significance. Severity of heart disease is not independently associated with ET. OW and OB are strongly associated with reduced ET in persons with congenital heart disease. Losing weight may improve exercise capacity in ACHD.
Brickner, M Elizabeth
The population of adults with CHD continues to expand,and thus the number of women with CHD who contemplate pregnancy or become pregnant is also growing. Mothers with low-risk defects can be managed by general cardiologist,whereas those with more complex defects should be managed by or with the assistance of ACHD cardiologists. It is important to acknowledge that all patients with CHD may have unique anatomy or physiology, despite their classification as having a simple, moderate, or complex defect. As such, clinicians evaluating these patients should have adequate knowledge and expertise when assessing patient's risk for pregnancy,when performing imaging or hemodynamic studies, and when managing these patients during pregnancy. The American Board of Medical Specialties has recently recognized ACHD as a subspecialty of cardiovascular disease to treat the specialized needs of these patients in adulthood. ACHD experts can provide expertise in the management of specific defects or lesions, imaging techniques, prepregnancy risk assessment,and can manage these patients or comanage them with other medical providers during their pregnancy. Because many of these ACHD patients are lost to follow-up in adulthood, pregnancy represents a time when these patients seek medical care(and for some, represents a time of vulnerability and increased risk). This represents an opportunity to establish or reestablish care with ACHD specialists and to reestablish continuing long-term care for their CHD. Pregnancy also provides an opportunity to create partnerships between primary care physicians,adult cardiologists, and ACHD specialists to provide optimal care for these women throughout their lives.
Cotts, Timothy; Khairy, Paul; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; John, Anitha S.; Valente, Anne Marie; Zaidi, Ali N.; Cook, Stephen C.; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Ting, Jennifer Grando; Gurvitz, Michelle; Landzberg, Michael J.; Verstappen, Amy; Kay, Joseph; Earing, Michael; Franklin, Wayne; Kogon, Brian; Broberg, Craig S.
Background Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) clinicians are hampered by the paucity of data to inform clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to identify priorities for clinical research in ACHD. Methods A list of 45 research questions was developed by the Alliance for Adult Research in Congenital Cardiology (AARCC), compiled into a survey, and administered to ACHD providers. Patient input was sought via the Adult Congenital Heart Association at community meetings and online forums. The 25 top questions were sent to ACHD providers worldwide via an online survey. Each question was ranked based on perceived priority and weighted based on time spent in ACHD care. The top 10 topics identified are presented and discussed. Results The final online survey yielded 139 responses. Top priority questions related to tetralogy of Fallot (timing of pulmonary valve replacement and criteria for primary prevention ICDs), patients with systemic right ventricles (determining the optimal echocardiographic techniques for measuring right ventricular function, and indications for tricuspid valve replacement and primary prevention ICDs), and single ventricle/Fontan patients (role of pulmonary vasodilators, optimal anticoagulation, medical therapy for preservation of ventricular function, treatment for protein losing enteropathy). In addition, establishing criteria to refer ACHD patients for cardiac transplantation was deemed a priority. Conclusions The ACHD field is in need of prospective research to address fundamental clinical questions. It is hoped that this methodical consultation process will inform researchers and funding organizations about clinical research topics deemed to be of high priority. PMID:24411207
Adachi, Iki; Morales, David S. L.
In patients with end-stage heart failure (HF), a total artificial heart (TAH) may be implanted as a bridge to cardiac transplant. However, in congenital heart disease (CHD), the malformed heart presents a challenge to TAH implantation. In the case presented here, a 17 year-old patient with congenital transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) experienced progressively worsening HF due to his congenital condition. He was hospitalized multiple times and received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). However, his condition soon deteriorated to end-stage HF with multisystem organ failure. Due to the patient's grave clinical condition and the presence of complex cardiac lesions, the decision was made to proceed with a TAH. The abnormal arrangement of the patient's ventricles and great arteries required modifications to the TAH during implantation. With the TAH in place, the patient was able to return home and regain strength and physical well-being while awaiting a donor heart. He was successfully bridged to heart transplantation 5 months after receiving the device. This report highlights the TAH is feasible even in patients with structurally abnormal hearts, with technical modification. PMID:25078059
Pace, Danielle F; Dalca, Adrian V; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J; Moghari, Mehdi H; Golland, Polina
We present an interactive algorithm to segment the heart chambers and epicardial surfaces, including the great vessel walls, in pediatric cardiac MRI of congenital heart disease. Accurate whole-heart segmentation is necessary to create patient-specific 3D heart models for surgical planning in the presence of complex heart defects. Anatomical variability due to congenital defects precludes fully automatic atlas-based segmentation. Our interactive segmentation method exploits expert segmentations of a small set of short-axis slice regions to automatically delineate the remaining volume using patch-based segmentation. We also investigate the potential of active learning to automatically solicit user input in areas where segmentation error is likely to be high. Validation is performed on four subjects with double outlet right ventricle, a severe congenital heart defect. We show that strategies asking the user to manually segment regions of interest within short-axis slices yield higher accuracy with less user input than those querying entire short-axis slices.
Adachi, Iki; Morales, David S L
In patients with end-stage heart failure (HF), a total artificial heart (TAH) may be implanted as a bridge to cardiac transplant. However, in congenital heart disease (CHD), the malformed heart presents a challenge to TAH implantation. In the case presented here, a 17 year-old patient with congenital transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) experienced progressively worsening HF due to his congenital condition. He was hospitalized multiple times and received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). However, his condition soon deteriorated to end-stage HF with multisystem organ failure. Due to the patient's grave clinical condition and the presence of complex cardiac lesions, the decision was made to proceed with a TAH. The abnormal arrangement of the patient's ventricles and great arteries required modifications to the TAH during implantation. With the TAH in place, the patient was able to return home and regain strength and physical well-being while awaiting a donor heart. He was successfully bridged to heart transplantation 5 months after receiving the device. This report highlights the TAH is feasible even in patients with structurally abnormal hearts, with technical modification.
Cotts, Timothy; Khairy, Paul; Opotowsky, Alexander R; John, Anitha S; Valente, Anne Marie; Zaidi, Ali N; Cook, Stephen C; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Ting, Jennifer Grando; Gurvitz, Michelle; Landzberg, Michael J; Verstappen, Amy; Kay, Joseph; Earing, Michael; Franklin, Wayne; Kogon, Brian; Broberg, Craig S
Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) clinicians are hampered by the paucity of data to inform clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to identify priorities for clinical research in ACHD. A list of 45 research questions was developed by the Alliance for Adult Research in Congenital Cardiology (AARCC), compiled into a survey, and administered to ACHD providers. Patient input was sought via the Adult Congenital Heart Association at community meetings and online forums. The 25 top questions were sent to ACHD providers worldwide via an online survey. Each question was ranked based on perceived priority and weighted based on time spent in ACHD care. The top 10 topics identified are presented and discussed. The final online survey yielded 139 responses. Top priority questions related to tetralogy of Fallot (timing of pulmonary valve replacement and criteria for primary prevention ICDs), patients with systemic right ventricles (determining the optimal echocardiographic techniques for measuring right ventricular function, and indications for tricuspid valve replacement and primary prevention ICDs), and single ventricle/Fontan patients (role of pulmonary vasodilators, optimal anticoagulation, medical therapy for preservation of ventricular function, treatment for protein losing enteropathy). In addition, establishing criteria to refer ACHD patients for cardiac transplantation was deemed a priority. The ACHD field is in need of prospective research to address fundamental clinical questions. It is hoped that this methodical consultation process will inform researchers and funding organizations about clinical research topics deemed to be of high priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adisa, Olufolake A.; Oster, Matthew E.; McConnell, Michael; Mahle, William T.
Sickle cell disease is a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents in the pediatric population. This risk is compounded by hypoxemia. Cyanotic congenital heart disease can expose patients to prolonged hypoxemia. To our knowledge, the long-term outcome of patients who have combined sickle cell and cyanotic congenital heart disease has not been reported. We retrospectively reviewed patient records at our institution and identified 5 patients (3 girls and 2 boys) who had both conditions. Their outcomes were uniformly poor: 4 died (age range, 12 mo–17 yr); 3 had documented cerebrovascular accidents; and 3 developed ventricular dysfunction. The surviving patient had developmental delays. On the basis of this series, we suggest mitigating hypoxemia, and thus the risk of stroke, in patients who have sickle cell disease and cyanotic congenital heart disease. Potential therapies include chronic blood transfusions, hydroxyurea, earlier surgical correction to reduce the duration of hypoxemia, and heart or bone marrow transplantation. PMID:28100970
Goo, Hyun Woo
In patients with congenital heart disease, haemodynamic findings demonstrated on cardiac CT might provide useful hints for understanding the haemodynamics of cardiac defects. In contrast to morphological features depicted on cardiac CT, such haemodynamic findings on cardiac CT have not been comprehensively reviewed in patients with congenital heart disease. This article describes normal haemodynamic phenomena of cardiovascular structures and various abnormal haemodynamic findings with their mechanisms and clinical significance on cardiac CT in patients with congenital heart disease.
Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan
Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects nearly 1 % of the population. It is a complex disease, which may be caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studies in human genetics have led to the identification of more than 50 human genes, involved in isolated CHD or genetic syndromes, where CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes and to gain further insight into the molecular pathology behind CHD. The picture emerging from these studies suggest that genetic lesions associated with CHD affect a broad range of cellular signaling components, from ligands and receptors, across down-stream effector molecules to transcription factors and co-factors, including chromatin modifiers.
Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal
Acyanotic heart disease constitutes a significant majority of patient who may present with non-cardiac symptoms. Either they are detected incidentally or present with respiratory complaints. Equipped with knowledge of anatomy by echocardiography and radiographic methods described in previous part of this presentation, diagnosis may be confidently attempted. On plain radiography acyanotic congenital heart diseases have variable appearance depending upon severity of disease. Cardiac size, chamber enlargement and pulmonary vascular pattern are key elements. Typically left to right shunts with large volume flow are associated with pulmonary plethora. Plain radiography has an important role in detecting manifestation of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severe stenosis of pulmonary valve is associated with pulmonary oligemia. Small intra-cardiac shunts and anomalies of coronary arteries generally present with normal cardiac size and pulmonary arterial pattern. Disease spectrum presented in this illustration demands thorough scrutiny of pulmonary, osseous and abdominal abnormalities. This section illustrates some commonly encountered spectrum of acyanotic cardiac disease. PMID:27504381
Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal
Acyanotic heart disease constitutes a significant majority of patient who may present with non-cardiac symptoms. Either they are detected incidentally or present with respiratory complaints. Equipped with knowledge of anatomy by echocardiography and radiographic methods described in previous part of this presentation, diagnosis may be confidently attempted. On plain radiography acyanotic congenital heart diseases have variable appearance depending upon severity of disease. Cardiac size, chamber enlargement and pulmonary vascular pattern are key elements. Typically left to right shunts with large volume flow are associated with pulmonary plethora. Plain radiography has an important role in detecting manifestation of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severe stenosis of pulmonary valve is associated with pulmonary oligemia. Small intra-cardiac shunts and anomalies of coronary arteries generally present with normal cardiac size and pulmonary arterial pattern. Disease spectrum presented in this illustration demands thorough scrutiny of pulmonary, osseous and abdominal abnormalities. This section illustrates some commonly encountered spectrum of acyanotic cardiac disease.
Kokkonen, J; Paavilainen, T
The social status of 71 young adults (30 females, 41 males, aged 22.9 +/- 1.9 yr) with congenital heart disease was compared with that of 211 (106 females, 105 males, mean age 23.2 +/- 1.4 yr) randomly selected controls. The clinical examinations included clinical study with ultrasonic visualization, electrocardiography, X-ray and measurement of exercise capacity. In the study group 87% had completed school at the secondary level and another 21% at high school level, while the corresponding figures in the control group were 98% and 51%. About half of both groups continued to vocational training and a fifth to a higher level. Those without any vocational education made up 32% of the study group (95% confidence interval 21-43%) and 11% of the controls (95% confidence interval 7-15%). State benefits were the main source of income for 13% of the study group as compared to 2% among the controls. The employment status of the actual labour force showed no significant difference between the groups. Among patients with congenital heart disease there were significantly more of those who had developed a dependent life style, living with their parents without a marital or quasi-marital relationship. A cyanotic type of severe heart defect is one of the factors predisposing to poor success at school and a dependent lifestyle. Congenital heart disease, even when treated, is a significant factor which influences adult life. The results call for more practical support to assist psychosocial maturation, especially in patients with residual defects.
Mazwi, Mjaye L; Henner, Natalia; Kirsch, Roxanne
Patients with critical congenital heart disease are exposed to significant lifetime morbidity and mortality. Prenatal diagnosis can provide opportunities for anticipatory co-management of patients between palliative subspecialists and the cardiac care team. The benefits of palliative care include support for longitudinal decision-making and avoidance of interventions not consistent with family goals. Effectively counseling families requires an up-to-date understanding of outcomes and knowledge of provider biases. Patient-proxy reported quality of life (QOL) is highly variable in this population and healthcare providers need to be aware of limitations in their own subjective assessment of QOL.
Sanapo, Laura; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Donofrio, Mary T
Advances in fetal echocardiography have improved prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and allowed better delivery and perinatal management. Some newborns with CHD require urgent intervention after delivery. In these cases, delivery close to a pediatric cardiac center may be considered, and the presence of a specialized cardiac team in the delivery room or urgent transport of the infant should be planned in advance. Delivery planning, monitoring in labor, rapid intervention at birth if needed, and avoidance of iatrogenic preterm delivery have the potential to improve outcomes for infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD.
Greil, Gerald; Tandon, Animesh (Aashoo); Silva Vieira, Miguel; Hussain, Tarique
Three-dimensional (3D) whole heart techniques form a cornerstone in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease (CHD). It offers significant advantages over other CHD imaging modalities and techniques: no ionizing radiation; ability to be run free-breathing; ECG-gated dual-phase imaging for accurate measurements and tissue properties estimation; and higher signal-to-noise ratio and isotropic voxel resolution for multiplanar reformatting assessment. However, there are limitations, such as potentially long acquisition times with image quality degradation. Recent advances in and current applications of 3D whole heart imaging in CHD are detailed, as well as future directions. PMID:28289674
Gelb, Bruce D.; Chung, Wendy K.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect. Despite considerable advances in care, CHD remains a major contributor to newborn mortality and is associated with substantial morbidities and premature death. Genetic abnormalities appear to be the primary cause of CHD, but identifying precise defects has proven challenging, principally because CHD is a complex genetic trait. Mainly because of recent advances in genomic technology such as next-generation DNA sequencing, scientists have begun to identify the genetic variants underlying CHD. In this article, the roles of modifier genes, de novo mutations, copy number variants, common variants, and noncoding mutations in the pathogenesis of CHD are reviewed. PMID:24985128
Cyanotic congenital heart disease comprises a diverse spectrum of anatomical pathologies. Common to all, however, is chronic hypoxia before these lesions are operated upon when cardiopulmonary bypass is initiated. A range of functional and structural adaptations take place in the chronically hypoxic heart, which, whilst protective in the hypoxic state, are deleterious when the availability of oxygen to the myocardium is suddenly improved. Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass delivers hyperoxic perfusion to the myocardium and is associated with cardiac injury and systemic stress, whilst a normoxic perfusate protects against these insults. PMID:25328889
McLeod, Christopher J; Warnes, Carole
Adults with congenital heart disease now outnumber children with these syndromes in developed countries. This has seen a surge in the care required for these patients, and the development of an entirely new realm of cardiology. Arrhythmia is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in this group, and this review highlights current approaches to recognition and management. Atrial arrhythmias are especially common in this group of patients, while pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and cardiac ablation are also frequently necessary. The presentation and management of these entities present salient differences for the clinician--for both acute and chronic care--and more recently a national societal consensus statement has attempted to encapsulate the best approach. Without any level of evidence A, all recommendations are based on data derived from nonrandomized studies or only expert/consensus opinion. This review is aimed at providing current opinion on optimum clinical care in this arena in lieu of this publication and the more novel corroborative clinical studies. Recognition and appropriate management of arrhythmia in adults with congenital heart disease frequently differ from those patients with a normal heart or acquired heart disease. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are essential in this complex patient category.
Coffield, Daniel J.; Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Shillor, Meir; Mema, Ensela; Pell, Bruce; Pruzinsky, Amanda; Zetye, Alexandra
This work presents a new mathematical model for the domestic transmission of Chagas disease, a parasitic disease affecting humans and other mammals throughout Central and South America. The model takes into account congenital transmission in both humans and domestic mammals as well as oral transmission in domestic mammals. The model has time-dependent coefficients to account for seasonality and consists of four nonlinear differential equations, one of which has a delay, for the populations of vectors, infected vectors, infected humans, and infected mammals in the domestic setting. Computer simulations show that congenital transmission has a modest effect on infection while oral transmission in domestic mammals substantially contributes to the spread of the disease. In particular, oral transmission provides an alternative to vector biting as an infection route for the domestic mammals, who are key to the infection cycle. This may lead to high infection rates in domestic mammals even when the vectors have a low preference for biting them, and ultimately results in high infection levels in humans. PMID:23840647
Pickup, L; Gaffey, T; Clift, P; Bowater, S; Thorne, S; Hudsmith, L
Due to advances in surgical techniques and subsequent management, there have been remarkable improvements in the survival of patients with congenital heart disease. In particular, larger numbers of patients with complex disease are now living into adulthood and are entering the workforce. To establish the types of employment complex adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients are engaged in, based on the largest cohort of patients with a single-ventricle circulation in the UK. Records of all patients with a univentricular (Fontan) circulation at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital were reviewed. Employment status was categorized according to the Standard Occupational Classification criteria (2010). A total of 210 patient records were reviewed. There was the same proportion of professionals in our cohort compared to the rest of the UK (20% versus 20%). There were greater proportions working in the caring, leisure and other service occupations (15% versus 9%), the elementary occupations (17% versus 11%), sales and customer service occupations (14% versus 8%) and administrative and secretarial occupations (12% versus 11%). The reverse trend was observed for associate professions and technical occupations (7% versus 14%), skilled trades (10% versus 11%), process, plant and machine operatives (3% versus 6%) and managers, directors and senior officials (2% versus 10%). The data show that ACHD patients with a single ventricle are engaged in a diverse range of occupations. It is essential that early education and employment advice are given to this cohort to maximize future employment potential.
Marsden, Alison L.; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.
Purpose of review Recent methodological advances in computational simulations are enabling increasingly realistic simulations of hemodynamics and physiology, driving increased clinical utility. We review recent developments in the use of computational simulations in pediatric and congenital heart disease, describe the clinical impact in modeling in single ventricle patients, and provide an overview of emerging areas. Recent Findings Multiscale modeling combining patient specific hemodynamics with reduced order (i.e. mathematically and computationally simplified) circulatory models has become the defacto standard for modeling local hemodynamics and “global” circulatory physiology. We review recent advances that have enabled faster solutions, discuss new methods, (e.g. fluid structure interaction and uncertainty quantification), which lend realism both computationally and clinically to results, highlight novel computationally-derived surgical methods for single ventricle patients, and discuss areas in which modeling has begun to exert its influence including Kawasaki disease, fetal circulation, tetralogy of Fallot, (and pulmonary tree), and circulatory support. Summary Computational modeling is emerging as a crucial tool for clinical decision-making and evaluation of novel surgical methods and interventions in pediatric cardiology and beyond. Continued development of modeling methods, with an eye towards clinical needs, will enable clinical adoption in a wide range of pediatric and congenital heart diseases. PMID:26262579
Kennea, N; Norbury, R; Anderson, G; Tekay, A
Prenatal ultrasound has led to confidence in the antenatal diagnosis of intestinal obstruction allowing counseling and birth planning. We describe a male infant of a diabetic mother who had an antenatal diagnosis of distal bowel obstruction. This baby was subsequently found not to have bowel obstruction, but a congenital enteropathy - microvillous inclusion disease. The antenatal scans had demonstrated polyhydramnios as well as multiple fluid-filled dilated loops of bowel in the fetal abdomen. To our knowledge, similar prenatal ultrasound findings have not been previously described in this condition. The baby was delivered in a pediatric surgical center and postnatally there was no evidence of bowel obstruction either clinically or on abdominal X-ray. This baby initially fed well, but became collapsed and acidotic on his third day, having lost 26% of his birth weight due to excessive stool loss. The diagnosis of microvillous inclusion disease was made by electron microscopy of a small bowel biopsy. Congenital microvillous inclusion disease is a very rare inherited enteropathy with high mortality and morbidity. This condition, and other enteropathies, should be considered in cases in which antenatally diagnosed bowel obstruction is not confirmed after birth.
Orwat, Stefan; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Baumgartner, Helmut
Major advances in noninvasive imaging of adult congenital heart disease have been accomplished. These tools play now a key role in comprehensive diagnostic work-up, decision for intervention, evaluation for the suitability of specific therapeutic options, monitoring of interventions and regular follow-up. Besides echocardiography, magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT) have gained particular importance. The choice of imaging modality has thus become a critical issue. This review summarizes strengths and limitations of the different imaging modalities and how they may be used in a complementary fashion. Echocardiography obviously remains the workhorse of imaging routinely used in all patients. However, in complex disease and after surgery echocardiography alone frequently remains insufficient. CMR is particularly useful in this setting and allows reproducible and accurate quantification of ventricular function and comprehensive assessment of cardiac anatomy, aorta, pulmonary arteries and venous return including complex flow measurements. CT is preferred when CMR is contraindicated, when superior spatial resolution is required or when "metallic" artefacts limit CMR imaging. In conclusion, the use of currently available imaging modalities in adult congenital heart disease needs to be complementary. Echocardiography remains the basis tool, CMR and CT should be added considering specific open questions and the ability to answer them, availability and economic issues.
Mantovani, Franco; Patelli, Emilio; Castelnuovo, Chiara; Nicola, Massimiliano
We report an initial randomised study on surgical techniques with subsequent intensive application of our procedure. We modified Ebbehoj-Metz technique by a 'straightening-reinforcing' (S-R) double stitch: the first performs the plication, the second tightens it, thus preventing tension during erection. This is different to the simple Ebbehoj-Metz stitch that only provides plication but, as it does not provide reinforcement, does not prevent recurrence. From 1995 to 2000 78 plications were performed: 60 for congenital curvatures (age range 18-32 years) and 18 for Peyronie's disease (PD; age range 36-58 years). During the first 3 years, i.e. between 1995 and 1998, patients were randomised to S-R plication (20 congenital and 5 PD) and Nesbit procedure (20 congenital and 5 PD), for a total number of 50 patients (40 congenital and 10 PD). The last 28 patients, operated between 1998 and 2000, were assigned exclusively to S-R plication. We delayed study publication in favour of an adequate follow-up. No patient reported a decrease in erectile function and all reported easy vaginal penetration within 3 months. In 60% of the patients undergoing the Nesbit technique, restoration of a fully satisfactory coital activity was delayed because of pain during erection; 35% of all patients had some problems with the coronal suture which disappeared 1 month after the operation, and 15% reported decreased sensibility of the glans. Recurrence rate was not significant for all patients of all groups, even if 3 PD patients of the S-R plication group and 1 PD patient of the Nesbit group received no benefit from the operation. S-R plication is not better than the Nesbit procedure. However, for low degrees of penile bending, both congenital and acquired, we do not think it strictly necessary to perform the more invasive Nesbit operation (requiring opening of Buck's fascia, detachment of the neurovascular dorsal bundle or urethra and albuginea excision). Modified plication may be a minimally
San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A.; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W.; Pazour, Gregory J.
Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD. PMID:27002738
San Agustin, Jovenal T; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W; Pazour, Gregory J
Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD.
Gallagher, Patrick G
Rare, congenital nonimmune hemolytic disorders of the erythrocyte, although uncommon, are important causes of anemia in the child and adult. These are a heterogeneous group of diseases that disrupt normal erythrocyte structure and function in varying ways. Predominant are abnormalities of hemoglobin stability, defects of erythrocyte metabolism, and disorders of erythrocyte hydration. Unstable hemoglobinopathies may lead to chronic or episodic hemolysis. Perturbation of critical enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway lead to altered erythrocyte metabolism and chronic hemolysis. Disorders of erythrocyte hydration are an under-recognized cause of hemolytic anemia. Beyond pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease, clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. Often, they are underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. This review discusses pathophysiology, inheritance, clinical findings, laboratory manifestations, and management considerations in several rare nonimmune hemolytic diseases including the unstable hemoglobins, disorders of erythrocyte metabolism, and abnormalities of erythrocyte hydration. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
Stuart, Alan Graham
The demography of congenital heart disease is changing. Largely as a consequence of successful cardiac surgery in childhood, there are an increasing number of adults with congenital heart disease with a prevalence of more than four per 100 adults. The type of disease in adults is also changing with an increasing number of survivors with complex disease. These patients have a significantly increased healthcare requirement in comparison to healthy adults and this includes noncardiac, multisystem morbidity. The adult congenital heart disease population are now developing problems associated with aging and there is a new population of geriatrics with congenital heart disease. As survival continues to improve, increased healthcare resources need to be directed towards the management of the adult with congenital heart disease.
Fahed, Akl C; Gelb, Bruce D; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital anomaly in newborn babies. Cardiac malformations have been produced in multiple experimental animal models, by perturbing selected molecules that function in the developmental pathways involved in myocyte specification, differentiation, or cardiac morphogenesis. In contrast, the precise genetic, epigenetic, or environmental basis for these perturbations in humans remains poorly understood. Over the past few decades, researchers have tried to bridge this knowledge gap through conventional genome-wide analyses of rare Mendelian CHD families, and by sequencing candidate genes in CHD cohorts. Although yielding few, usually highly penetrant, disease gene mutations, these discoveries provided 3 notable insights. First, human CHD mutations impact a heterogeneous set of molecules that orchestrate cardiac development. Second, CHD mutations often alter gene/protein dosage. Third, identical pathogenic CHD mutations cause a variety of distinct malformations, implying that higher order interactions account for particular CHD phenotypes. The advent of contemporary genomic technologies including single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, next-generation sequencing, and copy number variant platforms are accelerating the discovery of genetic causes of CHD. Importantly, these approaches enable study of sporadic cases, the most common presentation of CHD. Emerging results from ongoing genomic efforts have validated earlier observations learned from the monogenic CHD families. In this review, we explore how continued use of these technologies and integration of systems biology is expected to expand our understanding of the genetic architecture of CHD.
Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Cuypers, Judith A A E; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien; van Domburg, Ron; Bogers, Ad J J C; Boersma, Eric; Pelliccia, Antonio; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W
It is unclear whether sports participation in adults with repaired congenital heart disease is safe and has benefits. Congenital heart disease (ConHD) patients who underwent corrective surgery for Atrial Septal Defect, Ventricular Septal Defect, Pulmonary Stenosis, Tetralogy of Fallot or Transposition of the Great Arteries in our center between 1968 and 1980 were included, and participated in our longitudinal follow-up study with serial evaluations in 2001 and 2011. At both time points patients filled in questionnaires on sports participation, subjective physical functioning and quality of life. Exercise testing, echocardiogram and 24-hour continuous ambulatory ECG-monitoring were performed in both 2001 and 2011. All clinical events (re-intervention, arrhythmia, heart failure) were prospectively recorded. No relationship was found between practicing sports and the occurrence of sudden death, PVCs or SVTs. Patients with moderate/complex forms of ConHD practiced fewer hours of sports compared with the general Dutch normative population. Patients with both simple and moderate/complex ConHD who practiced sports showed a higher exercise capacity. More favorable subjective physical functioning was found for moderate/complex patients who practiced sports. Adults with repaired ConHD are less often involved in sports than the Dutch general population. The patients that were engaged in sports show a higher exercise capacity than those who did not. Sports participation in patients with ConHD was not associated with an increased incidence of adverse cardiac events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lapierre, Chantale; Déry, Julie; Guérin, Ronald; Viremouneix, Loïc; Dubois, Josée; Garel, Laurent
The segmental approach, which is widely used in the imaging work-up of congenital heart disease, consists of a three-step evaluation of the cardiac anatomy. In step 1, the visceroatrial situs is determined. Visceroatrial situs refers to the position of the atria in relation to the nearby anatomy (including the stomach, liver, spleen, and bronchi). Three different anatomic configurations may be observed: situs solitus (normal), situs inversus (inverted), or situs ambiguus (ambiguous). In step 2, the left- or rightward orientation of the ventricular loop is evaluated, and the positions of the ventricles are identified on the basis of their internal morphologic features. In step 3, the position of the great vessels is determined first, and any abnormalities are noted. Abnormalities in the origin of the great vessels, or conotruncal anomalies, are predominantly of three types: D-transposition (dextrotransposition), L-transposition (levotransposition), and D-malposition with double outlet right ventricle. Next, the relationships between the atria and ventricles and the ventricles and great vessels are determined at two levels: atrioventricular (concordant, discordant, ambiguous, double inlet, absence of right or left connection) and ventriculoarterial (concordant, discordant, double outlet). Last, a search is performed for any associated abnormalities of the cardiac chambers, septa, outflow tract, and great vessels. By executing these steps sequentially during image review, the radiologist can achieve a more accurate interpretation. Multiplanar reconstructions of cross-sectional image data obtained with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are particularly useful for evaluating congenital heart disease.
Bouzo-López, Raquel; González-Represas, Alicia
For many years, the treatment of congenital heart diseases has been a field in which, based on the seriousness of these conditions, treatment options were viewed with the greatest deference. This has conditioned, in many cases, the interventions to be undertaken in each. In this sense, exercise was thought to have a negative impact and thus the practise of almost any physical activity was limited. Although there has recently been a change in the paradigm with respect to exercise, this idea continues to hold sway. For many cardiopathies, the information obtained through a stress test is essential in order to implement and supervise an exercise program. The aim of this study is to analyze the parameters within the stress test which allow for an adequate stratification of the risk to subjects with congenital heart diseases who undertake exercise, as well as their values in accordance with the type of pathology, the gravity of such, and the age of the patients. Furthermore, these parameters will be analyzed for both their survival markers and the protocols that can best be adjusted for patients with these characteristic.
Hartofilakidis, George; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi
Orthopaedic surgeons specialising in adult hip reconstruction surgery often face the problem of osteoarthritis secondary to congenital hip disease (CHD). To achieve better communication among physicians, better treatment planning and evaluation of the results of various treatment options, an agreed terminology is needed to describe the entire pathology. Furthermore, a generally accepted classification of the deformities is necessary. Herein, the authors propose the use of the term “congenital hip disease” and its classification as dysplasia, low dislocation and high dislocation. Knowledge of the CHD natural history facilitates comprehension of the potential development and progression of the disease, which differs among the aforementioned types. This can lead to better understanding of the anatomical abnormalities found in the different CHD types and thus facilitate preoperative planning and choice of the most appropriate management for adult patients. The basic principles for improved results of total hip replacement in patients with CHD, especially those with low and high dislocation, are: Wide exposure, restoration of the normal centre of rotation and the use of special techniques and implants for the reconstruction of the acetabulum and femur. Application of these principles during total hip replacement in young female patients born with severe deformities of the hip joint has led to radical improvement of their quality of life. PMID:28032030
Potpara, Tatjana S; Malmborg, Helena
An increasing number of patients with congenital heart disease survive to adulthood; such prolonged survival is related to a rapid evolution of successful surgical repairs and modern diagnostic techniques. Despite these improvements, corrective atrial incisions performed at surgery still lead to subsequent myocardial scarring harbouring a potential substrate for macro-reentrant atrial tachycardia. Macroreentrant atrial tachycardias are the most common (75 %) type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD). Patients with ACHD, atrial tachycardias and impaired ventricular function – important risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD) – have a 2–9 % SCD risk per decade. Moreover, ACHD imposes certain considerations when choosing antiarrhythmic drugs from a safety aspect and also when considering catheter ablation procedures related to the inherent cardiac anatomical barriers and required expertise. Expert recommendations for physicians managing these patients are therefore mandatory. This review summarises current evidence-based developments in the field, focusing on advances in and general recommendations for the management of ACHD, including the recently published recommendations on management of SVT by the European Heart Rhythm Association. PMID:28835834
Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal
From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation. PMID:27630924
Quartermain, Michael D; Pasquali, Sara K; Hill, Kevin D; Goldberg, David J; Huhta, James C; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L; Kim, Sunghee; Ungerleider, Ross M
Prenatal diagnosis allows improved perioperative outcomes for fetuses with certain forms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Variability in prenatal diagnosis has been demonstrated in other countries, leading to efforts to improve fetal imaging protocols and access to care, but has not been examined across the United States. The objective was to evaluate national variation in prenatal detection across geographic region and defect type in neonates and infants with CHD undergoing heart surgery. Cardiovascular operations performed in patients ≤6 months of age in the United States and included in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2006-2012) were eligible for inclusion. Centers with >15% missing prenatal diagnosis data were excluded from the study. Prenatal diagnosis rates were compared across geographic location of residence and defect type using the χ(2) test. Overall, the study included 31,374 patients from 91 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database participating centers across the United States. Prenatal detection occurred in 34% and increased every year, from 26% (2006) to 42% (2012). There was significant geographic variation in rates of prenatal diagnosis across states (range 11.8%-53.4%, P < .0001). Significant variability by defect type was also observed, with higher rates for lesions identifiable on 4-chamber view than for those requiring outflow tract visualization (57% vs 32%, P < .0001). Rates of prenatal CHD detection in the United States remain low for patients undergoing surgical intervention, with significant variability between states and across defect type. Additional studies are needed to identify reasons for this variation and the potential impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Services for Children with Handicaps.
These guidelines were written to help families coordinate the health care that may be needed by a child with congenital heart disease. The booklet begins with general information about congenital heart disease. It then discusses the goals of health care, the health care team, the importance of periodic health care, and record keeping procedures.…
Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel
To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Jillian; Massie, Kendra; Mortimer, Tamara; Maxwell, Lani
Congenital heart disease is one of the most common pediatric chronic illnesses that can have an impact on the lives of affected children and their families. Despite the growing number of school-age children who live with congenital heart disease, few researchers have investigated the lives and well-being of these children and their families. The…
Flores-Chávez, María; Faez, Yamile; Olalla, José M; Cruz, Israel; Gárate, Teresa; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Blanc, Pilar; Cañavate, Carmen
The early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease is very important if infected newborns, whether symptomatic or not, are to receive adequate treatment. This paper describes the complications arising in the diagnosis of a newborn with fatal congenital Chagas' disease in Spain, a non-endemic area where visceral leishmaniasis is present. PMID:18992159
The aim of this review of hereditary and congenital ocular disease in cats is to present an overview of the most common disorders seen in this species, the pathogenesis of the problems and wherever possible, how they are treated. Several defects are common in breeds such as the Persian, Himalayan and Burmese cats and affect the anterior segment of the eye. Examples are agenesis of the eyelids, dermoids, entropion and corneal sequestrum. Other problems such as cataracts, lens luxation and retinal dysplasia, cause problems of the intraocular structures, but are less common in cats compared to dogs. Finally, various parts of the retina and in some diseases other parts of the eye, are specifically affected by hereditary diseases. Examples of these are lysosomal storage disease, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and progressive rod cone degeneration and rod cone dysplasia. Research of the latter two hereditary diseases, both described in the Abyssinian breed of cat, have made affected individuals important animal models for research into comparable diseases of humans.
Dadvand, Payam; Rankin, Judith; Shirley, Mark D F; Rushton, Stephen; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies. There is considerable variation in the reported epidemiology of CHD, mainly attributable to methodological differences. Using register-based data, the current study describes the epidemiology of CHD in a geographically well-defined population of the North of England during 1985-2003. The total prevalence of CHD was 85.9 per 10 000 births and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. Livebirth prevalence was 79.7 per 10 000 livebirths. Both total and livebirth prevalence increased during the study period. Ninety-two per cent of affected pregnancies resulted in a livebirth, 5% were terminated, 2% resulted in a stillbirth, and 1% in a late miscarriage. Almost a quarter (23%) of cases had one or more coincident anomalies of other organs, with chromosomal abnormalities the most frequent group. A total of 89.2% of cases survived to 1 year and the survival improved during the study period. This population-based study has demonstrated an increasing trend in both prevalence and survival among children with CHD.
Chaix, Marie-A; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Khairy, Paul
Exercise capacity in adults with various forms of congenital heart disease is substantially lower than that of the general population. Although the underlying congenital heart defect, and its sequelae, certainly contribute to observed exercise limitations, there is evidence suggesting that deconditioning and a sedentary lifestyle are important implicated factors. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular comorbidities is on the increase in the aging population with congenital heart disease, such that obesity and a sedentary lifestyle confer increased risk. Health fears and misconceptions are common barriers to regular physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease, despite evidence linking lower functional capacity to poor outcomes, and data supporting the safety and efficacy of exercise in bestowing numerous physical and psychosocial rewards. With few exceptions, adults with congenital heart disease should be counselled to exercise regularly. In this contemporary review, we provide a practical approach to assessing adults with congenital heart disease before exercise training. We examine available evidence supporting the safety and benefits of exercise training. Risks associated with exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease are discussed, particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death. Finally, recommendations for exercise training are provided, with consideration for the type of congenital heart disease, the nature (ie, static vs dynamic) and intensity (ie, low, medium, high) of the physical activity, and associated factors such as systemic ventricular dysfunction and residual defects. Further research is required to determine optimal exercise regimens and to identify effective strategies to implement exercise training as a key determinant of healthy living.
Frankfurter, Claudia; Asgar, Anita W; Webb, John G; Cantor, Warren J; Velianou, James L; Gobeil, François; Chan, Albert W; Welsh, Robert C; Love, Michael P; Wood, David A; McKenzie, Kevin; Horlick, Eric M
Once considered a childhood disease, the number of adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD) has now exceeded the number of pediatric patients. The landscape of percutaneous intervention for adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) has evolved over the past decade and has yet to be characterized in Canada. The aim of this study was to begin to understand the current infrastructure underlying ACHD interventions in Canada and to characterize the type and number of interventions being carried out across the country. A cross-sectional national survey was distributed by e-mail to all cardiac catheterization laboratory directors in 2015. All Canadian laboratories involved in ACHD interventions responded, encompassing 19 institutions spanning 69 cardiac catheterization laboratories. A total of 1451 percutaneous interventions were recorded. Nationwide, the most common simple ACHD interventions were for atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale closures. The most common ACHD interventions of increased complexity were for coarctation stenting and transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation. There was a marked clustering of procedures in Ontario, Québec, British Columbia, and Alberta in keeping with Canada's population-density distribution. A total of 23 ACHD operators were identified, half of whom had ACHD-specific fellowship training. These data can be used as a starting point to inform the present state of affairs in the area and lay the groundwork for further work to assess resource allocation and human resource planning for the care of patients with ACHD in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Mark A; Noga, Michelle; Rutledge, Jennifer
Certain pediatric patients undergoing surgery for the most severe forms of congenital heart disease are exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. The amount of cumulative radiation exposure from all modalities has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the cumulative radiation exposure in a contemporary cohort of patients with congenital heart disease undergoing single-ventricle palliation. This is a single-center, retrospective study of pediatric patients undergoing Fontan completion between May 2005 and May 2010. Radiation exposure from all procedures including cardiac catheterizations, computed tomography (CT) scans, plain film radiography, and nuclear medicine scans was evaluated. Radiation dose was calculated as the dose area product (μGy m(2)) and was measured in all cardiac catheterizations, CT scans, and other imaging modalities. Seventy patients who underwent Fontan completion at a mean age of 3.6 ± 1.5 years (range 1.4-8 years) were included in the study. Mean number of chest X-rays was 32 ± 8 (range 10-285) with a mean cumulative total exposure of 1,320 μGy m(2) (range 480-12,960) per patient. Mean number of cardiac catheterizations was 2.45 ± 1.3 (range 1-8), and mean fluoroscopy and cine angiography exposures per case were 1,103 ± 245 and 1,412 ± 273 μGy m(2) giving a mean cumulative exposure of 9,054 μGy m(2) (range 2,515-201,200) per patient for all catheterizations. Mean number of CT scans performed was 0.44 ± 0.4 (0-11), and the mean exposure was 352 μGy m(2), giving a mean cumulative total of 154 μGy m(2) (range 0-3,872) per person. A total of five lung perfusion scans were carried out. Radiation exposure in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing single-ventricle palliation is quite variable. Most of the exposure to ionizing radiation occurs during cardiac catheterization. Strategies to utilize other imaging modalities such as MRI would decrease exposure in this particular group of patients who
Pérez-Lescure Picarzo, Javier; Mosquera González, Margarita; Latasa Zamalloa, Pello; Crespo Marcos, David
Congenital heart disease is a major cause of infant mortality in developed countries. In Spain, there are no publications at national level on mortality due to congenital heart disease. The aim of this study is to analyse mortality in infants with congenital heart disease, lethality of different types of congenital heart disease, and their variation over a ten-year period. A retrospective observational study was performed to evaluate mortality rate of children under one year old with congenital heart disease, using the minimum basic data set, from 2003 to 2012. Mortality rate and relative risk of mortality were estimated by Poisson regression. There were 2,970 (4.58%) infant deaths in a population of 64,831 patients with congenital heart disease, with 73.8% of deaths occurring during first week of life. Infant mortality rate in patients with congenital heart disease was 6.23 per 10,000 live births, and remained constant during the ten-year period of the study, representing 18% of total infant mortality rate in Spain. The congenital heart diseases with highest mortality rates were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (41.4%), interruption of aortic arch (20%), and total anomalous pulmonary drainage (16.8%). Atrial septal defect (1%) and pulmonary stenosis (1.1%) showed the lowest mortality rate. Congenital heart disease was a major cause of infant mortality with no variations during the study period. The proportion of infants who died in our study was similar to other similar countries. In spite of current medical advances, some forms of congenital heart disease show very high mortality rates. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Yamamoto, Keiko; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Usui, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Fujiwara, Makoto; Hori, Yumiko; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Oue, Takaharu; Morii, Eiichi; Ozono, Keiichi
Abstract. Coincidental cyanotic congenital heart disease and pheochromocytoma is uncommon, although some cases have been reported. We describe a girl aged 15 yr and 11 mo with pheochromocytoma and tricuspid atresia treated by performing the Fontan surgery. The patient did not have any specific symptoms of syndrome related to pheochromoytoma or a family history of pheochromocytoma. During cardiac catheterization, her blood pressure increased markedly, and an α-blocker was administered. Catecholamine hypersecretion was observed in the blood and urine, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the right adrenal gland. Scintigraphy showed marked accumulation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in the tumor, which led to a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. We did not detect any germline mutations in the RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHD, TMEM127, or MAX genes. This patient had experienced mild systemic hypoxia since birth, which may have contributed to the development of pheochromocytoma. PMID:27212797
Lobo, Rodrigo Gallardo; Griffith, Michael
Arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease, most commonly related to previous surgical procedures, are a frequent comorbidity in this growing population thanks to the improved outcome of surgical techniques. Re-entrant circuits around areas of scarring and natural barriers, combined with abnormal haemodynamics and the underlying anatomy, are the most common cause for these arrhythmias. They are often poorly tolerated and medical treatment is frequently inadequate. In recent years, catheter ablation has emerged as a successful therapeutic option. New advanced techniques such as the use of modern three-dimensional (3D) navigation systems have contributed to better understanding of the arrhythmia mechanisms and higher success rates of the ablation procedures. In this article we briefly summarise the characteristics of the most common arrhythmias in this patient population and some key aspects in their treatment by catheter ablation. PMID:26835063
Pediatric cardiac care in India is still in its infancy. We have no data on congenital heart disease (CHD) prevalence at birth or on proportional mortality from CHD. The resources are not only limited but also are at times improperly utilized. There are very few specialized pediatric cardiology training programs, those that are, are concentrated in certain regions of India and are often imparted through combined adult and pediatric programs. The existing number of trained personnel for pediatric cardiology and pediatric cardiac surgery is inadequate. Above all there is no national policy for pediatric heart care. Increasing awareness of the problem amongst the pediatricians through CMEs, seminars, symposia is likely to be most helpful in early diagnosis and timely referral of cases. Training programs exclusively dedicated to pediatric cardiology and pediatric cardiac surgery need to be established in centres with good standards of pediatric cardiac care.
Vecoli, Cecilia; Pulignani, Silvia; Foffa, Ilenia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia
Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are recognized as the most common type of birth malformations. Although recent advances in pre- and neonatal diagnosis as well as in surgical procedures have reduced the morbidity and mortality for many CHD, the etiology for CHD remains undefined. In non-syndromic and isolated (without a familial history or a Mendelian inheritance) forms of CHDs, a multifactorial pathogenesis with interplay between inherited and non-inherited causes is recognized. In this paper, we discuss the current knowledge of the potential molecular mechanisms, mediating abnormal cardiac development in non-syndromic and isolated CHD, including mutations in cardiac transcription factors, the role of somatic mutations and epigenetic alterations as well as the influence of gene-environment interactions. In the near future, the advent of high-throughput genomic technologies with the integration of system biology will expand our understanding of isolated, non-syndromic CHDs for their prevention, early diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25435801
Kafka, Henryk; Johnson, Mark R; Gatzoulis, Michael A
The successful pediatric management of congenital heart disease has resulted in increasing numbers of these patients in the reproductive age group and increasing clinical challenges for their physicians. These challenges can be met successfully, with improved results for mother and child, through a concerted comprehensive team approach that relies on a thorough understanding of the patient's underlying cardiac pathology and its anticipated interaction with the pregnancy, and ongoing close evaluation and communication with a team of trained and experienced specialist, including (but not limited to) cardiologist, obstetricians, anesthetists, pediatricians, clinical nurse specialists, and clinical geneticists. Such teams are not always available locally and it will be necessary to refer medium- and high-risk patients to a specialized tertiary care center.
Lu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lin, Min-Tai; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Shenn-Nan; Chiu, Hsin-Hui
With advances that have been made over the recent decades in transcatheter and surgical interventions, most patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) can survive into adulthood. Overall, probably half of these surviving patients are female. When these female CHD patients reach childbearing age, however, pregnancy management will be a major issue. In order to meet the demands of fetal growth, the maternal cardiovascular system starts a series of adaptations beginning in early pregnancy. These adaptations include: decreased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, decreased blood pressure, expansion of the blood volume, increased heart rate and increased cardiac output. For women with CHD, this hemodynamic alteration may increase the risks of adverse cardiovascular events as well as the fetal and neonatal complications. Therefore, proper risk stratification and effective counseling for women with CHD who are planning their pregnancies is an important undertaking. PMID:27122914
Serino, G; Giacomazzi, F
Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is definited by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPm) >25 mmHg at rest. The Dana Point 2008 Revised Classification System represents the most recent classification system update with respect of various etiologies of PH. About 10 % of adolescents or adults with uncorrected congenital heart disease (CHD) with left-to-right shunt and high pulmonary blood flow develop Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) . Progressive vascular remodeling and increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) may ultimately lead to reversal of the shunt (pulmonary to systemic) causing cyanosis and determining the so-called Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES). Recent advances in the early diagnosis and medical targeted treatment of adult patients with CHD-PAH and ES can improve PAP, PVR and exercise tolerance, together with NYHA Class and survival, and may potentially reverse the vascular remodeling process in selected patients.
The number of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing due to the great achievements in the field of paediatric cardiology, congenital heart surgery and intensive care medicine over the last decades. Mortality has shifted away from the infant and childhood period towards adulthood. As congenital heart disease patients get older, a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is encountered similar to the general population. Consequently, the contribution of acquired morbidities, especially acquired heart conditions to patient outcome, is becoming increasingly important. Therefore, to continue the success story of the last decades in the treatment of congenital heart disease and to further improve the outcome of these patients, more attention has to be given to the prevention, detection and adequate therapy of acquired heart conditions. The aim of this review is to give an overview about acquired heart conditions that may be encountered in adults with congenital heart disease.
Osteen, Kathryn A; Beal, Claudia C
The purpose of this article was to examine reproductive health issues for women with congenital structural abnormalities of the heart. Because of surgical advances and innovations in healthcare, infants with congenital heart disease often live now into adulthood. Women with congenital heart disease have reported the desire to have children but expressed concern about fertility and the health consequences of pregnancy. Although many women with congenital heart disease are able to give birth without adverse outcomes, life-threatening complications can occur. Best practices for the care of women with congenital heart disease are grounded in an understanding of how cardiac defects may affect pregnancy and in communicating the implications of cardiac defects for reproductive health to support informed decision making.
The end of 2004 and the year 2005 have seen several publications on congenital heart disease, with studies performed in the fetus, infant, child and adult. In the fetus, cardiac malformations as well as rhythm or conduction defects have been revealed, cardiomyopathies with diverse origins. In infants affected by congenital heart disease, respiratory complications due to respiratory syncitial virus can be serious, and vaccination is therefore recommended for poorly tolerated cardiopathies. Myocardial non-compaction has been the subject of several publications with an excellent review by Freedom. Coronaropathies are not confined to adults, and intravascular echography has been used in children. Aortic biscuspidy, which is more frequent in men, has also been the subject of several publications this year. They have all shown the frequency of dilatation of the ascending aorta in this anomaly, and the different consequences depending on fusion of the commissures. Residual hypertension following correction of coarctation remains a problem; the geometry of the aortic arc and arterial rigidity are responsible for it in certain cases. Late complications in the aortic wall are common. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects is beneficial for the anatomy and function of the heart. Articles on the foramen ovale have not been lacking, and have shown the importance of its closure in cases of transient ischaemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, migraines, especially with an aura, and in cases of sub-aqua diving accidents. Percutaneous implantation of intracardiac valves is becoming more and more topical, with pulmonary and even tricuspid valves in animals. Finally, there have been several publications on the long term outlook for patients undergoing Mustard, Senning or Fontan procedures.
Vigl, Matthäus; Kaemmerer, Mathias; Niggemeyer, Eva; Nagdyman, Nicole; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Trigas, Vasiliki; Bauer, Ulrike; Schneider, Karl-Theo M; Berger, Felix; Hess, John; Kaemmerer, Harald
The different biopsychosocial periods in a woman's life are all interactively associated with the cardiovascular system. The present study was designed to address questions related to sexuality and reproductive health in a large cohort of women with congenital heart disease. Overall, 536 women (median age 29 years, range 18 to 75) completed a questionnaire during their visit at 2 tertiary care centers for congenital heart disease. Patients were categorized according to their functional class and according to the degree of severity of the underlying heart defect. The median age at menarche was significantly delayed in patients with functional class III-IV and in women with complex or cyanotic anomalies. More than 1/4 of the women (29%) had at least once sought medical advice for menstrual discomforts, and the proportion was significantly increased for those in the worst functional class (49%, p <0.001) and for patients with a cyanotic heart defect (43%, p = 0.03). Overall, 9% reported increased or altered symptoms related to their heart defect during sexual activity. This proportion increased significantly with worsening functional class (6%, 11%, and 26% in functional class I, II, and III-IV, respectively; p = 0.001), increased severity (5%, 8%, and 17% for simple, moderate, and severe heart defects, respectively; p = 0.005), and in women with cyanosis (8% and 28% in acyanotic and cyanotic patients, respectively; p <0.001). In conclusion, to ensure high-quality care for this demanding and growing patient population, physicians must be aware that issues related to the entire reproductive cycle should be considered when counseling these patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Xing; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Hartjes, Katherine A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Olson, Timothy M; Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J
Mammalian heart development is built on highly conserved molecular mechanisms with polygenetic perturbations resulting in a spectrum of congenital heart diseases (CHD). However, knowledge of cardiogenic ontogeny that regulates proper cardiogenesis remains largely based on candidate-gene approaches. Mapping the dynamic transcriptional landscape of cardiogenesis from a genomic perspective is essential to integrate the knowledge of heart development into translational applications that accelerate disease discovery efforts toward mechanistic-based treatment strategies. Herein, we designed a time-course transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide dynamic expression landscape of innate murine cardiogenesis ranging from embryonic stem cells to adult cardiac structures. This comprehensive analysis generated temporal and spatial expression profiles, revealed stage-specific gene functions, and mapped the dynamic transcriptome of cardiogenesis to curated pathways. Reconciling known genetic underpinnings of CHD, we deconstructed a disease-centric dynamic interactome encoded within this cardiogenic atlas to identify stage-specific developmental disturbances clustered on regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), BMP signaling, NF-AT signaling, TGFb-dependent EMT, and Notch signaling. Collectively, this cardiogenic transcriptional landscape defines the time-dependent expression of cardiac ontogeny and prioritizes regulatory networks at the interface between health and disease.
Li, Xing; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Hartjes, Katherine A.; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A.; Olson, Timothy M.; Terzic, Andre
Mammalian heart development is built on highly conserved molecular mechanisms with polygenetic perturbations resulting in a spectrum of congenital heart diseases (CHD). However, knowledge of cardiogenic ontogeny that regulates proper cardiogenesis remains largely based on candidate-gene approaches. Mapping the dynamic transcriptional landscape of cardiogenesis from a genomic perspective is essential to integrate the knowledge of heart development into translational applications that accelerate disease discovery efforts toward mechanistic-based treatment strategies. Herein, we designed a time-course transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide dynamic expression landscape of innate murine cardiogenesis ranging from embryonic stem cells to adult cardiac structures. This comprehensive analysis generated temporal and spatial expression profiles, revealed stage-specific gene functions, and mapped the dynamic transcriptome of cardiogenesis to curated pathways. Reconciling known genetic underpinnings of CHD, we deconstructed a disease-centric dynamic interactome encoded within this cardiogenic atlas to identify stage-specific developmental disturbances clustered on regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), BMP signaling, NF-AT signaling, TGFb-dependent EMT, and Notch signaling. Collectively, this cardiogenic transcriptional landscape defines the time-dependent expression of cardiac ontogeny and prioritizes regulatory networks at the interface between health and disease. PMID:24803680
Ahmad, Waheed; Miteff, Ferdi; Collins, Nicholas
Headache in adult patients with congenital heart disease may be a manifestation of the underlying cardiac condition or more common alternative causes of headache. In patients with pre-existing congenital heart disease, consideration of potentially uncommon aetiologies of headache is important. We report an uncommon case of headache in a patient with complex congenital heart disease characterised by Ebstein's anomaly with previous surgical repair complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This case illustrates the importance of understanding the implications of headache with reference to the underlying cardiac disease as well as specific issues related to a relatively young cohort of patients.
Ross, Danielle S; Dollard, Sheila C; Victor, Marcia; Sumartojo, Esther; Cannon, Michael J
Perhaps no single cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States currently provides greater opportunity for improved outcomes in more children than congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV). --Cannon and Davis. BMC Public Health 2005;5:70 Each year in the United States, thousands of children and their families are affected by congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. More children may be affected by congenital CMV than by other, better known childhood conditions, such as Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has formed a Workgroup on Congenital CMV, led by the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities and the National Center on Infectious Diseases. This report provides background on congenital CMV infection and describes the goals and activities of the workgroup for reducing the burden of sequelae of congenital CMV infection.
Ríos-Méndez, Raúl Enrique; Lozano Chinga, Michell Marola
Clinical congenital anophthalmia is described as the uni- or bilateral absence of the eyeball that might occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome. It has a very low prevalence and its etiology is heterogeneous. Complex congenital cardiac malformations are also rare. The association of congenital anophthalmia and congenital heart disease is rarer still, and the etiology of those associations is not well understood yet. We report the case of a patient who had the very rare association of bilateral anophthalmia, multiple cardiac malformations and severe pulmonary hypertension.
Kloesel, Benjamin; DiNardo, James A; Body, Simon C
Congenital heart disease is diagnosed in 0.4% to 5% of live births and presents unique challenges to the pediatric anesthesiologist. Furthermore, advances in surgical management have led to improved survival of those patients, and many adult anesthesiologists now frequently take care of adolescents and adults who have previously undergone surgery to correct or palliate congenital heart lesions. Knowledge of abnormal heart development on the molecular and genetic level extends and improves the anesthesiologist's understanding of congenital heart disease. In this article, we aim to review current knowledge pertaining to genetic alterations and their cellular effects that are involved in the formation of congenital heart defects. Given that congenital heart disease can currently only occasionally be traced to a single genetic mutation, we highlight some of the difficulties that researchers face when trying to identify specific steps in the pathogenetic development of heart lesions.
Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M
We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group.
Ghonim, Sarah; Voges, Inga; Gatehouse, Peter D.; Keegan, Jennifer; Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Kilner, Philip J.; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common category of birth defect, affecting 1% of the population and requiring cardiovascular surgery in the first months of life in many patients. Due to advances in congenital cardiovascular surgery and patient management, most children with CHD now survive into adulthood. However, residual and postoperative defects are common resulting in abnormal hemodynamics, which may interact further with scar formation related to surgical procedures. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become an important diagnostic imaging modality in the long-term management of CHD patients. It is the gold standard technique to assess ventricular volumes and systolic function. Besides this, advanced CMR techniques allow the acquisition of more detailed information about myocardial architecture, ventricular mechanics, and fibrosis. The left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle have unique myocardial architecture that underpins their mechanics; however, this becomes disorganized under conditions of volume and pressure overload. CMR diffusion tensor imaging is able to interrogate non-invasively the principal alignments of microstructures in the left ventricular wall. Myocardial tissue tagging (displacement encoding using stimulated echoes) and feature tracking are CMR techniques that can be used to examine the deformation and strain of the myocardium in CHD, whereas 3D feature tracking can assess the twisting motion of the LV chamber. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging and more recently T1 mapping can help in detecting fibrotic myocardial changes and evolve our understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD patients. This review not only gives an overview about available or emerging CMR techniques for assessing myocardial mechanics and fibrosis but it also describes their clinical value and how they can be used to detect abnormalities in myocardial architecture and mechanics in CHD patients. PMID:28589126
Oliveira, P; Domenech, O; Silva, J; Vannini, S; Bussadori, R; Bussadori, C
Knowledge of epidemiology is important for recognition of cardiovascular malformations. Review the incidence of congenital heart defects in dogs in Italy and assess breed and sex predispositions. Nine hundred and seventy-six dogs diagnosed with congenital heart disease (CHD) of 4,480 dogs presented to Clinica Veterinaria Gran Sasso for cardiovascular examination from 1997 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of medical records regarding signalment, history, clinical examination, radiography, electrocardiography, echocardiography, angiography, and postmortem examination was performed. Breed and sex predisposition were assessed with the odds ratio test. CHD was observed in 21.7% of cases. A total of 1,132 defects were observed with single defects in 832 cases (85%), 2 concurrent defects in 132 cases (14%), and 3 concurrent defects in 12 cases (1%). The most common defects were pulmonic stenosis (PS; 32.1%), subaortic stenosis (SAS; 21.3%), and patent ductus arteriosus (20.9%), followed by ventricular septal defect (VSD; 7.5%), valvular aortic stenosis (AS; 5.7%), and tricuspid dysplasia (3.1%). SAS, PS, and VSD frequently were associated with other defects. Several breed and sex predispositions were identified. The results of this study are in accordance with previous studies, with slight differences. The breed and sex predilections identified may be of value for the diagnosis and screening of CHD in dogs. Additionally, the relatively high percentage of concurrent heart defects emphasizes the importance of accurate and complete examinations for identification. Because these data are from a cardiology referral center, a bias may exist. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Morales, David L S; Zafar, Farhan; Almond, Christopher S; Canter, Charles; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Conway, Jennifer; Adachi, Iki; Lorts, Angela
Management of mechanical circulatory support in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) is challenging due to physiologic variations and anatomic limitations to device placement. In this study we examine the use of Berlin Heart EXCOR in CHD patients. CHD patients were identified from the EXCOR Pediatric Study data set (2007 to 2010). Mortality and serious adverse events were compared between CHD and non-CHD cohorts, and predictors of poor outcomes in the CHD cohort were identified. CHD was present in 29% (n = 59, 18 with 1-ventricle physiology) of all EXCOR patients (N = 204). Successful bridge (transplant or wean) was less likely in CHD patients compared with non-CHD patients (48% vs 80%; p < 0.01). Among CHD patients, no neonates, 25% of infants (30 days to 1 year) and 65% of children (>1 year) were successfully bridged. Pre-implant congenital heart surgery (CHS) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on the same admission occurred in 60% of children ≤1 year of age (83% of neonates, 50% of infants), with 8% survival. Regardless of age, patients who did not have CHS and ECMO had 61% survival. Smaller pump, pre-implant bilirubin >1.2 mg/dl and renal dysfunction were independently associated with mortality. End-organ function at implant reliably predicts adverse outcomes and should be considered when making implant decisions. EXCOR use in neonates and infants with CHD should be approached cautiously. If patients have undergone pre-implant CHS and ECMO, EXCOR support may not provide any survival benefit. EXCOR support in non-infants with CHD is challenging but can be consistently successful with appropriate patient selection. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The wide spectrum of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and known differences in the biology and in vitro growth of CMV strains continue to drive studies in search for specific viral genetic determinants that may predict severity of congenital CMV disease. Several CMV genes have been studied in detail in congenitally infected children, but the complexity of the viral genome and differences in the definition of symptomatic disease versus asymptomatic CMV infection continue to raise questions related to what constitutes a pathogenic CMV strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moko, Lilamarie E.; Ginns, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Marlon; Greutmann, Matthias; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Hageman, Abbie; Kim, Yuli; Deng, Lisa X.; Grewal, Jasmine; Zaidi, Ali N.; Almansoori, Ghadeera; Oechslin, Erwin; Earing, Michael; Landzberg, Michael J.; Singh, Michael N.; Wu, Fred
Context: Aberrant cellular oxygen sensing is a leading theory for development of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL). Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) increases the risk for PHEO-PGL. Design/Setting/Participants: We investigated the association between CCHD and PHEO-PGL with two complementary studies: study 1) an international consortium was established to identify congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with a PHEO-PGL diagnosis confirmed by pathology or biochemistry and imaging; study 2) the 2000–2009 Nationwide Inpatient Survey, a nationally representative discharge database, was used to determine population-based cross-sectional PHEO-PGL frequency in hospitalized CCHD patients compared with noncyanotic CHD and those without CHD using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, and genetic PHEO-PGL syndromes. Results: In study 1, we identified 20 PHEO-PGL cases, of which 18 had CCHD. Most presented with cardiovascular or psychiatric symptoms. Median cyanosis duration for the CCHD PHEO-PGL cases was 20 years (range 1–57 y). Cases were young at diagnosis (median 31.5 y, range 15–57 y) and 7 of 18 had multiple tumors (two bilateral PHEO; six multifocal or recurrent PGL), whereas 11 had single tumors (seven PHEO; four PGL). PGLs were abdominal (13 of 17) or head/neck (4 of 17). Cases displayed a noradrenergic biochemical phenotype similar to reported hypoxia-related PHEO-PGL genetic syndromes but without clinical signs of such syndromes. In study 2, hospitalized CCHD patients had an increased likelihood of PHEO-PGL (adjusted odds ratio 6.0, 95% confidence interval 2.6–13.7, P < .0001) compared with those without CHD; patients with noncyanotic CHD had no increased risk (odds ratio 0.9, P = .48). Conclusions: There is a strong link between CCHD and PHEO-PGL. Whether these rare diseases coassociate due to hypoxic stress, common
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has taken on an increasingly important role in the diagnostic evaluation and pre-procedural planning for patients with congenital heart disease. This article provides guidelines for the performance of CMR in children and adults with congenital heart disease. The first portion addresses preparation for the examination and safety issues, the second describes the primary techniques used in an examination, and the third provides disease-specific protocols. Variations in practice are highlighted and expert consensus recommendations are provided. Indications and appropriate use criteria for CMR examination are not specifically addressed. PMID:23763839
Sica, Caroline D'Azevedo; Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Pellanda, Lucia Campos
To assess dietary habits, nutritional status and food frequency in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) and congenital heart disease (CHD). Additionally, we attempted to compare body mass index (BMI) classifications according to the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and curves developed for individuals with DS. Cross-sectional study including individuals with DS and CHD treated at a referral center for cardiology, aged 2 to 18 years. Weight, height, BMI, total energy and food frequency were measured. Nutritional status was assessed using BMI for age and gender, using curves for evaluation of patients with DS and those set by the WHO. 68 subjects with DS and CHD were evaluated. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) was the most common heart disease (52.9%). There were differences in BMI classification between the curves proposed for patients with DS and those proposed by the WHO. There was an association between consumption of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results showed that individuals with DS are mostly considered normal weight for age, when evaluated using specific curves for DS. Reviews on specific curves for DS would be the recommended practice for health professionals so as to avoid precipitated diagnosis of overweight and/or obesity in this population.
Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Puisac Uriol, Beatriz; Teresa Rodrigo, María Esperanza; Hernández Marcos, María; Ramos Fuentes, Feliciano J; Pie Juste, Juan
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is produced by mutations in genes that encode regulatory or structural proteins of the cohesin complex. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is not a major criterion of the disease, but it affects many individuals. The objective of this study was to study the incidence and type of CHD in patients with CdLS. Cardiological findings were evaluated in 149 patients with CdLS and their possible relationship with clinical and genetic variables. A percentage of 34.9 had CHD (septal defects 50%, pulmonary stenosis 27%, aortic coarctation 9.6%). The presence of CHD was related with neonatal hospitalisation (P=.04), hearing loss (P=.002), mortality (P=.09) and lower hyperactivity (P=.02), it being more frequent in HDAC8+ patients (60%), followed by NIPBL+ (33%) and SMC1A+ (28.5%). While septal defects predominate in NIPBL+, pulmonary stenosis is more common in HDAC8+. Patients with CdLS have a high incidence of CHD, which varies according to the affected gene, the most frequent findings being septal defects and pulmonary stenosis. Perform a cardiologic study in all these patients is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Liu, J Y; Tan, W K; Tan, E L; Tan, J L; Tan, L K
Medical advances have increased survival of patients with congenital heart disease. However, cardiac disease in pregnancy carries significant maternal and fetal risks, posing enormous challenges to obstetricians. Cyanotic congenital heart disease is associated with maternal complications such as arrhythmias, thromboembolic events and death. Fetal complications include small for gestational age, miscarriage and prematurity. Cyanotic congenital heart disease patients who continue their pregnancies require holistic multidisciplinary team care with early and coordinated planning for delivery. Management of such patients include early counseling regarding pregnancy-associated risks, close monitoring of their cardiac function and regular scanning for fetal assessment. Choice of anesthesia for these patients requires meticulous planning to achieve a favorable balance between systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, ensuring minimal change in right-to-left shunting. We report a case of a successfully managed pregnancy in a patient with complex congenital heart disease and a single ventricle of left ventricle morphology.
... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Pediatric Endocrine Society MedlinePlus (NIH) What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...
... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Resources MedlinePlus (NIH) Mayo Clinic What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...
Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Pelech, Andrew N
A larger number of individuals born with congenital heart disease is living into adolescence and young adulthood. With this comes the responsibility to counsel these patients regarding their sexual and reproductive health. This study utilizes representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare sexual measures including percentage of that sexually active, age of first sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases in those with and without congenital heart disease. A total of 1086 patients (1057 without congenital heart disease and 29 with congenital heart disease) were included in this study. Likelihood of being sexually active, age of first sexual intercourse, and condom use did not differ significantly between the two groups after multivariate analysis. Incidence of sexually transmitted disease did not differ between the two groups after multivariate analysis except for genital warts. There are no major differences in sexual measures between those with and without congenital heart disease. The absence of significant differences in sexual measures in those with congenital heart disease compared with the general population places this group of individuals at increased health risk known to occur with pregnancy.
Hickey, Edward J; McCrindle, Brian W; Caldarone, Christopher A; Williams, William G; Blackstone, Eugene H
Challenges inherent in researching rare congenital cardiac lesions led to creation of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society Data Center (Data Center) two decades ago. The Data Center pools experiences from up to 60 institutions, and over 4,700 children have been prospectively recruited within nine diagnostic inception cohorts. This report describes the operations of our research database, with particular focus on analytic strategies employed. A procedural log is created of all investigations and interventions, and reports from enrolling institutions are subsequently obtained. Cross-sectional follow-up is undertaken annually by the Data Center. All data are linked to the individual child, and quality control mechanisms ensure that completeness and accuracy are maximised. Specific advantages of Data Center analytic approaches include multi-phase parametric hazard analysis, re-sampling techniques for reliable risk factor identification, competing risks methodology, and propensity-adjusted comparisons. Virtues of applying these techniques to a research database are illustrated by clinically pertinent questions that have been addressed in place of what would be difficult through randomised trials. The Data Center is a cost-effective, versatile tool for researching congenital cardiac surgical outcomes. Research databases are ideally suited to in-depth investigations of survival and functional outcomes. Multi-center propensity-adjusted analyses represent efficient surrogates for randomised trials. Well-designed observational prospective studies should remain a principle mode of researching congenital cardiac disease.
Chiavarino, Claudia; Bianchino, Claudia; Brach-Prever, Silvia; Riggi, Chiara; Palumbo, Luigi; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M
This article provides the first assessment of theory of mind, that is, the ability to reason about mental states, in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease and matched healthy controls were administered classical theory of mind tasks and a semi-structured interview which provides a multidimensional evaluation of theory of mind (Theory of Mind Assessment Scale). The patients with congenital heart disease performed worse than the controls on the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale, whereas they did as well as the control group on the classical theory-of-mind tasks. These findings provide the first evidence that adults with congenital heart disease may display specific impairments in theory of mind.
Goo, Hyun Woo
CT is increasingly being used for evaluating the cardiovascular structures and airways in the patients with congenital heart disease. Multi-slice CT has traditionally been used for the evaluation of the extracardiac vascular and airway abnormalities because of its inherent high spatial resolution and excellent air-tissue contrast. Recent developments in CT technology primarily by reducing the cardiac motion and the radiation dose usage in congenital heart disease evaluation have helped expand the indications for CT usage. Tracheobronchomalacia associated with congenital heart disease can be evaluated with cine CT. Intravenous contrast injection should be tailored to unequivocally demonstrate cardiovascular abnormalities. Knowledge of the state-of-the-art CT imaging techniques that are used for evaluating congenital heart disease is helpful not only for planning and performing CT examinations, but also for interpreting and presenting the CT image findings that consequently guide the proper medical and surgical management.
... Research Home / Your Heart / Health Information / Birth Control Birth Control for Women with Congenital Heart Disease Of the ... woman and/or the baby. For these women, birth control is more than just a method to conveniently ...
Ladouceur, Magalie; Iserin, Laurence; Cohen, Sarah; Legendre, Antoine; Boudjemline, Younes; Bonnet, Damien
Increasing survival rates of patients with congenital heart disease have resulted in a new and growing patient population of adults with operated congenital heart disease. Medical professionals face the specific medical needs of these patients but must also deal with their daily life issues. Adult patients with congenital heart disease report difficulties in several areas of daily life, such as sport, employment, insurability and travel or driving. Moreover, they must have a healthy lifestyle to prevent cardiovascular complications. All these issues can be addressed in a specific educational program. In this review, we discuss the different daily life issues of adults with congenital heart disease and the preventive measures that can be proposed to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Strickland, Matthew J; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Reller, Mark D; Mahle, William T; Botto, Lorenzo D; Tolbert, Paige E; Jacobs, Marshall L; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Mavroudis, Constantine; Correa, Adolfo
Background Administrative databases are often used for congenital heart disease research and evaluation, with little validation of the accuracy of the diagnostic codes. Methods Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program surveillance records were reviewed and classified using a version of the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Using this clinical nomenclature as the referent, we report the sensitivity and false positive fraction (1 – positive predictive value) of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Results We identified 4918 infants and foetuses with congenital heart disease from the surveillance records. Using only the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes, there were 280 records with tetralogy, 317 records with transposition, and 192 records with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Based on the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, 330 records were classified as tetralogy, 163 records as transposition, and 179 records as hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The sensitivity of International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes was 83% for tetralogy, 100% for transposition, and 95% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The false positive fraction was 2% for tetralogy, 49% for transposition, and 11% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Conclusions Analyses based on International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes may have substantial misclassification of congenital heart disease. Isolating the major defect is difficult, and certain codes do not differentiate between variants that are clinically and developmentally different. PMID:19063779
Meijboom, Folkert; Mulder, Barbara
The prevalence of congenital heart disease among adults in Europe, or in any country in Europe, is not known. This is due to a lack of agreement on the incidence of congenital heart disease, with estimations varying from four per 1000 births to 50 per 1000 births, and it is not known how many patients with congenital heart disease have died. Based on several studies that estimated and calculated the number of adult patients with congenital heart disease, the number of patients should be much higher than the number of patients that are actually seen in specialized centres throughout Europe. This implies that either a large proportion of adult patients with congenital heart disease do not receive appropriate medical care, or that the calculations and estimations are grossly wrong. A combination of the two is also possible. A substantial expansion of the number and size of specialized centres for adult congenital heart disease is advocated, but since setting up (and running) a service for this disease is a costly affair, and because uncertainty remains about the actual number of patients needing specialized care, this has been difficult to realize in most European countries in the past few years.
Samuel, Bennett P; Pinto, Candida; Pietila, Todd; Vettukattil, Joseph J
Three-dimensional printing technology has significant clinical implications for the management of congenital heart disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been established as imaging tools for the creation of physical three-dimensional models. The potential use of non-invasive bedside imaging techniques such as three-dimensional echocardiography to derive three-dimensional printed models can revolutionize the planning of interventions for complex congenital malformations. The feasibility of deriving three-dimensional printing from ultrasound provides an additional cost-effective and patient-centered option for interventional cardiologists and surgeons for the management and care of congenital heart disease patients.
Barbosa, M M; Rocha, C M G; Katina, T; Caldas, M; Codorniz, A; Medeiros, C
To establish the prevalence of congenital heart diseases (CHDs) in cleft patients, the type of cleft and the presence of a syndrome were coded in 220 patients. A Doppler echocardiogram with color-flow mapping (DE) was obtained in all patients. Mean age was 112.0 +/- 101.2 months (range, 1-576 months), and 56.8% (125) were males. Cleft lip and palate occurred in 144 patients (65.5%), cleft lip in 40 (18.2%), and cleft palate in 36 (16.4%). Cleft palates were more frequent among females. Twenty-four CHDs were diagnosed in 21 of 220 patients (9.5%): 7 mitral valve prolapses, 6 atrial septal defects, 4 patent ductus arteriosus, 3 ventricular septal defects, 2 cases of tetralogy of Fallot, 1 pulmonary stenosis, and 1 bicuspid aortic valve. The presence of CHD did not correlate with the type of cleft. Syndromes occurred in 28 patients (12.7%), and this association was higher among patients with a cleft palate.
Feilij, H; Muller, L; Gonzalez Cappa, S M
A microhematocrit concentration method (MH) for immediate diagnosis of Chagas' disease during the acute stage or in congenital cases was standardized. Parasitemia as low as 1,000 parasites per ml was detected, after centrifugation of six 50-microliters capillary tubes, by 10-min microscopic observation of each buffy coat spread between slide and cover glass. Operator's time was reduced by at least one-third when compared with a fresh blood observation (FB). In 12 of the 15 patients studied, diagnosis was performed in 4.9 +/- 3.08 min with MH, whereas 27.0 +/- 12.1 min were necessary when FB was used. In the three remaining patients whose FB results were negative, MH became positive after 13, 16, and 40 min. In our experience, FB proved to be more sensitive than previously reported. Suckling mouse inoculation also proved to be sensitive but, as in xenodiagnosis and in hemoculture, the delay in getting the final result was a limiting factor. PMID:6413530
Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J. David; Fifer, William P.; Williams, Ismée A.
Background Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. Aims/Study Design This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Subjects From 11/2010 – 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Outcome measures Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. Results During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (p<0.05). Heart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Conclusions Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. PMID:25662702
Costain, Gregory; Silversides, Candice K; Bassett, Anne S
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common class of major malformations in humans. The historical association with large chromosomal abnormalities foreshadowed the role of submicroscopic rare copy number variations (CNVs) as important genetic causes of CHD. Recent studies have provided robust evidence for these structural variants as genome-wide contributors to all forms of CHD, including CHD that appears isolated without extra-cardiac features. Overall, a CNV-related molecular diagnosis can be made in up to one in eight patients with CHD. These include de novo and inherited variants at established (chromosome 22q11.2), emerging (chromosome 1q21.1), and novel loci across the genome. Variable expression of rare CNVs provides support for the notion of a genetic spectrum of CHD that crosses traditional anatomic classification boundaries. Clinical genetic testing using genome-wide technologies (e.g., chromosomal microarray analysis) is increasingly employed in prenatal, paediatric and adult settings. CNV discoveries in CHD have translated to changes to clinical management, prognostication and genetic counselling. The convergence of findings at individual gene and at pathway levels is shedding light on the mechanisms that govern human cardiac morphogenesis. These clinical and research advances are helping to inform whole-genome sequencing, the next logical step in delineating the genetic architecture of CHD. PMID:28706735
Cassidy, Adam R; Ilardi, Dawn; Bowen, Susan R; Hampton, Lyla E; Heinrich, Kimberley P; Loman, Michelle M; Sanz, Jacqueline H; Wolfe, Kelly R
Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects millions of people worldwide, including over one million children in the United States. Approximately 25% of children born with CHD require intensive surgical intervention within the first year of life. Despite improved rates of survival into adulthood - rates that exceed 90% in the modern era - children and adolescents with CHD remain at risk for neurological injury and a range of neurobehavioral and psychosocial challenges that pose a threat to quality of life across the lifespan. Consequently, as experts in both clinical psychology and brain development, neuropsychologists are becoming increasingly involved in cardiac follow-up and monitoring to promote optimal developmental outcomes. The primary objective of this paper is to provide an evidence-based, clinically-oriented primer on CHD for pediatric neuropsychologists working with this growing population of survivors. Following an introduction to current standard-of-care guidelines for managing children and adolescents with CHD, we present an overview of brain development within the context of CHD, review neuropsychological outcomes, examine factors influencing variability in outcomes, and discuss implications and strategies for clinical assessment.
Chen, Chi-Wen; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Jou-Kou; Su, Wen-Jen; Wang, Huey-Ling
To evaluate and compare the health-promoting behavior of adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) to that of adolescents without CHD. Cross-sectional data were collected from pediatric cardiology outpatient departments at two medical centers in Taiwan. A total of 1209 adolescents, including 316 with various forms of CHD and 893 without CHD, completed the Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) scale. Of those with CHD, 162 were female, and 12-18 years old. The scores of adolescents with CHD were compared with published normative adolescent data. No significant differences were found between those adolescents with CHD and those without in terms of dimensions of the AHP, which consisted of nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, exercise, stress management, and overall health-promoting behavior. The three highest and lowest mean scores of scale items between these two groups were identified. Factors among adolescents with CHD, such as age, gender, parental educational level, and cardiac function were significantly associated with at least one dimension of the AHP. Such significant associations were not indicated when comparing body mass index, medical diagnoses, and whether they had undergone heart surgery. Adolescents with CHD practice health-promoting behavior similar to that of their counterparts without CHD. Health-promotion counseling for adolescents with CHD should be encouraged to improve lifestyle habits, especially to ensure that they engage in adequate and vigorous exercise and practice good dental hygiene.
Patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD) are confronted with early- and late-onset complications, such as conduction disorders, arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction, altered coronary flow, and ischemia, throughout their lifetime despite successful hemodynamic and/or anatomical correction. Rhythm disturbance is a well-known and increasingly frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CHD. Predisposing factors to rhythm disturbances include underlying cardiac defects, hemodynamic changes as part of the natural history, surgical repair and related scarring, and residual hemodynamic abnormalities. Acquired factors such as aging, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and others may also contribute to arrhythmogenesis in CHD. The first step in evaluating arrhythmias in CHD is to understand the complex anatomy and to find predisposing factors and hemodynamic abnormalities. A practical stepwise approach can lead to diagnosis and prompt appropriate interventions. Electrophysiological assessment and management should be done with integrated care of the underlying heart defects and hemodynamic abnormalities. Catheter ablation and arrhythmia surgery have been increasingly applied, showing increasing success rates with technological advancement despite complicated arrhythmia circuits in complex anatomy and the difficulty of access. Correction of residual hemodynamic abnormalities may be critical in the treatment of arrhythmia in patients with CHD.
Chaix, Marie A; Andelfinger, Gregor; Khairy, Paul
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth defect. Traditionally, a polygenic model defined by the interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors was hypothesized to account for different forms of CHD. It is now understood that the contribution of genetics to CHD extends beyond a single unified paradigm. For example, monogenic models and chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with various syndromic and non-syndromic forms of CHD. In such instances, genetic investigation and testing may potentially play an important role in clinical care. A family tree with a detailed phenotypic description serves as the initial screening tool to identify potentially inherited defects and to guide further genetic investigation. The selection of a genetic test is contingent upon the particular diagnostic hypothesis generated by clinical examination. Genetic investigation in CHD may carry the potential to improve prognosis by yielding valuable information with regards to personalized medical care, confidence in the clinical diagnosis, and/or targeted patient follow-up. Moreover, genetic assessment may serve as a tool to predict recurrence risk, define the pattern of inheritance within a family, and evaluate the need for further family screening. In some circumstances, prenatal or preimplantation genetic screening could identify fetuses or embryos at high risk for CHD. Although genetics may appear to constitute a highly specialized sector of cardiology, basic knowledge regarding inheritance patterns, recurrence risks, and available screening and diagnostic tools, including their strengths and limitations, could assist the treating physician in providing sound counsel. PMID:26981213
Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A
Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (p<0.05). Heart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wasmer, Kristina; Eckardt, Lars
Supraventricular arrhythmias are a frequent complication in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). The prevalence increases with time since surgery, complexity of the underlying defect, type of repair and older age at surgery. Arrhythmias are the most frequent reason for hospital admission and along with heart failure the leading cause of death. The arrhythmia-associated increase in morbidity and mortality makes their management a key task in patients with ACHD. Intra-atrial re-entry is the most frequent arrhythmia mechanism. Less common arrhythmia mechanisms are supraventricular tachycardias in the presence of an accessory pathway, atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia or focal tachycardias. Patient management includes stroke prevention, acute termination and prevention of arrhythmia recurrence. Acute treatment depends on patients' symptoms. In cases of haemodynamic instability, immediate cardioversion is warranted. For stable patients, acute treatment includes rate control and termination by antiarrhythmic drugs or electrical cardioversion. Following a symptomatic arrhythmia, catheter ablation or treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs is recommended to prevent recurrences. Advances in mapping and ablation technology are now associated with high success rates of catheter ablation. In patients with a complex substrate recurrence rates of 50% remain high. However, in the presence of side effects and complications associated with long-term antiarrhythmic drug therapy, redo procedures are encouraged by current guidelines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
You, Tian; Zhang, Xin-tao; Zha, Zhen-gang; Zhang, Wen-tao
Abstract Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC), presented with hip abduction and external rotation when crouching, is common in several ethnicities, particularly in Chinese. It remains unclear that the reasons why these children are weak and have no choice to accept repeated intramuscular injection. Here, we found some unique cases which may be useful to explain this question. We describe a series of special GMC patients, who are accompanied with congenital heart disease (CHD). These cases were first observed in preoperative examinations of a patient with atrial septal defect (ASD), which was proved by chest X-ray and cardiac ultrasound. From then on, we gradually identified additional 3 GMC patients with CHD. The original patient with ASD was sent to cardiosurgery department to repair atrial septal first and received arthroscopic surgery later. While the other 3 were cured postoperative of ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of fallot (TOF), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), respectively, and had surgery directly. The study gives us 3 proposals: (1) as to CHD children, it is essential to decrease the use of intramuscular injection, (2) paying more attention to cardiac examination especially cardiac ultrasound in perioperative period, and (3) taking 3D-CT to reconstruct gluteal muscles for observing contracture bands clearly in preoperation. However, more larger series of patients are called for to confirm these findings. PMID:25654394
You, Tian; Zhang, Xin-tao; Zha, Zhen-gang; Zhang, Wen-tao
Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC), presented with hip abduction and external rotation when crouching, is common in several ethnicities, particularly in Chinese. It remains unclear that the reasons why these children are weak and have no choice to accept repeated intramuscular injection. Here, we found some unique cases which may be useful to explain this question. We describe a series of special GMC patients, who are accompanied with congenital heart disease (CHD). These cases were first observed in preoperative examinations of a patient with atrial septal defect (ASD), which was proved by chest X-ray and cardiac ultrasound. From then on, we gradually identified additional 3 GMC patients with CHD. The original patient with ASD was sent to cardiosurgery department to repair atrial septal first and received arthroscopic surgery later. While the other 3 were cured postoperative of ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of fallot (TOF), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), respectively, and had surgery directly. The study gives us 3 proposals: (1) as to CHD children, it is essential to decrease the use of intramuscular injection, (2) paying more attention to cardiac examination especially cardiac ultrasound in perioperative period, and (3) taking 3D-CT to reconstruct gluteal muscles for observing contracture bands clearly in preoperation. However, more larger series of patients are called for to confirm these findings.
Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Tatiana Diehl; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; da Silva, Juliane Nascimento; Koshiyama, Dayane Bohn; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola
Background Chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) are an important cause of congenital heart disease (CHD). Objective Determine the frequency, types and clinical characteristics of CAs identified in a sample of prospective and consecutive patients with CHD. Method Our sample consisted of patients with CHD evaluated during their first hospitalization in a cardiac intensive care unit of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. All patients underwent clinical and cytogenetic assessment through high-resolution karyotype. CHDs were classified according to Botto et al. Chi-square, Fisher exact test and odds ratio were used in the statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Results Our sample consisted of 298 patients, 53.4% males, with age ranging from 1 day to 14 years. CAs were observed in 50 patients (16.8%), and 49 of them were syndromic. As for the CAs, 44 (88%) were numeric (40 patients with +21, 2 with +18, 1 with triple X and one with 45,X) and 6 (12%) structural [2 patients with der(14,21), +21, 1 with i(21q), 1 with dup(17p), 1 with del(6p) and 1 with add(18p)]. The group of CHDs more often associated with CAs was atrioventricular septal defect. Conclusions CAs detected through karyotyping are frequent in patients with CHD. Thus, professionals, especially those working in Pediatric Cardiology Services, must be aware of the implications that performing the karyotype can bring to the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis and for genetic counseling of patients and families. PMID:24145389
Guo, Changlong; Wang, Qidi; Wang, Yuting; Yang, Liping; Luo, Haiyan; Cao, Xiao Fang; An, Lisha; Qiu, Yue; Du, Meng; Ma, Xu; Li, Hui; Lu, Cailing
Genetic variation in specific transcription factors during heart formation may lead to congenital heart disease (CHD) or even miscarriage. The aim of the present study was to identify CHD‑associated genes using next generation sequencing (NGS). The whole exome DNA sequence was obtained from a stillborn fetus diagnosed with tricuspid atresia and complete transposition of the great arteries using high‑throughput sequencing methods. Subsequently, genetic variants of CHD‑associated genes were selected and verified in 215 non‑syndromic CHD patients and 249 healthy control subjects using polymerase chain reaction combined with Sanger sequencing. Genetic variants of previously reported CHD‑inducing genes, such as cysteine rich with EGF like domains 1 and cbp/p300‑interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp rich carboxy‑terminal domain 2, were discovered through the NGS analysis. In addition, a novel non‑synonymous mutation of the iroquois homeobox 1 (IRX1) gene (p.Gln240Glu) was identified. A total of three non‑synonymous mutations (p.Gln240Glu, p.Ser298Asn and p.Ala381Glu) of the IRX1 gene were verified in 215 non‑syndromic CHD patients, but not in 249 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that NGS is a powerful tool to study the etiology of CHD. In addition, the results suggest that genetic variants of the IRX1 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of CHD.
Jegatheeswaran, Anusha; Oliveira, Carol; Batsos, Constantine; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Silverman, Norman H; Hornberger, Lisa K; Coyte, Peter; Friedberg, Mark K
Little information is available about the transportation costs incurred from the missed prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD). The objectives of the present study were to analyze the costs of emergency transportation related to the postnatal diagnosis of major CHD and to perform a cost/benefit analysis of additional training for ultrasound technicians to study the implications of improved prenatal detection rates. The 1-year costs incurred for emergency transportation of pre- and postnatally diagnosed infants with CHD in Northern California and North Western Nevada were calculated and compared. The prenatal detection rate in our cohort (n = 147) was 30.6%. Infants postnatally diagnosed were 16.5 times more likely (p <0.001) to require emergency transport. The associated emergency transportation costs were US$542,143 in total for all patients with CHD. The mean cost per patient was $389.00 versus $5,143.51 for prenatally and postnatally diagnosed infants, respectively (p <0.001). Assuming an improvement in detection rates after 1-day training for ultrasound technicians, the investment in training cost can be recouped in 1 year if the detection rate increased by 2.4% to 33%. Savings of $6,543,476 would occur within 5 years if the detection rate increased to 50%. In conclusion, CHD diagnosed postnatally results in greater costs related to emergency transportation of ill infants. Improving the prenatal detection rates through improved ultrasound technician training could result in considerable cost savings.
Kathiria, Nazima N; Higgins, Charles B; Ordovas, Karen G
Many novel cardiac MR sequences can be used for assessment of adult patients with congenital heart disease. Although most of these techniques are still primarily used in the research arena, there are many potential applications in clinical practice. Advanced cardiac MR assessment of myocardial tissue characterization, flow hemodynamics, and myocardial strain are promising tools for diagnostic and prognostic assessment late after repair of congenital heart diseases.
Hopkins, William E
Underappreciated is the fact that the right ventricle is often the primary determinant of long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with congenital heart disease. Right ventricular performance in these patients depends on a unique set of physiologic and pathophysiologic factors that are rarely considered in acquired heart disease. This article explores this unique physiology and pathophysiology in the hope that it will enhance understanding of a wide variety of congenital cardiac anomalies.
Bessolo, Rodney J.; Vincent, William R.
The differential diagnosis of congenital heart disease which presents cyanosis or respiratory distress, or both, in the first two weeks of life, is difficult. Close correlation of clinical features, electrocardiogram and chest roentgenogram is most helpful. The diagnosis of congenital heart disease should lead to immediate cardiac catheterization, angiocardiography and appropriate therapy. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:5773478
Bosman, Alexis; Edel, Michael J.; Blue, Gillian; Dilley, Rodney J.; Harvey, Richard P.; Winlaw, David S.
Congenital heart disease places a significant burden on the individual, family and community despite significant advances in our understanding of aetiology and treatment. Early research in ischaemic heart disease has paved the way for stem cell technology and bioengineering, which promises to improve both structural and functional aspects of disease. Stem cell therapy has demonstrated significant improvements in cardiac function in adults with ischaemic heart disease. This finding, together with promising case studies in the paediatric setting, demonstrates the potential for this treatment in congenital heart disease. Furthermore, induced pluripotent stems cell technology, provides a unique opportunity to address aetiological, as well as therapeutic, aspects of disease. PMID:26239354
Bosman, Alexis; Edel, Michael J; Blue, Gillian; Dilley, Rodney J; Harvey, Richard P; Winlaw, David S
Congenital heart disease places a significant burden on the individual, family and community despite significant advances in our understanding of aetiology and treatment. Early research in ischaemic heart disease has paved the way for stem cell technology and bioengineering, which promises to improve both structural and functional aspects of disease. Stem cell therapy has demonstrated significant improvements in cardiac function in adults with ischaemic heart disease. This finding, together with promising case studies in the paediatric setting, demonstrates the potential for this treatment in congenital heart disease. Furthermore, induced pluripotent stems cell technology, provides a unique opportunity to address aetiological, as well as therapeutic, aspects of disease.
Li, Hui; Meng, Tao; Shang, Tao; Guan, Yun-ping; Zhou, Wei-wei; Yang, Guang; Bi, Li-hua
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital disorder at birth. Yagel and colleagues's method of heart examination has been proved valuable in finding CHD prenatally in single pregnancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of CHD in twin pregnancies and the sensitivity of the method. A total of 1103 pregnant women with twins were enrolled in this study, including 127 cases with high-risk for CHD. Five transverse ultrasound measurements were used for fetal heart examination, including the upper abdomen view, four-chamber view, five-chamber view, pulmonary artery bifurcation view, and three-vessel view. In the fetuses who were diagnosed with CHD and whose parents requested termination of the pregnancy, autopsy of the fetal heart was performed after an abortion, and a blood sample was collected from the heart for chromosome evaluation. In the other fetuses, a close follow-up was conducted by echocardiography within one year after birth. Antenatally, CHD was found in 12 twins, of which 4 were from the high-risk group (3.15%), and 8 from the low-risk group (0.82%). In 2 pairs of the twins, the two fetuses had a same kind of CHD (one pair had tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), another pair had rhabdomyoma). Another pair had different types of anomaly (one fetus had TOF, and the other duodenal atresia with a normal heart). Termination of pregnancy was performed in these three pairs and the autopsy of the fetal heart confirmed the ultrasound findings. In the other 9 pairs, CHD was detected in one fetus, and a normal heart in the others. In the cases who received chromosome evaluation, 2 had abnormal chromosomes. During the follow-up after birth, heart examinations confirmed the prenatal diagnosis in 7 of the 9. The diagnosis of CHD was missed antenatally in 2 pairs of twins. In both the cases, one fetus was normal, and the other was confirmed as having CHD after birth (small ventricle septum defect in one, and persistent open ductus arteriosus in
Mastropietro, Christopher W; Benneyworth, Brian D; Turrentine, Mark; Wallace, Amelia S; Hornik, Christoph P; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L
Information concerning tracheostomy after operations for congenital heart disease has come primarily from single-center reports. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes associated with postoperative tracheostomy in a multi-institutional registry. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Database (2000 to 2014) was queried for all index operations with the adverse event "postoperative tracheostomy" or "respiratory failure, requiring tracheostomy." Patients with preoperative tracheostomy or weighing less than 2.5 kg undergoing isolated closure of patent ductus arteriosus were excluded. Trends in tracheostomy incidence over time from January 2000 to June 2014 were analyzed with a Cochran-Armitage test. The patient characteristics associated with operative mortality were analyzed for January 2010 to June 2014, including deaths occurring up to 6 months after transfer of patients to long-term care facilities. From 2000 to 2014, the incidence of tracheostomy after operations for congenital heart disease increased from 0.11% in 2000 to a high of 0.76% in 2012 (p < 0.0001). From 2010 to 2014, 648 patients underwent tracheostomy. The median age at operation was 2.5 months (25th, 75th percentile: 0.4, 7). Prematurity (n = 165, 26%), genetic abnormalities (n = 298, 46%), and preoperative mechanical ventilation (n = 275, 43%) were common. Postoperative adverse events were also common, including cardiac arrest (n = 131, 20%), extracorporeal support (n = 87, 13%), phrenic or laryngeal nerve injury (n = 114, 18%), and neurologic deficit (n = 51, 8%). The operative mortality was 25% (n = 153). Tracheostomy as an adverse event of operations for congenital heart disease remains rare but has been increasingly used over the past 15 years. This trend and the considerable mortality risk among patients requiring postoperative tracheostomy support the need for further research in this complex population. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo
Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kempny, Aleksander; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Uebing, Anselm; Rafiq, Isma; Li, Wei; Swan, Lorna; Hooper, James; Donovan, Jackie; Wort, Stephen J; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos
Background In patients with acquired heart failure, hypoalbuminaemia is associated with increased risk of death. The prevalence of hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia and their relation to outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains, however, unknown. Methods Data on patients with ACHD who underwent blood testing in our centre within the last 14 years were collected. The relation between laboratory, clinical or demographic parameters at baseline and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results A total of 2886 patients with ACHD were included. Mean age was 33.3 years (23.6–44.7) and 50.1% patients were men. Median plasma albumin concentration was 41.0 g/L (38.0–44.0), whereas hypoalbuminaemia (<35 g/L) was present in 13.9% of patients. The prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia was significantly higher in patients with great complexity ACHD (18.2%) compared with patients with moderate (11.3%) or simple ACHD lesions (12.1%, p<0.001). During a median follow-up of 5.7 years (3.3–9.6), 327 (11.3%) patients died. On univariable Cox regression analysis, hypoalbuminaemia was a strong predictor of outcome (HR 3.37, 95% CI 2.67 to 4.25, p<0.0001). On multivariable Cox regression, after adjusting for age, sodium and creatinine concentration, liver dysfunction, functional class and disease complexity, hypoalbuminaemia remained a significant predictor of death. Conclusions Hypoalbuminaemia is common in patients with ACHD and is associated with a threefold increased risk of risk of death. Hypoalbuminaemia, therefore, should be included in risk-stratification algorithms as it may assist management decisions and timing of interventions in the growing ACHD population. PMID:25736048
Roberts, Philip A; Boudjemline, Younes; Cheatham, John P; Eicken, Andreas; Ewert, Peter; McElhinney, Doff B; Hill, Sharon L; Berger, Felix; Khan, Danyal; Schranz, Dietmar; Hess, John; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Celermajer, David; Zahn, Evan
This study sought to describe the first human series of percutaneous tricuspid valve replacements in patients with congenital or acquired tricuspid valve (TV) disease. Percutaneous transcatheter heart valve replacement of the ventriculoarterial (aortic, pulmonary) valves is established. Although there are isolated reports of transcatheter atrioventricular heart valve replacement (hybrid and percutaneous), this procedure has been less frequently described; we are aware of no series describing this procedure for TV disease. We approached institutions with significant experience with the Melody percutaneous pulmonary valve (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota) to collect data where this valve had been implanted in the tricuspid position. Clinical and procedural data were gathered for 15 patients. Indications for intervention included severe hemodynamic compromise and perceived high surgical risk; all had prior TV surgery and significant stenosis and/or regurgitation of a bioprosthetic TV or a right atrium-to-right ventricle conduit. Procedural success was achieved in all 15 patients. In patients with predominantly stenosis, mean tricuspid gradient was reduced from 12.9 to 3.9 mm Hg (p < 0.01). In all patients, tricuspid regurgitation was reduced to mild or none. New York Heart Association functional class improved in 12 patients. The only major procedural complication was of third-degree heart block requiring pacemaker insertion in 1 patient. One patient developed endocarditis 2 months after implant, and 1 patient with pre-procedural multiorgan failure did not improve and died 20 days after the procedure. The remaining patients have well-functioning Melody valves in the TV position a median of 4 months after implantation. In selected cases, patients with prior TV surgery may be candidates for percutaneous TV replacement. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kempny, Aleksander; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Uebing, Anselm; Rafiq, Isma; Li, Wei; Swan, Lorna; Hooper, James; Donovan, Jackie; Wort, Stephen J; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos
In patients with acquired heart failure, hypoalbuminaemia is associated with increased risk of death. The prevalence of hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia and their relation to outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains, however, unknown. Data on patients with ACHD who underwent blood testing in our centre within the last 14 years were collected. The relation between laboratory, clinical or demographic parameters at baseline and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 2886 patients with ACHD were included. Mean age was 33.3 years (23.6-44.7) and 50.1% patients were men. Median plasma albumin concentration was 41.0 g/L (38.0-44.0), whereas hypoalbuminaemia (<35 g/L) was present in 13.9% of patients. The prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia was significantly higher in patients with great complexity ACHD (18.2%) compared with patients with moderate (11.3%) or simple ACHD lesions (12.1%, p<0.001). During a median follow-up of 5.7 years (3.3-9.6), 327 (11.3%) patients died. On univariable Cox regression analysis, hypoalbuminaemia was a strong predictor of outcome (HR 3.37, 95% CI 2.67 to 4.25, p<0.0001). On multivariable Cox regression, after adjusting for age, sodium and creatinine concentration, liver dysfunction, functional class and disease complexity, hypoalbuminaemia remained a significant predictor of death. Hypoalbuminaemia is common in patients with ACHD and is associated with a threefold increased risk of risk of death. Hypoalbuminaemia, therefore, should be included in risk-stratification algorithms as it may assist management decisions and timing of interventions in the growing ACHD population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Apers, Silke; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Rassart, Jessica; Budts, Werner; Moons, Philip
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been found to play a role in the development of clinical complications. Hence, it is crucial to understand why some patients do well in terms of PROs and others do not and to identify these groups of patients. Sense of coherence (SOC), capturing a person's outlook on life, is associated with PROs in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we (1) examine how SOC develops in young people with CHD, (2) identify subgroups of SOC development, and (3) characterize subgroups in terms of demographic and clinical variables and PROs. In this 4-wave longitudinal study, 429 adolescents with CHD (53.4% boys; median age = 16.3 years) completed assessments of SOC (SOC-13). PROs included quality of life (linear analog scale), loneliness (UCLA-8), depression (CES-D), and perceived health (PedsQL). Latent class growth analysis was used to identify clinically meaningful subgroups of SOC development. Patients with CHD had a moderate SOC that slightly decreased over the first 18 months. Four subgroups of SOC development emerged: Consistently High (27%), Intermediate Stable (41%), Intermediate Decreasing (25%), and Chronically Low (7%). Subgroups differed in terms of sex and PROs, but not in terms of age, disease complexity, primary diagnosis, or surgical history. Patients with a strong and stable SOC over time showed a better adaptation than patients with a lower and/or decreasing SOC. Our results can guide the identification of patients at risk for adverse health outcomes and the development of interventions to enhance optimal living in patients with CHD.
McLaren, M J; Lachman, A S; Barlow, J B
A survey conducted by cardiologists in Soweto, Johannesburg, provided an opportunity of assessing the frequency of congenital heart disease in black schoolchildren. Among 12,050 schoolchildren aged 2 to 18 years, 48 had a congenital heart defect, yielding a prevalence of 3.9 per 1000. Only in 2- to 6-year-old children did the prevalence exceed that of rheumatic heart disease. The distribution of the types of defects was largely similar to that reported in other surveys with a predominance (52%) of ventricular septal defects. Two unusual findings were the unexplained absence of persistent ductus arteriosus in these children, and the detection of 5 children with situs inversus (1 in 2410). In all but one child, the congenital heart defect was first discovered during the survey. Despite the limitations of a prevalence study, it can be concluded that congenital heart disease is at least as common in this South African black community as in Caucasians. PMID:465225
Tobias, Joseph D; Gupta, Punkaj; Naguib, Aymen; Yates, Andrew R
This study aimed to provide a general description of the cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine and an evidence-based review of the literature regarding its use in infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD). A computerized bibliographic search of the literature on dexmedetomidine use in infants and children with CHD was performed. The cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine have been well studied in animal and adult human models. Adverse cardiovascular effects include occasional episodes of bradycardia, with rare reports of sinus pause or cardiac arrest. Both hypotension and hypertension also have been reported. The latter is related to peripheral α(2B) agonism leading to vasoconstriction. No adverse effects on the pulmonary vasculature have been noted even in patients with preexisting pulmonary hypertension. Although there are no direct effects on myocardial function, decreased cardiac output may result from changes in heart rate or increases in afterload. Although not currently Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the pediatric population, findings have shown dexmedetomidine to be effective in various clinical scenarios of patients with CHD including sedation during mechanical ventilation, prevention of procedure-related anxiety, prevention of emergence delirium and shivering after anesthesia, and treatment of withdrawal. Although dexmedetomidine may have limited utility for painful or invasive procedures, preliminary data suggest that the addition of ketamine to the regimen may offer benefits. When used during the perioperative period, additional benefits include blunting of the sympathetic stress response with a reduction of endogenous catecholamine release, a decrease in intraoperative anesthetic requirements, and a limitation of postoperative opioid requirements.
Brida, Margarita; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kempny, Alexander; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Swan, Lorna; Uebing, Anselm; Baumgartner, Helmut; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Diller, Gerhard-Paul
Abnormal body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher mortality in various cardiovascular cohorts. The prognostic implications of BMI in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are unknown. We aim to assess the distribution of BMI and its association with symptoms and survival in the ACHD population. We included 3069 ACHD patients (median age 32.6 years) under follow-up at our institution between 2001 and 2015. Patients were classified based on BMI as underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-25), overweight (25-30) or obese (>30), and symptoms, exercise capacity and mortality were assessed. Overall, 6.2% of patients were underweight, 51.1% had normal weight, 28.2% were overweight and 14.6% were obese. Higher BMI values were associated with lower all-cause and cardiac mortality on univariable Cox analysis, and this effect persisted after adjustment for age, defect complexity, cyanosis and objective exercise capacity. Higher BMI was especially associated with better prognosis in symptomatic ACHD patients (HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.98), p=0.002) and those with complex underlying cardiac defects (HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.997), p=0.048) In patients with a complex cardiac defect who had repeated weight measurements, weight loss was also associated with a worse survival (HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.24), p=0.04). ACHD patients with a higher BMI had a lower mortality. The association between BMI and mortality was especially pronounced in symptomatic patients with complex underlying cardiac defects, suggesting that cardiac cachexia may play a role. Indeed, weight loss in complex ACHD patients was linked to an even higher mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Rao, Mohan; Goldenberg, Ilan; Moss, Arthur J; Klein, Helmut; Huang, David T; Bianco, Nicole R; Szymkiewicz, Steven J; Zareba, Wojciech; Brenyo, Andrew; Buber, Jonathan; Barsheshet, Alon
Patients with congenital structural heart disease (CSHD) and inherited arrhythmias (IAs) are at high risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The present study was designed to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of patients with CSHD and IA who received a wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. The study population included 162 patients with CSHD (n = 43) and IA (n = 119) who were prospectively followed up in a nationwide registry from 2005 to 2010. The mortality rates were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The mean age of the study patients was 38 ± 27 years. The patients with CSHD had a greater frequency of left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <30%) than did the patients with IA (37% vs 5%, respectively; p = 0.002). The predominant indication for WCD was pending genetic testing in the IA group and transplant listing in the CSHD group. Compliance with the WCD was similar in the 2 groups (91%). WCD shocks successfully terminated 3 ventricular tachyarrhythmias in the patients with IA during a median follow-up of 29 days of therapy (corresponding to 23 appropriate WCD shocks per 100 patient-years). No arrhythmias occurred in the patients with CSHD during a median follow-up of 27 days. No patients died while actively wearing the WCD. At 1 year of follow-up, the survival rates were significantly lower among the patients with CSHD (87%) than among the patients with IA (97%, p = 0.02). In conclusion, our data suggest that the WCD can be safely used in high-risk adult patients with IA and CSHD. Patients with IA showed a greater rate of ventricular tachyarrhythmias during therapy but significantly lower long-term mortality rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kröönström, Linda Ashman; Johansson, Linda; Zetterström, Anna-Klara; Dellborg, Mikael; Eriksson, Peter; Cider, Åsa
The aim was to assess muscle function in a sample of Swedish adult men and women with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and to compare the results with published reference values in healthy adults. From April 2009 to December 2010, 762 adult outpatients were assessed for their suitability and individual need for tests of physical fitness. The patients performed five muscle function tests, two isotonic tests and three isometric tests. Of the 762 patients, 315 (41.3%) patients performed the tests. Patients with ACHD had lower isotonic muscle function compared to healthy reference values. In the heel lift test, men with ACHD performed at 63% and women at 58% of the healthy reference values and in the shoulder flexion test the corresponding performance level was 60% for men with ACHD and 85% for the women. Multiple regression analyses showed that NYHA class II-IV was a significant predictor for a lower isotonic muscle function i.e. heel lift in women (p<0.001) and men (p=0.05) and in shoulder flexion (p<0.001) in women, as well as in isometric knee extension (p=0.04) and isometric shoulder abduction (p<0.001) in women. This is the first report of muscle function in a broad and unselected group of patients with ACHD. Our data shows that patients with ACHD have lower isotonic muscle function. The impacts of low muscle function in activities of daily living and the question of whether muscle function could be improved with exercise training need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quartermain, Michael D.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Goldberg, David J.; Huhta, James C.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Kim, Sunghee; Ungerleider, Ross M.
Background Prenatal diagnosis allows for improved peri-operative outcomes of fetuses with certain forms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Variability in prenatal diagnosis has been demonstrated in other countries, leading to efforts to improve fetal imaging protocols and access to care, but has not been examined across the United States. Objective To evaluate national variation in prenatal detection across geographic region and defect type in neonates and infants with CHD undergoing heart surgery. Methods Cardiovascular operations performed in patients ≤ 6 months of age within the United States and included in the STS-CHS Surgical Database (2006–2012) were eligible for inclusion. Centers with >15% missing prenatal diagnosis data were excluded from the study. Prenatal diagnosis rates were compared across geographic location of residence and defect type using the Chi-square test. Results Overall, the study included 31,374 patients from 91 STS-CHS participating centers across the United States. Prenatal detection occurred in 34% and increased every year from 26% (2006) to 42% (2012). There was significant geographic variation in rates of prenatal diagnosis across states (range 11.8 – 53.4%, p < 0.0001). Significant variability by defect type was also observed with higher rates for lesions identifiable on 4-chamber view versus those requiring outflow tract visualization (57% versus 32%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Rates of prenatal CHD detection in the United States remain low for patients undergoing surgical intervention, with significant variability between states and across defect type. Further studies are needed to identify reasons for this variation and the potential impact on patient outcomes. PMID:26216324
Beurtheret, Sylvain; Tutarel, Oktay; Diller, Gerhard Paul; West, Cathy; Ntalarizou, Evangelia; Resseguier, Noémie; Papaioannou, Vasileios; Jabbour, Richard; Simpkin, Victoria; Bastin, Anthony J; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V; Bonello, Beatrice; Li, Wei; Sethia, Babulal; Uemura, Hideki; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Shore, Darryl
Advances in early management of congenital heart disease (CHD) have led to an exponential growth in adults with CHD (ACHD). Many of these patients require cardiac surgery. This study sought to examine outcome and its predictors for ACHD cardiac surgery. This is an observational cohort study of prospectively collected data on 1090 consecutive adult patients with CHD, undergoing 1130 cardiac operations for CHD at the Royal Brompton Hospital between 2002 and 2011. Early mortality was the primary outcome measure. Midterm to longer-term survival, cumulative incidence of reoperation, other interventions and/or new-onset arrhythmia were secondary outcome measures. Predictors of early/total mortality were identified. Age at surgery was 35±15 years, 53% male, 52.3% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 37.2% in class II and 10.4% in class III/IV. Early mortality was 1.77% with independent predictors NYHA class ≥ III, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) <15 mm and female gender. Over a mean follow-up of 2.8±2.6 years, 46 patients died. Baseline predictors of total mortality were NYHA class ≥ III, TAPSE <15 mm and non-elective surgery. The number of sternotomies was not independently associated with neither early nor total mortality. At 10 years, probability of survival was 94%. NYHA class among survivors was significantly improved, compared with baseline. Contemporary cardiac surgery for ACHD performed at a single, tertiary reference centre with a multidisciplinary approach is associated with low mortality and improved functional status. Also, our findings emphasise the point that surgery should not be delayed because of reluctance to reoperate only. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Williams, Ismée A; Fifer, William P; Andrews, Howard
We evaluated differences in growth between fetuses with and without congenital heart disease (CHD) and tested associations between growth and early childhood neurodevelopment (ND). In this prospective cohort study, fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and controls had biparietal diameter (BPD), head (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) recorded serially during pregnancy at 18-26 weeks GA (F1), at 27-33 weeks GA (F2), and at 34-40 weeks GA (F3). CHD subjects underwent Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III ND testing at 18 months. Differences between CHD fetuses and controls were assessed using t tests and generalized linear modeling. Correlations between biometry and ND informed regression modeling. We enrolled 41 controls and 68 fetuses with CHD (N = 24 HLHS, N = 21 TGA, N = 23 TOF), 46 of whom had ND scores available. At 18-26 weeks, CHD fetuses were smaller than controls in all biometric parameters. Differences in growth rates were observed for HC, BPD, and AC, but not for FL or EFW. Cognitive score correlated with HC/AC at F2 (r = -0.33, P = 0.04) and mean HC/AC across gestation (r = -0.35, P = 0.03). Language correlated with FL/BPD at F2 (r = 0.34, P = 0.04). In stepwise linear regression, mean HC/AC predicted Cognition (B = -102, P = 0.026, R (2) = 0.13) and FL/BPD at F2 predicted Language score (B = 127, P = 0.03, R (2) = 0.12). Differences in growth between CHD fetuses and controls can be measured early in pregnancy. In CHD fetuses, larger abdominal relative to head circumference is associated with better 18-month neurodevelopment.
Fifer, William P.; Andrews, Howard
We evaluated differences in growth between fetuses with and without congenital heart disease (CHD) and tested associations between growth and early childhood neurodevelopment (ND). In this prospective cohort study, fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and controls had biparietal diameter (BPD), head (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) recorded serially during pregnancy at 18and controls were assessed using–26 weeks GA (F1), at 27–33 weeks GA (F2), and at 34–40 weeks GA (F3). CHD subjects underwent Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III ND testing at 18 months. Differences between CHD fetuses and controls were assessed using t tests and generalized linear modeling. Correlations between biometry and ND informed regression modeling. We enrolled 41 controls and 68 fetuses with CHD (N = 24 HLHS, N = 21 TGA, N = 23 TOF), 46 of whom had ND scores available. At 18–26 weeks, CHD fetuses were smaller than controls in all biometric parameters. Differences in growth rates were observed for HC, BPD, and AC, but not for FL or EFW. Cognitive score correlated with HC/AC at F2 (r = −0.33, P = 0.04) and mean HC/AC across gestation (r = −0.35, P = 0.03). Language correlated with FL/BPD at F2 (r = 0.34, P = 0.04). In stepwise linear regression, mean HC/AC predicted Cognition (B = −102, P = 0.026, R2 = 0.13) and FL/BPD at F2 predicted Language score (B = 127, P = 0.03, R2 = 0.12). Differences in growth between CHD fetuses and controls can be measured early in pregnancy. In CHD fetuses, larger abdominal relative to head circumference is associated with better 18-month neurodevelopment. PMID:25753684
Levey, Allison; Levasseur, Stephanie M.; Glickstein, Julie S.; Kleinman, Charles S.; Simpson, Lynn L.; Williams, Ismee A.
This study was undertaken to examine the impact that prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) has on birth and early neonatal outcomes. The prevalence of prenatally diagnosed CHD has risen over the past decade, but the effect that prenatal diagnosis of CHD has on peripartum decisions remains unclear. No consensus exists on the effect of prenatal diagnosis on neonatal outcomes. Between January 2004 and July 2009, a retrospective chart review of all neonates with CHD admitted to our institution’s neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. Obstetric and postnatal variables were collected. Among the 993 subjects, 678 (68.3 %) had a prenatal diagnosis. A prenatal diagnosis increased the odds of a scheduled delivery [odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.0–5.6] and induction of labor (OR 11.5, 95 % CI 6.6–20.1). Prenatal diagnosis was not significantly associated with cesarean delivery when control was used for maternal age, multiple gestation, and presence of extracardiac anomaly. Mean gestational age had no impact on prenatal diagnosis, but prenatal diagnosis was associated with increased odds of delivery before a gestational age of 39 weeks (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1–1.9) and decreased odds of preoperative intubation (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.3–0.6). Prenatal diagnosis did not have an impact on preoperative or predischarge mortality. Prenatal diagnosis was associated with increased odds of a scheduled delivery, birth before a gestational age of 39 weeks, and a decreased need for invasive respiratory support. Prenatal diagnosis of CHD was not associated with preoperative or predischarge mortality. PMID:23052660
Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Melguizo, Maria S.; Reeves, Rachel N.; Rowell, Jacob A.; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.
Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school-age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at <1 year of age from 1/1/1998─12/31/2003 at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital were identified. Out-of-state births and infants with known genetic and/or neurologic conditions were excluded. Infants were matched to an Arkansas Department of Education database containing standardized assessments at early school-age and special education codes. Predictors for achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. 256 children who attended Arkansas public schools and had surgery as infants were included; 77.7% had either school-age achievement-test scores or special education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7–13% lower than Arkansas students (p<0.01). They had an 8-fold increase in the receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities (OR 10.66, 95% CI 4.23─22.35) or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95% CI 2.6─8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with reduced literacy proficiency and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with reduced mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments and many received special education. This is concerning since achievement- test scores at school-age are “real-world” predictors of long-term outcomes. PMID:24000004
The aims of this study were to compare the level of posttraumatic stress disorder between adults with and without congenital heart disease, and to examine the correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., sociodemographics). Cross-sectional. Two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A sample of 347 adults with congenital heart disease aged 18-64 years (52% women), and 353 adults without congenital heart disease matched by sex and age (±2 years) was recruited. The PTSD Scale: Self-report version was used to assess the diagnosis and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among each group of participants. The posttraumatic stress disorder in the patients was comparable to those of the control group, except for increased arousal (P = .027) which was scored higher among the patients. Over 52% of adults with congenital heart disease met the criteria for a likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis compared with 48% of adults without congenital heart disease. The regression analyses among patients revealed that elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 1.27) and a positive history of cardiac surgery (OR = 2.02) were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The model could explain 29% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder. The high and comparable prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among patients and nonpatients highlight the significance of the context in which adults with congenital heart disease may face other/additional stressors than disease-related ones, an issue that clinicians need also take into account. Furthermore, the association of posttraumatic stress disorder with elevated depressive symptoms warrant a comprehensive psychological assessment and management of adults with congenital heart disease, in particular among those with a history of
The surgical treatment of patients with extracardiac structural anomalies and congenital heart disease often carries major risk and remains a challenging field. An appropriate, solid treatment plan should be developed during the early phase with interactive intelligence sharing between a pediatric surgery team and congenital heart surgery team. As the top of the chain of command, the role of a neonatologist is important. This article reviews the history of surgery for congenital heart disease and the progress of the Japan Congenital Cardiovascular Surgery Database. Finally, as an example of a combination of diseases, the clinical course and intelligence sharing during treatment of a patient with biliary atresia requiring living-donor liver transplantation and hypoplastic left heart syndrome is reported. The National Quality Forum provided structural measures, process measures, and outcome measures for congenital heart surgery. Structural measures provided by the National Quality Forum included participation in a preoperative multidisciplinary conference. To improve the outcome of surgical treatment of patients with congenital heart disease and extracardiac structural anomalies, the importance of a preoperative multidisciplinary conference involving not only pediatric surgeons, pediatric cardiologists, and pediatric cardiac surgeons but also neonatologists, anesthesiologists, and nurses cannot be overemphasized.
Passantino, Annamaria; Pugliese, Michela; Quartarone, Valeria; Russo, Natalia; Bussadori, Roberto; Guercio, Bartolomeo
Aim: The veterinarian should be able to assess congenital and inherited malformations such as heart defects because they may be object of legal disputes. In this study, the authors report some cases of congenital heart defects in pets (dogs and cats) to clarify whether or not they may be considered a redhibitory defect. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 medical records of pets referred with suspected congenital heart disease were examined. All patients aged between 3 and 24 months underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography and angiocardiography when necessary. Results: Congenital heart diseases or associated cardiac malformations were confirmed. Considering the above congenital diseases as redhibitory defect and the rights of the owners from a strictly legal viewpoint, 9 owners demanded an estimatory action and 11 a redhibitory action; 1 owner decided to demand the reimbursement of veterinary expenses because the animal died; 7 owners took no legal action but requested surgical intervention. Conclusions: Until more appropriate and detailed legislation on the buying and selling of pet animals is put in place; the authors propose to include in the contract a temporal extension of the guarantee relating to congenital heart disease, which can often become evident later. PMID:28246457
Wald, Rachel M; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M
Young women with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article outlines cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy, general outcomes and management considerations for practitioners caring for pregnant young women with congenital heart disease. A lesion-specific review is published in a complementary article. PMID:22468131
Coran, D L; Rodgers, W B; Keane, J F; Hall, J E; Emans, J B
The strong association between congenital heart disease and spinal deformity is well established, but data on the risks and outcome of spinal fusion surgery in patients with congenital heart disease are scarce. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of perioperative risk and outcome in a large series of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease who underwent spinal fusion for scoliosis or kyphosis. In the authors' retrospective analysis of 74 consecutive patients with congenital heart disease undergoing spinal fusion, there were two deaths (2.7%) and 18 significant complications (24.3%) in the perioperative period. Preoperative cyanosis (arterial oxygen saturation < 90% at rest) with uncorrected or incompletely corrected congenital heart disease was associated with both deaths. Complications occurred in nine of 18 (50%) patients with cyanosis and in 11 of 56 (20%) patients without cyanosis. As judged by multivariate analysis the best predictors of perioperative outcome were the overall physical status of the patient as represented by the American Society of Anesthesiologists' preoperative score and a higher rate of intraoperative blood loss. Seventeen of 43 patients (40%) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher experienced complications including two perioperative deaths. Successful spinal fusion and correction were achieved in 97% of patients. Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease can undergo elective spinal fusion with risks that relate to overall cardiac status. Careful assessment of preoperative status by pediatric cardiologists and cardiac anesthesiologists familiar with surgical treatment of patients with congenital heart disease will assist the orthopaedic surgeon in providing the most realistic estimate of risk.
Ionescu-Ittu, Raluca; Mackie, Andrew S; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Pilote, Louise; Tchervenkov, Christo; Martucci, Giuseppe; Marelli, Ariane J
The congenital heart disease population is aging. We hypothesized that changes in rates of congenital, valvular, and noncongenital surgical operations in congenital heart patients varied with age and disease severity over the last two decades. We performed time trend analysis using a Quebec congenital heart disease database constructed from administrative data. We included congenital heart patients of all ages having cardiac surgical operations. Heart lesions were classified as "severe" and "other." Cardiac surgical operations were grouped as congenital, valvular (including aortic), and noncongenital (arrhythmia surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting, and cardiac transplants). An adapted Aristotle score was developed to classify procedures based on surgical risk. Yearly surgical rates were measured as surgical operations per 1,000 person-years and analyzed over time using Poisson regression models stratified by age, lesion severity, and cardiac surgery category. From 1988 to 2005 we followed 71,979 patients for 1,009,430 person-years. We identified 17,444 cardiac surgical operations. There was a 31% increase in volumes and a 5% increase in surgical rates over time. In children, congenital surgical operations remained constant, accounting for 80% of all surgical operations. In adults, valvular operations were the most common type of surgical operations, increasing from 42% to 63% of all procedures over time. Rates of valvular operations increased significantly in all adult subgroups and in children with severe lesions. The need for valvular interventions has increased in the last two decades in congenital heart disease patients. These findings should be taken into account when allocating resources that will optimize outcomes for this growing population. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rostol'tsev, K V; Burenkov, R A; Kuz'micheva, I A
Clinico-anatomic observation of autosomal-recessive renal cystic disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis at two fetuses from the same family was done. Mutation of His3124Tyr in 58 exon of PKHD1 gene in heterozygous state was found out. The same pathomorphological changes in the epithelium of cystic renal tubules and bile ducts of the liver were noted. We suggest that the autopsy research of fetuses with congenital abnormalities, detected after prenatal ultrasonic screening, has high diagnostic importance.
Gazit, Avihu Z; Canter, Charles E
Congenital heart disease is one of the major diagnoses in pediatric heart transplantation recipients of all age groups. Assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance in these patients prior to transplantation is crucial to determine their candidacy, however, it is frequently inaccurate because of their abnormal anatomy and physiology. This problem places them at significant risk for pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure post transplantation. The pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular disease in children with congenital heart disease depends on their pulmonary blood flow patterns, systemic ventricle function, as well as semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves structure and function. In our review we analyze the pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular disease in children with congenital heart disease and end-stage heart failure, and outline the state of the art pre-transplantation medical and surgical management to achieve reverse remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature by using pulmonary vasodilators and mechanical circulatory support. PMID:22548028
den Hollander, Anneke I; Roepman, Ronald; Koenekoop, Robert K; Cremers, Frans P M
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most severe retinal dystrophy causing blindness or severe visual impairment before the age of 1 year. Linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping and candidate gene analysis facilitated the identification of 14 genes mutated in patients with LCA and juvenile retinal degeneration, which together explain approximately 70% of the cases. Several of these genes have also been implicated in other non-syndromic or syndromic retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and Joubert syndrome, respectively. CEP290 (15%), GUCY2D (12%), and CRB1 (10%) are the most frequently mutated LCA genes; one intronic CEP290 mutation (p.Cys998X) is found in approximately 20% of all LCA patients from north-western Europe, although this frequency is lower in other populations. Despite the large degree of genetic and allelic heterogeneity, it is possible to identify the causative mutations in approximately 55% of LCA patients by employing a microarray-based, allele-specific primer extension analysis of all known DNA variants. The LCA genes encode proteins with a wide variety of retinal functions, such as photoreceptor morphogenesis (CRB1, CRX), phototransduction (AIPL1, GUCY2D), vitamin A cycling (LRAT, RDH12, RPE65), guanine synthesis (IMPDH1), and outer segment phagocytosis (MERTK). Recently, several defects were identified that are likely to affect intra-photoreceptor ciliary transport processes (CEP290, LCA5, RPGRIP1, TULP1). As the eye represents an accessible and immune-privileged organ, it appears to be uniquely suitable for human gene replacement therapy. Rodent (Crb1, Lrat, Mertk, Rpe65, Rpgrip1), avian (Gucy2D) and canine (Rpe65) models for LCA and profound visual impairment have been successfully corrected employing adeno-associated virus or lentivirus-based gene therapy. Moreover, phase 1 clinical trials have been carried out in humans with RPE65 deficiencies. Apart from ethical considerations inherently linked to treating children, major
Dewan, Pooja; Gomber, Sunil; Das, Saurabhi
Congenital tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose unless there is a high index of suspicion. A 2-month-old infant boy presented with a history of fever since birth and failure to thrive. Chest radiograph demonstrated right upper lobe collapse/consolidation and an ultrasonogram of the abdomen showed multiple hypo-echoic hepatic and splenic lesions, and multiple retroperitoneal nodes. Fine needle aspiration of a cervical lymph node detected acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The mother's chest radiograph demonstrated features of pulmonary tuberculosis. Placental histology detected AFB. The combined clinical and laboratory features in both mother and infant supports the diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis.
Welisch, Eva; Rauch, Ralf; Seabrook, Jamie A; Filler, Guido; Norozi, Kambiz
To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with congenital heart disease and compare them with age-matched healthy children in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. We compared the Center of Disease Control weight and body mass index z-scores of 1080 children, aged 2 to 18 years, who presented to our paediatric cardiology outpatient clinic from 2008 to 2010 for congenital heart disease with 1083 healthy controls. In all, 18.2% of the children with congenital heart disease and 20.8% of healthy children were identified to be either overweight or obese. Overall, the weight category distribution had been similar between the congenital heart disease and healthy control groups, as well as between the congenital heart disease subgroups. There was no difference in normal weight and overweight/obese categories between children with congenital heart disease and healthy children. The underweight category, however, showed a significantly higher prevalence in congenital heart disease compared with healthy children (6.8 and 4.5%, respectively, p = 0.03). The prevalence of overweight/obesity did not differ in children with congenital heart disease compared with age-matched healthy children; however, it is still high (18.2%). Obesity may represent an additional risk factor for the long-term cardiovascular health of congenital heart disease patients aside from the underlying heart defect.
Stevens, Kristen N; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kim, Cecilia E; Doevendans, Pieter A; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Mital, Seema; Raue, Jennifer; Glessner, Joseph T; Coles, John G; Moreno, Victor; Granger, Anne; Gruber, Stephen B; Gruber, Peter J
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth abnormality and the etiology is unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. ISLET1 (ISL1) is a transcription factor that marks cardiac progenitor cells and generates diverse multipotent cardiovascular cell lineages. The fundamental role of ISL1 in cardiac morphogenesis makes this an exceptional candidate gene to consider as a cause of complex congenital heart disease. We evaluated whether genetic variation in ISL1 fits the common variant-common disease hypothesis. A 2-stage case-control study examined 27 polymorphisms mapping to the ISL1 locus in 300 patients with complex congenital heart disease and 2,201 healthy pediatric controls. Eight genic and flanking ISL1 SNPs were significantly associated with complex congenital heart disease. A replication study analyzed these candidate SNPs in 1,044 new cases and 3,934 independent controls and confirmed that genetic variation in ISL1 is associated with risk of non-syndromic congenital heart disease. Our results demonstrate that two different ISL1 haplotypes contribute to risk of CHD in white and black/African American populations.
Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Junga; Choi, Jae Young
Adolescents with congenital heart disease need to increase their resilience in the face of challenges in order to preserve their health and quality of life. This study aimed to develop a resilience improvement program for adolescents with congenital heart disease and also to evaluate any change in resilience and quality of life as a measure of the effectiveness of the resilience improvement programs. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest study was designed. Twenty-five adolescents who attended the first resilience improvement program were included in the experimental group, and 31 adolescents who took part in the second program were placed in the control group. Adolescents with congenital heart disease completed a self-report questionnaire on three separate occasions: the pretest, the first posttest and the second posttest. The self-report questionnaire included general characteristics and instruments to measure resilience and quality of life. For the longitudinal analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the difference in the estimated average trajectories of resilience and quality of life changes. Independent predictors of resilience improvement in adolescents with congenital heart disease were the experimental group ( p=0.02) and middle and high school students ( p=0.02). Quality of life was not associated with membership in the experimental group. However, males scored higher than females on quality of life measures ( p=0.02). It is essential for healthcare providers to apply various programs, including those targeted at accepting illness, improving autonomy and independently managing disease, to adolescents with congenital heart disease.
Bertoletti, Juliana; Marx, Giovana Caroline; Hattge, Sérgio Pedro; Pellanda, Lucia Campos
Advances in cardiac surgery techniques and early diagnosis have enabled the increased survival of individuals with congenital heart disease. The investigation of the quality of life in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease provides complementary information to clinical data that can assist in decision making on the part of health professionals. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate the quality of life of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease, the results prove to be contradictory; while some studies show that congenital heart disease can impact the quality of life, others describe a better perception of quality of life among children and adolescents who suffer from the disease when compared with healthy control subjects. The purpose of this study is to review the literature on the assessment of health related quality of life in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease, in order to systematize the existing knowledge on this topic today. It is observed that research seeks to investigate aspects of personality in cardiac patients, their coping strategies used and perceived social support, aiming at better understanding the association of these variables with the level of quality of life in this population. PMID:24676375
Tchervenkov, Christo I; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Bernier, Pierre-Luc; Stellin, Giovanni; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jonas, Richard A; Cicek, Sertac M; Al-Halees, Zohair; Elliott, Martin J; Jatene, Marcelo B; Kinsley, Robin H; Kreutzer, Christian; Leon-Wyss, Juan; Liu, Jinfen; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Nunn, Graham R; Ramirez-Marroquin, Samuel; Sandoval, Nestor; Sano, Shunji; Sarris, George E; Sharma, Rajesh; Shoeb, Ayman; Spray, Thomas L; Ungerleider, Ross M; Yangni-Angate, Hervé; Ziemer, Gerhard
The diagnosis and treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease has undergone remarkable progress over the last 60 years. Unfortunately, this progress has been largely limited to the developed world. Yet every year approximately 90% of the more than 1,000,000 children who are born with congenital cardiac disease across the world receive either suboptimal care or are totally denied care.While in the developed world the focus has changed from an effort to decrease post-operative mortality to now improving quality of life and decreasing morbidity, which is the focus of this Supplement, the rest of the world still needs to develop basic access to congenital cardiac care. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery [http://www.wspchs.org/] was established in 2006. The Vision of the World Society is that every child born anywhere in the world with a congenital heart defect should have access to appropriate medical and surgical care. The Mission of the World Society is to promote the highest quality comprehensive care to all patients with pediatric and/or congenital heart disease, from the fetus to the adult, regardless of the patient's economic means, with emphasis on excellence in education, research and community service.We present in this article an overview of the epidemiology of congenital cardiac disease, the current and future challenges to improve care in the developed and developing world, the impact of the globalization of cardiac surgery, and the role that the World Society should play. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery is in a unique position to influence and truly improve the global care of children and adults with congenital cardiac disease throughout the world [http://www.wspchs.org/].
Zhuang, Jian; Chen, Guanchun; Mai, Jinzhuang; Guo, Xiaoling; Ou, Yanqiu; Chen, Jimei; Gong, Wei; Gao, Xiangmin; Wu, Yong; Nie, Zhiqiang
There are 16.5 million newborns in China annually. However, the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) has not been evaluated. In 2004, we launched an active province-wide hospital-based CHD registry in the Guangdong Province of southern China. In this study, we examined the incidence of CHD and its subtypes from 2004 to 2012 and compared our findings to the literature. Our results indicate there is an increasing trend of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence occurred mainly for single lesion and the most common subtypes (e.g., ventricular or atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus). There were no increases found for multiple lesions or more complex subtypes. The proportion of CHD cases that were detected early (e.g., 1 week) increased over time. The incidence of CHD stabilized in 2010–2012 with the average cumulative incidences of 9.7, 9.9, and 11.1 per 1,000 live births at 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year, respectively. The incidences of CHD subtypes were comparable with recent international results. The data did not support previous reports that Asian children have a higher incidence of pulmonary outflow obstructions and lower incidence of transposition of the great arteries. However, there was a lower incidence of left ventricular outflow tract obstructions observed in our series. The increase in CHD incidence observed over time was due to improved detection and diagnosis. The true incidence of CHD in China was approximately 11.1 per 1,000 live births, which is higher than previously reported. PMID:27409588
Swischuk, L.E.; Sapire, D.W.
The book retains its previous format with chapters on embryology, plain film interpretation, classification of pulmonary vascular patterns, cardiac malpositions and vascular anomalies, and illustrative cases. The book is organized with an abundance of illustrative figures, diagrams, and image reproductions. These include plain chest radiographs, angiograms, echocardiograms, and MR images. The authors present the pathophysiology and imaging of congenital heart lesions.
Silversides, Candice K; Salehian, Omid; Oechslin, Erwin; Schwerzmann, Markus; Vonder Muhll, Isabelle; Khairy, Paul; Horlick, Eric; Landzberg, Mike; Meijboom, Folkert; Warnes, Carole; Therrien, Judith
With advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, the population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased. In the current era, there are more adults with CHD than children. This population has many unique issues and needs. They have distinctive forms of heart failure and their cardiac disease can be associated with pulmonary hypertension, thromboemboli, complex arrhythmias and sudden death. Medical aspects that need to be considered relate to the long-term and multisystemic effects of single ventricle physiology, cyanosis, systemic right ventricles, complex intracardiac baffles and failing subpulmonary right ventricles. Since the 2001 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference report on the management of adults with CHD, there have been significant advances in the field of adult CHD. Therefore, new clinical guidelines have been written by Canadian adult CHD physicians in collaboration with an international panel of experts in the field. Part III of the guidelines includes recommendations for the care of patients with complete transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, Fontan operations and single ventricles, Eisenmenger's syndrome, and cyanotic heart disease. Topics addressed include genetics, clinical outcomes, recommended diagnostic workup, surgical and interventional options, treatment of arrhythmias, assessment of pregnancy risk and follow-up requirements. The complete document consists of four manuscripts, which are published online in the present issue of The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. The complete document and references can also be found at www.ccs.ca or www.cachnet.org.
Jensen, A S; Idorn, L; Nørager, B; Vejlstrup, N; Sondergaard, L
Adults with congenital heart disease are a growing population. One of the major challenges in the care of these patients is to prevent thromboembolic episodes. Despite relative young age and no typical cardiovascular risk factors, this cohort has a high prevalence of thrombotic events. It is difficult to use treatment algorithms from the general adult population with acquired heart disease in this heterogeneous population due to special conditions such as myocardial scarring after previous surgery, atypical atrial flutter, prothrombotic conditions and the presence of interatrial shunts. Furthermore, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding how to prevent thromboembolic events with anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature pertaining to anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease and hence enable recommendations for which patients are likely to benefit from which anticoagulation treatments, when they should be considered and how these would be carried out.
Nemec, Stefan F; Horcher, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Bettelheim, Dieter; Amann, Gabriele; Nemec, Ursula; Rotmensch, Siegfried; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela
Fetal tumors can have a devastating effect on the fetus, and may occur in association with congenital malformations. In view of the increasing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), we sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with regard to congenital abnormalities, on MRI. This retrospective study included 18 fetuses with tumors depicted on fetal MRI after suspicious US findings. An MRI standard protocol was used to diagnose tumors judged as benign or malignant. All organ systems were assessed for tumor-related complications and other congenital malformations. Available US results and histopathology were compared with MRI. There were 13/18 (72.2%) benign and 5/18 (27.8%) malignant tumors diagnosed: a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 1/18, head-neck teratomas in 4/18; ventricular rhabdomyomas in 4/18; a cardiac teratoma in 1/18; a hepatoblastoma in 1/18; neuroblastomas in 2/18; a cystic hemorrhagic adrenal hyperplasia in 1/18; a pelvic leiomyoma in 1/18; sacrococcygeal teratomas in 3/18. Tumor-related complications were present in 13/18 (72.2%) cases; other congenital abnormalities in 3/18 (16.7%). MRI diagnosis and histology were concordant in 8/11 (72.7%) cases. In 6/12 (50%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were concordant, and, in 6/12 (50%) cases, additional MRI findings changed the US diagnosis. Our MRI results demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with frequently encountered tumor-related complications, and other exceptional congenital abnormalities, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Compared to prenatal US, MRI may add important findings in certain cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Cora; Ailes, Elizabeth; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Oster, Matthew E.; Olney, Richard S.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Fixler, David E.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.
IMPORTANCE Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for Newborns in the United States in 2011. Many states have recently adopted or are considering requirements for universal CCHD screening through pulse oximetry in birth hospitals. Limited previous research is directly applicable to the question of how many US infants with CCHD might be identified through screening. OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportion of US infants with late detection of CCHD (>3 days after birth) based on existing clinical practice and to investigate factors associated with late detection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Descriptive and multivariable analysis. Data were obtained from a multisite population-based study of birth defects in the United States, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). We included all live-born infants with estimated dates of delivery from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2007, and nonsyndromic, clinically verified CCHD conditions potentially detectable through screening via pulse oximetry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome measure was the proportion of infants with late detection of CCHD through echocardiography or at autopsy under the assumption that universal screening at birth hospitals might reduce the number of such late diagnoses. Secondary outcome measures included prevalence ratios for associations between selected demographic and clinical factors and late detection of CCHD. RESULTS Of 3746 live-born infants with nonsyndromic CCHD, late detection occurred in 1106 (29.5% [95%CI, 28.1%–31.0%]), including 6 (0.2%) (0.1% –0.4%) first receiving a diagnosis at autopsy more than 3 days after birth. Late detection varied by CCHD type from 9 of 120 infants (7.5%[95%CI, 3.5%–13.8%]) with pulmonary atresia to 497 of 801 (62.0% [58.7%–65.4%]) with coarctation of the aorta. In multivariable analysis, late detection varied significantly by CCHD type and study site, and infants with
Baggen, Vivan J M; Eindhoven, Jannet A; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Witsenburg, Maarten; Cuypers, Judith A A E; Langstraat, Jannette S; Boersma, Eric; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W
Context Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with diastolic dysfunction and heart failure in acquired heart disease. Objective To investigate the role of MMPs as novel biomarkers in clinically stable adults with congenital heart disease. Methods We measured serum MMP-2, -3, -9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in 425 patients and analysed the association with cardiac function and exercise capacity. Results MMP-2 was significantly associated with exercise capacity, ventilatory efficiency and left ventricular deceleration time, independently of age, sex, body surface area and NT-proBNP. Conclusion MMP-2 may provide new information in the clinical evaluation of adults with congenital heart disease.
Torniainen, Suvi; Savilahti, Erkki; Järvelä, Irma
Congenital lactase deficiency belongs to the Finnish Disease Heritage and is a recessively inherited diarrheal disease of the newborn, in which the activity of the lactase enzyme of the epithelial cells of the small intestine is very low ever since the birth. For the newborn infant, ingestion of lactose causes symptoms so severe that breastfeeding is not possible. Untreated disease leads to dehydration that usually requires hospitalization. Congenital lactase deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the lactase enzyme (LCT). Seven mutations in a total of 43 patients have been found in Finland so far.
Ladouceur, Magalie; Dugardin, Bertrand; Gourdin, Stéphanie; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Iserin, Laurence
Improvements in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease have led to most of these patients reaching adulthood. Despite the increase in lifespan, very little is known about their quality of life - in particular, their ability to obtain a mortgage or consumer loan. To investigate the outcome of mortgage and loan applications made by adults with differential severities of congenital heart disease. Four hundred and seventy-six patients were invited to participate in a questionnaire-based interview by phone. Of these patients, one hundred and forty-two responded. Respondents were classified into three categories ('significant', 'complex' and 'mild') based on congenital heart disease severity according to the Bethesda conference. Ninety patients (64%) had applied for loans; 17 (16.5%) did not report their heart disease to the insurance company, 13 were refused insurance and 39 were asked to pay surplus fees. The imposed fees concerned patients classified in the 'significant' and 'complex' groups (P<0.0001 and P<0.003, respectively, compared with those classified in the 'mild' group). Age, sex, other diseases, cardiovascular risk factors and duration of the loan had no influence on loan application outcomes. Adults with congenital heart disease are considerably more likely to have difficulty obtaining a mortgage or loan, independent of their congenital heart disease severity. Moreover, despite an increased obtainment of a loan in patients classified as 'mild', the refusal rates were identical for patients classified as having 'significant' or 'complex' congenital heart disease, although their prognosis is different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zühlke, Liesl; Mirabel, Mariana; Marijon, Eloi
Africa has one of the highest prevalence of heart diseases in children and young adults, including congenital heart disease (CHD) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). We present here an extensive review of recent data from the African continent highlighting key studies and information regarding progress in CHD and RHD since 2005. Main findings include evidence that the CHD burden is underestimated mainly due to the poor outcome of African children with CHD. The interest in primary prevention for RHD has been recently re-emphasised, and new data are available regarding echocardiographic screening for subclinical RHD and initiation of secondary prevention. There is an urgent need for comprehensive service frameworks to improve access and level of care and services for patients, educational programmes to reinforce the importance of prevention and early diagnosis and a relevant research agenda focusing on the African context.
Stankunas, Kryn; Shang, Ching; Twu, Karen Y; Kao, Shih-Chu; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Sanyal, Mrinmoy; Selleri, Licia; Cleary, Michael L; Chang, Ching-Pin
Congenital heart diseases are traditionally considered to be multifactorial in pathogenesis resulting from environmental and genetic interactions that determine penetrance and expressivity within a genetically predisposed family. Recent evidence suggests that genetic contributions have been significantly underestimated. However, single gene defects occur only in a minority of cases, and multigenetic causes of congenital heart diseases have not been fully demonstrated. Here, we show that interactions between alleles of 3 Pbx genes, which encode homeodomain transcription factors, are sufficient to determine the phenotypic presentation of congenital heart diseases in mice. A major role is served by Pbx1, whose inactivation results in persistent truncus arteriosus. Reduction or absence of Pbx2 or Pbx3 leads to Pbx1 haploinsufficiency and specific malformations that resemble tetralogy of Fallot, overriding aorta with ventricular septal defect, and bicuspid aortic valves. Disruption of Meis1, which encodes a Pbx DNA-binding partner, results in cardiac anomalies that resemble those caused by Pbx mutations. Each of the observed cardiac defects represents developmental abnormalities affecting distinct stages of cardiac outflow tract development and corresponds to specific types of human congenital heart disease. Thus, varied deficiencies in the Pbx gene family produce a full spectrum of cardiac defects involving the outflow tract, providing a framework for determining multigenetic causes of congenital heart anomalies.
Stankunas, Kryn; Shang, Ching; Twu, Karen Y.; Kao, Shih-Chu; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Sanyal, Mrinmoy; Selleri, Licia; Cleary, Michael L.; Chang, Ching-Pin
Congenital heart diseases are traditionally considered to be multifactorial in pathogenesis resulting from environmental and genetic interactions that determine penetrance and expressivity within a genetically predisposed family. Recent evidence suggests that genetic contributions have been significantly underestimated. However, single gene defects occur only in a minority of cases, and multigenetic causes of congenital heart diseases have not been fully demonstrated. Here, we show that interactions between alleles of 3 Pbx genes, which encode homeodomain transcription factors, are sufficient to determine the phenotypic presentation of congenital heart diseases in mice. A major role is served by Pbx1, whose inactivation results in persistent truncus arteriosus. Reduction or absence of Pbx2 or Pbx3 leads to Pbx1 haploinsufficiency and specific malformations that resemble tetralogy of Fallot, overriding aorta with ventricular septal defect, and bicuspid aortic valves. Disruption of Meis1, which encodes a Pbx DNA-binding partner, results in cardiac anomalies that resemble those caused by Pbx mutations. Each of the observed cardiac defects represents developmental abnormalities affecting distinct stages of cardiac outflow tract development and corresponds to specific types of human congenital heart disease. Thus, varied deficiencies in the Pbx gene family produce a full spectrum of cardiac defects involving the outflow tract, providing a framework for determining multigenetic causes of congenital heart anomalies. PMID:18723445
Eslami, Bahareh; Macassa, Gloria; Sundin, Örjan; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Soares, Joaquim J F
The objective of this study is to compare coping strategies between adults with and without congenital heart disease and to scrutinize the associations between different available resources (e.g., social support) and adoption of certain coping strategies. The study has a cross-sectional case-control design. The study was conducted in two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The participants comprised 347 persons (18-64 years) with and 353 individuals without congenital heart disease, matched by gender and age. Coping strategies, assessed with the Utrecht Coping List-short form, were compared between both groups. Block-wise multiple regression analyses were conducted to scrutinize the associations between different independent variables (e.g., demographic/socioeconomic statuses) and adoption of certain styles of coping (dependent variables) among all participants and separately for each group. The styles of coping in the patients were comparable with those of the control group. Multivariate analyses revealed that congenital heart disease per se was not associated with style of coping except for palliative reaction pattern. The active problem-solving coping style was associated with never married marital status, parenthood, unemployment, higher level of anxiety/somatic symptoms, lower level of depressive symptoms, and better social support. The avoidance behavior style was associated with having a low income, whereas the expression of emotion style was associated with higher anxiety symptoms, experience of financial strain, and income. None of the adopted coping strategies was related to the heart disease variables. The adults with congenital heart disease coped as well as adults without congenital heart disease. Marital status, parenthood, annual income, financial strain, psychological adjustment, and perceived social support were important explanatory factors in adopting a certain style of coping among adults with congenital heart disease. However
Baltaxe, H.A.; Mooring, P.; Kugler, J.; Pinsky, W.; Chu, W.K.
Twenty patients under the age of 2 years with suspected congenital heart disease received alternately Renografin 76 and metrizamide for angiocardiography. The dose was 2.0 ml/kg per injection for both contrast media into the left ventricle. Metrizamide induced slightly lesser change in heart rate, peak systolic pressure, and peak end-diastolic pressures. Serum osmolality, hematocrit, and serum electrolytes were affected equally by the contrast media. Metrizamide was well tolerated by the neonates with congenital heart disease and its radiopacity was adequate for diagnostic purposes. At the doses administered, metrizamide does not seem to have any great advantage over Renografin 76 for angiocardiography in infants with severe congenital heart disease.
Korenburg, J.R. ); Bradley, C.; Disteche, C.M. )
Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, and increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. The authors now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an 'overlap' region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. They report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. These studies provide the molecular basis for the construction of a DS phenotypic map and focus the search for genes responsible for the physical features, congenital heart disease, and duodenal stenosis of DS.
van der Bom, Teun; Luijendijk, Paul; Bouma, Berto J; Koolbergen, Dave R; de Groot, Joris R; Mulder, Barbara J M; Mulder, Barbara B J
Adults with congenital heart disease form a new and relatively young population, since surgical treatment of heart defects became available three to four decades ago. Owing to improved survival this population is steadily growing in number and age. Little is known regarding long-term survival; however, late complications occur frequently. During adulthood, almost half of the patients have one or more complication, such as endocarditis, stroke, systemic or pulmonary hypertension, aortic aneurysm or dissection and arrhythmias. Heart failure and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death. Treatment of adults with congenital heart disease is aimed at the reduction of symptoms, but also at minimizing the risk and severity of late complications. In this article the most recent advances in the treatment of congenital heart disease will be discussed. The main focus of the article will be on pharmacological, interventional and surgical interventions that reduce the risk of heart failure, arrhythmias, vascular complications, pulmonary hypertension and endocarditis.
Kumar, Praveen; Iyengar, Hari; Kumar, Prerna
To understand public views on pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart disease. Two hundred thirteen adults read a brief vignette describing the importance of early detection of critical congenital heart disease and then answered five questions on a five-point scale of how likely or unlikely they were to support pulse oximetry screening. Responses were tabulated and analyzed using a Fisher exact test, and logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for adjusted associations using generalized estimating equations. Almost 90% of all participants expressed support for routine pulse oximetry screening. The possibility of false positives leading to a delay in discharge, and the potential need for transfer to another facility lowered support but did not reach a statistical significance. The overall support for pulse oximetry screening was strong and consistent between different participant demographics. A large majority of participants in this study support pulse oximetry screening for the early detection of critical congenital heart disease.
Alabdulgader, A A A
To provide an overview of the epidemiology of congenital heart disease, the results of epidemiological studies done in 4 regions of Saudi Arabia (August 1988-February 2000) and 2604 individuals with congenital heart disease were evaluated. Ventricular septal defect was the commonest lesion (33.9%) followed by atrial septal defect (18.1%). Overall, sex distribution was similar; for 3 conditions, more males than females were affected. Of 2269 (59%) presenting in the first year of life, 566 (24.9%) had neonatal congenital heart disease. Down syndrome was the commonest cause. Distribution of specific lesions and sex distribution was similar to findings from other parts of the world; however, the overall detection rate at 1 year of age was lower.
Rey, C; Godart, F
Interventional catheterisation comprises performing a palliative or curative procedure during arterial or venous cardiac catheterisation. This procedure can be performed at any age, equally well in the newborn or adults affected by congenital cardiopathy: in order to definitively treat a congenital cardiopathy, unrecognised in infancy but diagnosed in adulthood, such as pulmonary valvular stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, persistent ductus arteriosus, ostium secundum type interatrial communication, coronaro-cardiac fistula, pulmonary arterio-venous fistula, and patent foramen ovale; in order to improve the haemodynamic state of a complex congenital cardiopathy, for example by creating an interatrial communication, or by opening the pulmonary route in a complex cardiopathy which cannot be completely repaired; in order to complete a surgical procedure, to treat recurrence of peripheral pulmonary stenosis or recurrence of coarctation, and to embolise the systemic vessels leading off the aorta or veno-venous anastomoses after cavopulmonary intervention. Paediatric cardiology can lead to occlusion of a left-right or right-left shunt with different devices, alleviation of an arterial or venous valvular stenosis with dilatation catheters, or implantation of endoprostheses in arterial or venous stenoses.
Peral, Susana Cantero; Burkhart, Harold M; Nelson, Timothy J
Surgical advances over the past few decades have transformed the clinical management of congenital heart disease, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Congenital heart disease affects more than 1% of liveborn infants and accounts for more than 2.5 million affected children per year worldwide. The cost and availability of complex medical management for these children becomes bluntly realized when heart failure progresses and only palliative options remain. Cell-based cardiac regeneration has been the focus of intensive efforts in adult heart disease for more than a decade and now has promise for pediatrics. Innate cardiac regeneration in the pediatric setting is measurable and potentially modifiable in the early stages of development. Repurposing cell-based manufactured products to promote cardiac regeneration in congenital heart disease has demonstrated significant improvement in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy and structural heart disease in infants. A focus on preemptive cardiac regeneration in the pediatric setting may offer new insights into the timing of surgery, location of cell-based delivery, and type of cell-based regeneration that could further inform acquired cardiac disease applications. The concept of cell-based pediatric cardiac regenerative surgery could transform the management of congenital heart disease when cost-effective strategies produce a valuable adjunctive solution to improve outcomes of cardiac surgery.
Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee; Choi, Jae Young
Adolescents with congenital heart disease adopt their illness as a part of their lives using their own knowledge and coping strategies. Those who use task-oriented coping strategies, such as relying on education to obtain sufficient disease-related knowledge, demonstrate much higher resilience. However, most health providers tend to provide information about congenital heart disease mainly to the parents instead of the child, and many parents tend to be uncomfortable talking about the disease with their child. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare adolescent patients' and their parents' coping strategies and knowledge of congenital heart disease. A descriptive and exploratory study design was used. After approval of the institutional review board was obtained, 40 adolescents with congenital heart disease and their parents were recruited from a congenital heart clinic between October 2012 and February 2013. We assessed the coping strategies and disease-related knowledge of both the adolescent patients and their parents. The knowledge level of adolescent patients and their parents had significant gaps between categories, and parents presented with significantly higher knowledge than their adolescents did (P < .01). Parents reported significantly higher mean scores on task-oriented and emotion-oriented coping than their adolescents did (P < .001). In addition, both adolescents and parents of a religious background reported significantly higher scores on emotion-oriented coping than did those who did not report a religion (P < .05). It is essential for healthcare providers to understand the ways in which adolescents and their parents cope with stress as well as the degree of their knowledge to better explicate the process of adaptation to the illness. Therefore, it is critical to develop effective structured and continuous intervention programs not only for adolescent patients and but also for their parents to enhance coping and knowledge of lifelong
Frascaroli, G; Fucà, A; Buda, S; Gargiulo, G; Pace, C
The incidence of congenital heart diseases accounts for 8-10 over 1000 liveborn. In Italy about 4000-4500 babies each year are born with congenital heart diseases; 50% of those babies (2000-2200) need cardiac surgery shortly after birth or within the first few months of life. Of the remaining 50%, half undergoes cardiac surgery later on in life and half does not necessitate any surgery; 30% of all cardiac operations consist of palliative procedures and the remaining 70% consist of one-stage corrective procedures. Improvements achieved both in surgical and anesthesiologic techniques, and in cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection, have led to better results in pediatric cardiac surgery, with excellent long term survival rate, even for the more complex variants of congenital heart malformations. Therefore anesthesiologists are now more often required to deal with patients affected by congenital heart defects, for other than cardiac problems. Accurate investigation of patient's clinical history is strongly suggested. Moreover knowledge and familiarity with the modifications of the physiology, occurring in congenital heart disease patients, are mandatory for the choice of the more appropriate anesthesiologic strategy for each patient, in order to optimise the risk-benefits ratio and achieve a less traumatic impact on the cardio-circulatory and respiratory equilibrium. With the aim of achieving better results, interaction between anesthesiologist, cardiologist, pediatrician, surgeon and sometime neonatologist and cardiac surgeon, is strongly recommended in the evaluation of risks, and in decision making of strategies and timing of treatment.
Cervantes-Salazar, Jorge; Curi-Curi, Pedro; Ramírez-Marroquín, Samuel; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Munoz-Castellanos, Luis
Based on the sequentiality principle, this review proposes a practical method that allows the systematization of the anatomic diagnosis of congenital heart disease. We emphasize the need to use sequential connection between the different cardiac segments: atria, ventricles and great arteries. Five ordered steps are defined, which include determination of atrial situs and of the connection features between the ventricles and the great arteries. Related lesions and some additional special features are a second stage in the sequential analysis of congenital heart disease, which is also important for the integral diagnosis.
Shiba, N; Kimura, K; Ohta, M; Naito, H; Saito, H; Takamiya, M; Kishimoto, H; Kamiya, T
We knew that digital subtraction fluorography (DSF) could clearly visualize the tracheobronchial tree by the respiratory movement. We applied DSF for 54 patients of complex congenital heart disease. In the visualization of the tracheobronchial tree, DSF was significantly superior as compared with the plain chest radiography (p less than 0.01). As this method needs to anesthetize patients to suppress their body movements, there might be some limitation to apply it for routine diagnostic workup. However, noninvasiveness and readiness of diagnosis justifies this method as an optional examination for confirming thoracic situs of complex congenital heart disease.
Kovacikova, L; Zahorec, M; Nosal, M
We describe successful use of enteral sildenafil following surgery for congenital heart disease in three cases. One infant after repair of ventricular septal defect and aortic coarctation had pulmonary hypertension non-responsive to nitric oxide, another infant and 3.5 year child following palliative surgery for congenital heart disease with univentricular physiology were treated with inhaled nitric oxide and had severe systemic desaturations associated with endotracheal suctioning. Therapy with sildenafil reduced pulmonary arterial pressure, prevented episodes of arterial desaturations and allowed weaning from nitric oxide (Ref. 7). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk
Asp, Ann; Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine
More than 90% of children born with congenital heart disease survive into adulthood due to successes of cardiac surgery and medical management. Interviews with 16 young adults with congenital heart disease to explore their experiences of transfer from pediatric to adult care were performed. The analysis identified five themes; Feeling secure during the transfer process, Experiencing trust in the care, Expecting to be involved, Assuming responsibility for one's health is a process and Lack of knowledge leads to uncertainty. In conclusion; a structured and gradual transfer process was necessary to enable the informants to shoulder the responsibility for self-care.
Karangelis, Dimos; Mazine, Amine; Narsupalli, Sreekanth; Mendis, Shamarli; Veldtman, Gruschen; Nikolaidis, Nicolas
Due to the advancements in congenital cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology in the last five decades, more than 85% of congenital heart patients now survive to adulthood. This retrospective study included 135 Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) patients, who had cardiac surgery at Southampton General Hospital over three consecutive years. We also included 42 patients with a structurally normal heart who had cardiac surgery for acquired cardiac conditions as a control group. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data were analysed in both groups to identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality. In the ACHD group, in hospital mortality was 0.7%. In the control group no deaths were observed. Fifty-eight per cent of the ACHD patients had significantly higher perioperative morbidity with arrhythmias (26%), bleeding (3%), prolonged ventilation (11.3%) and renal replacement therapy 1.5%. In the non ACHD control group 32% (p=0.003) developed perioperative complications with arrhythmias (9.8%), bleeding (2.5%), prolonged ventilation (4.3%) and renal replacement therapy (2.5%). In ACHD patients total in-hospital stay was longer in patients with longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (p=0.005), aortic cross clamp time (p=0.013) and higher preoperative alkaline phosphatase level (p=0.005). Early postoperative complications were higher in ACHD patients with longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (p=0.04) and presence of pulmonary artery hypertension (p=0.012). Even though the preoperative and operative characteristics are similar to both groups, the morbidity is more in ACHD group. Longer CBP time, aortic cross clamp time and presence of pulmonary hypertension are risk factors for higher morbidity in this group. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pennington, Pamela Marie; Juárez, José Guillermo; Arrivillaga, Margarita Rivera; De Urioste-Stone, Sandra María; Doktor, Katherine; Bryan, Joe P; Escobar, Clara Yaseli; Cordón-Rosales, Celia
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that continues to affect populations living in extreme poverty in Latin America. After successful vector control programs, congenital transmission remains as a challenge to disease elimination. We used the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model to develop strategies for neonatal screening of congenital Chagas disease in rural communities of Guatemala. These communities have persistent high triatomine infestations and low access to healthcare. We used mixed methods with multiple stakeholders to identify and address maternal-infant health behaviors through semi-structured interviews, participatory group meetings, archival reviews and a cross-sectional survey in high risk communities. From December 2015 to April 2016, we jointly developed a strategy to illustratively advertise newborn screening at the Health Center. The strategy included socioculturally appropriate promotional and educational material, in collaboration with midwives, nurses and nongovernmental organizations. By March 2016, eight of 228 (3.9%) pregnant women had been diagnosed with T. cruzi at the Health Center. Up to this date, no neonatal screening had been performed. By August 2016, seven of eight newborns born to Chagas seropositive women had been parasitologically screened at the Health Center, according to international standards. Thus, we implemented a successful community-based neonatal screening strategy to promote congenital Chagas disease healthcare in a rural setting. The success of the health promotion strategies developed will depend on local access to maternal-infant services, integration with detection of other congenital diseases and reliance on community participation in problem and solution definition.
Report from The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease (Part 2 - Nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology).
Bergersen, Lisa; Giroud, Jorge Manuel; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Franklin, Rodney Cyril George; Béland, Marie Josée; Krogmann, Otto Nils; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; Gaynor, J William; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Henry Lane; Weinberg, Paul; Everett, Allen Dale
Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the second part of the two-part series. Part 1 covered the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.
The aim of the author is to discuss special issues of rare diseases, with emphasis on circumstances present in Hungary, including those leading to the foundation of the non-governmental organization, the Hungarian Federation of People with Rare and Congenital Diseases. The author briefly reviews the most important findings of current international surveys which have been performed with or without the involvement of member associations of the Hungarian Federation of People with Rare and Congenital Diseases. At the level of medical and social services in Hungary, it is still "incidental" to get to the appropriate expert or centre providing the diagnosis or treatment. It is difficult to find the still very few existing services due to the lack of suitable "pathways" and referrals. There are long delays in obtaining the first appointment, resulting in vulnerability and inequality along the regions. The overall consequence is the insufficiency or lack of access to medical and social services. There are also difficulties related to the supply of orphan medication and the long duration of hospitalization. At the level of patient organizations financial scarcity and uncertainty are typical, combined with inappropriate infrastructural background and human resources. The poor quality of organization of patient bodies along with insufficient cooperation among them are characteristic as well. The author concludes that a National Plan or Strategy is needed to improve the current fragmentation of services which would enable patients and health, social and educational professionals to provide and use the best care in the practice. This would ensure all patients with rare diseases to be diagnosed within a possible shortest time allowing access to the care and support needed in time resulting in a decrease in burden of families and society.
Salam, Alex P; Rojek, Amanda; Dunning, Jake; Horby, Peter W
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes, such as microcephaly and other congenital malformations. No therapeutic options are available to pregnant women with ZIKV infection to prevent these effects. Drug trials in pregnancy raise several scientific, ethical, and logistic challenges, which are compounded further in ZIKV because of limited knowledge of the disease pathophysiology and a product development pipeline in its infancy. We evaluate the major challenges in choosing therapeutics to prevent congenital ZIKV disease and conducting clinical trials of these treatments, with a focus on preventing congenital central nervous system malformations. These challenges must be characterized and planned for now so that clinical trials can progress expediently and effectively in the future.
Trujillo-Honeysberg, Mónica; Diazgranados-Cuenca, Lucy
Although tuberculosis is highly prevalent worldwide, congenital tuberculosis is one of the least common manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis is usually difficult because of the non-specific clinical presentation and the lack of awareness of maternal disease prior to pregnancy and delivery. We present the case of a preterm neonate with congenital tuberculosis, born to a previously healthy mother who had developed severe disseminated tuberculosis during her pregnancy. Once the diagnosis was confirmed in the mother, the congenital infection was confirmed by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in gastric aspirates, and positive polymerase chain reaction in a cerebrospinal fluid examination. Treatment for tuberculosis with a four-drug regimen resulted in an adequate clinical response in both the mother and infant. PMID:26508944
Said, Sameh M; Burkhart, Harold M
Congenital heart surgeons face many challenges when dealing with valvular pathology in the pediatric population. Because of the concerns related to growth, repair should be the main goal. However, this is not always feasible and valve replacement becomes the only other alternative. Valve replacement also represents one of the most common procedures performed for adults with congenital heart disease, with several valve options existing including homografts, xenografts, autografts, and other artificial prostheses. The choice sometimes may be difficult because there are advantages and disadvantages to each valve substitute. In this article, we will address the different options of valve replacement in children and adults with congenital heart disease, and review the current literature that supports current practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boyle, Breidge; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; de Walle, Hermien E K; Dias, Carlos Matias; Draper, Elizabeth; Gatt, Miriam; Garne, Ester; Haeusler, Martin; Källén, Karin; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Wreyford, Ben; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalia; Dolk, Helen
To validate the estimates of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to congenital anomaly for Europe by comparing infant mortality data collected by EUROCAT registries with the WHO Mortality Database, and by assessing the significance of stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) in the interpretation of infant mortality statistics. EUROCAT is a network of congenital anomaly registries collecting data on live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks' gestation and TOPFA. Data from 29 registries in 19 countries were analysed for 2005-2009, and infant mortality (deaths of live births at age <1 year) compared with the WHO Mortality Database. Eight EUROCAT countries were excluded from further analysis on the basis that this comparison showed poor ascertainment of survival status. According to WHO, 17%-42% of infant mortality was attributed to congenital anomaly. In 11 EUROCAT countries, average infant mortality with congenital anomaly was 1.1 per 1000 births, with higher rates where TOPFA is illegal (Malta 3.0, Ireland 2.1). The rate of stillbirths with congenital anomaly was 0.6 per 1000. The average TOPFA prevalence was 4.6 per 1000, nearly three times more prevalent than stillbirths and infant deaths combined. TOPFA also impacted on the prevalence of postneonatal survivors with non-lethal congenital anomaly. By excluding TOPFA and stillbirths from GBD years of life lost (YLL) estimates, GBD underestimates the burden of disease due to congenital anomaly, and thus declining YLL over time may obscure lack of progress in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Congenital heart diseases are the most common inborn defect, occurring approximately 0.8% according to the last European Union count. This rate is stable for decades. Nowadays, up to 90% of children born with congenital heart diseases underwent surgical correction and reach adulthood, gratefully to the surgery and interventional cardiology advances, in conjunction to the post-surgery and following cares improvement. Both of this facts results to a growing population of adults with congenital heart diseases, actually exceeding the infant population. This arising population will lead general practitioners and primary care physicians to face more often this kind of patient. The needed cares are specifics, regarding the typical evolutions of this pathologies, as well as because congenital heart diseases wil impact other pathologies or usual cares. The need of an extended knowledge of the adult patients with congenital heart diseases is clearly emerging, and should lead the whole medical corps to work in close network.
Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Jafar; Malekzadeh, Iran; Nasirmohtaram, Sevil
Introduction: Hearing impairment is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns and has increased to 2–4 cases per 1,000 live births. Sensory-neural hearing loss (SNHL) accounts for more than 90% of all hearing loss. This disorder is associated with other congenital disorders such as renal, skeletal, ocular, and cardiac disorders. Given that congenital heart diseases are life-threatening, we decided to study the frequency of congenital heart diseases in children with congenital sensory-neural deafness. Materials and Methods: All children who had undergone cochlear implantation surgery due to SNHL and who had attended our hospital for speech therapy during 2008–2011 were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Results: Thirty-one children (15 boys and 16 girls) with a mean age of 55.70 months were examined, and underwent electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography. None of the children had any signs of heart problems in their medical records. Most of their heart examinations were normal, one patient had expiratory wheeze, four (12%) had mid-systolic click, and four (12%) had an intensified S1 sound. In echocardiography, 15 children (46%) had mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and two (6%) had minimal mitral regurgitation (MR). Mean ejection fraction (EF) was 69% and the mean fractional shortening (FS) was 38%. Conclusion: This study indicates the need for echocardiography and heart examinations in children with SNHL. PMID:27280096
Laux, Daniela; Malan, Valérie; Bajolle, Fanny; Boudjemline, Younes; Amiel, Jeanne; Bonnet, Damien
The objective was to report two new patients with the diagnosis of alveolar capillary dysplasia and congenital heart disease, to describe the associated cardiac defects seen in these cases and in the literature, and to consider recent genetic advances concerning the FOX transcription factor gene cluster in chromosome 16q24.1q24.2. We retrospectively analysed the records of all patients with congenital heart disease and alveolar capillary dysplasia seen in the Pediatric Cardiology Department between 2005 and 2010. We reviewed all literature published in the English language relating to cases of alveolar capillary dysplasia and congenital heart disease. Two infants with alveolar capillary dysplasia and cardiac malformation were identified: one had an atrioventricular septal defect and a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(1;16)(q32;q24), the second infant had a ventricular septal defect. Analysis of 31 cases of the literature including these new cases showed a predominant association of alveolar capillary dysplasia with obstructive left heart disease (35%), as well as an atrioventricular septal defect (29%). FOX gene cluster defects were identified in eight of these patients. Genetic background of alveolar capillary dysplasia is discussed in the light of the balanced reciprocal translocation t(1;16)(q32;q24) identified in the first child of this report. Alveolar capillary dysplasia should be suspected in neonates with congenital heart disease and unexpectedly elevated pulmonary vascular resistances, especially in cases of obstructive left heart disease or atrioventricular septal defect. Detecting FOX gene cluster defects should be considered in infants with alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without congenital heart disease.
Richner, Justin M; Jagger, Brett W; Shan, Chao; Fontes, Camila R; Dowd, Kimberly A; Cao, Bin; Himansu, Sunny; Caine, Elizabeth A; Nunes, Bruno T D; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Muruato, Antonio E; Foreman, Bryant M; Luo, Huanle; Wang, Tian; Barrett, Alan D; Weaver, Scott C; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Rossi, Shannan L; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Mysorekar, Indira U; Pierson, Theodore C; Shi, Pei-Yong; Diamond, Michael S
The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with congenital malformations has prompted the rapid development of vaccines. Although efficacy with multiple viral vaccine platforms has been established in animals, no study has addressed protection during pregnancy. We tested in mice two vaccine platforms, a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding ZIKV prM and E genes and a live-attenuated ZIKV strain encoding an NS1 protein without glycosylation, for their ability to protect against transmission to the fetus. Vaccinated dams challenged with a heterologous ZIKV strain at embryo day 6 (E6) and evaluated at E13 showed markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues, which resulted in protection against placental damage and fetal demise. As modified mRNA and live-attenuated vaccine platforms can restrict in utero transmission of ZIKV in mice, their further development in humans to prevent congenital ZIKV syndrome is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Donovan, Claire E; Painter, Liz; Lowe, Boris; Robinson, Hayley; Broadbent, Elizabeth
Despite an increasing prevalence of adults living with a CHD, little is known about the psychosocial impact of CHD. We sought to investigate the relative impact of disease severity and patients' perceptions about their condition on depression, anxiety, and quality of life over a period of a year. A total of 110 patients aged over 16 years completed an initial questionnaire containing measures for anxiety, depression, quality of life, and illness perceptions when they attended the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic. Cardiologists rated the patients' disease severity and illness course. A year later, patients were invited to complete the same measures. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relative impact of illness perceptions and disease severity on psychological outcomes a year later. At baseline, 23% of the study population had depressive symptoms and 30% had elevated trait anxiety. After controlling for associations with disease-related variables, illness perceptions explained 28% of the variance in depression, 40% anxiety, and 27% overall quality of life at baseline. Baseline illness perceptions bivariately predicted quality of life, cardiac anxiety, and depression 1 year later, and regression analyses controlling for other factors showed that they were significant predictors of outcomes 1 year later. Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common among adults with CHD. Patients' illness perceptions are related to psychological outcomes, especially cross-sectionally. Future research could investigate whether an intervention to discuss patients' perceptions about their CHD can improve mental health and quality of life.
An improved understanding of the roles of hemodynamic forces play in cardiac development and the pathogenesis of cardiac disease will have significant scientific and clinical impact. I will focus on the role of fluid dynamics in congenital heart disease and aortic valve calcification. Congenital heart defects are the most common form of birth defect. Aortic valve calcification/stenosis is the third leading cause of adult heart disease and the most common form of acquired valvular disease in developed countries. Given the high incidence of these diseases and their associated morbidity and mortality, the potential translational impact of an improved understanding of cardiac hemodynamic forces is very large. Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (Including Unspecified/Undiagnosed); Dystroglycanopathy; Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion; Rigid Spine Muscular Dystrophy; Congenital Myopathy (Including Unspecified/Undiagnosed); Collagen VI CMD (Ullrich CMD, Intermediate, Bethlem Myopathy); Laminin Alpha 2 Related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy; LAMA2-CMD/Merosin Deficient/MDC1A; Walker-Warburg Syndrome; Muscle-Eye-Brain Disease; Fukuyama/Fukutin Related Muscular Dystrophy; Integrin Alpha 7 Deficiency; Integrin Alpha 9 Deficiency; LMNA-CMD/Lamin A/C/Laminopathy; SEPN1-Related Myopathy; Bethlem Myopathy; Actin Aggregation Myopathy; Cap Disease; Central Core Disease; Centronuclear Myopathy; Core Rod Myopathy; Hyaline Body Myopathy; Multiminicore Myopathy; Myotubular Myopathy; Nemaline Myopathy; Tubular Aggregate Myopathy; Zebra Body Myopathy; Reducing Body Myopathy; Spheroid Body Myopathy; LGMD1B (LMNA); LGMD1E (DES); LGMD2G (TCAP); LGMD2H (TRIM32); LGMD2I (FKRP); LGMD2J (TTN); LGMD2K (POMT1); LGMD2M (FKTN); LGMD2N (POMT2); LGMD2O (POMGnT1); LGMD2P (DAG1); LGMD2Q (PLEC1); LGMD2R (DES); LGMD2S (TRAPPC11); LGMD2T (GMPPB); LGMD2U (ISPD); LGMD2V (GAA); Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy; Titinopathy; Choline Kinase B Receptor; Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy; RYR1 Related Myopathy; SYNE1/Nesprin Related Muscular Dystrophy; Telethonin Related Muscular Dystrophy (TCAP/Titin-Cap); Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome; Escobar Syndrome; Myofibrillar Myopathy; Malignant Hyperthermia; Alpha-Dystroglycan Related Muscular Dystrophy (DAG1, DPM1, DPM2, DPM3, FKRP, FKTN); Alpha-Dystroglycan Related Muscular Dystrophy (GAA, ISPD, LARGE, POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1); Alpha-Dystroglycan Related Muscular Dystrophy (Unspecified/Undiagnosed/Other)
Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.
Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…
Piggott, Kurt D; Soni, Meshal; Decampli, William M; Ramirez, Jorge A; Holbein, Dianna; Fakioglu, Harun; Blanco, Carlos J; Pourmoghadam, Kamal K
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. The reported incidence of AKI in pediatric patients following surgery for congenital heart disease is between 15% and 59%. Limited data exist looking at risk factors and outcomes of AKI or fluid overload in neonates undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Neonates aged 6 to 29 days who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease and who were without preoperative kidney disease were included in the study. The AKI was determined utilizing the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Ninety-five neonates were included in the study. The incidence of neonatal AKI was 45% (n = 43), of which 86% had stage 1 AKI. Risk factors for AKI included cardiopulmonary bypass time, selective cerebral perfusion, preoperative aminoglycoside use, small kidneys by renal ultrasound, and risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery category. There were eight mortalities (five from stage 1 AKI group, three from stage 2, and zero from stage 3). Fluid overload and AKI both increased hospital length of stay and postoperative ventilator days. To avoid increased risk of morbidity and possibly mortality, every attempt should be made to identify and intervene on those risk factors, which may be modifiable or identifiable preoperatively, such as small kidneys by renal ultrasound. © The Author(s) 2015.
McGrath, K A; Truesdell, S C
Employability is an important issue for adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease. This article provides an overview of specific federal laws that protect these individuals and information about state vocational rehabilitation programs. Guidelines are provided to help health care providers counsel their patients more effectively.
Cardiac disease is the most common congenital defect in children, affecting between 3 and 10 in every 1000 live births. While significant advances in medical and surgical management have resulted in increasing numbers of survivors, it is also recognized that there is a growing population of children living with neurological impairment and lowered…
Moola, Fiona; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Kirsh, Joel A.; Kilburn, Jennifer
This study explored perceptions toward physical activity and sport in the lives of youth with congenital heart disease. Thirteen cardiac participants were interviewed in the presence of their parents, and a process of inductive analysis was conducted. Sport was not considered a valued pursuit despite the belief that it is essential for the…
Johnson, Beena; Francis, Johnson
Major physical illnesses usually have an impact on the psychological well-being of any individual. An illness of early onset, with necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can adversely affect the emotional balance and behavioural adaptation of children and adolescents. This is applicable for congenital heart disease,…
Cardiac disease is the most common congenital defect in children, affecting between 3 and 10 in every 1000 live births. While significant advances in medical and surgical management have resulted in increasing numbers of survivors, it is also recognized that there is a growing population of children living with neurological impairment and lowered…
Moola, Fiona; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Kirsh, Joel A.; Kilburn, Jennifer
This study explored perceptions toward physical activity and sport in the lives of youth with congenital heart disease. Thirteen cardiac participants were interviewed in the presence of their parents, and a process of inductive analysis was conducted. Sport was not considered a valued pursuit despite the belief that it is essential for the…
Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.
Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…
Wallgren, C G; Kretzschmar, G; Zetterqvist, P
Twenty-three patients have been studied by exercise testing during right heart catheterization. Cardiac output was measured by the earpiece densitometric technique before, during and after the exercise period. It is concluded that the earpiece densitometric technique in conjunction with exercise testing offers an attractive alternative for the study of pressure and flow characteristics in children with congenital heart disease.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the involvement of kindergarten and nursery school teachers with young children with congenital heart disease. The study was designed as a qualitative descriptive study. Interviews of kindergarten and nursery school teachers with experience in the care and education of young children with congenital heart disease were conducted, during which they described their experience. Verbatim transcripts of the interviews were prepared, and the content was categorized. The study participants were 11 kindergarten and nursery school teachers. Extracted from the content of the interviews of the study participants were 282 codes, 33 subcategories, 6 categories, and 2 major categories. In their responses, the teachers indicated that they had been "Providing care for the children while seeking ways to avoid special treatment in a group setting." In addition, they established a "Framework for school-parent cooperation in order to promptly accommodate the wishes of parents" of these children. The study showed that the kindergarten and nursery school teachers involved other pupils and monitored the condition of children with congenital heart disease to avoid special treatment of the children in the group setting. In addition, the teachers established a framework for cooperation between the school and parents. In the future, these findings will be used to create a nursing support model for the group life of young children with congenital heart disease.
Schleich, Jean-Marc; Schnell, Frédéric; Brouant, Benoît; Phan, Gerald; Lafay, Vincent; Bonnemains, Laurent; Bédossa, Marc
The number of recreational scuba divers is steadily increasing. In its latest recommendations, the French Federation of Undersea Studies and Sports listed congenital heart disease as a formal and final contraindication to scuba diving. On the other hand, with the progress made in their management, the prognosis and quality of life of patients with congenital heart diseases have improved considerably, enabling them to engage in physical and sports endeavours, which are known to confer general health and psychological benefits. As a consequence, the ability of these patients to dive has become a regular and recurrent issue. We review the various types of scuba diving, the physical performance required for its practice, its effects on cardiovascular function and the elements that need to be considered before recommending whether it can be practiced safely at various levels of difficulty. Because of the diversity and broad heterogeneity of congenital heart diseases, a detailed evaluation of each patient's performance based on clinical criteria common to all congenital heart diseases is recommended.
The purpose of this study was to explore the transition process in congenital heart disease (CHD) care through the perceived needs and concerns of adolescents (pretransition) and the experiential insight from adults (post-transition), in order to inform future transition initiatives and information ...
Aykanat, Alper; Yavuz, Taner; Özalkaya, Elif; Topçuoğlu, Sevilay; Ovalı, Fahri; Karatekin, Güner
Prostaglandin E1 is crucial for keeping the patent ductus arteriosus in critical congenital heart disease for the survival and palliation of particularly prematurely born babies until a cardiosurgical intervention is available. In this study, the side effects of prostaglandin E1 in newborns with critical congenital heart disease and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Thirty-five newborns diagnosed with critical congenital heart disease were treated with prostaglandin E1 between January 2012 and September 2014 at our hospital. Patient charts were examined for prostaglandin E1 side effects (metabolic, gastric outlet obstruction, apnea), clinical status, and prognosis. Acquired data were analyzed in the SPSS 20.0 program. Patients with birth weight under 2500 g needed more days of prostaglandin E1 infusion than ones with birthweight over 2500 g (P = 0.016). The ratio of patients with birth weight under 2500 g who received prostaglandin E1 longer than 7 days was higher than the patients with birth weight over 2500 g (P = 0.02). Eighteen side effects were encountered in 11 of 35 patients (31%). Of these side effects, 1 patient had 4, 4 patients had 2, and 6 patients had only 1 side effect. Discontinuation of the therapy was never needed. Prostaglandin E1 is an accepted therapy modality for survival and outcome in critical congenital heart disease in particularly low-birth-weight babies until a surgical intervention is available. Side effects are not less encountered but are almost always manageable, and discontinuation is not needed.
Ozmen, Ayten; Terlemez, Semiha; Tunaoglu, Fatma Sedef; Soysal, Sebnem; Pektas, Ayhan; Cilsal, Erman; Koca, Ulker; Kula, Serdar; Deniz Oguz, Ayse
Background: The rate of congenital heart disease is 0.8% in all live births. The majority of this, however, is acyanotic congenital heart disease. The survival rate of children with cardiac disease has increased with the developments provided in recent years and their lifetime is extended. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate neurodevelopment of children with uncomplicated acyanotic congenital heart disease in preschool period and determine the factors affecting their neurodevelopmental process. Patients and Methods: 132 children with acyanotic congenital heart disease aged 6 - 72 months were involved in the study. Mental development and intelligence levels of patients under 2 years old were assessed by using Bayley Development Scale-III, and Stanford Binet Intelligence test was employed for patients over 2 years old. Denver Developmental Screening Test II was applied to all patients for their personal-social, fine motor, gross motor and language development. Results: The average age of patients (67 girls, 65 boys) included in the study was 35.2 ± 19.6 months. It was determined that there were subnormal mental level in 13 (10%) patients and at least one specific developmental disorder in 33 (25%) patients. Bayley Mental Development Scale score of patients who had received incubator care in perinatal period was found significantly low (88 ± 4.2) compared to those with no incubator care (93.17 ± 8.5) (P = 0.028). Low educational level of father was established to be linked with low mental development scores at the age of 2 and following that age (P < 0.05). Iron deficiency anemia was discovered to be related to low psychometric test scores at every age (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Neurodevelopmental problems in children with acyanotic congenital heart disease were found higher compared to those in society. Mental development and intelligence levels of patients were determined to be closely associated with receiving incubator care, father’s educational level and
St Louis, James D; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Jonas, Richard A; Sandoval, Nestor; Cervantes, Jorge; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Jacobs, Jeffery P; Sakamoto, Kisaburo; Stellin, Giovanni; Kirklin, James K
The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery was founded with the mission to "promote the highest quality comprehensive cardiac care to all patients with congenital heart disease, from the fetus to the adult, regardless of the patient's economic means, with an emphasis on excellence in teaching, research, and community service." Early on, the Society's members realized that a crucial step in meeting this goal was to establish a global database that would collect vital information, allowing cardiac surgical centers worldwide to benchmark their outcomes and improve the quality of congenital heart disease care. With tireless efforts from all corners of the globe and utilizing the vast experience and invaluable input of multiple international experts, such a platform of global information exchange was created: The World Database for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease went live on January 1, 2017. This database has been thoughtfully designed to produce meaningful performance and quality analyses of surgical outcomes extending beyond immediate hospital survival, allowing capture of important morbidities and mortalities for up to 1 year postoperatively. In order to advance the societal mission, this quality improvement program is available free of charge to WSPCHS members. In establishing the World Database, the Society has taken an essential step to further the process of global improvement in care for children with congenital heart disease.
Martínez Cirre, M C; Rodríguez Del Águila, M M; Fernández Valdivia, A; Peña Taveras, M; Martínez Tapias, J
To describe the pattern of patients admitted due to rare diseases corresponding to congenital anomalies in a regional hospital. Retrospective transversal study. We considered hospital discharges for the years 2009-2012 with principal diagnosis between codes CIE 9R MC 740-759. The source of information was the Basic Minimum Data Set. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed. One point six percent (1.6%) of the population was admitted to hospital due to rare congenital diseases. Fifty-eight point five percent (58.5%) were male, with average age 21.4 ± 21.5 years. The major diagnostic categories were: diseases of the nervous system (86.9%), circulatory systems diseases (51.7%) and musculoskeletal system diseases (50.3%). Eighteen percent (18%) of hospital admissions corresponded to patient readmissions. The service with the greatest number of episodes was Pediatric Surgery, 29%, followed by Neurosurgery, 20%. The pattern of rare congenital disease in the "Virgen de Nieves" University Hospital corresponds to a young patient, with a disease belonging to the diseases of the nervous system group of the major diagnostic categories, treated surgically, and with a low percentage of readmissions.
Goot, Benjamin H; Jaggers, James; Anagnost, Miran Rhee; Collins, Kathryn K
We report the clinical course of a female child with a normal karyotype and chromosomal microarray who presented as an infant with clinical findings consistent with congenital polyvalvular disease (CPVD). This clinical entity describes patients with multiple congenitally dysplastic valves, often showing nodular or cystic malformation in at least two cardiac valves. This patient then developed medically refractory multifocal ventricular arrhythmia and required radiofrequency ablation at seven months of age. She had good tachycardia control but became symptomatic with right heart failure related to progressive tricuspid, pulmonary, and mitral valve dysfunction necessitating multivalvular replacement at 21 months of age. © The Author(s) 2013.
The size of the national population of patients with grown-up congenital heart disease (GUCH) is uncertain, but since 80–85% of patients born with congenital heart disease now survive to adulthood (age 16 years), an annual increase of 2500 can be anticipated according to birth rate. Organisation of medical care is haphazard with only three of 18 cardiac surgical centres operating on over 30 cases per annum and only two established specialised units fully equipped and staffed. Not all grown-ups with congenital heart disease require the same level of expertise; 20–25% are complex, rare, etc, and require life long expert supervision and/or intervention; a further 35–40% require access to expert consultation. The rest, about 40%, have simple or cured diseases and need little or no specialist expertise. The size of the population needing expertise is small in comparison to coronary and hypertensive disease, aging, and increasing in complexity. It requires expert cardiac surgery and specialised medical cardiology, intensive care, electrophysiology, imaging and interventions, "at risk" pregnancy services, connection to transplant services familiar with their basic problem, clinical nurse specialist advisors, and trained nurses. An integrated national service is described with 4–6 specialist units established within adult cardiology, ideally in relation or proximity to university hospital/departments in appropriate geographic location, based in association with established paediatric cardiac surgical centres with designated inpatient and outpatient facilities for grown-up patients with congenital heart disease. Specialist units should accept responsibility for educating the profession, training the specialists, cooperative research, receiving patients "out of region", sharing particular skills between each other, and they must liaise with other services and trusts in the health service, particularly specified outpatient clinics in district and regional centres. Not
Gutierrez, Sherrill D; Earing, Michael G; Singh, Anoop K; Tweddell, James S; Bartz, Peter J
Atrial tachyarrhythmias, particularly atrial flutter and fibrillation, are commonly associated with congenital heart disease and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The Cox-maze procedure, introduced by Dr. James Cox in 1987, is effective at controlling atrial fibrillation in structurally normal hearts. Though the Cox-maze procedure has been used for atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients with congenital heart disease, few studies have looked at its effectiveness. A retrospective chart review was performed on 24 patients with congenital heart disease who underwent the Cox-maze procedure at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2004 through 2010. Mean age at time of Cox-maze procedure for the cohort was 40.9 years (range, 14 to 66 years). The most common congenital heart diseases among the patients included tetralogy of Fallot (n = 8) and atrioventricular septal defect (n = 4). All patients had concomitant cardiac procedures with the most common being right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (n = 10), tricuspid valve repair (n = 8), and atrial septal defect repair (n = 7). Prior to the Cox-maze procedure, arrhythmias consisted of atrial flutter or intratrial reentrant tachycardia (n = 19) and atrial fibrillation (n = 5). There were three early postoperative deaths and one late postoperative death. Follow-up was available for 19 of 21 (90%) survivors with a mean length to follow-up from Cox-maze procedure of 2.8 years (range, 0.14-5.7 years). At last follow-up, 14 (74%) of the survivors remained arrhythmia-free. In patients with congenital heart disease and atrial tachyarrhythmias, the majority were rendered arrhythmia-free by the Cox-maze procedure. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Griksaitis, Michael J; Scrimgeour, Gemma E; Pappachan, John V; Baldock, Andrew J
Introduction Non-invasive peripheral pulse oximeters are routinely used to measure oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpO2) in cyanotic congenital heart disease. These probes are calibrated in healthy adult volunteers between arterial saturations of ~75 and 100%, using the gold standard of co-oximetry on arterial blood samples. There are little data to attest their accuracy in cyanotic congenital heart disease. Aims We aimed to assess the accuracy of a commonly used probe in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit with an arterial line in situ were included to our study. Prospective simultaneous recordings of SpO2, measured by the Masimo SET® LNCS Neo peripheral probe, and co-oximeter saturations (SaO2) measured by arterial blood gas analysis were recorded. A total of 527 paired measurements of SpO2 and SaO2 (using an ABL800 FLEX analyser) in 25 children were obtained. The mean bias of the pulse oximeter for all SaO2 readings was +4.7±13.8%. The wide standard deviation indicates poor precision. This mean bias increased to +7.0±13.7% at SaO2 recordings <75%. The accuracy root mean square of the recordings was 3.30% across all saturation levels, and this increased to 4.98% at SaO2 <75%. The performance of the Masimo SET® LNCS Neo pulse oximeter is poor when arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturations are below 75%. It tends to overestimate saturations in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. This may have serious implications for clinical decisions.
Scriver, C. R.; Neal, J. L.; Saginur, R.; Clow, A.
A sample of 12,801 admissions to a pediatric hospital was surveyed in 1969-70 to determine the prevalence of disease which could be classified as “genetic” in origin or related to “congenital malformation”. “Genetic” admissions accounted for 11.1% of the total while 18.5% were for congenital malformations; about 2% (unknown group) were probably genetic. Therefore about one third of all admissions represent the effect of abnormal gene-environment interrelations at some point in the development or life of the patient. The “genetic” patient is admitted more often to a medical service while the patient with congenital malformation usually goes to a surgical service; the former stays 7.3 days and the latter 8.6 days. A disproportionate number of patients staying longer than 10 days were found in the group with congenital malformations. Seventy percent of the patients with multiple admissions (3.2% of all admissions) have genetic illness or congenital malformation. PMID:4704890
Miles, Susan; Ahmad, Waheed; Bailey, Amy; Hatton, Rachael; Boyle, Andrew; Collins, Nicholas
Long standing pulmonary regurgitation results in deleterious effects on right heart size and function with late consequences of right heart volume overload including ventricular dilatation, propensity to arrhythmia and right heart failure. As sleep disordered breathing may predispose to elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance and associated negative effects on right ventricular function, we sought to assess this in patients with underlying congenital heart disease. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing in a patient population with a history of long standing pulmonary valve incompetence in patients with congenital heart disease using overnight oximetry. Patients with a background of tetralogy of Fallot repair or residual pulmonary incompetence following previous pulmonary valve intervention for congenital pulmonary stenosis were included. Twenty-two patients underwent overnight oximetry. The mean age of the cohort was 34.3 ± 15.2 years with no patients observed to have severe underlying pulmonary hypertension. Abnormal overnight oximetry was seen in 13/22 patients (59.1%) with 2/22 (9.1%) patients considered to have severe abnormalities. An important proportion of patients with a background of pulmonary incompetence complicating congenital heart disease are prone to the development of sleep-disordered breathing as assessed by overnight oximetry. Further study into the prevalence and mechanisms of sleep-disordered breathing in a larger cohort are warranted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jacquet, Luc; Vancaenegem, Olivier; Rubay, Jean; Laarbaui, Fatima; Goffinet, Céline; Lovat, Robin; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine
To describe the ICU outcome and the most frequent complications observed in adult patients operated on for a congenital heart disease. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data and chart review in an adult cardiovascular ICU of a university hospital. 156 patients older than 15 years with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery between June 2001 and June 2005. According to the initial cardiac malformation, patients were divided in four groups with different operative risk based on the Euroscore: those diagnosed bicuspid aortic valve (n = 73) had a score of 5, those with tetralogy of Fallot (n = 33) 5.5, those with simple cardiac defect (n = 26) 3, and those with complex malformations (n = 24) 6. Only two patients (one with tetralogy of Fallot and one with complex malformations) died during the hospitalization (1.2%). Euroscore clearly overestimates the risk of surgery in this population of adults with congenital heart disease. Mortality and morbidity were low in those diagnosed bicuspid aortic valve, tetralogy of Fallot, or simple cardiac defect, justifying early surgery for incipient complications. Patients with complex congenital defect require prolonged ICU stay, sometimes with mechanical cardiac support, but their overall good outcome justifies these efforts.
Leidenfrost, Ronald D.; Weldon, Clarence S.
Patients over 18 years of age who have undergone a surgical correction of a congenital cardiac malformation during the period 1968 through 1977 have been reviewed. Those patients with calcific aortic stenosis which was thought, but not proved, to have arisen in a congenitally malformed aortic valve, were excluded from the review. Patients with cystic medial necrosis of the aorta were similarly excluded. There were 139 patients in the series (age range from 18 years to 67 years). The most common defects were those involving the intra-atrial septum and the related great veins, 50%. Abnormalities involving the great arteries including patent ductus arteriosus and coarctation of the aorta accounted for 19%. Common defects of conal development including ventricular septal defects and Tetralogy of Fallot malformations accounted for 15%. Valvular abnormalities including pulmonic stenosis, aortic valve abnormalities and Ebstein's malformation of tricuspid valve accounted for 11.5%. Complex congenital malformations were relatively uncommon, 4%. There were two patients with a combination of acquired and congenital heart disease. There were two operative deaths in the series, both occurring in patients with complex forms of congenital heart disease (multiple ventricular septal defects, double outlet right ventricle). There were two additional postoperative hospital deaths, one occurring following repair of an atrial septal defect from massive pulmonary embolus, and another occurring six weeks following a Fontan procedure performed for tricuspid atresia. Thus, the hospital mortality for the series was 2.9%. This reviewed series reveals the incidence of operable congenital heart defects appearing in an adult cardiac surgical practice and demonstrates that surgical repair can be accomplished with a satisfactory low mortality rate. PMID:697429
Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Wernovsky, Gil; Elliott, Martin J
This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for the analysis of outcomes of treatments for patients with congenitally malformed hearts. We will consider the current state of analysis of outcomes, lay out some principles which might make it possible to achieve life-long monitoring and follow-up using our databases, and describe the next steps those involved in the care of these patients need to take in order to achieve these objectives. In order to perform meaningful multi-institutional analyses, we suggest that any database must incorporate the following six essential elements: use of a common language and nomenclature, use of an established uniform core dataset for collection of information, incorporation of a mechanism of evaluating case complexity, availability of a mechanism to assure and verify the completeness and accuracy of the data collected, collaboration between medical and surgical subspecialties, and standardised protocols for life-long follow-up. During the 1990s, both The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons created databases to assess the outcomes of congenital cardiac surgery. Beginning in 1998, these two organizations collaborated to create the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project. By 2000, a common nomenclature, along with a common core minimal dataset, were adopted by The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery. In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding
Lindley, Kathryn J; Madden, Tessa; Cahill, Alison G; Ludbrook, Philip A; Billadello, Joseph J
To identify patterns of contraceptive use and pregnancy in an academic adult congenital cardiology practice. In this cross-sectional study, from October 2013 through March 2014, 100 women with congenital heart disease aged 18-45 years were recruited from an academic congenital heart disease clinic and administered a survey regarding pregnancy history, contraception use, and understanding of pregnancy-related and contraceptive-related risk. The primary outcome was current use of long-acting reversible contraception, including intrauterine devices or subdermal implants. Of 83 sexually active women, 63 (75.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 65.3-85.1) reported currently using any contraceptive method, including 30 of 83 (36.1%, 95% CI 25.9-47.4) using tier I methods (typical-use failure rates of less than 1% per year) and 20 of 83 (24.1%, 95% CI 15.4-34.7) using tier II methods (typical-use failure rates of 6-12% per year). Nine of 83 (10.8%, 95% CI 5.1-19.6) reported currently using long-acting reversible contraception. Sixty-four of 141 total pregnancies (45.4%, 95% CI 31.9-58.9) were self-reported by participants as "unexpected" rather than "planned." Only one (1.6%, 95% CI 0-4.6) of the 64 unintended pregnancies occurred when the woman was using a tier I method of contraception at the time of conception. Most women with congenital heart disease of childbearing age are sexually active. The high incidence of unintended pregnancy in this group may be related to underuse of highly effective methods of contraception. Specific counseling on tier I methods may reduce unintended pregnancies in women with congenital heart disease. III.
Hess, John; Bauer, Ulrike; de Haan, Fokko; Flesh, Julia; Gohlke-Baerwolf, Christa; Hagl, Siegfried; Hofbeck, Michael; Kaemmerer, Harald; Kallfelz, Hans Carlo; Lange, Peter E; Nock, Hermine; Schirmer, Karl Robert; Schmaltz, Achim A; Tebbe, Ulrich; Weyand, Michael; Breithardt, Guenter
The number of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients will be larger in the medium to long term than that of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease. The present structures for the medical care of ACHD patients are not sufficient and need to be improved. Therefore the Task Force aimed at developing recommendations for adult and paediatric cardiologists to acquire the additional qualification "Adults with Congenital Heart Disease" (ACDH). The members of the interdisciplinary Task Force were selected on the basis of their special clinical, scientific and organisational expertise. The leading author submitted a draft version, which was revised by a sub-group of the interdisciplinary Task Force. It was subsequently agreed upon and re-circulated by all the members of the Task Force. The recommendations were then presented to the relevant committees of all participating associations and groups and approved following detailed discussion. A training programme for acquiring an additional qualification in the treatment of adults with congenital heart disease was created successfully. The medical care of adults with congenital heart disease is a sub-speciality in the border area between adult cardiology and paediatric cardiology. ACHD cardiologists are to be specially trained experts with appropriate knowledge and special skills and experience in the diagnosis and therapy of congenital heart disease in adults. ACHD cardiologists should be able to recognise and treat problems that occur in adulthood in connection with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdulkadir, Mohammed; Abdulkadir, Zainab
Congenital heart diseases cause significant childhood morbidity and mortality. Several restricted studies have been conducted on the epidemiology in Nigeria. No truly nationwide data on patterns of congenital heart disease exists. To determine the patterns of congenital heart disease in children in Nigeria and examine trends in the occurrence of individual defects across 5 decades. We searched PubMed database, Google scholar, TRIP database, World Health Organisation libraries and reference lists of selected articles for studies on patterns of congenital heart disease among children in Nigeria between 1964 and 2015. Two researchers reviewed the papers independently and extracted the data. Seventeen studies were selected that included 2,953 children with congenital heart disease. The commonest congenital heart diseases in Nigeria are ventricular septal defect (40.6%), patent ductus arteriosus (18.4%), atrial septal defect (11.3%) and tetralogy of Fallot (11.8%). There has been a 6% increase in the burden of VSD in every decade for the 5 decades studied and a decline in the occurrence of pulmonary stenosis. Studies conducted in Northern Nigeria demonstrated higher proportions of atrial septal defects than patent ductus arteriosus. Ventricular septal defects are the commonest congenital heart diseases in Nigeria with a rising burden.
Iwańczak, Barbara; Kosmowska-Miśków, Agnieszka; Jamer, Tatiana; Patkowski, Dariusz
A case of a 4.5-year-old girl from a twin pregnancy, who was diagnosed after birth with the congenital esophageal atresia (type 3), and at the age of 4 with the potential coeliac disease. Congenital esophageal atresia was successfully treated surgically in infancy with the thoracoscopic method. The potential coeliac disease was detected in the child with a correct histopathological examination of intestinal villi and showing no enteropathy symptoms based on the presence of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and against endomysial antibodies of smooth muscles in serum and the presence of HLA DQ2.5. In the treatment of the potential coeliac disease the girl followed a gluten-free diet.
Martins da Silva, Viviane; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; Leite de Araujo, Thelma
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anthropometric measures of children with congenital heart disease with percentiles that represent their growth indicators. Anthropometric evaluations of 135 hospitalized children with congenital heart disease were performed in a hospital specialized in cardiac diseases in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. For the growth evaluation, percentiles of height by age, weight by height and weight by age were calculated. Children's average age was 4.74 months (+ 3.78) and 66.7% of the children were male. The medians of the three percentiles presented values below percentile 10, indicating a high proportion of values considered of risk. The subscapular thickness presented positive correlation with the three percentiles. The values of percentiles studied indicated growth delay.
Fassl, Jens; Tobler, Daniel; Zumofen, Daniel; Steiner, Luzius A.; Goettel, Nicolai
We report the case of a 39-year-old male with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing emergency craniotomy for a cerebral abscess. Maintenance of intraoperative hemodynamic stability and adequate tissue oxygenation during anesthesia may be challenging in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. In this case, we decided to perform the surgery as an awake craniotomy after interdisciplinary consensus. We discuss general aspects of anesthetic management during awake craniotomy and specific concerns in the perioperative care of patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:27928498
Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Harada, M; Akagi, H; Tsuda, T; Kizaki, T; Ohno, H
A total of 151 umbilical cords during the period from 1950 to 1969 were collected from the residents of the Minamata area (including 25 patients with congenital Minamata disease) for methylmercury (MeHg) analysis. When the MeHg discharge from the Chisso Company's Minamata factory into the Minamata Bay is compared with the incidence of congenital Minamata disease, the abrupt increase of the former in 1952 [Nishimura H. Chem. Today 1998;323:60-66] was found to precede that of the latter by approximately 2 years, thereby indicating that MeHg is the cause of the disaster. This was confirmed by the elevated levels of MeHg in the umbilical cords from residents of the Minamata area [from 0.35 +/- 0.30 (S.D.) ppm in 1952 to 0.96 +/- 0.75 ppm in 1955], the MeHg levels (1.60 +/- 1.00 ppm) in the cords from patients with congenital Minamata disease showing the highest values [P < 0.01 vs. acquired Minamata disease (0.72 +/- 0.65 ppm), mental retardation (0.74 +/- 0.64 ppm), other diseases (0.22 +/- 0.15 ppm), and no symptoms (0.28 +/- 0.20 ppm), respectively]. Thus, in order to fill a gap, which extends over a long period of time, in studies on environmental Hg pollution, umbilical cord samples were considered to be a useful tool.
von Rhein, Michael; Buchmann, Andreas; Hagmann, Cornelia; Huber, Reto; Klaver, Peter; Knirsch, Walter; Latal, Beatrice
Patients with complex congenital heart disease are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Evidence suggests that brain maturation can be delayed and pre- and postoperative brain injury may occur, and there is limited information on the long-term effect of congenital heart disease on brain development and function in adolescent patients. At a mean age of 13.8 years, 39 adolescent survivors of childhood cardiopulmonary bypass surgery with no structural brain lesions evident through conventional cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and 32 healthy control subjects underwent extensive neurodevelopmental assessment and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral scans were analysed quantitatively using surface-based and voxel-based morphometry. Compared with control subjects, patients had lower total brain (P = 0.003), white matter (P = 0.004) and cortical grey matter (P = 0.005) volumes, whereas cerebrospinal fluid volumes were not different. Regional brain volume reduction ranged from 5.3% (cortical grey matter) to 11% (corpus callosum). Adolescents with cyanotic heart disease showed more brain volume loss than those with acyanotic heart disease, particularly in the white matter, thalami, hippocampi and corpus callosum (all P-values < 0.05). Brain volume reduction correlated significantly with cognitive, motor and executive functions (grey matter: P < 0.05, white matter: P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that there are long-lasting cerebral changes in adolescent survivors of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease and that these changes are associated with functional outcome.
Causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are similar in adults and children. The main difference is that PAH secondary to congenital heart diseases, is the predominant cause in pediatric patients. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn shows completely different clinical course and pathophysiological mechanisms. It is usually seen in full term babies with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Improved prognosis has been reported with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy in babies hospitalized in well equipped and experienced newborn centers. Primary pulmonary hypertension and familial pulmonary hypertension are rare in pediatric age group because the diagnosis is initially made in adolescence. The incidence of PAH secondary to congenital heart disease is estimated as 1.6 - 12.5 case/million/year. Eisenmenger syndrome is diagnosed in 1% of patients with PAH. Patients with left to right shunts are the main group who develop pulmonary vascular disease if not treated in the early infancy. Some cyanotic congenital heart diseases are also the causes of PAH. The best treatment of patients at risk for the development of pulmonary vascular disease is prevention by early surgical elimination of defects or repairing the anatomy. Treatment options with vasodilating agents like NO, prostaglandin analogs, phosphodiesterase -5 inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists are used to improve survival and quality of life. Heart lung or bilateral lung transplantation is the only surgical option for many of these patients. Results of national and international registries will bring valuable epidemiological and prognostic perspectives to pediatric PAH.
Valenzuela, David M; Ordovas, Karen G
Improved surgical and medical therapy have prolonged survival in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) such that general medical conditions like coronary artery disease (CAD) are now the main determinants of mortality. A summary of the association of CAD with CHD, as well as a discussion of the radiologic evaluation of the coronary arteries in adults with CHD is described herein. Cross sectional imaging to evaluate CAD in adults with CHD should follow the same appropriateness criteria as gender and aged matched patients without CHD. Coronary CT imaging may be particularly valuable in evaluating the coronary arteries in this patient population as invasive coronary angiography may prove challenging secondary to complicated or unconventional anatomy of the coronary arteries. Further, typical methods for evaluating CAD such as stress or echocardiography may be impractical in adults with CHD. Finally, delineating the anatomic relationship of the coronary arteries and their relationship with the sternum, chest wall, conduits, grafts, and valves is highly recommended in patients with CHD prior to reintervention to avoid iatrogenic complications.
Hasserius, Johan; Hedbys, Josefine
Purpose. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is reported to be associated with Hirschsprung disease (HD). The aim was to evaluate any differences between children with HD with and without CHD, respectively, with regard to patient characteristics, medical care, and patient reported bowel function. Method. This is a retrospective chart study and a cross-sectional long-term follow-up of patients older than 4 years old, including all children with HD operated on with transanal endorectal pull-through (TERPT) at a tertiary center of pediatric surgery. Information about patient characteristics, diagnostics, surgery, and medical care was compiled. At long-term follow-up, bowel function was assessed by Bowel Function Score. Results. Included were 53 HD-patients, 13 with CHD and 40 without CHD. Children with CHD more commonly presented with failure to thrive; 4 (23%) compared to those without CHD (0%) (p < 0.01). In the long-term follow-up, including 32 patients (6 with CHD), constipation was more commonly reported by children with CHD 5 (83%) than by children without CHD 4 (27%) (p = 0.01). No differences were shown in the other parameters such as fecal control and incontinence. Conclusion. HD-patients with CHD more commonly presented with failure to thrive and more frequently reported constipation than HD-patients without CHD. The findings indicate that HD-patients with CHD might need special consideration in their initial care and long-term follow-up. PMID:28373976
Diaz, Lars J.; Leirgul, Elisabeth; Boyd, Heather A.; Priest, James; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Quertermous, Thomas; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads
Background— Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods and Results— In a national cohort study, we identified 2 025 727 persons born from 1978 to 2011; among them were 7296 (0.36%) persons exposed to maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Pregestational diabetes mellitus was identified by using the National Patient Register and individual-level information on all prescriptions filled in Danish pharmacies. Persons with CHD (n=16 325) were assigned to embryologically related cardiac phenotypes. The CHD prevalence in the offspring of mothers with pregestational diabetes mellitus was 318 per 10 000 live births (n=232) in comparison with a baseline risk of 80 per 10 000; the adjusted relative risk for CHD was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 3.51–4.53). The association was not modified by year of birth, maternal age at diabetes onset, or diabetes duration, and CHD risks associated with type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (insulin-independent) diabetes mellitus did not differ significantly. Persons born to women with previous acute diabetes complications had a higher CHD risk than those exposed to maternal diabetes mellitus without complications (relative risk, 7.62; 95% confidence interval, 5.23–10.6, and relative risk, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 2.91–4.13, respectively; P=0.0004). All specific CHD phenotypes were associated with maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus (relative risk range, 2.74–13.8). Conclusions— The profoundly increased CHD risk conferred by maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus neither changed over time nor differed by diabetes subtype. The association with acute pregestational diabetes complications was particularly strong, suggesting a role for glucose in the causal pathway. PMID:27166384
Keller, Roberta L; Tacy, Theresa A; Hendricks-Munoz, Karen; Xu, Jie; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Neuhaus, John; Moore, Phillip; Nobuhara, Kerilyn K; Hawgood, Sam; Fineman, Jeffrey R
Endothelin-1 (ET1) is dysregulated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). It may be important in the pathobiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We hypothesized that ET1 levels in the first month would be higher in infants with CDH who subsequently expired or were discharged on oxygen (poor outcome). We further hypothesized that ET1 levels would be associated with concurrent severity of PH. We sampled plasma at 24 to 48 hours, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks of age in 40 prospectively enrolled newborns with CDH. We performed echocardiograms to estimate pulmonary artery pressure at less than 48 hours of age and weekly to 4 weeks. PH was classified in relationship to systemic blood pressure (SBP): less than 2/3 SBP, 2/3 SBP-systemic is related to pressure, or systemic-to-suprasystemic pressure. ET1 levels at 1 and 2 weeks were higher in infants with poor outcome compared with infants discharged on room air (median and interquartile range: 27.2 [22.6, 33.7] vs. 19.1 [16.1, 29.5] pg/ml, P = 0.03; and 24.9 [17.6, 39.5] vs. 17.4 [13.7, 21.8] pg/ml, P = 0.01 at 1 and 2 weeks, respectively). Severity of PH was significantly associated with increasing ET1 levels at 2 weeks (16.1 [13.7, 21.8], 21.0 [17.4, 31.1], and 23.6 [21.9, 39.5] pg/ml for increasing PH class, P = 0.03). Increasing severity of PH was also associated with poor outcome at that time (P = 0.001). Infants with CDH and poor outcome have higher plasma ET1 levels and severity of PH than infants discharged on room air. Severity of PH is associated with ET1 levels.
Demirpençe, Savaş; Demirpençe, Banu İnce; Meşe, Timur; Arslanoğlu, Sertaç; Tavlı, Vedide; Çalkavur, Şebnem; Olukman, Özgür; Firuzan, Ali Rıza
Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the postnatal problems of infants of mothers with pregestational and gestational diabetes and the clinical properties of infants who were found to have congenital cardiac disease. Material and Methods: We retrospectively examined the records of 337 newborns who were followed up with a diagnosis of infant of diabetic mother between January 2010 and January 2012 in our Neonatology Unit. The demographic data of the diabetic mothers and their babies, the postnatal problems of the babies of diabetic mothers and congenital heart diseases found on transthoracic echocardiography were examined. Results: The patients were classified as group A, B and C in accordance with the recommendations of The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) according to the type of diabetes. The most common postnatal problems included hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia. The rate of congenital heart disease was found be 17.3% in group A, 50% in group B and 9% in group C. No correlation was found between congenital heart disease and gender, multiple pregnancy, diabetes type, diet treatment, use of oral antidiabetic drugs and drug usage. A positive significant correlation was found between congenital heart disease and genetic disease, murmur, cyanosis and presence of gestational hypertension. It was shown that use of insulin, genetic disease and presence of gestational diabetes increased the risk of congenital heart disease. Conclusions: In our study, the overall incidence of congenital heart disease was found to be 24% in infants of diabetic mothers. It should be kept in mind that it is important to investigate the infants of mothers with pregestational and gestational diabetes in terms of the risk of congenital heart disease. PMID:26078681
Tutarel, Oktay; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Montanaro, Claudia; Schiff, Renee; Uribarri, Aitor; Kempny, Aleksander; Grübler, Martin R; Uebing, Anselm; Swan, Lorna; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Gatzoulis, Michael A
Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) have an increased risk of developing IE. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence, predictors of outcome and mortality associated with IE in ACHD in a contemporary cohort. All episodes of IE in adults with congenital heart disease referred to our tertiary centre between 1999 and 2013 were included in the study. Patients were identified from the hospital database. The diagnosis of endocarditis was established according to the modified Duke criteria. The primary endpoint of the study was endocarditis-associated mortality. There were 164 episodes of IE in 144 patients (male 102, 70.8%). Mean age at presentation was 32.3±22.7 years. Out of these, 43% had a simple, 23% a moderate and 32% a complex lesion. It was at least the second bout of IE in 37 episodes (23%). A predisposing event could be identified in only 26.2% of episodes. Surgical intervention during the same admission was performed in 61 episodes (37.2%). During a median follow-up of 6.7 years (IQR 2.9-11.4), 28 (19.4%) patients died. Out of these, 10 deaths were related to IE (IE mortality 6.9%). On unvariate regression analysis, the development of an abscess (OR: 7.23; 95% CI 1.81 to 28.94, p<0.01) and age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10, p=0.03) were the only predictors of IE-associated mortality. There was no increase in IE cases at our centre during the period of the study. IE-associated morbidity and mortality in a contemporary cohort of ACHD patients is still high in the current era. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ghelani, Sunil J; Glatz, Andrew C; David, Sthuthi; Leahy, Ryan; Hirsch, Russel; Armsby, Laurie B; Trucco, Sara M; Holzer, Ralf J; Bergersen, Lisa
The aim of this study was to define age-stratified, procedure-specific benchmark radiation dose levels during interventional catheterization for congenital heart disease. There is a paucity of published literature with regard to radiation dose levels during catheterization for congenital heart disease. Obtaining benchmark radiation data is essential for assessing the impact of quality improvement initiatives for radiation safety. Data were obtained retrospectively from 7 laboratories participating in the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes collaborative. Total air kerma, dose area product, and total fluoroscopy time were obtained for the following procedures: 1) patent ductus arteriosus closure; 2) atrial septal defect closure; 3) pulmonary valvuloplasty; 4) aortic valvuloplasty; 5) treatment of coarctation of aorta; and 6) transcatheter pulmonary valve placement. Between January 2009 and July 2013, 2,713 cases were identified. Radiation dose benchmarks are presented including median, 75th percentile, and 95th percentile. Radiation doses varied widely between age groups and procedure types. Radiation exposure was lowest in patent ductus arteriosus closure and highest in transcatheter pulmonary valve placement. Total fluoroscopy time was a poor marker of radiation exposure and did not correlate well with total air kerma and dose area product. This study presents age-stratified radiation dose values for 6 common congenital heart interventional catheterization procedures. Fluoroscopy time alone is not an adequate measure for monitoring radiation exposure. These values will be used as baseline for measuring the effectiveness of future quality improvement activities by the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes collaborative. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subirana, M Teresa; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; Oliver, José M; Ripoll, Tomás; Lambert, Jose Luis; Zunzunegui, José L; Bover, Ramon; García-Pinilla, José Manuel
This article presents the most relevant developments in 2013 in 3 key areas of cardiology: congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, and heart failure and transplant. Within the area of congenital heart disease, we reviewed contributions related to sudden death in adult congenital heart disease, the importance of specific echocardiographic parameters in assessing the systemic right ventricle, problems in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and indication for pulmonary valve replacement, and confirmation of the role of specific factors in the selection of candidates for Fontan surgery. The most recent publications in clinical cardiology include a study by a European working group on correct diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies, studies on the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous aortic valve implantation, a consensus document on the management of type B aortic dissection, and guidelines on aortic valve and ascending aortic disease. The most noteworthy developments in heart failure and transplantation include new American guidelines on heart failure, therapeutic advances in acute heart failure (serelaxin), the management of comorbidities such as iron deficiency, risk assessment using new biomarkers, and advances in ventricular assist devices.
Tan, Sainan; Wen, Qiaolian; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Xiaomei; Wang, Xi; Li, Congmin; Ma, Xu; Pan, Hong
CITED2 was identified as a cardiac transcription factor which is essential to the heart development. Cited2-deficient mice showed cardiac malformations, adrenal agenesis and neural crest defects. To explore the potential impact of mutations in CITED2 on congenital heart disease (CHD) in humans, we screened the coding region of CITED2 in a total of 700 Chinese people with congenital heart disease and 250 healthy individuals as controls. We found five potential disease-causing mutations, p.P140S, p.S183L, p.S196G, p.Ser161delAGC and p. Ser192_Gly193delAGCGGC. Two mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that the last four mutations significantly affected the interaction between p300CH1 and CITED2 or HIF1A. Further studies showed that four CITED2 mutations recovered the promoter activity of VEGF by decreasing its competitiveness with HIF1A for binding to p300CH1 and three mutations decreased the consociation of TFAP2C and CITED2 in the transactivation of PITX2C. Both VEGF and PITX2C play very important roles in cardiac development. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CITED2 has a potential causative impact on congenital heart disease. PMID:24848765
Broberg, Craig S; Burchill, Luke J
Pioneers in congenital heart surgery observed that exercise capacity did not return to normal levels despite successful surgical repair, leading some to cite a "myocardial factor" playing a role. They conjectured that residual alterations in myocardial function would be significant for patients' long-term outlook. In fulfillment of their early observations, today's adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population shows well-recognized features of heart failure, even among patients without clear residual anatomic or hemodynamic abnormalities, demonstrating the vital role of the myocardium in their morbidity and mortality. Whereas the 'myocardial factor' was an elusive concept in the early history of congenital heart care, we now have imaging techniques to detect and quantify one such factor--myocardial fibrosis. Understanding the importance of myocardial fibrosis as a final common pathway in a variety of congenital lesions provides a framework for both the study and treatment of clinical heart failure in this context. While typical heart failure pharmacology should reduce or attenuate fibrogenesis, efforts to show meaningful improvements with standard pharmacotherapy in ACHD repeatedly fall short. This paper considers the importance of myocardial fibrosis and function, the current body of evidence for myocardial fibrosis in ACHD, and its implications for research and treatment.
Broberg, Craig S.; Burchill, Luke J.
Pioneers in congenital heart surgery observed that exercise capacity did not return to normal levels despite successful surgical repair, leading some to cite a “myocardial factor” playing a role. They conjectured that residual alterations in myocardial function would be significant for patients’ long-term outlook. In fulfillment of their early observations, today’s adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population shows well-recognized features of heart failure, even among patients without clear residual anatomic or hemodynamic abnormalities, demonstrating the vital role of the myocardium in their morbidity and mortality. Whereas the ‘myocardial factor’ was an elusive concept in the early history of congenital heart care, we now have imaging techniques to detect and quantify one such factor – myocardial fibrosis. Understanding the importance of myocardial fibrosis as a final common pathway in a variety of congenital lesions provides a framework for both the study and treatment of clinical heart failure in this context. While typical heart failure pharmacology should reduce or attenuate fibrogenesis, efforts to show meaningful improvements with standard pharmacotherapy in ACHD repeatedly fall short. This paper considers the importance of myocardial fibrosis and function, the current body of evidence for myocardial fibrosis in ACHD, and its implications for research and treatment. PMID:25897907
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has expanded its role in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease (CHD) and acquired heart disease in pediatric patients. Ongoing technological advancements in both data acquisition and data presentation have enabled CMR to be integrated into clinical practice with increasing understanding of the advantages and limitations of the technique by pediatric cardiologists and congenital heart surgeons. Importantly, the combination of exquisite 3D anatomy with physiological data enables CMR to provide a unique perspective for the management of many patients with CHD. Imaging small children with CHD is challenging, and in this article we will review the technical adjustments, imaging protocols and application of CMR in the pediatric population. PMID:21936913
Brouwer, Charlotte; Hazekamp, Mark G
Advances in surgical repair techniques for various types of congenital heart disease have improved survival into adulthood over the past decades, thus exposing these patients to a high risk of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias later in life. These arrhythmias arise from complex arrhythmogenic substrates. Substrate formation may depend on both pathological myocardial remodelling and variable anatomical boundaries, determined by the type and timing of prior corrective surgery. Accordingly, arrhythmogenic substrates after repair have changed as a result of evolving surgical techniques. Radiofrequency catheter ablation offers an important therapeutic option but remains challenging due to the variable anatomy, surgically created obstacles and the complex arrhythmogenic substrates. Recent technical developments including electroanatomical mapping and image integration for delineating the anatomy facilitate complex catheter ablation procedures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the changing anatomical arrhythmogenic substrates and their potential impact on catheter ablation in patients with repaired congenital heart disease and tachyarrhythmias. PMID:27617095
Hayes, Madeline; Gao, Xiaochong; Yu, Lisa X; Paria, Nandina; Henkelman, R. Mark; Wise, Carol A.; Ciruna, Brian
Scoliosis is a complex genetic disorder of the musculoskeletal system, characterized by three-dimensional rotation of the spine. Curvatures caused by malformed vertebrae (congenital scoliosis (CS)) are apparent at birth. Spinal curvatures with no underlying vertebral abnormality (idiopathic scoliosis (IS)) most commonly manifest during adolescence. The genetic and biological mechanisms responsible for IS remain poorly understood due largely to limited experimental models. Here we describe zygotic ptk7 (Zptk7) mutant zebrafish, deficient in a critical regulator of Wnt signalling, as the first genetically defined developmental model of IS. We identify a novel sequence variant within a single IS patient that disrupts PTK7 function, consistent with a role for dysregulated Wnt activity in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that embryonic loss-of-gene function in maternal-zygotic ptk7 mutants (MZptk7) leads to vertebral anomalies associated with CS. Our data suggest novel molecular origins of, and genetic links between, congenital and idiopathic forms of disease. PMID:25182715
Intracranial dermoid cysts commonly present as a discharging sinus, local swelling, mass lesion, or abscess formation. These can sometimes be found in association with congenital anomalies. The author presents two original cases of infected posterior fossa dermoid associated with congenital heart diseases (CHDs) that is very rare. The embryologic basis for this unique occurrence is reviewed, and a new hypothesis proposed. Two infants with CHD presented with infected midline posterior fossa dermoid. Excision of the dermoid cyst with the sinus tract was performed. Postoperative period was uneventful. Both the infants had undergone surgery for congenial heart disease a few months prior to the present clinical presentation with uneventful recovery. Infected posterior fossa dermoid cyst without a discharging sinus should prompt a thorough examination to detect CHD. Early diagnosis and timely management results in better outcome. PMID:26557168
Long, Suzanne H; Eldridge, Beverley J; Harris, Susan R; Cheung, Michael M H
To describe challenges in trying to implement a physical therapy-based early intervention program for infants with congenital heart disease. Neonates with cyanotic congenital heart disease who had elective or emergency cardiac surgery at age 28 days or less participated in the study. Families were offered hospital-based physical therapy intervention from infant age of 3 months. Feasibility and efficacy of intervention were to be evaluated at 8 months. Study recruitment was protracted and then stopped. Anticipated sample size was limited by survival (86%) and recruitment rates (75%); cardiorespiratory and neurological complications led to lengthy admissions, precluding study participation. In addition, geographic constraints and families' general take-up of the services offered limited ability of those recruited to receive intervention at planned frequency and intensity. Overall, data collected demonstrated infeasibility to evaluate effectiveness of hospital-based physical therapy intervention for this cohort of infants. Nonetheless, valuable data were gathered about factors leading to nonparticipation.
Díaz-Caraballo, Eva; González-García, Ana E; Reñones, Margarita; Sánchez-Recalde, Angel; García-Río, Francisco; Oliver-Ruiz, José M
The BREATHE-5 study demonstrated that bosentan, an oral endothelin receptor antagonist, provides clinical benefits in patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. As a result, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) approved its use for this indication. However, follow-up in that study was limited to 16 weeks and patients with complex congenital heart disease were excluded. We assessed the effect of long-term bosentan treatment in 10 patients with complex congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger's syndrome. In the mean clinical follow-up period of 25 months, all patients reached the target dose without developing side effects and without experiencing a change in arterial oxygen consumption at either rest or maximal exercise. Moreover, there were significant changes in clinical parameters: NYHA functional class improved from 3.3+/-0.7 to 2.5+/-0.9 (P=.002) and the 6-minute walk distance increased from 266+/-161 m to 347+/-133 m (P=.015).
Hayes, Madeline; Gao, Xiaochong; Yu, Lisa X; Paria, Nandina; Henkelman, R Mark; Wise, Carol A; Ciruna, Brian
Scoliosis is a complex genetic disorder of the musculoskeletal system, characterized by three-dimensional rotation of the spine. Curvatures caused by malformed vertebrae (congenital scoliosis (CS)) are apparent at birth. Spinal curvatures with no underlying vertebral abnormality (idiopathic scoliosis (IS)) most commonly manifest during adolescence. The genetic and biological mechanisms responsible for IS remain poorly understood due largely to limited experimental models. Here we describe zygotic ptk7 (Zptk7) mutant zebrafish, deficient in a critical regulator of Wnt signalling, as the first genetically defined developmental model of IS. We identify a novel sequence variant within a single IS patient that disrupts PTK7 function, consistent with a role for dysregulated Wnt activity in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that embryonic loss-of-gene function in maternal-zygotic ptk7 mutants (MZptk7) leads to vertebral anomalies associated with CS. Our data suggest novel molecular origins of, and genetic links between, congenital and idiopathic forms of disease.
Kim, Yun Hee; Song, Ji Ho; Kim, Chan Jong; Yang, Eun Mi
Syphilis infection has re-emerged after years of declining incidence. The prevalence of congenital syphilis (CS) has increased in Korea and other countries during the last few decades. Untreated infants develop symptoms such as rhinorrhea, anemia, jaundice, cutaneous lesions, hepatosplenomegaly, and pseudoparalysis within weeks or months. Significant renal disease is uncommon in CS, and clinical renal involvement varies from mild transient proteinuria to frank nephrosis. We report a 2-month-old infant with CS who presented with only nephrotic syndrome (NS). The previously healthy infant presented with NS and showed no other syphilitic manifestations. Remission of the NS was achieved with adequate penicillin treatment. No recurrence of proteinuria was observed during the 1 year of follow-up. Although rare, this long forgotten disease continues to affect pregnant women, resulting in prenatal or postnatal mortality. We still consider the possibility of syphilitic nephropathy and therefore serologic testing for congenital NS. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
... Congenital and inherited cataracts. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... Cataracts and systemic disease. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...
Mokhles, Palwasha; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Vletter-McGhie, Jackie S; Van Domburg, Ron T; Ruys, Titia P E; Kauer, Floris; Geleijnse, Marcel L; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W
The twisting motion of the heart has an important role in the function of the left ventricle. Speckle tracking echocardiography is able to quantify left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist. So far this new technique has not been used in congenital heart disease patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and the intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of LV rotation parameters in adult patients with congenital heart disease. The study population consisted of 66 consecutive patients seen in the outpatient clinic (67% male, mean age 31 ± 7.7 years, NYHA class 1 ± 0.3) with a variety of congenital heart disease. First, feasibility was assessed in all patients. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed for the patients in which speckle tracking echocardiography was feasible. Adequate image quality, for performing speckle echocardiography, was found in 80% of patients. The bias for the intra-observer reproducibility of the LV twist was 0.0°, with 95% limits of agreement of -2.5° and 2.5° and for interobserver reproducibility the bias was 0.0°, with 95% limits of agreement of -3.0° and 3.0°. Intra- and inter-observer measurements showed a strong correlation (0.86 and 0.79, respectively). Also a good repeatability was seen. The mean time to complete full analysis per subject for the first and second measurement was 9 and 5 minutes, respectively. Speckle tracking echocardiography is feasible in 80% of adult patients with congenital heart disease and shows excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Krause, Ulrich; Backhoff, David; Klehs, Sophia; Schneider, Heike E; Paul, Thomas
Monitoring of catheter contact force during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been shown to increase efficacy and safety. However, almost no data exists on the use of this technology in catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of contact force monitoring during catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in those patients. Catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia using monitoring of catheter contact force was performed in 28 patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Thirty-two patients matched according to gender, age, and body weight with congenital heart disease undergoing catheter ablation without contact force monitoring served as control group. Parameters reflecting acute procedural success, long-term efficacy, and safety were compared. Acute procedural success was statistically not different in both groups (contact force 93 % vs. control 84 %, p = 0.3). Likewise the recurrence rate 1 year after ablation as shown by Kaplan-Meier analysis did not differ (contact force 28 % vs. control 37 %, p = 0.63). Major complications were restricted to groin vessel injuries and occurred in 3 out of 60 patients (contact force n = 1; control n = 2). Complications related to excessive catheter contact force were not observed. The present study did not show superiority of catheter contact force monitoring during ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with CHD in terms of efficacy and safety. Higher contact force compared to pulmonary vein isolation might therefore be required to increase the efficacy of catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.
Rodriguez, Fred H; Marelli, Ariane J
The impact of lifelong exposure to myocardial dysfunction in populations with congenital heart disease (CHD) is becoming increasingly recognized. Most children born with CHD now reach adulthood and the long-term sequelae of treatment are contributing to substantial comorbidity. The combination of structural changes present at birth with changes resulting from cardiac surgery can result in heart failure. This article reports on the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology of heart failure in this patient population.
Boss, Renee D; Holmes, Kathryn W; Althaus, Janyne; Rushton, Cynda H; McNee, Hunter; McNee, Theresa
A prenatal diagnosis of ductal-dependent, complex congenital heart disease was made in a fetus with trisomy 18. The parents requested that the genetic diagnosis be excluded from all medical and surgical decision-making and that all life-prolonging therapies be made available to their infant. There was conflict among the medical team about what threshold of neonatal benefit could outweigh maternal and neonatal treatment burdens. A prenatal ethics consultation was requested.
Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Van Damme, Carolien; Moons, Philip
Identity formation is a core developmental task in adolescence and functions as a key resource for transitioning to adulthood. This study investigated how adolescents with congenital cardiac disease form their identity and how it relates to demographic and medical parameters, quality of life, perceived health, depressive symptoms, and loneliness. A total of 429 adolescents aged 14-18 years with congenital cardiac disease and 403 matched controls completed questionnaires on identity and all outcome variables. There were five meaningful identity statuses, similar to those obtained in the control sample, which were found in the patient sample. Of them, two statuses--achievement and foreclosure--were characterised by a strong sense of identity; one status--diffused diffusion--especially was characterised by a weak sense of identity combined with high scores on worry about the future. These identity statuses were differentially related to outcome variables, with individuals in diffused diffusion especially scoring highest on depressive symptoms, problems in school, treatment anxiety, and communication problems with clinicians, and lowest on quality of life. Having a strong sense of personal identity was found to protect against such maladaptive outcomes. In sum, most adolescents with congenital cardiac disease moved through their identity formation process in a similar manner to other adolescents. Adolescents with a diffused identity were particularly at risk of experiencing maladjustment and problems in treatment adherence. Hence, developing intervention strategies to provide continuity of care on the road to adulthood involves paying attention to core developmental tasks, such as identity formation in adolescents with congenital cardiac disease.
Izumi, Gaku; Inai, Kei; Shimada, Eriko; Nakanishi, Toshio
It has been recently reported that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to systemic illnesses that accompany chronic heart failure. These reports also suggest the serum levels of parathormone, which activates vitamin D in the liver, can be a useful marker of heart failure. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical implications of vitamin D and parathormone levels in patients with congenital heart diseases and chronic heart failure. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathormone serum levels in 103 adult patients with congenital heart diseases (age range 20-89 years). Of 103 patients, 54 were in New York Heart Association functional classes II or III. Their clinical data regarding cardiothoracic ratio, fractional shortening of the systemic ventricle, brain natriuretic peptide plasma levels, and pulse oximetry were also evaluated. Of 54 patients with chronic heart failure, 50 (93%) exhibited vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels <50 nmol/L) or elevation of parathormone (serum levels >65 pg/mL). These two parameters were inversely correlated. In multivariate analyses including age, gender, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathormone, pulse oximetry, cardiothoracic ratio, calcium, phosphorus, glomerular filtration rate, albumin, creatine kinase, end-diastolic diameter and fractional shortening of the systemic ventricle, and ratio of early diastolic transmitral flow velocity to mitral annular velosity, only the parathormone serum levels (P < .01) remained independently associated with brain natriuretic peptide plasma levels. Moreover, in multivariate analyses including the same variables minus parathormone serum levels, both pulse oximetry (P < .01) and glomerular filtration rate (P < .01) remained independently associated with parathormone levels. Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism are common in patients with congenital heart diseases and heart failure. Serum parathormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels correlated with
Bachman, Kristine K; DeWard, Stephanie J; Chrysostomou, Constantinos; Munoz, Ricardo; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta
Efficient diagnosis of an underlying genetic aetiology in a patient with congenital heart disease is essential to optimising clinical care. Copy number variants are one aetiology of congenital heart disease; the majority are identifiable by targeted fluorescence in situ hybridisation or array comparative genomic hybridisation, not by classical cytogenetic analysis. This study assessed the utility of array comparative genomic hybridisation as a first-tier diagnostic test for neonates with congenital heart disease. Study design A prospective chart review of neonates with congenital heart disease in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC was performed. Patients were tested by array comparative genomic hybridisation and classical cytogenetic analysis simultaneously. Data collected included all chromosome abnormalities detected, physical examination findings, and imaging results. McNemar's test was used to compare detection of array comparative genomic hybridisation and classical cytogenetic analysis. Of 45 patients, three (6.7%) had an abnormality detected by classical cytogenetic analysis and an additional 10 (22.2%) had a copy number variant detected by array comparative genomic hybridisation, highlighting an increased detection rate (p=0.008). Several of these copy number variants had unclear clinical significance, requiring additional investigation. The prevalence of dysmorphology and/or comorbidity in this population was 72%. Identification of dysmorphic features was greater when assessed by a geneticist than by providers of different subspecialties. Array comparative genomic hybridisation has significant clinical utility as a first-tier test in this population, but it carries the potential for incidental findings and results of uncertain clinical significance. Collaboration between cardiologists and medical geneticists is essential to providing optimal clinical care.
Bulut, Ozgul; Gul, Doruk; Sevuk, Sibel; Mungan, Ilke; Buyukkayhan, Derya
Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of lymphatic fluid or chyle in the pleural space. Chylothorax treatment is composed of conservative; pleural drainage, termination of enteral feeding, total parenteral nutrition and supplementation with medium- chain triglycerides and surgical therapies; ductus thoracicus ligation, pleuroperitoneal shunts or pleuredesis. Nowadays, for cases among which conservative therapies fail, treatment with octreotide has been reported to be beneficial with promising results. A neonate who developed chylothorax after surgery performed for congenital heart disease was treated successfully with octreotide.
Lepetsos, Panagiotis; Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P.; Galanakos, Spyridon P.
Total hip replacement (THR) is the treatment of choice for the patient suffering from end-stage hip osteoarthritis. In the presence of deformities due to congenital hip disease (CHD), THR is, in most of the cases, a difficult task, since the technique of performing such an operation is demanding and the results could vary. We present our experience and preferred strategies focusing on challenges and surgical techniques associated with reconstructing the dysplastic hip. PMID:28090526
Wijesekera, N. T. Padley, S. P.; Kazmi, F.; Davies, C. L.; McCall, J. M.
Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. We report two cases of uterine AVMs in patients with a history of complex congenital heart disease, an association that has not been previously described. Both patients were treated by selective uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive therapy that has revolutionized the management of uterine AVMs, thus offering an alternative to conventional hysterectomy.
Tikkanen, J; Heinonen, O P
To test the effect of maternal habits and home exposures during early pregnancy on the occurrence of congenital heart disease in the offspring, 406 cases and 756 controls were studied. The cases included all cardiovascular malformations detected in Finland during 1982-1983, while the healthy controls were randomly selected from all babies born during the same period. Case and control mothers were interviewed after delivery using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Maternal overall drug consumption during the first trimester was as prevalent among case mothers (13.3%) as controls (14.6%). Neither was the risk of congenital heart disease associated with maternal use of contraceptive pills, salicylates, diazepam, or sweetening agents separately. Maternal exposures to disinfectants, dyes, lacquers, paints, pesticides, or glues at home were equally prevalent in case and control groups. Several earlier miscarriages was a predictor of an infant born with congenital heart disease (OR = 2.7, CI95 = 1.4-5.3). Maternal ultrasound examination was performed during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy more often among the case group (28.3%) than among the control group (22.0%). However, the association between ultrasound examination and the risk of congenital heart disease in the offspring was not statistically significant (OR = 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.9-1.7) when adjusted for confounding factors such as the threat of miscarriage in logistic regression analysis. It is concluded that maternal ultrasound examination, intake of some common drugs, and exposure to a number of environmental factors at home during early pregnancy are probably not harmful for the developing fetal heart.
Karachalios, T; Hartofilakidis, G
This paper reviews the current knowledge relating to the management of adult patients with congenital hip disease. Orthopaedic surgeons who treat these patients with a total hip replacement should be familiar with the arguments concerning its terminology, be able to recognise the different anatomical abnormalities and to undertake thorough pre-operative planning in order to replace the hip using an appropriate surgical technique and the correct implants and be able to anticipate the clinical outcome and the complications.
Arya, Bhawna; Krishnan, Anita; Donofrio, Mary T
Abnormal ductus venosus flow is associated with fetal compromise and can be present in right-sided congenital heart disease. We hypothesized that the ductus venosus flow pattern in fetuses with obstructive right-sided congenital heart disease will have abnormal flow at baseline. Those with nonobstructive disease will have normal flow at baseline. We further hypothesized that abnormal ductus venosus flow will predict fetal compromise. We conducted a retrospective review of fetuses with right-sided congenital heart disease. Ductus venosus measurements included the presence of atrial reversal, velocity time integral, and peak velocity index. Fetuses were separated into those with obstructive (group 1) and nonobstructive (group 2) lesions. Compromise was defined as fetal distress (pericardial effusion, hydrops, or left ventricular dilatation/dysfunction) or death (fetal/neonatal mortality). Sixty fetuses with right-sided congenital heart disease were identified (mean gestational age ± SD, 24.2 ± 5.4 weeks; group 1, n = 45; group 2, n = 15). Ductus venosus reversal was more often present (49% versus 13%; P = .017), and the peak velocity index was significantly higher (1.39 ± 0.67 versus 0.98 ± 0.33; P= .026) in group 1. In group 1, ductus venosus reversal was more often present (93% versus 32%; P < .001), and the peak velocity index was significantly higher (1.87 ± 0.67 versus 1.12 ± 0.53; P< .001) in compromised fetuses. In this group, a peak velocity index higher than 1.57 predicted compromise with 93% sensitivity and 81% specificity. In group 2, ductus venosus reversal was rarely present (n = 2) and was not found in any fetuses who died. Fetuses with obstructive right-sided congenital heart disease have ductus venosus reversal at baseline; an abnormal peak velocity index can be used to predict compromise. Fetuses with nonobstructive disease rarely have ductus venosus reversal; the peak velocity index cannot be used to predict outcomes in this group. © 2014 by
Verheugt, Carianne L; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; van der Velde, Enno T; Meijboom, Folkert J; Pieper, Petronella G; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Plokker, Herbert W M; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M
To assess the extent and the characteristics of hospital admissions in registered adult patients with congenital heart disease. Observational cohort study. The Netherlands. 5798 adult patients with congenital heart disease from the Dutch CONCOR national registry linked to the Dutch National Medical Registration (Prismant). All hospital admissions from the years 2001 up until 2006. During 28 990 patient-years, 2908 patients (50%) were admitted to hospital. Median age at admission was 39 years (range 18-86 years); 46% were male. Admission rate in CONCOR patients was high among all ages (range 11-68%) and exceeded that of the general Dutch population two to three times; this difference was most pronounced in the older age groups. Altogether there were 8916 admissions, 5411 (61%) of which were for cardiovascular indications. Among cardiovascular admissions, referrals for arrhythmias were most common (31%). Of 4926 interventions, 2459 (50%) were cardiovascular, most often reparative interventions or cardioversion (53%). Most non-cardiovascular admissions were obstetric. Among defects, univentricular heart and tricuspid atresia had the highest incidence and duration of admission. Healthcare utilisation in registered and medically supervised adult patients with congenital heart disease is high and increases with age. Admission rates are at least two times higher than in the general population, and most marked in the older age groups. With the ageing of this population, a major increase in healthcare utilisation is imminent in the near future. Timely preparation of healthcare resources is crucial to sustain optimal care.
Cook, Stephen C; Raman, Subha V
As a result of improved postoperative management and transcatheter interventions, the number of adults with congenital heart disease in the United States has grown exponentially. Consequently, noninvasive imaging has taken an essential role in the evaluation of this patient population. Although standard noninvasive imaging tools such as transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance may be invaluable to this group, occasionally there may be contraindications to their use or limitations in their utility. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has only recently been used in the assessment of the adult with congenital heart disease. The ever-increasing availability of MDCT, along with its increased spatial and temporal resolution and rapidity of postprocessing, makes this an attractive first-choice to study this complex group. A successful scan requires familiarity with the complexity of the underlying anatomy and prior palliative or complete surgical repairs. It is with this knowledge in mind that MDCT provides exquisite detail of complex, 3-dimensional anatomic relations. This review illustrates the spectrum of MDCT findings in the adult with simple and complex forms of congenital heart disease.
Sungur Ulke, Zerrin; Kartal, Umut; Orhan Sungur, Mukadder; Camci, Emre; Tugrul, Mehmet
Sevoflurane is widely used in pediatric anesthesia for induction. Ketamine has been preferred in pediatric cardiovascular anesthesia. Aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic effects and the speed of ketamine and sevoflurane for anesthesia induction in children with congenital heart disease. Children with congenital heart disease undergoing corrective surgery were included in the study. After oral premedication with midazolam (0.5 mg.kg(-1)), anesthesia induction was started with 5 mg.kg(-1) intramuscular ketamine (group K). In the second group, induction was achieved with sevoflurane (group S); the first concentration was 3% and increased after every three breaths. Intravenous access time and intubation times were enrolled for each child. Hemodynamic data and oxygen saturation were recorded every 2 min and any event during induction period was also noted. Forty-seven children were included in the study; 23 in group K and 24 in group S. Heart rates and oxygen saturation values were similar between groups during the study. No difference was found between intravenous access time and intubation times. However, blood pressure levels were significantly lower in group S after recording baseline values till the intubation time (at 4, 6, and 8 min). Respiratory complications observed during the study were mild and were less frequent in group K than in group S (4 vs 13). Ketamine appears a good alternative for induction in patients with congenital heart disease. It permits preservation of hemodynamic stability with minimal side effects.
Fredriksen, Per Morten; Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Frydenlund, Aina; Sørbye, Øystein; Thaulow, Erik
The objective of the study was to assess behavioural and emotional problems, as well as physical capacity, in children and adolescents with congenital cardiac disease. From the database of Paediatric Heart Section, Children's Clinic, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, we identified 430 patients whose parents received questionnaires using the Child Behaviour Check-List. The response rate was 75.8%. In addition, the parents received a questionnaire focusing on special issues with regard to physical activity. Parents of children and adolescents with congenital cardiac diseases reported significantly more behavioural problems than did a reference population and boys were scored higher compared to girls. Analysis showed a significant impact of physical capacity on the score representing total problems, as well as scores for externalising and internalising behaviour. Compared to a reference population, parents of children and adolescents with congenital cardiac disease score their children higher on most scales when rated using the Child Behaviour Check-List. The type of diagnosis did not affect the scores reflecting the total problem. The main factor of impact on behavioural problems was, as evaluated by the parents, the physical capacity of the children.
Sojka, Stephen; Amin, Nirav M; Gibbs, Devin; Christine, Kathleen S; Charpentier, Marta S; Conlon, Frank L
The identification and characterization of the cellular and molecular pathways involved in the differentiation and morphogenesis of specific cell types of the developing heart are crucial to understanding the process of cardiac development and the pathology associated with human congenital heart disease. Here, we show that the cardiac transcription factor CASTOR (CASZ1) directly interacts with congenital heart disease 5 protein (CHD5), which is also known as tryptophan-rich basic protein (WRB), a gene located on chromosome 21 in the proposed region responsible for congenital heart disease in individuals with Down's syndrome. We demonstrate that loss of CHD5 in Xenopus leads to compromised myocardial integrity, improper deposition of basement membrane, and a resultant failure of hearts to undergo cell movements associated with cardiac formation. We further report that CHD5 is essential for CASZ1 function and that the CHD5-CASZ1 interaction is necessary for cardiac morphogenesis. Collectively, these results establish a role for CHD5 and CASZ1 in the early stages of vertebrate cardiac development.
Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y
Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.
Wray, J.; Sensky, T.
AIM—Research into intellectual impairment among children with congenital heart disease has focused mainly on older children. This study was designed to determine whether previous findings are applicable to preschool children. METHODS—Three groups of children under 31/2 years old were assessed immediately before treatment and 12 months later: a group with congenital heart disease awaiting surgery, another awaiting bone marrow transplantation, and a healthy comparison group. RESULTS—Although the means of the three groups were within the normal range, preoperatively the cardiac and transplant groups showed deficits compared with the healthy controls. Postoperatively, continuing developmental deficits were significant only in the children with cyanotic lesions. CONCLUSIONS—Conclusions about intellectual development in older children with congenital heart disease do not apply to preschool children. Before corrective surgery, chronic illness itself appears to be the predominant influence on development. Postoperatively, cyanotic and acyanotic lesions are associated with different short term outcomes. PMID:10331998
Glöckler, Martin; Koch, Andreas; Greim, Verena; Shabaiek, Amira; Rüffer, Andrè; Cesnjevar, Robert; Achenbach, Stephan; Dittrich, Sven
To analyse the diagnostic utility of flat-detector computed tomography imaging (FD-CT) in patients with congenital heart disease, including the value of image fusion to overlay three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions on fluoroscopic images during catheter-based interventions. We retrospectively analysed 62 consecutive paediatric patients in whom FD-CT was used during catheterisation of congenital heart disease. Expert operators rated the clinical value of FD-CT over conventional fluoroscopic imaging. Added radiation exposure and contrast medium volume were evaluated. During a 12-month period, FD-CT was performed in 62 out of 303 cardiac catheterisations. Median patient age was 3.5 years. In 32/62 cases, FD-CT was used for diagnostic purposes, in 30/62 cases it was used in the context of interventions. Diagnostic utility was never rated as "misleading". It was classified as "not useful" in six cases (9.7%), "useful" in 18 cases (29.0%), "very useful" in 37 cases (59.7%) and "essential" in one case (1.6%). The median added dose-area product was 111.0 μGym(2), the required additional quantity of contrast medium was 1.6 ml/kg. FD-CT provides useful diagnostic information in most of the patients investigated for congenital heart disease. The added radiation exposure and contrast medium volume are reasonable.
Ou, Phalla; Celermajer, David S; Calcagni, Giulio; Brunelle, Francis; Bonnet, Damien; Sidi, Daniel
New generation multislice CT technology has changed the approach to non‐invasive assessment of congenital heart disease, in both paediatric and adult patients. This is mainly because of rapid advances in spatial and temporal resolution and in post‐processing capability. At Hôpital Necker‐Enfants Malades, CT with multiplanar and three‐dimensional reconstruction has become a routine examination in the evaluation of congenital heart disease planning surgery, complex interventional catheterisations and for follow‐up. It has proved to be an invaluable diagnostic and decision‐aiding methodology in these situations, as a complement to echocardiography and, increasingly, as a substitute for diagnostic angiography (which is usually associated with higher‐dose radiation and longer sedation times, as well as occasional morbidity). This review illustrates the current status of 64‐slice CT in congenital heart diseases, including assessment of the aorta, the coronary arteries, the pulmonary arteries, the systemic and pulmonary veins, and other intra‐ and extracardiac malformations. PMID:16952967
Zaqout, Mahmoud; Aslem, Emad Said; Oweida, Forijat Sadeldin; De Wolf, Daniel
This study was designed to estimate the birth prevalence of children with congenital heart disease born in the Gaza Strip during 2010 and to compare these with estimates from elsewhere. We reviewed the medical records of all children born in 2010 who were diagnosed, treated, and/or followed up in the four paediatric cardiology clinics in the Gaza Strip. Data were also obtained from El Makassed Hospital in East Jerusalem and from the Schneider Hospital, Wolfson Medical Center, and Tel HaShomer Hospital in Israel, where we had referred some of our patients for percutaneous or surgical treatment. A total of 598 children with congenital heart disease were detected among the 59,757 children born alive in the Gaza Strip during 2010, yielding a birth incidence of 10 per 1000 live births. The most frequently occurring conditions were ventricular septal defects (28%), ostium secundum atrial septal defects (17%), patent ductus arteriosus (8.5%), and pulmonary valve abnormalities (8%). In this study, 7% of the children died. The actuarial survival at 6 months and 1 year of age was 94% and 93%, respectively, and remained stable over 18 months of follow-up. The birth incidence of congenital heart disease in the Gaza Strip in 2010 (10 per 1000) is higher than most estimates in Western Europe (8.2 per 1000 live births) and North America (6.9 per 1000 live births) but is similar to estimates from other parts of Asia (9.3 per 1000 live births).
Sato, Y.; Ogino, H.; Hara, M.; Satake, M.; Oshima, H.; Banno, T.; Mizuno, K.; Mishima, A.; Shibamoto, Y.
Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of embolizing collateral vessels using mechanically detachable coils (MDCs) in children aged 3 years or younger with congenital heart disease. The subjects were 8 children with congenital heart disease featuring collateral vessels (age 18 days-3 years): 3 with a single ventricle, 2 with the tetralogy of Fallot, 2 with pulmonary atresia, and 1 with a ventricular septal defect. The embolized vessels were the major aortopulmonary collateral artery (MAPCA) in 5 patients, the persistent left superior vena cava in 2, and the coronary arteriovenous fistula in 1. A 4 or a 5 F catheter was used as the guiding device, and embolization was performed using MDCs and other conventional coils introduced through the microcatheter. One patient had growth of new MAPCAs after embolization, and these MAPCAs were also embolized with MDCs. Thus, a total of 9 embolization procedures were performed in 8 patients. Complete occlusion of the collateral vessels was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures (89%). Seven of 8 patients (88%) had uneventful courses after embolization, and MDC procedures appeared to play important roles in avoiding coil migration and achievement of safe coil embolization. One patient who underwent MAPCA embolization showed no improvement in heart function and died 2 months and 19 days later. Embolization of collateral vessels using MDCs in young children with congenital heart disease can be an effective procedure and a valuable adjunct to surgical management.
Parruti, Giustino; Polilli, Ennio; Ursini, Tamara; Tontodonati, Monica
Immunoglobulins are one major component of adaptive immunity to external and resident microorganisms, evolving very early in phylogenesis. They help eukaryotes in controlling infections, mainly through their neutralizing activity, which quenches both the cytopathic and inflammatory potential of invading microorganisms. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related disease is generally blunted in seropositive subjects with conserved specific humoral responses. CMV-seropositive pregnant women, in accordance with such evidence, suffer little or no fetal damage when reexposed to CMV. Several seminal experiences and early experimental models confirmed that repeated infusions of immunoglobulins, either with hyperimmune or standard preparations, may help to reduce maternal-fetal CMV transmission, as well as to quench fetal disease upon transmission. This review focused on experimental evidence supporting the potential role of immunoglobulins as a tool to control fetal CMV-related disease in pregnant women.
Jabłoński, Janusz; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Ewa
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare pulmonary abnormality that results from aberrant fetal lung development. It about 4-26% of cases it can be associated with other congenital abnormalities. We describe a case of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation 2 associated with polycystic kidney disease. The association of these two congenital malformations is exceptional. Only four similar cases have been reported in the literature. A 2-year-old girl was referred to the Department of Paediatric Surgery and Oncology Medical University of Lodz with pneumonia and left pneumothorax. For three weeks prior to referral the patient was treated with antibiotics. Chest x-ray revealed hyperinflation of left upper lobe with mediastinal shift to right. Computer tomographic scan of the lung revealed multiple cyst in the left upper lobe, left-site pneumothorax and mediastinal shift to the right. The patient underwent thoracotomy. Intraoperatively, multiple cysts in the left upper lobe were found and left upper lobectomy was performed. Histologic study was compatible with type 2 congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Ultrasound examination showed multilocular cysts in both kidneys. The dimensions of the cysts were: MWR4. 54x45x45 mm and 25x21x24 mm on the left and right sides, respectively. Significant increase in cyst size on the left side was observed. Ten months after first hospitalization resection of the cystic lower pole of the left kidney was performed. The presence of even a single renal cyst in a child with CCAM is an indication for further follow up examinations.
Cordiner, David S; Evans, Clair A; Brundler, Marie-Anne; McPhillips, Maeve; Murio, Enric; Darling, Mark; Taheri, Sepideh
This case outlines the potential complexity of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). It highlights the challenges involved in managing this condition, some of the complications faced and areas of uncertainty in the decision making process. With a paucity of published paediatric cases on this subject, this should add to the pool of information currently available. PMID:22605879
intervention . Children with CHD have increased behavioral problems, increased levels of psychological distress, and increased levels of anxiety compared...1994). Evidence further demonstrates continued compromised cardiac function in most post-surgical children following successful intervention and...affected by diseases or pharmacological interventions . The same assertions are true of personality traits, enduring traits can change, either
Mitting, Rebecca; Marino, Luise; Macrae, Duncan; Shastri, Nitin; Meyer, Rosan; Pathan, Nazima
Poor growth is a common complication in infants with congenital heart disease. There has been much focus on low birth weight as having increased risk of adverse outcomes following neonatal heart surgery. In this study, we examined whether preoperative nutritional status, measured by admission weight-for-age z score, was associated with postoperative clinical outcome. Retrospective case series. Pediatric Cardiac ICU at the Royal Brompton Hospital. Neonates undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Those undergoing ductus arteriosus ligation alone were excluded. Children with coexisting noncardiac morbidity were excluded. Outcome variables included prevalence of postoperative complications (including sepsis, delayed chest closure, renal impairment, and necrotizing enterocolitis), duration of ventilation, intensive care stay, postoperative mortality, and mortality at 1 year after surgery. None. Analysis of patient data only. Two hundred forty-eight neonates fulfilled the entry criteria. Median (interquartile range) age was 7 days (2-15 d), median (interquartile range) weight was 3.3 kg (2.91-3.6 kg), and median weight-for-age z score was -0.77 (-1.44 to 0.01). Twenty-eight children (11%) had a weight-for-age z score of less than -2. There was no evidence that children with lower weight-for-age z score had less severe surgery as measured by the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery 1 score. In multivariable regression analysis, the weight-for-age z at admission had strong correlation with the number of days free of respiratory support (invasive and noninvasive ventilation) at 28 days (p < 0.0001) and with all-cause mortality at 1 year (p = 0.001). Poor nutritional status as measured by weight-for-age z is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes in neonates undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.
Said, Sameh M; Dearani, Joseph A; Burkhart, Harold M; Connolly, Heidi M; Eidem, Ben; Stensrud, Paul E; Schaff, Hartzell V
Tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation in congenital heart disease includes a heterogeneous group of lesions, and few series have documented the outcomes. We reviewed the records of 553 patients with congenital heart disease who had undergone TV surgery for tricuspid regurgitation from January 1993 to December 2010. Patients with Ebstein malformation were excluded. Their mean age was 32 ± 21 years, and 300 were female (54%). The most common diagnoses were conotruncal anomaly in 216 patients (39%), previous ventricular septal defect closure in 83 (15%), atrioventricular septal defect in 77 (14%), and pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum in 11 (2%). Preoperative right-sided heart failure was present in 124 patients (22%), and 55 patients (10%) had pulmonary hypertension. TV repair was performed in 442 (80%) and TV replacement in 111 (20%) patients. Repeat sternotomy was performed in 415 patients (75%). Previous TV repair was present in 44 patients (8%); of these, 17 (38.6%) underwent repeat TV repair. The overall early mortality was 3.1% (17 patients) and was 2.5% for TV repair and 5.4% for TV replacement (P = .001). The mean follow-up period was 4.5 ± 4.1 years (maximum, 18). The overall survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 97%, 93%, and 85%, respectively. Survival was better for patients with repair than with replacement. TV repair was an independent predictor of better survival (P = .001). Important tricuspid regurgitation can occur with a variety of congenital diagnoses. Early mortality is low and late survival is superior with tricuspid repair than with valve replacement. Surgical treatment of tricuspid regurgitation in congenital heart disease should be performed before the onset of heart failure. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Moulton, Matthew J.; Letsou, Anthea
ABSTRACT Fly models that faithfully recapitulate various aspects of human disease and human health-related biology are being used for research into disease diagnosis and prevention. Established and new genetic strategies in Drosophila have yielded numerous substantial successes in modeling congenital disorders or inborn errors of human development, as well as neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Moreover, although our ability to generate sequence datasets continues to outpace our ability to analyze these datasets, the development of high-throughput analysis platforms in Drosophila has provided access through the bottleneck in the identification of disease gene candidates. In this Review, we describe both the traditional and newer methods that are facilitating the incorporation of Drosophila into the human disease discovery process, with a focus on the models that have enhanced our understanding of human developmental disorders and congenital disease. Enviable features of the Drosophila experimental system, which make it particularly useful in facilitating the much anticipated move from genotype to phenotype (understanding and predicting phenotypes directly from the primary DNA sequence), include its genetic tractability, the low cost for high-throughput discovery, and a genome and underlying biology that are highly evolutionarily conserved. In embracing the fly in the human disease-gene discovery process, we can expect to speed up and reduce the cost of this process, allowing experimental scales that are not feasible and/or would be too costly in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26935104
Cheng, Henry H; Carmona, Fabio; McDavitt, Erica; Wigmore, Daniel; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Gordon, Catherine M; Pigula, Frank A; Laussen, Peter C; Rajagopal, Satish K
Critically ill children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for metabolic bone disease (MBD) and bone fractures. Our objective was to characterize a cohort of CHD patients with fractures and describe a Fragile Bone Protocol (FBP) developed to reduce fractures. Patients who developed fractures in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) of Boston Children's Hospital from 3/2008 to 6/2014 were identified via quality improvement and radiology databases. The FBP (initiated July 2011) systematically identifies patients at risk for MBD and prescribes special handling precautions. Twenty-three fractures were identified in 15 children. Median age at fracture identification was 6.2 months, with a median duration of hospitalization before fracture diagnosis of 2.7 months. Six patients (40%) had single ventricle CHD. Hyperparathyroidism and low 25-OH vitamin D levels were present in 77% and 40% of those tested, respectively. Compared with patients not diagnosed with fractures, fracture patients had increased exposure to possible risk factors for MBD and had elevated parathyroid and decreased calcitriol levels.Six patients (40%) did not survive to hospital discharge, compared with an overall CICU mortality rate of 2.6% (P < .01). The fracture case rate before implementation of the FBP was 2.6 cases/1000 admissions and was 0.7/1000 after implementation of the FBP (P = .04). Critically ill CHD patients are at risk for fractures. They represent a complex group who frequently has hyperparathyroidism and decreased calcitriol levels, and each may predispose to fractures. FBPs consisting of identification and careful patient handling should be considered in at-risk patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boissonnot, M; Robert, M F; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Dighiero, P
Oguchi disease, originally described in Japanese people, is a rare form of stationary night blindness in patients with normal acuity. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abnormal terrified behavior in the dark. Thorough questioning revealed hemeralopia. Her clinical examination (visual acuity, Goldmann visual field, and color vision) were normal. The fundus examination showed golden-brown color, grayish, almost greenish yellow discoloration in the peripheral area with no osteoclast. This abnormality disappeared after prolonged dark adaptation. The electroretinogram showed a reduced b wave amplitude under scotopic conditions. Her parents were cousins. This diagnosis should be suggested when hemeralopia is associated with typical fundus aspect resolving after dark adaptation (so called Mizuo-Nakamura phenomenon). The long-term prognosis in these patients is good in the absence of clinical progression. This is a genetic autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene coding for arrestin located in 2q37.1.
Gardiner, Helena M
The concept of fetal therapy is well established for many disorders diagnosed before birth but practical issues regarding its introduction into clinical practice are more difficult. Cardiac malformations are common, with major lesions affecting about 3.5 per thousand pregnancies; however, only a small proportion of these is likely to benefit from an intrauterine intervention. In addition, there are no good animal models of human cardiac disease and our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is at best sketchy. This combination of factors has resulted in slow progress in developing effective therapies for the intrauterine management of cardiac disease. Recent research and clinical developments have included percutaneous valvuloplasty for severe aortic and pulmonary stenosis, perforation of the closed or restrictive inter-atrial septum and pacing for complete heart block. Progress in these endeavours has been variable but - overall - shows promise for treatment of the human fetus.
Huang, Hui-Ru; Chen, Chi-Wen; Chen, Chin-Mi; Yang, Hsiao-Ling; Su, Wen-Jen; Wang, Jou-Kou; Tsai, Pei-Kwei
Health-promoting behaviors could serve as a major strategy to optimize long-term outcomes for adolescents with congenital heart disease. The associations assessed from a positive perspective of knowledge, attitudes, and practice model would potentially cultivate health-promoting behaviors during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between disease knowledge, resilience, family functioning, and health-promoting behaviors in adolescents with congenital heart disease. A total of 320 adolescents with congenital heart disease who were aged 12-18 years were recruited from pediatric cardiology outpatient departments, and participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participants completed the Leuven Knowledge Questionnaire for Congenital Heart Disease; Haase Adolescent Resilience in Illness Scale; Family Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve; and Adolescent Health Promotion scales. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and three multiple regression models. Greater knowledge of prevention of complications and higher resilience had a more powerful effect in enhancing health-promoting behaviors. Having symptoms and moderate or severe family dysfunction were significantly more negatively predictive of health-promoting behaviors than not having symptoms and positive family function. The third model explained 40% of the variance in engaging in health-promoting behaviors among adolescents with congenital heart disease. The findings of this study provide new insights into the role of disease knowledge, resilience, and family functioning in the health-promoting behavior of adolescents with congenital heart disease. Continued efforts are required to plan family care programs that promote the acquisition of sufficient disease knowledge and the development of resilience for adolescents with congenital heart disease.
Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M.; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S.; Daniels, Curt J.; Fuller, Stephanie M.P.N.; Honein, Margaret A.; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mahle, William T.; Mann, Douglas L.; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W.; Pearson, Gail D.; Starling, Randall C.; Tringali, Glenn R.; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C.; Califf, Robert M.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD (ACHD). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to identify high-impact research questions in ACHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511
Zhu, Jun-Yi; Fu, Yulong; Nettleton, Margaret; Richman, Adam; Han, Zhe
Genomic sequencing has implicated large numbers of genes and de novo mutations as potential disease risk factors. A high throughput in vivo model system is needed to validate gene associations with pathology. We developed a Drosophila-based functional system to screen candidate disease genes identified from Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) patients. 134 genes were tested in the Drosophila heart using RNAi-based gene silencing. Quantitative analyses of multiple cardiac phenotypes demonstrated essential structural, functional, and developmental roles for more than 70 genes, including a subgroup encoding histone H3K4 modifying proteins. We also demonstrated the use of Drosophila to evaluate cardiac phenotypes resulting from specific, patient-derived alleles of candidate disease genes. We describe the first high throughput in vivo validation system to screen candidate disease genes identified from patients. This approach has the potential to facilitate development of precision medicine approaches for CHD and other diseases associated with genetic factors.
Avolio, Elisa; Caputo, Massimo; Madeddu, Paolo
This review article reports on the new field of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering and its potential on the management of congenital heart disease. To date, stem cell therapy has mainly focused on treatment of ischemic heart disease and heart failure, with initial indication of safety and mild-to-moderate efficacy. Preclinical studies and initial clinical trials suggest that the approach could be uniquely suited for the correction of congenital defects of the heart. The basic concept is to create living material made by cellularized grafts that, once implanted into the heart, grows and remodels in parallel with the recipient organ. This would make a substantial improvement in current clinical management, which often requires repeated surgical corrections for failure of implanted grafts. Different types of stem cells have been considered and the identification of specific cardiac stem cells within the heterogeneous population of mesenchymal and stromal cells offers opportunities for de novo cardiomyogenesis. In addition, endothelial cells and vascular progenitors, including cells with pericyte characteristics, may be necessary to generate efficiently perfused grafts. The implementation of current surgical grafts by stem cell engineering could address the unmet clinical needs of patients with congenital heart defects. PMID:26176009
Almenar, Luis; Zunzunegui, José Luis; Barón, Gonzalo; Carrasco, José Ignacio; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Comín, Josep; Barrios, Vivencio; Subirana, M Teresa; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz
In the year 2012, 3 scientific sections-heart failure and transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology-are presented together in the same article. The most relevant development in the area of heart failure and transplantation is the 2012 publication of the European guidelines for heart failure. These describe new possibilities for some drugs (eplerenone and ivabradine); expand the criteria for resynchronization, ventricular assist, and peritoneal dialysis; and cover possibilities of percutaneous repair of the mitral valve (MitraClip(®)). The survival of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in congenital heart diseases has improved significantly. Instructions for percutaneous techniques and devices have been revised and modified for the treatment of atrial septal defects, ostium secundum, and ventricular septal defects. Hybrid procedures for addressing structural congenital heart defects have become more widespread. In the area of clinical cardiology studies have demonstrated that percutaneous prosthesis implantation has lower mortality than surgical implantation. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc criteria and of new anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) is also recommended. In addition, the development of new sequencing techniques has enabled the analysis of multiple genes.
Kutty, Shelby; Delaney, Jeffrey W; Latson, Larry A; Danford, David A
The rapid proliferation of catheter-mediated treatments for congenital heart defects has brought with it a critical need for cooperation and communication among the numerous physicians supporting these new and complex procedures. New interdependencies between physicians in specialties including cardiac imaging, interventional cardiology, pediatric cardiology, anesthesia, cardiothoracic surgery, and radiology have become apparent, as centers have strived to develop the best systems to foster success. Best practices for congenital heart disease interventions mandate confident and timely input from an individual with excellent adjunctive imaging skills and a thorough understanding of the devices and procedures being used. The imager and interventionalist must share an understanding of what each offers for the procedure, use a common terminology and spatial orientation system, and convey concise and accurate information about what is needed, what is seen, and what cannot be seen. The goal of this article is to review how the cardiovascular imaging specialists and interventionalists can work together effectively to plan and execute catheter interventions for congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Carellos, E V M; Caiaffa, W T; Andrade, G M Q; Abreu, M N S; Januário, J N
This study aimed to investigate the distribution of congenital toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil and describe the demographic and socioeconomic profile of the municipalities associated with the disease. An ecological study was conducted using socioeconomic indicators of a database (MGSSRI) created by Fundação João Pinheiro (a government technical support agency of Minas Gerais), in order to show the development of the municipalities in the state. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was the outcome and the items of the MGSSRI were the explanatory variables. Of 146,307 newborns screened (November 2006 to May 2007), 190 had congenital toxoplasmosis, yielding a prevalence of 1·3/1000, ranging from 0 to 76·9/1000 in the municipalities. The multivariate model indicated a higher occurrence of toxoplasmosis in municipalities with smaller populations and worse indexes of tax performance. Congenital toxoplasmosis appears to be a neglected disease in the state of Minas Gerais, given the high prevalence found and its concentration in municipalities with worse socioeconomic indexes.
Kümpers, Philipp; Denecke, Agnieszka; Westhoff-Bleck, Mechthild; Schieffer, Bernhard; Bauersachs, Johann; Kielstein, Jan T.; Tutarel, Oktay
Background Chronic heart failure is an important cause for morbidity and mortality in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). While NT-proBNP is an established biomarker for heart failure of non-congenital origin, its application in ACHD has limitations. The angiogenic factors Angiopoietin-1 and -2 (Ang-1, Ang-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and soluble receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tie family (sTie2) correlate with disease severity in heart failure of non-congenital origin. Their role in ACHD has not been studied. Methods In 91 patients Ang-2 and NT-proBNP were measured and related to New York Heart Association class, systemic ventricular function and parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Ang-1, VEGF, and sTie2 were also measured. Results Ang-2 correlates with NYHA class and ventricular dysfunction comparable to NT-proBNP. Further, Ang-2 showed a good correlation with parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Both, Ang-2 and NT-proBNP identified patients with severely limited cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Additionally, Ang-2 is elevated in patients with a single ventricle physiology in contrast to NT-proBNP. VEGF, Ang-1, and sTie2 were not correlated with any clinical parameter. Conclusion The performance of Ang-2 as a biomarker for heart failure in ACHD is comparable to NT-proBNP. Its significant elevation in patients with single ventricle physiology indicates potential in this patient group and warrants further studies. PMID:23826161
Malik, Archana; Hellinger, Jeffrey C; Servaes, Sabah; Schwartz, Mathew C; Keller, Marc S; Epelman, Monica
CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease. During 28 months, 300 consecutive children (170 males; mean age: 7.1 years, age range: 6 h-26 years), referred from a tertiary pediatric cardiology center, underwent clinically indicated CT angiography to evaluate known or suspected congenital heart disease. Slightly more than half (n = 169) of the patients were postoperative or post-intervention. Examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and non-cardiovascular findings were recorded and tabulated by organ system, congenital heart disease and operative procedure in conjunction with outcomes from medical charts. Non-cardiovascular findings were identified in 83% (n = 250 / 300) of the studies for a total of 857 findings. In 221 patients (n = 73.7% of 300) a total of 813 non-cardiovascular findings were clinically significant, while in 9.7% (n = 29 / 300) of patients, 5.1% (n = 44 / 857) of the findings were nonsignificant. In 38.3% (n = 115 / 300) of patients with significant non-cardiovascular pathology, the findings were unexpected and directly impacted patient care plans. Commonly involved organs with non-cardiovascular findings were the lungs with 280 non-cardiovascular findings in 176 / 300 (58.7%) of patients, the airway with 139 non-cardiovascular findings in 103 / 300 (34.3%) of patients and the liver with 108 non-cardiovascular findings in 72 / 300 (24.0%) of patients. Syndromic associations were noted in 22% (n = 66 / 300) of the
Brassard, Patrice; Ferland, Annie; Marquis, Karine; Maltais, François; Jobin, Jean; Poirier, Paul
Several chronic diseases are known to negatively affect the ability of an individual to perform exercise. However, the altered exercise capacity observed in these patients is not solely associated with the heart and lungs dysfunction. Exercise has also been shown to play an important role in the management of several pathologies encountered in the fields of cardiology and pneumology. Studies conducted in our institution regarding the influence of diabetes, chronic heart failure, congenital heart disease and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease on the acute and chronic exercise responses, along with the beneficial effects of exercise training in these populations, are reviewed. PMID:17932595
Homsy, Jason; Zaidi, Samir; Shen, Yufeng; Ware, James S.; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; DePalma, Steven R.; McKean, David; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Gorham, Josh; Jin, Sheng Chih; Deanfield, John; Giardini, Alessandro; Porter, George A.; Kim, Richard; Bilguvar, Kaya; Lopez, Francesc; Tikhonova, Irina; Mane, Shrikant; Romano-Adesman, Angela; Qi, Hongjian; Vardarajan, Badri; Ma, Lijiang; Daly, Mark; Roberts, Amy E.; Russell, Mark W.; Mital, Seema; Newburger, Jane W.; Gaynor, J. William; Breitbart, Roger E.; Iossifov, Ivan; Ronemus, Michael; Sanders, Stephan J.; Kaltman, Jonathan R.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Brueckner, Martina; Gelb, Bruce D.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Lifton, Richard P.; Seidman, Christine E.; Chung, Wendy K.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) patients have increased prevalence of extra-cardiac congenital anomalies (CA) and risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD). Exome sequencing of 1,213 CHD parent-offspring trios identified an excess of protein-damaging de novo mutations, especially in genes highly expressed in developing heart and brain. These mutations accounted for 20% of patients with CHD, NDD and CA but only 2% with isolated CHD. Mutations altered genes involved in morphogenesis, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation, including multiple mutations in RBFOX2, an mRNA splice regulator. Genes mutated in other cohorts ascertained for NDD were enriched in CHD cases, particularly those with coexisting NDD. These findings reveal shared genetic contributions to CHD, NDD, and CA and provide opportunities for improved prognostic assessment and early therapeutic intervention in CHD patients. PMID:26785492
Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Schindler, Ehrenfried
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of congenital abnormality and occurs in over 1% of newborns. Approximately 30% of children with CHD have other extra-cardiac anomalies, which significantly increases mortality in CHD patients. It is expected that the number of CHD patients who consult non-specialized hospitals for non-cardiac surgery after palliative or corrective operations will increase because of the extraordinary progression of treatments, such as surgical procedures, interventional procedures, and intensive care medicine, as well as diagnosis. The aim of this article is to enable anaesthesiologists who are not usually engaged in the anaesthesia management of CHD patients to provide perioperative management for CHD patients safely and with confidence by having basic and advanced knowledge about CHD patients and their pathophysiological characteristics.
Donofrio, Mary T.; Massaro, An N.
Advances in cardiac surgical techniques and perioperative intensive care have led to improved survival in babies with congenital heart disease (CHD). While it is true that the majority of children with CHD today will survive, many will have impaired neurodevelopmental outcome across a wide spectrum of domains. While continuing to improve short-term morbidity and mortality is an important goal, recent and ongoing research has focused on defining the impact of CHD on brain development, minimizing postnatal brain injury, and improving long-term outcomes. This paper will review the impact that CHD has on the developing brain of the fetus and infant. Neurologic abnormalities detectable prior to surgery will be described. Potential etiologies of these findings will be discussed, including altered fetal intrauterine growth, cerebral blood flow and brain development, associated congenital brain abnormalities, and risk for postnatal brain injury. Finally, reported neurodevelopmental outcomes after surgical repair of CHD will be reviewed. PMID:20862365
Donofrio, Mary T; Massaro, An N
Advances in cardiac surgical techniques and perioperative intensive care have led to improved survival in babies with congenital heart disease (CHD). While it is true that the majority of children with CHD today will survive, many will have impaired neurodevelopmental outcome across a wide spectrum of domains. While continuing to improve short-term morbidity and mortality is an important goal, recent and ongoing research has focused on defining the impact of CHD on brain development, minimizing postnatal brain injury, and improving long-term outcomes. This paper will review the impact that CHD has on the developing brain of the fetus and infant. Neurologic abnormalities detectable prior to surgery will be described. Potential etiologies of these findings will be discussed, including altered fetal intrauterine growth, cerebral blood flow and brain development, associated congenital brain abnormalities, and risk for postnatal brain injury. Finally, reported neurodevelopmental outcomes after surgical repair of CHD will be reviewed.
Birks, Yvonne; Sloper, Patricia; Lewin, Robert; Parsons, Jonathan
Abstract Objective To determine the health‐related experiences of children with congenital heart disease. Design Qualitative, semi‐structured interviews. Participants A purposive sample (N = 35) of children and young people, aged between 8 and 19 years, with a variety of congenital heart conditions recruited from one treatment care centre in the north of England. Results The main themes identified included: physical limitations of their condition; restrictions; attitudes of others; choices about information; coping with life and privacy. Conclusions This study suggests that while many of this sample of children said that they coped well with their condition some children did experience significant impact on their quality of life in several domains. Children and young people identified a need for improved strategies to help them communicate about their condition with peers, schoolteachers and health‐care professionals to allow a better understanding of what they are able to achieve. PMID:17324192
McPhail, Gary L; Howells, Sacha A; Boesch, Richard Paul; Wood, Robert E; Ednick, Mathew; Chini, Barbara A; Jain, Viral; Agabegi, Steven; Sturm, Peter; Wall, Eric; Crawford, Alvin; Redding, Greg
It is well known that restrictive lung disease (RLD) is associated with scoliosis. This study identifies that obstructive lung disease (OLD) is associated with syndromic scoliosis and congenital scoliosis. We searched a local database for patients with scoliosis who underwent a pulmonary function testing (PFT) from 2004 to 2009. All patients with congenital scoliosis or syndromic thoracolumbar scoliosis with a Cobb angle of ≥40 degrees and acceptable and repeatable PFT testing were included in the study. OLD was defined as an forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity ratio below 95% confidence interval. Bronchoscopy videos and computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance images were reviewed to identify anatomic causes of lower airway disease. A total of 18 patients met the criteria for inclusion. The median age at diagnosis was 11.3 years. The median primary Cobb angle was 60 degrees. The prevalence of OLD was 33% and RLD was 57%. The 6 children with OLD underwent preoperative bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic causes of lower airway obstruction. The 4 children with OLD and right-sided major thoracic curves had compression of the right mainstem bronchus between the spine (posterior) and the right pulmonary artery (anterior). The 2 children with OLD and left-sided major thoracic curves had compression of the left mainstem bronchus between the spine (posterior) and the descending aorta (anterior) or the left atrium (anterior). In our study, the prevalence of OLD in children with congenital scoliosis or syndromic scoliosis was 33%, which was elevated when compared with the population prevalence of 2% to 5%. Mainstem airway compression from spine rotation was discovered to be the potential mechanism of disease. Level IV, prognostic study investigating the effect of a patient characteristic on the outcome of disease.
Blue, Gillian M; Kirk, Edwin P; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Sholler, Gary F; Dunwoodie, Sally L; Harvey, Richard P; Winlaw, David S
Our understanding of the genetics of congenital heart disease (CHD) is rapidly expanding; however, many questions, particularly those relating to sporadic forms of disease, remain unanswered. Massively parallel sequencing technology has made significant contributions to the field, both from a diagnostic perspective for patients and, importantly, also from the perspective of disease mechanism. The importance of de novo variation in sporadic disease is a recent highlight, and the genetic link between heart and brain development has been established. Furthermore, evidence of an underlying burden of genetic variation contributing to sporadic and familial forms of CHD has been identified. Although we are still unable to identify the cause of CHD for most patients, recent findings have provided us with a much clearer understanding of the types of variants and their individual contributions and collectively mark an important milestone in our understanding of both familial and sporadic forms of disease.
Furenäs, Eva; Eriksson, Peter; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Dellborg, Mikael
There is an increasing prevalence of women with congenital heart defects reaching childbearing age. In western countries women tend to give birth at a higher age compared to some decades ago. We evaluated the CARdiac disease in PREGnancy (CARPREG) and modified World Health Organization (mWHO) risk classifications for cardiac complications during pregnancies in women with congenital heart defects and analyzed the impact of age on risk of obstetric and fetal outcome. A single-center observational study of cardiac, obstetric, and neonatal complications with data from cardiac and obstetric records of pregnancies in women with congenital heart disease. Outcomes of 496 pregnancies in 232 women, including induced abortion, miscarriage, stillbirth, and live birth were analyzed regarding complications, maternal age, mode of delivery, and two risk classifications: CARPREG and mWHO. There were 28 induced abortions, 59 fetal loss, 409 deliveries with 412 neonates. Cardiac (14%), obstetric (14%), and neonatal (15%) complications were noted, including one maternal death and five stillbirths. The rate of cesarean section was 19%. Age above 35years was of borderline importance for cardiac complications (p=0.054) and was not a significant additional risk factor for obstetric or neonatal complications. Both risk classifications had moderate clinical utility, with area under the curve (AUC) 0.71 for CARPREG and 0.65 for mWHO on cardiac complications. Pregnancy complications in women with congenital heart disease are common but severe complications are rare. Advanced maternal age does not seem to affect complication rate. Existing risk classification systems are insufficient in predicting complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goossens, Eva; Luyckx, Koen; Mommen, Nele; Gewillig, Marc; Budts, Werner; Zupancic, Nele; Moons, Philip
To optimize long-term outcomes, patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) should adopt health-promoting behaviors. Studies on health behavior in afflicted patients are scarce and comparability of study results is limited. To enlarge the body of evidence, we have developed the Health Behavior Scale-Congenital Heart Disease (HBS-CHD). We examined the psychometric properties of the HBS-CHD by providing evidence for (a) the content validity; (b) validity based on the relationships with other variables; (c) reliability in terms of stability; and (d) responsiveness. Ten experts rated the relevance of the HBS-CHD items. The item content validity index (I-CVI) and the averaged scale content validity index (S-CVI/Ave); the modified multi-rater Kappa and proportion of missing values for each question were calculated. Relationships with other variables were evaluated using six hypotheses that were tested in 429 adolescents with CHD. Stability of the instrument was assessed using Heise's method; and responsiveness was tested by calculating the Guyatt's Responsiveness Index (GRI). Overall, 86.3% of the items had a good to excellent content validity; the S-CVI/Ave (0.81) and multi-rater Kappa (0.78) were adequate. The average proportion of missing values was low (1.2%). Because five out of six hypotheses were confirmed, evidence for the validity of the HBS-CHD based on relationships with other variables was provided. The stability of the instrument could not be confirmed based on our data. The GRI showed good to excellent capacity of the HBS-CHD to detect clinical changes in the health behavior over time. We found that the HBS-CHD is a valid and responsive questionnaire to assess health behaviors in patients with CHD.
Remarkable gains in survival have led to an unprecedented number of adults with congenital heart disease. Arrhythmias collectively comprise the most common complication encountered. Recognising the unique issues and challenges involved in managing arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease and the consequential decisions surrounding sudden death prevention, expert societies have proposed evidence-based recommendations. On the whole, acute ventricular arrhythmias are managed according to general cardiology guidelines, while taking into consideration congenital heart disease-specific issues, such as positioning of patches or paddles according to location of the heart. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are indicated for secondary prevention in patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia or resuscitated cardiac arrest in the absence of a reversible cause. Pharmacological therapy and catheter ablation can be effective in reducing recurrent ICD shocks. Risk-benefit assessment for primary prevention ICDs is a major challenge. Although a clearer picture has emerged of the high-risk patient with tetralogy of Fallot, ICD indications for those with systemic right ventricles or univentricular hearts remain contentious. Challenges to ICD implantation include obstructed veins, conduits and baffles, atrioventricular valve disease and intracardiac shunts. In selected patients, customised systems with epicardial and/or subcutaneous coils may represent a viable solution. Alternatively, the subcutaneous ICD is an attractive option for patients in whom transvenous access is not feasible or desirable and in whom bradycardia and antitachycardia pacing features are not essential. Continued advances in risk stratification and device technologies carry the potential to further improve efficacy and safety outcomes in this growing population of patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence
Pavia, Paula Ximena; Montilla, Marleny; Flórez, Carolina; Herrera, Giomar; Ospina, Juan Manuel; Manrique, Fred; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Puerta, Concepción
The main route of Chagas disease transmission is through vectors of the insect family Reduviidae. However, the parasite can also be transmitted from infected mothers to their fetus in utero. Until now, no cases of congenital Chagas disease have been reported in Colombia. A congenital Chagas disease case occurred in Moniquirá County, Boyacá, Colombia. It was confirmed by comparing strains isolated from the mother and her baby using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers. The parasite DNA was extracted from positive blood cultures of the afflicted mother and her son. The species confirmation and group detection were performed by PCR. The strain genotypes were determined by AP-PCR with two oligonucleotides based on the genes for the b-globin (5'-CCTCACCTTCTTTCATGGAG-3') and 16S RrNA (5'-ACGGGCAGTGTGTACAAGACC-3'), in different reactions. The T. cruzi strains isolated from the blood cultures of the mother and her son showed the same amplification profile by the two AP-PCR tests; this corresponded with profiles of the T. cruzi I strains used as controls. However, T. cruzi II was also found in the blood culture from the newborn. This is the first case of Chagas disease transmission reported in Moniquirá, demonstrating that this form of transmission occurs in Colombia. The presence of both groups of T. cruzi in the newborn sample suggests mixed infection in the mother as well, with a higher prevalence of T. cruzi I, at least in the mother's blood culture.
Chang, Sangmi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Nonaka, Ikuya; Tsukamoto, Haruko; Saito, Mariko; Ban, Kyoko; Wada, Ikuo; Sugie, Kazuma; Nishino, Ichizo
We report three patients with sporadic merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) with torticollis and/or developmental dislocation of the hip in early childhood. Diagnosis of merosin-positive CMD was based on their clinical and dystrophic muscle biopsy findings. At the age 13 months, patient 1 was found to have developmental dislocation of both hips, which was surgically treated at 5 years. Patient 2 had severe torticollis and contracture of both hip joints which had been present since the neonatal period, and underwent repair of the torticollis at 2 years. Patient 3 was found to have developmental dislocation of the left hip at one month of age. Although she had generalized muscle hypotonia she learned to walk at 23 months. She had no facial muscle involvement nor contracture of joints, but had hyperlaxity of distal joints. Her muscle biopsy showed complete collagen VI deficiency immunohistochemically. In contrast to merosin-deficient CMD, merosin-positive CMD appears to be a group of heterogeneous diseases. Since collagen VI was reported to be defective in Ullrich's disease, patient 3 may be diagnosed as having Ullrich's disease but had no typical clinical characteristics of the disease. Further study is needed to identify the pathogenetic mechanism of congenital muscular dystrophy with early joint abnormalities to determine whether there is a primary abnormality of the connective tissue including collagen VI.
... congenital heart disease. Google+ Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 05/ ... 2013, in the journal Nature, about the first large-scale sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease. This NHLBI- ...
Luo, De-Qiang; Chen, Zi-Li; Dai, Wei; Chen, Feng
To study the association between fluid overload and acute kidney injury (AKI) after congenital heart disease surgery in infants. A retrospective analysis was performed on 88 infants aged less than 6 months who underwent a radical surgery for congenital heart disease. The treatment outcomes were compared between the infants with AKI after surgery and those without. The effect of cumulative fluid overload on treatment outcomes 2 days after surgery was analyzed. The risk factors for the development of AKI after surgery were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Compared with those without AKI after surgery, the patients with AKI had younger age, lower body weights, higher serum creatinine levels and higher vasoactive-inotropic score, as well as longer durations of intraoperative extracorporeal circulation and aortic occlusion (P<0.05). Compared with those without AKI after surgery, the patients with AKI had a higher transfusion volume, a higher incidence rate of low cardiac output syndrome, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, a longer length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a longer length of hospital stay, a higher application rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, a higher 30-day mortality rate, and higher levels of cumulative fluid overload 2 and 3 days after surgery (P<0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that fluid overload and low cardiac output syndrome were major risk factors for the development of AKI after surgery. The children with cumulative fluid overload >5% at 2 days after surgery had a higher incidence rate of low cardiac output syndrome, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, a longer length of stay in the ICU, a longer length of hospital stay, and a higher mortality rate (P<0.05). Infants with fluid overload after surgery for congenital heart disease tend to develop AKI, and fluid overload may be associated with poor outcomes after surgery.
Lee, Namheon; Das, Ashish; Taylor, Michael; Hor, Kan; Banerjee, Rupak K
With the success of early repair, continued functional assessment of repaired congenital heart disease is critical for improved long-term outcome. Pulmonary regurgitation, which is one of the main postoperative sequelae of congenital heart disease involved with the right ventricle (RV) such as tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries, results in progressive RV dilatation coupled with pulmonary artery (PA) obstruction causing elevated RV pressures. The appropriate timing of intervention to correct these postoperative lesions remains largely subjective. In the present study, we evaluated an energy-based end point, namely energy transfer ratio (eMPA ), to assess the degree of RV and PA inefficiency in a group of congenital heart disease patients with abnormal RV-PA physiology. Eight patients with abnormal RV-PA physiology and six controls with normal RV-PA physiology were investigated using a previously validated technique that couples cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and invasive pressure measurements. The mean eMPA of the patient group (0.56 ± 0.33) was significantly lower (P <.04) than that of the control group (1.56 ± 0.85), despite the fact that the patient group had a significantly higher RV stroke work indexed to body surface area (RV SWI ) than the control group (0.205 ± 0.095 J/m(2) vs. 0.090 ± 0.038 J/m(2) ; P <.02). We determined that the patients had inefficient RV-PA physiology due to a combination of RV dilatation with pulmonary regurgitation and RV outflow obstruction leading to an elevated end-systolic pressure. Using coupled magnetic resonance imaging and invasive pressure measurements, eMPA is determined to be a sensitive energy-based end point for measuring RV-PA efficiency. It may serve as a diagnostic end point to optimize timing of intervention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Harrison, Jeanine L; Silversides, Candice K; Oechslin, Erwin N; Kovacs, Adrienne H
More than 90% of infants born with congenital heart disease reach adulthood. International medical recommendations outline patient care needs in an effort to optimize patient health. There are, however, limited data focusing on the patient perspective. This study investigated adult congenital heart disease patient-reported (1) barriers to medical care, (2) healthcare behaviors, and (3) concerns regarding medical, psychosocial, and lifestyle matters. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was distributed to all patients who attended a patient education conference. There were 123 adult congenital heart disease participants (58% female; mean age, 37 [SD, 13] years). The most common self-reported cardiac diagnoses were tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries. Most patients did not report transportation or financial barriers to care, but did report the following: not wanting further surgery even if it was recommended (18%), not liking to think or talk about one's heart (17%), and not understanding doctors' information; 8% of patients inaccurately considered themselves to be "cured." With regard to healthcare behaviors, more than 80% of patients reported annual family physician and dentist visits, but 34% of patients were unaware when to seek urgent medical attention. Patients reported moderate to extreme concern about the following medical topics: heart rhythm problems (82%), infections (74%), and understanding treatment options (71%). Patients most often reported moderate to extreme concern about the following lifestyle and psychosocial topics: physical activity (77%), insurance (72%), assuming increased health responsibility (73%), diet (71%), mental health (60%), and death and dying (57%). This study provides important information about 3 specific areas. First, there are potential barriers to care beyond financial and transportation challenges. Second, many patients require education regarding when to seek urgent medical attention. Third
Background The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of congenital cardiac disease among children attending UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria. The nature of these abnormalities and the outcome were also considered. The exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. The difference in the pattern obtained worldwide and few studies in Nigeria could be due to genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, or ethnic origin. Methods A retrospective analysis of discharged cases in which a review of the cases of all children attending children outpatient clinics including cardiology clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu over a five year period (January 2007-June 2012) was undertaken. All the children presenting with cardiac anomalies were included in the study and the cases were investigated using ECG, X-ray and echocardiography studies. Results A total of 31,795 children attended the children outpatient clinics of the hospital over the study period. Of these, seventy one (71) had cardiac diseases. The overall prevalence of cardiac disease is 0.22%. The commonest symptoms were breathlessness, failure to thrive and cyanosis. Almost all types of congenital detects were represented, the commonest being isolated ventricular septal detect (VSD), followed by tetralogy of Fallot. One of these cardiac anomalies presented with Downs’s syndrome and another with VACTERAL association. Conclusions The results of this study show that 0.22% per cent of children who attended UNTH in Enugu State had congenital cardiac abnormalities and the commonest forms seen were those with VSD. PMID:24252233
Xiao, Juan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Mei; Xiao, Yingbin
Mitochondrial biogenesis program in heart appears to exhibit adaptive remodeling following biomechanical and oxidative stress. The adaptive mechanisms that protect myocardium metabolism during hypoxia are coordinated in part by nitric oxide (NO). To observe mitochondrial biogenesis and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in hearts of congenital heart disease with cyanosis, discuss mitochondrial response to chronic hypoxia in myocardium. 20 patients with cyanotic (n=10) or acyanotic cardiac defects (n=10) were investigated. Samples from the right ventricular outflow tract myocardium taken during operation were studied. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria was performed with transmission electron microscope. Relative mtDNA/nDNA ratio was determined with real-time PCR. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI), peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor Î³ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) transcript levels were detected by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR. COXI and nNOS, iNOS and eNOS protein levels were measured with western blot. Mitochondrial volume density (Vv) and numerical density (Nv) were significantly elevated in patients with cyanotic compared to acyanotic congenital heart disease. Elevated mtDNA and up-regulated COXI, PGC-1α, NRF1 and Tfam mRNA levels were observed in cyanotic patients. Protein levels of COXI and eNOS were significantly higher in the myocardium of cyanotic than of acyanotic patients. PGC-1α transcript levels correlated with the levels of eNOS. Mitochondrial biogenesis is activated in right ventricular outflow tract myocardium in congenital heart disease with cyanosis, which could be the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia and possibly involves eNOS up-regulation.
Terlemez, Semiha; Tunaoğlu, Fatma Sedef; Göktaş, Tayfun; Çelik, Bülent; Erbaş, Deniz; Koçak, Ülker; Kula, Serdar; Oğuz, Ayşe Deniz
This study was planned to determine the effects of iron treatment in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. A total of 39 patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease including 20 (51%) females, 19 (49%) males and whose mean age was 9.9 ± 6.2 years, average weight was 33 ± 18.4 kg were evaluated. Patients were categorized into two groups as having iron deficiency and no iron deficiency with respect to their ferritin levels. 4 mg/kg/day iron treatment with two valences was applied to the groups with iron deficiency for 3 months. Clinical and laboratory findings of both groups were assessed at the outset and 3 months later and viscosity measurements were carried out. Iron deficiency was identified in 21 (53.8%) out of 39 patients. Average Hb and Hct values following 3-month iron treatment increased from 14.8 ± 2.4 g/dl to 16.0 ± 2.0 (P = 0.003) and from %45.8 ± 7.5 to %47.6 ± 7.2 (P = 0.052), respectively. Average viscosity value, however, was 5.6 ± 1.0 cP, it reduced to 5.5 ± 1.0 cP value by demonstrating very little reduction (P = 0.741). Nevertheless, O2 sat value increased from 71.7 to 75% and complaints such as headache, visual blurriness, having frequent sinusitis decreased. It was observed that iron treatment increased Hb and Hct levels in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease without raising viscosity and it ensured improvement in clinical symptoms.
Xue, Haihong; Sun, Kun; Yu, Jianguo; Chen, Binjin; Chen, Guozhen; Hong, Wenjing; Yao, Liping; Wu, Lanping
Virtual endoscopy (VE) is a new post-processing method that uses volumetric data sets to simulate the tracks of a "conventional" flexible endoscope. However, almost all studies of this method have involved virtual visualizations of the cardiovascular structures applied to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) datasets. This paper introduces a novel visualization method called the "three-dimensional echocardiographic intracardiac endoscopic simulation system (3DE IESS)", which uses 3D echocardiographic images in a virtual reality (VR) environment to diagnose congenital heart disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of VE in the evaluation of congenital heart disease in children and its accuracy compared with 2DE. Three experienced pediatric cardiologists blinded to the patients' diagnoses separately reviewed 40 two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) datasets and 40 corresponding VE datasets and judged whether abnormal intracardiac anatomy was present in terms of a five-point scale (1 = definitely absent; 2 = probably absent; 3 = cannot be determined; 4 = probably present; and 5 = definitely present). Compared with clinical diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of VE was 98.7% for ASD, 92.4% for VSD, 92.6% for TOF, and 94% for DORV, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of VE was significantly higher than that of 2DE for TOF and DORV except for ASD and VSD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for VE was closer to the optimal performance point than was the ROC curve for 2DE. The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 for VE and 0.93 for 2DE. Kappa values (range, 0.73-0.79) for VE and 2DE indicated substantial agreement. 3D echocardiographic VE can enhance our understanding of intracardiac structures and facilitate the evaluation of congenital heart disease.
Xue, Haihong; Yu, Jianguo; Chen, Binjin; Chen, Guozhen; Hong, Wenjing; Yao, Liping; Wu, Lanping
Virtual endoscopy (VE) is a new post-processing method that uses volumetric data sets to simulate the tracks of a “conventional” flexible endoscope. However, almost all studies of this method have involved virtual visualizations of the cardiovascular structures applied to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) datasets. This paper introduces a novel visualization method called the “three-dimensional echocardiographic intracardiac endoscopic simulation system (3DE IESS)”, which uses 3D echocardiographic images in a virtual reality (VR) environment to diagnose congenital heart disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of VE in the evaluation of congenital heart disease in children and its accuracy compared with 2DE. Three experienced pediatric cardiologists blinded to the patients’ diagnoses separately reviewed 40 two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) datasets and 40 corresponding VE datasets and judged whether abnormal intracardiac anatomy was present in terms of a five-point scale (1 = definitely absent; 2 = probably absent; 3 = cannot be determined; 4 = probably present; and 5 = definitely present). Compared with clinical diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of VE was 98.7% for ASD, 92.4% for VSD, 92.6% for TOF, and 94% for DORV, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of VE was significantly higher than that of 2DE for TOF and DORV except for ASD and VSD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for VE was closer to the optimal performance point than was the ROC curve for 2DE. The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 for VE and 0.93 for 2DE. Kappa values (range, 0.73–0.79) for VE and 2DE indicated substantial agreement. 3D echocardiographic VE can enhance our understanding of intracardiac structures and facilitate the evaluation of congenital heart disease. PMID:20535561
Deng, Lisa X; Khan, Abigail May; Drajpuch, David; Fuller, Stephanie; Ludmir, Jonathan; Mascio, Christopher E; Partington, Sara L; Qadeer, Ayesha; Tobin, Lynda; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Kim, Yuli Y
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with adverse outcomes and increased mortality in cardiac patients. No studies have examined PTSD in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of PTSD in patients with ACHD and explore potential associated factors. Patients were enrolled from an outpatient ACHD clinic and completed several validated measures including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Clinical data were abstracted through medical data review. A total of 134 participants (mean age 34.6 ± 10.6; 46% men) were enrolled. Of the 127 participants who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, 14 (11%) met criteria for elevated PTSD symptoms specifically related to their congenital heart disease or treatment. Of the 134 patients who completed PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, 27 (21%) met criteria for global PTSD symptoms. In univariate analyses, patients with congenital heart disease-specific PTSD had their most recent cardiac surgery at an earlier year (p = 0.008), were less likely to have attended college (p = 0.04), had higher rates of stroke or transient ischemic attack (p = 0.03), and reported greater depressive symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (7 vs 2, p <0.001). In multivariable analysis, the 2 factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depressive symptoms (p <0.001) and year of most recent cardiac surgery (p <0.03). In conclusion, PTSD is present in 11% to 21% of subjects seen at a tertiary referral center for ACHD. The high prevalence of PTSD in this complex group of patients has important implications for the medical and psychosocial management of this growing population.
Spoorenberg, Mandy E; Hulzebos, Erik H J; Takken, Tim
This is a cross-sectional observational study to investigate the safety and feasibility of integrating changing body positions and physical activity in a hypoxic challenge test (HCT). The secondary objective was to compare oxygen saturation (Spo2) in two different locations (forehead and finger). Included were 12 pediatric to young adult patients with congenital heart (N = 7) or lung disease (N = 5). An HCT was performed using breathing room air (21% oxygen) while sitting and breathing a normobaric hypoxic gas mixture (15% oxygen) through a facemask while seated, lying supine, standing, walking 3 km/h, and walking 5 km/h in a nonrandomized order. All patients, except one, successfully passed the HCT. Three patients reported symptoms, possibly related to hypoxia. Median Spo2 during the HCT decreased in all body positions compared with room air. In 9/12 (finger oximeter) vs. 6/12 (forehead oximeter) patients Spo2 decreased below 90% in one or more body positions at rest. In 11/12 (finger oximeter) vs. 3/12 (forehead oximeter) patients Spo2 decreased below 90% during mild exercise. There was no significant difference in Spo2 between the different body positions. However, patients desaturated significantly more during mild exercise (walking 3km/h and 5 km/h). Spo2% measured at the forehead gave significantly higher values compared to the index finger. HCT is safe and feasible in children and adolescents with congenital heart or lung disease, and gives additional information about oxygenation during physical activity in addition to resting conditions. Simulated hypoxia of 8202 ft (2500 m) induced a small but significant decrease in Spo2%.Spoorenberg ME, Hulzebos EHJ, Takken T. Feasibility of hypoxic challenge testing in children and adolescents with congenital heart and lung disease. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):1004-1009.
Chistyakov, I S; Medvedev, A P; Pichugin, V V
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined surgical and medical treatment of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital valvular heart disease when included in a regimen of the drug Reamberin. In this regard, the analysis of the effectiveness of a combination regimen of 74 patients with valvular congenital heart diseases complicated with infective endocarditis. Given the indications for surgical correction operative technique features and possible technical difficulties in carrying out such operations, due to the inflammatory changes and tissue destruction, and ways to overcome them. For the correction of metabolic disorders in the postoperative period, 47 patients (main group) was appointed Reamberin: once, intravenous drip 400 ml/day during the first 5 days after surgery. 27 patients (control group) was conducted infusion therapy depending on the severity of the condition according to the classical scheme. In addition to standard clinical and laboratory examination, to assess the effectiveness of Reamberin was investigated catalase activity of CPK in blood serum in the dynamics of observation (1, 3 and 5 days after surgery). It is revealed that surgical approach, used in complex treatment of patients with valvular congenital heart diseases, including reorganization of the cavities of the heart, increasing the frequency of joints and the use of reinforcing strips of synthetic material that prevents the cutting of sutures through the inflamed tissue has achieved good short-and long-term results. Infective endocarditis and destruction of the valvular annulus fibrosus the use of a frame of strips of polytetrafluoroethylene allows you to restore its integrity and to implant a mechanical prosthesis. The inclusion in the regimen of patients with infective endocarditis complicated by cardiac insufficiency in the early postoperative period the drug Reamberin improves the efficiency of treatment by a more rapid restoration of the normal
Shepherd, Emma; Stuart, Graham; Martin, Rob; Walsh, Mark A
SelectSecure™ pacing leads (Medtronic Inc) are increasingly being used in pediatric patients and adults with structural congenital heart disease. The 4Fr lead is ideal for patients who may require lifelong pacing and can be advantageous for patients with complex anatomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the extraction of SelectSecure leads with conventional (stylette-driven) pacing leads in patients with structural congenital heart disease and congenital atrioventricular block. The data on lead extractions from pediatric and adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients from August 2004 to July 2014 at Bristol Royal Hospital for Children and the Bristol Heart Institute were reviewed. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine whether conventional pacing leads were associated with a more difficult extraction process. A total of 57 patients underwent pacemaker lead extractions (22 SelectSecure, 35 conventional). No deaths occurred. Mean age at the time of extraction was 17.6 ± 10.5 years, mean weight was 47 ± 18 kg, and mean lead age was 5.6 ± 2.6 years (range 1-11 years). Complex extraction (partial extraction/femoral extraction) was more common in patients with conventional pacing leads at univariate (P < .01) and multivariate (P = .04) levels. Lead age was also a significant predictor of complex extraction (P < .01). SelectSecure leads can be successfully extracted using techniques that are used for conventional pacing leads. They are less likely to be partially extracted and are less likely to require extraction using a femoral approach compared with conventional pacing leads. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Çelik, Muhittin; Aldudak, Bedri; Akar, Melek; Akdeniz, Osman; Tüzün, Heybet; Çelebi, Vefik
Aim: In this study, it was aimed to determine the problems of the neonates who were diagnosed with congenital heart disease requiring early intervention in our hospital. Material and Methods: The files of the newborn babies with congenital heart disease requiring early intervention who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and January 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. In all cases, echocardiography and ‘’Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II” (SNAP-II) scoring were performed within the first day of admission. The data were interpreted using Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 software. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: A total of 83 babies were included in the study. Forty six of the patients were male (55%), and 37 (45%) were female. Sixty eight percent of the patients were referred from the neighboring provinces and 32% were transferred from the centers within the city. The age range was between 0 and 28 (5.6±6.4 day) days. The SNAP-II scores upon admission ranged between 0 and 90 (mean: 20±20.3). None of the patients was diagnosed prenatally. The most common diagnoses included transposition of the great arteries (33.7%) and pulmonary atresia (19.3%). Nineteen (22%) patients were lost in the neonatal intensive care unit. There was a significant relationship between the mortality and the SNAP-II scores (p=0.0001) and use of vasopressors (p=0.004). The diagnosis, gender, use of alprostadil and age were not related to mortality. Three patients were discharged following planning of elective surgery and 60 patients were referred to a tertiary center by air ambulance. Conclusions: The results of our study indicated that prenatal diagnosis could not be made in neonates with congenital heart disease requiring intervention in our region. The mortality rates of these patients were related to the severity of the clinical status at presentation rather than to the age, gender and type of
Çelik, Muhittin; Aldudak, Bedri; Akar, Melek; Akdeniz, Osman; Tüzün, Heybet; Çelebi, Vefik
In this study, it was aimed to determine the problems of the neonates who were diagnosed with congenital heart disease requiring early intervention in our hospital. The files of the newborn babies with congenital heart disease requiring early intervention who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and January 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. In all cases, echocardiography and ''Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II" (SNAP-II) scoring were performed within the first day of admission. The data were interpreted using Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 software. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05. A total of 83 babies were included in the study. Forty six of the patients were male (55%), and 37 (45%) were female. Sixty eight percent of the patients were referred from the neighboring provinces and 32% were transferred from the centers within the city. The age range was between 0 and 28 (5.6±6.4 day) days. The SNAP-II scores upon admission ranged between 0 and 90 (mean: 20±20.3). None of the patients was diagnosed prenatally. The most common diagnoses included transposition of the great arteries (33.7%) and pulmonary atresia (19.3%). Nineteen (22%) patients were lost in the neonatal intensive care unit. There was a significant relationship between the mortality and the SNAP-II scores (p=0.0001) and use of vasopressors (p=0.004). The diagnosis, gender, use of alprostadil and age were not related to mortality. Three patients were discharged following planning of elective surgery and 60 patients were referred to a tertiary center by air ambulance. The results of our study indicated that prenatal diagnosis could not be made in neonates with congenital heart disease requiring intervention in our region. The mortality rates of these patients were related to the severity of the clinical status at presentation rather than to the age, gender and type of congenital heart disease. The mortality was much higher
Mylotte, Darren; Martucci, Giuseppe; Piazza, Nicolo; McElhinney, Doff
In the context of congenital heart disease (CHD), the complex biochemical and physiologic response to the pressure- or volume-loaded ventricle can be induced by stenotic and shunt/regurgitant lesions, respectively. A range of transcatheter therapies have recently emerged to expand the therapeutic potential of the more traditional surgical and medical interventions for heart failure in patients with CHD. Together, these complementary interventions aim to treat the growing patient population with adult CHD (ACHD). In this article, the most commonly used transcatheter interventions for heart failure in patients with ACHD are reviewed.
Kovacs, Adrienne H; Utens, Elisabeth M
Most infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) are now expected to reach adulthood. However, adults with CHD of moderate or great complexity remain at elevated risk of heart failure, arrhythmias, additional surgeries and interventional procedures, and premature mortality. This creates a need for lifelong specialized cardiac care and leads to 2 sets of potential challenges: (1) the transition from pediatric to adult care and (2) the psychosocial implications of coping with a chronic and often life-shortening medical condition. Many adolescents struggle with the transition to adult care, and mood and anxiety disorders are not uncommon in the adult setting.
Bulut, Ozgul; Gul, Doruk; Sevuk, Sibel; Mungan, Ilke; Buyukkayhan, Derya
Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of lymphatic fluid or chyle in the pleural space. Chylothorax treatment is composed of conservative; pleural drainage, termination of enteral feeding, total parenteral nutrition and supplementation with medium- chain triglycerides and surgical therapies; ductus thoracicus ligation, pleuroperitoneal shunts or pleuredesis. Nowadays, for cases among which conservative therapies fail, treatment with octreotide has been reported to be beneficial with promising results. A neonate who developed chylothorax after surgery performed for congenital heart disease was treated successfully with octreotide. PMID:28058372
Cordina, Rachael L; Celermajer, David S
In patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease, chronic hypoxaemia leads to important changes in blood vessel function and structure. Some of these alterations are maladaptive and probably contribute to impaired cardiopulmonary performance and an increased incidence of thrombotic and embolic events. Recent evidence suggests that deranged endothelial function, a sequel of chronic cyanosis, could be an important factor in the pathogenesis of cyanosis-associated cardiovascular risk. In this article, we discuss the physiological and mechanical consequences of compensatory erythrocytosis and possible pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in chronic cyanosis.
Labombarda, Fabien; Hamilton, Robert; Shohoudi, Azadeh; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Broberg, Craig S; Chaix, Marie A; Cohen, Scott; Cook, Stephen; Dore, Annie; Fernandes, Susan M; Fournier, Anne; Kay, Joseph; Macle, Laurent; Mondésert, Blandine; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Proietti, Anna; Rivard, Lena; Ting, Jennifer; Thibault, Bernard; Zaidi, Ali; Khairy, Paul
Atrial arrhythmias are the most common complication encountered in the growing and aging population with congenital heart disease. This study sought to assess the types and patterns of atrial arrhythmias, associated factors, and age-related trends. A multicenter cohort study enrolled 482 patients with congenital heart disease and atrial arrhythmias, age 32.0 ± 18.0 years, 45.2% female, from 12 North American centers. Qualifying arrhythmias were classified by a blinded adjudicating committee. The most common presenting arrhythmia was intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART) (61.6%), followed by atrial fibrillation (28.8%), and focal atrial tachycardia (9.5%). The proportion of arrhythmias due to IART increased with congenital heart disease complexity from 47.2% to 62.1% to 67.0% in patients with simple, moderate, and complex defects, respectively (p = 0.0013). Atrial fibrillation increased with age to surpass IART as the most common arrhythmia in those ≥50 years of age (51.2% vs. 44.2%; p < 0.0001). Older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.024 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.010 to 1.039; p = 0.001) and hypertension (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.71; p = 0.029) were independently associated with atrial fibrillation. During a mean follow-up of 11.3 ± 9.4 years, the predominant arrhythmia pattern was paroxysmal in 62.3%, persistent in 28.2%, and permanent in 9.5%. Permanent atrial arrhythmias increased with age from 3.1% to 22.6% in patients <20 years to ≥50 years, respectively (p < 0.0001). IART is the most common presenting atrial arrhythmia in patients with congenital heart disease, with a predominantly paroxysmal pattern. However, atrial fibrillation increases in prevalence and atrial arrhythmias progressively become permanent as the population ages. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evans, William; Castillo, William; Rollins, Robert; Luna, Carlos; Kip, Katrinka; Ludwick, Joseph; Madan, Nitin; Ciccolo, Michael; Galindo, Alvaro; Rothman, Abraham; Mayman, Gary; Cass, Kathleen; Thomas, Vincent; Restrepo, Humberto; Acherman, Ruben
This study compares the current, prenatal detection rate for critical congenital heart disease in Southern Nevada with the previously reported rate, after developing and expanding a comprehensive, community-wide fetal cardiology program. For the current-period analysis, we inquired our database and electronic health records for patients born in Clark County, Nevada, with critical congenital heart disease between May 2012 and April 2014, and we compared the results with the previous period between May 2003 and April 2006. The major components of the community-wide program include fetal congenital heart disease screening via general obstetric ultrasound studies performed in obstetrician's offices, radiology imaging centers, or maternal-fetal medicine specialty practices; subsequent referral for comprehensive fetal echocardiography performed in maternal-fetal medicine offices under the on-site supervision by fetal cardiologists; and recurring community educational programs teaching the 5-axial plane, fetal echocardiographic screening protocol to general obstetric sonographers and instructing perinatal sonographers in advanced imaging topics. For the current period, the prenatal detection rate for critical congenital heart disease in Southern Nevada was 71 versus 36% for the previous period (p < 0.001). The temporal improvement in prenatal detection of critical congenital heart disease may be related to our expanded decentralized, community-wide fetal cardiology program, and our experiences may be applicable to other metropolitan areas.
Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; De-la-Llata, Manuel; Vizcaíno, Alfredo; Ramírez, Samuel; Bolio, Alejandro
The only way to characterize the Mexican problem related to congenital heart disease care is promoting the creation of a national database for registering the organization, resources, and related activities. The Health Secretary of Mexico adopted a Spanish registration model to design a survey for obtaining a national Mexican reference in congenital heart disease. This survey was distributed to all directors of medical and/or surgical health care centers for congenital heart disease in Mexico. This communication presents the results obtained in relation to organization, resources and activities performed during the last year 2009. From the 22 health care centers which answered the survey 10 were reference centers (45%) and 12 were assistant centers (55%). All of them are provided with cardiologic auxiliary diagnostic methods. Except one, all centers have at least one bidimentional echocardiography apparatus. There is a general deficit between material and human resources detected in our study. Therapeutic actions for congenital heart disease (70% surgical and 30% therapeutical interventionism) show a clear centralization tendency for this kind of health care in Mexico City, Monterrey and finally Guadalajara. Due to the participation of almost all cardiac health centers in Mexico, our study provides an important information related to organization, resources, and medical and/or surgical activities for congenital heart disease. The data presented not only show Mexican reality, but allows us to identify better the national problematic for establishing priorities and propose solution alternatives.
Nakao, Megumi; Maeda, Kazuma; Haraguchi, Ryo; Kurosaki, Ken-ichi; Kagisaki, Koji; Shiraishi, Isao; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Minato, Kotaro
This paper proposes a 3-D cardiovascular modeling system based on neonatal echocardiographic images. With the system, medical doctors can interactively construct patient-specific cardiovascular models, and share the complex topology and the shape information. For the construction of cardiovascular models with a variety of congenital heart diseases, we propose a set of algorithms and interface that enable editing of the topology and shape of the 3-D models. In order to facilitate interactivity, the centerline and radius of the vessels are used to edit the surface of the heart vessels. This forms a skeleton where the centerlines of blood vessel serve as the nodes and edges, while the radius of the blood vessel is given as an attribute value to each node. Moreover, parent-child relationships are given to each skeleton. They are expressed as the directed acyclic graph, where the skeletons are viewed as graph nodes and the connecting points are graph edges. The cardiovascular models generated from some patient data confirmed that the developed technique is capable of constructing cardiovascular disease models in a tolerable timeframe. It is successful in representing the important structures of the patient-specific heart vessels for better understanding in preoperative planning and electric medical recording of the congenital heart disease.
Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Akkari, Véronique; Ged, Cécile; Galambrun, Claire; Kebaïli, Kamila; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Claudy, Alain; Geburher, Lucette; Philippe, Noël; de Verneuil, Hubert; Bertrand, Yves
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP; Gunther disease; OMIM 263700) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS). The deficiency of this enzyme is associated with lifelong overproduction of series I porphyrins which circulate and are deposited in many tissues, causing light-sensitisation and severe damage to skin beginning in childhood. Blistering and scarring of exposed areas may lead to mutilating deformities. We describe two cases: a 4-year-old boy and his first cousin who were cured of CEP by matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplants. Both are alive and disease-free 3 and 2 years post-transplant, respectively. Cutaneous lesions improved dramatically. The correction of the enzyme deficiency was confirmed by measuring erythrocyte UROS activity and urinary porphyrin excretion. Chimerism was complete for both children. Both patients were homoallelic for a novel mutation of the UROS gene, the missense mutation A69T. Considering the severity of the disease, if HLA-matched sibling donor is not available, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a matched unrelated donor should be strongly considered for treating congenital erythropoietic porphyria since this is currently the only known curative therapy.
Couperus, L E; Henkens, I R; Jongbloed, M R M; Hazekamp, M G; Schalij, M J; Vliegen, H W
Adults with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (PH-CHD) often have residual shunts. Invasive interventions aim to optimise pulmonary flow and prevent right ventricular failure. However, eligibility for procedures strongly depends on the adaptation potential of the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle to resultant circulatory changes. Current guidelines are not sufficiently applicable to individual patients, who exhibit great diversity and complexity in cardiac anomalies. We present four complex adult PH-CHD patients with impaired pulmonary flow, including detailed graphics of the cardiopulmonary circulation. All these patients had an ambiguous indication for shunt intervention. Our local multidisciplinary Grown-Ups with Congenital Heart Disease team reached consensus regarding a patient-tailored invasive treatment strategy, adjacent to relevant guidelines. Interventions improved pulmonary haemodynamics and short-term clinical functioning in all cases. Individual evaluation of disease characteristics is mandatory for tailored interventional treatment in PH-CHD patients, adjacent to relevant guidelines. Both strict registration of cases and multidisciplinary and multicentre collaboration are essential in the quest for optimal therapy in this patient population.
Arruda, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Magstadt, Drew R.; Schwartz, Kent J.; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Abby R.; Visek, Callie A.; Victoria, Joseph G.
Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41
Arruda, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Magstadt, Drew R; Schwartz, Kent J; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A; Patterson, Abby R; Visek, Callie A; Victoria, Joseph G
Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41
Attenhofer Jost, C H
The incidence of patients with degenerative valvular but also of patients with congenital heart disease surviving until adulthood or even old age will increase in the next decades. Auscultation with the stethoscope remains an important diagnostic means in the detection and treatment of heart disease. Heart murmurs (especially systolic heart murmurs) are extremely common. There are helpful clues to differentiate heart murmurs. It can occasionally be relatively simple to differentiate a systolic murmur due to valvular heart disease from an innocent, ejection murmur; however, there are important limitations of auscultation. Overall, auscultation and clinical examination alone do not suffice to correctly diagnose and treat patients with heart failure or a murmur Clinically significant aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation and mitral regurgitation as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are not uncommonly missed or misinterpreted. An echocardiographic exam is mandatory in all patients with more than a soft systolic murmur, any diastolic murmur, cardiac symptoms and/or ECG changes.
Roberts, Neil A.; Hilton, Emma N.; Woolf, Adrian S.
We present a scientific investigation into the pathogenesis of a urinary bladder disease. The disease in question is called urofacial syndrome (UFS), a congenital condition inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. UFS features incomplete urinary bladder emptying and vesicoureteric reflux, with a high risk of recurrent urosepsis and end-stage renal disease. The story starts from a human genomic perspective, then proceeds through experiments that seek to determine the roles of the implicated molecules in embryonic frogs and newborn mice. A future aim would be to use such biological knowledge to intelligently choose novel therapies for UFS. We focus on heparanase proteins and the peripheral nervous system, molecules and tissues that appear to be key players in the pathogenesis of UFS and therefore must also be critical for functional differentiation of healthy bladders. These considerations allow the envisioning of novel biological treatments, although the potential difficulties of targeting the developing bladder in vivo should not be underestimated. PMID:26315301
Gatzoulis, M; Hechter, S; Siu, S; Webb, G
Objective—To examine the evolving role of specialised outpatient services for adult patients with congenital heart disease. Design—A retrospective analysis of all patients attending the Toronto Congenital Cardiac Centre for Adults over three corresponding three month periods in 1987, 1992, and 1997. Setting—A tertiary referral centre. Main outcome measures—Patient demographics, residence, medical and surgical history, type and source of referral, and investigations performed. Results—In all, 570 patients were seen at the clinic during these three periods. There was a 44% and a 269% increase in workload between 1987 to 1992 and 1992 to 1997, respectively. There was a steady fall in mean age of patients seen at the clinic with time (38.5, 33.6, and 31.7 years in 1987, 1992, and 1997, respectively, p < 0.001). New referrals from community cardiologists and family physicians increased more in relative terms than did referrals from the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (6.7%, 15%, and 37.5%, p = 0.02). There was a steady increase in patients with previous reparative surgery (48.9%, 59.2%, and 69.2%, p < 0.002). The proportion of patients with previous reoperations also increased (2.3%, 10%, and 9.2%, p < 0.01). Echocardiography remained the predominant method of diagnosis. The diagnostic mix did not change with time. Conclusions—Over the past 10 years there has been a large increase in adults with congenital heart disease requiring and seeking specialised care in a tertiary health centre, with a concomitant evolution of referral patterns. These data may be helpful in planning of similar paediatric and adult cardiac services for this expanding population. Keywords: congenital heart disease; ambulatory clinics PMID:10220546
Torres-Cosme, José Luis; Rolón-Porras, Constanza; Aguinaga-Ríos, Mónica; Acosta-Granado, Pedro Manuel; Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Murguía-Peniche, Teresa
Background and Objectives Temporal trends in mortality from congenital heart disease (CHD) vary among regions. It is therefore necessary to study this problem in each country. In Mexico, congenital anomalies were responsible for 24% of infant mortality in 2013 and CHD represented 55% of total deaths from congenital anomalies among children under 1 year of age. The objectives of this study were to analyze the trends in infant mortality from CHD in Mexico (1998 to 2013), its specific causes, age at death and associated socio-demographic factors. Methods Population-based study which calculated the compounded annual growth rate of death rom CHD between 1998 and 2013. Specific causes, age at which death from CHD occurred and risk factors associated with mortality were analyzed for the year 2013. Results Infant mortality from CHD increased 24.8% from 1998 to 2013 (114.4 to 146.4/ 100,000 live births). A total of 3,593 CHD deaths occurred in 2013; the main causes were CHD with left-to-right shunt (n = 487; 19.8/100,000 live births) and cyanotic heart disease (n = 410; 16.7/100,000). A total of 1,049 (29.2%) deaths from CHD occurred during the first week of life. Risk factors associated with mortality from CHD were, in order of magnitude: non-institutional birth, rural area, birth in a public hospital and male sex. Conclusions Mortality from CHD has increased in Mexico. The main causes were CHD with left-to-right shunt, which are not necessarily fatal if treated promptly. Populations vulnerable to death from CHD were identified. Approximately one-third of the CHD occurred during the first week of life. It is important to promote early diagnosis, especially for non-institutional births. PMID:26937635
Stammers, A H; Rauch, E D; Willett, L D; Newberry, J W; Duncan, K F
Severe coagulation defects often develop in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery, both as a result of the surgical intervention, and as pre-existing defects in the hemostatic mechanisms. The following case report describes a newborn patient with complex congenital heart disease and respiratory failure whose pre-operative coagulopathy was aggressively managed prior to surgical correction. A 5-day-old, 2.5 kg child presented with interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus. On admission, he was in respiratory arrest suffering from profound acidemia. In addition, the child was hypothermic (30.1 degrees C), septic (Streptococcus viridans), and coagulopathic (disseminated intravascular coagulation-DIC). The patient was immediately intubated and initial coagulation assessment revealed the following: prothrombin time (PT) 48.9 s (international normalized ratio (INR) 15.7), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) >106 s, platelet count 30,000 mm(3), fibrinogen 15 mg dL(-1) and antithrombin III (AT-III) 10%. Before cardiac surgery could be performed, the patient's DIC was corrected with the administration of cryoprecipitate (15 ml), fresh frozen plasma (300 ml), and platelets (195 ml). In spite of the large transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, the AT-III activity, measured as a percentage, remained depressed at 33. Initial thromboelastographic (TEG) determination revealed an index of +2.02, and following 100 IU administration of an AT-III concentrate, declined to -2.32. Sequential TEG profiles were performed over several days, with the results used to guide both transfusion and medical therapy. The congenital heart defect correction was subsequently performed with satisfactory initial results, but the patient developed a fungal infection and expired on the 16th post-operative day. The present case describes techniques of coagulation management for a newborn with both a severe hemostatic defect and congenital
Smith, Andrew H; Gay, James C; Patel, Neal R
While neonates account for a significant proportion of health care expenditures related to inpatient care for congenital heart disease, key drivers of resource utilization among this population are poorly defined. Data from 2005 through 2011 were extracted from the Pediatric Health Information System for patients assigned a discharge All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group of 630 (neonates with birthweight >2499 g undergoing a major cardiovascular procedure). Mortality risk adjustment for patients undergoing operative interventions was performed with the Risk Adjusment in Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) score. A total of 13 156 cases were included in the analysis. Despite only a 3% increase in case mix index and no significant change in operative acuity over the study period (RACHS classifications of 3 or greater 67% in 2005 vs. 66% in 2011, P = .64), there were inflation-adjusted increases in both total estimated cost per case of (50% to $151 760 in 2011, P < .001), and mean charge per case (33% to $433 875 in 2011, P < .001). Pharmacy charges increased by 16% (P < .001), with agents including chlorothiazide and albumin accounting for the highest patient charges over the study period. Imaging charges increased by 42% (P < .001), with an average of 5.7 echocardiograms and $6517 in associated charges per case by 2011. While the proportion of patients receiving nitric oxide remained consistent, mean duration of administration increased by 25% to 6.6 days by 2011, accounting for average charges of $52 141 per patient exposed. Among neonates with serious congenital heart disease, increases in both institutional costs and charges to the patient are associated with relatively consistent utilization practices in recent years. Multiinstitutional collaboration may prove useful in aligning evidence-based reductions in practice variation with limitations in resource utilization without compromising the quality of care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Slooten, Ymkje J; van Melle, Joost P; Freling, Hendrik G; Bouma, Berto J; van Dijk, Arie Pj; Jongbloed, Monique Rm; Post, Martijn C; Sieswerda, Gertjan T; Huis In 't Veld, Anna; Ebels, Tjark; Voors, Adriaan A; Pieper, Petronella G
To report the prevalence of aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) in an adult population with congenital heart disease (CHD) and its impact on exercise capacity. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) with a history of aortic valve replacement may outgrow their prosthesis later in life. However, the prevalence and clinical consequences of aortic PPM in ACHD are presently unknown. From the national Dutch Congenital Corvitia (CONCOR) registry, we identified 207 ACHD with an aortic valve prosthesis for this cross-sectional cohort study. Severe PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤0.65 cm2/m2 and moderate PPM as an indexed orifice area ≤0.85 cm2/m2 measured using echocardiography. Exercise capacity was reported as percentage of predicted exercise capacity (PPEC). Of the 207 patients, 68% was male, 71% had a mechanical prosthesis and mean age at inclusion was 43.9 years ±11.4. The prevalence of PPM was 42%, comprising 23% severe PPM and 19% moderate PPM. Prevalence of PPM was higher in patients with mechanical prostheses (p<0.001). PPM was associated with poorer exercise capacity (mean PPEC 84% vs. 92%; p=0.048, mean difference =-8.3%, p=0.047). Mean follow-up was 2.6±1.1 years during which New York Heart Association (NYHA) class remained stable in most patients. PPM showed no significant effect on death or hospitalisation during follow-up (p=0.218). In this study we report a high prevalence (42%) of PPM in ACHD with an aortic valve prosthesis and an independent association of PPM with diminished exercise capacity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Menachem, Jonathan N; Golbus, Jessica R; Molina, Maria; Mazurek, Jeremy A; Hornsby, Nicole; Atluri, Pavan; Fuller, Stephanie; Birati, Edo Y; Kim, Yuli Y; Goldberg, Lee R; Wald, Joyce W
The purpose of our study is (1) to characterise patients with congenital heart disease undergoing heart transplantation by adult cardiac surgeons in a large academic medical centre and (2) to describe successful outcomes associated with our multidisciplinary approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Heart failure is the leading cause of death in patients with ACHD leading to increasing referrals for OHT. The Penn Congenital Transplant Database comprises a cohort of patients with ACHD who underwent OHT between March 2010 and April 2016. We performed a retrospective cohort study of the 20 consecutive patients. Original cardiac diagnoses include single ventricle palliated with Fontan (n=8), dextro-transposition of the great arteries after atrial switch (n=4), tetralogy of Fallot (n=4), pulmonary atresia (n=1), Ebstein anomaly (n=1), unrepaired ventricular septal defect (n=1) and Noonan syndrome with coarctation of the aorta (n=1). Eight patients required pretransplant inotropes and two required pretransplant mechanical support. Nine patients underwent heart-liver transplant and three underwent heart-lung transplant. Three patients required postoperative mechanical circulatory support. Patients were followed for an average of 38 months as of April 2016, with 100% survival at 30 days and 1 year and 94% overall survival (19/20 patients). ACHD-OHT patients require highly specialised, complex and multidisciplinary healthcare. The success of our programme is attributed to using team-based, patient-centred care including our multidisciplinary staff and specialists across programmes and departments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Central Core Disease; Centronuclear Myopathy; Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion; Multiminicore Disease; Myotubular Myopathy; Nemaline Myopathy; Rigid Spine Muscular Dystrophy; Undefined Congenital Myopathy
Farooqi, Kanwal M; Saeed, Omar; Zaidi, Ali; Sanz, Javier; Nielsen, James C; Hsu, Daphne T; Jorde, Ulrich P
As the population of adults with congenital heart disease continues to grow, so does the number of these patients with heart failure. Ventricular assist devices are underutilized in adults with congenital heart disease due to their complex anatomic arrangements and physiology. Advanced imaging techniques that may increase the utilization of mechanical circulatory support in this population must be explored. Three-dimensional printing offers individualized structural models that would enable pre-surgical planning of cannula and device placement in adults with congenital cardiac disease and heart failure who are candidates for such therapies. We present a review of relevant cardiac anomalies, cases in which such models could be utilized, and some background on the cost and procedure associated with this process.
Meier, L M; Meineri, M; Qua Hiansen, J; Horlick, E M
Advances in catheter-based interventions in structural and congenital heart disease have mandated an increased demand for three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of complex cardiac anatomy. Despite progress in 3D imaging modalities, the pre- and periprocedural visualisation of spatial anatomy is relegated to two-dimensional flat screen representations. 3D printing is an evolving technology based on the concept of additive manufacturing, where computerised digital surface renders are converted into physical models. Printed models replicate complex structures in tangible forms that cardiovascular physicians and surgeons can use for education, preprocedural planning and device testing. In this review we discuss the different steps of the 3D printing process, which include image acquisition, segmentation, printing methods and materials. We also examine the expanded applications of 3D printing in the catheter-based treatment of adult patients with structural and congenital heart disease while highlighting the current limitations of this technology in terms of segmentation, model accuracy and dynamic capabilities. Furthermore, we provide information on the resources needed to establish a hospital-based 3D printing laboratory.
Baquero-Artigao, F; del Castillo Martín, F; Fuentes Corripio, I; Goncé Mellgren, A; Fortuny Guasch, C; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; González-Tomé, M I; Couceiro Gianzo, J A; Neth, O; Ramos Amador, J T
Congenital toxoplasmosis is the result of transplacental fetal infection by Toxoplasma gondii after the primary maternal infection. The severity of the disease depends on the gestational age at transmission. First trimester infections are more severe, but less frequent, than third trimester infections. Acute maternal infection is diagnosed by seroconversion or by the detection of IgM antibodies and a low IgG avidity test. In these cases, spiramycin should be initiated to prevent transmission to the fetus. For identification of fetal infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of amniotic fluid after 18 weeks gestation should be performed. If fetal infection is confirmed, the mothers should be treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Most infants infected in utero are born with no obvious signs of toxoplasmosis, but up to 80% developed learning and visual disabilities later in life. Neonatal diagnosis with IgM/IgA antibodies or blood/cerebrospinal fluid PCR may be difficult because false-negative results frequently occur. In these cases diagnosis is possible by demonstrating a rise in IgG titers during follow-up or by the detection of antibodies beyond one year of age. Early treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine may improve the ophthalmologic and neurological outcome. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a preventable disease. Pre-pregnancy screening and appropriate counseling regarding prevention measures in seronegative women may prevent fetal infection. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Moons, P; Barrea, C; De Wolf, D; Gewillig, M; Massin, M; Mertens, L; Ovaert, C; Suys, B; Sluysmans, T
Sports camps for children with cardiac anomalies have existed for many years. However, no formal evaluation of the benefits of attending such camps has been undertaken heretofore. We assessed potential changes in the self-perceived health of children with congenital heart disease who attended a special sports camp. Thirty-one children with cardiac anomalies attended a 3-day multisports camp. Sixteen children, all of whom were 10 years or older, literate, and Dutch- or French-speaking, completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF87) before and after attending the camp. The scores of the children were compared with those of healthy peers by calculating mean standardized differences. After attendance at the sports camp, the children achieved significant improvements in the self-perception of their physical functioning, role functioning due to emotional problems, role functioning due to behavioral problems, mental health, and general behavior. The children's self-esteem and general behavior after the camp were significantly better than that of their healthy counterparts. We conclude that children with congenital heart disease who participate in activities at special sports camps may reap benefits in terms of their subjective health status. Although further research is needed, we recommend the participation in sport activities by children with heart defects, and more specifically their participation in sports camps.
Chen, Jodi; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Nord, Alex S.; Clancy, Robert R.; Wernovsky, Gil; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Hartman, Diane M.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J. William; Ichord, Rebecca
Background The prevalence of perioperative stroke in infants undergoing operations for congenital heart disease has not been well described. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stroke as assessed by postoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), characterize the neuroanatomic features of focal ischemic injury, and identify risk factors for its development. Methods Brain MRI was performed in 122 infants 3 to 14 days after cardiac operation with cardiopulmonary bypass, with or without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. Risk factors were tested by logistic regression for univariate and multivariate associations with stroke. Results Stroke was identified in 12 of 122 patients (10%). Strokes were preoperative in 6 patients and possibly intraoperative or postoperative in the other 6 patients, and were clinically silent except in 1 patient who had clinical seizures. Arterial-occlusive and watershed infarcts were identified with equal distribution in both hemispheres. Multivariate analysis identified lower birth weight, preoperative intubation, lower intraoperative hematocrit, and higher blood pressure at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit postoperatively as significant factors associated with stroke. Prematurity, younger age at operation, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest were not significantly associated with stroke. Conclusions The prevalence of stroke in infants undergoing operations for congenital heart disease was 10%, half of which occurred preoperatively. Most were clinically silent and undetected without neuroimaging. Mechanisms included thromboembolism and hypoperfusion, with patient-specific, procedure-specific, and postoperative contributions to increased risk. PMID:19699905
Glass, Hannah C; Bowman, Chelsea; Chau, Vann; Moosa, Alisha; Hersh, Adam L; Campbell, Andrew; Poskitt, Kenneth; Azakie, Anthony; Barkovich, A James; Miller, Steven P; McQuillen, Patrick S
More than 60% of newborns with severe congenital cardiac disease develop perioperative brain injuries. Known risk factors include: pre-operative hypoxemia, cardiopulmonary bypass characteristics, and post-operative hypotension. Infection is an established risk factor for white matter injury in premature newborns. In this study, we examined term infants with congenital cardiac disease requiring surgical repair to determine whether infection is associated with white matter injury. Acquired infection was specified by site - bloodstream, pneumonia, or surgical site infection - according to strict definitions. Infection was present in 23 of 127 infants. Pre- and post-operative imaging was evaluated for acquired injury by a paediatric neuroradiologist. Overall, there was no difference in newly acquired post-operative white matter injury in infants with infection (30%), compared to those without (31%). When stratified by anatomy, infants with transposition of the great arteries, and bloodstream infection had an estimated doubling of risk of white matter injury that was not significant, whereas those with single ventricle anatomy had no apparent added risk. When considering only infants without stroke, the estimated association was higher, and became significant after adjusting for duration of inotrope therapy. In this study, nosocomial infection was not associated with white matter injury. Nonetheless, when controlling for risk factors, there was an association between bloodstream infection and white matter injury in selected sub-populations. Infection prevention may have the potential to mitigate long-term neurologic impairment as a consequence of white matter injury, which underscores the importance of attention to infection control for these patients.
McCarthy, Ann L; Winters, Madeline E; Busch, David R; Gonzalez-Giraldo, Ernesto; Ko, Tiffany S; Lynch, Jennifer M; Schwab, Peter J; Xiao, Rui; Buckley, Erin M; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J
Currently two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods have been used to assess periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) severity in infants with congenital heart disease: manual volumetric lesion segmentation and an observational categorical scale. Volumetric classification is labor intensive and the categorical scale is quick but unreliable. We propose the quartered point system (QPS) as a novel, intuitive, time-efficient metric with high interrater agreement. QPS is an observational scale that asks the rater to score MRIs on the basis of lesion size, number, and distribution. Pre- and postoperative brain MRIs were obtained on term congenital heart disease infants. Three independent observers scored PVL severity using all three methods: volumetric segmentation, categorical scale, and QPS. One-hundred and thirty-five MRIs were obtained from 72 infants; PVL was seen in 48 MRIs. Volumetric measurements among the three raters were highly concordant (ρc = 0.94-0.96). Categorical scale severity scores were in poor agreement between observers (κ = 0.17) and fair agreement with volumetrically determined severity (κ = 0.26). QPS scores were in very good agreement between observers (κ = 0.82) and with volumetric severity (κ = 0.81). QPS minimizes training and sophisticated radiologic analysis and increases interrater reliability. QPS offers greater sensitivity to stratify PVL severity and has the potential to more accurately correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Jatene, Marcelo B; Riso, Arlindo A; Tanamati, Carla; Penha, Juliano; Moreira, Luiz Felipe; Atik, Edmar; Trindade, Evelinda; Stolf, Noedir A G
The increasing number of children with evolving congenital heart diseases demands greater preparation of professionals and institutions that handle them. To describe the profile of patients aged over 16 years with congenital heart disease, who have undergone surgery, and analyze the risk factors that predict hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred twenty patients (mean age 27 ± 13 years) were operated between January 1986 and December 2010. We performed a descriptive analysis of the epidemiological profile of the study population and analyzed risk factors for hospital mortality, considering the complexity score, the year in which surgery was performed, the procedure performed or not performed by the pediatric surgeon and reoperation. There was a significant increase in the number of cases from the year 2000. The average complexity score was 5.4 and the septal defects represented 45% of cases. Overall mortality was 7.7% and most procedures (973 or 61.9%) with greater complexity were performed by pediatric surgeons. Complexity (OR 1.5), reoperation (OR 2.17) and pediatric surgeon (OR 0.28) were independent risk factors influencing mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that the year in which the surgery was performed (OR 1.03), the complexity (OR 1.44) and the pediatric surgeon (OR 0.28) influenced the result. There is an increasing number of patients aged 16 years which, despite the large number of simple cases, the most complex ones were referred to pediatric surgeons, who had lower mortality, especially in recent years.
Mizuno, Masanori; Ohuchi, Hideo; Kagisaki, Koji; Miyazaki, Aya; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamada, Osamu
We treated four postoperative adults with congenital heart disease with severe restrictive hemodynamics (RH), and performed decortication (DC) with the anticipation of some relief of the RH. The catheterizations before DC showed high central venous, and right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures with "dip-and-plateau" pressure waveforms in the right and left ventricles. Upon myocardial histopathologic examination, moderate myocardial fibrotic change was demonstrated in two of three cases. DC led to decrease in type B natriuretic peptide levels in all cases, resulting in a decline in the central venous, right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures in three cases. Successful DC-related relief of RH, dilatation of the ventricles with decline in central and end-diastolic pressures, was observed in only one case. Our limited DC-related hemodynamic improvement indicates a complexity of the severe RH, which may represent a unique intractable heart failure pathophysiology in intractable postoperative adult congenital heart disease. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.
Animasahun, B A; Ekure, E N; Njokanma, O F
A double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare congenital heart disease and an uncommon cause of congestive cardiac failure. An anomalous muscle band divides the right ventricle into two cavities, causing variable degrees of obstruction. Echocardiography is considered a useful method for the diagnosis of this pathology, especially in children. An eight-year-old patient with a small ventricular septal defect (VSD) and double-chambered right ventricle presented with a history of palpitations, easy fatigability and recurrent fever. On presentation, she had features of congestive cardiac failure. A complete diagnosis was initially missed with transthoracic two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography but later obtained based on transthoracic 2-D echocardiography with Doppler facility. This was confirmed with cardiac catheterisation. The patient was referred for surgical correction, which was successful. Due to the rarity of this condition and the consequences of missing the diagnosis, we present this case in order to highlight the rarity of this congenital heart disease in childhood.
Cevik, Ayhan; Olgunturk, Rana; Kula, Serdar; Saylan, Berna; Pektas, Ayhan; Oguz, Deniz; Tunaoglu, Sedef
Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in congenital heart disease (CHD) with an isolated, large left-to-right shunt and to indicate the factors in the development of PAH. Methods. The pressure measurements in the cardiac chambers and the calculations based on the Fick's principle were compared among 3 separate groups of patients, respectively, with PAH, with hyperkinetic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), and with neither PAH nor HPH. Results. PAH was diagnosed in 30 (12.3%) patients, HPH in 35 (14.4%), while 177 (73.1%) were free of either. The highest risk for the development of PAH was found in the presence of perimembranous ventricular septal defect. A statistically significant difference was seen among these groups as to their left atrial pressure (p = 0.005) and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPmean; p < 0.001). While a correlation was present between RpI on one hand and age on the other (p = 0.014), a multiple linear regression could not evidence any correlation among age (p = 0.321), gender (p = 0.929). Conclusion. Our findings do not allow establishing a correlation between the duration of