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Sample records for congenital pouch colon

  1. Congenital pouch colon: is it really a rare pathology?

    PubMed

    Atabek, Cüneyt; Demirbağ, Suzi; Sürer, Ilhami; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Ongürü, Onder; Calişkan, Bahadir; Oztürk, Haluk

    2007-12-01

    Congenital pouch colon is a condition of a shortened and pouch-like dilated colon and it is usually associated with an anorectal malformation. The pathogenesis and embryology of congenital pouch colon are not well understood, but dietary, environmental factors and familial inheritance may be contributing factors in this pathology. Most of the cases in the literature have been reported from India. This increased regional incidence may be attributed to the lack of awareness of this pathology or its mislabeling rather than regional distribution. Congenital pouch colon is classified into four types based on the length of the abnormal colon. A variable dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid is always present in anorectal malformation. However, there is no clear definition of a limit for the dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid observed in anorectal malformation. Furthermore, many surgeons do not routinely take a biopsy from a dilated rectum or sigmoid during a colostomy procedure in anorectal malformation cases. For these reasons, type IV congenital pouch colon can be easily underdiagnosed. Surgical treatment options in type IV congenital pouch colon include resection of the affected sites of the colon or excisional tapering coloplasty. In the undiagnosed cases, congenital pouch colon results in severe constipation and overflow incontinence. We herein report two additional new cases of type IV congenital pouch colon.

  2. Congenital pouch colon in girls: Genitourinary abnormalities and their management

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Rajiv; Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Shah, Shalu; Pant, Nitin; Gupta, Amit; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Debnath, Pinaki Ranjan; Puri, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To discuss the assessment and management of genitourinary (GU) tract abnormalities in 21 girls with Types I-III congenital pouch colon (CPC), studied over a period of 10 years. Materials and Methods: Assessment included clinical and radiological assessment, examination under anesthesia (EUA), endoscopy of the lower GU tract, and evaluation of the surgical findings, operative procedures for the GU anomalies, and the results of management. Results: Initial examination of the external genitalia showed a “clover-leaf” appearance (n = 6) and a single perineal opening (n = 6). In 9 patients, the openings of the urethra and double vagina were seen, of which a vestibular fistula was seen in 5 and an anterior perineal fistula in 1. Seventeen patients (81%) had urinary incontinence (UI) - partial in 10, and complete in 7. Renal function tests, X-ray sacrum, and abdominal US were normal in all patients. Micturating cystourethrogram (n = 9) showed a wide, bladder neck incompetence (BNI) with reduced bladder capacity in seven patients. EUA and endoscopy revealed a septate vagina in all patients and the urethral opening at a “high” position (n = 14) or at a relatively normal or “low” position (n = 7). In 8 patients, the intervaginal septum was thick and fleshy. Endoscopy showed a short, wide urethra, an open incompetent bladder neck, poorly developed trigone, and reduced bladder capacity in the patients with UI. The fistula from the colonic pouch opened in the proximal urethra (n = 4), high in the vestibule (n = 3), low in the vestibule (n = 8), perineum just posterior to the vestibule (n = 1), and undetermined (n = 5). Vaginoscopy (n = 8) showed normal cervices in all and cervical mucus in 4 patients. The subtypes of CPC were Type I CPC (n = 4), Type II CPC (n = 16), and Type III CPC (n = 1). All 21 patients had uterus didelphys. In four patients with UI, during tubular colorraphy, a segment of the colonic pouch was preserved for later bladder augmentation if

  3. Congenital pouch colon in girls: Genitourinary abnormalities and their management.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Shah, Shalu; Pant, Nitin; Gupta, Amit; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Debnath, Pinaki Ranjan; Puri, Archana

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the assessment and management of genitourinary (GU) tract abnormalities in 21 girls with Types I-III congenital pouch colon (CPC), studied over a period of 10 years. Assessment included clinical and radiological assessment, examination under anesthesia (EUA), endoscopy of the lower GU tract, and evaluation of the surgical findings, operative procedures for the GU anomalies, and the results of management. Initial examination of the external genitalia showed a "clover-leaf" appearance (n = 6) and a single perineal opening (n = 6). In 9 patients, the openings of the urethra and double vagina were seen, of which a vestibular fistula was seen in 5 and an anterior perineal fistula in 1. Seventeen patients (81%) had urinary incontinence (UI) - partial in 10, and complete in 7. Renal function tests, X-ray sacrum, and abdominal US were normal in all patients. Micturating cystourethrogram (n = 9) showed a wide, bladder neck incompetence (BNI) with reduced bladder capacity in seven patients. EUA and endoscopy revealed a septate vagina in all patients and the urethral opening at a "high" position (n = 14) or at a relatively normal or "low" position (n = 7). In 8 patients, the intervaginal septum was thick and fleshy. Endoscopy showed a short, wide urethra, an open incompetent bladder neck, poorly developed trigone, and reduced bladder capacity in the patients with UI. The fistula from the colonic pouch opened in the proximal urethra (n = 4), high in the vestibule (n = 3), low in the vestibule (n = 8), perineum just posterior to the vestibule (n = 1), and undetermined (n = 5). Vaginoscopy (n = 8) showed normal cervices in all and cervical mucus in 4 patients. The subtypes of CPC were Type I CPC (n = 4), Type II CPC (n = 16), and Type III CPC (n = 1). All 21 patients had uterus didelphys. In four patients with UI, during tubular colorraphy, a segment of the colonic pouch was preserved for later bladder augmentation if required. A Young-Dees bladder-neck repair (BNR

  4. A study of the functional aberration of the pouch in anorectal malformation associated with congenital pouch colon.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, A N; Pandey, A; Rastogi, N; Mandal, M B; Gopal, S C; Gupta, D K; Srivastava, A

    2010-03-01

    There are no in vitro studies of congenital pouch colon (CPC) associated with anorectal malformation (ARM) to understand its mechanism of contractility. There is no consensus regarding the utilization of the CPC in repair of anorectal malformation. In view of the above, it was decided to carry out detailed in vitro physiological study of the excised CPC. The excised specimens of CPC were taken and 15- to 20-mm long both longitudinal and transverse strips of muscle were obtained both from the proximal and distal part. Contraction was recorded using software chart-5 for windows. Drugs used were acetylcholine, histamine, adrenaline, atropine and pheniramine maleate. The amplitude of contractions was converted to tension gram and then the tension so developed was expressed as tension per unit mass (per gram of wet tissue). There were total of 21 specimens of high ARM with CPC. Five specimens were of the complete pouch, which did not show a response to any drug and the remaining 16 had an incomplete pouch. The mean longitudinal and circular muscle contractions of these 16 samples were statistically higher for the proximal segment than the distal segment both for acetylcholine and histamine. The effect of atropine was not significant but that of adrenaline and pheniramine maleate were significant on the distal segment muscle. Congenital pouch colon being deficient or having poorly developed receptors in their wall can not function properly as a reservoir for faeces and, hence, it should be excised to allow adequate function.

  5. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome.

  6. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Patients of Congenital Pouch Colon Following Definitive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Nand Kishor; Kumar, Praveen; Dabla, Pradeep Kumar; Jhanwar, Praveen; Chadha, Rajiv; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the nutritional status in 31 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC) who had undergone definitive surgery and closure of a protective stoma, if any, at least 1 year earlier and were below 14 years age. Materials and Methods: The clinical history, demographic details, anthropometric measurements, and results of hematological and biochemical tests were recorded. In addition to collective data, analysis was also performed after grouping by age, subtype of CPC (Types I/II and Types III/IV CPC), and in Types I/II CPC patients, by whether the colonic pouch had been completely excised or else a segment preserved by tubular colorraphy (TC). Results: Severe fecal incontinence (FI) was common (64.52%). Anthropometry showed a significant malnutrition in 53.85–95.45% patients, especially stunting which was most prevalent in the 0–5 years age-group. Serum Vitamin B12, folate, and Vitamin D were lower than normal in 38.71%, 22.58%, and 74.19% patients, respectively, without statistically significant difference among the various groups studied. Patients with Types I/II CPC had a statistically significant higher incidence of anemia, low serum ferritin, and severe FI than patients with Types III/IV CPC. Patients with Types I/II CPC, managed by excision of the colonic pouch, had a higher incidence of severe FI, wasting, and thinness than those undergoing TC. Conclusions: On follow-up of the patients of CPC, anthropometry shows a high incidence of malnutrition, especially stunting in the 0–5 years age-group. There is an adequate adaptation of fluid-electrolyte homeostasis. Although Types I/II CPC patients have a significantly higher incidence of anemia and severe FI than Types III/IV CPC patients, long-term anthropometric parameters are similar. In Types I/II CPC, preservation of the colonic pouch by TC offers long-term benefit. PMID:28082770

  7. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  8. Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch

    MedlinePlus

    Restorative proctocolectomy; Ileal-anal resection; Ileal-anal pouch; J-pouch; S-pouch; Pelvic pouch; Ileal-anal pouch; Ileal ... RD, Mahmoud N, Maron DJ, Ross HM, Rombeau J. Colon and rectum. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ...

  9. Severe Dumping Syndrome in a 6-year-old Girl with Congenital Microgastria Treated by Hunt-Lawrence Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Claudia; Maestri, Luciano; Meroni, Milena; Marinoni, Federica; Riccipetitoni, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Microgastria is a rare congenital condition often associated with other anomalies. In the present report we describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with isolated CM who presented with dumping syndrome successfully treated by a Hunt-Lawrence pouch. PMID:28361011

  10. Severe Dumping Syndrome in a 6-year-old Girl with Congenital Microgastria Treated by Hunt-Lawrence Pouch.

    PubMed

    Filisetti, Claudia; Maestri, Luciano; Meroni, Milena; Marinoni, Federica; Riccipetitoni, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Microgastria is a rare congenital condition often associated with other anomalies. In the present report we describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with isolated CM who presented with dumping syndrome successfully treated by a Hunt-Lawrence pouch.

  11. Comparison of Colonic J-pouch and Straight Coloanal anastomosis after Low Anterior Resection.

    PubMed

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Towliat, Seyed Mohsen; Mohebbi, Hassan Ali; Derakhshani, Saieed; Abavisani, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The tendency towards sphincter preserving for low rectal cancers with low anterior resection, has led to the technique of straight coloanal anastomosis (SCAA) or colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis (CPAA). The aim of our study was to compare functional outcomes, complication rates and quality of life (QoL) after LAR with either a straight or colonic J pouch anastomosis. In 88 patients with rectal tumors located in lower third, who were candidate for LAR with coloanal anastomosis. They were divided for reconstruction using either SCAA (n= 47) or CPAA (n= 41) from January 2007 to May 2009. Functional results were assessed after closure of temporary loop ileostomy, 6 months postoperatively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The two groups were matched for gender, age, and preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There were no significant differences between the SCAA and CPAA groups relative to anastomotic leakage. Among patients with CPAA, the mean of 24 hours bowel movements, daytime bowel movements, incontinence scores, and incidence of urgency were significantly lower than those in the SCAA group. Also, patients with a CPAA had a significantly better quality of life. CPAA provided not only better functional results than SCAA, but also improved quality of life, thus may be the better choice.

  12. Puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage for pouch-vaginal fistula after rectal cancer surgery with colonic J pouch-anal reconstruction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after rectal cancer surgery is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. Though various surgical procedures have been reported for the repair of RVFs, the results of surgical repair are often unsatisfactory, and failure of the initial repair leads to difficulty in the later operations. Furthermore, it has been reported that cases associated with local infection result in low success rates. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman with a recurrent colonic J pouch-vaginal fistula after anoabdominal rectal resection with partial internal sphincteric resection, who achieved a good outcome following a repair using a puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage. It may be a useful option for RVF management in repair of such pouch-vaginal fistula after coloanal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection.

  13. Colonic J pouch neo-rectum versus straight anastomosis for low rectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Parray, F Q; Farouqi, U; Wani, M L; Chowdri, N A; Shaheen, F

    2014-01-01

    The development of sphincter saving procedures for low carcinoma rectum has been the consequence of oncological and technological factors. The major disadvantage associated with these procedures is the development of anterior resection syndrome because of the resection of rectal reservoir. Colonic J pouch (CJP) neorectum has been practiced as an antidote to overcome this problem. We are working at a tertiary care center, which is a high volume center for rectal cancers. We thought it worthwhile to assess the efficacy of J Pouch neorectum viz.-a-viz. a straight coloanal anastomosis for low rectal cancers. Hospital based prospective randomized study (June 2007-December 2009) low rectal cancers (4-12 cm from the anal verge). One group (20 patients) subjected to low/ultralow anterior resection with straight anastomosis (SA) and other group (22 patients) to CJP. The two groups were compared on the basis of functional outcome. Anastomotic leak, strictures, frequency of bowel movements, nocturnal bowel movements, use of retarding medication and incontinence to solids, liquids and gases were seen more in SA group. All these findings were statistically significant. We conclude that CJP has a significant functional advantage over SA and improves the overall quality-of-life in patients of low rectal cancers and the advantage persisted over a period of more than 30 months.

  14. Huge Congenital Segmental Dilatation of the Sigmoid Colon in a Neonate: A "Rarity to Meet" and a "Challenge to Treat".

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Margarita; Castellani, Christoph; Singer, Georg; Marterer, Robert; Ratschek, Manfred; Till, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Only ten cases of neonatal congenital segmental dilatation (CSD) of the colon have been described so far. We present a full-term female newborn with trisomy 21, ventricular septal defect, and gross abdominal distension. Plain abdominal radiographs revealed a huge cystic lesion occupying the left hemiabdomen. Upon laparotomy on day 4 a CSD of the distal sigmoid and proximal rectum was confirmed and resected. The proximal colon was exteriorized and the distal part closed as a Hartmann pouch. Histology confirmed a huge segmental dilatation of the sigmoid without dysganglionosis or pseudodiverticula, but normal intestinal architecture. After correction of the ventricular septal defect a low rectal end-to-end anastomosis could be performed at an age of 5 months. The postoperative course was uneventful. CSD of the sigmoid colon is extremely "rare to meet" and a "challenge to treat" in the newborn period, but clinical awareness of this entity prompts pediatric surgical success.

  15. Comparison of functional and surgical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted colonic J-pouch versus straight reconstruction after total mesorectal excision for lower rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin-Tung; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Po-Huang; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2007-07-01

    To compare the functional and surgical outcomes of colonic J-pouch and straight anastomosis in the context that both reconstruction procedures were performed laparoscopically. The present study was a randomized prospective clinical trial. Patients with lower rectal cancer requiring laparoscopic total mesorectal excision were equally randomized to either laparoscopic-assisted colonic J-pouch reconstruction or laparoscopic straight end-to-end anastomosis. The techniques of the laparoscopic-assisted colonic J-pouch reconstruction are shown in the attached video. The primary end point was the comparison of functional results in both reconstruction methods. The secondary end points included the safety (surgical morbidity and mortality), surgical efficiency, and postoperative recovery. A total of 48 patients were recruited within 2-year periods, in consideration of statistical power of 90% for comparison. There was no marked difference between patient groups undergoing colonic J-pouch surgery (n = 24) and straight anastomosis (n = 24) in various demographic and clinicopathogic parameters. The anorectal function of patients by colonic J-pouch were better than those by straight anastomosis in 3 months after operation, as evaluated by stool frequency (mean +/- standard deviation: 4.0 +/- 2.0 vs. 7.0 +/- 2.4 times/day, P < .001); use of antidiarrheal agents (29.2% [n = 7] vs. 75.0% [n = 18], P = .004); and perineal irritation (45.8% [n = 11] vs. 79.2% [n = 19], P = .037). Because of the relatively better bowel function in immediate postoperative period, patients by colonic J-pouch reconstruction were less disabled after surgery and had quicker return to partial activity (P = .039), full activity (P < .001), and work (P < .001). Both reconstruction methods were performed with similar amounts of blood loss, complication rates, and postoperative recovery. However, the operation time was significantly longer in the colonic J-pouch group (274.4 +/- 34.0 vs. 202.0 +/- 28.0 minutes

  16. Huge Congenital Segmental Dilatation of the Sigmoid Colon in a Neonate: A “Rarity to Meet” and a “Challenge to Treat”

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Margarita; Ratschek, Manfred; Till, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Only ten cases of neonatal congenital segmental dilatation (CSD) of the colon have been described so far. We present a full-term female newborn with trisomy 21, ventricular septal defect, and gross abdominal distension. Plain abdominal radiographs revealed a huge cystic lesion occupying the left hemiabdomen. Upon laparotomy on day 4 a CSD of the distal sigmoid and proximal rectum was confirmed and resected. The proximal colon was exteriorized and the distal part closed as a Hartmann pouch. Histology confirmed a huge segmental dilatation of the sigmoid without dysganglionosis or pseudodiverticula, but normal intestinal architecture. After correction of the ventricular septal defect a low rectal end-to-end anastomosis could be performed at an age of 5 months. The postoperative course was uneventful. CSD of the sigmoid colon is extremely “rare to meet” and a “challenge to treat” in the newborn period, but clinical awareness of this entity prompts pediatric surgical success. PMID:27239360

  17. Gastric-type extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in the blind pouch of a bypassed stomach, presenting as colonic pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sarah; Manivel, Carlos J; Ramaswamy, Archana; Mesa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma after gastric bypass is rare. Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA) of the stomach is a rare variant that has been mostly reported in Japan. We present a case of a 68-year-old man with EWDA arising in the bypassed stomach that presented as a colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO). Several imaging, endoscopic and pathologic studies performed in the course of 2 months were non-diagnostic. An iatrogenic duodenal perforation during a diagnostic procedure led to an emergent exploratory laparotomy in which the dilated colonic segment was resected. Pathologic examination showed metastatic EWDA in the colonic wall. Post-operative complications led to the patient's demise. At autopsy the primary tumor was identified in the blind pouch of the bypassed stomach. A literature review on gastric EWDA and carcinomas arising in bypassed stomachs is discussed. EWDA of the stomach is rare, difficult to diagnose, and shows an aggressive clinical course discordant with its near-benign histology. Gastric cancer arising in a bypassed stomach is uncommon; when it occurs it is usually diagnosed at advanced stage. Surveillance of the blind pouch is not currently recommended. Malignant infiltration of the colonic wall should be included in the differential diagnosis of CPO of unclear etiology.

  18. Lengthening of the mesentery using the marginal vascular arcade of the right colon as the blood supply to the ileal pouch.

    PubMed

    Goes, R N; Nguyen, P; Huang, D; Beart, R W

    1995-08-01

    Creation of a safe ileal pouch requires a tension-free anastomosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a technical procedure that increases the length of the mesentery while preserving the blood supply to the ileal pouch. Preservation of the marginal vascular arcade (MVA) of the right colon will allow ligation of more mesenteric vessels and increase the mesenteric length. Six fresh cadavers were dissected. Measurement of the apex of the terminal ileum was done in relation to the pubic symphysis. Measurements were taken after 1) complete mobilization of the terminal ileum, right colon, and hepatic flexure; 2) vascular ligation between colon wall and the MVA, preserving the latter from the right branch of the middle colic artery to the ileal branch of the ileocolic artery (ICA); 3) ligation of the distal third of the superior mesenteric artery; 4) ligation of the ICA at its origin; 5) ligation of the right colon artery; and 6) division of the terminal ileal mesentery. This technique enabled complete division of the terminal ileal mesentery, adding a mean additional 3.6 (range, 2.5 - 5.0) cm (36.5 +/- 16.5 percent) in length to the mesentery, compared with superior mesenteric artery, ICA, and right colic artery ligation. Patients who have a shorter mesentery and concern of excessive mesenteric tension should have colectomy performed, preserving the MVA from the middle colic artery to the ileal branch of the ICA. The preserved MVA can be a reliable alternative blood supply to the pouch if more mesenteric vessel ligations are necessary.

  19. [A case of low anterior resection combined with resection of the prostate seminal vesicle urethra for douglas' pouch metastasis of the colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryo; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Murata, Kohei

    2011-11-01

    A-71-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer underwent sigmoidectomy in 2004. Ascites cytology was positive. He had a postoperative chemotherapy, but cancer recurred on the Douglas' pouch in the first year after the surgery. After chemoradiation, he underwent a low anterior resection with combined resection of the prostate seminal vesicle urethra in 2005. Four years after the recurrence, metastasis of the right lung S9 occurred, and he underwent right lower lobectomy. One year later, metastasis of the left lung S6 occurred, he underwent a partial resection of S6. Later a local recurrence has not been observed. Among the colon cancer recurrence, we think the surgery was effective for local recurrence disease with adequate observation.

  20. The "pouch" of the Douglas's pouch.

    PubMed

    Sall, I; Diémé, E; Diallo, M; Bénadji, E; Diouf, M; Ndiaye, B; Fall, O; Sow, A; Diakhaté, I C; Ogougbémy, M

    2017-06-01

    Hernia is described as the protrusion of an organ into the wall of its normal containing cavity. Internal hernia (IH) involves protrusion of viscera through: a peritoneal or mesentery defect, a normal or abnormal compartment of the peritoneal cavity. Hernias occurring in the pelvis cavity are usually classified according to the fascial margins breached and include sciatic, obturator and those through the rectouterin pouch: elytrocele and enterocele. Those hernias are defined by the protrusion of a viscus through the wall of the pelvis due to weakness of the pelvic fascia and/or muscles. Pelvic hernia through the pouch of Douglas (PD) involves the genital tract in female (elytrocele and enterocele). Sometimes described in the literature as Douglas hernia, this type of hernia must be distinguished from the conventional IH. As defined before, the borders to be considered for IH is the peritoneal membrane, which is not a real solid wall but delimitates the peritoneal cavity; and there is no peritoneal defect in elytrocele or enterocele. A PubMed search for IH through a defect in the peritoneal PD revealed only five female cases, making this an extremely rare condition. To our knowledge, we have presented here the only published case in a male. This probably congenital and morphologic anomaly (defect) of pouch of Sir Douglas must be distinguished as the real "Douglas IH". Authors discuss the concept of a new and more detailed classification of IH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches.

    PubMed Central

    Fonkalsrud, E W; Bustorff-Silva, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of

  2. Long-term functional changes after low anterior resection for rectal cancer compared between a colonic J-pouch and a straight anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Hida, Jin-ichi; Yoshifuji, Takehito; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Hattori, Takashi; Ueda, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Eizaburou; Tokoro, Tadao; Yasutomi, Masayuki; Shiozaki, Hitoshi; Okuno, Kiyotaka

    2007-03-01

    We prospectively compared changes in function between colonic J-pouch and straight anastomoses from 1 to 5 years after low anterior resection for rectal cancer. At 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery, functional outcome was compared between 48 patients with J-pouch reconstruction (J group) and 51 with straight anastomosis (S group), using a 17-item questionnaire (overall best, 0; overall worst, 26). Reservoir function was evaluated manovolumetrically. At 5 years, patients with ultralow anastomoses (< or =4 cm from anal verge) had fewer bowel movements during day or night, and less urgency and soiling in the J than S group. At that time, patients with low anastomoses (5 to 8 cm above the verge), had fewer bowel movements at night and less urgency in the J than S group. Manovolumetric results were better in the J than S group for both anastomotic levels. Functional scores improved significantly over time for both anastomotic levels, especially in the S group. Mean scores with ultralow anastomoses were J-group, 5.6 at 1 year vs. 5.3 at 3 years (P = 0.0304) vs. 3.7 at 5 years (P < 0.0001); and S group, 10.2 at 1 year vs. 9.6 at 3 years (P = 0.0063) vs. 7.3 at 5 years (P < 0.0001). Mean scores with low anastomoses were J group, 3.4 at 1 year vs. 3.1 at 3 years (P = 0.0052) vs. 2.1 at 5 years (P = 0.0003); and S group, 5.2 at 1 year vs. 3.8 at 3 years (P < 0.0001) vs. 2.7 at 5 years (P < 0.0001). Manovolumetric results improved overtime in both groups. Functional outcome improved in the J and especially the S group over 5 years. However, function was better in the J than S group at all time points.

  3. Comparison of long-term functional results of colonic J-pouch and straight anastomosis after low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hida, Jin-ichi; Yoshifuji, Takehito; Tokoro, Tadao; Inoue, Kiyohiko; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Shiozaki, Hitoshi; Yasutomi, Masayuki

    2004-10-01

    Few reports on the long-term functional outcome of colonic J-pouch reconstruction have been published, and data comparing J-pouch and straight reconstruction are contradictory. This prospective study compares the functional outcome of colonic J-pouch and straight anastomosis five years after low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Functional outcome was compared in 46 patients with J-pouch reconstruction (J-group) and 48 patients with straight anastomosis (S-group). Clinical status was evaluated with a 17-item questionnaire inquiring about different aspects of bowel function. Reservoir function was evaluated by manovolumetry. The Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test were used to compare categoric and quantitative data, respectively. Among patients with an ultralow anastomosis (< or = 4 cm from the anal verge), the number of bowel movements during the day (> or = 5, 4.3 vs. 29.2 percent; P = 0.028) and at night (> 1/week, 4.3 vs. 33.3 percent; P = 0.013) and urgency (4.3 vs. 33.3 percent; P = 0.013) and soiling (21.7 vs. 50.0 percent; P = 0.043) were less in the J-group than in the S-group. Among patients with a low anastomosis (5 to 8 cm from the verge), patients in the J-group had fewer bowel movements at night (> 1/week, 0 vs. 20.8 percent; P = 0.028) and less urgency (0 vs. 20.8 percent; P = 0.028). Reservoir function was better in the J-group than in the S-group in both the ultralow (maximum tolerable volume (mean), 101.7 vs. 76.3 ml; P = 0.004; threshold volume (mean), 46.5 vs. 30.4 ml; P < 0.001; compliance (mean), 4.9 vs. 2.5 ml/cm H2O; P < 0.001) and low-anastomosis (maximum tolerable volume, 120.4 vs. 97.9 ml; P < 0.001; threshold volume, 58.3 vs. 40.8 ml; P < 0.001; compliance, 5.2 vs. 3.1 ml/cm H2O; P < 0.001) groups. J-pouch reconstruction increased reservoir function and provided better functional outcome than straight anastomosis, even five years after surgery, especially in patients whose anastomosis is less than 4 cm from the anal

  4. Urostomy pouches and supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 2-piece pouch system. A 1-piece system is made up of a pouch that has an adhesive or sticky layer on it. This adhesive layer has a hole that fits over the stoma. It can stay on for 1 to 3 ... A 2-piece pouch system has a skin barrier called a flange. The ...

  5. Changing your urostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... can stand over a toilet or use rolled up gauze or paper towels below your stoma to absorb the urine. When you remove the old pouch, push down on your skin to loosen it. DO NOT pull the pouch off your skin. Before you put ...

  6. Ileostomy - changing your pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes. Allow your stoma to dry completely before connecting the new pouch. Trace the shape of your ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  7. [A case of strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia with necrosis and rupture of the colon and herniation into a left hemithorax in an adult (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sarris, M; Georgoulis, J; Gatos, M; Dariotis, A

    This is a case report of a successful repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a 48 years old male that contained the transverse colon which was strangulated and ruptured in the left thoracic cavity. It was approached in two stages. First through a laparotomy the proximal part of the transverse colon was divided. The side going to the hernial sac was sutured and the proximal stump was anastomosed to the descending colon. In a second stage, two days later, through a felt thoracotomy the strangulated and ruptured colon was resected and the distal stump of the transverse colon was sutured and the hernia repaired.

  8. Changing your ostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... do. Your Ostomy Pouch Your stool may be liquid or solid, depending on the kind of surgery you had. ... bowel resection Ulcerative colitis Patient Instructions ... with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed ...

  9. Varied Presentation of Congenital Segmental Dilatation of the Intestine in Neonates: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Binod Kumar; Mirza, Bilal; Hashim, Imran; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Congenital segmental dilatation (CSD) of the intestine is a rare developmental anomaly characterized by sharply demarcated dilatation of a gastrointestinal segment and may present with intestinal obstruction. We report three cases of CSD of the intestine in neonates with varied presentation. First patient was mistaken as pneumoperitoneum on abdominal radiograph, which led to initial abdominal drain placement. The 2nd patient was a case of anorectal malformation associated with congenital pouch colon (CPC) and CSD of ileum; and the third case presented as neonatal intestinal obstruction and found to have CSD of ileum. All the patients were successfully managed in our department. PMID:27896163

  10. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Homemade male incontinence pouch.

    PubMed

    Lafrades, A R

    1999-09-01

    It is estimated that more than 13 million Americans experience incontinence or loss of bladder control. As a registered nurse specializing in urology, the author created a male drip collector, made from a female sanitary napkin (ALWAYS with Wings). This homemade male incontinence pouch is cost effective, comfortable to use, easy to make, can absorb 20 cc to 70 cc of urine, and is available in any store.

  12. Crohn's Disease of the Ileoanal Pouch.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Pemberton, John H; Loftus, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch is an increasingly recognized diagnosis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This post-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis diagnosis in conjunction with pouchitis remains the leading reason for pouch excision. Unfortunately, CD of the pouch remains a difficult diagnosis with lack of a uniform definition largely because of its similarity to common postoperative pouch complications, including pouchitis, abscess formation, or stricture at the anastomosis. Once diagnosed, treatment algorithms largely include multimodal therapy including biologics. This review focuses on the definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for CD of the pouch, a postoperative de novo diagnosis of CD.

  13. Women's health issues after ileal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Philpott, Jessica R; Barber, Matthew D; Graff, Lesley A; Shen, Bo

    2014-12-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis who require colectomy. This surgical intervention allows for resection of colon, while offering intestinal continuity with fecal continence, discontinuation of most medications related to ulcerative colitis and reduction in the risk of colitis-associated neoplasia. As a proportion of these patients are women of childbearing age, it is important to understand the impact on reproductive health and function. Although limited data exist, restorative proctocolectomy/IPAA does not seem to adversely affect menstrual function. In general, sexual function is reported to improve postsurgery with the ability to achieve orgasm unaltered. However, dyspareunia is commonly reported post restoratively. Of concern, there are data to suggest that fertility is decreased post-IPAA. The reasons stated are pelvic adhesions and obstruction of fallopian tubes. Laparoscopic approach may improve fertility outcomes by reducing postoperative adhesions as compared with the open approach. Once achieved, pregnancy in patients with IPAA is characterized by a transient increase in stool frequency that resolves postdelivery. Whether vaginal delivery or cesarean section is preferred route of delivery in these patients is still controversial. But commonly cesarean section is advocated for patients' post-IPAA to prevent anal sphincter injury and long-term effects on pouch function. All of these issues should be included in the discussion with women who are contemplating IPAA, so they are well aware of them before deciding on the best management plan.

  14. Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Simon P; Mortensen, Neil J

    2007-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum. Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission. Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery, management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure. PMID:17659667

  15. Do clinical characteristics of de novo pouch Crohn's disease after restorative proctocolectomy affect ileal pouch retention?

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinyu; Stocchi, Luca; Kiran, Ravi P; Shen, Bo; Remzi, Feza H

    2014-01-01

    Data on the association between ileal pouch retention and clinical characteristics of pouch Crohn's disease developing after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis are still limited. The aim of this study was to identify whether clinical features of pouch Crohn's disease are associated with pouch retention. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. All patients diagnosed with clinically active pouch Crohn's disease during follow-up after IPAA for ulcerative colitis or indeterminate colitis were identified from an ileal pouch registry. The definition of early vs late diagnosis was based on the median time interval to diagnosis of Crohn's disease after pouch creation. The associations between pouch retention and the clinical features and treatments of pouch Crohn's disease were analyzed. The long-term pouch retention rate was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze independent factors for pouch failure. From 1993 to 2009, a total of 65 (28 males) patients developed de novo pouch Crohn's disease during a mean 7.9 years of follow-up after pouch creation. The overall pouch retention rate was 57%. The median time from pouch creation to pouch Crohn's disease diagnosis was 3.6 years. Univariate analysis demonstrated that early diagnosis of pouch Crohn's disease, disease location, and clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis were associated with pouch outcomes, whereas medical therapy or perianal surgery was not. Multivariate analysis showed that fistula at the time of diagnosis (OR = 17.5, p = 0.002) and early diagnosis (OR = 5.70, p = 0.011) were independent risk factors for pouch failure, whereas afferent limb disease was associated with pouch retention (OR = 0.07, p = 0.018). The retrospective nature of this study and referral bias were limitations. Disease characteristics of de novo pouch Crohn's disease heavily influence pouch retention. The interval from pouch construction

  16. Diet of patients after pouch surgery may affect pouch inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ianco, Orit; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Lusthaus, Michal; Ofer, Amos; Santo, Erwin; Vaisman, Nachum; Dotan, Iris

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diet of pouch patients compared to healthy controls, and to correlate pouch patients’ diet with disease behavior. METHODS: Pouch patients were recruited and prospectively followed-up at the Comprehensive Pouch Clinic at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Pouch behavior was determined based on clinical, endoscopic and histological criteria. Healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were selected from the “MABAT” Israeli Nutrition and Public Health Governmental Study and served as the control group. All the participants completed a 106-item food frequency questionnaire categorized into food groups and nutritional values based on those used in the United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid and the Israeli food pyramid. Data on Dietary behavior, food avoidance, the use of nutritional supplements, physical activity, smoking habits, and body-mass index (BMI) were also obtained. Pouch patients who had familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 3), irritable pouch syndrome (n = 4), or patients whose pouch surgery took place less than one year previously (n = 5) were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: The pouch patients (n = 80) consumed significantly more from the bakery products food group (1.2 ± 1.4 servings/d vs 0.6 ± 1.1 servings/d, P < 0.05) and as twice as many servings from the oils and fats (4.8 ± 3.4 servings/d vs 2.4 ± 2 servings/d, P < 0.05), and the nuts and seeds food group (0.3 ± 0.6 servings/d vs 0.1 ± 0.4 servings/d, P < 0.05) compared to the controls (n = 80). The pouch patients consumed significantly more total fat (97.6 ± 40.5 g/d vs 84.4 ± 39 g/d, P < 0.05) and fat components [monounsaturated fatty acids (38.4 ± 16.4 g/d vs 30 ± 14 g/d, P < 0.001), and saturated fatty acids (30 ± 15.5 g/d vs 28 ± 14.1 g/d, P < 0.00)] than the controls. In contrast, the pouch patients consumed significantly fewer carbohydrates (305.5 ± 141.4 g/d vs 369 ± 215.2 g/d, P = 0.03), sugars (124 ± 76.2 g/d vs 157.5 ± 90.4 g/d, P

  17. Diet of patients after pouch surgery may affect pouch inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ianco, Orit; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Lusthaus, Michal; Ofer, Amos; Santo, Erwin; Vaisman, Nachum; Dotan, Iris

    2013-10-14

    To investigate the diet of pouch patients compared to healthy controls, and to correlate pouch patients' diet with disease behavior. Pouch patients were recruited and prospectively followed-up at the Comprehensive Pouch Clinic at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Pouch behavior was determined based on clinical, endoscopic and histological criteria. Healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were selected from the "MABAT" Israeli Nutrition and Public Health Governmental Study and served as the control group. All the participants completed a 106-item food frequency questionnaire categorized into food groups and nutritional values based on those used in the United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid and the Israeli food pyramid. Data on Dietary behavior, food avoidance, the use of nutritional supplements, physical activity, smoking habits, and body-mass index (BMI) were also obtained. Pouch patients who had familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 3), irritable pouch syndrome (n = 4), or patients whose pouch surgery took place less than one year previously (n = 5) were excluded from analysis. The pouch patients (n = 80) consumed significantly more from the bakery products food group (1.2 ± 1.4 servings/d vs 0.6 ± 1.1 servings/d, P < 0.05) and as twice as many servings from the oils and fats (4.8 ± 3.4 servings/d vs 2.4 ± 2 servings/d, P < 0.05), and the nuts and seeds food group (0.3 ± 0.6 servings/d vs 0.1 ± 0.4 servings/d, P < 0.05) compared to the controls (n = 80). The pouch patients consumed significantly more total fat (97.6 ± 40.5 g/d vs 84.4 ± 39 g/d, P < 0.05) and fat components [monounsaturated fatty acids (38.4 ± 16.4 g/d vs 30 ± 14 g/d, P < 0.001), and saturated fatty acids (30 ± 15.5 g/d vs 28 ± 14.1 g/d, P < 0.00)] than the controls. In contrast, the pouch patients consumed significantly fewer carbohydrates (305.5 ± 141.4 g/d vs 369 ± 215.2 g/d, P = 0.03), sugars (124 ± 76.2 g/d vs 157.5 ± 90.4 g/d, P = 0.01), theobromine (77.8

  18. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    PubMed Central

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). PMID:26195886

  19. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    PubMed

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA).

  20. Male issues of the ileal pouch.

    PubMed

    Kani, Haluk T; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the standard surgical treatment modality for patients with ulcerative colitis who require colectomy. There are special issues related to male gender. We performed systemic literature review on the topic, incorporating the experience in our specialized Center for Ileal Pouch Disorders, and provide recommendations for the identification and management for the gender-specific issues in male patients with ileal pouches. Chronic pouchitis, particularly ischemic pouchitis, anastomotic leak, and presacral sinus are more common in male patients than their female counterparts. Sexual dysfunction can occur after pouch surgery, particularly in those with pouch failure. Diagnosis and management of benign and malignant prostate diseases can be challenging due to the altered pelvic anatomy from the surgery. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer screening is not reliable. Transpouch biopsy of prostate may lead to pouch fistula or abscess. Pelvic radiation therapy may have an adverse impact on the pouch function. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction and enlarged prostate can occur in patients with the ileal pouch. The measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen is a preferred method for the screening of prostate cancer. If biopsy of the prostate is needed, the perineal route is recommended. The risk for pouch dysfunction and the benefit for oncologic survival of pelvic radiation for prostate cancer should be carefully balanced.

  1. Functional results after TME: J-pouch vs straight coloanal anastomosis and role of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luglio, Gaetano; Masone, Stefania; Quarto, Gennaro; Benassai, Giacomo; Sollazzo, Viviana; Tarquini, Rachele; Celentano, Valerio; Giglio, Mariano; Bucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to evaluate short and long term functional outcomes after TME (total mesorectal excision) for rectal cancer. The role of straight anastomosis or colonic J-pouch reconstruction is investigated, as well as the impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy is analyzed as a cause of the so called "anterior resection syndrome". We enrolled 40 patients (17 male and 23 female), in which a low anterior resection was performed: they were divided in four groups: A1 (Straight and no RCT), A2 (Straight and RCT), B1 (J-pouch and no RCT), B2 (J-pouch and RCT). Follow-up was performed six and twelve months after surgery, through a clinical questionnaire ( to assess: stool frequency, incomplete emptying, the presence of fecal leakage, urgency and incontinence ) and through anorectal manometry ( to assess rest pressure, squeeze pressure, max tolerated volume and compliance). Results were evaluated through T-Student and Chi-Squared test. Six months after surgery, colonic J-pouch offers the best clinical and functional results, in both radiated and not radiated patients (except for incomplete emptying); in the straight group, however, there is an improvement of results after twelve months. Chemoradiation therapy is always associated with worse functional results. RCT seems to invalidate J-pouch function in particular, in fact twelve months after surgery the difference between J-Pouch and Straight groups is not statistically different for most of the parameters. J-pouch gives a real functional advantage for only six months after surgery, especially in patients treated with neoajuvant chemoradiation therapy.

  2. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  3. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  4. Ileal J-Pouch Perforation: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dogan, U; Dogan, B; Habibi, M; Erol, M K; Mayir, B; Aslaner, A; Bulbuller, N

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient who had undergone total colectomy and J-pouch ileanal anastomosis subsequent to diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis five years previously was admitted to the emergency room with complaints of severe abdominal pain of a four-day duration. Physical examination revealed widespread tenderness throughout the abdomen, especially in the lower quadrant. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed fluid between intestinal loops and computed tomography revealed free air and fluid in the abdomen. During laparotomy to expand the ileal J-pouch to approximately 12 cm in diameter, a 2-mm perforation was detected in the blind end of the ileal J-pouch. The perforation was repaired primarily and protective ileostomy was performed. During postoperative endoscopy, neither obstruction nor stasis was observed, but pouchitis was observed in the ileal J-pouch. The patient was postoperatively discharged on the 20th day and followed endoscopically. The endoscopic findings were normal in the sixth month postsurgery.

  5. Technical aspects of ileoanal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Carne, Peter W G; Pemberton, John H

    2004-02-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical procedure of choice for chronic ulcerative colitis. Since the initial description of the technique, various modifications have facilitated its evolution into a safe operation with excellent long-term outcomes. However, some aspects of the operation remain contentious. Our aim is to describe the technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and review the current literature in the areas of controversy.

  6. Models of inflammation: carrageenan air pouch.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2012-03-01

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, and the oxidative stress response. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  7. Thermal In-Pouch Microwave Sterilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-09

    chicken piece placed at the cold spot in chicken- dumpling pouches at the end of complete thermal process. PA 3679 # 308 Clos- tridium sporogenes spore ...crop was used to calculate average D-values for the dif- ferent temperatures and determine the z-value of PA 3679 spores in chicken breast. Process...the developed MW sterilization processing delivered expected lethality to C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores . Forty chicken-dumpling pouches processed in

  8. Antimicrobial Protection of Marsupial Pouch Young

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobials are believed to play a significant role in the immune protection of marsupial newborns during their pouch life. The skin of the post-reproductive pouch secretes antimicrobial lysozyme and dermcidin, which may contribute to the decreased density of certain bacteria in the pouch. A range of antimicrobial agents, such as immunoglobulins, lysozyme, transferrin, and cathelicidins, have been identified in marsupial milk. Antimicrobial assays have revealed that marsupial cathelicidins have broad-spectrum activity against a variety of bacteria and fungi, including several multi-drug resistant strains. In this article, we will review the action mechanisms of these antimicrobial compounds and discuss how they protect marsupial newborns from potentially pathogenic bacteria inside the pouch. We will also discuss the potential of marsupial antimicrobial compounds as a source of novel antibiotics. PMID:28326070

  9. Advanced rectal cancer in a long-term Hartmann's pouch: a forgotten organ revisited.

    PubMed

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed Mahmoud Abd El Aziz; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2016-01-28

    Hartmann's procedure is widely performed as a first-stage operation in cases of left colon emergencies when a one stage management is judged to be unsafe. Forty per cent of patients with Hartmann's procedure never get their stoma reversed, ending with a permanent stoma. The distal excluded Hartmann's pouch is usually forgotten compared to the proximal functioning colon. A 70-year-old man with Hartmann's procedure carried out previously for complicated diverticular disease presented with bleeding per rectum. Invasive adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology. Subsequent staging revealed a locally advanced rectal cancer. The tumour progressed despite a course of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The general condition of the patient deteriorated with development of renal failure. The patient died a few weeks later. By reporting this case, we are revisiting the long forgotten Hartmann's pouch to highlight the potential pathologies in the distal stump and to emphasise that a distal stump should not be forgotten even in asymptomatic patients. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Experimental Infection of Sheep at 45 and 60 Days of Gestation with Schmallenberg Virus Readily Led to Placental Colonization without Causing Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte; Saegerman, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Main impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on livestock consists in reproductive disorders, with teratogenic effects, abortions and stillbirths. SBV pathogenesis and viral placental crossing remain currently poorly understood. Therefore, we implemented an experimental infection of ewes, inoculated with SBV at 45 or 60 days of gestation (dg). Methodology “Mourerous” breed ewes were randomly separated in three groups: eight and nine ewes were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum at 45 and 60 dg, respectively (G45 and G60). Six other ewes were inoculated subcutaneously with sterile phosphate buffer saline as control group. All SBV inoculated ewes showed RNAemia consistent with previously published studies, they seroconverted and no clinical sign was reported. Lambs were born at term via caesarian-section, and right after birth they were blood sampled and clinically examined. Then both lambs and ewes were euthanatized and necropsied. Principal Findings/Significance No lambs showed any malformation suggestive of SBV infection and none of them had RNAemia or anti-SBV antibodies prior to colostrum uptake. Positive SBV RNA detection in organs was rare in both G45 and G60 lambs (2/11 and 1/10, respectively). Nevertheless most of the lambs in G45 (9/11) and G60 (9/10) had at least one extraembryonic structure SBV positive by RTqPCR. The number of positive extraembryonic structures was significantly higher in G60 lambs. Time of inoculation (45 or 60 dg) had no impact on the placental colonization success rate but affected the frequency of detecting the virus in the offspring extraembryonic structures by the time of lambing. SBV readily colonized the placenta when ewes were infected at 45 or 60 dg but infection of the fetuses was limited and did not lead to congenital malformations. PMID:26418420

  11. Disconnection, pouch revision and reconnection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P M; Dozois, R R; Wolff, B G; Kelly, K A

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcome of patients with a dysfunctional pelvic ileal reservoir in whom disconnection of an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), pouch revision and reanastomosis had been carried out. There were 23 patients (15 women). At the revision operation functional problems were found to be due to a long efferent spout (nine patients), sepsis and/or fistula (four), a redundant blind limb (three), a twisted pouch (three), anastomotic problems (three) or no reservoir (one). The pouch was salvaged in 16 patients and a new pouch was constructed in seven. The pouch-anal anastomosis was resutured in 22 patients and stapled in one. Postoperative complications (all minor) occurred in six patients. Two patients underwent two revision of IPAA. At a median follow-up of 5 (range 1-10) years, 11 patients reported good to excellent function, five reported fair function and one reported recurrent pouchitis. Revision surgery was unsuccessful in six of 23 patients (three had gross incontinence, two excessive bowel movements and one Crohn's disease), and they subsequently underwent pouch excision. It is concluded that revision of an ileal reservoir and IPAA can be undertaken safely with good results in carefully selected patients.

  12. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-03-18

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  13. Fourth branchial pouch sinus: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, R M; Biller, H F

    1991-07-01

    The fourth branchial pouch sinus (FBPS) is a rare translaryngeal anomaly with diverse manifestations, including neonatal stridor and recurrent deep neck infection. Review of the world literature reveals 23 reports of sinuses consistent with fourth pouch origin. We present two additional cases, including the only example of a right-sided FBPS. Retrograde excision, beginning at the piriform apex, ensures complete removal of the tract and protection of the recurrent nerve. The posterior border of the thyroid ala must be resected or retracted for adequate exposure. Failure to remove the translaryngeal portion of the tract almost guarantees recurrence.

  14. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  15. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  16. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  17. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  18. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  19. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  20. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  1. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  2. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  3. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  4. Inflammatory pouch disease: The spectrum of pouchitis

    PubMed Central

    Zezos, Petros; Saibil, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the operation of choice for medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), for UC with dysplasia, and for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). IPAA can be a treatment option for selected patients with Crohn’s colitis without perianal and/or small bowel disease. The term “pouchitis” refers to nonspecific inflammation of the pouch and is a common complication in patients with IPAA; it occurs more often in UC patients than in FAP patients. This suggests that the pathogenetic background of UC may contribute significantly to the development of pouchitis. The symptoms of pouchitis are many, and can include increased bowel frequency, urgency, tenesmus, incontinence, nocturnal seepage, rectal bleeding, abdominal cramps, and pelvic discomfort. The diagnosis of pouchitis is based on the presence of symptoms together with endoscopic and histological evidence of inflammation of the pouch. However, “pouchitis” is a general term representing a wide spectrum of diseases and conditions, which can emerge in the pouch. Based on the etiology we can sub-divide pouchitis into 2 groups: idiopathic and secondary. In idiopathic pouchitis the etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, while in secondary pouchitis there is an association with a specific causative or pathogenetic factor. Secondary pouchitis can occur in up to 30% of cases and can be classified as infectious, ischemic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced, collagenous, autoimmune-associated, or Crohn’s disease. Sometimes, cuffitis or irritable pouch syndrome can be misdiagnosed as pouchitis. Furthermore, idiopathic pouchitis itself can be sub-classified into types based on the clinical pattern, presentation, and responsiveness to antibiotic treatment. Treatment differs among the various forms of pouchitis. Therefore, it is important to establish the correct diagnosis in order to select the appropriate treatment and further

  5. Characterization of Commercial Li-ion Cells in Pouch Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The li-ion pouch design cells exhibit similar behavior under off-nominal conditions as those in metal cans that do not have the internal safety devices. Safety should be well characterized before batteries are designed. Some of the li-ion pouch cell designs studied in this program reacted most violently to overcharge conditions at the medium rates but were tolerant to overcharge at very low rates. Some pouch cell designs have higher tolerance to vacuum exposures than some others. A comparison of the pouch material itself does not show a correlation between this tolerance and the number of layers or composition of the pouch indicating that this is a property of the electrode stack design inside the pouch. Reduced pressure (8 to 10 psi) test environments show that the extent of capacity degradation under reduced pressure environments is much less than that observed under vacuum conditions. Lithium-ion Pouch format cells are not necessarily true polymer cells.

  6. Guttural pouch mycosis in six horses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Archer, R M; Knight, C G; Bishop, W J

    2012-05-01

    Six horses from several geographical locations in New Zealand presented with signs of guttural pouch mycosis. All horses had experienced epistaxis within 14 days of presentation. In five horses with epistaxis, a diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis was made on endoscopic observation of fungal plaques in the affected guttural pouches. One of these cases died before surgery was attempted. The remaining four cases underwent ligation and balloon catheter occlusion of the internal carotid artery of the affected pouch. Three of these horses survived and were reported to be healthy 1 year after surgery. One case died from haemorrhage 8 weeks after surgery. In a sixth horse, endoscopy was carried out but the affected guttural pouch which had recently haemorrhaged was not entered. This horse underwent ligation of the internal carotid and occipital arteries of the affected side but subsequently died. A diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis of the maxillary artery was confirmed by post-mortem examination. Histology revealed fungal hyphae within thrombi in the lumen of the maxillary artery in the affected guttural pouch. Two horses displayed signs consistent with cranial nerve damage in the guttural pouch. Guttural pouch mycosis. This is the first report of which we are aware of the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases of guttural pouch mycosis in horses in New Zealand. Practitioners in New Zealand should be aware of the presence and manifestations of this disease and be prepared to treat or refer horses for surgical treatment before fatal haemorrhage and/or profound neurologic signs occur.

  7. [J-pouch after total gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Prete, F; Montemurro, S; Rucci, A; Rinaldi, S; Liguori, P

    1992-04-01

    The Authors report their initial experience with the construction of a J-pouch as restorative surgery following total gastrectomy (TG) for malignant neoplasms. In the last 10 months of the 1990 upon 52 interventions for gastric cancer 31 TG were performed, and in 13 cases a J-pouch on the proximal end of the jejunal segment was constructed. No mortality or specific morbidity was registered using the totally stapled technique. Within one month 3/4 of the patients had normal meals as far as quantity and quality; also the foamy regurgitation seemed to be minimal. The ease of the reconstructive technique and the short term results obtained encourage the use of such approach.

  8. Relationship between posterior pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, T. B.; Caves, P. K.; Porter, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    The formation of posterior pharyngeal pouches is generally attributed to dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal sphincter. The reason for this dysfunction and its exact nature have not been established. Observations in the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, suggested that an association exists between pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia. Barium studies performed in patients with a pharyngeal pouch using a described technique demonstrated the presence of a hiatus hernia in 32 out of 34 patients. Illustrative case histories and a review of published work on cricopharyngeal function are provided to support our conclusions that gastro-oesophageal reflux is the primary factor leading to cricopharyngeal dysfunction, with the formation of a pharyngeal pouch in some cases. Several possible criticisms of this theory are discussed and the need for further investigation in patients with a pharyngeal pouch is emphasized. The management of patients with a pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia is briefly outlined. Images PMID:5494681

  9. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

  10. Malignant familial adenomatous polyposis treated by laparoscopic colectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zaharie, Florin; Ciorogar, George; Zaharie, Roxana; Tantau, Marcel; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2014-12-01

    The mean age of colorectal cancer in untreated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is 39 years. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient with FAP and colorectal cancer. The patient was detected with significant family history: her mother died at age 45 with colon cancer; two uncles were diagnosed with colon cancer at the age of 40 and 43 and one aunt at the age of 45 with colon cancer and gastric cancer. The treatment was laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with total excision of the mesorectum and ileal pouch anal anastomosis completed with endoanal excision of inferior rectal polyps. The histopathological report described a well differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma T1N1aMx developed on a tubulo-villous adenoma located on the rectosigmoid jonction, the rest of the polyps with benign histology.

  11. Guttural pouch diseases causing neurologic dysfunction in the horse.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre S; Watanabe, Marcos J

    2011-12-01

    The close relationship between guttural pouches, cranial nerves, and sympathetic structures make neurologic abnormalities due to diseases of the guttural pouches (especially mycosis) possible. Recognition of epistaxis or mucopurulent nasal discharge, together with signs of dysfunction of the cranial nerves in contact with the guttural pouches, are important key points in order to consider a comprehensive evaluation of these structures and further definitive diagnosis. Diseases of the guttural pouches can also cause signs such as dysphagia, abnormal soft palate positioning, laryngeal paralysis, and Horner syndrome due to lesions in one or more of the cranial nerves or sympathetic structures involved with these functions. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is essential for treatment.

  12. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... collection of fecal material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically... colostomy appliance, ostomy collector, colostomy pouch, urinary ileostomy bag, urine collecting...

  13. Total colectomy and J-pouch ileorectal anastomosis for obstructed tumours of the rectosigmoid junction.

    PubMed

    Chrysos, Emmanuel; Athanasakis, Elias; Vassilakis, John Sophocles; Zoras, Odysseas; Xynos, Evaghelos

    2002-02-01

    Subtotal colectomy with ileosigmoid or ileorectal anastomosis is one of the standard procedures for obstructed tumours of the left colon. The lower the level of the anastomosis, the greater the number of bowel motions per day. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an ileal pouch-rectal anastomosis is associated with fewer bowel motions per day. In four patients with obstructed carcinoma of the rectosigmoid junction and upper rectum, a total colectomy with removal of the upper rectum for adequate tumour clearance was used, followed by construction of a 10 cm ileal J-pouch that was subsequently anastomosed to the distal rectal stump. Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all patients. At 3 months postoperatively, anorectal manometry showed anal resting and squeeze pressures at lower normal limits and a neorectal capacity ranging from 160 to 310 mL. One year postoperatively, all patients experienced one to three normal bowel motions daily and no episodes of incontinence. Total colectomy with ileal J-pouch-rectal anastomosis is a reasonable operative alternative in cases with obstructed tumours of the rectosigmoid junction, which necessitate removal of the upper rectum.

  14. Repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis to salvage septic complications of pelvic pouches: clinical outcome and quality of life assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, V W; Wu, J S; Lavery, I C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for septic complications of pelvic pouch surgery; to assess the relationship between diagnosis and outcome; to assess quality of life after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic and perineal sepsis due to ileal pouch-anal anastomotic leaks frequently results in pouch loss. Many surgeons believe that pelvic sepsis and/or dense pelvic fibrosis makes salvage surgery unsafe or that pouches salvaged under these circumstances may not function well. As a result, there are few studies of pouch salvage procedures for septic indications. METHODS: The authors reviewed records of Cleveland Clinic Foundation patients who had undergone repeat IPAA surgery after septic complications from previous pelvic pouch surgery and who had completed at least 6 months of follow-up. Final diagnoses included ulcerative colitis (n = 22), Crohn's disease (n = 10), indeterminate colitis (n = 1), and familial polyposis (n = 2). Patients with functioning pouches were interviewed about functional problems and quality of life using an in-house questionnaire and the validated SF-36 Health Survey. RESULTS: Of 35 patients, 30 (86%) had a functioning pouch 6 months after repeat IPAA. In 4 patients, complications led to pouch removal or fecal diversion. One patient declined stoma closure. Of the patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC), 95% (21/22) had a functioning pouch 6 months after surgery. For patients with Crohn's disease (CD) 60% (6/10) have maintained a functioning pouch. Of the 30 patients with functioning pouches, 17 (57%) rated their quality of life as either "good" or "excellent," the remaining 13 (43%) selected "fair" or "poor." All said they would choose repeat IPAA surgery again. An SF-36 Health Survey completed by all patients with a functioning pouch at follow-up showed a mean physical component scale of 46.4 and a mean mental component scale of 47.6, scores well within the normal limit. CONCLUSIONS

  15. Why do central arachnoid pouches expand?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bernard; Guthkelch, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Three cases of progressive hydrocephalus, two occurring in infants and one in a 12 year old girl who also exhibited precocious puberty, were found to be associated with large arachnoid pouches originating within the posterior fossa. The pathogenesis of such cysts is discussed with special reference to the possibility that their progressive distension results from CSF pulsations of venous origin. Both a direct method of treatment (opening the cyst into the adjacent subarachnoid space) and an indirect one (insertion of a ventriculo-atrial shunt) have been used with success. Images PMID:4548436

  16. An analysis of gastric pouch anatomy in bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Capella, Rafael F; Iannace, Vincent A; Capella, Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    The goal of most bariatric surgeons has been to construct small volume pouches in the proximal stomach to restrict the intake of food. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that in addition to pouch volume, specific gastric pouch anatomy plays a significant role in weight loss. The physical properties and dynamics of the pouch in our form of gastric bypass were compared with those in the most commonly performed bariatric procedures by creating a model. Our weight loss data were reviewed and compared with data reported in the literature. According to LaPlace's and Poiseulle's Laws, a long narrow cylinder will have less wall tension and slower flow rate of material than a wider cylinder. Bariatric procedures with narrow pouches appear to produce better weight loss. Long narrow pouches should have less tendency to enlarge and should delay the transit of material to a greater degree than wider pouches according to the LaPlace's and Poiseuille's Laws. Our data and the data of others strongly suggest that long narrow pouches are the most effective operations in bariatric surgery.

  17. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate arsenic-containing compounds. (b) Classification....

  18. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and...

  19. Care of patients with stomas: the pouch change procedure.

    PubMed

    Rust, Julie

    This article discusses basic stoma care in relation to management of the pouch change procedure in a ward-based setting immediately following planned stoma-forming surgery. The article highlights psychological and practical preparation of the patient. It describes the equipment that is needed to change a pouch and examines the rationale and evidence base for the procedure.

  20. J-pouch vs. side-to-end anastomosis after hand-assisted laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer: A prospective randomized trial on short and long term outcomes including life quality and functional results.

    PubMed

    Okkabaz, Nuri; Haksal, Mustafa; Atici, Ali Emre; Altuntas, Yunus Emre; Gundogan, Ersin; Gezen, Fazli Cem; Oncel, Mustafa

    2017-09-14

    To analyze the outcomes of j-pouch and side-to-end anastomosis in rectal cancer patients treated with laparoscopic hand-assisted low anterior resection. Prospective trial on cases randomized to have a colonic j-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis after low anterior resection. Demographics, characteristics of disease and treatment, perioperative results, and functional outcomes and life quality were compared between the groups. Seventy four patients were randomized. Reservoir creation was withdrawn in 17 (23%) patients, mostly related to reach problem (n = 11, 64.7%). Anastomotic leakage rate was significantly higher in j-pouch group (8 [27.6%] vs. 0, p = 0.004). Stoma closure could not be achieved in 16 (28.1%) patients. Life quality and functional outcomes, measured 4, 8 and 12 months after the stoma reversal, were similar. Colonic j-pouch and side-to-end anastomosis are similar regarding perioperative measures including operation time, rates of postoperative complications, reoperation and 30-day mortality, and hospitalization period except anastomotic leak rate, which is higher in j-pouch group. Postoperative aspects are not different in patients receiving either technique including functional outcomes and life quality for the first year after stoma closure. In our opinion, both techniques may be preferred during the daily practice while performing laparoscopic surgery; but surgeons may be aware of a possibly higher anastomotic leak rate in case of a j-pouch. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-06-01

    The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid O2 saturation levels were lower compared with the surrounding water and decreased throughout the brooding period, reflecting greater offspring demand for O2 during development and/or decreasing paternal ability to provide O2 to the embryos. Male condition (hepatosomatic index) was negatively affected by hypoxia. Larger males had higher pouch fluid O2 saturation levels compared with smaller males, and levels were higher in the bottom section of the pouch compared with other sections. Embryo size was positively correlated with O2 availability, irrespective of their position in the pouch. Two important conclusions can be drawn from our findings. First, our results highlight a potential limitation to brooding within the pouch and dismiss the notion of closed brood pouches as well-oxygenated structures promoting the evolution of larger eggs in syngnathids. Second, we provide direct evidence that paternal care improves with male size in this species. This finding offers an explanation for the documented strong female preference for larger partners because, in terms of oxygenation, the brood pouch can restrict embryo growth.

  2. Randomized crossover comparison of adhesively coupled colostomy pouching systems.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kirsten; Seidler, Heidi

    2005-03-01

    Ostomy pouching systems affect well being and quality of life, making selection of the appropriate system a key element of ostomy care. Several innovative adhesively coupled, two-piece systems are on the market. They feature flexible low profiles, allowing pouch removal/replacement without changing the skin barrier or wafer. This facilitates inspection or pouch changes without disrupting peristomal skin. Because few controlled trials compare pouching system effectiveness, a prospective, randomized open-label, crossover study was conducted. Under the supervision of ostomy care nurses in six outpatient clinics in Germany, clinical performance of and patient preferences for two adhesively coupled, closed-end pouching systems were compared during normal use. One is a gelatin/pectin-based skin barrier sealed to the pouch with a company-specific adhesive coupling technology (System E); the other, a grooved base plate wafer adhesive pouch coupling system (System F). Seventeen attributes and seven end-of-study measures that included comfort, flexibility, wear time, ease of removal, and overall performance were assessed. Informed, consenting participants were randomly assigned to use one system for five skin barrier/wafer changes or up to 15 days and subsequently switched to the alternative system for a similar period. The 39 participants used a total of 1,645 pouches and 342 skin barriers. All were found safe as determined by incidence and nature of the reported peristomal skin problems, subject withdrawals, and adverse events for both systems. However, System E provided longer pouch wear times (P < 0.01). End-phase ratings favored System E on 10 of the 17 attributes (P < 0.04) and System Fon none. More participants preferred System E on all seven end-of-study measures, five significantly (comfort, flexibility, wear time, ease of removal, and overall performance; (P < 0.02). These participant-reported, ostomy-related outcomes underscore the importance of product evaluation

  3. A convex urostomy pouch with adhesive border: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Jacqueline; Nichols, Thom; Menier, Melissa

    Patients previously using a standard-wear convex skin barrier urostomy pouch were invited by letter from a Dispensing Appliance Contractor to evaluate a similar pouching system, but with the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border. A total of 47 patients agreed to take part. Patients were asked to try three pouches and complete one evaluation form. Study participants found the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border, was easy to use, provided them with security and the potential for longer wear time.

  4. Transendoscopic laser treatment of guttural pouch tympanites in eight foals.

    PubMed

    Tate, L P; Blikslager, A T; Little, E D

    1995-01-01

    Guttural pouch tympanites was diagnosed in eight foals with respiratory stridor and tympanic swelling in the parotid region. Three foals were treated by transendoscopic neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser fenestration of the median septum between the guttural pouches. One foal died of pneumonia, and the other two foals recovered completely, although the fenestration later closed in one foal. Five foals were treated by creating a salpingopharyngeal fistula using transendoscopic laser irradiation; complete resolution of the tympanites occurred. Transendoscopic laser surgery in standing foals may be a reasonable alternative to conventional surgery and general anesthesia for correction of guttural pouch tympanites.

  5. Intraoperative, postoperative and reoperative problems with ileoanal pouches.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P M; Pemberton, J H

    2012-04-01

    Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has been developed and refined since its introduction in the late 1970s. Nonetheless, it is a procedure associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this review was to provide a structured approach to the challenges that surgeons and physicians encounter in the management of intraoperative, postoperative and reoperative problems associated with ileoanal pouches. The review was based on relevant studies identified from an electronic search of MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases from 1975 to April 2011. There were no language or publication year restrictions. Original references in published articles were reviewed. Although the majority of patients experience long-term success with an ileoanal pouch, significant morbidity surrounds IPAA. Surgical intervention is often critical to achieve optimal control of the situation. A structured management plan will minimize the adverse consequences of the problems associated with pouches. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Occurrence and structure of epipharyngeal pouches in bears (Ursidae)

    PubMed Central

    WEISSENGRUBER, G. E.; FORSTENPOINTNER, G.; KÜBBER-HEISS, A.; RIEDELBERGER, K.; SCHWAMMER, H.; GANZBERGER, K.

    2001-01-01

    The infrequent mention of epipharyngeal pouches occurring in some species of bears indicates the scarcity of morphological and functional knowledge about these structures. In order to provide precise morphological data on the structure of these remarkable formations and to verify their taxonomic utility, the pharyngeal regions of 1 spectacled bear and 3 brown bears were examined. All these individuals possessed epipharyngeal pouches, which are tubular, blind-ending outpouchings of the caudodorsal pharyngeal wall equipped with respiratory epithelium and a thick layer of elastic fibres. While the spectacled bear and Ursus arctos syriacus possessed a single pouch on the caudodorsal wall of the nasopharynx, in Ursus arctos and Ursus arctos beringianus 2 unequally sized pouches were present. Two additional sacs of smaller size, representing outpouchings of the lateral pharyngeal wall, occurred in the spectacled bear. These findings prove epipharyngeal pouches to be constant and unique morphological features of the family Ursidae, the anatomical features suggesting involvement in the respiratory system most probably in important aspects of ursid phonation. This is the first description of epipharyngeal pouches in the spectacled bear. PMID:11322723

  7. Female sexual dysfunction after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, J W; Goetz, L; Baxter, N N; Park, J; Minami, S; Madoff, R D

    2008-07-01

    The aim was to measure female sexual function after total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis using a validated scoring system and to determine the impact of pouch function on sexual function. A cross-sectional survey was performed using a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-m). Measures of pouch function, including the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index, were also evaluated. Of 166 women eligible for inclusion, 90 responded to the questionnaires and 83 of these reported sexual activity. The mean age of the 83 women was 38.4 years and the mean time since pouch formation was 6.2 years. Thirty-nine women (47.0 per cent) had an FSFI-m score of 26 or less, indicating sexual dysfunction. The association between sexual dysfunction and stool leakage interfering with the ability to enjoy sexual activity tended toward significance (P = 0.071), but other measures of pouch function were not associated with sexual dysfunction. Some 55-80 per cent of respondents perceived no change or improved performance in the six domains of sexual function. Almost half of the respondents reported having sexual dysfunction. Although poor pouch function was not identified as an important predictor of sexual dysfunction in this series, larger studies may be required to identify associated prognostic factors clearly. (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Pediatric Endocrine Society MedlinePlus (NIH) What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  9. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Resources MedlinePlus (NIH) Mayo Clinic What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  10. Colon Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... or family history of colon polyps or colon cancer. Colon polyps often don't cause symptoms. It's important ... removed safely and completely. The best prevention for colon cancer is regular screening for polyps. Colon polyps care ...

  11. Potential role of mast cells in hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Heber, Elisa M; Trivillin, Verónica A; Tomasi, Víctor H; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, María E

    2008-11-01

    During the process of activation, mast cells release products stored in their granules. Tryptase, a protease released from mast cell granules after activation, induces tumor cell proliferation through the activation of PAR-2 (protease activated receptor 2) on the plasma membrane of carcinoma cells. Chemical cancerization (DMBA) of the hamster cheek pouch is the most accepted model of oral cancer. However, there are no reports on the activation of mast cells during experimental carcinogenesis or on the correlation between mast cell activation and cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of mast cells on the proliferation of epithelial cells at different times during the cancerization process. Paraffin serial sections of cancerized, tumor-bearing pouches were stained with Alcian Blue-Safranin to identify the different degrees of mast cell activation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify BrdU-positive cells to study tumor cell proliferation. Mast cells were counted and grouped into two categories: inactive mast cells AB-S+++ (red) and active mast cells AB+++S- (blue). Mast cell counts were performed in tumor stroma, base of the tumor (connective tissue immediately below the exophytic tumor), connective and muscle tissue underlying the cancerized epithelium (pouch wall) and adventitious tissue underlying the pouch wall. There was a significant increase in the number of mast cells at the base of tumors (p<0.001) compared to the number of mast cells in the wall of the pouch and in tumor stroma. In normal non-cancerized pouches, inactive mast cells were prevalent both in the wall (AB:S=1:2.15; p<0.001) and in the adventitious tissue (AB:S=1:1.6; p<0.004) of the hamster cheek pouch. At most of the experimental times examined, the ratio of active/inactive mast cells (AB/S) in the wall approximated unity and even reverted. The ratio of mast cells was AB:S 1:1.05 at the base of the tumor and 1:0.24 in tumor stroma (p<0

  12. Management of pouch dysfunction in a tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Ourô, S; Thava, B; Shaikh, I; Clark, S K

    2016-12-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for ulcerative colitis (UC) and some cases of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Although it offers improvement in quality of life and high patient satisfaction, pouch surgery is also associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to describe the management of patients referred to a tertiary centre with pouch dysfunction. All patients referred with pouch dysfunction from other institutions between October 2006 and November 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Information regarding initial diagnosis before RPC, type of procedure, symptoms leading to referral, relation of the appearance of symptoms to the ileostomy closure, investigations, final diagnosis, treatment and follow-up was reviewed. One hundred and twenty-one patients were included, having had RPC mostly for UC (94%), and with diverting ileostomy (83%). The most frequent reasons for referral were high frequency of defaecation in 83 (69%) patients, abdominal pain and incontinence in 45 (37%) each and perianal pain in 44 (36%). The principal investigations performed were pouchoscopy in 97 (80%) patients, examination under anaesthesia (EUA) in 62 (51%), pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 56 (46%) and contrast radiology of the pouch (pouchogram) in 45 (35%). The commonest diagnoses were pouchitis (primary and secondary) in 24 (21%) patients and anastomotic leakage in 26 (22%). After full investigation a cause for the symptoms could not be found in 24 (20%) patients, resulting in the diagnosis of exclusion of 'irritable pouch syndrome' or functional disorder. The treatments given were long-term antibiotic therapy in 29 (25%) patients, ileostomy in 19 (16%), use of a Medena catheter to promote anal evacuation in 17 (15%) and dilatation of a stenosis under anaesthetic in 12 (10%). Six (5%) patients underwent major revision surgery of the pouch with a defunctioning ileostomy and

  13. Left Atrial Septal Pouch in Cryptogenic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jonathan M.; Lombardo, Dawn M.; Barseghian, Ailin; Dhoot, Jashdeep; Hundal, Harkawal S.; Salcedo, Jonathan; Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Wong, Nathan D.; Fisher, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: The left atrial septal pouch (LASP), an anatomic variant of the interatrial septum, has uncertain clinical significance. We examined the association between LASP and ischemic stroke subtypes in patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: We determined the prevalence of LASP among consecutive patients who underwent TEE at our institution. Patients identified with ischemic strokes were further evaluated for stroke subtype using standard and modified criteria from the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). We compared the prevalence of LASP in ischemic stroke, cryptogenic stroke, and non-stroke patients using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: The mean age of all 212 patients (including stroke and non-stroke patients) was 57 years. The overall prevalence of LASP was 17% (n = 35). Of the 75 patients who were worked-up for stroke at our institution during study period, we classified 31 as cryptogenic using standard TOAST criteria. The prevalence of LASP among cryptogenic stroke patients (using standard and modified TOAST criteria) was increased compared to the prevalence among other ischemic stroke patients (26 vs. 9%, p = 0.06; PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–3.1, and 30 vs. 10%, p = 0.04; PR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2–4.1, respectively). Conclusion: In this population of relatively young patients, prevalence of LASP was increased in cryptogenic stroke compared to stroke patients of other subtypes. These findings suggest LASP is associated with cryptogenic stroke, which should be verified by future large-scale studies. PMID:25852636

  14. Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Shane; Haque, Waqar; Pereira, Kevin; Larrier, Deidre; Valdez, Tulio A

    2010-03-01

    To identify the most common pathogens involved in infections of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Third and fourth branchial pouch cyst infections are an uncommon cause of anterior neck abscesses often confused with other entities, such as thyroglossal duct cysts and thyroid abscesses leading to misdiagnosis, recurrence, and increased morbidity related to a delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Retrospective chart and literature review. Retrospective chart review case series of patients presenting to the Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology at Texas Children's Hospital from July 2004 to July 2008 with third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. A total of 11 patients were identified. All patients had left-sided lesions. Eikenella corrodens was found in 60% of cultures and was the most common organism identified in our patient group. Furthermore, 56% of the organisms isolated were anaerobic. All organisms with the exception of Staphylococcus aureus were identified as oral cavity flora. Third and fourth branchial pouch cysts provide a communication between the neck and the oral cavity through pyriform sinus tracts. The presence of oral cavity flora in a left anterior neck abscess should raise the suspicion of a branchial pouch anomaly, and subsequently alter therapeutic management.

  15. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: Points of controversy.

    PubMed

    Trigui, A; Frikha, F; Rejab, H; Ben Ameur, H; Triki, H; Ben Amar, M; Mzali, R

    2014-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the most commonly used procedure for elective treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Since its original description, the procedure has been modified in order to obtain optimal functional results with low morbidity and mortality, and yet provide a cure for the disease. In this review of the literature of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, we discuss these technical modifications, limiting our discussion to the current points of controversy. The current "hot topics" for debate are: indications for ileal pouch-anal or ileo-rectal anastomosis, indications for pouch surgery in the elderly, indeterminate colitis and Crohn's disease, the place of the laparoscopic approach, transanal mucosectomy with hand-sewn anastomosis vs. the double-stapled technique, the use of diverting ileostomy and the issue of the best route for delivery of pregnant women. Longer follow-up of patients and increased knowledge and experience with pouch surgery, coupled with ongoing prospective evaluation of the procedure are required to settle these issues. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus).

    PubMed

    Willens, Scott; Dunn, J Lawrence; Frasca, Salvatore

    2004-03-01

    An adult, male, captive lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) was presented with weight loss, anorexia, and brood pouch distention. Initial treatments included manual expression of the brood pouch followed by saline flushes and enrofloxacin infusions. Radiographs and physical examination identified a nodular swelling in the brood pouch wall. The mass was excised, but the seahorse died. Necropsy and histopathology revealed a malignant mesenchymal tumor with a collagenous stroma, and a brood pouch fibrosarcoma was diagnosed.

  17. Congenital hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Boull, Christina; Maguiness, Sheilagh M

    2016-09-01

    Congenital hemangiomas are rare solitary vascular tumors that do not proliferate after birth. They are characterized as either rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas (RICHs) or noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas (NICHs) based on their clinical progression. NICHs have no associated complications, but are persistent. RICH, while usually asymptomatic, may ulcerate or bleed early in their presentation, but involute quickly during the first few months of life. Hepatic RICHs are not associated with cutaneous RICHs, but may result in high-output cardiac failure due to arteriovenous or portovenous shunting. In the following review, the clinical characteristics and current management specific to congenital hemangiomas is discussed.

  18. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  19. Randomized Trial of Studer Pouch versus T-Pouch Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Eila C; Fairey, Adrian S; Groshen, Susan; Daneshmand, Siamak; Cai, Jie; Miranda, Gus; Skinner, Donald G

    2015-08-01

    The need to prevent reflux in the construction of an orthotopic ileal neobladder is controversial. We designed the USC-STAR trial to determine whether the T-pouch neobladder that included an antireflux mechanism was superior to the Studer pouch in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. This single center, randomized, controlled trial recruited patients with clinically nonmetastatic bladder cancer scheduled to undergo radical cystectomy with neobladder. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to undergo T-pouch or Studer ileal orthotopic neobladder. Treatment assignment was not masked. The primary end point was change in renal function from baseline to 3 years. The CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation was used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Between February 2002 and November 2009, 237 patients were randomly assigned to T-pouch ileal orthotopic neobladder and 247 to Studer ileal orthotopic neobladder. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. Between baseline and 3 years the estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased by 6.4 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) in the Studer group and 6.6 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) in the T-pouch group (p=0.35). Multivariable analysis showed that type of ileal orthotopic neobladder was not independently associated with 3-year renal function (p=0.63). However, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, age and urinary tract obstruction were independently associated with 3-year decline in renal function. Cumulative risk of urinary tract infection and overall late complications were not different between the groups, but the T-pouch was associated with an increased risk of secondary diversion related surgeries. T-pouch ileal orthotopic neobladder with an antireflux mechanism did not prevent a moderate reduction in renal function observed at 3 years compared to the Studer pouch, but did result in an increase in diversion related secondary surgical procedures

  20. Disease course and management strategy of pouch neoplasia in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Rui; Remzi, Feza H; Liu, Xiu-Li; Lian, Lei; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Shen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the disease course and management strategy for pouch neoplasia. Patients undergoing ileal pouch surgery for underlying ulcerative colitis who developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma in the pouch were identified. All eligible 44 patients were evaluated. Of the 22 patients with initial diagnosis of pouch LGD, 6 (27.3%) had persistence or progression after a median follow-up of 9.5 (4.1-17.6) years. Family history of colorectal cancer was shown to be a risk factor associated with persistence or progression of LGD (P = 0.03). Of the 12 patients with pouch high-grade dysplasia, 5 (41.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 16.7%) or synchronous (n = 4, 33.3%) pouch LGD. Pouch high-grade dysplasia either persisted or progressed in 3 patients (25.0%) after the initial management, during a median time interval of 5.4 (2.2-9.2) years. Of the 14 patients with pouch adenocarcinoma, 12 (85.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 14.3%) or synchronous dysplasia (n = 12, 85.7%). After a median follow-up of 2.1 (0.6-5.2) years, 6 patients with pouch cancer (42.9%) died. Comparison of patients with a final diagnosis of pouch adenocarcinoma (14, 32.6%), and those with dysplasia (29, 67.4%) showed that patients with adenocarcinoma were older (P = 0.04) and had a longer duration from IBD diagnosis or pouch construction to the detection of pouch neoplasia (P = 0.007 and P = 0.0013). The risk for progression of pouch dysplasia can be stratified. The presence of family history of colorectal cancer seemed to increase the risk for persistence or progression for patients with pouch LGD. The prognosis for pouch adenocarcinoma was poor.

  1. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously…

  2. Bone regeneration using the pouch-and-tunnel technique.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Robert; Etienne, Daniel; Takei, Henry; Carranza, Fermin

    2009-10-01

    Several surgical techniques, such as the papilla preservation flap, the modified papilla preservation flap, and the sulcular incision flap, have attempted to achieve clot stabilization and graft coverage in an attempt to regenerate lost tissue due to periodontal disease. This case report focuses on soft tissue root coverage and bone regeneration in a one-wall osseous defect using the pouch-and-tunnel surgical procedure. The pouch-and-tunnel surgical technique is a minimally invasive periodontal plastic surgical procedure that uses subepithelial connective tissue as a free graft in a pouch beneath the gingival margin, created by sulcular incisions around the involved teeth. The autogenous bone graft placed in this one-wall osseous defect through a sulcular incision after root planing is protected in a stable pouch-like recipient site with an abundant blood supply. The free connective tissue graft also prevents epithelial migration into the recipient site. The use of Emdogain may help with cementogenesis around the planed root surface. This technique warrants further evaluation of cases with similar defects using this surgical procedure. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:515-521.).

  3. Pouch brooding marsupial frogs transfer nutrients to developing embryos.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Marsupial frogs have a unique reproductive mode in which females carry eggs enclosed in a sealed dorsal brood pouch. While most anurans are considered to be oviparous with lecithotrophic eggs, the extensively vascularized membrane of the brood pouch in marsupial frogs suggests potential opportunities for nutrient transfer. We tested for matrotrophy in the live-bearing Gastrotheca excubitor (Hemiphractidae), through feeding insects labelled with a (13)C-fatty acid and a (15)N-amino acid to brooding marsupial frogs. We observed significant increases of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in both maternal pouch tissues and embryos, suggesting nutrient transfer. Embryo dry mass also increased with developmental stage, providing further direct evidence for matrotrophy. These results suggest that in addition to gas exchange, the vascularized brood pouch membrane of G. excubitor also enables maternal nutrient transfer. This finding revealed a suspected but untested trait in the evolution of parental care in marsupial frogs, in contrast to previous work on Gastrotheca species that release tadpoles, and suggests greater complexity in reproductive and provisioning modes than previously thought.

  4. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously…

  5. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  7. Common Inflammatory Disorders and Neoplasia of the Ileal Pouch: A Review of Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, David Hernandez; Collinsworth, Amy L.; Liu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard restorative procedure after proctocolectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require colectomy. The ileal pouch is susceptible to a variety of insults including mechanical injury, ischemia, fecal stasis, and infectious agents. In addition, the development of recurrent and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and neoplasia may occur in the ileal pouch. Although clinical, endoscopic, and radiographic examination can diagnose many ileal pouch diseases, histologic examination plays an essential role in diagnosis and management, particularly in cases with antibiotic refractory chronic pouchitis and pouch neoplasia. PMID:27785322

  8. The hamster cheek pouch: an immunologically privileged site suitable to the study of granulomatous infections.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, M S; Montenegro, M R

    1995-01-01

    The hamster cheek pouch is an invagination of oral mucosa, characterized histologically as skin-like. In this paper we describe anatomical, histological and embriological features of the pouch and comment on the pouch as an immunologically privileged site since it lacks lymphatic drainage and has few Langerhans cells. We present the review from literature and our observations after inoculation in the pouch of mycobacteriae (BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae) and a fungus (Paracoccidioides brasiliensis). Lesions in the pouch were granulomatous but smaller and long lasting; even granulomatous, the reaction was inefficient to control the proliferation of agents compared with inoculation in other sites, except for BCG. Appearance of immunity was also delayed or absent and, when it was detected, a sharp decrease in number of agents in pouch lesions was observed. These observations make the pouch an interesting site for the study of the role of immune system in infectious diseases and in granuloma formation.

  9. Gastric pouch resizing for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass failure in patients with a dilated pouch.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Antonio; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Hébuterne, Xavier; Gugenheim, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient weight loss or weight regain a few years after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is becoming a serious problem given the large diffusion of this procedure. In the present study, we analyzed the feasibility and safety of pouch resizing for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass failure in a consecutive series of 20 patients at a university hospital. A prospectively maintained database was queried regarding patient demographics, the indication for revision morbidity, the percentage of excess weight loss, and the evolution of co-morbidities. A total of 20 patients, 18 women and 2 men, with a mean age of 44 years and mean body mass index of 45.8 kg/m(2), underwent pouch resizing. No patients died; 6 patients (30%) developed complications, including acute abdomen due to volvulus of the small bowel in 1, intra-abdominal abscess in 3, and pulmonary embolus in 2. At a mean follow-up of 20 months, the percentage of excess weight loss was an average of 69.1% and persistent co-morbidities had improved or resolved. Pouch resizing has been shown to be a valuable option in the short term for weight loss failure or regain in patients who have undergone laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and have a dilated gastric pouch. However, the long-term efficacy of this procedure needs to be determined. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pouch functional outcomes after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch reconstruction in patients with ulcerative colitis: Japanese multi-center nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Sugita, Akira; Futami, Kitaro; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Kouhei; Tatsumi, Kenji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Kimura, Hideaki; Hata, Keisuke; Takahashi, Kenichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Funayama, Yuji; Higashi, Daijiro; Araki, Toshimitsu; Kusunoki, Masato; Ueda, Takeshi; Koyama, Fumikazu; Itabashi, Michio; Nezu, Riichiro; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2017-09-07

    Although several complications capable of causing pouch failure may develop after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) for ulcerative colitis (UC), the incidences and causes are conflicting and vary according to country, race and institution. To avoid pouch failure, this study aimed to evaluate the rate of pouch failure and its risk factors in UC patients over the past decade via a nationwide cohort study. We conducted a retrospective, observational, multicenter study that included 13 institutions in Japan. Patients who underwent RPC between January 2005 and December 2014 were included. The characteristics and backgrounds of the patients before and during surgery and their postoperative courses and complications were reviewed. A total of 2376 patients were evaluated over 6.7 ± 3.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-seven non-functional pouches were observed, and the functional pouch rate was 98.9% after RPC. Anastomotic leakage (odds ratio, 9.1) was selected as a risk factor for a non-functional pouch. The cumulative pouch failure rate was 4.2%/10 years. A change in diagnosis to Crohn's disease/indeterminate colitis (hazard ratio, 13.2) was identified as an independent risk factor for pouch failure. The significant risk factor for a non-functional pouch was anastomotic leakage. The optimal staged surgical procedure should be selected according to a patient's condition to avoid anastomotic failure during RPC. Changes in diagnosis after RPC confer a substantial risk of pouch failure. Additional cohort studies are needed to obtain an understanding of the long-standing clinical course of and proper treatment for pouch failure.

  11. [Congenital thrombophilia].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2016-03-01

    Congenital thrombophilia is a thrombotic diathesis caused by a variety of genetic abnormalities in blood coagulation factors or their inhibitory factors associated with physiological thrombus formation. Patients with congenital thrombophilia often present with unusual clinical episodes of venous thrombosis (occasionally combined with pulmonary embolism, known as venous thromboembolism) at a young age and recurrence in atypical vessels, such as the mesenteric vein and superior sagittal sinus, often with a family history of this condition. Studies in Japan as well as in western countries have shown congenital thrombophilia to be caused by a wide variety of genetic abnormalities in natural anticoagulant proteins, such as antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. However, there may still be many unknown causes of hereditary thrombosis. We recently reported a case of hereditary thrombosis induced by a novel mechanism of antithrombin resistance, that is, congenital thrombophilia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the coagulation factor prothrombin.

  12. Congenital cytomegalovirus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 140. Swanson EC. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: new prospects for prevention and therapy. Pediatr Clin ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Cytomegalovirus Infections Read more Latest Health News Read more Health ...

  13. Congenital cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congenital and inherited cataracts. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... Cataracts and systemic disease. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  14. Congenital syphilis

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital lues; Fetal syphilis ... which is passed from mother to child during fetal development or at birth. Nearly half of all ... Saunders; 2014:chap 143. Duff P. Maternal and fetal infections. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, ...

  15. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... while you are pregnant. Combination of Genetic and Environmental Problems Some congenital abnormalities may occur if there is a genetic tendency for the condition combined with exposure to certain environmental influences within the womb during critical stages of ...

  16. Congenital ptosis.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Davies, Brett W; Allard, Felicia D; Durairaj, Vikram D

    2014-01-01

    Congenital blepharoptosis presents within the first year of life either in isolation or as a part of many different ocular or systemic disorders. Surgical repair is challenging, and recurrence necessitating more than one operation is not uncommon. Not all patients with congenital ptosis require surgery, but children with amblyopia due to astigmatic anisometropia or deprivation may benefit from early surgical correction. A variety of surgical procedures to correct congenital ptosis have been described. The choice of procedure depends on a number of patient-specific factors, such as degree of ptosis and levator function, as well as surgeon preference and resource availability. We review the genetics, associated syndromes, and surgical treatments of congenital ptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Congenital diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Buda, Piotr; Friedman-Gruszczyńska, Joanna; Książyk, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital diarrhoea of heterogenic etiology is a rare cause of chronic diarrhoea. Characteristic features are: onset in the first weeks of life, life-threatening severe dehydratation and electrolyte disorders leading to a necessity of long-term parenteral nutrition. The clinical onset may be delayed and the degree of diarrhoea may be modest, making the diagnosis difficult. The main causes of congenital diarrhoea such as intestine electrolytes, carbohydrates, lipid and protein transport disorders and congenital enzymatic deficiencies, enterocyte polarization disorders, hormonal, immunological, metabolic, genetic and congenital anatomic disorders are presented in the paper. Some of them, such as: microvillus inclusion disease, tufting enteropathy, intestinal anedocrynosis, IPEX syndrome (immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome) have been described recently. One of the basic investigations, when congenital diarrhea is suspected, is general examination of the stool, its electrolyte concentration and serum electrolytes and blood gas analysis. Often, small bowel biopsy with histological examination (with the use of electronic microscopy and PAS staining) is indicated. In some cases molecular examination is possible and indicated. In differential diagnosis other, more frequent causes of chronic diarrhea of infancy, have to be excluded. In most of the cases of congenital diarrhoea there is no casual treatment available - usually long-term parenteral nutrition is necessary.

  18. Risk of ileal pouch neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yamao, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common surgical option for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch mucosa over time, and even carcinoma in the pouch has been reported. We therefore reviewed the prevalence, nature, and treatment of adenomas and carcinoma that develop after proctocolectomy in the ileal pouch mucosa in patients with FAP. In 25 reports that were reviewed, the incidence of adenomas in the ileal pouch varied from 6.7% to 73.9%. Several potential factors that favor the development of pouch polyposis have been investigated, but many remain controversial. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the age of the pouch is important. The risk appears to be 7% to 16% after 5 years, 35% to 42% after 10 years, and 75% after 15 years. On the other hand, only 21 cases of ileal pouch carcinoma have been recorded in the literature to date. The diagnosis of pouch carcinoma was made between 3 to 20 years (median, 10 years) after pouch construction. Although the risk of malignant transformation in ileal pouches is probably low, it is not negligible, and the long-term risk cannot presently be well quantified. Regular endoscopic surveillance, especially using chromoendoscopy, is recommended. PMID:24187452

  19. Fast pouch emptying, delayed small intestinal transit, and exaggerated gut hormone responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Dirksen, C; Damgaard, M; Bojsen-Møller, K N; Jørgensen, N B; Kielgast, U; Jacobsen, S H; Naver, L S; Worm, D; Holst, J J; Madsbad, S; Hansen, D L; Madsen, J L

    2013-04-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones. To examine whether the altered passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract after RYGB could be responsible for the changes in gut hormone release, we studied gastrointestinal motility with a scintigraphic technique as well as the secretion of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36 ) in 17 patients>1 year after RYGB and in nine healthy control subjects. At meal completion, a smaller fraction of liquid and solid radiolabeled marker was retained in the pouch of RYGB patients than in the stomach of control subjects (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Accordingly, pouch emptying in patients was faster than gastric emptying in control subjects (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively liquid and solid markers). For the solid marker, small intestinal transit was slower in patients than control subjects (P = 0.034). Colonic transit rate did not differ between the groups. GLP-1 and PYY3-36 secretion was increased in patients compared to control subjects and fast pouch emptying of the liquid marker was associated with high gut hormone secretion. After RYGB, the bulk of foods pass without hindrance into the small intestine, while the small intestinal transit is prolonged. The rapid exposure of the gut epithelium contributes to the exaggerated release of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 after RYGB. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Early dumping syndrome and reflux esophagitis prevention with pouch reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dikic, Srdjan; Randjelovic, Tomislav; Dragojevic, Svetlana; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Granic, Miroslav; Gacic, Dragan; Zdravkovic, Darko; Stefanovic, Branislav; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Pazin, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    Total gastrectomy causes numerous disorders, such as reflux esophagitis, dumping syndrome, malabsorption, and malnutrition. To minimize the consequences, different variants of reconstruction are performed. The aim of our study is the comparison of two reconstructive methods: the standard Roux-en-Y and a new modality of pouch interposition, preduodenal-pouch interposition. This study aims to investigate the advantage of bile reflux prevention and to reduce symptoms of dumping syndrome after 3- and 6-mo follow-up. A total of 60 patients were divided in two groups: (A) 30 patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction, and (B) 30 patients with the preduodenal-pouch (PDP) type of reconstruction. Endoscopic examination and endoluminal jejunal limb pressure measurements were performed. Scintigraphic measurements of half-emptying time were performed to evaluate meal elimination in the context of reflux esophagitis and early dumping syndrome. The Japan Society of Gastrointestinal Surgery has provided guidelines with which to classify the symptoms of early dumping syndrome. Patients were followed up for periods of 3 and 6 mo after the surgery. Our study groups did not differ with regard to the level of reflux esophagitis (P = 0.688). Average values of pressure at 10 and 15 cm below the esophago-jejunal junction were significantly lower in the PDP group (P < 0.001). Elimination of the test meal between two groups was not significant (P = 0.222). Evaluation of early dumping syndrome symptoms revealed a significant reduction among PDP patients after 3 and 6 mo. Our study showed significant superiority of the new pouch reconstruction over the standard Roux-en-Y approach in the treatment of early dumping syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hirschsprungs disease with congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, K D; Rao, Madan Mohan

    2012-03-01

    We report a female newborn baby who presented with vomiting and abdominal distension on day 21 of life. Examination revealed facial puffiness, open posterior fontanelles, dry skin, cold peripheries and prominent abdominal veins with visible peristalsis. Barium enema revealed dilated proximal colon, empty rectum, funnel like transition zone between proximal dilated and distal constricted bowel. Serum TSH level was >;150 uIU/mL. Biopsy revealed aganglionic segment suggesting Hirschsprungs disease, an unusual association with congenital hypothyroidism.

  2. Various presentations of fourth branchial pouch sinus tract during surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wu-Hao; Feng, Long; Sang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Liang; Yuan, Lin-Lin; Gao, Ling; Lou, Wei-Hua

    2012-05-01

    A recurrent neck abscess or acute suppurative thyroiditis should arouse suspicion of fourth branchial pouch sinus. Complete surgical excision is usually curative. The classification of sinus tract according to the area where it is emerging from the larynx may be helpful in identifying the tract during surgery. To describe our experience of the diagnosis and management of fourth branchial pouch sinus and elucidate three different emerging pathways of the sinus tract during surgery. Retrospective case series with eight patients who were diagnosed with fourth branchial pouch sinus between January 2007 and July 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Six patients presented with recurrent neck abscess, two presented with acute suppurative thyroiditis. All patients had barium swallow and sinus tract was delineated in six cases. All eight patients underwent surgical excision of the sinus tract. Three different emerging pathways of the sinus tract were identified during surgery. The tract could penetrate the thyroid cartilage near the inferior horn, the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle or the cricothyroid membrane when it emerged from the larynx. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was commonly dissected to avoid inadvertent damage. Hemithyroidectomy was performed in six patients. All eight are currently asymptomatic.

  3. The Kock pouch reconsidered: an alternative surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Alison; Williams, Julia; Woodhouse, Fran

    The psychological impact stoma surgery can have on an individual is well documented within the literature (White and Hunt, 1997; Borwell, 2009; Williams, 2005; Brown, 2005). For many years, surgeons have explored and developed innovations in surgical techniques, in particular restorative procedures with a view of preventing permanent stoma formation; ileal anal pouch (IAP) now being the surgical procedure of choice for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, high morbidity rates are associated with pouch longevity (Castillo et al 2005; Nessar and Wu, 2012) and once removed can lead to a high-output ileostomy with risks of electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption. This then creates the dilemma of whether the Kock pouch (KP) should be offered as a surgical option. This article offers a historical perspective of the KP and its place in the surgical management of UC and FAP. This article also presents results from a recent audit funded by the Ileostomy Association (IA), highlighting how patients manage their KP and the importance of maintaining bowel control and being free of an incontinent stoma as a means of coming to terms with their condition.

  4. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G; Hart, Robert W; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H

    2011-12-15

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer's design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum.

  5. Physiology of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Goes, R; Beart, R W

    1995-09-01

    Increasing experience with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) associated with increasing knowledge about anorectal physiology has lead to a large number of publications. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current understanding of fecal continence as revealed by the evolution of the ileoanal procedure. Review of the literature covering the most important physiologic parameters involved in fecal continence was undertaken. Rectoanal inhibitory reflex is probably absent after IPAA but is preserved when distal anorectal mucosa is spared. Anal resting pressure decreases but is less affected when the internal anal sphincter is less traumatized. Squeeze pressure is not importantly affected, and the importance of reservoir function as a determinant of stool frequency is emphasized. IPAA does not affect the coordination between pouch and anal canal motility in the majority of cases. Normal continence is preserved, even during the night, by preserving a gradient of pressure between the pouch and anal canal. Physiologic concepts are well established, but controversies about the continence mechanism related to IPAA remain. The IPAA procedure has allowed discrimination of details about the function of multiple structures involved in fecal continence.

  6. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  7. Plasmodium berghei-Hamster Cheek Pouch Model for the Study of Severe Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-21

    rCFILE COY ] Plasmodium berghei-llansler Cheek Pouch Model for the study of Severe Malaria Lfl C) David R. Franz, Wallace B. Baze, G. David Young...PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Plasmodium bergehei-Hamster Cheek Pouch Model...CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necesry and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Hamster cheek pouch, Plasmodium berghei

  8. Lateral congenital anomalies of the pharyngeal apparatus: part II. anatomy of the abnormal for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros

    2011-09-01

    "Anatomy of the abnormal"-a branch of surgical anatomy-deals with relations of an anomaly to surrounding entities. Here, lateral congenital anomalies of the pharyngeal apparatus are examined; their relations to entities of the neck can be explained embryologically. Location of embryonic pharyngeal arches, clefts, and pouches in the adult is presented and terminology of these anomalies (fistulas, sinuses, cysts) is defined. First "cleft and pouch" anomalies relate with the parotid and facial nerve. Second cleft and pouch anomalies course deeply to second arch structures and superficially to third arch structures. Consequently, they relate with hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerves and internal and external carotid arteries. Third cleft and pouch anomalies pass deep to third arch entities and superficial to those of the fourth arch and relate with glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves, and the internal carotid artery. The complicated course of fourth cleft and pouch anomalies brings them into relationship with glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, superior and recurrent nerves, internal carotid, aorta, and subclavian arteries. Found superficially are veins (external and anterior jugular, common facial, communicating), nerves (transverse cervical, great auricular, mandibular, cervical branches of facial), and relevant spinal nerves (e.g., accessory). Knowledge of these anatomical relations helps prevent anatomical complications.

  9. [Congenital torticollis].

    PubMed

    Wicart, P

    2012-03-01

    Congenital torticollis is a very common postural deformity, characterized by a more or less severe retraction of sternocleidomastoid muscle. Any treatment, else that "good sense" counsels given to the parents, is indicated. The evolution is spontaneously favorable in the majority of cases before the age of one year old. The elimination of differential diagnosis (vertebral and/or neurological malformations, ocular, tumor) is the key-point. Screening of congenital hip dislocation is mandatory because the physiopathology is the same in both diseases. A remaining torticolis after 18 months of age may be an indication to sternocleidomastoid muscle lengthening.

  10. Creation of a Jejunal Pouch During Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Esophagojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marc A; Ujiki, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    The creation of Hunt-Lawrence jejunal pouches after total gastrectomy is associated with a better quality of life compared with the standard Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first video to show the technical aspects of creating a jejunal pouch during a laparoscopic total gastrectomy. A 35-year-old woman was seen for surgical evaluation of a newly diagnosed CDH1 gene mutation. The authors recommended a laparoscopic total gastrectomy with Hunt-Lawrence pouch reconstruction. The jejunal pouch was created using an extracorporeal approach after removal of the stomach. A laparoscopic gel port was then placed over the extraction site to maintain pneumoperitoneum to facilitate a laparoscopic esophagojejunal pouch anastomosis using a circular stapler. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. Her pathology showed no gastric cancer, and all 31 lymph nodes harvested were free of malignancy. At 1 year postoperatively, she had lost 25 lb from her presurgerical weight and was maintaining a healthy body mass index of 24 kg/m(2). Hunt-Lawerence jejunal pouches have been shown to improve quality of life compared with esophagojejunostomy without pouch formation after total gastrectomy. This video shows a novel technique for jejunal pouch creation during laparoscopic total gastrectomy using a laparoscopic gel port after gastric extraction to facilitate a laparoscopic esophagojejunal pouch anastomosis.

  11. A review of complementary mechanisms which protect the developing marsupial pouch young.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Hinds, L A; Deane, E M; Deakin, J E

    2012-06-01

    Marsupials are born without a functioning adaptive immune system, into a non-sterile environment where they continue to develop. This review examines the extent of exposure of pouch young to microorganisms and describes the protective mechanisms that are complementary to adaptive immunity in the developing young. Complementary protective mechanisms include the role of the innate immune system and maternal protection strategies, such as immune compounds in milk, prenatal transfer of immunoglobulins, antimicrobial compounds secreted in the pouch, and chemical or mechanical cleaning of the pouch and pouch young.

  12. Preservation of speech and swallowing after excision of a pharyngeal pouch tumour.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Sankar, V; Vallamkondu, V; Chapman, A; Hussain, A

    2015-04-01

    A pharyngeal pouch is not an uncommon cause of dysphagia in older population. However, finding a tumour in a pharyngeal pouch is very rare. A 79-year-old gentleman presented with dysphagia and a neck lump. Videofluoroscopy showed a pharyngeal pouch. Rigid endoscopy confirmed a tumour arising from the pharyngeal pouch. The histology showed it to be squamous cell carcinoma. The MRI scan based staging was T3N1M0. The patient underwent modified right radical neck dissection, partial pharyngectomy with primary repair and tracheostomy. He completed postoperative radiotherapy and remained disease-free at 4 years follow-up.

  13. Tracheomalacia - congenital

    MedlinePlus

    ... are floppy. Because the windpipe is the main airway, breathing difficulties begin soon after birth. Congenital tracheomalacia is very uncommon. Symptoms Symptoms can range from mild to severe, and may include: Breathing noises that may change with position and improve during ...

  14. Congenital Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

    There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

  15. [Congenital epulis].

    PubMed

    Braga-Tavares, H; Santos, H; M-Pinto, I; Ramos, M; de Sousa, P

    2009-01-01

    Congenital epulis or gingival granular cell tumor is an uncommon benign tumor, usually diagnosed at birth as a pediculated maxilar gingival mass. Although some cases of spontaneous regression have been described, most of the lesions are surgically removed with excelent prognosis and cosmetic final result. The authors describe a case report as well as a short revision on this pathology.

  16. Congenital amusias.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, B; Albouy, P; Caclin, A

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the sophisticated music processing reported in the general population, individuals with congenital amusia show deficits in music perception and production. Congenital amusia occurs without brain damage, sensory or cognitive deficits, and has been suggested as a lifelong deficit with genetic origin. Even though recognized for a long time, this disorder has been systematically studied only relatively recently for its behavioral and neural correlates. The currently most investigated hypothesis about the underlying deficits concerns the pitch dimension, notably with impaired pitch discrimination and memory. Anatomic and functional investigations of pitch processing revealed that the amusic brain presents abnormalities in the auditory and inferior frontal cortices, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures. The deficit also impairs processing of pitch in speech material and processing of the time dimension in music for some of the amusic individuals, but does not seem to affect spatial processing. Some studies suggest at least partial dissociation in the disorder between perception and production. Recent studies revealed spared implicit pitch perception in congenital amusia, supporting the power of implicit cognition in the music domain. Current challenges consist in defining different subtypes of congenital amusia as well as developing rehabilitation programs for this "musical handicap."

  17. Congenital Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

    There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

  18. Management and outcome of pouch-vaginal fistulas after IPAA surgery.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Ismail H; Hull, Tracy L; Remzi, Feza H; Kiran, Ravi P

    2014-04-01

    After IPAA, the timing, management, and outcome of pouch-vaginal fistulas are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, management, and outcome of patients who develop a pouch-vaginal fistula. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database. The study was conducted in a single-center, high-volume tertiary referral colorectal unit. Women with a pouch-vaginal fistula after IPAA from 1983 to 2010 were included in the study. The healing rate of pouch-vaginal fistulas was measured. Of 152 patients with a pouch-vaginal fistula after IPAA, 59 fistulas occurred at <12 months, constituting the early onset group, and 43 occurred at >12 months, constituting the late-onset group. Seventy-five patients (77.3%) underwent local repair (48 (49.5%) had ileal pouch advancement flap and 27 (27.8%) had transvaginal repair). The healing rate after ileal pouch advancement flap performed as a primary procedure was 42% and 66% when performed secondarily after a different procedure. The healing rate for transvaginal repair was 55% when done as a primary procedure and 40% when performed secondarily. Nineteen patients underwent redo ileal pouch construction, with an overall pouch retention rate of 40%. At median follow-up of 83 months (range, 5-480 months), 56 (57.7%) of the 102 patients had healed the pouch-vaginal fistula, whereas pouch failure occurred in 34 women (35%, 12 early onset and 22 late onset). Healing of the fistula was significantly lower (22% versus 73%; p < 0.001) and pouch failure higher (52.7% versus 22.7%, p < 0.001) when compared with Crohn's disease. On multivariate analysis, a postoperative delayed diagnosis of Crohn's disease was associated with failure (p = 0.01). No other factors were associated with pouch failure. This was a retrospective study. Pouch-vaginal fistula after IPAA surgery is indolent and may persist after repairs. A delayed diagnosis of Crohn's disease is associated with a poor outcome and a

  19. Safety and Long-Term Performance of Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the highest energy density of the batteries available in the commercial market today. Although most lithium-ion cell designs use a metal can design, this has changed significantly in recent years. Cell designs are offered in the pouch format as they offer better volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and in some cases, higher tolerance to abuse or off-nominal conditions. In the past decade, several state-of-the-art lithium-ion pouch cell designs have been tested. The pouch cell designs have become more robust in the past two years but there are still a few issues that need to be looked into for optimization. The pouch cells seem to have a tendency to swell when left in storage under ambient conditions. The cells also swell under overvoltage and undervoltage conditions. A significant issue that has been observed is the swelling of the cells under a vacuum condition which could lead to deformation of the cell pouch after this exposure. This last factor would be very critical in the use of these cell designs for space applications as vacuum exposure is used to check for cell and battery leaks before it is flown into space. In rare cases, corrosion of the aluminum layer of the pouches has been observed in stored cells. Pouch material analysis has been carried out in an effort to understand the strength of the pouches and determine if this is a factor in the corrosion as well as unsafe condition of the cells as deformation of the inner layers of the pouch could occur when the cells swell under the various conditions described above. Pouch materials are typically aluminized plastic, made up of a layer of Al sandwiched between one or more layers of polymeric material. Deformations or cell manufacturing processes could lead to a compromise of the inner polymeric layer/s of the pouch leading to the corrosion of the Al layer in the aluminized pouch material. The safety of the pouch cell designs has been determined for cells from various

  20. Parafilm-M®, An Available Cost-Effective Alternative for Immuno-blot Pouches.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed M S

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available standard immuno-blot pouches do play an efficient role in antibody incubation in performing an immuno-blot, but are not readily available in the laboratory and have to be specifically ordered. We have developed an equally efficient technique to make an immune-blot more cost-effective with more conservation of antibodies by using a common and readily available laboratory product Parafilm-M(®). Parafilm-M(®) which serves as a sealant for various items of laboratory equipment can be used for antibody incubation. Manually made Parafilm-M(®) pouch has a clear advantage over standard immuno-blot pouches in terms of availability, cost-effectiveness, and consumption of antibodies that ultimately reduces the cost of an immuno-blot. We have performed a series of experiments to check the efficacy of both the techniques. Samples with equal amount of protein were analyzed on separate SDS PAGE gels. The proteins were transferred electrophoretically to the nitrocellulose membrane using Trans-Blot(®) Turbo™ Mini Nitrocellulose Transfer Pack. Antibody incubation was done using standard immuno-blot pouch, standard container and Parafilm-M(®) sealed pouch. The expression of protein was determined and the results of immuno-blots were compared. We found that antibodies are binding the membrane in Parafilm-M(®) pouches as efficiently as in container method or in standard immuno-blot pouches. By restricting the membrane, the surface area of the manually made Parafilm-M(®) pouch can be reduced, less diluent is required to cover the membrane as a result less antibodies are consumed. We also calculated that each immuno-blot pouch cost around $0.1906, whereas the cost for Parafilm-M(®) pouch is 0.0695 which is almost one-third the price of an immuno-blot pouch. Thus, Parafilm-M(®) method distinctly provides a cost-effective solution for antibody incubation.

  1. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    PubMed

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  2. Male sexual function improves after ileal pouch anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Gorgun, E; Remzi, F H; Montague, D K; Connor, J T; O'Brien, K; Loparo, B; Fazio, V W

    2005-11-01

    Restorative Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis has become the gold standard surgical therapy for the majority of patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis. However sexual functional disturbances after this procedure can be a concern for patients. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the outcome of sexual-function related quality of life in male patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy. One hundred and twenty-two male patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis between 1995 and 2000 were evaluated by the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scoring instrument. This index scale examines sexual function in five categories. These are erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction. The IIEF instrument was administered after surgery and then scores before and after RP/IPAA were evaluated and compared. The significance of age at the time of the surgery, type of surgery, type of anastomotic technique (mucosectomy vs stapled) and septic complications on sexual functional outcome were also investigated. Mean age at the time of the surgery was 39.9 +/- 11.5 years. The mean follow-up period (time between pouch surgery and IIEF completed) was 3.6 +/- 1.8 years. There was statistically significant improvement in 4 of 5 categories of sexual function (erectile function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction) where patients had improved scores after surgery compared to prior to surgery. The mean erectile function score increased pre to post surgery by 2.12 points (P = 0.02), which indicates better sexual results. Anastomotic technique and septic complication did not influence the results, however, older age had a negative impact on results. Despite some adverse sexual functions, male patients who undergo RP/IPAA for the surgical management of their colitis may preserve or improve their overall sexual

  3. Social and sexual function following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, B; Wettergren, A; Kirkegaard, P

    1995-03-01

    Patients who undergo surgery for ulcerative colitis are usually young and active. When surgery becomes necessary, their future social and sexual function is of major concern. This study was performed to be able to give more detailed information of what is to be expected. Forty-nine consecutive patients (26 men and 23 women) who underwent ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis between November 1983 and September 1986 in the authors' institution were personally interviewed regarding details of their preoperative and postoperative social and sexual functions. Eighty-eight percent had reduced capacity to work preoperatively compared with 6 percent postoperatively. Thirty-one percent resumed work in the period with diverting ileostomy. Leisure time activities were reduced in 47 percent preoperatively, whereas 6 percent had limitations postoperatively. In 35 percent of women, frequency of intercourse was increased postoperatively, and none reported a decreased frequency. None of the women who were able to achieve orgasm preoperatively reported a postoperative disturbance of this ability, and 16 percent experienced an increased quality of orgasm. Postoperatively none reported dyspareunia, vaginal discharge, or changes in their menstrual cycle. Frequency of intercourse and ability to achieve orgasm remained unchanged for the majority of men; however, one developed erectile dysfunction, and one complained of retrograde ejaculation. Sexual activity in men was less affected by the presence of an ileostomy, and 69 percent had intercourse in the period with ileostomy compared with 30 percent of women. None of the patients complained of anal pain, soiling, or fecal leakage during intercourse, but one women reported some discomfort from the pouch during intercourse. None of the patients wanted to return to a life with an ileostomy. The social and sexual function, quality of life, after ileal J-pouch anastomosis is improved when compared with the period with

  4. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  5. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3–77) and 62% (17–98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful. PMID:26854162

  6. Cytological and microbiological findings in guttural pouch lavages of clinically normal horses with head restraint.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, O A; Cuenca, R; Mayayo, E; Guarro, J; Santamaria, J; Stchigel, A M

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the cytological and microbiological contents of guttural pouch washes of ten randomly selected horses restrained so as to prevent them lowering their heads, and to assess the possible effects on the guttural pouch environment in these horses. Cytological and microbiological studies were performed on guttural pouch washes of ten clinically normal horses restrained in a standing position so as to prevent them from lowering their heads below normal, as would happen during transportation on long journeys. They were restrained for 12 or 24 h and cytological, bacteriological and mycological findings in guttural pouch washes were recorded. The cytological gradings and neutrophil concentrations of guttural pouch washings were higher in horses that had their heads restrained for a longer period. Washings from these horses were more likely to contain cultivable bacteria and were the only washes yielding potentially pathogenic bacterial species. Variation in the cytological differential counts and bacterial cultures of guttural pouch lavages may be found in clinically normal horses which have had their heads restrained in an elevated position for periods from 12 to 24 h. This should be considered when examining this site and care must be taken when interpreting cytology of guttural pouch lavages in samples taken after transportation for more than 12 h. Restriction of head movement could also affect the normal pouch enviroment and predispose it to disease.

  7. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-10-10

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105-365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3-77) and 62% (17-98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100-360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4-25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  8. Pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction associated with bilateral guttural pouch tympany in a foal

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old warmblood filly was presented for a 1-week history of a large, nonpainful, fluctuant swelling of the parotid and laryngeal area. Bilateral guttural pouch tympany was diagnosed. Surgical correction resolved the guttural pouch tympany; however, postoperative pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction developed. PMID:17334035

  9. Congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kose, Nusret; Campbell, Robert M

    2004-05-01

    The management of congenital scoliosis requires a systematic approach with careful attention to detail. Any fortuitous diagnosis of vertebral anomalies in infancy, even if there is no significant scoliosis at that time on x-ray, requires frequent clinical and radiographic follow-up to detect progression. The presence of associated anomalies of the spinal cord, the kidneys and the heart should be evaluated by MRI, renal ultrasound or IVP, with cardiology evaluation as indicated. Curve progression or severe vertebral anomalies known to cause curve progression require immediate treatment to prevent deformity. Significant thoracic deformity, especially in a patient with thoracic insufficiency syndrome, is best treated with expansion thoracoplasty. The patient with congenital scoliosis requires a long term commitment to care with frequent orthopaedic follow-up throughout the growing years along with routine pulmonary function assessment once the patient is able to cooperate with testing.

  10. [Congenital hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Malagón-Valdez, J

    2006-04-10

    Congenital hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly is a disorder that now can be diagnosed in uterus with ultrasonography, this gives the chance of being able to give a treatment the earliest as possible. The clinical manifestations are reviewed, the diagnosis, the frequent treatment and causes of congenital hydrocephalus, being the first agenesis of the Sylvius' aqueduct, followed by Arnold-Chiari's malformations with mielomeningocele. In most of the cases the peritoneal-ventricle shunt is the best surgery treatment and now, the treatment with ventriculostomy of third ventricle by endoscopy has fewer complications apparently and in several cases it is the definitive treatment. The evolution of the diagnosis with the support of specific therapies is effective and the early treatment is good, of course taking into account the etiology.

  11. [Congenital ranula].

    PubMed

    Marques, Maria Inês; Morais, Sofia; Coutinho, Sílvia; de Castro, Ochoa; Rei, Ana Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a case of congenital ranula diagnosed by a routine prenatal ultrasonography at 21 weeks of gestation. The fetal kariotype was normal. Follow-up ultrasound scans revealed no changes in the size or the position of the cyst. Fetal growth was normal as was the amniotic fluid volume. Surgical treatment was performed 3 days after a normal vaginal delivery, with excellent results.

  12. Congenital Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Estey, Chelsie M

    2016-03-01

    There are several types of hydrocephalus, which are characterized based on the location of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation. Physical features of animals with congenital hydrocephalus may include a dome-shaped skull, persistent fontanelle, and bilateral ventrolateral strabismus. Medical therapy involves decreasing the production of CSF. The most common surgical treatment is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Postoperative complications may include infection, blockage, drainage abnormalities, and mechanical failure.

  13. [Congenital aniridia].

    PubMed

    Chiruţa, Daria; Stan, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Aniridia is a rare congenital, hereditary, bilateral disease which is associated with various systemic and ocular defects. We present the case of a 61 year old patient who was admitted in the hospital of ophthalmology Cluj Napoca, for the symptoms caused by the ocular defects associated with aniridia. In this case, aniridia is autosomal dominant transmitted with incomplete penetrance and it is not accompanied by any systemic defects. The disease also affects three of her sons and two nephews of the patient.

  14. A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

    2014-02-01

    The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFNγ and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection.

  15. High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

  16. Cheek pouch use in relation to interspecific competition and predator risk for three guenon monkeys (Cercopithecus spp.).

    PubMed

    Buzzard, Paul J

    2006-10-01

    Forest guenons (Cercopithecus spp.) are often found in polyspecific associations that may decrease predator risk while increasing interspecific competition for food. Cheek pouch use may mitigate interspecific competition and predator risk by reducing the time spent in areas of high competition/predator risk. I investigated these ideas in three forest guenons: Campbell's monkey (Cercopithecus campbelli), spot-nosed monkey (C. petaurista), and Diana monkey (C. diana). I present 13 months of scan sample data from Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire, including 3,675, 3,330, and 5,689 records of cheek pouch distention, to quantify cheek pouch use, for Campbell's, spot-nosed, and Diana monkeys, respectively. Cheek pouches are often used to hold fruit, so I first predicted that the most frugivorous species, Diana monkeys, would have the most cheek pouch distension. Spot-nosed monkeys ate the least amount of fruit over the study period and had the least distended cheek pouches, suggesting the importance of frugivory in relation to cheek pouch distension for this species. This was not a sufficient explanation for Campbell's monkeys; Campbell's ate fruit less than Diana monkeys, but had more distended cheek pouches, suggesting that cheek pouch use was not simply a reflection of high frugivory. From the interspecific competition hypothesis, I predicted that Campbell's monkeys would have more distended cheek pouches than Diana and spot-nosed monkeys, and more distended cheek pouches when associated with Diana because Campbell's monkeys have the highest potential for interspecific competition with dominant Diana monkeys. From the predator risk hypothesis, I predicted that Campbell's would have more distended cheek pouches when not associated with highly vigilant Diana monkeys. Campbell's monkeys had the most distended cheek pouches overall, but had more distended cheek pouches when not in association with Diana, suggesting the greater importance of predator risk rather than

  17. Serology of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis After Pouch Surgery Is More Comparable with that of Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Goren, Idan; Yahav, Lior; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Dotan, Iris

    2015-10-01

    The serologic status of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who develop postoperative pouchitis was compared with that of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and unoperated patients with UC. Pouch patients were stratified into normal pouch, acute/recurrent acute pouchitis, and chronic pouchitis/Crohn's-like disease of the pouch groups. Antibodies against glycans associated with CD (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, anti-laminaribioside, anti-chitobioside, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies [ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and AMCA, respectively]) were detected and correlated with type of inflammatory bowel disease and pouch behavior. A total of 501 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases were recruited: 250 (50%) CD, 124 (24.7%) unoperated UC, and 127 (25.3%) UC-pouch. At least 1 positive antibody was detected in 77.6% CD, 52.0% UC-pouch and 33.1% unoperated UC (P < 0.0001 for all). ACCA and AMCA prevalence in CD, UC-pouch and unoperated patients with UC were 33.2%, 24.4%, and 16.9% (P = 0.003 for all) and 35.2%, 26.8%, and 7.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001 for all). ALCA and ASCA were more prevalent in patients with CD than unoperated UC and UC-pouch patients. A longer interval since pouch surgery was associated with inflammatory pouch behavior: 12.45, 11.39, and 8.5 years for acute/recurrent acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis/Crohn's-like disease of the pouch, and normal pouch, respectively, P = 0.01 for all. The prevalence of the CD-associated anti-glycan antibodies ACCA and AMCA is significantly increased in UC-pouch patients, suggesting that pouch surgery may trigger differential immune responses to glycans. The finding that the serology of UC-pouch patients shares similarities with that of patients with CD supports the notion that those 2 inflammatory bowel diseases share a common pathogenic pathway.

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Transitional Zone after Ileal Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Treatment Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pellino, Gianluca; Kontovounisios, Christos; Tait, Diana; Nicholls, John; Tekkis, Paris P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very rare. Method A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. Results Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0.06% after IPAA. Many patients had neoplasia on the preoperative specimen, but squamous metaplasia of the pouch or anorectal mucosa may have an important role in SCC. These patients are rarely offered chemoradiation therapy and the outcome is poor. Selected patients with SCC located close to the pouch outlet can be treated with chemoradiation prior to consideration of surgery and salvage their pouch. A chemoradiation regimen is suggested to avoid pouch excision in these patients. Conclusions SCC is rare after pouch surgery but associated with extremely poor survival. Very low SCC can be managed with chemoradiation treatment, preserving the pouch and avoiding surgery, even in older patients. The role of pouch metaplasia, surveillance frequency, and treatment modalities after IPAA need further studying. PMID:28203173

  19. Relationship between gastric pouch and weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Giulio; Romanucci, Giovanna; Ortu, Valeria; Zuliani, Monica; Miotto, Diego; Pomerri, Fabio; Albanese, Alice; Verdi, Daunia; Prevedello, Luca; Foletto, Mirto

    2016-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is considered safe and effective even as conversion procedure after primary bariatric operations. The correlation between gastric pouch volumes and patients weight loss remains unclear. To assess a correlation between the gastric remnant size and the weight loss, we reviewed 49 consecutive barium swallow UGS performed at our institute from August 2012 through May 2014 in LSG patients with symptoms and/or unsatisfactory weight loss. The anteroposterior (AP), laterolateral (LL) and vertical (CC) diameters of the gastric pouch were measured to calculate the volume by the formula of the ellipsoid (AP × LL × CC × 0.5). Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 without gastric pouch (n = 36) and group 2 with gastric pouch (n = 13). Correlation between pouch volume and weight loss data was calculated with t Student's and Fisher tests to compare the percent excess body mass index (BMI) and percent excess body mass loss (EBL) between two groups, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean percent EBL was 26.54 ± 11.02 and 27.12 ± 12.35 kg/m(2) in groups with and without pouch, respectively. The mean volume of the pouch after LSG was 17.13 ± 21.56 mm(3). Pouch volume, when present, was not significantly correlated to weight loss (P = 0.88 95% CI, CL 19.88-33.20 group 2; CL 22.94-31.30 group 1). No statistical correlation was found between the volume of the gastric pouch and weight loss (percent EBL) after LSG in symptomatic or with unsatisfactory weight loss patients.

  20. Histological properties and biological significance of pouch in red kangaroo, Macropus rufus.

    PubMed

    Kubota, K; Shimizu, T; Shibanai, S; Nagae, K; Nagata, S

    1989-01-01

    2 embryos, 4 youngs, 4 older youngs and the pouch of 2 mothers of the red kangaroos were examined. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The initial muscle spindles are already observed light microscopically in the vertebral, dorsal neck and forelimb muscles of the newborn baby and a little bit later in the masticatory muscles of the young of 68 mm in craniorump length and 28 g in body weight. 2. In the skin with less hair lining the inner surface of the pouch, abundant apocrine large sweat glands are observed, especially surrounding the basal region of the nipple and in the pleat formation of the skin. 3. The lactiferous mammary gland is enlarged, the lobules being divided by the interlobular muscle fiber tissue and enwrapped by the muscular capsule. The milk is squirted automatically by the muscle fiber contraction from the gland to the nipple, to which the baby attaches itself. 4. The musculature of the pouch wall is developed to form the sphincter muscle in the pouch orifice. The sphincter muscle plays an important role in conditioning the optimum temperature for the naked baby inside the pouch. 5. The apocrine perfume plays an important role in guiding the baby on the journey to the pouch after birth and the apocrine products also in maintaining the optimum humidity of the pouch to accomodate the baby. 6. During the long period of stay in the pouch, the masticatory and locomotive systems and their neuromuscular mechanism related to the herbivorous mastication become fully established and then the young leaves the pouch to feed on the animal's proper diet.

  1. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula.

    PubMed

    Karkera, Parag J; Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus.

  2. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  3. Congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Kunisaki, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have emerged as a novel, experimental approach for the treatment of a wide variety of congenital anomalies diagnosed either in utero or postnatally. There are a number of unique properties of amniotic fluid stem cells that have allowed it to become a major research focus. These include the relative ease of accessing amniotic fluid cells in a minimally invasive fashion by amniocentesis as well as the relatively rich population of progenitor cells obtained from a small aliquot of fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells, c-kit positive stem cells, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells have all been derived from human amniotic fluid in recent years. This article gives a pediatric surgeon’s perspective on amniotic fluid stem cell therapy for the management of congenital anomalies. The current status in the use of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, particularly as they relate as substrates in tissue engineering-based applications, is described in various animal models. A roadmap for further study and eventual clinical application is also proposed. PMID:22986340

  4. Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However, primary infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus. Recent developments have included increased understanding of the role of parasite genotype in determining infectivity and disease severity. Risk factors for acquisition of infection have been better defined, and the important role of foodborne transmission has been further delineated. In addition, strategies have emerged to decrease mother-to-child transmission through prompt identification of acutely infected pregnant women followed by appropriate treatment. Refined diagnostic tools, particularly the addition of immunoglobulin G avidity testing, allow for more accurate timing of maternal infection and hence better decision making during pregnancy. Congenitally infected children can be treated, beginning in utero and continuing through the first year of life, to ameliorate the severity of disease. However, despite these many advances in our understanding of congenital toxoplasmosis prevention and treatment, significant areas of study remain: we need better drugs, well defined strategies for screening of pregnant women, improved food safety, and improved diagnostic tests. PMID:25232475

  5. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  6. The effect of distending a pouch of the left atrium on the heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Ledsome, J. R.; Linden, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. A pouch has been prepared consisting of a part of the wall of the left atrium together with the left pulmonary vein—atrial junctions. 2. An increase of perfusion pressure in the pouch caused a reflex increase in heart rate. 3. The afferent path of the reflex was in the vagus nerves and the efferent path was in the sympathetic nerves. 4. The receptors most likely to be stimulated by an increase in pressure in the pouch are those receptors situated in the subendocardium of the pulmonary vein—left atrial junctions. PMID:16992279

  7. Hydraulic pouches of canine latissimus dorsi. Potential for left ventricular assistance.

    PubMed

    Mannion, J D; Hammond, R; Stephenson, L W

    1986-04-01

    We have studied the fatigue rates of hydraulic pouches constructed in the form of a multilayered conical spiral using the latissimus dorsi muscle of 17 beagles. The roles that electrical muscle conditioning and early interruption of collateral blood supply have in the prevention of pouch fatigue were evaluated. The length of time that a pouch could generate flow in a hydraulic test system was measured; afterload was set at 80 mm Hg and preload 24 mm Hg. Pouches (N = 3) fashioned from muscles subject to neither electrical conditioning nor a vascular delay generated an initial flow of 990 +/- 346 ml/min, but could sustain flow for only 2.3, 3.8 and 3.6 minutes. Pouches (N = 5) constructed with electrically unconditioned muscles after a vascular delay (median 3 weeks) demonstrated a variable improvement in fatigue rates (initial flow 826 +/- 265 ml/min; time to no forward flow, 2.5, 7.5, 7.5, 10, and 200 minutes). Four of six pouches that received the benefit of long-term electrical muscle conditioning and a vascular delay (N = 6) were able to generate flow for a 4 hour period, at which time the experiment was terminated (initial flow 478 +/- 204 ml/min; final flow 195 +/- 157 ml/min). After the 4 hour fatigue test was completed, one electrically conditioned pouch was placed in series with the heart and served as a counterpulsator. The initial volume of blood pumped by the muscle pouch was 262 ml/min or 13.8% of cardiac output. After the pouch had contracted at a rate of approximately 45 beats/min for 1 hour, the volume of blood pumped was 178 ml/min, or 11% of cardiac output. In three other animals a pouch was fashioned and then left in situ for a 1 to 3 week period before hydraulic testing. These pouches generated significant initial flows (390 +/- 60 ml/min), which demonstrates the feasibility of further study of permanent pouches. These results suggest that permanent electrical muscle conditioning and perhaps a vascular collateral delay might permit an auxiliary

  8. Pharyngeal Pouch Co-existing with Thyroid Mass: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Saleem Asif; Shah, Mohamad Yousaf; Ahmad, Maqsood; Ullah, Sibghat

    2015-12-01

    A 60-year male presented with a 4-year history of a mass in the lower third of the neck, which had gradually increased in size. On initial examination, it was considered a thyroid mass. On detailed examination, another mass was found in the upper neck which was doughy in consistency and reducible in size. With available investigations, he was diagnosed as a thyroid mass associated with pharyngeal pouch. On exploration of the neck, the whole mass revealed to be a pharyngeal pouch. We have discussed the patho-physiology of the pharyngeal pouch and reviewed the literature in detail.

  9. An audit of pharyngeal pouch surgery using endoscopic stapling. The patient's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Weller, M D; Porter, M J; Rowlands, J

    2004-07-01

    We report an audit designed to assess patient satisfaction resulting from pharyngeal pouch surgery using an endoscopic stapler. A personal series of 16 patients all operated on by the senior author over a 3-year period is reported. Information was gathered using a retrospective telephone questionnaire to establish pre- and postoperative symptoms, complications of surgery and patient satisfaction. This showed endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery to be successful in the majority of cases. Eighty-seven percent of patients felt better as a result of surgery. Seventy-five percent had no symptoms postoperatively. This series shows that surgery on pharyngeal pouches results in significant improvement in patient symptoms with minimal morbidity and mortality.

  10. A Novel Lithium-ion Laminated Pouch Cell Tested For Performance And Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Inoue, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A new Li-ion 4.0 Ah pouch cell from GS Yuasa has been tested to determine its performance and safety. The cell is of a laminate pouch design with liquid electrolyte. The rate, thermal and vacuum performance capabilities have been tested to determine the optimum parameters. Under vacuum conditions, the cells were cycled under restrained and unrestrained configurations. The burst pressure of the laminate pouch was also determined. The overcharge, overdischarge into reversal and external short circuit safety tests were also performed to determine the cell s tolerance to abuse. Key Words: Li-ion, safety, vacuum test, abuse, COTS batteries, rate capability

  11. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in a Patient with Mainz Pouch II Urinary Diversion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Mykoniatis, Ioannis; Poulios, Evangelos; Paikos, Dimitrios; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios

    Mainz pouch II is a reliable and viable technique of continent urinary diversion. Patients are at increased risk of long-term complications including urolithiasis of the upper urinary tract and reservoir. We report the case of a 67-year-old male with prior Mainz pouch II due to invasive bladder cancer treated for a large renal calculus. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was successfully performed. Stone management in these type of patients is of increased interest due to existed "anatomical challenges" concerning the access and safety during the procedure. To our knowledge this is the first case of PCNL in a patient with Mainz pouch II that has been reported in the literature.

  12. Development of Stainless Steel Laminate Li-Ion Pouch Cell for Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooto, Hiroki; Koide, Kazuya; Ohira, Kenji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Abe, Hidetoshi; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takanobu; Takahashi, Yu; Hirose, Kazuyuki

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the development of stainless steel laminate Li-ion pouch battery cells for space application. Currently, the cells have a high specific energy of 118 Wh/kg for 10-Ah cells at the moment. Unlike conventional Li-ion pouch cells for terrestrial use, where the casing is made of aluminum laminate, Li-ion pouch cells made with stainless steel laminate neither expand nor lose their capacity after charge/discharge cycles in vacuum. The results of a mechanical environment test show that the cell also meet the requirements for vibration and pyroshock tolerance during launch.

  13. Analysis of the outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Hartley, J E; Fazio, V W; Remzi, F H; Lavery, I C; Church, J M; Strong, S A; Hull, T L; Senagore, A J; Delaney, C P

    2004-11-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has come to represent the procedure of choice for patients requiring surgery for mucosal ulcerative colitis. In contrast, a proven diagnosis of Crohn's disease is generally held to preclude ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. However, patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for apparent mucosal ulcerative colitis who are subsequently found to have Crohn's disease have a variable course. We reviewed our experience in this scenario to determine whether selected patients with Crohn's disease may be candidates for ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. A retrospective review of the prospectively maintained ileal pouch-anal anastomosis database was undertaken to identify patients with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Clinical outcome and quality-of-life data were obtained from the database and chart review. End points were the development of recrudescent Crohn's disease, pouch failure, and quality of life and functional outcome at the time of data collection. Differences between groups were calculated using the chi-squared test. Cumulative incidence of recrudescent Crohn's disease and pouch loss were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of development of recrudescent Crohn's disease and pouch loss were examined by univariate analysis. Sixty patients (32 females; median age, 33 (range, 15-74) years) who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for mucosal ulcerative colitis subsequently had that diagnosis revised to Crohn's disease. Median follow-up of all patients was 46 (range, 4-158) months at time of data collection by which time 21 patients (35 percent) had developed recrudescent Crohn's disease. No pre-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis factors examined were predictors of the development of recrudescent Crohn's disease on univariate analysis. Median follow-up of the latter group was 63 (range, 0-132) months from time of diagnosis, by which time six patients underwent pouch excision and another patient

  14. Increased Pouch Sizes and Resulting Changes in the Amounts of Nicotine and Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in Single Pouches of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Joni; Biener, Lois; Bliss, Robin L.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Initial analyses of the novel smokeless tobacco products Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus demonstrated that these products contain relatively low amounts of nicotine and the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), as compared with traditional smokeless products. It is unknown whether the modifications in packaging, flavors, and pouch sizes that occurred for both Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus since their first introduction to the market were accompanied by any changes in nicotine or nitrosamine levels. Methods: We examined the available data on nicotine and NNN and NNK levels in 60 samples of Camel Snus and 87 samples of Marlboro Snus that were analyzed in our laboratory between 2006 and 2010. Results: Due to the increase in pouch size, the amounts of total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, and the sum of NNN and NNK present in the large Camel Snus pouches released in 2010 are 1.9-fold, 2.4-fold, and 3.3-fold higher, respectively, than in the original smaller pouches that entered the market in 2006. Total and unprotonated nicotine content in the current version of Marlboro Snus pouches are 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold higher, respectively, and the sum of NNN and NNK is 1.5-fold lower than in the original version. Conclusions: We observed an increase in nicotine content in single portions of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus, and an increase in tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine content in single portions of Camel Snus, due to the increases in pouch size that occurred between 2006 and 2010. This finding stresses the importance of tobacco product regulation and ingredient disclosures. PMID:22259150

  15. Increased pouch sizes and resulting changes in the amounts of nicotine and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in single pouches of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Biener, Lois; Bliss, Robin L; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2012-10-01

    Initial analyses of the novel smokeless tobacco products Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus demonstrated that these products contain relatively low amounts of nicotine and the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), as compared with traditional smokeless products. It is unknown whether the modifications in packaging, flavors, and pouch sizes that occurred for both Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus since their first introduction to the market were accompanied by any changes in nicotine or nitrosamine levels. We examined the available data on nicotine and NNN and NNK levels in 60 samples of Camel Snus and 87 samples of Marlboro Snus that were analyzed in our laboratory between 2006 and 2010. Due to the increase in pouch size, the amounts of total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, and the sum of NNN and NNK present in the large Camel Snus pouches released in 2010 are 1.9-fold, 2.4-fold, and 3.3-fold higher, respectively, than in the original smaller pouches that entered the market in 2006. Total and unprotonated nicotine content in the current version of Marlboro Snus pouches are 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold higher, respectively, and the sum of NNN and NNK is 1.5-fold lower than in the original version. We observed an increase in nicotine content in single portions of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus, and an increase in tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine content in single portions of Camel Snus, due to the increases in pouch size that occurred between 2006 and 2010. This finding stresses the importance of tobacco product regulation and ingredient disclosures.

  16. Carcinoid tumor of the ileoanal pouch in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Murray; Pricolo, Victor; Chen, Sonja

    2013-01-04

    Carcinoid tumors have been reported to occur in various locations, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. The relationship between the development of carcinoids and ulcerative colitis has been an unclear and controversial one. The association of ulcerative colitis and the development of ileal-pouch carcinoids has not, however, been well documented. We report a case of carcinoid tumor arising in an ileoanal pouch and discuss its unique diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.

  17. High-G Verification of Lithium-Polymer (Li-Po) Pouch Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 766 Technical Report ARMET-TR-15067 HIGH-G VERIFICATION OF LITHIUM- POLYMER (LI-PO) POUCH...TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH-G VERIFICATION OF LITHIUM- POLYMER (LI-PO) POUCH CELLS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...causing re-evaluation of power sources. This report evaluates two types of lithium- polymer cells for use in high acceleration environments for

  18. Adenocarcinoma of the ileoanal pouch for ulcerative colitis--a complication of severe chronic atrophic pouchitis?

    PubMed

    Knupper, N; Straub, E; Terpe, H J; Vestweber, K H

    2006-07-01

    The appearance of a carcinoma in the ileal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative proctocolitis is rare. Most of these adenocarcinomas previously described in literature develop from residual viable rectal mucosa. We report a case of an adenocarcinoma arising in all probability from the ileal pouch after malignant transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa based on a chronic atrophic pouchitis. A 34-year-old man developed an adenocarcinoma after a double-stapled ileorectal J-pouch for ulcerative colitis (UC) proceeded from malignant ileal transformation. Before surgery, he had a 20-year history of UC refractory to medical therapy, but no occurrence of backwash ileitis, dysplasia or colitis-associated illness. He experienced severe pouchitis after IPAA since the ileostomy closure. Carcinoma was ensured by endoscopy, and the patient underwent an abdominoperineal pouch extirpation combined with excision of perirectal tissues and anal canal. Histology after surgery showed a pT4,pN2(4/16)pM0,G3 adenocarcinoma with global severe chronic atrophic pouchitis (CAP), villous atrophy and malignant ileal transformation. No metaplasia of the rectal mucosa was found, not even malignant epithelial transformation of the anal canal. This case suggests that a malignant transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa may occur as a pure complication of severe CAP, even in the absence of backwash ileitis or a previous history of cancer. The absence of metaplasia of the rectal mucosa revealed the passage from CAP to dysplastic epithelium and to cancer. A multifactorial development of carcinogenesis is supposed, but we emphasize the importance of severe CAP, and that careful surveillance is needed in patients after IPAA. We must submit that this is just a case report and cannot stand for general cancer development in ulcerative colitis, but it may point out the risk factor of chronic inflammation and leads the surgeon to skillful working

  19. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sofo, Luigi; Caprino, Paola; Sacchetti, Franco; Bossola, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP-IPAA) is the gold standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis. However, despite the widespread use of RP-IPAA, many aspects of this treatment still remain controversial, such as the approach (open or laparoscopic), number of stages in the surgery, type of pouch, and construction type (hand-sewn or stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis). The present narrative review aims to discuss current evidence on the short-, mid-, and long-term results of each of these technical alternatives as well as their benefits and disadvantages. A review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases was performed to identify studies published through March 2016. Few large, randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding controversial issues. The available data from retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic surgery has no clear advantages compared with open surgery and that one-stage RP-IPAA may be indicated in selected cases. Regarding 2- and 3-stage RP-IPAA, patients who underwent these surgeries differed significantly with respect to clinical and laboratory variables, making any comparisons extremely difficult. The long-term results regarding the pouch type show that the W- and J-reservoirs do not differ significantly, although the J pouch is generally preferred by surgeons. Hand-sewn and stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomoses have their own advantages, and there is no clear benefit of one technique over the other. PMID:27648159

  20. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages.

  1. Congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) occurs in approximately 1:2,000 to 1:4,000 newborns. The clinical manifestations are often subtle or not present at birth. This likely is due to trans-placental passage of some maternal thyroid hormone, while many infants have some thyroid production of their own. Common symptoms include decreased activity and increased sleep, feeding difficulty, constipation, and prolonged jaundice. On examination, common signs include myxedematous facies, large fontanels, macroglossia, a distended abdomen with umbilical hernia, and hypotonia. CH is classified into permanent and transient forms, which in turn can be divided into primary, secondary, or peripheral etiologies. Thyroid dysgenesis accounts for 85% of permanent, primary CH, while inborn errors of thyroid hormone biosynthesis (dyshormonogeneses) account for 10-15% of cases. Secondary or central CH may occur with isolated TSH deficiency, but more commonly it is associated with congenital hypopitiutarism. Transient CH most commonly occurs in preterm infants born in areas of endemic iodine deficiency. In countries with newborn screening programs in place, infants with CH are diagnosed after detection by screening tests. The diagnosis should be confirmed by finding an elevated serum TSH and low T4 or free T4 level. Other diagnostic tests, such as thyroid radionuclide uptake and scan, thyroid sonography, or serum thyroglobulin determination may help pinpoint the underlying etiology, although treatment may be started without these tests. Levothyroxine is the treatment of choice; the recommended starting dose is 10 to 15 mcg/kg/day. The immediate goals of treatment are to rapidly raise the serum T4 above 130 nmol/L (10 ug/dL) and normalize serum TSH levels. Frequent laboratory monitoring in infancy is essential to ensure optimal neurocognitive outcome. Serum TSH and free T4 should be measured every 1-2 months in the first 6 months of life and every 3-4 months thereafter. In general, the prognosis

  2. Congenital anomalies associated with congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Alembik, Y; Koehl, C

    1999-01-01

    The French national neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was initiated in 1978. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the incidence of congenital extrathyroid anomalies (ETAs) among the infants with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and to compare it with the Northeastern France Birth Defect Monitoring System data from 1979 to 1996. Among 129 CH infants on whom adequate data were available, 20 infants (15.5%) had associated congenital anomalies. Eight out of 76 infants with persistent CH had ETAs (10.5%) whereas 12 out of 53 children with transient hypothyroidism had ETAs (22.6%, p < 0.05). Some additional anomalies were considerably more common than in the general population. Nine infants had congenital cardiac anomalies (6.9%). This rises the question if teratogenic effects active during organogenesis may affect simultaneously many organs, including the developing thyroid, causing a relatively high percentage of CH infants with congenital ETAs.

  3. Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...

  4. Metastatic Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Obenauf, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death from cancer. To colonize distant organs, circulating cancer cells must overcome many obstacles through mechanisms that we are starting to understand. Infiltrating distant tissue, evading immune defences, adapting to supportive niches, surviving as latent tumour-initiating seeds, and eventually breaking out to replace the host tissue, are key steps for metastatic colonization. These obstacles make metastasis a highly inefficient process, but once metastases are established current treatments frequently fail to provide durable responses. A better understanding of the mechanistic determinants of metastatic colonization is needed to better prevent and treat metastatic cancer. PMID:26791720

  5. Primary colonic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Quintín H; Heslin, Martin J; Dávila-Cervantes, Andrea; Alvarez-Tostado, Javier; de los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa; Shore, Gregg; Vickers, Selwyn M

    2008-03-01

    J J-pouch (1), and sigmoid colectomy (1). Eighty-seven per cent had negative margins at the time of operation. Twelve patients received postoperative chemotherapy (80%). According to the clinical classification of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the gastrointestinal tract (Lugano, 1993) all patients corresponded to stage IE. Mean hospital stay was 6.4 days (range 3-26). There was no surgical mortality and the morbidity rate was 20 per cent (3 patients). One patient had a systemic recurrence (7%) approximately 4 months after surgical resection. Mean follow-up was 31 months (median 2-73). Surgical resection of localized, primary colonic lymphoma provides excellent local disease control and should be considered a primary treatment option. The role of chemotherapy remains controversial depending on the grade, stage, and extension of residual disease.

  6. Inheritance of guttural pouch tympany in the arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Blazyczek, I; Hamann, H; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the mode of inheritance of guttural pouch tympany (GPT) using pedigrees of Arabian horses. Complex segregation analyses were employed to test for the significance of nongenetic transmission and for monogenic, polygenic, and mixed monogenic-polygenic modes of inheritance. Horses affected by GPT comprised 27 Arabian purebred foals. Of these 27 animals, 22 were patients at the Clinic for Horses, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany, between 1994 and 2001 and 5 Arabian foals were from stud farms. Information on the pedigrees of these patients allowed us to classify the affected foals into four families with a total of 276 animals. The regressive logistic model analysis took into account the nonrandomness of the pedigrees through multiple single ascertainment correction. The complex segregation analysis showed that, among all other models employed, a polygenic and a mixed monogenic-polygenic model best explained the segregation of Arabian foals with GPT. Models including only nongenetic distributions and monogenic inheritance could be significantly rejected. This is the first report in which a genetic component could be shown to be responsible for GPT in horses.

  7. Experimental modal analysis of lithium-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James

    2015-07-01

    If future electric and hybrid electric vehicle batteries are to be designed such that the impact of vibration induced resonance is minimized, engineers tasked with the design of the vehicle's energy storage system must have a rigorous understanding of key system attributes such as the natural frequencies of the cell, the level of damping present and the mode shapes induced within the battery under mechanical load. This paper describes the underpinning theory and experimental method employed when using the impulse excitation technique to quantify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a commercially available 25 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Laminate Pouch Cell. Experimental results are presented for fifteen cells at five different values of state of charge (SOC). The results indicate that irrespective of the energy content within the cell, the same four modes of vibration (torsion and bending) exist within a frequency range of 191 Hz-360 Hz. This is above the frequency range (0-150 Hz) typically associated with road-induced vibration. The results also indicate that the cell's natural frequencies of vibration and damping do not vary with changing values of SOC.

  8. Laparoscopic proctocolectomy with restorative ileal-anal pouch.

    PubMed

    Gill, T S; Karantana, A; Rees, J; Pandey, S; Dixon, A R

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the outcome of restorative proctocolectomy carried out by laparoscopic surgery. A prospectively collected electronic database of all colorectal laparoscopic procedures performed between April 2001 and July 2003 has been used to identify surgical outcomes in 14 consecutive patients who have undergone laparoscopic RPC. Fourteen patients (5 male), median BMI 24 kg/m(2) have undergone restorative laparoscopic proctocolectomy over a two year period: 13 (ulcerative colitis, one with cancer) and 1 (FAP). The median operation time was 260 min; time has not decreased with experience. There were no intra-operative surgical complications or deaths. Patient controlled analgesia continued for a median of 36 h. The median time to diet was 48 h and median hospital stay 7 days; three patients required nasogastric aspiration for delayed gastric emptying. Eighteen regional lymph nodes were retrieved local to the carcinoma. There was one anastomotic leak. All covering stomas were closed by 6 months (12 by eight weeks). All 14 patients are fully continent, able to suppress urgency and have a median pouch frequency of 4/24 h. None admit to having problems with potency, orgasm sensation, ejaculation, micturition. One lady reports dysparunia. All are highly satisfied with functional outcome and cosmesis. We are encouraged to continue to offer our patients the option of a laparoscopic resection.

  9. Comparison of the InPouch TV culture system and Diamond's modified medium for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, M H; Torres, J; Piña, C; Klein, R S

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the use of Diamond's modified medium to InPouch for the culture of Trichomonas vaginalis from pooled vaginal secretions. The sensitivity for InPouch was 82.4% (61/74) versus 87.8% (65/74) for Diamond's modified medium. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity and negative predictive value of InPouch compared to Diamond's modified medium. PMID:9399542

  10. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... THERAPY Targeted treatment zeroes in on specific targets (molecules) in cancer cells. These targets play a role ... colon cancer. Some studies have reported that NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib) may help reduce the ...

  11. Application of MPVR and TL-VR with 64-row MDCT in neonates with congenital EA and distal TEF.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yang; Peng, Yun; Zhai, Ren-You; Li, Ying-Zi

    2011-03-28

    To assess the application of multiple planar volume reconstruction (MPVR) and three-dimensional (3D) transparency lung volume rendering (TL-VR) with 64-row multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in neonates with congenital esophageal atresia (EA) and distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Twenty neonates (17 boys, 3 girls) with EA and distal TEF at a mean age of 4.6 d (range 1-16 d) were enrolled in this study. A helical scan of 64-row MDCT was performed at the 64 mm × 0.625 mm collimation. EA and TEF were reconstructed with MPVR and TL-VR, respectively. Initial diagnosis of EA was made by chest radiography showing the inserted catheter in the proximal blind-ended esophageal pouch. Manifestations of MDCT images were compared with the findings at surgery. MDCT showed the proximal and distal esophageal pouches in 20 cases. No significant difference was observed in gaps between the proximal and distal esophageal pouches detected by MPVR and TL-VR. The lengths of gaps between the proximal and distal esophageal pouches detected by MPVR and TL-VR correlated well with the findings at surgery (R = 0.87, P < 0.001). The images of MPVR revealed the orifice of TEF in 13 cases, while TL-VR images showed the orifice of TEF in 4 cases. EA and distal TEF can be reconstructed using MPVR and TL-VR of 64-row MDCT, which is a noninvasive technique to demonstrate the distal esophageal pouches and inter-pouch distance in neonates with EA and distal TEF.

  12. Congenital myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Irene; Scoto, Mariacristina; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Robb, Stephanie A.; Maggi, Lorenzo; Gowda, Vasantha; Cullup, Thomas; Yau, Michael; Phadke, Rahul; Sewry, Caroline; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the natural history of congenital myopathies (CMs) due to different genotypes. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study based on case-note review of 125 patients affected by CM, followed at a single pediatric neuromuscular center, between 1984 and 2012. Results: Genetic characterization was achieved in 99 of 125 cases (79.2%), with RYR1 most frequently implicated (44/125). Neonatal/infantile onset was observed in 76%. At birth, 30.4% required respiratory support, and 25.2% nasogastric feeding. Twelve percent died, mainly within the first year, associated with mutations in ACTA1, MTM1, or KLHL40. All RYR1-mutated cases survived and did not require long-term ventilator support including those with severe neonatal onset; however, recessive cases were more likely to require gastrostomy insertion (p = 0.0028) compared with dominant cases. Independent ambulation was achieved in 74.1% of all patients; 62.9% were late walkers. Among ambulant patients, 9% eventually became wheelchair-dependent. Scoliosis of variable severity was reported in 40%, with 1/3 of (both ambulant and nonambulant) patients requiring surgery. Bulbar involvement was present in 46.4% and required gastrostomy placement in 28.8% (at a mean age of 2.7 years). Respiratory impairment of variable severity was a feature in 64.1%; approximately half of these patients required nocturnal noninvasive ventilation due to respiratory failure (at a mean age of 8.5 years). Conclusions: We describe the long-term outcome of a large cohort of patients with CMs. While overall course is stable, we demonstrate a wide clinical spectrum with motor deterioration in a subset of cases. Severity in the neonatal/infantile period is critical for survival, with clear genotype-phenotype correlations that may inform future counseling. PMID:25428687

  13. Evidence for hyaluronan production in the air pouch model in rats.

    PubMed

    Generini, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Partsch, G; Stancikova, M; Pignone, A; Konttinen, Y T; Rovensky, J; Baker, D J; Schumacher, H R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our work was to investigate the presence of hyaluronan (HA) in the rat air pouch and its behaviour in response to inflammatory stimuli. HA levels (by a microplate assay) and the leucocyte count were determined in the fluid obtained from air pouches in which acute or subacute inflammation had been induced by the injection of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) debris respectively and in relative controls. In control pouches of both groups, remarkable levels of HA were found; these levels were higher in the very first hours (2475 and 1850 micrograms/l at 6 hrs) and then gradually decreased. In pouches injected with MSU, HA moderately increased (p < 0.001) after 6 hrs, reached a peak after 12 hrs (p < 0.001) and began to taper at 24 hrs (p < 0.001). The leucocyte count was also increased at 6 hrs (p < 0.001), became higher at 12 hrs (p < 0.001) and tapered at 24 hrs (p < 0.001). In the HDPE pouches, HA levels were significantly reduced with respect to controls after 6 hours (p < 0.001), increasing later (p < 0.001) to reach a peak at 24 hrs (p < 0.001), and returning to the original levels, or even below, in the following 72 hours. These data confirm that the pouch lining produces fair amounts of HA and provide evidence that, in this system, HA levels seem to be influenced by the degree of inflammation even if with variable behaviour in relation to the different characteristics and phases of phlogosis. The present data suggest that the air pouch is a useful experimental model for studies on HA metabolism in either acute or chronic inflammation.

  14. An in vitro metronidazole susceptibility test for trichomoniasis using the InPouch TV test.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, K A; Li, Z; Zhang, M Z; Shing, H

    1996-04-01

    An efficient anaerobic culture system, the InPouch TV test, was used to determine the susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole. Glacial acetic acid was employed as a solvent for metronidazole. T vaginalis isolates were cultured from 16 symptomatic female patients. The 11 who responded to oral metronidazole, 250 mg tid for 7 days, were considered as having sensitive trichomonads; the 5 who remained infected after treatment were considered to have resistant organisms. All isolates were cultured for minimum lethal concentrations (MLC). Metronidazole was added to a series of pouches; two-fold dilution of the most concentrated was 50 micrograms/ml and the least was 0.4 micrograms/ml. The inoculum of viable trichomonads was 1 x 105/ml in each pouch. Pouches were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h, examined microscopically for motile trichomonads, and then 0.5 ml was subcultured to drug free pouches. After 5 days incubation at 37 degrees C, each subculture and culture were examined microscopically for viable trichomonads. Eleven isolates of T vaginalis from patients responding to metronidazole treatment had MLC between 0.4 to 3.1 micrograms/ml. The MLC from the 5 treatment failure patients were between 12.5 to 50 micrograms/ml. For the 16 patients in this study, the MLC values determined with the InPouch TV test differentiated between infection caused by metronidazole sensitive and resistant trichomonads. The mean MLC of clinically resistant isolates was approximately eleven fold higher than the mean MLC of clinically sensitive isolates (15 micrograms/ml vs 1.32 micrograms/ml). There was a significant difference between clinically resistant and sensitive isolates (t = 5.47, p < 0.0005). This study suggests that the InPouch TV test could be used for distinguishing between metronidazole resistant and sensitive isolates.

  15. Correlation between pouch function and sexual function in patients with IPAA.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Marie Louise; Øresland, Tom; Engebreth Færden, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for ulcerative colitis refractory to medical treatment and familial adenomatous polyposis. The objective of this study was to study the impact of postoperative pouch function on sexual function. Sexual function after IPAA surgery has also been compared to sexual function in the average Norwegian population. All patients having undergone IPAA from 2000 to June 2013 were identified from the hospital medical record files and sent validated questionnaires regarding their sexual function. Pouch function was scored according to Oresland score through a phone interview. Patients operated on or before June 2012 were asked to answer the same questionnaires twice with an interval of one year to see how stable sexual function is over time. Sixty-eight out of 100 consecutive patients answered the questionnaire regarding both sexual function and pouch function (44 men, 24 women). There was no significant relationship between pouch and sexual function in men (p-value 0.158, corr. coefficient - 0.216). In women there was a significant relationship (p-value - 0.01, corr. coefficient 0.517). There was no significant shift in sexual function during the study period. We found no significant correlation between sexual function and pouch function in men. In women, we found a significant correlation between poor pouch function and impaired sexual function. As similar studies have found, sexual function remains good after IPAA surgery. This is an important information for patients and physicians, both to inform patients correctly prior to surgery, and in the postoperative follow-up.

  16. Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign to End Blindness Other Ways to Fight Blindness Corporate Support Volunteer Take Action You are here ... confused with congenital and hereditary optic atrophy, cortical blindness, congenital stationary night blindness, flecked retina syndrome, and ...

  17. [Genetics of congenital cardiopathies].

    PubMed

    Moreno García, M; Gómez Rodríguez, M J; Barreiro Miranda, E

    2000-07-01

    Congenital heart malformations are the most common of all birth defects, affecting 0.5-1% of all live births. Some of these malformations are due to genetic anomalies. Patterns of autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance have been described. Mitochondrial inheritance and chromosomal anomalies can also be responsible for congenital heart malformations. Several genes for congenital heart defects have been identified. We review current knowledge on the genetic etiology of congenital heart disease.

  18. IPAA-related sepsis significantly increases morbidity of ileoanal pouch excision.

    PubMed

    Maya, Antonio M; Boutros, Marylise; DaSilva, Giovanna; Wexner, Steven D

    2015-05-01

    Perineal wound complications after ileoanal pouch excision remain a significant cause of morbidity. The purpose of this work was to describe the incidence, outcomes, and predictors of perineal wound complications after pouch excision. This was a retrospective medical chart review. The study was conducted in a single clinical institution. Patients who underwent pouch excision at our institution from July 1992 through July 2012 were identified. Patient and perioperative variables were reviewed. Multivariate and univariate analyses were undertaken. Perineal wound (including perineal wound infection and persistent perineal sinus [nonhealing by 6 months]) and perineal hernia were measured. A total of 47 patients (mean age, 46 years; 42.6% men) with familial adenomatous polyposis (10.6%), mucosal ulcerative colitis (61.7%), or Crohn's disease (27.7%) underwent pouch excision, including 36.2% for IPAA-related sepsis (presacral abscess; perineal-, sacral-, or pouch-vaginal fistula; and anastomotic defect), 44.7% for pouch dysfunction, 10.6% for refractory pouchitis, and 8.5% for neoplasia. Fourteen (29.8%) developed perineal wound complications, including 100% perineal wound infection, 28.6% persistent perineal sinus, and 7.1% perineal hernia. Perineal wound infection was associated with delayed healing (>6 weeks; 71.4% vs 24.2%; p = 0.002) and IPAA-related sepsis (28.6% vs 0%; p = 0.001). Patients with and without perineal wound complications were similar in age, diagnoses, fecal diversion, immunosuppression, comorbid conditions, nutrition, and surgical variables. Most patients underwent intersphincteric dissection (87.2%) with primary perineal closure (97.0%). Perineal wound complications were significantly associated with IPAA-related sepsis as an indication for pouch excision (57.1% vs 27.2%; p = 0.05), intraoperative pouch perforation (35.7% vs 9.1%, p =0.03), and smoking (21.4% vs 3.0%; p = 0.04). IPAA-related sepsis and a current smoking status (OR, 19.3 [95% CI, 1

  19. Design of small-size pouch motors for rat gait rehabilitation device.

    PubMed

    Shih-Yin Chang; Takashima, Kenta; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Niiyama, Ryuma; Someya, Takao; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that active gait training can recover voluntary locomotive ability of paralyzed rats. Rehabilitation devices used for studying spinal cord injury to date are usually fixed on a treadmill, but they have been used only slightly for active training. To process active rehabilitation, a wearable, lightweight device with adequate output is needed. Pouch motors, soft pneumatic actuators, are extremely light and have other benefits such as low cost, easy fabrication, and highly customizable design. They can be used to develop active gait rehabilitation devices. However, performance details of different motor designs have not been examined. As described herein, to build a wearable gait assistive device for rat study, we specifically examine how to design small pouch motors with a good contraction ratio and force output. Results show that pouch performance decreases dramatically with size, but better output is obtainable by separation into small 0.8 length-to-width ratio rooms. We used this knowledge to produce an assistive robot suit for gait rehabilitation and to test it with paralyzed rats. Results show that these small pouches can produce sufficient power to control hip joint movements during gait training. They can reveal the potential for new pouch motor applications for spinal cord injury studies.

  20. Heterogeneity of vascular innervation in hamster cheek pouch and retractor muscle.

    PubMed

    Grasby, D J; Morris, J L; Segal, S S

    1999-01-01

    The hamster cheek pouch and its retractor muscle have provided valuable insights into microvascular physiology of an epithelial tissue and striated muscle, respectively. Nevertheless, the innervation of these vascular beds has not been resolved. This study has investigated the nature of autonomic and sensory innervation of these vascular beds and has tested whether it varies within or between tissues. Multiple-labelling immunohistochemistry identified autonomic and peptide-containing sensory nerve fibres. Presumptive sympathetic vasoconstrictor axons with immunoreactivity (IR) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervated feed arteries and arterioles (but not veins or venules) of the retractor and anterior (muscular) cheek pouch; these axons were absent from the posterior (epithelial) region of the cheek pouch, as confirmed by catecholamine fluorescence. Presumptive autonomic vasodilator axons with IR for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) consistently innervated feed arteries and proximal arterioles of the cheek pouch, but generally not those of the retractor muscle nor distal arterioles of either tissue. Sparse presumptive sensory axons with IR for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P were found near arterial and venous vessels in all regions of the cheek pouch and retractor muscle; CGRP-IR was also located in motor end plates associated with striated muscle fibres. Such regional differences in vascular innervation by autonomic and sensory neurons may selectively effect local and regional control of blood flow between and within vascular beds. Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Israel; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term exposure to an aqueous extract of hog barn dust increases macromolecular efflux from the intact hamster cheek pouch and, if so, to begin to determine the mechanism(s) underlying this response. By using intravital microscopy, we found that suffusion of hog barn dust extract onto the intact hamster cheek pouch for 60 min elicited a significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (molecular mass, 70 kDa). This response was significantly attenuated by suffusion of catalase (60 U/ml), but not by heat-inactivated catalase, and by pretreatment with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg iv) (P < 0.05). Catalase had no significant effects on adenosine-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the cheek pouch. Suffusion of hog barn dust extract had no significant effects on arteriolar diameter in the cheek pouch. Taken together, these data indicate that hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch, in part, through local elaboration of reactive oxygen species that are inactivated by catalase. This response is specific and attenuated by corticosteroids. We suggest that plasma exudation plays an important role in the genesis of upper airway dysfunction evoked by short-term exposure to hog barn dust.

  2. A follow up audit of pharyngeal pouch surgery using endoscopic stapling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard P; Weller, Matt D; Porter, Martin J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess patient satisfaction, success at controlling symptoms and conversion rates to open surgery in patients undergoing pharyngeal pouch surgery using an endoscopic stapler in a second cycle of audit. The design consisted of a review of patient records augmented by an electronic search of operation codes in the hospitals' theatre records. The setting was in Worcester Royal Hospital, BUPA Southbank Hospital and Hereford Hospital, UK. Participants include all patients with pharyngeal pouches undergoing endoscopic pharyngeal pouch repair by the senior author between July 2002 and July 2007. The total number of participants was 31. All patients were undergoing treatment for the first time. The main outcome measures were pre- and postoperative symptom prevalence, conversion rates to open surgery, patient satisfaction. Endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery was successful in the vast majority of cases, with 97% of patients being satisfied with the result. The conversion rate to open surgery was 9.7%. These figures are improved from the last round of audit. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery to treat pharyngeal pouches is safe, effective and patient selection is improving. A modified method of endoscopy using a Negus scope rather than a Baldwin scope has allowed more patients to be treated via endoscopic methods. Open surgery is still required in some patients.

  3. Colonic Atresia: Association with Other Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    El-Asmar, Khaled M.; Abdel-Latif, Mohammed; El-Kassaby, Abdel-Hamid A.; Soliman, Mohamed H.; El-Behery, Mosad M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colonic atresia (CA) is a rare form of congenital intestinal atresia. Although CA may be isolated, it is more commonly reported in literature in association with other congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: This study is a review of prospectively collected data of all the patients with colonic atresia presented to our center (Ain Shams University) during 2008 to 2016. Results: Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. The atresia was of type I in one case, type II in four cases, type IIIa in six cases, type IV in one case. These cases accounted for 4.9 % of intestinal atresias managed in our center during the same period. Five cases were isolated CA, while the other seven cases had associated abdominal congenital anomalies (exomphalos, Hirschsprung's disease, imperforate anus, closing gastroschisis, colonic duplication, and multiple small bowel atresia in two cases). The management in ten cases was by staged procedure with creation of a temporary stoma initially, while primary anastomosis was established in two cases. We had two cases with delayed presentations, one missed diagnosis, and three mortalities in this series. Conclusions: The low incidence of CA may result in delay in the diagnosis and management. Hirschsprung's disease should be excluded in every case of colonic atresia. Early diagnosis and proper surgical management is essential for good prognosis. PMID:27896155

  4. Development and evaluation of a reflective solar disinfection pouch for treatment of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Walker, D Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-04-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Reflective Solar Disinfection Pouch for Treatment of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-01-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials. PMID:15066858

  6. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  7. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry - a heritage meat product.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K; Das, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force values. Retort processed products had significantly lower L*, a*, b* and chroma values. Product was superior in all sensory attributes. It is concluded that Chettinad style goat meat product retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min, had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.

  8. Computed tomography-guided endoscopic needle knife therapy for ileal pouch sinus.

    PubMed

    Nyabanga, Custon T; Veniero, Joseph; Shen, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery can be complicated by anastomotic leaks, leading to the formation of abscess and chronic sinus that have been routinely managed by a surgical approach. We developed the endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy (NKSi) technique, which has become a valid alternative. The basic principle of endoscopic NKSi is dissection and drainage of the sinus through its orifice internally into the lumen of pouch body. The success of NKSi requires an access to the sinus from the pouch side. One of the most challenging situations for NKSi is a closed orifice of the sinus, which leaves an isolated chronic abscess cavity. Here we report a case of complicated presacral sinus with a closed orifice that was not amenable to NKSi, necessitating a CT-guided guide wire placement and subsequent NKSi.

  9. Morphological characteristics of the temporomandibular joint in the pouch young of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Sugisaki, M; Kino, K; Ishikawa, T; Kawashima, S; Amemiya, T

    2015-04-01

    We recently reported the absence of the articular disc, which is a constant structure in mammals, in the temporomandibular joint of the adult Tasmanian devil. However, whether the articular disc disappears with growth of the animal was unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether a pouch young of the Tasmanian devil has the articular disc. The temporomandibular joint of a fresh carcass of the pouch young, whose crown-rump length was 43 mm, was examined microscopically and by microcomputed tomography. The absence of the articular disc in the pouch young temporomandibular joint was histologically confirmed. It is suggested that the articular disc of the Tasmanian devil is naturally absent. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Female reproductive health after ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2003-04-01

    Ileal pouch anal anastomosis is the surgical treatment of choice for ulcerative colitis, offering intestinal continuity and fecal continence. IPAA does not seem to affect menstrual function or gynecologic symptoms. Overall sexual satisfaction may be improved with surgery, although ability to experience orgasm and coital frequency remain essentially unchanged. However, dyspareunia seems to increase postoperatively. Fertility is also adversely affected by IPAA, possibly a result of pelvic adhesions. Pregnancy is characterized by a transient increase in day and night stool frequency and incontinence that resolves after delivery. The ideal route of delivery has not been determined, but vaginal delivery seems safe and does not directly cause pouch dysfunction. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader will be able to describe the procedure ileal pouch anal anastomosis, to summarize the effects of IPAA on menstrual function and sexual health, and to outline the association of IPAA and infertility.

  11. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  12. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  13. Endoscopic closure instead of surgery to close an ileal pouch fistula with the over-the-scope clip system

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yao; Gong, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2017-01-01

    An ileal pouch fistula is an uncommon complication after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Most patients who suffer from an ileal pouch fistula will need surgical intervention. However, the surgery can be invasive and has a high risk compared to endoscopic treatment. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was initially developed for hemostasis and leakage closure in the gastrointestinal tract during flexible endoscopy. There have been many successes in using this approach to apply perforations to the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, this approach has not been used for ileal pouch fistulas until currently. In this report, we describe one patient who suffered a leak from the tip of the “J” pouch and was successfully treated with endoscopic closure via the OTSC system. A 26-year-old male patient had an intestinal fistula at the tip of the “J” pouch after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis procedure. He received endoscopic treatment via OTSC under intravenous anesthesia, and the leak was closed successfully. Endoscopic closure of a pouch fistula could be a simpler alternative to surgery and could help avoid surgery-related complications. PMID:28250903

  14. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  15. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  16. Influence of age at ileoanal pouch creation on long-term changes in functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kiran, R P; El-Gazzaz, G; Remzi, F H; Church, J M; Lavery, I C; Hammel, J; Fazio, V W

    2011-02-01

    We reviewed the functional results and quality of life (QOL) of patients who had had an ileoanal pouch (IPAA) for at least 15 years. Retrospective analysis was undertaken of data accrued prospectively into a pouch database since 1983. Patients who had retained an IPAA for at least 15 years were identified. Trends in IPAA function and QOL of the patients were determined over a time-period of 15 years after formation of the IPAA. Data were compared for patients who were < 35, 35-55 and > 55 years of age when the IPAA was formed. Three hundred and ninety-six of a total of 3276 patients in the database (53% men, median age 36 years and median follow-up 17.1 years) underwent IPAA with at least 15 years of follow-up. The final pathology was ulcerative colitis in 78%; 66.4% of patients had a restorative proctocolectomy, 91.4% underwent temporary diversion, 59% had a J-pouch configuration and 63.1% a stapled anastomosis. The frequency of bowel movements remained the same over the follow-up period. There was an increase in the incidence of incontinence and urgency after 15 years with no significant change in dietary, social, work and sexual restrictions during follow-up. Patients in all three age groups experienced deterioration in pouch function at 15 years of follow up compared with the function at 5 years. The QOL of the patients remained high and stable. There is a deterioration of pouch function after 15 years, irrespective of the age of the patient when the IPAA was formed. Despite this, QOL appears to be high for all patients who retain their pouch. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Significant bacterial contamination risk reduction with the use of diversion pouch.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Wong, H K; Ho, P L; Tsoi, W C; Lee, K Y; Tsui, G T F; Chua, E; Leung, J N S; Lin, C K

    2012-12-01

    Significant efforts have been made towards bacterial risk minimization by limiting the chance of bacteria entering into collected blood, detecting its presence and eliminating them by pathogen reduction technology. Improved skin disinfection and the use of diversion pouch are effective upstream measures to reduce the risk of bacterial sepsis. Here we report on our experience with the use of blood bags with diversion pouch. An observational study was performed to compare the bacterial contamination rate for two periods of time, i.e. before and after introduction of diversion pouch into blood bags. The incidence of bacterial contamination was monitored by the existing bacterial surveillance programme using pooled samples from 5 units of random donor platelets underwent aerobic culture in the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Between 1 June 2004 and 31 May 2006 (blood bag without diversion pouch), 50 (0·0213%) out of 234,252 units of random donor platelets were found to have bacteria on culture whereas 15 (0·0057%) isolates out of 262,156 units were found from 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2009 (after diversion pouch was introduced). Overall, there was an 85% reduction in bacterial contaminated risk due to skin flora (P < 0·0001) but an increasing trend of detection of non skin flora such as Streptococcus bovis was noted. Integration of diversion pouch into blood bags to divert the first 30 mL blood during blood collection on top of the current skin disinfection protocol can significantly reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. © 2012 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2012 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Vaginal delivery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: a word of caution.

    PubMed

    Remzi, Feza H; Gorgun, Emre; Bast, Jane; Schroeder, Tom; Hammel, Jeffrey; Philipson, Elliot; Hull, Tracy L; Church, James M; Fazio, Victor W

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of childbirth on anal sphincter integrity and function, functional outcome, and quality of life in females with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The patients who had at least one live birth after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were asked to return for a comprehensive assessment. They were asked to complete the following questionnaires: the Short Form-36, Cleveland Global Quality of Life scale, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons fecal incontinence severity index, and time trade-off method. Additionally, anal sphincter integrity (endosonography) and manometric pressures were measured by a medical physician blinded to the delivery technique. Anal sphincter physiology also was evaluated with electromyography and pudendal nerve function by nerve terminal motor latency technique. Of 110 eligible females who had at least one live birth after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 57 participated in the study by returning for clinical evaluation to the clinic and 25 others by returning the quality of life and functional outcome questionnaires. Patients were classified into two groups: patients who had only cesarean section delivery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n = 62) and patients who had at least one vaginal delivery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n = 20). The mean follow-up from the date of the most recent delivery was 4.9 years. The vaginal delivery group had significantly higher incidence of an anterior sphincter defect by anal endosonography (50 percent) vs. cesarean section delivery group (13 percent; P = 0.012). The mean squeeze anal pressure was significantly higher in the patients who had only cesarean section delivery (150 mmHg) after restorative proctocolectomy than patients who had at least one vaginal delivery (120 mmHg) after restorative proctocolectomy (P = 0.049). Quality of life evaluated by time trade-off method also was significantly better in the cesarean section delivery

  19. Factors affecting cost and length of stay associated with the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Brian R; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Koltun, Walter A

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis procedure and identify those factors that most affected or determined such costs. Specifically evaluated were the costs, complication rates, and length of stay associated with the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis done as a one-stage, two-stage, two-stage modified, or three-stage procedure. Costs from the hospital accounting database and clinical data from retrospective chart review of 135 ileal pouch-anal anastomosis patients from a ten-year period were compiled. Overall costs and length of stay (the sum of all hospitalizations for all surgeries and any related complications) for each group were compared by analysis of variance. Linear regression was used to compute net costs and length of stay excluding contributions from other relevant factors such as number of operative stages, complications, demographics, and nonelective operations. The average overall cost and length of stay of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis ranged from a low of $12,738 and 13.5 days for the one-stage procedure to a high of $32,758 and 23.9 days for the three-stage pathway. Overall costs, length of stay, and incidence of complications increased with the number of operations necessary to complete the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This pattern of increased costs and length of stay with the greater number of stages persisted even after demographic and preoperative characteristics were controlled for in the analyses. The occurrence of a complication added an average of $9,304 (P < 0.0001) and 7.4 days to the procedure (P = 0.0002), whereas an urgent presentation added an average of $5,258 (P = 0.15) and 6.1 days (P = 0.04). The two most definitive determinants of cost and length of stay after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are complications and number of operative stages used to complete the operation. Elective ileal pouch-anal anastomosis operations done in the fewest stages with the least

  20. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  1. The first description of a congenital right ventricular cardiac aneurysm in a pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Cluj blue tumbler pigeon).

    PubMed

    Gal, A F; Tăbăran, F; Taulescu, M; Cătoi, C

    2012-12-01

    Congenital cardiac aneurysms and diverticula are rare cardiac outpouchings first described in humans. Our paper describes a congenital cardiac aneurysm in the wall of the right ventricle in a pigeon. A number of pigeons (n = 23), Cluj blue tumblers (Aves: Columbiformes: Columbidae: Columba livia domestica), were found dead (accidental poisoning) in October 5, 2011 in Cluj-Napoca, Central Romania. One individual (a 7-mo-old male) presented with a thin-walled pouch in the wall of the right cardiac ventricle. A complete necropsy examination was performed, and samples of the heart (ca. 0.5 cm) with evident macroscopic lesions were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. During the necropsy examination, a well-demarcated outpouching was noted in the wall of the right cardiac ventricle. The aneurysm had a broad communication with the corresponding ventricular chamber. Histologically, the wall of the right ventricular pouch consisted of mature fibrous connective tissue with collagen fibers and fibroblasts. No viable cardiomyocytes were found in the wall of the aneurysm. No infarction, inflammation, or granulation tissue was identified in the aneurysm. This is the first reliable record of a congenital cardiac aneurysm in a pigeon and also the first record of this cardiac anomaly in birds. Herein we describe gross and histopathologic changes of a congenital cardiac aneurysm in a pigeon.

  2. Congenital defects of sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S M

    1993-03-01

    With increasing incrimination of viruses, plants, and drugs as causes of ovine congenital defects, concerted efforts are required to identify environmental teratogens. Expanding knowledge of congenital defects requires studying as many defective lambs as possible; recording and documenting; detailed diagnostic examinations; genetic analyses and chromosomal examinations, whenever possible; and field investigations. Adopting standardized classification, terminology, and diagnostic procedures should improve descriptions, diagnoses, and interdisciplinary exchange of information. That, in turn, should improve our knowledge of and diagnosis of congenital defects of sheep in the future. Finally, veterinary clinicians and diagnosticians are encouraged to take an interest in congenital defects and teratology.

  3. Cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Babar A; Ionescu, Ruxandra C; Halal, Ahmed M; Kesler, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    With the growing success of surgical repairs of congenital defects previously incompatible with life, it is expected of these patients to live longer and experience the complications of these corrective procedures. Esophageal atresia is a congenital defect that occurs in 1 out of 4000 births and is oftentimes a surgical emergency in which colonic conduits are routinely used for esophageal reconstruction. Colonic conduit redundancy and dilatation are well-recognized late complications of colon conduit surgeries for esophageal reconstructions. We report a rare case of symptomatic cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit occurring 44 years after the initial childhood surgery in 1964 with rapid reversal of hemodynamic compromise after conduit removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions congenital hypothyroidism congenital hypothyroidism Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function ...

  5. [Use of surgical staplers in proctocolectomy with ileal pouch. Effects on immediate results].

    PubMed

    Montesani, C; Pronio, A; De Milito, R; Narilli, P; D'Amato, A; Ribotta, G

    1992-04-01

    The immediate results of 37 restorative proctocolectomies are reported comparing morbidity of stapled vs manual procedures. The stapled technique is easier and faster but does not reduce the incidence of leakages and pelvic sepsis related to the ileal pouch. It seems, though, to be more useful in reducing the morbidity related to the ileoanal anastomosis.

  6. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch.

  7. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  8. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  9. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  10. Storage stability of packaged baby formula in poly(lactide)-whey protein isolate laminated pouch.

    PubMed

    Phupoksakul, Thunyaluck; Leuangsukrerk, Manusawee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Janjarasskul, Theeranun

    2017-08-01

    The use of biodegradable polymeric materials has been proposed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to petroleum-based packaging. To extend the shelf life of food products, these bioplastics must possess appropriate barrier properties and food-package stability. In the present study, shelf life analysis of packaged baby formula in biopolymeric, multilayer film, fabricated from poly(lactide) (PLA) and whey protein isolate (WPI), PLA/WPI/PLA and PLA pouches was performed at 4-35 (o) C and 50-59% relative humidity. Despite the possible sorption of food components into contact PLA surfaces, the results demonstated that the transparency and barrier properties of PLA-based pouches were insignificantly changed over time (P > 0.05), although the films showed a slow rate of color change. The baby formula packaged in PLA/WPI/PLA had a delayed lipid oxidation compared to the sample in the PLA pouch, especially at a higher temperature. The application of WPI in the multilayer structure shifted the shelf life determination factor from lipid oxidation to moisture gain. The results indicate that the PLA/WPI/PLA pouch has good storage stability. The film could be used to package dry food properly at 4-35 (o) C and 50-59% relative humidity for an extended period of time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  12. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  13. Infestation and development of Sitophilus spp. in pouch-packaged spaghetti in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mika; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro

    2008-06-01

    Infestation of pouch-packaged spaghetti by Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was observed in Japan in May 2006. It was suggested that 30% of all shipped pasta products sustain damage to the packages heat-sealed before reaching retail stores. Hence, we investigated the mechanisms by which S. oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults invade pasta packaged in polypropylene pouches. In the damaged packages, both species entered through the breaks in the seal and laid their eggs on the pasta. However, in the intact packages, the adults of both species bit around air vent holes in the film, but they did not make the holes big enough for entry into the pouch. We also compared each species' developmental periods from oviposition to emergence in pasta and brown rice (Oryza spp.). The average developmental period of both species at 25 degrees C was shorter in rice than in pasta. The number of individuals emerging from brown rice was significantly higher than that from pasta. Finally, we suggested a measure to prevent infestation by insect pests in pouch-packaged pasta products.

  14. Long-term adjustment to living with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Berndtsson, Ina E; Carlsson, Eva K; Persson, Eva I; Lindholm, Elisabet A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe long-term adjustment to life with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis after surgery for ulcerative colitis, to investigate the relationship of pouch function to adjustment, and to explore factors affecting quality of life. A total of 369 patients treated between 1982 and 1993 were included in the study. Questionnaires designed to assess bowel (pouch) function (Öresland score) and disease-specific adjustment (Swedish version of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale), plus open-ended questions regarding quality of life, were sent by mail. Open-ended questions were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. A total of 252 patients (84%) returned the disease-specific adjustment questionnaire (141 males/111 females); median age, 51 (range, 26-77) years; median follow-up, 15 (range, 10-21) years after construction of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. High adjustment ratings were found for all statements, with the maximum median score of 6 on 28 of the 36 items. Items with the lowest ratings (median score, 5) pertained to things one would do if not for the IPAA, feeling free to travel, ability to enjoy sexual activities, comfort with body image, ability to laugh about awkward situations, confidence in the appliance, and whether the surgery helped with decisions on what things are most important in life. Participants with the lowest adjustment scores had low bowel function scores (P < .0001). Open-ended quality of life questions were answered by 150 patients (59.5%). The most important areas for quality of life were health, family, restroom access, and friends. Five categories emerged from the qualitative content analysis: living a "normal" life, food restrictions, physical limitations, influence of restroom access on social life, and being dependent on medical care. Most participants had adjusted well to life with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and considered life to be normal. Good public restrooms were important for quality of life. Improving

  15. Outcome and functional prognosis of pelvic sepsis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ide, Shozo; Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Kawamura, Mikio; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2017-03-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis, but pouch failure or pelvic sepsis still occurs in some patients. We conducted this study to investigate the cause of pouch failure and evaluate defecatory function after pelvic sepsis. A total of 234 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy were enrolled. We analyzed the cause of pouch failure, as well as defecatory function and manometric outcomes, with and without the complication of pelvic sepsis. Pelvic sepsis developed in 29 (12.3%) of the 234 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy (pelvic sepsis group). The pelvic sepsis led to pouch failure in two of these patients (as a vaginal fistula in one and ileo-anal anastomotic leakage in one). Of the remaining majority of patients who did not suffer pelvic sepsis (control group), nine suffered pouch failure (as vaginal fistula in four, perianal abscess in two, pouch-spinal marrow fistula in one, and chronic pouchitis in two). There were no significant differences in defecatory function or manometric outcomes between the two groups. In the pelvic sepsis group, stool frequency was significantly correlated with white blood cell count (P = 0.01) and the duration until onset of pelvic sepsis (P < 0.01). Pelvic sepsis after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis does not affect defecatory and manometric function, but control of the inflammation caused by pelvic sepsis is integral for defecatory function.

  16. Revisional Laparoscopic Gastric Pouch Resizing for Inadequate Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Ibtisam; Khoursheed, Mousa; Al Sharaf, Khalid; Mouzannar, D Ali; Ashraf, Aqeel; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-07-01

    Weight regain due to gastric pouch dilatation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is seen more frequently after long-term follow-up. We studied the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic pouch resizing (LPR) for dilated gastric pouch after RYGB associated with inadequate weight loss. From 1st June 2011 to 1st September 2013, patients who underwent LPR after failed RYGB were retrospectively compared and analyzed. Data included patient demographics, comorbidity, indication for revision, preoperative weight and BMI, operative time, hospital stay, conversion rate, mean follow-up, body mass index (BMI) loss, percentage excess weight loss (%EWL), reoperation rate, morbidity, and mortality. Out of 170 revisional bariatric procedures, 32 LPR (27/5, F/M) were performed for dilated gastric pouch after RYGB. The mean age, preoperative weight, and BMI were 38.3 ± 9.3 years, 101.7 ± 22.8 kg, 38.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), respectively. The median operative time and hospital stay were 100 min and 2 days, respectively. All pouch resizing procedures were carried out laparoscopically, with none requiring conversion to open surgery. The overall complication and reoperation rates were 15.6 and 3.1 %, respectively. There were no deaths. The mean follow-up was 14.1 ± 6.2 months. The mean postoperative BMI was 32.8 ± 7.3 kg/m(2), and the median %EWL was 29.1 %. LPR is safe and can lead to adequate weight loss. However, long-term follow-up is needed to determine the efficiency and durability of this procedure.

  17. Pouch young removal and return to oestrus in wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Finlayson, G R; Taggart, D A; Shimmin, G A; White, C R; Dibben, R; Steele, V; Paris, M C J; Temple-Smith, P D

    2007-07-01

    The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) is a seasonal breeding, burrowing marsupial adapted to a semi-arid environment and the closest relative of the endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii). Females typically give birth to one to two young every 3 years with young weaned at 360-400 days. This study examined the occurrence of polyoestry in a wild population of southern hairy-nosed wombats, and in particular the ability of this species to produce additional offspring in the same breeding season if a young was prematurely lost or removed. Pouch young were removed during the breeding seasons of 1996/1997 and 2003. No females from the 1996 (n=3)/1997 (n=3) group gave birth to a second pouch young in the same breeding season. However, two females in this group gave birth to young the following season. In contrast, all the 2003 group of females (n=6) produced a second offspring in the same breeding season after removal of pouch young (RPY). The reason for the different response to RPY between the two groups is unknown. These studies confirm that southern hairy-nosed wombats are polyoestrus in the wild and are capable of producing more than one offspring in a single breeding season. Females that failed to return to oestrus in the breeding season that pouch young were removed bred again in the following season. Rapid replacement of southern hairy-nosed wombat pouch young in the same breeding season as RPY suggests that this procedure, linked to either hand-rearing or interspecific cross-fostering, should be seriously considered as a priority conservation action to increase the population size of the critically endangered sister species, the northern hairy-nosed wombat.

  18. Measuring neoplastic transformation in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Brown, William; Wax, Adam

    2008-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is a promising technique which combines the depth resolution of low coherence interferometry with the sensitivity of light scattering spectroscopy for probing the health of epithelial tissue layers. Our new fLCI system configuration utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source and a 4-f interferometer which re-images light scattered from the sample onto the detection plane. The system employs an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire depth resolved profiles from 252 adjacent spatial points without the need for any scanning. The limited spatial coherence of the light source requires the resolution of adjacent spatial points for the generation of depth information. Depth-resolved spectral information is recovered by performing a short-time Fourier transform on the detected spectra, similar to spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain information about the neoplastic transformation of the probed cells. Previous studies have demonstrated fLCI as an excellent technique for probing the scatterer morphology of simple phantoms and of in vitro cancer cell monolayers. We now seek to assess the ability of the new fLCI system to measure the health of subsurface tissue layers using the hamster cheek pouch model. Seven hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. We expect our results to establish the feasibility of fLCI to distinguish between healthy and dysplastic epithelial tissues in the hamster cheek pouch.

  19. Dynamics of thymus organogenesis and colonization in early human development

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Alison M.; Morris, Lucy X.; Vroegindeweij, Eric; Depreter, Marianne L. G.; Vaidya, Harsh; Stenhouse, Frances H.; Tomlinson, Simon R.; Anderson, Richard A.; Cupedo, Tom; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Blackburn, C. Clare

    2013-01-01

    The thymus is the central site of T-cell development and thus is of fundamental importance to the immune system, but little information exists regarding molecular regulation of thymus development in humans. Here we demonstrate, via spatial and temporal expression analyses, that the genetic mechanisms known to regulate mouse thymus organogenesis are conserved in humans. In addition, we provide molecular evidence that the human thymic epithelium derives solely from the third pharyngeal pouch, as in the mouse, in contrast to previous suggestions. Finally, we define the timing of onset of hematopoietic cell colonization and epithelial cell differentiation in the human thymic primordium, showing, unexpectedly, that the first colonizing hematopoietic cells are CD45+CD34int/-. Collectively, our data provide essential information for translation of principles established in the mouse to the human, and are of particular relevance to development of improved strategies for enhancing immune reconstitution in patients. PMID:23571219

  20. Dynamics of thymus organogenesis and colonization in early human development.

    PubMed

    Farley, Alison M; Morris, Lucy X; Vroegindeweij, Eric; Depreter, Marianne L G; Vaidya, Harsh; Stenhouse, Frances H; Tomlinson, Simon R; Anderson, Richard A; Cupedo, Tom; Cornelissen, Jan J; Blackburn, C Clare

    2013-05-01

    The thymus is the central site of T-cell development and thus is of fundamental importance to the immune system, but little information exists regarding molecular regulation of thymus development in humans. Here we demonstrate, via spatial and temporal expression analyses, that the genetic mechanisms known to regulate mouse thymus organogenesis are conserved in humans. In addition, we provide molecular evidence that the human thymic epithelium derives solely from the third pharyngeal pouch, as in the mouse, in contrast to previous suggestions. Finally, we define the timing of onset of hematopoietic cell colonization and epithelial cell differentiation in the human thymic primordium, showing, unexpectedly, that the first colonizing hematopoietic cells are CD45(+)CD34(int/-). Collectively, our data provide essential information for translation of principles established in the mouse to the human, and are of particular relevance to development of improved strategies for enhancing immune reconstitution in patients.

  1. Congenital heat disease

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Silverman, N.H.; Kersting-Somerhoff, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    The book covers the tomographic anatomy of the normal and congenitally malformed heart and tomographic imaging of the normal heat. It then compares echocardiographic evaluation and the use of MR imaging in the diagnosis and evaluation of individual congenital cardiac malformations.

  2. Congenital patellar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose; Varghese, M; Sankaran, B

    2009-01-01

    Congenital patellar syndrome is bilateral isolated absence of patella. Congenital patellar aplasia or hypoplasia associated with genetic disorders belongs to a clinically diverse and genetically heterogeneous group of lower limb malformations. Absence of patella as an isolated anomaly is extremely rare and we discuss such a case in a 9-year-old boy.

  3. Multifocal Congenital Hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Robl, Renata; Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Uber, Marjorie; Lichtvan, Leniza Costa Lima; Werner, Betina; Mehrdad Nadji, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    Congenital hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with less aggressive behavior and a more favorable prognosis than similar tumors in adults. Multifocal presentation is even less common than isolated HPC and hence its clinical and histologic recognition may be challenging. A newborn infant with multifocal congenital HPC causing severe deformity but with a favorable outcome after chemotherapy and surgical removal is reported.

  4. Proctocolectomy for colorectal cancer--is the ileal pouch anal anastomosis a safe alternative to permanent ileostomy?

    PubMed

    Snelgrove, Ryan; Brown, Carl J; O'Connor, Brenda I; Huang, Harden; Victor, J Charles; Gryfe, Robert; MacRae, Helen; Cohen, Zane; McLeod, Robin S

    2014-12-01

    Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the procedure of choice in patients requiring surgery for ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). There are few data on reconstruction with the IPAA in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This study assessed the outcomes of the IPAA compared to proctocolectomy and permanent ileostomy (PI) on these patients. Between 1983 and 2013, over 2800 patients with CRC have been treated at the Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH). Demographic, surgical, pathological, and outcome data for all patients have been maintained in a database-73 patients were treated for CRC with proctocolectomy: 39 patients with IPAA and 34 patients with PI. Clinical features, pathologic findings, and survival outcomes were compared between these groups. Each group was similar with respect to gender, stage, and histologic grade. Patients undergoing IPAA were significantly younger. The diagnosis leading to proctocolectomy was more commonly UC or FAP in patients treated with IPAA (39/39 vs. 23/34, p = 0.001). Rectal cancer subgroups were similar in age, sex, TNM stage, T-stage, height of tumor, and histologic grade. There was no significant difference in overall or disease free survival between groups for colon or rectal primaries. Analysis using the Cochran-Armitage trend test suggests that utilization of IPAA has increased over time (p = 0.002). The IPAA is a viable and safe option to select for patients who would otherwise require PI. Increased experience and improved outcomes following IPAA has led to its more liberal use in selected patients.

  5. Congenital anomalies associated with hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Bamforth, J S; Hughes, I; Lazarus, J; John, R

    1986-01-01

    Seven of the 34 infants identified through the Welsh Hypothyroid Screening Programme have additional congenital abnormalities. Two infants have a previously undescribed syndrome, two have chromosomal abnormalities, two have congenital heart disease, and one has a myelomeningocoele. Congenital hypothyroidism often seems to be associated with other congenital abnormalities. PMID:3729532

  6. Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Park, S; Chatterjee, V

    2005-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate genes associated with this genetically heterogeneous disorder form two main groups: those causing thyroid gland dysgenesis and those causing dyshormonogenesis. Genes associated with thyroid gland dysgenesis include the TSH receptor in non-syndromic congenital hypothyroidism, and Gsα and the thyroid transcription factors (TTF-1, TTF-2, and Pax-8), associated with different complex syndromes that include congenital hypothyroidism. Among those causing dyshormonogenesis, the thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin genes were initially described, and more recently PDS (Pendred syndrome), NIS (sodium iodide symporter), and THOX2 (thyroid oxidase 2) gene defects. There is also early evidence for a third group of congenital hypothyroid conditions associated with iodothyronine transporter defects associated with severe neurological sequelae. This review focuses on the genetic aspects of primary congenital hypothyroidism. PMID:15863666

  7. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion.

  8. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion. PMID:24474093

  9. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  10. Crohn's-like complications in patients with ulcerative colitis after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, N S; Sanford, W W; Bodzin, J H

    1997-11-01

    Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become an established surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis. Occasional patients who have undergone IPAA develop persistent or recurrent episodes of pouchitis (chronic pouchitis), from which a subset also develop gastrointestinal and systemic complications that are identical to those seen in Crohn's disease. These complications include enteric stenoses or fistulas in the pouch or pouch inlet segment, perianal fistulas or abscesses, pouch fistulas, arthritis, iridocyclitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum. The development of Crohn's-like gastrointestinal complications in a patient with chronic pouchitis frequently engenders concern that the pathologist misinterpreted the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease. We describe eight patients who developed chronic pouchitis and Crohn's-like complications after IPAA and total proctocolectomy. In each case, concern was voiced about misinterpretation of the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease after the development of the Crohn's-like complications. Preoperatively, all eight patients had characteristic clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of ulcerative colitis. Review of the pathology specimens indicated that all eight had ulcerative colitis. Crohn's-like complications are most likely related to chronic pouchitis, which probably is a form of recrudescent ulcerative colitis within the novel environment of the pouch. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease after IPAA surgery should only be made when reexamination of the original proctocolectomy specimen shows typical pathologic features of Crohn's disease, Crohn's disease arises in parts of the gastrointestinal tract distant from the pouch, pouch biopsies contain active enteritis with granulomas, or excised pouches show the characteristic features of Crohn's disease, including granulomas. There were no histologic differences in the total

  11. Guttural pouch mycosis in horses: a retrospective study of 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Dobesova, O; Schwarz, B; Velde, K; Jahn, P; Zert, Z; Bezdekova, B

    2012-12-01

    The medical records of 28 horses with guttural pouch mycosis were reviewed. The most commonly observed clinical signs were nasal discharge, epistaxis, dysphagia and/or cough. All 28 horses had the disease unilaterally, however, in five of them, it had spread into the contralateral pouch via the mesial septum. Three horses were treated medically, 11 horses underwent surgery and seven horses were treated both medically and surgically. Fifty percent of horses (14/28) were euthanased or died, fifty percent of horses (14/28) survived. There was no significant correlation between treatment method (medical, surgical, combination) and survival rate. The most common reason for euthanasia was dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction. There was a highly significant correlation between the presence of dysphagia and non-survival (p=0.008).

  12. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  13. Cystic Endometrioma with Coexisting Fibroma Originating in a Supernumerary Ovary in the Rectovaginal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Asumi; Kodama, Hiroko; Ogura, Kanako; Miwa, Ayako; Sugimori, Yayoi; Matuoka, Shozo; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    A supernumerary ovary is an exceedingly rare disorder, in which the structure containing ovarian tissue is located at some distance from the normally placed ovary. 16 cases of endometriosis or tumors originating in a supernumerary ovary have been published in the English literature, but no case of coexisting endometriosis and a tumor has been published. We present the case of a 40-year-old female with cystic endometrioma with coexisting fibroma originating in a supernumerary ovary in the rectovaginal pouch. The present case is the first to be reported with coexisting endometriosis and a tumor originating in a supernumerary ovary. Our experience with this case and the results of our previous studies of rectovaginal endometriosis indicated that the possibility of originating in a supernumerary ovary shall be examined in cases of cystic endometrioma in the rectovaginal pouch. PMID:28210515

  14. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms.

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    PubMed

    Kreimann, E L; Itoiz, M E; Longhino, J; Blaumann, H; Calzetta, O; Schwint, A E

    2001-12-15

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies and shown that boronophenylalanine delivers potentially therapeutic 36.9 +/- 17.5 ppm boron to tumor tissue with tumor:normal tissue and tumor:blood ratios of 2.4:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. Here we report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue, and normal oral tissue to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days posttreatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in an additional 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue.

  16. Auto-inflammatory diseases in ileal pouch patients with NOD2/CARD15 mutations.

    PubMed

    Seril, Darren N; Yao, Qingping; Shen, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Pouchitis is common in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis occurs in a subgroup of the patients. Auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, manifesting as periodic fever, rash, arthritis, and serositis. We describe two cases with ulcerative colitis and an ileal pouch, who presented with extra-intestinal manifestations and genetic features atypical for inflammatory bowel disease alone. Case 1 had a spectrum of clinical manifestations including refractory pouchitis, intermittent fevers, polyarthralgia, and pericarditis. Case 2 presented with oral ulcers, migratory oligoarthritis, and periodic papular rash. Genetic testing in both cases revealed mutations of the NOD2/CARD15 gene, including the IVS8(+158) mutation commonly detected among patients with NOD2-associated auto-inflammatory disease. Both of the patients demonstrated clinical improvement of these diverse systemic complaints following treatment with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies.

  17. Auto-inflammatory diseases in ileal pouch patients with NOD2/CARD15 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Seril, Darren N.; Yao, Qingping; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Pouchitis is common in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis occurs in a subgroup of the patients. Auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, manifesting as periodic fever, rash, arthritis, and serositis. We describe two cases with ulcerative colitis and an ileal pouch, who presented with extra-intestinal manifestations and genetic features atypical for inflammatory bowel disease alone. Case 1 had a spectrum of clinical manifestations including refractory pouchitis, intermittent fevers, polyarthralgia, and pericarditis. Case 2 presented with oral ulcers, migratory oligoarthritis, and periodic papular rash. Genetic testing in both cases revealed mutations of the NOD2/CARD15 gene, including the IVS8+158 mutation commonly detected among patients with NOD2-associated auto-inflammatory disease. Both of the patients demonstrated clinical improvement of these diverse systemic complaints following treatment with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:25313006

  18. Nd:YAG photovaporization of residual equine guttural-pouch mycotic lesions after internal carotid occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Tudor, R. A.; Little, Edwina D. E.

    1998-07-01

    Hospital records reviewed over a 12-year period determined that 6 horses had been presented for guttural pouch mycosis. All had a history of epistaxis and several had accompanying neurologic signs, including dysphagia. Initially, conformation of the disease was obtained by radiographic and endoscopic examinations. Surgical treatment was directed at controlling and preventing additional hemorrhage by occluding the arterial source of the hemorrhage. Direct treatment of the mycotic plaque present within the guttural pouch was conducted using transendoscopic technique to direct irradiation from the Nd:YAG laser. The protocol described for the laser application was successful in resolving the lesions and was less complicated and stressful than previously reported topically applied chemical protocols.

  19. Mucus accumulation and necrosis of the ventral air pouch in a marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) with productive rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Collarile, Tommaso; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo; Melidone, Raffaele

    2013-09-01

    A captive-born marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) was presented for swelling of the ventral air pouch of 1 month's duration. The pouch appeared fluid filled, and its distal third wall was markedly inspissated. The thickened distal portion of the pouch wall was removed surgically. During anesthesia, mucous discharge from the nares was evident and the nasal mucosa was hyperemic. Aeromonas and Proteus species were isolated from a nasal culture. Postoperative therapy that consisted of nasal flushing, antimicrobial agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was effective in managing the disease. On histologic examination, diffuse hemorrhage, necrosis, and multifocal vasculitis with moderate-to-severe heterophilic inflammation were present within sections of the ventral pouch. To our knowledge this is the first report of a mucus-filled ventral air pouch with associated pathologic changes secondary to a productive infection of the upper respiratory tract in a marabou stork. The unique communication between nasal cavities and the ventral air pouch should be considered in future cases of respiratory infection in marabou storks.

  20. Natural honey: a new and potent anti-angiogenic agent in the air-pouch model of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, T; Najafi, M; Gharehbagheri, A

    2014-10-01

    Despite reports indicating anti-inflammatory effects of honey, the anti-angiogenic effect of honey and its impact on inflammatory mediators in the air pouch model of inflammation have not yet been studied. The aims of present study were to investigate the effects of honey on angiogenesis, inflammatory cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level as an important marker of angiogenesis and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the rat air pouch model of inflammation. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and then 20 ml and 10 ml of sterile air were injected subcutaneously in the back on days 0 and 3, respectively. On day 6, inflammation was induced by injection of 1 ml of carrageenan 1% into pouches. After 72 h, the rats were sacrificed; pouch fluid was collected in order to determine PGE2 concentration and VEGF level. The Pouches were dissected out and weighed. Angiogenesis of granulomatous tissue was assayed using a hemoglobin kit. Honey was able to reduce granulation tissue weight and angiogenesis as well as showing potent inhibitory activities against PGE2 and VEGF in air pouch model of inflammation. The decrease in angiogenesis correlates with the inhibition of PGE2 and VEGF. Honey is potentially useful in the treatment of granulomatous inflammatory conditions. It seems that the anti-angiogenic activities of honey are mediated through modulation of PGE2 and VEGF production.

  1. An experimental study in six fresh human cadavers using a novel approach to avoid abdominal wall incisions in total colectomy: totally transanal laparoendoscopic single-site pull-through colectomy with J-pouch creation.

    PubMed

    Vahdad, M Reza; Cernaianu, Grigore; Semaan, Alexander; Klein, Tobias; Faran, Samuel; Zemon, Harry; Boemers, Thomas; Foroutan, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    The use of transanal laparoscopic access to completely avoid abdominal wall incisions represents the most current evolution in minimally invasive surgery. The combination of single-site surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES™) can be used for totally transanal laparoendoscopic pull-through colectomy with J-pouch creation (TLPC-J). The aim of the present study was to provide evidence for the feasibility of TLPC-J in adult human cadavers. TLPC-J was performed in six fresh adult human cadavers. The procedure involved endorectal submucosal dissection from 1 cm above the dentate line to a point above the peritoneal reflection, where the rectal muscle was divided circumferentially. The edge of the mucosal cuff was closed distally in order to prevent fecal contamination and the endorectal tube was placed back into the abdomen. A Triport+™ or QuadPort+™ system was introduced transanally, and it served as a multiport device (MD). Resection of the entire colon, mobilization of the distal ileal segment, and extracorporeal suture of the ileal J-loop were performed via the transanal approach. The J-pouch was created using Endo GIA™. After removal of the MD, the J-pouch was sutured to the rectal wall. TLPC-J was performed in all cadavers, with a mean operation duration of 236 ± 22 min. Conversion to either transabdominal laparoscopy or laparotomy was not required in any of the cadavers. No bowel perforation or damage to other organs was observed. The use of a curved endoscope greatly facilitated visualization during transanal laparoscopic dissection for partial and total colectomy, making the procedure feasible. All specimens were retrieved through the anus, eliminating the need for additional transabdominal incisions. TLPC-J was technically feasible in adult human cadavers, and abdominal wall incisions were not required. However, clinical studies are needed to determine its feasibility in living adults.

  2. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  3. Marsupial tammar wallaby delivers milk bioactives to altricial pouch young to support lung development.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Hinds, Lyn A; Sharp, Julie A; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2016-11-01

    Our research is exploiting the marsupial as a model to understand the signals required for lung development. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy, the mother gives birth to altricial neonate with an immature lung and the changes in milk composition during lactation in marsupials appears to provide bioactives that can regulate diverse aspects of lung development, including branching morphogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. These effects are seen with milk collected between 25 and 100days postpartum. To better understand the temporal effects of milk composition on postnatal lung development we used a cross-fostering technique to restrict the tammar pouch young to milk composition not extending beyond day 25 for 45days of its early postnatal life. These particular time points were selected as our previous study showed that milk protein collected prior to ~day 25 had no developmental effect on mouse embryonic lungs in culture. The comparative analysis of the foster group and control young at day 45 postpartum demonstrated that foster pouch young had significantly reduced lung size. The lungs in fostered young were comprised of large intermediate tissue, had a reduced size of airway lumen and a higher percentage of parenchymal tissue. In addition, expression of marker genes for lung development (BMP4, WNT11, AQP-4, HOPX and SPB) were significantly reduced in lungs from fostered young. Further, to identify the potential bioactive expressed by mammary gland that may have developmental effect on pouch young lungs, we performed proteomics analysis on tammar milk through mass-spectrometry and listed the potential bioactives (PDGF, IGFBP5, IGFBPL1 and EGFL6) secreted in milk that may be involved in regulating pouch young lung development. The data suggest that postnatal lung development in the tammar young is most likely regulated by maternal signalling factors supplied through milk.

  4. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  5. Detecting neoplastic development in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Robles, Francisco; Chen, Xiaoxin; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is an optical technique that recovers depth-resolved spectroscopic information about scatterers. The current fLCI system utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source, a 4-f interferometer, and an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire spectra from 256 adjacent spatial points. This configuration permits the acquisition of ultrahigh depth resolution Fourier domain OCT images without the need for any beam scanning. fLCI has traditionally obtained depth-resolved spectral information by performing a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) on the detected spectra, similar to the processing techniques of spectroscopic OCT. We now employ a dual Gaussian window processing method which simultaneously obtains high spectral and temporal resolution, thus avoiding the resolution trade-off normally associated with the STFT. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain structural information about the probed scatterers. We now verify fLCI's ability to distinguish between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissue using the hamster cheek pouch model. Thirty hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. Our results will further establish fLCI as an effective method for distinguishing between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissues.

  6. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  7. Correlation of Mutagenic, Carcinogenic and Co-Carcinogenic Effects of Chemical Substances. Granuloma Pouch Assay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-25

    of a single dose treatment with procarbazine of GP cells during the time of maximal growth was investigated. Local fibrosarcomas were induced...regardless whether the carcinogen was given (t) Zbinden, G. and Maler, P. Single dose carcinogenicity of procarbazine in rats. Cancer letters in press - ii...locally (into the pouch) or systemically. The administration of croton oil before procarbazine increased the tumor yield. This is the first time that

  8. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining.

  9. Pouch Reshaping for Significant Weight Regain after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Yves; Winkler, Carmen; Kröll, Dino; Nett, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    Significant weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) occurs in around 20 % of patients in the long term. Anatomical reasons include dilatation of the gastric pouch and/or the pouch-jejunal anastomosis, leading to loss of restriction. Pouch reshaping (PR) aims at reestablishing restriction with a subsequent feeling of satiety. This study reports the outcome of PR embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment pathway. Twenty-six patients after PR for weight regain >30 % following RYGB in a university hospital between October 2010 and March 2016 were analyzed. Excluded were patients with PR for gastro-gastric fistulae, hypoglycemia, candy cane syndrome, and concomitant alteration of limb lengths. PR consisted in laparoscopic lateral resection of the gastric pouch, the anastomosis and the proximal 5 cm of the alimentary limb over a 32F bougie. Median follow-up after PR was 48 months (range 24-60). Median BMI at PR was 39.1 kg/m(2) (32.7-59.1). Median operation time was 85 min (25-190), and median length of stay was 3 days (1-35). Minor complications (grade ≤ 2) occurred in seven (27 %) patients and major complications (grade ≥ 3) in four patients (15 %). Nadir BMI and %EBMIL after PR were 32.9 kg/m(2) and 43.3 %, reached after a median of 12 months (3-48). Comorbidities were resolved in 81 %. After 48 months, median BMI was 33.8 kg/m(2) (20.4-49.2) and %EBMIL was 61.4 (39.1-121.2). Used selectively in a multidisciplinary treatment pathway, PR leads to prolonged weight stabilization around the previous nadir. However, its associated perioperative morbidity must not be disregarded.

  10. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  11. Congenital nephrotic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be high. There may be signs of malnutrition. A urinalysis reveals fat and large amounts of ... The disorder often leads to infection, malnutrition, and kidney failure. ... die within the first year. Congenital nephrotic syndrome ...

  12. Giant congenital nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... A congenital pigmented or melanocytic nevus is a dark-colored, often hairy, patch of skin. It is ... rare. Symptoms A nevus will appear as a dark-colored patch with any of the following: Brown ...

  13. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright ©1996 - 2016 C.H.I.N. All rights reserved TX4-390-685 Original site design and HTML by Panoptic Communications

  14. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  15. Visual pigment coexpression in all cones of two rodents, the Siberian hamster, and the pouched mouse.

    PubMed

    Lukáts, Akos; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Röhlich, Pál; Vígh, Béla; Bennett, Nigel C; Cooper, Howard M; Szél, Agoston

    2002-07-01

    To decide whether the identical topography of short- and middle-wavelength cone photoreceptors in two species of rodents reflects the presence of both opsins in all cone cells. Double-label immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against short-wavelength (S)-and middle- to long-wavelength (M/L)-sensitive opsin were used to determine the presence of visual pigments in cones of two species of rodents, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) and the pouched mouse (Saccostomus campestris) from South Africa. Topographical distribution was determined from retinal whole-mounts, and the colocalization of visual pigments was examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Opsin colocalization was also confirmed in consecutive semithin tangential sections. The immunocytochemical results demonstrate that in both the Siberian hamster and the pouched mouse all retinal cones contain two visual pigments. No dorsoventral gradient in the differential expression of the two opsins is observed. The retina of the Siberian hamster and the pouched mouse is the first example to show a uniform coexpression of M and S cone opsins in all cones, without any topographical gradient in opsin expression. This finding makes these two species good models for the study of molecular control mechanisms in opsin coexpression in rodents, and renders them suitable as sources of dual cones for future investigations on the role and neural connections of this cone type.

  16. Sunitinib Improves Some Clinical Aspects and Reverts DMBA-Induced Hyperplasic Lesions in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Mariana; Nunes, Marianne Brochado; Serafim, Lucas Horstmann; Azambuja, Alan Arrieira; Braga, Luisa Maria G. de M.; Saur, Lisiani; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control—C (n = 7), acetone—A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide—CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP—A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP—DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib—DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24693453

  17. Endoscopic treatment of leak at the tip of the “J” ileal pouch

    PubMed Central

    Kochhar, Gursimran Singh; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims The tip of the “J” of the ileal pouch is the vulnerable location for leak after restorative proctocolectomy, which has normally been treated with surgery. We aimed to describe a novel endoscopic method to treat the same. Patients and methods A cohort of 12 consecutive patients with a leak at the tip of the “J” was identified in our prospectively maintained Pouch Registry. The endoscopic over-the-scope clipping (OTSC) system was used for the closure of the leak. Results Eight patients (66.6 %) achieved complete closure of the leak documented by endoscopy confirmed with guidewire and/or contrasted pouchogram, with 6 requiring a single endoscopic session and 2 undergoing a repeat session. Four patients (33.3 %) had a persistent leak and required surgical intervention, of whom 1 developed abscess in the pre-spine region 14 days after the endoscopic procedure and underwent pouch revision surgery. Conclusions OSTC appears to be safe and effective in treating the leak at the tip of the “J” in the majority of patients. PMID:28180150

  18. Paradoxical Impact of Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis on Male and Female Fertility in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Pachler, Frederik R; Brandsborg, Søren B; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-06-01

    Birth rates in males with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis have not been studied. This study aimed to estimate birth rates in males and females with ulcerative colitis and study the impact of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This was a retrospective registry-based cohort study that was performed over a 30-year period. Records for parenting a child from the same period were cross-linked with patient records, and birth rates were calculated using 15 through 49 years as age limits. All data were prospectively registered. All patients with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis between 1980 and 2010 were identified in Danish national databases. The primary outcomes measured were birth rates in females and males with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We included 27,379 patients with ulcerative colitis (12,812 males and 14,567 females); 1544 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (792 males and 752 females). Patients with ulcerative colitis have slightly reduced birth rates (males at 40.8 children/1000 years, background population 43.2, females at 46.2 children/1000 years, background population 49.1). After ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, males had increased birth rates at 47.8 children/1000 years in comparison with males with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (40.5 children/1000 years), whereas females had reduced birth rates at 27.6 children/1000 years in comparison with females with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (46.8 children/1000 years). Only birth rates were investigated and not fecundability. Furthermore, there is a question about misattributed paternity, but this has previously been shown to be less than 5%. Ulcerative colitis per se has little impact on birth rates in both sexes, but ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery leads to a reduction in birth rates in females and an increase in birth rates in males. This has clinical

  19. Characteristics of learning curve in minimally invasive ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Rencuzogullari, Ahmet; Stocchi, Luca; Costedio, Meagan; Gorgun, Emre; Kessler, Hermann; Remzi, Feza H

    2017-03-01

    Previous work from our institution has characterized the learning curve for open ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). The purpose of the present study was to assess the learning curve of minimally invasive IPAA. Perioperative outcomes of 372 minimally invasive IPAA by 20 surgeons (10 high-volume vs. 10 low-volume surgeons) during 2002-2013, included in a prospectively maintained database, were assessed. Predicted outcome models were constructed using perioperative variables selected by stepwise logistic regression, using Akaike's information criterion. Cumulative sums (CUSUM) of differences between observed and predicted outcomes were graphed over time to identify possible improvement patterns. Institutional pelvic sepsis and other pouch morbidity rates (hemorrhage, anastomotic separation, pouch failure, fistula) significantly decreased (18.2 vs. 7.0 %, CUSUM peak after 143 cases, p = 0.001; 18.4 vs. 5.3 %, CUSUM peak after 239 cases, respectively, p < 0.001). Institutional total proctocolectomy mean operative times significantly decreased (307 min vs. 253 min, CUSUM peak after 84 cases, p < 0.001), unlike completion proctectomy (p = 0.093) or conversion rates (10 vs. 5.4 %, p = 0.235). Similar learning curves were identified among high-volume surgeons but not among low-volume surgeons. Learning curves were identified in the two busiest individual surgeons for pelvic sepsis (peaks at 47 and 9 cases, p = 0.045 and p = 0.002) and in one surgeon for operative times (CUSUM peak after 16 and 13 cases for both total proctocolectomy and completion proctectomy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006) but not for other pouch complications (peak at 49 and 41 cases, p = 0.199 and p = 0.094). Pouch complications, particularly pelvic sepsis, are the most consistent and relevant learning curve end points in laparoscopic IPAA.

  20. Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Dhanapal, K; Reddy, G V S; Nayak, B B; Basu, S; Shashidhar, K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Chouksey, M K

    2010-09-01

    Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient

  1. The gene for congenital chloride diarrhea maps close to but is distinct from the gene for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kere, J.; de la Chapelle, A.; Holmberg, C. ); Sistonen, P. Finnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Helsinki )

    1993-11-15

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is characterized by watery stools with high chloride content beginning prenatally and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Perfusion studies have established a basic defect in ileal and colonic Cl[sup [minus

  2. Congenital symmastia revisited.

    PubMed

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Hölmich, Lisbeth R; Siersen, Hans E; Bonde, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Symmastia is defined as medial confluence of the breast. The term 'symmastia' is modified from Greek (syn meaning 'together', and mastos meaning 'breast') and was first presented by Spence et al. in 1983. Two forms of symmastia exist: an iatrogenic and a congenital version. Congenital symmastia is a rare condition in which web-like soft tissue traverses the sternum to connect the breasts medially. The literature on congenital symmastia is limited, few cases have been published, and knowledge about ideal treatment is still insufficient. Congenital symmastia was identified as a distinct deformation using a review of the literature and a theoretical model. We analysed the malady using a three-step principle, formulated by Blondeel, which describes the breast as a 'footprint', 'conus' and 'skin-envelope'. To date, few papers on congenital symmastia have been published, most of which focus on the application of various surgical approaches. We examined the literature and evaluated the procedures used, and are presenting two recent cases of congenital symmastia as examples. By combining review and analysis we offer a rational treatment practice. The analysis showed that the optimal treatment begins by correcting the 'footprint', removing the excess 'conus' over the sternum, and finally reattaching the 'skin-envelope' to the sternum to recreate the normal medial border of the 'footprint'. Thus far, the two most common approaches used to treat congenital symmastia are: reduction mammaplasty and liposuction. By combining the Blondeel analysis with a procedural review, we developed a flow chart to offer a possible treatment practice. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy and delivery before and after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for inflammatory bowel disease: immediate and long-term consequences and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hahnloser, Dieter; Pemberton, John H; Wolff, Bruce G; Larson, Dirk; Harrington, Jeffrey; Farouk, Ridzuan; Dozois, Roger R

    2004-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate pregnancy, delivery, and functional outcome in females before and after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. From a prospective database of 1,454 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis between 1981 and 1995, a standardized questionnaire was sent to all female patients aged 40 years or younger at the time of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n = 544). The response rate was 83 percent (450/544) with a mean follow-up after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis of 13 years. A total of 141 females were pregnant after the chronic ulcerative colitis diagnosis, but before ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (236 pregnancies; mean, 1.7) and 87 percent delivered vaginally. A mean of five (range, 1-16) years after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 135 females were pregnant (232 pregnancies; mean, 1.7). Comparison of pregnancy and delivery before and after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in the same females (n = 37) showed no difference in birth weight, duration of labor, pregnancy/delivery complications, vaginal delivery rates (59 percent before vs. 54 percent after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis), and unplanned cesarean section (19 vs.14 percent). Planned cesareans occurred only after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and were prompted by obstetrical concerns in only one of eight. Pouch function at first follow-up after delivery (mean, 7 months) was similar to pregravida function. After ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, daytime stool frequency was the same after delivery as pregravida (5.4 vs. 5.4, not significant) but was increased at the time of last follow-up (68 months after delivery; 5.4 vs. 6.4; P < 0.001). The rate of occasional fecal incontinence also was higher (20 percent after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and 21 percent pregravida vs. 36 percent at last follow-up; P = 0.01). No difference in functional outcome was noted compared with females who were never pregnant after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

  4. Importance of pouch size in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a cohort study of 14,168 patients.

    PubMed

    Edholm, David; Ottosson, Johan; Sundbom, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is one of the most common bariatric procedures worldwide, but the importance of gastric pouch size is still under debate. We have studied how pouch size affects risk of marginal ulcer and excess body mass index loss (EBMIL%) at 6 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry included 14,168 LRYGB patients with linear stapled gastrojejunostomies, having complete pre- and postoperative data concerning length of stapler needed to complete the gastric pouch, incidence of marginal ulcers and weight loss. LRYGB technique in Sweden is highly standardized, and total length of stapler was used as a proxy for pouch size. Mean length of stapler used for the pouch was 145 mm. At 1 year, symptomatic marginal ulcers were noted in 0.9 % of the patients. The relative risk of marginal ulcer increased by 14 % (95 % confidence interval 9-20 %), for each centimeter of stapler used for the pouch. Body mass index (BMI) was reduced from 42.4 ± 5.1 to 36.1 kg/m(2) at 6 weeks and 28.9 kg/m(2) at 1 year. The total length of stapler predicted EBMIL% at 6 weeks but not at 1 year. Female gender, low preoperative BMI, young age and absence of diabetes predicted better EBMIL% at 1 year. A smaller pouch reduces the risk of marginal ulcers, but does not predict better weight loss at 1 year. Additional stapling should be avoided as each extra centimeter increases the relative risk of marginal ulcers by 14 %.

  5. A Simple Technique of Gastric Pouch Resizing for Inadequate Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Amor, Imed Ben; Debs, Tarek; Petrucciani, Niccolo; Martini, Francesco; Kassir, Radwan; Gugenheim, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is increasingly reported in the literature Debs et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis (2016). Laparoscopic resizing of the gastric pouch and the gastrojejunal anastomosis is an accepted surgical option Nguyen et al. (Obes Surg 25:928-34, 2015); Iannelli et al. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 9:260-7, 2013); Al-Bader et al. (Obes Surg 25:1103-8, 2015). The aim of this video is to present a simple technique of en bloc resection. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with a BMI of 44 kg/m(2) who underwent laparoscopic RYGB in 2007. In 2015, she regained weight till reaching a BMI of 38 kg/m(2). 3D CT volumetry was performed that showed a pouch volume of 220 cm(3) and a gastrojejunal anastomosis diameter of 20 mm. There are often a lot of adherences between the gastric pouch and the residual stomach, which makes the dissection difficult and tedious, with the possibility to devascularize the residual stomach and lead to a gastric fistula from this residual stomach. We present in this video a simple technique of gastric pouch resizing that consists of en bloc resection of the gastric pouch, the residual stomach, and ± the gastrojejunal anastomosis. We recommend this technique in case of severe adherences and inability to identify a cleavage plane between the excess gastric pouch and the resected stomach. Insufficient weight loss or weight regain after RYGBP is becoming more frequently encountered. As a result, revisional surgery will be more frequently performed. This simple technique allows an easier dissection across healthier tissues and is easier to perform in the presence of severe adherences between the gastric pouch and the residual stomach.

  6. Congenital malaria in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhi-Yong; Fang, Qiang; Liu, Xue; Culleton, Richard; Tao, Li; Xia, Hui; Gao, Qi

    2014-03-01

    Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax-endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%), reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients were cured with antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine

  7. Congenital Malaria in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue; Culleton, Richard; Tao, Li; Xia, Hui; Gao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum–endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax–endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. Methods/Principal Findings Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%), reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients were cured

  8. Genetics of Congenital Cataract.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Lembo, Andrea; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that presents at birth or during early childhood, and it is one of the most easily treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1-6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause, and such cases are quite heterogeneous. Although congenital nuclear cataract can be caused by multiple factors, genetic mutation remains the most common cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent. The transparency and high refractive index of the lens are achieved by the precise architecture of fiber cells and homeostasis of the lens proteins in terms of their concentrations, stabilities, and supramolecular organization. Research on hereditary congenital cataract has led to the identification of several classes of candidate genes that encode proteins such crystallins, lens-specific connexins, aquaporin, cytoskeletal structural proteins, and developmental regulators. In this review, we highlight the identified genetic mutations that account for congenital nuclear cataract.

  9. What Are Congenital Heart Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 05/28/2013 This ... journal Nature, about the first large-scale sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease. This NHLBI-supported international, ...

  10. Types of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 05/28/2013 This ... journal Nature, about the first large-scale sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease. This NHLBI-supported international, ...

  11. Environmental aspects of congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Yu, Xin; Shen, Jianxiong

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence has proved that many aspects of our lifestyle and the environment contribute to the development of congenital disease. Congenital spinal deformities are due to anomalous development of the vertebrae including failure of formation and segmentation during embryogenesis. The causes of congenital scoliosis have not been fully identified. A variety of factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Previous studies have demonstrated that both genetics and environmental factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. However, no specific cause for congenital scoliosis has been identified. In our review, we focus on the environmental factors for the development of congenital scoliosis. Various maternal exposures during pregnancy including hypoxia, alcohol use, vitamin deficiency, valproic acid, boric acid, and hyperthermia have been observed to be associated with the occurrence of congenital scoliosis. This review describes the major environmental contributors of congenital scoliosis with an emphasis on treatment aspects associated with environmental disposition in congenital scoliosis.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hyperinsulinism

    MedlinePlus

    ... of infancy Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (UK) Merck Manual Consumer Version: Hypoglycemia Orphanet: Congenital isolated ... Diseases Congenital Hyperinsulinism International The Children's Hyperinsulinism Fund (UK) GeneReviews (1 link) Familial Hyperinsulinism ClinicalTrials.gov (1 ...

  13. Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Richard J; Butler, Colin R; Maughan, Elizabeth F; Elliott, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis is a rare disease characterized by complete tracheal rings that can affect variable lengths of the tracheobronchial tree. It causes high levels of morbidity and mortality both due to the stenosis itself and to the high incidence of other associated congenital malformations. Successful management of this complex condition requires a highly individualized approach delivered by an experienced multidisciplinary team, which is best delivered within centralized units with the necessary diverse expertise. In such settings, surgical correction by slide tracheoplasty has become increasingly successful over the past 2 decades such that long-term survival now exceeds 88%, with normalization of quality of life scores for patients with non-syndrome-associated congenital tracheal stenosis. Careful assessment and planning of treatment strategies is of paramount importance for both successful management and the provision of patients and carers with accurate and realistic treatment counseling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Takei, Y; Sears, M L; Peterson, W S; Carr, R E; Jampol, L M

    1977-01-01

    An early stage of Leber's congenital amaurosis, characterized by white spots or lines in the fundus, occurred in two children. Light microscopic examination of eyes obtained from one child, a 16-month-old Japanese girl, revealed subretinal deposits corresponding to the white spots and lines in the fundus deposits. Light and electron microscopic examination of the eye showed distinctive changes in the outer retinal layers and choroid, while the inner retinal layers were nearly normal. Characteristic early lesions of congenital amaurosis appeared to be produced by deposits consisting of loose outer segments and apical processes of the pigmental epithelial cell and macrophages. Undifferentiation in the nuclei of the photoreceptor cell, the inner segment, the pigment epithelial cell, and the choriocapillaris were likely characteristics of the early changes of congenital amaurosis.

  15. Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    De Laey, J J

    1991-01-01

    Leber's congenital amaurosis is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by the onset of blindness before the age of 6 months, a variable fundus aspect and an absent or extremely pathological ERG. The disorder may be isolated or associated with systemic involvement, such as nephronophtisis (Senior-Loken syndrome), nephronophtisis, cone-shaped epiphyses of the hand and cerebellar ataxia (Saldino-Mainzer syndrome), vermis hypoplasia, oculomotor anomalies and respiratory problems in the neonatal period (Joubert syndrome) or cardiomyopathy. It should be differentiated from other forms or chorioretinal dystrophies (juvenile retinitis pigmentosa or congenital stationary night blindness), cortical blindness or maturation delay and metabolic disorders. Children with possible congenital Leber amaurosis should not only have a thorough ophthalmological examination, but should also be seen by a paediatrician experienced in metabolic disorders.

  16. [Congenital chloride diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death.

  17. Severe hyponatremia and repeated intestinal resections for intestinal dysmotility mimicking congenital aganglionic megacolon due to delay in the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Buyukyilmaz, Gonul; Baltu, Demet; Soyer, Tutku; Tanyıldız, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, though, majority of infants can be asymptomatic. Therefore, understimation and delay in diagnosis may result in severe complications. A 5-month-old female admitted to our clinic with the history of repeated surgical operations due to the diagnosis of congenital aganglionic megacolon. Investigations performed in our clinic revealed the diagnosis of congenital (primary) hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis. Histopathologic evaluation of previously resected colon sample revealed normal ganglionic cell included colon. During follow-up she developed severe hyponatremia with a plasma sodium level of 106 mEq/L. Eunatremia was maintained following achievement of euthyroid state. In conclusion, since presenting symptoms can be variable and nonspecific, hypotyhroidism should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent abdominal distention mimicking aganglionic megacolon and severe hyponatremia of unknown origin. PMID:28164077

  18. Severe hyponatremia and repeated intestinal resections for intestinal dysmotility mimicking congenital aganglionic megacolon due to delay in the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Buyukyilmaz, Gonul; Baltu, Demet; Soyer, Tutku; Tanyıldız, Murat; Demirbilek, Huseyin

    2016-12-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, though, majority of infants can be asymptomatic. Therefore, understimation and delay in diagnosis may result in severe complications. A 5-month-old female admitted to our clinic with the history of repeated surgical operations due to the diagnosis of congenital aganglionic megacolon. Investigations performed in our clinic revealed the diagnosis of congenital (primary) hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis. Histopathologic evaluation of previously resected colon sample revealed normal ganglionic cell included colon. During follow-up she developed severe hyponatremia with a plasma sodium level of 106 mEq/L. Eunatremia was maintained following achievement of euthyroid state. In conclusion, since presenting symptoms can be variable and nonspecific, hypotyhroidism should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent abdominal distention mimicking aganglionic megacolon and severe hyponatremia of unknown origin.

  19. Prevalence of Bacterial Contamination when using a Diversion Pouch during Blood Collection: A Single Center Study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    JUMAAH, Norlaili; JOSHI, Sanmukh Ratilal; SANDAI, Doblin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The implementation of diversion pouches is to minimise the risk of bacterial contamination as the initial blood flow is prevented from entering primary bag collections as it is diverted into a pouch. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination in the diversion pouches used during blood collections in the Transfusion Department of Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia. Methods: BD Bactec™ Fx instrument detection system was performed on 702 samples of 20 mL of diverting blood in diversion pouch. The inocullum volume was 10 mL for both aerobic and anaerobic bottles cultures and incubated for 5 days in the BD Bactec™ Fx instrument. Positive sample was flagged by BD Bactec™ Fx instrument and subculture to identify the species of organism. Results: The results showed that of 702 samples, 12 (1.7%) were contaminated. The bacterial species identified were coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram positive Bacilli. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that the usage of diversion pouch is of significant importance in reducing bacterial contamination during blood collection. PMID:25246835

  20. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Jackson, Abigail L.; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R.; Basson, M. Albert

    2012-01-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium. PMID:22912418

  1. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jennifer R; Jackson, Abigail L; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R; Basson, M Albert

    2012-09-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium.

  2. Congenital brain infections.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Davila, Jorge; Castillo, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Pediatric congenital intracranial infections are a group of different and important entities that constitute a small percentage of all pediatric infections. The causal factors and clinical presentations are different in children compared with adults. They require early recognition because delay diagnosis and initiation of treatment may have catastrophic consequences. Despite improvements in prenatal screening, vaccine safety, and antibiotics, infections of the central nervous system remain an important cause of neurological disabilities worldwide. This article reviews the most common congenital infections and their imaging findings.

  3. Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Marissa Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Acute infection of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is detrimental to the developing fetus. In the United States, approximately 1 in 10,000 live births are affected by congenital toxoplasmosis. Although multifactorial in etiology, maternal infection is primarily attributed to the consumption of contaminated meat or water. Infection and transmission to the fetus may result in devastating neurologic impairment. Screening methods for all pregnant women should be implemented in routine prenatal care. This article will highlight the inherent dangers of congenital toxoplasmosis, while including general care of the fetus for prevention of transmission, medical management, and long-term outcomes.

  4. Congenital muscular torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Nilesh, Kumar; Mukherji, Srijon

    2013-01-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children with reported incidence ranging from 0.3% to 2%. Owing to effective shortening of SCM on the involved side there is ipsilateral head tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. This article reports a case of CMT in a 3½-year-old male child successfully managed by surgical release of the involved SCM followed by physiotherapy. PMID:24205484

  5. Congenital Hemolytic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Haley, Kristina

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) destruction can be secondary to intrinsic disorders of the RBC or to extrinsic causes. In the congenital hemolytic anemias, intrinsic RBC enzyme, RBC membrane, and hemoglobin disorders result in hemolysis. The typical clinical presentation is a patient with pallor, anemia, jaundice, and often splenomegaly. The laboratory features include anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and reticulocytosis. For some congenital hemolytic anemias, splenectomy is curative. However, in other diseases, avoidance of drugs and toxins is the best therapy. Supportive care with transfusions are also mainstays of therapy. Chronic hemolysis often results in the formation of gallstones, and cholecystectomy is often indicated.

  6. Common Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Congenital anomalies account for a substantial proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. They have become proportionately larger because of the decline of such other categories as infections or birth trauma. Approximately 3% of newborns have a serious handicapping or potentially lethal condition; in longterm studies the frequency is much higher. There is no good evidence to suggest that the rates of congenital anomalies are increasing, although this is a common perception. This article discusses diagnosis and management (especially genetic implications) of heart defects, neural tube defects, orofacial clefting, dislocated hip, clubfoot, and hypospadias. PMID:21274150

  7. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  8. The Promoting Effect of Carbamide Peroxide Teeth Bleaching Gel in a Preclinical Model of Head and Neck Cancer in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Vilela, Wadson; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Tavares Rheingantz, Maria Gabriela; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Braga da Silva, Jefferson Luis; Oliveira de Oliveira, Laura Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the promoting effect of carbamide peroxide on dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster buccal pouch, in order to reduce the period of latency for tumor formation. Methods Sixteen hamsters were randomized into two groups of eight animals each. The hamsters of the group I had their right buccal pouches treated with 0.5% DMBA and 10% carbamide peroxide teeth bleaching gel for 55 days. The animals of the group II had their right pouches treated only with DMBA. After, six animals of each group had their pouches prepared for light microscopy. Histomorphometry was performed to assess the presence of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, pattern of invasion, number of blood vessels, and inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor front. Furthermore, the newly formed lesions were graded according the Bryne's grading system. The remaining animals had the vascular system of the pouches casted by Mercox and qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Histopathological analysis of the buccal pouches treated with DMBA and carbamide peroxide exhibited formation of squamous cell carcinoma well-differentiated with a high degree of malignancy in all pouches. The development of this neoplasm was associated with a significant increase in the number of blood vessels, presence of keratin pearls, and inflammatory infiltrate. The pouches of the group II showed inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma in only three right pouches. The analysis of the electron micrographs of the pouches chemically inducted with DBMA and carbamide peroxide reveled formation of a new vascular network characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The protocol presented here, using DMBA associated with carbamide peroxide, shortens the period of latency to produce squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch, decreasing the time and costs of the experiments. PMID:25177438

  9. Association between gastro-intestinal symptoms and menstruation in patients with ileal pouches

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Wu, Xian-rui; Barber, Matthew D.; Queener, Elaine; Graff, Lesley; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients. Methods: Adult women recorded in the Pouchitis Registry were invited to participate in a mailed survey. Participants reported on GI symptoms 1–5 days prior to- (pre-menses) and during the days of their menses in recent months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained through the survey and chart review. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight (21.3%) out of 600 women with IPAA responded to the survey questionnaire. Forty-three (33.5%) were excluded for reasons including post-menopausal (n = 25), hysterectomy (n = 14) and use of contraceptives (n = 4). Abdominal pain (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.021), and urgency (P = 0.031) were more commonly reported during menses than pre-menses by the participants. Only a history of painful menses was significantly associated with increased GI symptoms during menses for patients with ileal pouch (odds ratio = 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.41–22.88; P = 0.015). Conclusion: GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency are commonly associated with menses in patients with ileo-anal pouch. Painful menses may be associated with worsening of GI symptoms. PMID:25016379

  10. Postprocess contamination of flexible pouches challenged by in situ immersion biotest.

    PubMed

    Song, Y S; Hargraves, W A

    1998-12-01

    Packages were evaluated for leaks by determining microbial penetration through microchannels as a function of test organism concentration, location in a retort, and microchannel diameter and length. A flexible pouch was used in an in situ immersion biotest coupled with a state-of-the-art retort. Microchannel diameters of 10 to 661 microm with 3- and 6-mm lengths were created by placing tungsten wires in vacuum heat-sealed flexible pouches. After removing the wires, these pouches were subsequently heat processed under pressure. They were then biotested in cooling water containing 10(3) and 10(6) CFU of motile Enterobacter aerogenes per ml for 30 min and were dried immediately after manual unloading. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 3 days, they were visually examined for contamination. The high-temperature retorting process was shown to decrease microchannel diameters by an average of 20%. Generally, the smaller the microchannel diameter, the greater the percent shrinkage. Statistical analysis of the biotesting data showed that microchannel diameter and length had strong effects on microbial penetration (P < 0.01). Microbial concentration had a borderline significant effect (P < 0.05), but the effect of package location in the retort was not significant. At conservative conditions, such as a 3-mm microchannel length and a cooling water contamination level of 10(6) CFU/ml, the selected microorganism can penetrate microchannels with diameters as small as 7 microm. However, the minimum microchannel diameter for penetration could be as large as 46 microm at practical conditions of 6-mm microchannel length and contamination levels of 10(3) CFU/ml.

  11. Controversies in J Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: A Focus on Handsewn Versus Stapled Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Tamar; Khaitov, Sergey; Greenstein, Alexander J

    2016-09-01

    The accepted current standard for treatment of medically refractory ulcerative colitis is total proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for restoration of continence. There are 2 techniques by which the anastomosis can be performed, including handsewn and stapled. Handsewn anastomosis with mucosectomy was the first method described; however, it has been associated with significant incontinence. The double-stapled anastomosis was developed in response to improve postoperative function. Controversy remains as to which technique is superior as both have disadvantages. This review article addresses differences between the 2 methodologies in relation to postoperative complications, anorectal physiology, functional outcomes, and oncological safety.

  12. Manufacturability of Heat and Serve Ration in Institutional Pouch System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Institutional Pouch Because of the limited commercial demand for polymeric trays and the low volumes required during peace time, investment in polymeric tray...Brine are the three highest volume items under placeable. All but the Dessert items fall under the low acid canning regulations. Items such as...0 7,886 Meatballs in Brown Gravy PCR-M-005 8940-01-455-1873 2 39,910 24,412 8,160 Pasta with Ground Hot Italian Sausage PCR-P-041 8940-01-517-9823

  13. Effect of Withania somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma

    SciTech Connect

    Begum, V.H.; Sadique, J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. W. somnifera was shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of /sup 35/S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by W. somnifera. W. somnifera also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue.

  14. Composition of gastric mucinous secretion from Heidenhain pouches of dogs treated with aspirin.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, K; Pachkowski, T; Secord, D C

    1979-01-01

    Principal glycoproteins and amino acids of secretions from Heidenhain pouches were studied in control and aspirin-treated dogs in the resting state of fasting and during stimulation with pentagastrin. All samples showed the presence of galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine, glucose, fucose, mannose, uronic acid and sulfate. Galactose and glucosamine were found in equimolar amounts, and the galactose/galactosamine ratio was 2/1. Pentagastrin induced the reduction in concentration of major carbohydrate components and amino acids of gastric mucus. The concentrations of major carbohydrate components and of amino acids of gastric secretions were lower in aspirin-treated animals than in controls.

  15. In vitro inhibitory effect of onion extract on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niukian, K; Schwartz, J; Shklar, G

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies were performed that used varying concentrations of onion extract added to cell cultures of an epidermoid carcinoma cell line derived from hamster buccal pouch carcinoma (HCPC-1). The studies demonstrated tumor growth inhibition beginning after 24 hours of incubation at an onion extract concentration of 25% and above in culture media. After 4 days and 10 days of incubation, there was a noted decrease in tumor proliferation. The plating efficiency for 24 hours was observed to produce a 54-89% inhibition in plating density. The results indicated here provide in vitro evidence of the inhibitory and cytotoxic activity on an oral carcinoma cell line.

  16. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... my congenital heart … Read More Let's Talk About Love... BY Kelly DiMaggio Being in love and in a relationship is one of the ... are born they have … Read More Learning to Love the Scar BY Clare Almand I wrote about ...

  17. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  18. Congenital sternal cleft.

    PubMed

    Biswas, G; Khandelwal, N K; Venkatramu, N K; Chari, P S

    2001-04-01

    A cleft of the sternum is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a sternal cleft in a 7-year-old boy. A split iliac bone graft covered with the sternocostal portion of a pectoralis major flap was used to reconstruct the defect. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  19. Vascular permeability responses and the role of prostaglandin E2 in an experimental allergic inflammation of air pouch type in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, N.; Ohuchi, K.; Sugio, K.; Tsurufuji, S.; Watanabe, M.; Yoshino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Rats were sensitized with azobenzene arsonate-conjugated acetyl bovine serum albumin. An allergic inflammation was induced in the preformed air pouch in the dorsum of the sensitized rats by injecting the antigen dissolved in a 2% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution into the air pouch. Time course changes of vascular permeability, accumulated pouch fluid volume and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the pouch fluid were compared in sensitized and non-sensitized rats to characterize the allergic inflammatory reaction. Effects of three cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, diclofenac sodium and tiaprofenic acid) on vascular permeability and accumulated pouch fluid volume 4 and 24 h after the immunological challenge injection were examined to elucidate a possible role of PGE2 in the inflammatory response. Four h after initiating the allergic reaction, although the level of PGE2 in the pouch fluid reached a high level, the vascular permeability response, measured over the period 3.5-4 h, was not suppressed by treatment with the three cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors and neither was the pouch fluid volume measured over the period 0-4 h. However, vascular permeability and accumulated pouch fluid volume at 24 h were suppressed by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. These observations suggest that in this model, endogenous PGE2 does not affect oedema formation measured at 4 h. However, oedema formation measured at 24 h may be dependent on PGE2 generation. PMID:3085758

  20. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial).

    PubMed

    Zonča, Pavel; Malý, Tomáš; Ihnát, Peter; Peteja, Matus; Kraft, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604). With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the "J-pouch" group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016). There were no important adverse events. After total gastrectomy, a J-pouch reconstruction empties more slowly and is associated with higher quality of life compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Whether these two observations have a direct causative link remains unanswered.

  1. Learning about Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top of page Is there a test for hereditary colon cancer? Gene testing can identify individuals who ... Top of page Current NHGRI Clinical Research on Hereditary Colon Cancer Currently, NHGRI is not conducting clinical ...

  2. Stages of Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history affects the risk of developing colon cancer. Anything ... colorectal cancer include the following: Having a family history of colon or rectal cancer in a first- ...

  3. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. α1-Acid glycoprotein production in rat dorsal air pouch in response to inflammatory stimuli, dexamethasone and honey bee venom

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiadou, K.; Pantazidis, G.; Papadopoulou, K.; Ligoudistianou, C.; Kourelis, A.; Petrakis, S.; Masmanidou, E.; Testa, T.; Kourounakis, A.P.; Hadjipetrou, L.; Papaconstantinou, J.; Yiangou, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows the rapid and differential production of the 40–43 kDa and the 70–90 kDa α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) fucosylated glycoforms after treatment of the dorsal air pouch with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HgCl2 or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). The 40–43 kDa and the 70–90 kDa AGP production is peaked 1–3 h post-LPS treatment. We observed that the responses to LPS and FCA are similar in that both AGP isoforms are induced whereas they differ in that the FCA exhibits a 6 h lag period. The response to HgCl2, however, exhibits the specific biphasic induction only of the 40–43 kDa AGP. The serum 40–43 kDa AGP glycoform gradually increases in response to all of the above stimulants and peaks by 24 h post- treatment. The increase of the 70–90 kDa AGP levels in the air pouch occurs in association with the accumulation of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells while dexamethasone (DEX) increases only the 40–43 kDa AGP production in the absence of PMN accumulation. Macrophage–monocyte lineage cells forming the air pouch lining tissue may potentially be the cells that secrete the 40–43 kDa AGP while polymorphonuclear cells that infiltrate the air pouch secrete the 70–90 kDa AGP. The 40–43 kDa and 70–90 kDa AGP production induced by LPS in the air pouch precedes that of interleukin-1 (IL-1) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) while the 40–43 kDa AGP glycoform potentially increases IL-6 production by air pouch PMN exudate cells. These significant differences suggest a local pro-inflammatory role of AGP. Honeybee venom suppressed arthritis development and exhibited differential local or systemic regulation of AGP in serum vs. air pouch exudate or synovial fluid. This study with the air pouch model of facsimile synovium tissue suggests that local α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) production may contribute to pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities during the local acute phase response or during chronic inflammatory stress as in arthritis. PMID

  5. Redo Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease with pelvic fistula: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Pouch failure has been reported to occur after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's disease. We report two cases of patients with Crohn's disease, who underwent redo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (redo-IPAA) combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy, with good functional results. The first patient, a man with presumed ulcerative colitis, suffered pelvic fistula recurrence and anastomotic dehiscence. He underwent redo-IPAA, at which time longitudinal ulcers were found. Infliximab was started 4 days postoperatively and continued. The second patient, a woman treated for ulcerative colitis, underwent laparoscopic IPAA 8 years later. After the development of a pelvic fistula, twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch was found intraoperatively and Crohn's disease was diagnosed. Adalimumab therapy resulted in fistula closure. Redo-IPAA was performed to normalize the twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch. No complications have been observed in either patient, both of whom have experienced good functional results after closure of the covering stomas.

  6. A model of persistent antigen-induced chronic inflammation in the rat air pouch.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, S; Bacon, P A; Blake, D R; Scott, D L; Wainwright, A C; Walton, K W

    1984-04-01

    Continuing antigen-induced inflammation was established in a subcutaneous air pouch in rats by recurrent local challenge. The animals were sensitized using bovine serum albumin in Freund's complete adjuvant and were challenged 14 days later by injection of the antigen in a solution containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose into the air pouch to produce allergic inflammation. A single antigenic challenge induced acute inflammation with a predominantly polymorph infiltration in the first 48 h. Later samples showed a low-grade mononuclear response which persisted for 4-5 days. Repeated challenge produced chronic inflammation with an accentuated mononuclear response. Connective tissue activation involving fibronectin and collagen was seen as the inflammation progressed, and this was associated with production of ferritin by mononuclear cells. Discontinuation of challenge injections resulted in resolution of the granuloma. We suggest this model can be used to investigate the mechanisms involved in chronic inflammatory diseases with an immunological component and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic intervention upon chronic allergic inflammation.

  7. The pouch and tunnel technique for management of multiple gingival recession defects

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Sneha; Dhage, Aditi; Gundannavar, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    The desire for improved esthetics has increased tremendously over the years. Periodontal plastic surgery deals with regenerative procedures designed to restore form, function and enhance esthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunnel technique as root coverage procedure. Three patients corresponding to a total of 8 sites participated in the study. Maxillary teeth with miller's class I gingival recession were included in the study. All the sites were treated using subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunneling technique. Patients were followed up for a period of 6 months and 1 year. All the treated teeth showed 100% root coverage at the end of 6 months and 1 year. Gingival recession is a common occurrence and its prevalence increases with age. It can lead to clinical problems, diminished cosmetic appeal and hence esthetic concern. There are various techniques for root coverage. Subepithelial connective tissue graft has shown the best predictability (95%) of root coverage in Millers class I & II cases. This technique preserves the intermediate papilla, accelerates the initial wound healing & also applies less traction. Due to minimal trauma at the recipient site, this procedure may be advantageous in treatment of recession as compared to other treatment modalities. PMID:25624637

  8. Reduced angiotensin II levels cause generalized vascular dysfunction via oxidant stress in hamster cheek pouch arterioles.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Jessica R C; Buelow, Matthew W; McEwen, Scott T; Weinberg, Brian D; Delaney, Melanie; Balus, Sarah F; Hoeppner, Carlyn; Dondlinger, Lynn; Lombard, Julian H

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of suppressing plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) levels on arteriolar relaxation in the hamster cheek pouch. Arteriolar diameters were measured via television microscopy during short-term (3-6days) high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with captopril (100mg/kg/day). ACE inhibition and/or HS diet eliminated endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation to acetylcholine, endothelium-independent dilation to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside, the prostacyclin analogs carbacyclin and iloprost, and the KATP channel opener cromakalim; and eliminated arteriolar constriction during KATP channel blockade with glibenclamide. Scavenging of superoxide radicals and low dose ANG II infusion (25ng/kg/min, subcutaneous) reduced oxidant stress and restored arteriolar dilation in arterioles of HS-fed hamsters. Vasoconstriction to topically-applied ANG II was unaffected by HS diet while arteriolar responses to elevation of superfusion solution PO2 were unaffected (5% O2, 10% O2) or reduced (21% O2) by HS diet. These findings indicate that sustained exposure to low levels of circulating ANG II leads to widespread dysfunction in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular relaxation mechanisms in cheek pouch arterioles by increasing vascular oxidant stress, but does not potentiate O2- or ANG II-induced constriction of arterioles in the distal microcirculation of normotensive hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical damage in a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hailing; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Qing

    2017-07-01

    The short circuit of lithium-ion batteries induced by mechanical abuse is a great concern in electric vehicle design. It remains a challenge to fully understand the nature of the mechanical damage process with the aim of improving battery crash safety. The present paper investigates the evolution of the damage process for a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation by loading the cell to various force levels. A significant inflection point on the force-indentation curve is observed before the force peak. Post-mortem examinations indicate that the characteristic change in the local slope of the curve is related to the change occurring at the local interfaces, including three phenomena - formation of tight adhesion on the anode-separator interfaces, delamination in the separators and decoating of graphite particles from the anodes. Analysis of the fracture sequence at the onset of short circuit clearly shows that the number of short-circuited electrode pairs is equal to the number of anode layers adhered with delaminated separator material before fracture occurs. The experimental study in the present paper implies that the inflection point on the force-indentation curve may be an indicator of damage initiation inside pouch cells under indentation.

  10. Thermal behavior and electrochemical heat generation in a commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Elke; Ziebert, Carlos; Melcher, Andreas; Rohde, Magnus; Seifert, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative data on the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under charging and discharging conditions are essential for designing thermal management systems and improving battery safety. In this work, commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cells with Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes were tested under isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter at different charging/discharging currents from 5 A to 40 A. Adiabatic tests simulate the worst-case scenario of a battery pack without cooling. For charging and discharging an overall exothermic behavior was found and a total temperature increase for one half cycle between 3 and 11 K. Isoperibolic tests simulate a single cell under constant environmental temperature. Here an exothermic behavior for discharging and an endothermic behavior for charging were observed. To transfer the measured temperature changes into heat data, the effective specific heat capacity and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. For the first time the heat generation data for a large format pouch cell have been determined using both isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions. These data were compared with the total heat data calculated as the sum of reversible and irreversible heat that were measured by potentiometric and current interruption techniques respectively. A good agreement was found between all three heat generation determination methods.

  11. Fetal congenital lobar emphysema.

    PubMed

    Chia, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Soon-Cen; Liu, Min-Chang; Se, Tung-Yi

    2007-03-01

    To report a rare fetal congenital lung anomaly characterized by over inflation of a pulmonary lobe. A 28-year-old systemic lupus erythematous mother, gravida 1 para 0, who had normal prenatal care in our department, was admitted for labor pain and an abnormal fetal heart location was noted incidentally during labor. The baby showed rib retraction in room air but no obvious cyanotic change after delivery. Both the fetus chest X-ray and ultrasound showed a hyperechogenic tumor in the left thoracic cavity with a right-side-shifted heart and trachea. Computed tomography showed a hypodense and multiseptal tumor in the left thoracic cavity with right-sided shift of the heart and trachea. It was a soft, solid tumor in the parenchyma of the left lung and the histopathology confirmed it to be benign congenital lobar emphysema. The favorable outcome in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic children suggests that a nonsurgical approach should be considered for these patients.

  12. Congenital Orbital Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Pellerano, Fernando; Guillermo, Elvis; Garrido, Gloreley; Berges, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of congenital orbital teratoma. A 3-day-old male, born at 39 weeks' gestation without relevant prenatal history, presented with a large vascularized proptotic mass distorting the left midface. Laboratory studies showed elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (12,910 ng/ml). Computed tomography showed a multiloculated heterogeneous lesion composed of hypodense and hyperdense calcified areas encompassing the whole orbital cavity with expansion of the bony walls, as well as forward displacement and compression of the eyeball without extension to surrounding structures. Clinical, imaging and laboratory features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to pronounced proptosis with exposure keratopathy and corneal perforation, no motility of the globe and no vision in the affected eye in a resource-limited setting, the patient underwent orbital exenteration. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma. We describe the clinical course, radiographic and histopathological findings of this rare orbital tumor.

  13. [Congenital esophageal diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Belío-Castillo, C; Bracho-Blanchet, E; Blanco-Rodríguez, G

    1990-08-01

    The congenital or acquired variety of esophageal diverticulum is a rare childhood disease. Reported is a case-study which deals with a five year old patient who arrived at our hospital complaining of a constricture at the cricopharyngeal level. A month later he returned to the hospital with dysphasia and regurgitation; the X-rays and endoscopic diagnosis showed stenosis of the esophagus and the presence of an esophageal diverticulum. Esophageal dilatations were carried out until an acceptable esophageal diameter was reached. Later on, the surgical removal of the diverticulum was performed without any complications. The histopathological study showed the congenital nature of the diverticulum. The patient's recovery went well and is currently considered as cured.

  14. Update on congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Anil K; Chakrabarti, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Congenital glaucoma is a global problem and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the ophthalmologist. A detailed evaluation under general anesthesia is advisable to establish the diagnosis and plan for management. Medical therapy has a limited role and surgery remains the primary therapeutic modality. While goniotomy or trabeculotomy ab externo is valuable in the management of congenital glaucoma, primary combined trabeculotomy–trabeculectomy offers the best hope of success in advanced cases. Trabeculectomy with antifibrotic agent and glaucoma drainage devices has a role in the management of refractory cases, and cyclodestructive procedures should be reserved for patients where these procedures have failed. Early diagnosis, prompt therapeutic intervention and proper refractive correction are keys to success. Management of residual vision and visual rehabilitation should be an integral part of the management of children with low vision and lifelong follow-up is a must. PMID:21150027

  15. Congenital omental cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Sah, Suresh; Sah, Panna Lal; Shah, Birendra Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Congenital omental cysts are rare intra-abdominal pathology, which are difficult to diagnose preoperatively; as such a high index of suspicion is required for accurate preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of congenital omental cyst in a 3-year-old girl who presented with huge abdominal distension. We performed diagnostic examinations including ultrasonography and CT of the abdomen. An omental cyst was diagnosed because of its position and connection to the surrounding tissues. She was operated and cyst was excised completely. Histological examination revealed an omental cyst with endothelial lining and haemorrhagic fluid inside. She had an uneventful recovery and doing well, without recurrence at follow-up of 24 months. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a surprise upon laparotomy and result in proper management. PMID:22865812

  16. Congenital Orbital Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Pellerano, Fernando; Guillermo, Elvis; Garrido, Gloreley; Berges, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of congenital orbital teratoma. A 3-day-old male, born at 39 weeks’ gestation without relevant prenatal history, presented with a large vascularized proptotic mass distorting the left midface. Laboratory studies showed elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (12,910 ng/ml). Computed tomography showed a multiloculated heterogeneous lesion composed of hypodense and hyperdense calcified areas encompassing the whole orbital cavity with expansion of the bony walls, as well as forward displacement and compression of the eyeball without extension to surrounding structures. Clinical, imaging and laboratory features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to pronounced proptosis with exposure keratopathy and corneal perforation, no motility of the globe and no vision in the affected eye in a resource-limited setting, the patient underwent orbital exenteration. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma. We describe the clinical course, radiographic and histopathological findings of this rare orbital tumor. PMID:28275597

  17. Possible rare congenital dysinnervation disorder: congenital ptosis associated with adduction.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Sílvia; Beselga, Diana; Campos, Sónia; Neves, Arminda; Campos, Joana; Carvalho, Sílvia; Silva, Eduardo; Castro Sousa, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Ptosis is defined as an abnormally low position of the upper eyelid margin. It can be congenital or acquired, uni or bilateral, and isolated or associated with other ocular and nonocular defects. We report a case of a female child, aged 8 years, with congenital right ptosis increased on right adduction and with left ptosis on left adduction. There was no horizontal ocular movement limitation. Apparent underaction of the right inferior oblique muscle was also present. We believe that within the possible mechanisms it is more likely that it is a congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome (CID)/congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD).

  18. Congenital varicella syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, C K; Anoop, P

    2003-01-01

    The fetal consequences of chickenpox complicating pregnancy depends on the period of gestation at which the infection is contracted. The extremely rare classical form of congenital varicella syndrome, resulting from maternal varicella infection in the first trimester of pregnancy, is being reported here. The unusual features in this baby are bilateral hypoplastic lower extremities, fracture of bones, a normal electroencephalogram and phantom hernias of the anterior abdominal wall.

  19. Congenital amaurosis of Leber.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, F D

    1966-05-01

    In two families with congenital amaurosis of Leber, keratoglobus was found in all affected members and posterior subcapsular cataracts in most of them. Consanguinity was present in one family. Pathologic findings in one enucleated eye were presented. The literature on this disease was briefly reviewed. Whether the disease is a definite clinical or genetic entity and whether it might be an agenesis or an abiotrophy, or both, were discussed.

  20. Congenital midline cervical cleft.

    PubMed

    Agag, Richard; Sacks, Justin; Silver, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare disorder of the ventral neck that is clinically evident at birth and must be differentiated from the more common thyroglossal duct cyst. The case of CMCC presented here was associated with chromosomes 13/14 de novo Robertsonian translocations as well as midline deformities including a sacral tuft and a minor tongue-tie. The case is presented as well as discussion of histopathology, embryology, and surgical treatment.

  1. Leber congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Perrault, I; Rozet, J M; Gerber, S; Ghazi, I; Leowski, C; Ducroq, D; Souied, E; Dufier, J L; Munnich, A; Kaplan, J

    1999-10-01

    Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe form of all inherited retinal dystrophies responsible for congenital blindness. Genetic heterogeneity of LCA has been suspected since the report by Waardenburg of normal children born to affected parents. In 1995, we localized the first disease causing gene, LCA1, to chromosome 17p13 and confirmed the genetic heterogeneity. In 1996, we ascribed LCA1 to mutations in the photoreceptor-specific guanylate cyclase gene (retGC1). RetGC1 is an essential protein implicated in the phototransduction cascade, especially in the recovery of the dark state after the excitation process of photoreceptor cells by light stimulation. In 1997, mutations in a second gene were reported in LCA, the RPE65 gene, which is the first specific retinal pigment epithelium gene. The protein RPE65 is implicated in the metabolism of vitamin A, the precursor of the photoexcitable retinal pigment (rhodopsin). Finally, a third gene, CRX, implicated in photoreceptor development, has been suspected of causing a few cases of LCA. Taken together, these three genes account for only 27% of LCA cases in our series. The three genes encode proteins that are involved in completely different physiopathologic pathways. Based on these striking differences of physiopathologic processes, we reexamined all clinical physiopathological discrepancies and the results strongly suggested that retGC1 gene mutations are responsible for congenital stationary severe cone-rod dystrophy, while RPE65 gene mutations are responsible for congenital severe but progressive rod-cone dystrophy. It is of tremendous importance to confirm and to refine these genotype-phenotype correlations on a large scale in order to anticipate the final outcome in a blind infant, on the one hand, and to further guide genetic studies in older patients on the other hand.

  2. Myopathology in congenital myopathies.

    PubMed

    Sewry, C A; Wallgren-Pettersson, C

    2017-02-01

    Congenital myopathies are clinically and genetically a heterogeneous group of early onset neuromuscular disorders, characterized by hypotonia and muscle weakness. Clinical severity and age of onset are variable. Many patients are severely affected at birth while others have a milder, moderately progressive or nonprogressive phenotype. Respiratory weakness is a major clinical aspect that requires regular monitoring. Causative mutations in several genes have been identified that are inherited in a dominant, recessive or X-linked manner, or arise de novo. Muscle biopsies show characteristic pathological features such as nemaline rods/bodies, cores, central nuclei or caps. Small type 1 fibres expressing slow myosin are a common feature and may sometimes be the only abnormality. Small cores (minicores) devoid of mitochondria and areas showing variable myofibrillar disruption occur in several neuromuscular disorders including several forms of congenital myopathy. Muscle biopsies can also show more than one structural defect. There is considerable clinical, pathological and genetic overlap with mutations in one gene resulting in more than one pathological feature, and the same pathological feature being associated with defects in more than one gene. Increasing application of whole exome sequencing is broadening the clinical and pathological spectra in congenital myopathies, but pathology still has a role in clarifying the pathogenicity of gene variants as well as directing molecular analysis. © 2016 British Neuropathological Society.

  3. Congenital hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Korver, Anna M H; Smith, Richard J H; Van Camp, Guy; Schleiss, Mark R; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria A K; Lustig, Lawrence R; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Boudewyns, An N

    2017-01-12

    Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss. Genetic causes probably account for the majority of cases in developed countries; mutations can affect any component of the hearing pathway, in particular, inner ear homeostasis (endolymph production and maintenance) and mechano-electrical transduction (the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity). Once the underlying cause of hearing loss is established, it might direct therapeutic decision making and guide prevention and (genetic) counselling. Management options include specific antimicrobial therapies, surgical treatment of craniofacial abnormalities and implantable or non-implantable hearing devices. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms that underlie hearing loss and increased awareness of recent advances in genetic testing will promote the development of new treatment and screening strategies.

  4. Severe congenital neutropenias.

    PubMed

    Skokowa, Julia; Dale, David C; Touw, Ivo P; Zeidler, Cornelia; Welte, Karl

    2017-06-08

    Severe congenital neutropenias are a heterogeneous group of rare haematological diseases characterized by impaired maturation of neutrophil granulocytes. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia are prone to recurrent, often life-threatening infections beginning in their first months of life. The most frequent pathogenic defects are autosomal dominant mutations in ELANE, which encodes neutrophil elastase, and autosomal recessive mutations in HAX1, whose product contributes to the activation of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) signalling pathway. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions are the object of extensive research and are not fully understood. Furthermore, severe congenital neutropenias may predispose to myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia. Molecular events in the malignant progression include acquired mutations in CSF3R (encoding G-CSF receptor) and subsequently in other leukaemia-associated genes (such as RUNX1) in a majority of patients. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, blood neutrophil count, bone marrow examination and genetic and immunological analyses. Daily subcutaneous G-CSF administration is the treatment of choice and leads to a substantial increase in blood neutrophil count, reduction of infections and drastic improvement of quality of life. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the alternative treatment. Regular clinical assessments (including yearly bone marrow examinations) to monitor treatment course and detect chromosomal abnormalities (for example, monosomy 7 and trisomy 21) as well as somatic pre-leukaemic mutations are recommended.

  5. [Congenital insensitivity to pain].

    PubMed

    Popko, Janusz; Karpiński, Michał; Guszczyn, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain belongs to rare diseases called hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN). The disturbance of sense and secondary harms are creating clinical picture. The aim of this report was to describe therapeutic problems with which we met with a three siblings with congenital insensitivity to pain. The authors have described three children with congenital insensitivity to pain. The disease was diagnosed at the age of 3-5. These children painlessly have broken their lower limbs. These fractures were late diagnosed what resulted in a badly healed deformation of legs. For this reason, the right knee of the oldest boy had to be stiffened. This boy had also late diagnosed the left hip luxation, and hematomas had arisen, which become filled with pus. The boy was in sepsis and a dramatic life-and-death struggle was performed. A purulent focuses were removed from abdomen and femoral head was also resected. The other two siblings had fractures and infections, but not such severe as the oldest boy. It is well known that a causal treatment of this disease in unknown. Patients must learn to avoid mechanical and thermal trauma. It is the only way to prevent complications of this disease.

  6. Congenital abnormalities and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Guimond, Colleen; Criscuoli, Maria; Dyment, David A; Orton, Sarah-Michelle; Yee, Irene M; Ebers, George C; Sadovnick, Dessa

    2010-11-16

    There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). The frequency of congenital anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary.

  7. Perchloric acid-soluble proteins from goat liver inhibit chemical carcinogenesis of Syrian hamster cheek-pouch carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzo, F; Berta, G N; Bussolati, B; Bosio, A; Corvetti, G; Di Carlo, F; Bussolati, G; Guglielmone, R; Bartorelli, A

    1999-01-01

    Chemically induced Syrian hamster cheek-pouch squamous cell carcinoma is very similar to the corresponding human tumour. This paper describes a blind study in which inhibition of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced cheek-pouch tumours by a goat liver extract denominated UK101 was investigated. Less than 40% of animals treated with UK101 developed tumours compared with 100% of the controls. Intermediate results (80%) were noted in a positive control group treated with Calmette–Guérin bacillus. Immunocytochemical testing of cheek-pouch mucosa by Mib5 showed significantly less proliferating cells in UK101 animals than in the controls. The effect of UK101 was completely reversed when dexamethasone was added in a third control group. A significant difference in complement-mediated cytotoxicity was noted in the sera of UK101-tested and control animals. These findings suggest that an immune mechanism is responsible for the inhibition of hamster cheek-pouch carcinoma by UK101. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408693

  8. Pouchitis-associated iritis (uveitis) following total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Freeman, H J

    2001-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.

  9. Radiology of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

  10. [Congenital knee dislocation: case report].

    PubMed

    Arvinius, C; Luque, R; Díaz-Ceacero, C; Marco, F

    2016-01-01

    Congenital knee dislocation is an infrequent condition with unknown etiology. In some cases it occurs as an isolated condition, while in others it coexists with associated conditions or syndromes. The treatment of congenital knee dislocation is driven by the severity and flexibility of the deformity. The literature includes from serial casting or the Pavlik harness to quadriceps tendon plasty or femoral osteotomies. We report herein the case of a congenital dislocation treated with serial casting with a good outcome.

  11. Living with a Congenital Heart Defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... congenital heart disease. Google+ Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 05/ ... 2013, in the journal Nature, about the first large-scale sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease. This NHLBI- ...

  12. Ileal lesions in patients with ulcerative colitis after ileo-rectal anastomosis: Relationship with colonic metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Biancone, Livia; Calabrese, Emma; Palmieri, Giampiero; Petruzziello, Carmelina; Onali, Sara; Sica, Giuseppe Sigismondo; Cossignani, Marta; Condino, Giovanna; Das, Kiron Moy; Pallone, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with ileo-rectal anastomosis (IRA), ileal lesions may develop in the neo-terminal-ileum and their possible relation with phenotypic changes towards colonic epithelium. METHODS: A total of 19 patients with IRA under regular follow up were enrolled, including 11 UC and 8 controls (6 Crohn’s disease, CD; 1 familial adenomatous polyposis, FAP; 1 colon cancer, colon K). Ileal lesions were identified by ileoscopy with biopsies taken from the ileum (involved and uninvolved) and from the rectal stump. Staining included HE and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against colonic epithelial protein CEP (Das-1) and human tropomyosin isoform 5, hTM5 (CG3). Possible relation between development of colonic metaplasia and ileal lesions was investigated. RESULTS: Stenosing adenocarcinoma of the rectal stump was detected in 1 UC patient. The neo-terminal ileum was therefore investigated in 10/11 UC patients. Ileal ulcers were detected in 7/10 UC, associated with colonic metaplasia in 4/7 (57.1%) and Das-1 and CG3 reactivity in 3/4 UC. In controls, recurrence occurred in 4/6 CD, associated with colonic metaplasia in 3/4 and reactivity with Das-1 and CG3 in 2/3. CONCLUSION: Present findings suggest that in UC, ileal lesions associated with changes towards colonic epithelium may develop also after IRA. Changes of the ileal content after colectomy may contribute to the development of colonic metaplasia, leading to ileal lesions both in the pouch and in the neo-terminal ileum after IRA. PMID:18785281

  13. Primary congenital bladder diverticula: Where does the ureter drain?

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Antonio; Garrone, Gilmar; Ottoni, Sérgio Leite; Oliveira, Diego Estevam; do Rosário Souza, Geórgia Rubiane Meira; da Cruz, Marcela Leal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary congenital bladder diverticulum (PCBD) is related to a deficient detrusor layer allowing out-pouching of the bladder mucosa through the inadequate muscularis wall. We aimed to review our experience with symptomatic PCBD in order to correlate clinical findings with anatomical aspects and to present late outcome. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all patients operated in our institution since 2004. We evaluated the charts for complaints, radiological exams, method of treatment, complications and length of follow-up. Results: We treated 10 cases (11 renal units - [RU]), predominantly males (9/10), mean age at surgery of 5.3 years. All patients had significant urological complaints presenting either with antenatal hydronephrosis (4) or febrile urinary tract infection (5) and urinary retention in one. The ureter was found implanted inside the diverticulum in 8/11 RU. An extravesical psoas-hitch ureteroneocystostomy and diverticulum resection was performed in 10/11 cases, whereas 1 case was treated intravesically based on surgeon's preference without performing cystoscopy. Mean follow-up was 34.1 months (1-120) without complications. Conclusions: PCBD is an uncommon diagnosis and has a high probability of drainage inside the diverticulum (72.7%). We recommend the extravesical approach associated with diverticulectomy and ureteroneocystostomy as the preferred technique to treat this abnormality. PMID:26712296

  14. Prospective sequential endoscopic and histologic studies of the gastric pouch in 130 morbidly obese patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Csendes, Attila; Smok, Gladys; Burgos, Ana Maria; Canobra, Moira

    2012-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common performed bariatric surgery. A small gastric pouch is created, leaving a narrow gastrojejunal anastomosis, with a long jejunal limb. Very little is known regarding the behavior of this pouch years after surgery. To determine through prospective sequential endoscopic studies the size of the gastric pouch, the diameter of the anastomosis, and the behavior of H. pylori infection after surgery. In 130 patients subjected to resectional gastric bypass, several routine sequential endoscopic (until 120 months) and histological evaluations of the gastric pouch were performed. After surgery, a mean of 3.6 endoscopies/patient were performed. Macroscopically nearly 95% of the small gastric pouches were normal, and the main pathological finding was a marginal ulcer. Erosive esophagitis disappeared in 93% of the patients. There was no increase in the orocaudal size of the pouch during this period of observation. There was no dilatation of the diameter of gastrojejunal anastomosis. Near 54% of all patients had normal fundic mucosa, while 18% had chronic active gastritis, coincident with H. pylori infection. Five patients had intestinal metaplasia. Based on this sequential endoscopic evaluation, there was no increase in the orocaudal size of the gastric pouch nor increase in the diameter of the gastrojejunal anastomosis. H. pylori behavior was inconsistent and difficult to interpret.

  15. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  16. Orthotopic bladder substitution after radical cystectomy: 5 years of experience with a novel personal modification of the ileal s pouch.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, C; Manousakas, T; Chrisofos, M; Giannopoulos, A

    2001-08-01

    We report a 5-year experience with 52 patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer and orthotopic bladder substitution using a novel personal modification of the S pouch. From September 1995 to December 1999, 52 men 36 to 72 years old (mean age 63) underwent bladder substitution with an S pouch. They were followed until September 2000. The pouch was constructed with a 36 cm. segment of ileum with the whole length used for the reservoir. The ureters were directly anastomosed with one above the other in the mid segment of the pouch without any antireflux procedure. Complications were documented and classified as early or up to 3 months postoperatively and late, and further subdivided by the relationship to neobladder construction. Continence and voiding pattern were evaluated by personal interview and neobladder function was urodynamically assessed. Mean followup in our patients was 30 months. The most common of the 5 early and 9 late neobladder related complications were persistent urine leakage and reflux, respectively. There was no reflux greater than grade III in the 4 patients with reflux (5 refluxing ureters) and no functional disorders. We observed 12 early and 5 late complications unrelated to the neobladder. Open reoperation was required in 5 cases. Good or satisfactory daytime and nighttime continence was reported by 95% and 88% of our patients, respectively. By year 1 postoperatively 91% of our patients voided at an interval of 3 to 5 hours during the day. Mean maximum neobladder capacity was 672 ml. and mean post-void residual was 30 ml. by year 3 postoperatively. Two patients required self-catheterization once daily and mild hyperchloremia without acidosis developed in 2. The advantages of our modified S pouch are technical simplicity, substantially shorter operative time and decreased bowel length required. It is associated with an acceptable complication rate and functional parameters with subsequent patient satisfaction and

  17. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial)

    PubMed Central

    Zonča, Pavel; Malý, Tomáš; Ihnát, Peter; Peteja, Matus; Kraft, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. Methods This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604). With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. Results In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the “J-pouch” group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016). There were no important adverse events. Conclusion After total gastrectomy, a J-pouch reconstruction empties more slowly and is associated with higher quality of life compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Whether these two observations have a direct causative link remains unanswered. PMID:28031718

  18. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, Hany H.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  19. [Food protective property of new liquid food container PID (Pouch in Dispenser) for microbes].

    PubMed

    Tominari, Keita; Tanaka, Asato; Shinoda, Yuma; Futase, Katsunori; Nei, Daisuke; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We examined the content protection characteristics of the PID (Pouch in Dispenser) when it was used in the usual manner and when it was polluted artificially. When the PID was used in the usual manner, the nozzle was opened, and experiments were carried out with and without air-blowing. The invasion of bacteria into the PID was not detected. Also, no bacteria were detected in the material poured from the nozzle of the PID. When 3 strains of bacteria suspensions were intentionally smeared on the nozzle of the PID, invasion of bacteria was observed. When the PID was wiped with a dirty cloth, no invasion of bacteria into the PID was detected. It may be necessary to label the PID with the instruction that the nozzle should not be touched. The effected of changes in the water activity and pH, and the preservatives used, may also need to be considered, depending on the contents in the PID.

  20. USING TRAINED POUCHED RATS TO DETECT LAND MINES: ANOTHER VICTORY FOR OPERANT CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m2 of land, finding 41 mines and 54 other explosive devices. Humans with metal detectors found no additional mines. On average, the rats emitted 0.33 false alarm for every 100 m2 searched, which is below the threshold given by International Mine Action Standards for accrediting mine-detection animals. These findings indicate that Cricetomys are accurate mine-detection animals and merit continued use in this capacity. PMID:21709791

  1. Combination chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by bovine milk lactoferrin and black tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K V P Chandra; Letchoumy, P Vidjaya; Hara, Y; Nagini, S

    2008-03-01

    Combination chemoprevention is a promising approach for oral cancer prevention. The authors evaluated the combined chemopreventive effects of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF) and black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) in a clinically relevant in vivo model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Although dietary administration of bLF and Polyphenon-B alone significantly reduced the tumor incidence, combined administration of bLF and polyphenon-B was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced genotoxicity and development of HBP carcinomas by modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and cellular redox status. These results suggest that a "designer item" approach will be useful for human oral cancer prevention strategies.

  2. Postcoital recovery of sperm in Douglas pouch aspirates of infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Aref, I; Reda, M; Kandil, O; El Tagi, A

    1984-02-01

    Tubal dysfunction is certainly involved in some cases of infertility. Clinical diagnostic procedures for tubal patency are occasionally misleading and contradictory. Moreover, they provide no information on tubal function. The recovery of viable sperm in Douglas pouch aspirates (DPA) was used to evaluate tubal function in 94 infertile patients with different tubal findings at hysterosalpingography (HS) and laparoscopy. Sperm recovery in DPA of ten infertile patients with poor or negative postcoital Sims- Huhner test results demonstrated the limitation of this test for evaluation of sperm transport in the female genital tract. Laparoscopic aspiration of DP may be performed in infertile patients undergoing chromosalpingoscopy as a part of their infertility investigation. The procedure should be supplementary to other available diagnostic parameters.

  3. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  4. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R.; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch. PMID:23492830

  5. Using giant African pouched rats to detect human tuberculosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Mahoney, Amanda; Beyene, Negussie; Mgode, Georgies; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Durgin, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Despite its characteristically low sensitivity, sputum smear microscopy remains the standard for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in resource-poor countries. In an attempt to develop an alternative or adjunct to microscopy, researchers have recently examined the ability of pouched rats to detect TB-positive human sputum samples and the microbiological variables that affect their detection. Ten published studies, reviewed herein, suggest that the rats are able to detect the specific odor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes TB, and can substantially increase new-case detections when used for second-line TB screening following microscopy. Further research is needed to ascertain the rats' ability to detect TB in children and in HIV-positive patients, to detect TB when used for first-line screening, and to be useful in broad-scale applications where cost-effectiveness is a major consideration.

  6. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero.

    PubMed

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE GASTRO-JEJUNO-DUODENAL TRANSIT AFTER JEJUNAL POUCH INTERPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Alcino Lázaro; GOMES, Célio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background : The jejunal pouch interposition between the gastric body and the duodenum after the gastrectomy, although not frequent in the surgical practice today, has been successfully employed for the prevention and treatment of the postgastrectomy syndromes. In the latter, it is included the dumping syndrome, which affects 13-58% of the patients who undergo gastrectomy. Aim : Retrospective assessment of the results of this procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome. Methods : Fourty patients were selected and treatetd surgically for peptic ulcer, between 1965 and 1970. Of these, 29 underwent vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunalduodenostomy at the lesser curvature level, and the 11 remaining were submitted to vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunal-duodenostomy at the greater curvature level. The gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit was assessed in the immediate or late postoperative with the contrasted study of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The clinical evolution was assessed according to the Visick grade. Results : Of the 40 patients, 28 were followed with the contrast evaluation in the late postoperative. Among those who were followed until the first month (n=22), 20 (90%) had slow gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit and in two (10%) the transit was normal. Among those who were followed after the first month (n=16), three (19%) and 13 (81%) had slow and normal gastric emptying, respectively. None had the contrasted exam compatible with the dumping syndrome. Among the 40 patients, 22 underwent postoperative clinical evaluation. Of these, 19 (86,5%) had excellent and good results (Visick 1 and 2, respectively). Conclusions : The jejunal pouch interposition showed to be a very effective surgical procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome in gastrectomized patients. PMID:26734789

  8. Cross-fostering of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) pouch young accelerates fore-stomach maturation.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Joly H L; Iongh, Robbert De; Digby, Matthew R; Renfree, Marilyn B; Nicholas, Kevin R; Familari, Mary

    2009-01-01

    There are two phases of fore-stomach development during the first 200 days of pouch life in tammar wallaby. For the first 170 days, the mucosa displays an immature gastric glandular phenotype that changes to a cardia glandular phenotype, which remains for the rest of the animal's life. During this 200-day period after birth, the pouch young (PY) is dependent on maternal milk, which progressively changes in composition. We showed previously that PY cross-fostered to host mothers at a later stage of lactation accelerated development. In this study, we investigated whether cross-fostering and exposure to late lactation stage milk affected the transition to cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY fore-stomach, there was increased apoptosis, but no change in cell proliferation. The parietal cell population was significantly reduced, and expression of gastric glandular phenotype marker genes (ATP4A, GKN2, GHRL and NDRG2) was down-regulated, suggesting down-regulation of gastric phenotype in fostered PY fore-stomach. The expression of cardia glandular phenotype genes (MUC4, KRT20, CSTB, ITLN2 and LPLUNC1) was not changed in fostered PY. These data suggest that fore-stomach maturation proceeds via two temporally distinct processes: down-regulation of gastric glandular phenotype and initiation of cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY, these two processes appear uncoupled, as gastric glandular phenotype was down-regulated but cardia glandular phenotype was not initiated. We propose that milk from later stages of lactation and/or herbage consumed by the PY may play independent roles in regulating these two processes.

  9. Chronic treatment of female tammar wallabies with deslorelin implants during pouch life: effects on reproductive maturation.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C A; Eckery, D C; Trigg, T E; Cooper, D W

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on attempts to delay puberty in a model marsupial species using the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin. Female tammar wallaby pouch young received deslorelin (5 mg) or placebo implants (n=8/group) when they were 193±2 days old. Sexual maturity was significantly delayed in deslorelin-treated animals, with the first successful production of offspring in treated and control animals occurring at 813±62 and 430±42 days of age, respectively. This delay was associated with a period of retarded pouch and teat development. Progesterone concentrations remained at basal levels throughout the first breeding season, indicating the absence of luteal cycles in treated females. Recovery and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis was a gradual process. Treated animals failed to respond to GnRH challenge at 12 months of age and had a reduced LH response at 18 months of age, before attaining full responsiveness by 24 months of age. Despite this apparent pituitary recovery by 24 months of age, as evidenced by complete teat eversion and LH responsiveness to GnRH, the time to first parturition was significantly delayed beyond this time in three females. This suggests that there may be longer-lasting effects at the level of the ovary and/or on FSH secretion. The significant delay in the onset of sexual maturation in response to chronic GnRH agonist treatment in this model marsupial species may be of practical significance to the management of fertility in captive and semi-free range marsupial populations.

  10. Thermoregulation in juvenile red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) after pouch exit: higher metabolism and evaporative water requirements.

    PubMed

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2001-01-01

    The population dynamics of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in the Australian arid zone is tightly linked with environmental factors, which partly operate via the survival of juvenile animals. A crucial stage is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage when kangaroos permanently exit the pouch. We have examined the thermal biology of YAF red kangaroos during ages from permanent pouch exit until weaning. Over a wide range of environmental temperatures (ambient temperature [T(a)] -5 degrees to 45 degrees C), YAF red kangaroos had a mass-specific metabolism that was generally twice that of adults, considerably higher than would be expected for an adult marsupial of their body size. The total energy requirements of YAF red kangaroos were 60%-70% of those of adult females, which were three times their size. Over the same range in T(a), YAF red kangaroos also had total evaporative water losses equal to those of adult females. At the highest T(a) (45 degrees C), differences were noted in patterns of dry heat loss (dry conductance) between YAF red kangaroos and adult females, which may partially explain the relatively high levels of evaporative cooling by YAF. By weaning age, young kangaroos showed little change in their basal energy and water requirements (at T(a) 25 degrees C) but did show reduced mass-specific costs in terms of energy and water use at extremes of T(a) (-5 degrees and 45 degrees C, respectively). In their arid environment, typified by unpredictable rainfall and extremes of T(a), young red kangaroos may need to remain close to water points, which, in turn, may restrict their ability to find the high-quality forage needed to meet their high energy demands.

  11. Molecular and Genetic Studies of Congenital Myopathies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-08

    Central Core Disease; Centronuclear Myopathy; Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion; Multiminicore Disease; Myotubular Myopathy; Nemaline Myopathy; Rigid Spine Muscular Dystrophy; Undefined Congenital Myopathy

  12. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  13. Congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation is an essential process by which sugars are attached to proteins and lipids. Complete lack of glycosylation is not compatible with life. Because of the widespread function of glycosylation, inherited disorders of glycosylation are multisystemic. Since the identification of the first defect on N-linked glycosylation in the 1980s, there are over 40 different congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases. This review will include defects of N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation and disorders of combined N- and O-linked glycosylation. PMID:23776380

  14. Congenital Horner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, J M; Zweifel, T J; Thompson, H S

    1980-06-01

    Patients with congenital Horner's syndrome (who seemed, on the basis of their clinical history and the distribution fo anhidrosis, to have a preganglionic lesion) had partial mydriatic failure with hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide and a supersensitivity to phenylephrine hydrochloride. This apparent paradox can be readily explained by postulating an aorthograde transsynaptic dysgenesis of the postganglionic neuron, such as has been demonstrated in the sympathetic nervous system of newborn animals. The failure of hydroxyamphetamine to cause mydriasis indicates damage to the postganglionic sympathetic neuron, but in the neonate this damage may be secondary to a preganglionic lesion.

  15. Congenital syphilis: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Dzebolo, N N

    1980-08-01

    Congenital syphilis was discovered in a neonate with the unusual radiographic presentation of unilateral involvement of three bones showing lytic lesions and periostitis. Congenital syphilis should be considered in a newborn infant with these radiographic manifestations, especially when a suggestive history is obtained.

  16. Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses

    PubMed Central

    Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change. PMID:17422768

  17. Laparoscopic resection of adult colon duplication causing intussusception.

    PubMed

    Kyo, Kennoki; Azuma, Masaki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiyama, Motohiro; Shimamura, Takahiro; Maema, Atsushi; Shirakawa, Motoaki; Nakamura, Toshio; Koda, Kenji; Yokoyama, Hidetaro

    2016-02-21

    Gastrointestinal duplications are uncommon congenital malformations that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Most cases are recognized before the age of 2 years, and those encountered in adults are rare. We describe here a case of ascending colon duplication in a 20-year-old male that caused intussusception and was treated laparoscopically. Although computed tomography revealed a cystic mass filled with stool-like material, the preoperative diagnosis was a submucosal tumor of the ascending colon. We performed a laparoscopic right colectomy, and the postoperative pathological diagnosis was duplication of the ascending colon, both cystic and tubular components. We conclude that gastrointestinal duplications, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all abdominal and submucosal cystic lesions and that laparoscopy is a preferred approach for the surgical treatment of gastrointestinal duplications.

  18. [Congenital defects and incapacity].

    PubMed

    Jouve de la Barreda, Nicolás

    2009-01-01

    As a whole the congenital defects constitute an important section of the medical attention affecting near 3% of the population. A 15% of spontaneous abortions take place of which the greater frequency corresponds to the chromosome anomalies (25%) and the monogenic mutations (20%) and in a lesser extent to the effects of teratogenic agents. Between the genetic causes determining the congenital defects the mutations that affect genes acting in the early stages of development occupy a main place. These alterations can affect to homeotic genes or monogenic systems that act during the critical phases of the organogenesis. It seems evident that an alteration in the expression of a necessary gene for the appearance of a morphogenetic change constitutes the angular stone to understand resurging of a malformation or discapacity. In the last years has been demonstrated the importance of the teratogenic or environmental agents on the delicate internal physiological balance during the critical stages of the development. In this context must be included the inductive environmental factors inducing epigenetic modifications in the early stage of the development of the embryos produced by fertilization in vitro.

  19. Cataracts in Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Veena; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Latkany, Paul; Troia, Robert N.; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Kasza, Kristen; Karrison, Ted; Cezar, Simone; Sautter, Mari; Greenwald, Mark J.; Mieler, William; Mets, Marilyn B.; Alam, Ambereen; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Roizen, Nancy; Rabiah, Peter; Del Monte, Monte A.; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and natural history of cataracts in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods Children referred to the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) between 1981 and 2005 were examined by ophthalmologists at predetermined times according to a specific protocol. The clinical course and treatment of patients who developed cataracts was reviewed. Results In the first year of life, 134 of 173 children examined were treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and Leucovorin, while the remaining 39 were not treated. Cataracts occurred in 27 eyes of 20 patients (11.6%, 95% confidence interval [7.2%, 17.3%]). Fourteen cataracts were present at birth, and 13 developed postnatally. Locations of the cataracts included anterior polar (3 eyes), anterior subcapsular (6), nuclear (5), posterior subcapsular (7), and unknown (6). Thirteen cataracts were partial, 9 total, and 5 with unknown complexity. Twelve cataracts remained stable, 12 progressed, and progression was not known for 3. Five of 27 eyes had cataract surgery, with 2 of these developing glaucoma. Sixteen eyes of 11 patients had retinal detachment and cataract. All eyes with cataracts had additional ocular lesions. Conclusions In the NCCCTS cohort, 11.6% of patients were diagnosed with cataracts. There was considerable variability in the presentation, morphology, and progression of the cataracts. Associated intraocular pathology was an important cause of morbidity. PMID:18086432

  20. [Genetics of congenital deafness].

    PubMed

    Faundes, Víctor; Pardo, Rosa Andrea; Castillo Taucher, Silvia

    2012-10-20

    Congenital deafness is defined as the hearing loss which is present at birth and, consequently, before speech development. It is the most prevalent sensor neural disorder in developed countries, and its incidence is estimated between 1-3 children per 1,000 newborns, of which more than 50% are attributable to genetics causes. Deafness can be classified as syndromic or non-syndromic. In the first case, it is associated with outer ear malformations and/or systemic findings. More than 400 syndromes accompanied of deafness have been described, which represent about 30% of cases of congenital hearing loss. The remaining percentage corresponds to non-syndromic cases: 75-85% are autosomal recessive, 15-24% are autosomal dominant, and 1-2% are X-linked. The evaluation of a child with deafness requires a multidisciplinary collaboration among specialists, who must coordinate themselves and give information to the affected family. The aims of establishing a diagnosis are to predict other manifestations that may suggest some syndrome and to anticipate their management, as well as to perform genetic counseling to parents and affected individuals.

  1. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer. PMID:20191069

  2. CT findings of colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  3. Early stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-12-14

    Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent "curative" resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., "tumor budding") should lead to improved staging and clinical care.

  4. Idiopathic Neonatal Colonic Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Melek, Mehmet; Kaba, Sultan; Bulan, Keziban; Peker, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Though the perforation of the colon in neonates is rare, it is associated with more than 50% mortality in high-risk patients. We report a case of idiopathic neonatal perforation of the sigmoid colon in an 8-day-old, healthy, male neonate without any demonstrable cause. PMID:26023477

  5. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases after ...

  6. Congenital Hypotonia in Toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Naomi; Torres, Alcy; Reddy, Arathi; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2017-09-01

    ' primary concern today is regarding feeding. David is a picky eater. He has difficulty with new foods and textures. The parents noticed a regression in his tolerance for new foods around the recent move. He eats baby puffs, stage 2 to 3 baby foods, and fruit and vegetable pouches. He does not like soft, sticky foods. He is also reported to have other sensory sensitivities. He does not tolerate loud noises and is bothered by tags in his clothing. You wonder, what further work-up would be helpful for David? How can his feeding issues be addressed?

  7. Congenital stationary night blindness presenting as Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Weleber, R G; Tongue, A C

    1987-03-01

    Two siblings with autosomal-recessive congenital stationary night blindness were clinically blind in infancy. Both had markedly abnormal electroretinograms that, in the first child, led consultants at two university centers to make the diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis. The patients had intermittent nystagmus and esotropia, but good photopic vision developed eventually. Scotopic vision was clearly defective in each child. Refractive error in both patients was close to emetropic in early infancy but became myopic by 1 year of age. Congenital stationary night blindness must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the blind infant.

  8. Hybrid interventional procedures in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Holoshitz, Noa; Kenny, Damien; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of congenital cardiac surgery has seen significant innovative advances in collaborative efforts between congenital cardiac surgeons and interventionalists to provide the least invasive intervention with the greatest hemodynamic benefit for patients with congenital heart disease. This review looks at how this collaborative approach has evolved and is being applied to treat a number of congenital conditions across the age ranges.

  9. Congenital Giant Hydroureteric Cistern in a Duplex System of an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Awolaran, O. T.; Abdur-Rahman, L. O.; Bamigbola, K. T.; Adesiyun, O. M.; Nasir, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Duplex collecting system is a congenital genitourinary anomaly commonly found incidentally. Our experience with a duplex system associated with giant hydroureter presenting as mobile abdominal swelling that was noticed from birth, constipation, and failure to thrive is described. Ultrasound and IVU did not assist in making the diagnosis, while a barium enema suggested a colonic duplication. Congenital giant hydroureter should be considered as a differential diagnosis in infants with cystic abdominal swelling. A preserved renal moiety attributed to a dilated ureteric cistern was a unique theory in this case. PMID:24171132

  10. Colonic casts: unexpected complications of colonic ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Mantas, D; Damaskos, C; Bamias, G; Dimitroulis, D

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Extensive colonic ischaemia can result in passage of a colonic 'cast' (CC) through the rectum. Case Study We report a 69-year-old male who initially underwent surgery to remove a sessile polyp. On postoperative day (POD)15, he was febrile, suffering from diarrhoea, and was treated conservatively. On POD18, the patient returned to our hospital with a CC that presented after defaecation. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a CC extending from the descending colon to the anal orifice with presentation of air between the affected colonic wall and the CC. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged on POD20 without complications having passed the CC (≈80cm) completely and becoming afebrile. Conclusions In most cases, the cause of CC passage is surgery for colorectal cancer or repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. A mild-to-severe presentation is dependent upon the bowel-wall layers affected by ischaemia and which therefore are included in the CC.

  11. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer-Wilson, Marie J.; Nguyen, Vi; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Ahn, Yehchen; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide [CEES, half-mustard gas (HMG)] at a concentration of 0.4, 2.0, or 5.0 mg/ml for 1 or 5 min. Twenty-four hours post-HMG exposure, tissue damage was assessed by both stereomicrography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Damage that was not visible on gross visual examination was apparent in the OCT images. Tissue changes were found to be dependent on both HMG concentration and exposure time. The submucosal and muscle layers of the cheek pouch tissue showed the greatest amount of structural alteration. Routine light microscope histology was performed to confirm the OCT observations.

  12. The mitogenomes of the pouched lamprey (Geotria australis) and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera) with phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Pu, Jiafei; Buchinger, Tyler; Zhu, Xinyun; Baker, Cindy; Li, Weiming

    2016-09-01

    We report the mitogenomes of the pouched lamprey (Geotria australis) and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera) in the families Geotriidae and Petromyzontidae, respectively. Both of the mitogenomes contain the 37 typical vertebrate genes. Their gene order and contents are identical to those of previously described lamprey mitogenomes. The mitogenome of G. australis (17 080 bp) is the largest among the 10 reported lamprey mitogenomes, owed to two long noncoding regions. The mitogenome of L. aepyptera is 77 bp longer (16 236 bp) than that of the congeneric European river lamprey L. fluviatilis, a size difference mostly due to different copy numbers of tandem repeats in the noncoding regions. The phylogenetic analysis supports that the pouched lamprey (Geotriidae) diverged earlier from the common ancestor of lampreys than the Petromyzonids, and the placement of the least brook lamprey in the genus Lampetra.

  13. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates oxidative burst and nitric oxide production in carrageenan-elicited granulocytes from rat air pouch.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Mićić, Stana; Vujić, Vesna; Kovacević-Jovanović, Vesna; Mitić, Katarina; von Hörsten, Stephan; Kosec, Dusko

    2006-12-01

    We studied the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY-related receptor specific peptides on functions of carrageenan-elicited granulocytes in vitro and ability of NPY to modulate carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation in rats in vivo. Anti-inflammatory effect of NPY comprises reduced granulocyte accumulation into the air pouch, to some extent attenuation of phagocytosis, attained via Y1 receptor, and considerable decrease in peroxide production, albeit mediated via Y2 and Y5 receptors activation. Conversely, NPY increases nitric oxide production and this potentiation is mediated via Y1 receptor. It is concluded that NPY Y1 and Y2/Y5 receptors' interaction participates in NPY-induced modulation of granulocyte functions related to inflammation.

  14. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches.

  15. The surgical technique of the Fobi-Pouch operation for obesity (the transected silastic vertical gastric bypass).

    PubMed

    Fobi, M A; Lee, H

    1998-06-01

    The Fobi-Pouch operation (FPO) for obesity is the product of clinical trials, more than 15 years of personal clinical experience and information gathered from publications, scientific meetings, and personal communications with other bariatric surgeons. The essence of the operation is the small vertical pouch (< 25 ml), an externally supported stoma, the interposed Roux-en-Y limb, the gastrostomy and the bypassed stomach marker to facilitate percutaneous transabdominal access to the bypassed segment. Patients undergoing this operation are usually given bowel prep the day before the operation, admitted the morning of the operation and started on subcutaneous heparin, prophylactic antibiotic and hydration. Antithrombotic sequential compression devices are regularly used. The hospital stay is usually 4 days. Our results and those of other surgeons who have used this modification substantiate the rationale for the modifications entailed in the FPO. Our longer-term experience and results are being compiled for publication.

  16. Use of the air pouch model to investigate immune responses to a hookworm vaccine containing the Na-ASP-2 protein in rats.

    PubMed

    Mendez, S; D' Samuel, A; Antoine, A D; Ahn, S; Hotez, P

    2008-01-01

    Hookworms are gastrointestinal nematodes that affect approximately 600 million people in developing countries. Using the air pouch model, we have examined the effects of vaccination with the recombinant hookworm larval antigen Na-ASP-2 and the adjuvant Alhydrogel on the skin immune response to hookworms in Sprague Dawley rats. Following vaccination, rats were inoculated 100 Necator americanus L3 into the air pouch, and the exudates and cell infiltrates were collected from the pouch 24 h later. Larval inoculation induced leucocyte recruitment into the pouch. Exudates of rats vaccinated with Na-ASP-2 showed an increase of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and especially, IL-5, as well as IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies. The increased amount of antigen-presenting cells and cytokines in the pouch of vaccinated animals suggests that vaccination could potentially restrain this parasite to the inoculation site, avoiding its migration and establishment in the host. Moreover, the air pouch model could constitute an alternative to screen immune responses to L3 antigens.

  17. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  18. Further assessment of Monkeypox Virus infection in Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Faye Lorenzsonn,; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003,Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  19. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs. PMID:26517839

  20. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging.

    PubMed

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A; Lopera, Juan G; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Salzer, Johanna S; Hutson, Christina L; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  1. Postpartum complications in a patient with a previous proctocolectomy and ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Spina, Vincenzo; Giovannini, Massimo; Fabiani, Cristina; Vetrano, Giuseppe; Bagolan, Pietro; Colizza, Sergio; Aleandri, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    This case report regards pregnancy and delivery of a patient who had undergone proctocolectomy and ileo-pouch-anal-anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis. The patient delivered through cesarean section and experienced serious complications postpartum. Such complications have been described in association with Chron's disease and have never been described after proctocolectomy and IPAA for ulcerative colitis. This case report suggests that the limit between these two diseases is not sharp.

  2. Characterizing congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    The ability to make sense of the music in our environment involves sophisticated cognitive mechanisms that, for most people, are acquired effortlessly and in early life. A special population of individuals, with a disorder termed congenital amusia, report lifelong difficulties in this regard. Exploring the nature of this developmental disorder provides a window onto the cognitive architecture of typical musical processing, as well as allowing a study of the relationship between processing of music and other domains, such as language. The present article considers findings concerning pitch discrimination, pitch memory, contour processing, experiential aspects of music listening in amusia, and emerging evidence concerning the neurobiology of the disorder. A simplified model of melodic processing is outlined, and possible loci of the cognitive deficit are discussed.

  3. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  4. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Merke, Deborah P; Bornstein, Stefan R

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to deficiency of 21-hydroxylase is a disorder of the adrenal cortex characterised by cortisol deficiency, with or without aldosterone deficiency, and androgen excess. Patients with the most severe form also have abnormalities of the adrenal medulla and epinephrine deficiency. The severe classic form occurs in one in 15,000 births worldwide, and the mild non-classic form is a common cause of hyperandrogenism. Neonatal screening for CAH and gene-specific prenatal diagnosis are now possible. Standard hormone replacement fails to achieve normal growth and development for many children with CAH, and adults can experience iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome, hyperandrogenism, infertility, or the development of the metabolic syndrome. This Seminar reviews the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of CAH, and provides an overview of clinical challenges and future therapies.

  5. [Congenital lobar emphysema].

    PubMed

    Belio-Castillo, C; Prado-Pallares, M; Blanco-Rodríguez, G

    1991-05-01

    This article includes the way cases of congenital lobe emphysema were treated at the Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez" during 1971 to 1989. A total of 17 cases were gathered, 13 were males and 4 were females; admittance age varied from 13 days to 3 years. The children's main symptoms were respiratory failure and cyanosis. The diagnosis was enhanced by a chest X-ray where lobe hyperclarity was detected, as well as a deviation of the mediastinum and a collapsed lung. A lobectomy was performed in all cases. The upper left lobe was seen to be the most affected. Two of the children died. It is important to recognize this disease early on and conduct prompt surgical treatment.

  6. Congenital macroglossal angiodysplasia ("Lymphangioendotheliomatosis").

    PubMed

    Bakaeen, G; Winkler, S; Bakaeen, L; Rehani, L A; Katsetos, C D

    2000-09-01

    A case of congenital lingual angiodysplasia with macroglossia in a 5-year-old girl is presented. A diffusely enlarged tongue was present at birth and continued to grow as the child aged. It was accompanied by impaired speech, difficulty in eating and breathing, and sleep apnea, necessitating surgical intervention. The fundamental lesion represents a complex vascular malformation of the lymphangioma-hemangioma type, involving extensively the deep musculature of the tongue. Multifocal and multicentric cavernous lymphangioma-like and hemangioma-like areas merge with benign angioendotheliomatous-like foci in a background of variable muscle degeneration and marked fibrosis. Neither a borderline nor an overtly malignant vasoformative neoplasm was present. Because of its distinctively widespread, multicentric intramuscular distribution, this lesion may be construed as a diffuse variant of lingual lymphangioma-hemangioma malformation, closely resembling a previously described case of macroglossal lymphangioendotheliomatosis.

  7. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  8. Assessment of the long-term stability of retort pouch foods to support extended duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Catauro, Patricia M; Perchonok, Michele H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the suitability of retort processed foods to support long-duration spaceflight, a series of 36-mo accelerated shelf life studies were performed on 13 representative retort pouch products. Combined sensory evaluations, physical properties assessments, and nutritional analyses were employed to determine shelf life endpoints for these foods, which were either observed during the analysis or extrapolated via mathematical projection. Data obtained through analysis of these 13 products were later used to estimate the shelf life values of all retort-processed spaceflight foods. In general, the major determinants of shelf life appear to be the development of off-flavor and off-color in products over time. These changes were assumed to be the result of Maillard and oxidation reactions, which can be initiated or accelerated as a result of the retort process and product formulation. Meat products and other vegetable entrées are projected to maintain their quality the longest, between 2 and 8 y, without refrigeration. Fruit and dessert products (1.5 to 5 y), dairy products (2.5 to 3.25 y), and starches, vegetable, and soup products (1 to 4 y) follow. Aside from considerable losses in B and C vitamin content, nutritional value of most products was maintained throughout shelf life. Fortification of storage-labile vitamins was proposed as a countermeasure to ensure long-term nutritive value of these products. The use of nonthermal sterilization technologies was also recommended, as a means to improve initial quality of these products and extend their shelf life for use in long-duration missions. Data obtained also emphasize the importance of low temperature storage in maintaining product quality. Retort sterilized pouch products are garnering increased commercial acceptance, largely due to their improved convenience and quality over metal-canned products. Assessment of the long-term stability of these products with ambient storage can identify potential areas for

  9. Septal pouch in the left atrium and risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Tugcu, Aylin; Okajima, Kazue; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2010-12-01

    We sought to assess the association between the presence of a septal pouch in the left atrium and ischemic stroke. It has been suggested that the presence of a left septal pouch (LSP) may favor the stasis of blood and possibly result in thromboembolic complications. However, the embolic potential of an LSP is not known. The association between an LSP and risk of stroke was assessed using a population-based case-control study design. The presence of an LSP was assessed by transesophageal echocardiography in 187 patients >50 years of age with a first-ever ischemic stroke (96 men, mean age 70.6 ± 9.0 years) and in 157 control subjects matched to patients by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The association between an LSP and risk of stroke was assessed after adjustment for other stroke risk factors. Patients with LSPs were younger than control subjects (67.5 ± 9.1 years vs. 69.6 ± 8.8 years; p = 0.046), with a lower prevalence of hypertension (68.0% vs. 80.3%; p = 0.01). There were no differences in the prevalence of LSPs between stroke patients and control subjects (28.9% vs. 29.3%, respectively; p = 0.93). The subgroup of 69 patients (36.9%) with cryptogenic stroke showed a similar prevalence of LSPs (31.9% vs. 29.3%; p = 0.70). Multivariable analysis showed that the presence of an LSP was not associated with ischemic stroke (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 1.85) or cryptogenic stroke (odds ratio: 1.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 2.78). This study does not demonstrate evidence of the association of the presence of an LSP with ischemic stroke or cryptogenic stroke. The stroke risk associated with LSPs requires further evaluation in the younger stroke populations. The cofactors that may turn an LSP from an innocent bystander to a causative mechanism for stroke remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Septal Pouch in the Left Atrium and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Aylin; Okajima, Kazue; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We sought to assess the association between the presence of a septal pouch in the left atrium and ischemic stroke. Background Recently, a new anatomical entity, named a left septal pouch (LSP), was described in a pathology study. It was suggested that the presence of LSP may favor the stasis of blood and possibly result in thromboembolic complications. However, the embolic potential of a LSP is not known. Methods The association between LSP and risk of stroke was assessed using a population-based case-control study design. The presence of LSP was assessed by transesophageal echocardiography in 187 patients over age 50 with first-ever ischemic stroke (96 men, mean age 70.6 ± 9.0 years) and in 157 control subjects matched to patients by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The association between LSP and risk of stroke was assessed after adjustment for other stroke risk factors. Results Patients with LSPs were younger (67.5 ± 9.1 vs. 69.6 ± 8.8; p=0.046) and had a lower proportion of hypertension (68.0% vs. 80.3%; p=0.01). There were no difference in the prevalence of LSP between stroke patients and control subjects (28.9% vs. 29.3%; p=0.93). The subgroup of 69 patients (36.9%) with crytptogenic stroke showed a similar prevalence of LSP (31.9% vs. 29.3%; p=0.70). Multivariable analysis showed that the presence of LSP was not associated with ischemic stroke (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.85) or cryptogenic stroke (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.78). Conclusions This study does not demonstrate evidence for association of the presence of LSP with ischemic stroke, or with cryptogenic stroke. The stroke risk associated with LSP may still require further evaluation in the younger stroke populations. The possibility that associated cofactors that may turn LSP from an innocent bystander into a causative mechanism for stroke remain to be elucidated. PMID:21163457

  11. Congenital heart defects and medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Gehin, Connie; Ragsdale, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Radiologic technologists perform imaging studies that are useful in the diagnosis of congenital heart defects in infants and adults. These studies also help to monitor congenital heart defect repairs in adults. This article describes the development and functional anatomy of the heart, along with the epidemiology and anatomy of congenital heart defects. It also discusses the increasing population of adults who have congenital heart defects and the most effective modalities for diagnosing, evaluating, and monitoring congenital heart defects.

  12. Rhythmic motor activity and interlimb co-ordination in the developing pouch young of a wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S M

    1997-01-01

    1. The forelimb motor behaviour of developing wallaby was studied. A clock-like alternating movement was reactivated whenever the animal was removed from the pouch. 2. Forelimb stepping frequency increased during the first 3 weeks of development, while the phase relationship remained constant. Forelimb activity could be affected by altering the afferent feedback from the contralateral limb, or an increase in ambient temperature. 3. In vitro experiments were performed using an isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from animals up to 6 weeks postnatal. Fictive locomotor activity could be evoked by electrical stimulation or bath-applied NMDA (< 10 microM). 4. Bath-applied strychnine (10-25 microM) and bicuculline (10-50 microM) disrupted the phase relationship between motor pools, while rhythmic motor discharge remained in the absence of these inhibitory pathways. 5. The present findings indicate that the pattern generator that underlies the robust forelimb movement during the first journey to the pouch is retained for different motor functions during in-pouch development. The neural network that underlies such behaviour can be divided into two major components, a rhythm generator within each hemicord, and a pattern co-ordinating pathway which involve both glycinergic and GABAergic interneurones. PMID:9218221

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Leukocytes Enhance Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in a Mouse Air-Pouch-Type Inflammation Model.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hatayama, Takahiro; Jiangxu, Dong; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Endo, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-08-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a key cytokine that exacerbates allergic and fibrotic reactions. Several microbes and virus components have been shown to induce TSLP production, mainly in epithelial cells. TLR4 activators, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce TSLP production in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of LPS-activated leukocytes to the production of TSLP in a mouse air-pouch-type inflammation model. LPS induced the production of TSLP in this model but not in the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Transfer of the infiltrated leukocytes collected from an LPS-injected air pouch to the air pouch of another mouse enhanced TSLP production. Further, the LPS-activated leukocytes produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); a deficiency in these cytokines attenuated the LPS-induced production of TSLP. TSLP production was induced by TNF-α and enhanced by IL-1β and LPS in the PAM212 cells. These results demonstrated that TNF-α and IL-1β, which are partly produced by LPS-activated leukocytes, contribute to TSLP production via TLR4 activation in vivo.

  14. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  15. An audit of quality of life and functional outcome following restorative proctocolectomy and ileoanal pouch surgery in familial polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Daniels; Beynon; Carr

    1999-09-01

    We have audited the quality of life and functional outcome from restorative proctocolectomy and ileoanal pouch surgery in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP). By assessing the effect on employment, leisure activity, social life, and sexual function using a questionnaire derived from a modified McMaster Inflammatory Disease Questionnaire we have assessed the functional outcome of the pouch [ 1]. We have shown that although quality of life is maintained from the results of the questionnaire, over 50% of the patients felt that the pouch had not improved their lives. It has been shown that colitic patients have less complete function than polyposis patients, although the former were more satisfied with the results of their surgery [ 2]. Perhaps then the realization of the nature of FAP is not an incentive to surgery, when your life is to be ruled by your bowels. Therefore perhaps we should consider the outcomes in patients with FAP to be different from those in patients who have lived with colitis.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Essential Oil Citral in Experimental Infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model Air Pouch.

    PubMed

    Martins, Hellen Braga; Selis, Nathan das Neves; Souza, Clarissa Leal Silva E; Nascimento, Flávia S; de Carvalho, Suzi Pacheco; Gusmão, Lorena D'Oliveira; Nascimento, Jannine Dos Santos; Brito, Anne Karoline Pereira; de Souza, Samira Itana; de Oliveira, Marcio Vasconcelos; Timenetsky, Jorge; Yatsuda, Regiane; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Marques, Lucas M

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes to implement an alternative and effective strategy for local treatment of disease provoked by S. aureus. For the analysis of possible anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil, after establishing an air pouch model, 48 male mice of Balb/c were treated, infected, and euthanized at 4 and 8 h. Thus, the total and differential white blood cells were counted in the animal's blood, and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were titrated using ELISA in the air pouch lavage. Moreover, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression was analyzed through an RT-qPCR array, and S. aureus was quantified using qPCR. Our results, p < 0.05, showed that EOC reduced the quantity of microorganisms. The group of mice treated with essential oil citral showed a significant decrease in TNF-α levels in tests demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity. There is no data about the mutual influence of the air pouch model, essential oil citral, and S. aureus. Thus, considering the interaction of these variables and the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil citral, we demonstrated, by alternative local treatment, a new antimicrobial agent that is not an antibiotic.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Essential Oil Citral in Experimental Infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model Air Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Hellen Braga; Selis, Nathan das Neves; Souza, Clarissa Leal Silva e; Nascimento, Flávia S.; de Carvalho, Suzi Pacheco; Gusmão, Lorena D'Oliveira; Nascimento, Jannine dos Santos; Brito, Anne Karoline Pereira; de Souza, Samira Itana; de Oliveira, Marcio Vasconcelos; Timenetsky, Jorge; Yatsuda, Regiane

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes to implement an alternative and effective strategy for local treatment of disease provoked by S. aureus. For the analysis of possible anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil, after establishing an air pouch model, 48 male mice of Balb/c were treated, infected, and euthanized at 4 and 8 h. Thus, the total and differential white blood cells were counted in the animal's blood, and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were titrated using ELISA in the air pouch lavage. Moreover, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression was analyzed through an RT-qPCR array, and S. aureus was quantified using qPCR. Our results, p < 0.05, showed that EOC reduced the quantity of microorganisms. The group of mice treated with essential oil citral showed a significant decrease in TNF-α levels in tests demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity. There is no data about the mutual influence of the air pouch model, essential oil citral, and S. aureus. Thus, considering the interaction of these variables and the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil citral, we demonstrated, by alternative local treatment, a new antimicrobial agent that is not an antibiotic. PMID:28316634

  18. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  19. [Interleukin-4 and osteoprotegerin suppress polyethylene wear debris-induced osteolysis in a murine air pouch model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Rui; Wu, Ning-ning; Mou, Yu-qin; Li, Rui-dong; Deng, Zhong-liang

    2011-10-01

    To test the effect of recombinant interleukin-4 (IL-4) and recombinant osteoprotegerin (OPG) in suppressing bone resorption induced by polyethylene wear particles.. A cranial bone allograft was introduced into the air pouches induced on the back of BALB/c mice, followed by injection of 1 ml suspension of polyethylene particles into the pouches. The mouse models were then divided into 3 groups to receive injections of saline (control), IL-4 alone, or IL-4 and OPG into the pouches. The tissues were harvested 21 days after bone implantation for molecular and histological analyses. Polyethylene wear particles-stimulated inflammatory responses (increased cellular infiltration and IL-1 and TNF production) were markedly reduced by IL-4 treatment either alone or combined with OPG (P<0.05). Polyethylene particles significantly increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone absorption of the implanted bone graft, and IL-4 treatment, either alone or combined with OPG, obviously reduced the osteolysis induced by polyethylene particles (P<0.05). IL-4 offers protection against polyethylene wear debris-induced inflammation and bone resorption in this mouse model. IL-4 combined with OPG can be a feasible and effective therapeutic approach to the treatment and prevention of polyethylene wear debris-associated osteolysis and aseptic loosening of the prosthetic components.

  20. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50 mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70 mg GAE/100 g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  1. Development and on-orbit operation of lithium-ion pouch battery for small scientific satellite “REIMEI”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Keita; Takeda, Yasuo; Sone, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Koji; Mita, Makoto; Saito, Hirobumi

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery was developed using off-the-shelf pouch cells and launched with a small scientific satellite "REIMEI." The cells were potted with polyurethane or epoxy resin to protect the battery from vacuum in space. Preliminary experimental test results of pouch cells potted in a soft aluminum cap suggested that the cells tended to swell in vacuum, although they had been reinforced with the resins. Bread board models (BBMs), in which pouch cells were potted with resins in a hard aluminum case, were fabricated for cycle life performance tests in the laboratory. The test results indicated that the performance of epoxy-potted BBM was superior to that of the polyurethane-potted BBM. The measured cell resistance implied that the electrolyte solution leaked through the polyurethane resin, resulting in premature deterioration. The epoxy resin was used for the flight battery. The end-of-discharge-voltage (EoDV) trend of the flight battery on orbit was compared with the laboratory test results corrected based on a post-launch cycle test using a fresh cell. The corrected EoDV trend in the laboratory was in good agreement with the on-orbit trend for the early cycle period, indicating that the on-orbit battery was not inadvertently affected by conditions in space.

  2. Electrochemical properties of large-sized pouch-type lithium ion batteries with bio-inspired organic cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Yoo, Eun-Ji; Ha, Sang-Hyeon; Cheong, Dong-Ik; Cho, Sung-Baek

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of scaling up bio-inspired organic materials as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries, large-sized pouch cells are successfully prepared via tape casting using lumichrome with an alloxazine structure and aqueous styrene butadiene rubber-carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR-CMC) binders. A battery module with a two-in-series, six-in-parallel (2S6P) configuration is also successfully fabricated and is able to power blue LEDs (850 mW). Lumichrome shows no structural changes during the fabrication processes used to produce the positive electrode. The large-sized pouch cells show two sets of cathodic and anodic peaks with average potentials of 2.58 V and 2.26 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively. The initial discharge capacities are 142 mAh g-1 and 148 mAh g-1 for ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (EC-DMC) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) electrolytes, respectively, similar to that of a coin cell (149 mAh g-1). The EC-DMC-injected pouch cells exhibit higher rate performance and cyclability than the TEGDME-injected ones. The TEGDME electrolyte is not suitable for lithium metal anodes because of electrolyte decomposition and subsequent cell swelling.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: congenital afibrinogenemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neerman-Arbez M. FGB mutations leading to congenital quantitative fibrinogen deficiencies: an update and report of four ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Customer Support USA.gov ...

  4. Photoaversion in Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, E I; Maumenee, I H

    1995-03-01

    Photoaversion is a prominent symptom of a number of infantile genetic ocular disorder such as congenital glaucoma, aniridia, albinism, and cone dystrophies including achromatopsia. Photoaversion has not been widely recognized as a clinical feature of Leber's congenital amaurosis. We present two patients who were diagnosed clinically with achromatopsia because of nystagmus, absent color vision, reduced visual acuity, and moderately severe photoaversion in the absence of anterior segment abnormalities. The photopic and scotopic responses of the electroretinogram (E R G) were nonrecordable in both patients indicating involvement of both cone and rod systems. The diagnosis was then revised to one of Leber's congenital amaurosis. Photoaversion can be a prominent clinical feature in some patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis. The E R G clinches the diagnosis. These patients may constitute a distinct genetic subtype of the disease and molecular genetic studies will help resolve this issue.

  5. Why Search for Congenital Defects?

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John F.

    1966-01-01

    The causation of congenital malformation is receiving increased study. In Canada, epidemiologic surveys are being planned, based upon the institution of Provincial Registries to which physicians and other agencies will voluntarily report cases coming to their attention. The literature in regard to prevalence studies of congenital cardiac defects in school children is reviewed. Over the past 25 years, studies employing the proposed technique demonstrated a rising trend, from 1.4 per 1000 to 2.6 per 1000. By contrast, specific surveys for congenital cardiac defect carried out by expert personnel using radiographs and electrocardiographs, resulted in essentially uniform rates, approximating 5 to 6 per 1000. It is concluded that the latter is a superior technique of epidemiologic survey over the “Central Registry” method, and should command a due proportion of health resources directed towards congenital malformation research. PMID:5914837

  6. Congenital Syngnathia; Turmoils and Tragedy

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Yogesh Kumar; Raj, Prince; Arya, Mona; Dali, Jaspal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Congenital syngnathia is an extremely rare condition with no standardized treatment. We hereby report a case highlighting the difficulties faced in its management and the postoperative complications. PMID:28083498

  7. [Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Adults].

    PubMed

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a life-long disease requiring an integrated therapy. It may negatively influence the quality of life. In childhood, the main problems of the care of these patients involve sex determination and ensuring optimum growth and puberty. The therapeutic goals for adults are the prevention of Addisonian crisis and ensuring the best possible quality of life, including fertility.Key words: androgens - cardiovascular risk - congenital adrenal hyperplasia - bone density - testicular rest tumors.

  8. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  9. Failure statistics for commercial lithium ion batteries: A study of 24 pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephen J.; Harris, David J.; Li, Chen

    2017-02-01

    There are relatively few publications that assess capacity decline in enough commercial cells to quantify cell-to-cell variation, but those that do show a surprisingly wide variability. Capacity curves cross each other often, a challenge for efforts to measure the state of health and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual cells. We analyze capacity fade statistics for 24 commercial pouch cells, providing an estimate for the time to 5% failure. Our data indicate that RUL predictions based on remaining capacity or internal resistance are accurate only once the cells have already sorted themselves into ;better; and ;worse; ones. Analysis of our failure data, using maximum likelihood techniques, provide uniformly good fits for a variety of definitions of failure with normal and with 2- and 3-parameter Weibull probability density functions, but we argue against using a 3-parameter Weibull function for our data. pdf fitting parameters appear to converge after about 15 failures, although business objectives should ultimately determine whether data from a given number of batteries provides sufficient confidence to end lifecycle testing. Increased efforts to make batteries with more consistent lifetimes should lead to improvements in battery cost and safety.

  10. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests.

    PubMed

    Sabuni, Christopher A; Sluydts, Vincent; Mulungu, Loth S; Maganga, Samwel L S; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    The lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, is a small rodent that is patchily distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests in East Africa. The ecology of this species and its current distribution in coastal forests is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study in selected coastal forests to assess the current distribution of the species and to investigate the population ecology in terms of abundance fluctuations and demographic patterns. Assessments of the species distribution were conducted in 5 forests through trapping with Sherman live traps. Data on ecology were obtained from monthly capture-mark-recapture studies conducted for 5 consecutive nights per month in two 1 ha grids set in Zaraninge Forest over a 2-year period. The results indicate the presence of B. hindei in 3 forests where it was not previously recorded. The population abundance estimates ranged from 1 to 40 animals per month, with high numbers recorded during rainy seasons. Reproduction patterns and sex ratios did not differ between months. Survival estimates were not influenced by season, and recruitment was low, with growth rate estimates of 1 animal per month. These estimates suggest a stable population of B. hindei in Zaraninge Forest. Further studies are recommended to establish the home range, diet and burrowing behavior of the species in coastal forests in East Africa. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Etiopathogenesis of Nephrolithiasis in Ulcerative Colitis Patients with the Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Arora, Zubin; Mukewar, Saurabh; Lopez, Rocio; Camino, Debra; Shen, Bo; Hall, Phillip

    2017-05-01

    Our previous study showed that nephrolithiasis is a common complication in ulcerative colitis patients after ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). However, the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis in IPAA patients has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare urine and serum metabolic compositions in IPAA patients with nephrolithiasis and controls with IPAA and no nephrolithiasis. Using cross-sectional study design, serum and 24-hour urine metabolic compositions were compared between IPAA patients with nephrolithiasis (the study group) and those without (the control group). Urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid was calculated. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences in serum electrolytes, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and kidney function tests between the study (n = 20) and control groups (n = 20). Patients in the study group were found to have a significantly higher 24-hour urine supersaturation of calcium oxalate (8.8 versus 5.0, P = 0.037) and calcium phosphate (0.61 versus 0.27, P = 0.028) as compared with controls. Nineteen (95%) patients in the study group were symptomatic due to nephrolithiasis with several requiring procedural intervention for treatment, including ureteroscopy in 3 (15%) patients, lithotripsy in 5 (25%) patients, and percutaneous surgery in 1 (5%) patient. Ulcerative colitis-IPAA patients are at risk for the development of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones. Nephrolithiasis is symptomatic in a majority of the patients and frequently requires procedural intervention for treatment.

  12. Society for Reproductive Biology Founders' Lecture 2006 - life in the pouch: womb with a view.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B

    2006-01-01

    Marsupials give birth to an undeveloped altricial young after a relatively short gestation period, but have a long and sophisticated lactation with the young usually developing in a pouch. Their viviparous mode of reproduction trades placentation for lactation, exchanging the umbilical cord for the teat. The special adaptations that marsupials have developed provide us with unique insights into the evolution of all mammalian reproduction. Marsupials hold many mammalian reproductive 'records', for example they have the shortest known gestation but the longest embryonic diapause, the smallest neonate but the longest sperm. They have contributed to our knowledge of many mammalian reproductive events including embryonic diapause and development, birth behaviour, sex determination, sexual differentiation, lactation and seasonal breeding. Because marsupials have been genetically isolated from eutherian mammals for over 125 million years, sequencing of the genome of two marsupial species has made comparative genomic biology an exciting and important new area of investigation. This review will show how the study of marsupials has widened our understanding of mammalian reproduction and development, highlighting some mechanisms that are so fundamental that they are shared by all today's marsupial and eutherian mammals.

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Stoma-Related Obstruction after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Okita, Yoshiki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Satoru; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshiyama, Shigeyuki; Hiro, Junichiro; Inoue, Mikihiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Ohi, Masaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2017-03-01

    We defined small bowel obstruction occurring around the limbs of the ileostomy as stoma-related obstruction (SRO) and investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors of SRO. From January 2002 to March 2016, 309 consecutive patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis were enrolled. Two-stage IPAA with diverting ileostomy was analyzed. We assessed the possible associations between SRO and clinical factors. A total of 205 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-three (25.8%) patients with SRO before ileostomy closure were identified for review. All patients with SRO were at least transiently resolved by intubation though orifice of ileostomy (98.1%) or nasally (3.7%). In 18 (33.9%) patients, the ileostomy was taken down ahead of schedule and the small bowel obstruction improved in all cases. Multivariate analysis revealed that age at surgery <16 years old and body mass index <21 were significant predictive factors for SRO (P = 0.013 and 0.0012, respectively). Younger age at surgery and low body mass index may be significant predictive factors for SRO after IPAA with diverting ileostomy in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  14. Whole-genome scan for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, A; Spötter, A; Blazyczek, I; Diesterbeck, U; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2009-12-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary disease in foals of several breeds, including thoroughbreds, Arabian, Quarter and warmblood horses. We performed a whole-genome scan for GPT in 143 horses from five Arabian and five German warmblood families and genotyped 257 microsatellites. Chromosome-wide significant linkage was detected on ECA2 and ECA15 using multipoint non-parametric linkage analyses. Analyses stratified by sex revealed chromosome-wide significant linkage on ECA2 for fillies and chromosome-wide significant linkage on ECA15 for colts. For Arabian colts, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ECA15 was genome-wide significant. Haplotypes including two to four microsatellites within the QTL on ECA2 and 15 in fillies and colts, respectively, were significantly associated with GPT for both breeds. Thus, our analysis indicated sex-specific QTL, a fact which is in agreement with a two- to fourfold higher incidence of GPT in females. This is the first report of QTL for equine GPT and a first step towards identifying genes responsible for GPT.

  15. Some aspects of the host response to methacrylic acid containing beads in a mouse air pouch.

    PubMed

    Patel, Riteshkumar J; Sefton, Michael V

    2012-08-01

    Exudate analysis indicated that both hydroxamated methacrylic acid-based (HX-MAA) and methacrylic acid-based (MAA) beads without hydroxamation, implanted in an air pouch with gelatin discs, elicited similar biological responses, with both resulting in high cell counts and chemokine (MCP3) levels, relative to control, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads. HX-MAA beads had been used elsewhere to restore homeostatic levels of extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, matrix metalloproteases, whereas the MAA beads (without hydroxamation) promoted angiogenesis in wound healing models. Furthermore, both beads appeared to activate exudate macrophages in the classical manner (high IL12/IL10 ratio) at day 4. Exudate macrophages, which were isolated by a magnetic bead protocol and analyzed by RT-PCR, showed a mixed response: elevated levels of an alternative marker (mannose receptor C type lectin) and a classical marker (IL6) were seen, in macrophages from the HX-MAA and MAA group compared to the PMMA group at day 4. A partial shift to an alternatively activated phenotype was seen by day 10. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dark field optical imaging reveals vascular changes in an inducible hamster cheek pouch model during carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Murphy, Helen A.; Zhu, Caigang; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a low-cost cross-polarized dark field microscopy system for in vivo vascular imaging to detect head and neck cancer. A simple-to-use Gabor-filter-based image processing technique was developed to objectively and automatically quantify several important vascular features, including tortuosity, length, diameter and area fraction, from vascular images. Simulations were performed to evaluate the accuracies of vessel segmentation and feature extraction for our algorithm. Sensitivity and specificity for vessel segmentation of the Gabor masks both remained above 80% at all contrast levels when compared to gold-standard masks. Errors for vascular feature extraction were under 5%. Moreover, vascular contrast and vessel diameter were identified to be the two primary factors which affected the segmentation accuracies. After our algorithm was validated, we monitored the blood vessels in an inducible hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model over 17 weeks and quantified vascular features during carcinogenesis. A significant increase in vascular tortuosity and a significant decrease in vessel length were observed during carcinogenesis. PMID:27699096

  17. The Antarctic holothurian genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990 (Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae): brood pouches, spermatozoa, spermatozeugmata and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Jens Michael; Heß, Martin

    2014-07-29

    An examination of seven Antarctic brooding cucumariid and psolid holothurian species revealed a variety of characters all of them have in common: (1) All are gonochoric. (2) A genital papilla is present on the oral disc (permanent and digitiform in males). (3) Females brood their offspring in five anterior interradial brood pouches that are situated at the transition of body to introvert. (4) Multiple spermatozoa are always bundled to bunch-like spermato-zeugmata. (5) The spermatozoa have a fusiform head and a hollow cylinder-like mid-piece encircling the anterior end of the flagellum. This combination of characters so far is unique, and indicates a close relationship based on common origin. As a consequence, we unite all species sharing this set of synapomorphies in the genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990. The herewith included species are: E. acanthocola Gutt, 1990, E. acutus (Massin, 1992) comb. nov., E. charcoti (Vaney, 1906) comb. nov., E. koehleri (Vaney, 1914) comb. nov., E. mollis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) comb. nov., E. parvipes Massin, 1992 and E. splendidus (Gutt, 1990) comb. nov.. Because the current assignment of Echinopsolus to the family Psolidae can not be retained, the genus is tranferred to the family Cucumariidae, as relationships to taxa within this family are obvious. The peculiar spermatozoa and spermato-zeugmata of all Echinopsolus species are described using light- and electron-microscopical techniques and the results are evaluated and discussed concerning their taxonomy and phylogeny. 

  18. Noncontact point spectroscopy guided by two-channel fluorescence imaging in a hamster cheek pouch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Victor X.; Yeow, Jenny; Lilge, Lothar D.; Kost, James; Mang, Thomas S.; Wilson, Brian C.

    1999-07-01

    A system for in vivo, fluorescence image-guided, non-contact point fluorescence spectroscopy is presented. A 442 nm HeCd laser is used as the fluorescence excitation source. An intensified CCD serves as the detector for both imaging and spectroscopy, on which two regions of 300 X 300 pixels were used for green (500 +/- 18 nm) and red (630 +/- 18 nm) imaging channels, and a strip of 600 X 120 pixels are used for emission spectroscopy (450 - 750 nm). At a working distance of 40 mm, the system has a spatial resolution of 0.16 mm and a spectral resolution of 5 nm. System performance is demonstrated in a carcinogenesis model in hamsters, where tumors were induced by painting DMBA in the cheek pouch. Autofluorescence and Photofrin-induced fluorescence measurements were performed every 2 weeks during the 18 weeks of tumor induction. Punch biopsies on selected animals were taken for histological staging. The results show that autofluorescence fluorescence can distinguish dysplasia from normal mucosal tissue model, utilizing the peak red intensity (or the red-to-green intensity ratio). Photofrin-induced fluorescence was superior to autofluorescence for differentiating high grade dysplasia from invasive cancer.

  19. Design and Demonstration of Three-Electrode Pouch Cells for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; ...

    2017-06-14

    Simple three-electrode pouch cells which can be used in distinguishing the voltage and resistance in individual electrodes of lithium ion batteries have been designed. Baseline (1 mm-staggered alignment, cathode away from a reference electrode) and aligned electrodes to a reference electrode located outside of the anode and cathode were studied to see alignment effects on resistance analysis. Cells composed of A12 graphite anodes, LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC 532 or NCM 523) cathodes, lithium foil references, microporous tri-layer membranes, and electrolytes, were cycled with cathode cutoff voltages between 3.0 V and 4.3 V for formation cycles or 4.6 V for C-rate performance testing.more » By applying a hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) technique to the cells, resistances of the baseline cells contributed by the anode and cathode were found to be different from those of the aligned cells, although overall resistances were close to ones from aligned cells. As a result, resistances obtained via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and 2D simulation were also compared with those obtained from HPPC.« less

  20. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  1. Heat penetration characteristics and physico-chemical properties of in-pouch processed dairy dessert (kheer).

    PubMed

    Jha, Alok; Patel, A A; Gopal, T K Srinivasa; Ravishankar, C N

    2014-10-01

    Kheer, a traditional milk product of South East Asia, containing cooked rice grains in a creamy sweetened concentrated milk, has no large-scale production due to its poor shelf life. Shelf-life was improved by development of a process based on in-pouch thermal processing employing a rotary retort. Product development included optimization of rice-to-milk solids ratio (0.18-0.52) and total milk solids levels (16-26 %) to simulate the conventional product in taste, appearance and textural attributes. Various Fo values (12.4-14.8) were examined with regard to product quality. While the TBA value tended to increase (0.073-0.081) the reflectance value (35.3-43.4) declined with increasing Fo. The pH of the product (6.04-6.10) showed a slight tendency to increase with Fo. Sensorily, the product was found to be acceptable for a period of 150 days at 37 °C.

  2. Processing and storage of restructured surimi stew product in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Hema, K; Shakila, R Jeya; Shanmugam, S A; Jeevithan, E

    2015-03-01

    Restructured surimi gel product was prepared using short nosed white tripod (Triacanthus brevirosterus) with egg white as additive at 1 %. Heat setting was done initially at 45 °C for 30 min followed by heat processing 90 °C for 45 min. Restructured surimi gel in stew was standardized using four most popular recipes available in local cuisine based on the sensory acceptance and the Kerala fish stew was considered best. Restructured surimi gel in Kerala fish stew was then heat processed in 4 ply laminated retort pouch of dimension 150× 200 mm, at 15 psi gauge pressure for varying time duration and the Fo values ranged from 13.10 to 22.58 min. Products examined of their organoleptic and microbial qualities showed those processed with Fo value of 13.10 min was acceptable with excellent eating quality with no fishy flavour and was microbial sterile until the storage period of 6 months.

  3. Performance of wide temperature range electrolytes for Li-Ion capacitor pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappetto, A.; Cao, W. J.; Luo, J. F.; Hagen, M.; Adams, D.; Shelikeri, A.; Xu, K.; Zheng, J. P.

    2017-08-01

    Four types of wide temperature-range electrolyte formulations based on carbonate and carboxylate esters were evaluated at various temperatures in lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) pouch cells consisting of both hard carbon (HC) and graphite negative electrodes (NEs) with thin lithium foil and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrodes (PEs). The electrolytes containing methyl butyrate (MB) with various additives enabled the LIC to operate at -40 °C, where all electrolytes based only on carbonates fail. MB-containing electrolyte with lithium Difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) as additive showed the best cycling performance over 5000 cycles. Lithium plating also occurred on graphite NEs when charged at low temperatures starting at -20 °C, which resulted in the non-linear curves. When charged at 30 °C and discharged at -40 °C, graphite NE based LIC displayed regular linear charge-discharge curves without lithium plating. In comparison, HC NE based LICs showed better capacity retention at -40 °C and no signs of lithium plating. It could be concluded that low temperature performance of LIC was influenced by both electrolyte formulations and negative electrode material.

  4. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Colonic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/colonicdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  6. Output power and metabolic input power of skeletal muscle contracting linearly to compress a pouch in a mock circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Geddes, L A; Badylak, S F; Tacker, W A; Janas, W

    1992-11-01

    Output power and metabolic input power values were determined for unconditioned canine latissimus dorsi (two), gastrocnemius (seven), and triceps (three) muscles contracting linearly to cause compression of a doubly valved pouch in a hydraulic model of the circulation. The motor nerves to the muscles were stimulated tetanically with 450 msec trains of 0.1 msec pulses having a frequency of 50/sec. The muscles were contracted 10, 20, 30, and 40 times per minute and pouch output in milliliters per minute was measured directly for each muscle at each contraction (train) rate. The output power in milliwatts was determined by two methods: (1) by using the pouch output and the pressure rise imparted to the stroke volume (average power) and (2) by using the pressure-volume loop. Metabolic input power in milliwatts was determined from the oxygen consumption in milliliters per minute of the working muscle. It was found that as the pouch output was increased, the pouch output power and the metabolic input power both increased. The average power output was slightly less than that computed from the pressure-volume loop. The mean output power values, when pumping at L liters per minute, were 0.62 L (average) and 0.75 L mW/gm (pressure-volume loop) for the latissimus dorsi muscles; 0.83 L (average) and 1.16 L mW/gm (pressure-volume loop) for the gastrocnemius muscles; and 0.55 L (average) and 0.66 L mW/gm (pressure-volume loop) for the triceps muscles. The percent efficiency of energy conversion ranged from 9.2% to 17.8% for the latissimus dorsi muscles, from 5.1% to 19.5% for the gastrocnemius muscles, and from 10.5% to 27.3% for the triceps muscles. However, it should not be concluded that one muscle type is better than another on the basis of percent efficiency because efficiency does not take endurance into account. An important observation in this study relates to the large output obtained with the three linearly contracting muscle types. All were capable of pumping in

  7. Multi-analyte approach for determining the extraction of tobacco constituents from pouched snus by consumers during use.

    PubMed

    Digard, Helena; Gale, Nathan; Errington, Graham; Peters, Nicola; McAdam, Kevin

    2013-04-02

    Snus is a smokeless oral tobacco product with a significant history of use in Sweden, where it is regulated under food legislation. Users place a small porous sachet or a pinch of loose snus between the upper jaw and cheek for approximately one hour, leading to partial intake of tobacco constituents. To understand user exposure to tobacco, a multi-analyte approach based on the extraction of pouches by methanol, ethanol and water was validated and applied to the measurement of various constituents, including nicotine, four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), propylene glycol, water, ammonium, nitrate, sodium, chloride, linalool, citronellol, linalyl acetate and geraniol, extracted from snus pouches during use by human consumers. After validation against established single-analyte methods, the multi-analyte approach was used to determine constituent levels in snus pouches before and after one hour of use. Although the concentrations in the snus pouches varied from nanogram (e.g. TSNAs) to milligram (e.g. nicotine, sodium and propylene glycol) quantities (25.1 ng to 35.3 mg per 1 g pouch), the mean percentage extracted varied only from 19.2% for linalyl acetate to 37.8% for the TSNA 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) among all constituents analyzed. The TSNAs, some of which are known carcinogens, showed the highest percentage extraction (range 34.6%-37.8%). Measurement variability was low for all analytes, ranging from 2.4% (total TSNAs, NAT) to 9.5% (geraniol). By contrast, inter-subject variability ranged from 6.7% (NAB) to 52.2% (linalyl acetate), and was greater than 20% for eight of the constituents analyzed. Intra-subject variability ranged from 3.4% (citronellol) to 29.7% (geraniol). Generally, less than a third of each constituent tested was extracted during one hour of snus use, independent of constituent concentration. The variable nature of in-use extraction was shown to be driven by inter-subject variability. The results provide

  8. Multi-analyte approach for determining the extraction of tobacco constituents from pouched snus by consumers during use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Snus is a smokeless oral tobacco product with a significant history of use in Sweden, where it is regulated under food legislation. Users place a small porous sachet or a pinch of loose snus between the upper jaw and cheek for approximately one hour, leading to partial intake of tobacco constituents. To understand user exposure to tobacco, a multi-analyte approach based on the extraction of pouches by methanol, ethanol and water was validated and applied to the measurement of various constituents, including nicotine, four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), propylene glycol, water, ammonium, nitrate, sodium, chloride, linalool, citronellol, linalyl acetate and geraniol, extracted from snus pouches during use by human consumers. Results After validation against established single-analyte methods, the multi-analyte approach was used to determine constituent levels in snus pouches before and after one hour of use. Although the concentrations in the snus pouches varied from nanogram (e.g. TSNAs) to milligram (e.g. nicotine, sodium and propylene glycol) quantities (25.1 ng to 35.3 mg per 1 g pouch), the mean percentage extracted varied only from 19.2% for linalyl acetate to 37.8% for the TSNA 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) among all constituents analyzed. The TSNAs, some of which are known carcinogens, showed the highest percentage extraction (range 34.6%–37.8%). Measurement variability was low for all analytes, ranging from 2.4% (total TSNAs, NAT) to 9.5% (geraniol). By contrast, inter-subject variability ranged from 6.7% (NAB) to 52.2% (linalyl acetate), and was greater than 20% for eight of the constituents analyzed. Intra-subject variability ranged from 3.4% (citronellol) to 29.7% (geraniol). Conclusions Generally, less than a third of each constituent tested was extracted during one hour of snus use, independent of constituent concentration. The variable nature of in-use extraction was shown to be driven by inter

  9. An Overview of Congenital Myopathies.

    PubMed

    Mah, Jean K; Joseph, Jeffrey T

    2016-12-01

    This article uses a case-based approach to highlight the clinical features as well as recent advances in molecular genetics, muscle imaging, and pathophysiology of the congenital myopathies. Congenital myopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of genetic neuromuscular disorders characterized by early-onset muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Congenital myopathies are further classified into core myopathies, centronuclear myopathies, nemaline myopathies, and congenital fiber-type disproportion based on the key pathologic features found in muscle biopsies. Genotype and phenotype correlations are hampered by the diverse clinical variability of the genes responsible for congenital myopathies, ranging from a severe neonatal course with early death to mildly affected adults with late-onset disease. An increasing number of genes have been identified, which, in turn, are associated with overlapping morphologic changes in the myofibers. Precise genetic diagnosis has important implications for disease management, including family counseling; avoidance of anesthetic-related muscle injury for at-risk individuals; monitoring for potential cardiac, respiratory, or orthopedic complications; as well as for participation in clinical trials or potential genetic therapies. Collaboration with neuromuscular experts, geneticists, neuroradiologists, neuropathologists, and other specialists is needed to ensure accurate and timely diagnosis based on clinical and pathologic features. An integrated multidisciplinary model of care based on expert-guided standards will improve quality of care and optimize outcomes for patients and families with congenital myopathies.

  10. [Congenital heart diseases in women].

    PubMed

    Putotto, Carolina; Unolt, Marta; Caiaro, Angela; Marino, Dario; Massaccesi, Valerio; Marino, Bruno; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Are there gender differences in prevalence, surgical results and long-term survival of patients with congenital heart disease? Available literature data allow us to state what follows. At birth there is a mild but significant prevalence of congenital heart disease in females. The most severe congenital heart diseases are less frequent in girls, but when they are present in females, they are linked to a higher surgical mortality rate, due perhaps to lower weight at birth and to the prevalence of extracardiac malformations and/or of associated genetic syndromes. On the other hand, in adults, surgery for congenital heart disease is at higher risk in males, and so the long-term survival rate is higher in females. Particular psychological attitudes, a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as well as specific problems linked to the reproductive function characterize congenital heart disease in adult women. The knowledge and analysis of these data are essential for a correct management of congenital heart disease in neonates, children and adults.

  11. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P < 0.01 for linear trend). The associations with other carotenoids were unremarkable. The major dietary sources of lutein in subjects with colon cancer and in control subjects were spinach, broccoli, lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  12. Embryological basis and clinical correlation of the rare congenital anomaly of the human gall bladder: - "the diverticulum" - a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Jaba; Jain, Shilpi; Khare, Satyam; Fulzele, Ratna R; Ghai, Rashmi

    2013-10-01

    Diverticulum of the human gall bladder is an important but distinct anatomical entity with significant clinical implications. It is one of the rarest congenital anomalies of the gall bladder being rarely discussed in literature. This article details the morphology of the diverticula found, along with the embryological basis and clinical significance of this important anatomical and clinical entity. To study the diverticula found, with respect to their morphology, and ascertain whether they were of congenital or acquired variety. Setting and Designs: The present study is a retrospective study carried on hundred cadavers during undergraduate dissection, in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, and Department of Anatomy, Subharti Medical College , Meerut during a four year period i.e. 2008-2012 after obtaining necessary permission from institutional ethical committee. Hundred gall bladder specimens collected from 10% formalin fixed cadavers were studied in detail with regard to their number, position, shapes dimensions and histology. Nine, congenital (true) diverticula were found in one hundred gall bladder specimens. The diverticula were of various shapes and dimensions. They formed pouches on the luminal surface of the gall bladder. Diagnosis of congenital diverticulum was confirmed by histology. In this cadaveric study, solitary diverticulum was found in nine (9%) specimens out of one hundred specimens. Association of diverticulum with non-specific prolonged ailments, acalculus cholecystitis, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, recurrent cholangitis and carcinoma of gallbladder has been reported in literature. This important anatomical as well as clinical entity poses challenges for radiologists and laparoscopic surgeons during interventional procedures and also should be differentiated from other types of congenital anomalies and pathological states of gall bladder.

  13. Colon Cryptogenesis: Asymmetric Budding

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2013-01-01

    The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

  14. [Colon cancer in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, M; Fermeaux, V

    2003-09-01

    Colon cancers arise only rarely in the course of a pregnancy. Yet colon obstruction, perforation and metastatic spread seem to occur more frequently in this setting than with the average colon cancer. Perhaps this is due to the immunotolerance which accompanies pregnancy. No case of epidermoid (squamous cell) cancer of the colon has been previously described in a pregnant woman. This conjunction has a catastrophic prognosis: the diagnosis of colon tumor is delayed since symptoms are masked by the pregnancy, and epidermoid colon cancer is a particularly aggressive lesion. A major sub-diaphragmatic surgical procedure can be performed with reasonable safety to mother and fetus. Radiotherapy is contraindicated. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can be administered although the risks to the fetus are not well known. During the first trimester, a therapeutic abortion can be proposed to optimise the treatment of the mother. During the second and third trimesters, treatment of the mother exposes the fetus to the risk of malformations or premature delivery; delay in maternal treatment in hopes of prolonging the pregnancy in order to obtain a viable neonate diminish the chances of maternal survival.

  15. The role of cell proliferation and crypt fission in adenoma aggressiveness: a comparison of ileoanal pouch and rectal adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, R. K. S.; Clark, S. K.; Tomlinson, I. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim In patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), ileoanal pouch cancer is rare whereas rectal cancer is common, despite polyp initiation at the two sites being similar at the molecular level. This study investigated whether the disparity in adenoma aggressiveness reflects underlying differences in histogenesis. Method Normal mucosal biopsies and 2–3 mm adenomas from patients with FAP were dissected into individual crypts. Crypt area, morphology, fission and mitoses were analysed for crypts from pouch, rectum and supra-anastomotic ileum. Immunohistochemistry of similar archival samples was performed for lysozyme, β-catenin and TP53 expression. Results The morphology of normal crypts was similar at each site, although crypt area differed. The area of normal pouch crypts was intermediate between rectum and ileum. The area of adenomatous crypts of rectum and pouch was similar, but the latter had increased asymmetrical fission. Crypt mitoses were proportional to area in all tissues, but crypt fission was reduced in adenomatous crypts from the rectum compared with the pouch. Pouch adenomas retained lysozyme expression as seen in normal ileum. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was similar, but TP53 expression was increased in rectal adenomas. Conclusion Diminutive polyps from rectum and pouch differ in morphology and proliferation. Aggressiveness in rectal polyps is not conferred by increased crypt proliferation, fission, or activation of the Wnt signalling pathway. Increased TP53 expression suggests other molecular mechanisms may be responsible. While crypt mitoses are proportional to crypt area, the threshold for fission may be site specific, indicating that tissue origin may influence histogenesis and thus malignant potential. PMID:20002690

  16. [Congenital Esophageal Atresia].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    In this report, we describe the esophageal atresia in terms of current surgical management on the basis of our experience and literatures. Traditionally, infants with esophageal atresia have presented shortly after birth because of an inability to pass an orogastric tube, respiratory distress, or an inability to tolerate feeding. And also, an isolated trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF) usually cases coughing, recurrent pneumonia, or choking during feedings. To ignore these symptoms is to risk a delayed diagnosis. The condition may be associated with other major congenital anomalies such as those seen in the vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal/radial (VACTER) association, or it may be an isolated defect. Therapeutic strategies for esophageal atresia are a prevention of pulmonary complication by TEF closing and an early establishment of enteral alimentation. We promptly repair healthy infants without performing a gastrostomy and delay repair in infants with high-risk factors such as associated severe cardiac anomaly and respiratory insufficiency. Esophageal atresia has been classically approached through a thoracotomy. The disadvantages of such a thoracotomy have been recognized for a long time, for example winged scapula, elevation of fixation of shoulder, asymmetry of the chest wall, rib fusion, scoliosis, and breast and pectoral muscle maldevelopment. To avoid such disadvantages, thoracoscopic repair was recently reported.

  17. [Consanguinity and congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Marie; Vedsted-Jakobsen, Agnete

    2003-04-28

    Knowledge of consanguinity is relevant for employees in the Danish national health service, since about 7.5% of the Danish population has another ethnic background than Danish and the majority comes from cultures where consanguineous marriages are not unusual. In the literature it is found that consanguineous couples have a higher risk of having children with congenital malformations. The risk is increased by a factor 2 to 2 1/2. The average risk in Denmark is about 3%. Primarily, the autosomal recessive diseases are expressed in children with consanguineous parents. In order to advise and diagnose it is essential to clarify the consanguinity state. In case of pregnancy with consanguineous parents, we recommend: 1) Counselling to estimate the risk of foetal illness and information about possible examination possibilities. 2) An ultrasound scan at the gestational age of 11-14 weeks in order to measure nuchal translucency and an early malformation scan. 3) An ultrasound scan for malformations at the gestational age of 18-20 weeks. 4) An ultrasound scan especially in order to detect foetal heart malformations at the gestational age of 20-24 weeks.

  18. Singing in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Giguère, Jean-François; Peretz, Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder characterized by impaired pitch perception. To examine to what extent this perceptual pitch deficit may compromise singing, 11 amusic individuals and 11 matched controls were asked to sing a familiar tune with lyrics and on the syllable /la/. Acoustical analysis of sung renditions yielded measures of pitch accuracy (e.g., number of pitch errors) and time accuracy (e.g., number of time errors). The results revealed that 9 out of 11 amusics were poor singers, mostly on the pitch dimension. Poor singers made an anomalously high number of pitch interval and contour errors, produced pitch intervals largely deviating from the score, and lacked pitch stability; however, more than half of the amusics sang in-time. Amusics' variability in singing proficiency was related to their residual pitch perceptual ability. Thus, their singing deficiency might be a consequence of their perceptual deficit. Nevertheless, there were notable exceptions. Two amusic individuals, despite their impoverished perception, sang proficiently. The latter findings are consistent with the existence of separate neural pathways for auditory perception and action.

  19. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Congenital aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M

    2001-08-01

    Recent advances in and controversies concerning the management of children with congenital valvular aortic stenosis are discussed. In neonates with critical aortic stenosis, improved survival has recently been reported after surgical open valvotomy and balloon valvuloplasty, although it is difficult at this point to compare the results of the two procedures and determine their differential indications. Good results have also been achieved after extended aortic valvuloplasty for recurrent aortic stenosis and/or insufficiency, but the length of follow-up in these patients is still short. The technique first reported in 1991 for bilateral enlargement fo a small annulus permits the insertion of an aortic valve 3-4 sizes larger than the native annulus. It entails no risk of distorting the mitral valve, damaging the conduction system or important branches of the coronary arteries, or resulting in left ventricular dysfunction. The Ross procedure is now widely applied in the West, with reports of early mortality rates of less than 5% and event-free survival rates of 80-90% during follow-up of 4-8 years. Longer follow-up and continued careful evaluation are required to resolve the issue of possible dilatation and subsequent neoaortic valve dysfunction and pulmonary stenosis due to allograft degeneration after pulmonary autograft root replacement in children.

  1. Canine congenital portosystemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Maddison, J E

    1988-08-01

    The case records of 21 dogs with congenital portosystemic encephalopathy are reviewed. The disorder was most common in Australian cattledogs (blue heelers; 8 cases), Old English sheepdogs (3 cases) and Maltese terriers (3 cases). Extra-hepatic shunts occurred in small breeds, with the exception of 1 cattledog, while intra-hepatic shunts occurred in the medium to large breeds. The most common clinical pathology abnormalities were abnormal ammonia tolerance, mild to moderate increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase concentrations, decreased total serum protein concentrations, increased fasting ammonia concentrations and ammonium biurate crystalluria. Radiological examination revealed that all the dogs had a small liver. The kidneys were enlarged in 5 of 10 dogs in which kidney size could be estimated. Surgical ligation of an extra-hepatic shunt was successful in 2 of 4 dogs in which it was attempted. Medical management resulted in alleviation of clinical signs in 5 of 8 dogs. The period of successful treatment ranged from a few months to over a year.

  2. [Congenital cataract: general review].

    PubMed

    Roche, O; Beby, F; Orssaud, C; Dupont Monod, S; Dufier, J L

    2006-04-01

    Cataract is a loss of lens transparency because of a protein alteration. Etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but new mutations of different developmental genes involved are found in 25% of cases. Frequency of onset, particularly when different ocular development anomalies occur, is related to the lens induction phenomena on the eye's anterior segment structure during embryologic development. Genetic transmission is often found on the dominant autosomal mode. Diagnosis is based on a complete and detailed examination of the eye, often with general anaesthesia. This condition predisposes children to later, sometimes serious amblyopia. Different clinical aspects can be observed: from cataract with ocular and/or systemic anomalies to polymalformative syndrome, skeletal, dermatological, neurological, metabolic, and genetic or chromosomal diseases. A general systematic pediatric examination is necessary. Congenital cataract requires first and foremost early diagnosis and a search for all etiologies. Surgical treatment is adapted case by case but it has progressed with the quality of today's intraocular lenses even if systematic implantation continues to be debated. Life-long monitoring is absolutely necessary.

  3. [Congenital insensitivity to pain].

    PubMed

    Danziger, N; Willer, J-C

    2009-02-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare syndrome with various clinical expressions, characterized by a dramatic impairment of pain perception since birth. In the 1980s, progress in nerve histopathology allowed to demonstrate that CIP was almost always a manifestation of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) involving the small-calibre (A-delta and C) nerve fibres which normally transmit nociceptive inputs along sensory nerves. Identification of the genetic basis of several clinical subtypes has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, emphasizing in particular the crucial role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the development and survival of nociceptors. Recently, mutations of the gene coding for the sodium channel Nav1.7--a voltage-dependent sodium channel expressed preferentially on peripheral nociceptors and sympathetic ganglia--have been found to be the cause of CIP in patients showing a normal nerve biopsy. This radical impairment of nociception mirrors the hereditary pain syndromes associated with "gain of function" mutations of the same ion channel, such as familial erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. Future research with CIP patients may identify other proteins specifically involved in nociception, which might represent potential targets for chronic pain treatment. Moreover, this rare clinical syndrome offers the opportunity to address interesting neuropsychological issues, such as the role of pain experience in the construction of body image and in the empathic representation of others' pain.

  4. Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is the most fatal form of CAH, as it disrupts adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Most cases of lipoid CAH are caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Affected patients typically present with signs of severe adrenal failure in early infancy and 46,XY genetic males are phenotypic females due to disrupted testicular androgen secretion. The StAR p.Q258X mutation accounts for about 70% of affected alleles in most patients of Japanese and Korean ancestry. However, it is more prevalent (92.3%) in the Korean population. Recently, some patients have been showed that they had late and mild clinical findings. These cases and studies constitute a new entity of 'nonclassic lipoid CAH'. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc (CYP11A1), plays an essential role converting cholesterol to pregnenolone. Although progesterone production from the fetally derived placenta is necessary to maintain a pregnancy to term, some patients with P450scc mutations have recently been reported. P450scc mutations can also cause lipoid CAH and establish a recently recognized human endocrine disorder. PMID:25654062

  5. Congenital prothrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Stefano; De Cristofaro, Raimondo

    2009-06-01

    Prothrombin deficiency is among the rarest inherited coagulation disorders, with a prevalence of approximately 1:2,000,000. Two main phenotypes can be distinguished: (1) hypoprothrombinemia (type I deficiency), characterized by concomitantly low levels of activity and antigen; and (2) dysprothrombinemia (type II deficiency), characterized by the normal or near-normal synthesis of a dysfunctional protein. In some cases, hypoprothrombinemia associated with dysprothrombinemia was also described in compound heterozygous defects. No living patient with undetectable plasma prothrombin has been reported to date. Prothrombin is encoded by a gene of approximately 21 kb located on chromosome 11 and containing 14 exons. Forty different mutations have been identified and characterized in prothrombin deficiency. Many of them surround the catalytic site, whereas another "hot spot" is localized in the recognition domain called anion binding exosite I, also called fibrinogen recognition site. Recently, mutations were identified also in the Na (+)-binding loop and in the light A-chain of thrombin. Most hypoprothrombinemia-associated mutations are missense, but there are also nonsense mutations leading to stop codons and one single nucleotide deletion. Finally, the main aspects of clinical manifestations and therapy of congenital prothrombin deficiency are presented and discussed.

  6. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) is defined by the presence of an orifice in the diaphragm, more often left and posterolateral that permits the herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax. The lungs are hypoplastic and have abnormal vessels that cause respiratory insufficiency and persistent pulmonary hypertension with high mortality. About one third of cases have cardiovascular malformations and lesser proportions have skeletal, neural, genitourinary, gastrointestinal or other defects. CDH can be a component of Pallister-Killian, Fryns, Ghersoni-Baruch, WAGR, Denys-Drash, Brachman-De Lange, Donnai-Barrow or Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes. Some chromosomal anomalies involve CDH as well. The incidence is < 5 in 10,000 live-births. The etiology is unknown although clinical, genetic and experimental evidence points to disturbances in the retinoid-signaling pathway during organogenesis. Antenatal diagnosis is often made and this allows prenatal management (open correction of the hernia in the past and reversible fetoscopic tracheal obstruction nowadays) that may be indicated in cases with severe lung hypoplasia and grim prognosis. Treatment after birth requires all the refinements of critical care including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prior to surgical correction. The best hospital series report 80% survival but it remains around 50% in population-based studies. Chronic respiratory tract disease, neurodevelopmental problems, neurosensorial hearing loss and gastroesophageal reflux are common problems in survivors. Much more research on several aspects of this severe condition is warranted. PMID:22214468

  7. Congenital parasitic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine; Deloron, Philippe; Peyron, François

    2012-02-01

    This review defines the concepts of maternal-fetal (congenital) and vertical transmissions (mother-to-child) of pathogens and specifies the human parasites susceptible to be congenitally transferred. It highlights the epidemiological features of this transmission mode for the three main congenital parasitic infections due to Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium sp. Information on the possible maternal-fetal routes of transmission, the placental responses to infection and timing of parasite transmission are synthesized and compared. The factors susceptible to be involved in parasite transmission and development of congenital parasitic diseases, such as the parasite genotypes, the maternal co-infections and parasitic load, the immunological features of pregnant women and the capacity of some fetuses/neonates to overcome their immunological immaturity to mount an immune response against the transmitted parasites are also discussed and compared. Analysis of clinical data indicates that parasitic congenital infections are often asymptomatic, whereas symptomatic newborns generally display non-specific symptoms. The long-term consequences of congenital infections are also mentioned, such as the imprinting of neonatal immune system and the possible trans-generational transmission. The detection of infection in pregnant women is mainly based on standard serological or parasitological investigations. Amniocentesis and cordocentesis can be used for the detection of some fetal infections. The neonatal infection can be assessed using parasitological, molecular or immunological methods; the place of PCR in such neonatal diagnosis is discussed. When such laboratory diagnosis is not possible at birth or in the first weeks of life, standard serological investigations can also be performed 8-10 months after birth, to avoid detection of maternal transmitted antibodies. The specific aspects of treatment of T. gondii, T. cruzi and Plasmodium congenital infections are

  8. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2009-01-21

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2007), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2007), CINAHL (1982 to November 2007), LILACS (1982 to November 2007) IMEMR (1984 to November 2007), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCT) of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Three authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. One cluster-randomized controlled trial (432 women) met the inclusion criteria. However, the overall methodological quality was poor. The authors did not report measure of association but only provided P values (P less than 0.05) for all outcomes. The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. There are no randomized trials on the effect of prenatal education on congenital toxoplasmosis rate, or toxoplasmosis seroconversion rate during pregnancy, but three observational studies consistently suggest that prenatal education might have a positive impact on these outcomes. Even though primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a desirable intervention, given the lack of related risks compared to secondary and tertiary prevention, its effectiveness has not been adequately evaluated. There is very little evidence from RCTs that prenatal education is effective in reducing congenital toxoplasmosis even though evidence from observational studies suggests it is. Given the lack of good evidence supporting

  9. Coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LDB3 mutation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shengshuai; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Lin; Wang, Min; Liu, Chengyun

    2017-08-19

    The coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and abnormal cardiac trabeculation with gene mutation has not been reported previously. Here, we report a case of coexisting congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LIM domain binding 3 gene mutation. A 30-year-old Asian man showed paroxysmal sinus tachycardia and Q waves in an electrocardiogram health check. There were no specific findings in physical examinations and serological tests. A coronary-computed tomography angiography check showed normal coronary artery and no coronary stenosis. Both left ventricle contrast echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance showed rare patterns of a combination of an apical aneurysm-like out-pouching structure with a wide connection to the left ventricle and prominent left ventricular trabecular meshwork. High-throughput sequencing examinations showed a novel mutation in the LDB3 gene (c.C793>T; p.Arg265Cys). Our finding indicates that the phenotypic expression of two heart conditions, congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation, although rare, can occur simultaneously with LDB3 gene mutation. Congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation may share the same genetic background.

  10. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia with Delayed Presentation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is caused due to abnormal formation of the muscular parts of diaphragm. The incidence of CDH in common births ranges from 1/25000 to 1/30000. Pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension are factors that associate with the increase of mortality and morbidity due to CDH. We presented a 68-year-old Iranian woman with abdominal pain and tenderness in right upper quadrant who was diagnosed as having CDH. The disease was detected using chest X-ray and chest and abdomen sonography and confirmed with chest and abdomen CT scan with and without oral contrast. A defect was revealed in posterolateral right diaphragm with omentum and transverse colon herniated through it. Right posterolateral thoracotomy was performed to cure the disease. CT and CXR were the two useful methods in diagnosis of CDH in this patient, although CDH detection prior to surgery is too challenging because of rare cases and different types of CDH. In order to improve clinical cares in adult CDH patients, investigating more cases and long term follow-up are recommended. PMID:27872786

  11. Longchain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and microvascular reactivity: observation in the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Conde, Cristiane M S; Cyrino, Fatima Z G A; Bottino, Daniel A; Gardette, Jean; Bouskela, Eliete

    2007-05-01

    Previous experiments in our laboratory, using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation, have shown that precapillary vessels exhibit spontaneous rhythmic luminal variations, termed vasomotion, a myogenic activity sustained by a balance between membrane currents among which polarizing K(+) currents play an important role. In these microvessels, endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) seem to regulate arteriolar diameter [via nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP] and vasomotion [probably via endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)]. Fish or fish oil diet can decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, probably by modifying the conductance of selective ion channels, such as K(+) and/or Ca(++), and/or increasing the production of vasodilators, such as NO. To investigate its effect on microvascular reactivity, using the same preparation and an intravital microscope coupled to a closed circuit TV system, male hamsters were treated for 14 days, twice a day, with 0.4 mL/100 g body weight with fish or olive oil. An attempt was also undertaken to record in arterioles, in vivo, the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells during their vasomotor activity combining conventional microelectrode and intravital microscopy techniques. The effects of topical application of two vasodilators, acetylcholine [endothelium-dependent one, NO release and membrane hyperpolarization via Ca(++)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca))] and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent, NO donor and no change on membrane potential) and two vasoconstrictors which elicited membrane depolarization via Ca(++) channels, phenylephrine (alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist) and serotonin (5-hydroxi-tryptamine) on mean internal diameter of arterioles and venules, arteriolar blood flows, spontaneous arteriolar vasomotion frequency and amplitude and functional capillary density (FCD, number of capillaries with flowing red blood cells per unit area of tissue) were determined. Anesthesia was induced by

  12. Gastric pouches and the mucociliary sole: setting the stage for nervous system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Detlev; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Brunet, Thibaut; Marlow, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution. First, the invention of a mucociliary sole entailed a switch from intra- to extracellular digestion and increased the concentration of nutrients flowing into the gastric cavity. In these animals, an initial nerve net may have evolved via division of labour from mechanosensory-contractile cells in the lateral body wall, enabling coordinated movement of the growing body that involved both mucociliary creeping and changes of body shape. Second, the inner surface of the animals folded into metameric series of gastric pouches, which optimized nutrient resorption and allowed larger body sizes. The concomitant acquisition of bilateral symmetry may have allowed more directed locomotion and, with more demanding coordinative tasks, triggered the evolution of specialized nervous subsystems. Animals of this organizational state would have resembled Ediacarian fossils such as Dickinsonia and may have been close to the cnidarian–bilaterian ancestor. In the bilaterian lineage, the mucociliary sole was used mostly for creeping, or frequently lost. One possible remnant is the enigmatic Reissner's fibre in the ventral neural tube of cephalochordates and vertebrates. PMID:26554050

  13. Sexuality and fertility outcomes after hand sewn versus stapled ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Harnoy, Yann; Desfourneaux, Véronique; Bouguen, Guillaume; Rayar, Michel; Meunier, Bernard; Siproudhis, Laurent; Boudjema, Karim; Sulpice, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) may alter sexuality and fertility in women. The laparoscopic approach seems to reduce infertility rates in women after IPAA. However, the impact of hand sewn versus stapled IPAA on sexuality and fertility has never been assessed in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the IPAA technique on sexuality and fertility in UC. All UC patients who underwent an IPAA between May 1996 and April 2011 were included. The patients answered mailed questionnaires including sexuality validated questionnaires and fertility questionnaires. The risk factors of sexual dysfunction were explored. A total of 135 patients were included. Eighty-eight patients (65%) answered the questionnaires. Their mean age and follow-up were 37.2 ± 13.4 y and 109.7 ± 57.5 mo. The rates of female and male sexual dysfunction were 50% and 29%, respectively. Intestinal transit disorders were identified as risk factors in both men and women and anastomotic stricture in women sexual dysfunction, in univariate analyses. The IPAA technique did not impact sexual function in women but there was a trend for less erectile dysfunction after hand sewn IPAA (16.7% versus 44.4%). The fertility rate was 47% in women and 75% in men, with a trend for a better fertility in women after hand sewn IPAA (P = 0.07). In this preliminary study, the hand sewn or stapled IPAA technique did not impact the sexuality or fertility outcomes of UC patients, but there was a trend for better female fertility and male erectile function after hand sewn IPAA. Intestinal transit disorders contributed to male and female sexual dysfunction after IPAA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Streptococcus equi Detection Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples.

    PubMed

    Boyle, A G; Rankin, S C; Duffee, L; Boston, R C; Wheeler-Aceto, H

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Streptococcus equi in nasopharyngeal washes (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples have low sensitivity. In human diagnostics, processing of samples with flocked swabs has improved recovery rates of bacterial agents because of improved surface area and elution factors. For S. equi subsp. equi (S. equi) detection in NPW and GPL samples we hypothesized that: direct-PCR would be more reliable than flocked swab culture (FS culture); flocked swab PCR (FS-PCR) would be equivalent to direct-PCR; and FS culture would be more reliable than traditional culture. A total of 193 samples (134 NPW and 59 GPL) from 113 horses with either suspected S. equi infection, convalescing from a known S. equi infection, or asymptomatic horses screened for S. equi. Prospective study. Samples were submitted for S. equi direct-PCR. Using logistic regression, direct-PCR (gold standard) was compared to FS culture, traditional culture, and FS-PCR also performed. Direct-PCR was statistically more sensitive than FS-PCR, FS culture, and traditional culture (P < .001). All methods had sensitivities <70% relative to the direct-PCR. FS culture had a similar sensitivity relative to traditional culture. The odds of GPL samples being positive on direct-PCR (P = .030) and FS-PCR were greater than those for NPW samples (P = .021). Use of flocked swabs during laboratory preprocessing did not improve detection of S. equi via either PCR or bacterial culture from samples. Direct-PCR is the preferred method of detection of S. equi. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Raman Spectroscopy of Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis: Study on Sequential Cancer Progression in Hamster Buccal Pouch Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Bhattacharjee, Tanmoy; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish; Krishna, C Murali

    2016-10-01

    Oral cancers suffer from poor 5-year survival rates, owing to late detection of the disease. Current diagnostic/screening tools need to be upgraded in view of disadvantages like invasiveness, tedious sample preparation, long output times, and interobserver variances. Raman spectroscopy has been shown to identify many disease conditions, including oral cancers, from healthy conditions. Further studies in exploring sequential changes in oral carcinogenesis are warranted. In this Raman spectroscopy study, sequential progression in experimental oral carcinogenesis in Hamster buccal pouch model was investigated using 3 approaches-ex vivo, in vivo sequential, and in vivo follow-up. In all these studies, spectral changes show lipid dominance in early stages while later stages and tumors showed increased protein to lipid ratio and nucleic acids. On similar lines, early weeks of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated and control groups showed higher overlap and low classification. The classification efficiency increased progressively, reached a plateau phase and subsequently increased up to 100% by 14 weeks. The misclassifications between treated and control spectra suggested some changes in controls as well, which was confirmed by a careful reexamination of histopathological slides. These findings suggests Raman spectroscopy may be able to identify microheterogeneity, which may often go unnoticed in conventional biochemistry wherein tissue extracts are employed, as well as in histopathology. In vivo findings, quite comparable to gold-standard supported ex vivo findings, give further proof of Raman spectroscopy being a promising label-free, noninvasive diagnostic adjunct for future clinical applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Gastric pouches and the mucociliary sole: setting the stage for nervous system evolution.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Brunet, Thibaut; Marlow, Heather

    2015-12-19

    Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution. First, the invention of a mucociliary sole entailed a switch from intra- to extracellular digestion and increased the concentration of nutrients flowing into the gastric cavity. In these animals, an initial nerve net may have evolved via division of labour from mechanosensory-contractile cells in the lateral body wall, enabling coordinated movement of the growing body that involved both mucociliary creeping and changes of body shape. Second, the inner surface of the animals folded into metameric series of gastric pouches, which optimized nutrient resorption and allowed larger body sizes. The concomitant acquisition of bilateral symmetry may have allowed more directed locomotion and, with more demanding coordinative tasks, triggered the evolution of specialized nervous subsystems. Animals of this organizational state would have resembled Ediacarian fossils such as Dickinsonia and may have been close to the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. In the bilaterian lineage, the mucociliary sole was used mostly for creeping, or frequently lost. One possible remnant is the enigmatic Reissner's fibre in the ventral neural tube of cephalochordates and vertebrates. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. fras1 shapes endodermal pouch 1 and stabilizes zebrafish pharyngeal skeletal development

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Jared Coffin; Walker, Macie B.; Carney, Thomas J.; Huycke, Tyler R.; Yan, Yi-Lin; BreMiller, Ruth A.; Gai, Linda; DeLaurier, April; Postlethwait, John H.; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Kimmel, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Lesions in the epithelially expressed human gene FRAS1 cause Fraser syndrome, a complex disease with variable symptoms, including facial deformities and conductive hearing loss. The developmental basis of facial defects in Fraser syndrome has not been elucidated. Here we show that zebrafish fras1 mutants exhibit defects in facial epithelia and facial skeleton. Specifically, fras1 mutants fail to generate a late-forming portion of pharyngeal pouch 1 (termed late-p1) and skeletal elements adjacent to late-p1 are disrupted. Transplantation studies indicate that fras1 acts in endoderm to ensure normal morphology of both skeleton and endoderm, consistent with well-established epithelial expression of fras1. Late-p1 formation is concurrent with facial skeletal morphogenesis, and some skeletal defects in fras1 mutants arise during late-p1 morphogenesis, indicating a temporal connection between late-p1 and skeletal morphogenesis. Furthermore, fras1 mutants often show prominent second arch skeletal fusions through space occupied by late-p1 in wild type. Whereas every fras1 mutant shows defects in late-p1 formation, skeletal defects are less penetrant and often vary in severity, even between the left and right sides of the same individual. We interpret the fluctuating asymmetry in fras1 mutant skeleton and the changes in fras1 mutant skeletal defects through time as indicators that skeletal formation is destabilized. We propose a model wherein fras1 prompts late-p1 formation and thereby stabilizes skeletal formation during zebrafish facial development. Similar mechanisms of stochastic developmental instability might also account for the high phenotypic variation observed in human FRAS1 patients. PMID:22782724

  18. Impact of electrolyte solvent and additive choices on high voltage Li-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Zhonghua; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects that various electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives had on both LaPO4-coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 and uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite pouch cells were studied using automated storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, gas production and long-term cycling experiments. Storage experiments showed that the voltage drop during storage at 4.3 or 4.4 V for both coated and uncoated cells was very similar for the same electrolyte choice. At 4.5 V or above, the LaPO4-coated cells had a significantly smaller voltage drop than the uncoated cells except when fluorinated electrolytes were used. Automated charge discharge cycling/impedance spectroscopy testing of cells held at 4.5 V for 24 h every cycle showed that all cells containing ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte or sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte exhibited severe capacity fade. By contrast, cells containing fluorinated electrolytes had the best capacity retention and smallest impedance growth during these aggressive cycling/hold tests. Long-term cycling experiments to 4.5 V confirmed that cells containing fluorinated electrolyte had the best cycling performance in the uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells while cells containing sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte had the best cycling performance in coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells.

  19. Mesonia hippocampi sp. nov., isolated from the brood pouch of a diseased Barbour's Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri).

    PubMed

    Kolberg, Judy; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Wilke, Thomas; Schubert, Patrick; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-07-01

    An orange-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) was isolated from the brood pouch of a diseased seahorse male of the species Hippocampus barbouri from the animal facility of the University of Giessen, Germany. Phylogenetic analyses based on the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) into the monophyletic cluster of the genus Mesonia within the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, the strain shared only 92.2-93.8% sequence similarity to type strains of species of the genus Mesonia, with highest sequence similarity to the type strain of Mesonia aquimarina. Cellular fatty acid analysis showed a Mesonia-typical fatty acid profile including several branched and hydroxyl fatty acids with highest amounts of iso-C15 : 0 (40.9%) followed by iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (14.8%). In the polyamine pattern, sym-homospermidine was predominant. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The quinone system contained exclusively menaquinone MK-6. The only identified compound in the polar lipid profile was phosphatidylethanolamine present in major amounts. Additionally, major amounts of an unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids not containing a phosphate group, an amino group or a sugar residue were detected. The genomic G+C content of strain 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) was 30 mol%. Based on genotypic, chemotaxonomic and physiological characterizations we propose a novel species of the genus Mesonia, Mesonia hippocampi sp. nov., with strain 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) ( = CIP 110839T =  LMG 28572(T) = CCM 8557(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Mesonia is also provided.

  20. Quality and shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in retort pouches.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-12-01

    The shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in 3-ply retort pouches at Fo = 12.13 in a stock sterilizer were evaluated at 15 days interval for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a period of 3 months. The pH of the product was 6.28 at 0 day and a gradual decline was noticed during storage. Texture of the product as indicated by shear force values had decreased slowly. The residual nitrite content had significantly declined from 82.67 ppm at 0 day to 45.00 ppm on 90th day of storage. The TBARS values were 0.24 and 0.67 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively at 0 day and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine value had significantly increased from 0.37 mg/100 g at 0 day to 0.58 mg/100 g during storage. Free aminoacid content increased gradually from an initial level of 124.32 to 217.51 at 90(th) day of storage. The SDS-PAGE hydrolysis pattern showed barely discernible 205 KDa protein and presence of subfragments in the molecular range of 63 KDa to 29 KDa protein. The sensory studies indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days. As the storage period increased pH, reidual nitrite, sensory attributes declined significantly and TBARS value, tyrosine value and free aminoacid content significantly increased. Mesophillic aerobes and anerobes were found to be absent. The shelf life study indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days based on the assessment of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  1. Laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Kalpesh; Shah, Amit

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to study the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach in the management of ulcerative colitis, to assess the functional results at 1-year and to review of literature on the topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting for surgical management of histopathologically proven ulcerative colitis during the study period were included in the study. All patients presenting in a non-emergency setting were offered a two-stage procedure (Group A). The first-stage consisted of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) with a diverting split end ileostomy. Ileostomy was closed in the second stage. For patients presenting in acute setting (Group B), the first-stage consisted of laparoscopic TPC with end ileostomy followed by IPAA with diverting split end ileostomy in the second-stage and finally ileostomy closure in the third-stage. The technique is described. RESULTS: A total of 31 cases underwent laparoscopic TPC-IPAA, of which 28 belonged to Group A and 3 were included in Group B. All surgeries were successfully completed laparoscopically without need for conversion. The average operating time was 375 min in Group A (range: 270–500 min) and 390 min in Group B (range: 250–480 min). Oral diet was resumed at a mean of 3.4 days (range: 1.5–6 days) and the mean hospital stay was 8.2 days (range: 4–26 days). Overall morbidity rate was 16.2%; re-operation rate was 9.7% while mortality was nil. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic TPC-IPAA is feasible in acute as well as non-acute setting in patients needing surgical management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:26195875

  2. Development of functional canned and pouched tuna products added inulin for commercial production.

    PubMed

    Rueangwatcharin, U; Wichienchot, S

    2015-08-01

    Four formulas of canned tuna in spring water and tuna in mayonnaise and pouched tuna in salad cream and tuna in thousand island cream with added inulin were developed for commercial production. The effects of the addition of a prebiotic (inulin, Orafti®-HP) on the color and sensory properties of these products were studied. For inulin concentrations studied (3, 5, 7 and 10 %, w/w) caused more intensed yellow and red colors. Hedonic sensory values of tuna packed in spring water and in mayonnaise showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among products with different inulin addition levels (3, 5, 7 and 10 %, w/w) in terms of color, flavor, sweetness and overall characteristics. However, when packed in thousand island cream, significant differences (p < 0.05) in color and overall characteristics were found when inulin was added higher than 7 %. Tuna in salad cream showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in color, flavor, sweetness and overall characteristics at higher than 7 % inulin. The panelists showed acceptable overall liking scores at upto 7 % inulin of all tuna products. The thermal sterilization process resulted in approximately 20 % decrease in final inulin content. The calculated residual fructans of finished products at shelf life of 3 years were 3.01, 2.78, 2.90 and 2.84 % for tuna in spring water, tuna in mayonnaise, tuna in thousand island and tuna in salad cream, respectively. Considering formula cost in a commercial production and the recommended daily intake (RDI) of inulin in the finished product at end of shelf life (≥3 g/d), an addition of 5 % inulin for tuna in spring water and 7 % inulin for tuna in mayonnaise, tuna in thousand island and tuna in salad cream are recommended.

  3. Congenital scoliosis: etiology and associations.

    PubMed

    Hensinger, Robert N

    2009-08-01

    Literature review. To provide a current overview of congenital scoliosis and associated conditions. The etiology of congenital scoliosis is unknown. A variety of factors have been implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. These factors provide clues to the origin of congenital scoliosis. A search of PubMed, using the keywords congenital scoliosis, etiology, and genetics was performed. Environmental factors, genetics, vitamin deficiency, chemicals, and drugs, singly or in combination, have all been implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Whatever the cause, the physiologic injury occurs early in the embryologic period, well before the development of cartilage and bone. The resulting defects can lead to full or partial fusion or lack of development of the vertebrae, which, in turn, can cause a curvature that, may be progressive during the growth of the child. The origin of congenital scoliosis may be environmental, genetic, or a combination of factors. Research on these various factors continues. Early identification and management of concomitant defects can improve the patient's quality of life.

  4. Comparing aboral versus oral pouch with preserved duodenal passage after total gastrectomy: does the position of the gastric substitute reservoir count?

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Katalin; Káposztás, Zsolt; Varga, Gábor; Cseke, László; Papp, András; Horváth, Ors Péter

    2008-01-01

    Total gastrectomy results in a significant weight loss, different postgastrectomy symptoms, and a reduction in quality of life. Elaborate surgical reconstruction methods are evaluated to improve results. The present study compares two types of reconstructions--an aboral pouch with preserved duodenal passage and an oral pouch with preserved duodenal passage--differing only in the site of the pouch. Twenty-eight patients entered the study. Primary outcome measures--body weight, body mass index, and quality of life, and secondary outcome measures--serum nutritional parameters, scintigraphic small-intestinal passage, and lipid and carbohydrate absorption were measured 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. No significant differences were found in anthropometric parameters or in quality of life between the groups. Regarding the secondary outcome measures, albumin levels were higher in the oral pouch group, while protein and immunoglobulin-A levels were higher in the aboral pouch group. The site of the reservoir does not significantly influence the outcome after total gastrectomy and reconstruction with a preserved duodenal passage.

  5. Use of Laser-Etched Pouches to Control the Volume Expansion of Kimchi Packages During Distribution: Impact of Packaging and Storage on Quality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Yoo, SeungRan

    2017-08-01

    Use of laser-etched pouches was investigated to develop kimchi packages with gas control functions. According to the degree of laser processing, the headspace pressure, atmospheric composition, and water vapor transmission rate of the kimchi packages were measured to investigate the potential use of laser-etched packages for kimchi. In addition, the pH, titratable acidity, organic acid, and microbial population of the packaged kimchi were examined to study the effect of packaging and storage conditions on its quality characteristics. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the pouches with a high gas transmission rate was less than that in other pouches (P < 0.05), indicating that low a carbon dioxide concentration resulted in less volume expansion. During the storage period (P < 0.05), the gas pressure in some pouches started to increase after the 15th d at 10 °C. Few differences were observed between the quality characteristics of kimchi (for example, pH, titratable acidity, organic acid, and microbial count). In addition, this study indicated that the higher the storage temperature, the more rapid the fermentation. Consequently, laser-etched pouches demonstrate the potential for controlling the gas, which in turn maintains the quality of kimchi. The use of laser-etched films could exert marked effects on alleviating the volume expansion or pressure build-up in kimchi packages. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch to facilitate removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing sedated horses: 8 cases (2012-2015).

    PubMed

    Katzman, Scott A; Vaughan, Betsy; Nieto, Jorge E; Galuppo, Larry D

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch for removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing horses. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 8 horses (5 geldings and 3 mares) with cystic calculi. PROCEDURES Physical examination and cystoscopic, ultrasonographic, and hematologic evaluations of urinary tract function were performed for each horse. A diagnosis of cystic calculus was made on the basis of results of cystoscopy and ultrasonography. Concurrent urolithiasis or other urinary tract abnormalities identified during preoperative evaluation were recorded. Horses were sedated and placed in standing stocks, and the perineum was aseptically prepared. Direct access to the urinary bladder was gained in geldings via perineal urethrotomy or in mares by a transurethral approach. Calculi were visualized endoscopically, manipulated into the retrieval pouch, and removed intact or fragmented (for larger calculi). RESULTS For 4 geldings and 1 mare, fragmentation was necessary to facilitate calculus removal. Mean duration of surgery was 125 minutes, and trauma to the urinary bladder and urethra was limited to areas of hyperemia and submucosal petechiation. No postoperative complications were encountered for any horse. When lithotripsy was required, the retrieval pouch provided an effective means of stabilizing calculi and containing the fragments for removal. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of the laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch was an effective, minimally traumatic method for retrieving cystic calculi from standing horses. The pouch protected the urinary bladder and urethra from trauma during calculus removal and allowed for stabilization, containment, and fragmentation of calculi when necessary.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, B.D.; Jacobstein, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Focusing primarily on MR imaging of the heart, this book covers other diagnostic imaging modalities as well. The authors review new technologies and diagnostic procedures pertinent to congenital heat disease and present each congenital heat abnormality as a separate entity.

  8. Care and Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Recommendations for Heart Health • Tools & Resources Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...

  9. Genetic Counseling for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Genetic Counseling for Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Sep 12, ... person with congenital heart disease considers having children. Genetic counseling can help answer these questions and address ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hepatic fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... into smaller parts to be used or eliminated. Congenital hepatic fibrosis is characterized by malformation of the bile ducts and the blood vessels ... that cause isolated congenital hepatic fibrosis are ... include malformation of embryonic structures called ductal plates. Each ductal ...

  11. How Are Congenital Heart Defects Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 05/28/2013 This ... journal Nature, about the first large-scale sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease. This NHLBI-supported international, ...

  12. How Are Congenital Heart Defects Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 05/28/2013 This ... journal Nature, about the first large-scale sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease. This NHLBI-supported international, ...

  13. Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 05/28/2013 This ... journal Nature, about the first large-scale sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease. This NHLBI-supported international, ...

  14. Inflammation and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Janos; Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Karin, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.

  15. Vision following extended congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Yuri; Andalman, Aaron; Sinha, Pawan

    2006-12-01

    Animal studies suggest that early visual deprivation can cause permanent functional blindness. However, few human data on this issue exist. Given enough time for recovery, can a person gain visual skills after several years of congenital blindness? In India, we recently had an unusual opportunity to work with an individual whose case history sheds light on this question. S.R.D. was born blind, and remained so until age 12. She then underwent surgery for the removal of dense congenital cataracts. We evaluated her performance on an extensive battery of visual tasks 20 years after surgery. We found that although S.R.D.'s acuity is compromised, she is proficient on mid- and high-level visual tasks. These results suggest that the human brain retains an impressive capacity for visual learning well into late childhood. They have implications for current conceptions of cortical plasticity and provide an argument for treating congenital blindness even in older children.

  16. [The congenital afibrinogenemia: case report].

    PubMed

    Brahem, Imen; Charfeddine, Bassem; Chraiti, Haythem; Ben Abdallah, Jihene; Ben Othmen, Leila; Neffati, Souhir; Ali Smach, Mohamed; Ltaief, Affef; Ksourri, Monia; Dridi, Hedi; Limem, Khalifa

    2010-01-01

    The deficiency in factor I or fibrinogen is a largely unknown genetic disease. It is a rare condition inherited as an autosomal recessive, whose clinical events are variable, ranging from moderate to minimal bleeding or cataclysmic hemorrhage. We report a case of congenital afibrinogenemia in a 17 years-old patient hospitalized in surgical ICU for hemoperitoneum medium abundance discovered by abdominal ultrasound performed before a picture of abdominopelvic pain lasting for 24 hours. Exploration led to the diagnosis of congenital afibrinogenemia with favorable evolution with a contribution of factor deficient. Through this case we raise the problem of congenital afibrinogenemia in diagnosis and the peculiarities of its management.

  17. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    PubMed Central

    Roussi, Mirella; Dalens, Hélène; Marcellier, Jean Jacques; Bacin, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17–18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB). This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina. PMID:21573087

  18. Restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis in children--is the J-pouch better than straight pull-through?

    PubMed

    Rintala, R J; Lindahl, H

    1996-04-01

    Proctocolectomy and ileoanal anastomosis (IAA), with or without an ileal pouch, is the preferred method for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) in children. The authors compared the surgical complications and functional outcome for patients with UC who had proctocolectomy and straight IAA with those of patients who had proctocolectomy and IAA with a J-pouch. Twenty-two children (aged 7 to 15 years) with intractable UC had an IAA, 11 by straight ileoanal anastomosis (SIAA) and 11 with a J-pouch (JIAA). The median clinical and endoscopic follow-up period for SIAA patients was 4 years (range, 3.0 to 6.5 years); for JIAA patients it was 2 years (range, 1 to 3 years). The frequency of daytime and nighttime defecation was significantly higher (P < .03) for patients with SIAA at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. At the last follow-up visit, the mean frequency of defecation for patients with SIAA was 6.1 +/- 2.5/d; that for patients with JIAA was 3.3 +/- 0.5/d (P < .03). Six of 10 patients with SIAA but none with JIAA had nighttime bowel evacuations. None of the patients had daytime soiling; 3 with SIAA and 2 with JIAA had slight soiling during sleep. There was no significant difference in the incidence of early (SIAA 27% v JIAA 45%) and late (SIAA 54% v JIAA 27%) surgical complications between the two groups. Endoscopically confirmed symptomatic pouchitis during the first postoperative year was found in 4 of the 11 (36%) patients with SIAA and in 2 of the 11 (18%) with JIAA (difference not significant). The early and long-term functional results of JIAA are superior to those of SIAA. There is no difference in the incidence of surgical complications and pouchitis between JIAA and SIAA patients.

  19. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    PubMed Central

    Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; Mohan, Kurapathy Venkata Poorna Chandra; Prathiba, Duvuru; Hara, Yukihiko; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer. PMID:18053169

  20. Blake's pouch cyst and Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: Report of a new association and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shohoud, Sherien A.; Azab, Waleed A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Hegazy, Rania M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: We report a case of a neonate with proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 1 (also known as Werdnig-Hoffmann disease or severe infantile acute SMA) associated with a Blake's pouch cyst; a malformation that is currently classified within the spectrum of Dandy-Walker complex. The association of the two conditions has not been previously reported in the English literature. A comprehensive review of the pertinent literature is presented. Case Description: A male neonate was noted to have paucity of movement of the four limbs with difficulty of breathing and poor feeding soon after birth. Respiratory distress with tachypnea, necessitated endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Pregnancy was uneventful except for decreased fetal movements reported by the mother during the third trimester. Neurological examination revealed generalized hypotonia with decreased muscle power of all limbs, nonelicitable deep tendon jerks, and occasional tongue fasciculations. Molecular genetic evaluation revealed a homozygous deletion of both exons 7 and 8 of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and exon 5 of the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene on the long arm of chromosome 5 consistent with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (SMA type 1). At the age of 5 months, a full anterior fontanelle and abnormal increase of the occipito-frontal circumference were noted. Computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a tetraventricular hydrocephalus and features of Blake's pouch cyst of the fourth ventricle. Conclusions: This case represents a previously unreported association of Blake's pouch cyst and SMA type 1. PMID:25225621