Science.gov

Sample records for congo river freshwater

  1. Sea Surface Salinity Variability in Response to the Congo River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, D.; Chao, Y.; Farrara, J. D.; Schumann, G.; Andreadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. The Congo River plume can be clearly identified in the Aquarius SSS data with a westward extension of 500 to 1000 km off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The peak amplitude of the SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge exceeds 2.0 psu. Using the first two years of Aquarius data, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum fresh-water anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The fresh-water anomalies during the 2012-2013 winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the 2011-2012 winter and spring seasons. Vertical profiles of salinity derived from the Argo floats reveal that these fresh-water anomalies can be traced to 40 meters below the sea surface. Combining the Aquarius SSS data with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the 3D volume of these fresh-water anomalies can be inferred and used to estimate the Congo River discharge. Reasonably good agreement is found between the Congo River discharge as observed by a stream gauge at Kinshasa and that estimated from the combined Aquarius and Argo data, indicating that Aquarius data can be used to close the fresh-water budget between the coastal ocean and the Congo River. The precipitation minus evaporation portion of the freshwater flux is found to play a secondary role in this region.

  2. Understanding the hydrodynamics of the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Bates, Paul

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of the first hydrodynamic model of the middle reach of the Congo Basin, which helps our understanding of the behaviour of the second largest river in the world. In data sparse area, hydrodynamic models, utilizing a mixture of limited in-situ measurements and remotely sensed datasets, can be used to understand and identify key features that control large river systems. Unlike previous hydrodynamic models for the Congo Basin, which concentrated on only a small area, we look at the entire length of the Congo's middle reach and its six main tributaries (Kasai, Ubangai, Sangha, Ruki, Lulonga and Lomami). This corresponds to: a drainage area of approximately two and a half million kilometres squared; over 5000 kilometres of river channels; and incorporates some of the largest and most important global wetlands. The hydrodynamic model is driven by a mixture of in-situ and modelled discharges. In situ measurements are available at five locations. Two were obtained from the Global River Discharge Centre (GRDC) at Kinshasa and Bangui, and data for Kisangani, Ouesso and Lediba were obtained from local agencies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Congo. Using the gauging station at Kinshasa as the downstream boundary, the remaining in-situ measurements account for 61 percent of the discharge and represent 72 percent of the total drainage area. Modelled discharges are used to account for the missing discharge and corresponding area. Calibration and validation of the model was undertaken using a mixture of in-situ measurements, discharge and water level at Kinshasa, and water surface heights along the main reach obtained from both laser and radar altimeters. Through the hydrodynamic model we will investigate: how important constraints, identified by a previous study, are to the behaviour of the Congo; what impacts the wetlands have on the Congo Basin; how the wetlands and main channel interact with each other. Our results will

  3. Hydraulic characterization of the middle reach of the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, F.; Trigg, M.; Schumann, G.; Bates, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the hydraulics of the Congo River compared to other large rivers, such as the Amazon, Nile and Mississippi, despite it draining an area greater than 3.7 million square kilometers and being the seconded largest river in terms of discharge. While there has been some study of the Congo Basin, most of these concentrate on ecology or the human aspects, but few look at the either the hydrology or hydraulic characteristics of the river. Of the published hydrology/hydraulic research, most concentrates on the hydrology of the Congo Basin aiming to alleviate some of the issues relating to a sparse river gauging network that currently exists. Even fewer studies have looked at hydraulics of the Congo, and usually over a relatively small area of the basin. To undertake a larger study area requires more details on the characteristics of the Congo River. The Congo River can be divided into three distinct reaches; the upper, middle and lower reaches. We concentrate on the middle reach which starts upstream at Boyoma falls, just south of Kisangani, and ends downstream at Livingstone Falls, at Kinshasa (DRC), Brazzaville (Congo) and the Pool Malebo. From Kisangani to Kinshasa, the middle Congo crosses the equator twice and is join by two large tributaries (Ubangi, Kasai) and is highly braided. The middle reach of the Congo is especially important as its still largely undisturbed wetlands are the seconded largest tropical wetlands globally. It is also the main transportation link between Kisangani and Kinshasa, the two largest cities in the DRC. By utilizing remotely sensed Landsat and Icesat datasets, we present the first detailed study on the hydraulic characterization of the middle reach of the Congo River. With these datasets we identify the main control points of flow in the middle reach, investigate how the water surface slope, channel width, islands and braids vary between high and low flows and spatially along the reach. We compare the middle reach of

  4. Passive optical remote sensing of Congo River bathymetry using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ache Rocha Lopes, V.; Trigg, M. A.; O'Loughlin, F.; Laraque, A.

    2014-12-01

    While there have been notable advances in deriving river characteristics such as width, using satellite remote sensing datasets, deriving river bathymetry remains a significant challenge. Bathymetry is fundamental to hydrodynamic modelling of river systems and being able to estimate this parameter remotely would be of great benefit, especially when attempting to model hard to access areas where the collection of field data is difficult. One such region is the Congo Basin, where due to past political instability and large scale there are few studies that characterise river bathymetry. In this study we test whether it is possible to use passive optical remote sensing to estimate the depth of the Congo River using Landsat 8 imagery in the region around Malebo Pool, located just upstream of the Kinshasa gauging station. Methods of estimating bathymetry using remotely sensed datasets have been used extensively for coastal regions and now more recently have been demonstrated as feasible for optically shallow rivers. Previous river bathymetry studies have focused on shallow rivers and have generally used aerial imagery with a finer spatial resolution than Landsat. While the Congo River has relatively low suspended sediment concentration values the application of passive bathymetry estimation to a river of this scale has not been attempted before. Three different analysis methods are tested in this study: 1) a single band algorithm; 2) a log ratio method; and 3) a linear transform method. All three methods require depth data for calibration and in this study area bathymetry measurements are available for three cross-sections resulting in approximately 300 in-situ measurements of depth, which are used in the calibration and validation. The performance of each method is assessed, allowing the feasibility of passive depth measurement in the Congo River to be determined. Considering the scarcity of in-situ bathymetry measurements on the Congo River, even an approximate

  5. Inorganic and organic carbon spatial variability in the Congo River during high waters (December 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Bouillon, Steven; Teodoru, Cristian; Leporcq, Bruno; Descy, Jean-Pïerre; Darchambeau, François

    2014-05-01

    Rivers are important components of the global carbon cycle, as they transport terrestrial organic matter from the land to the sea, and emit CO2 to the atmosphere. In particular, tropical systems that account for 60% of global freshwater discharge to the oceans. In contrast with south American rivers, very little information is available for African rivers on their carbon flows and stocks, in particular the Congo river, the second largest river in the World in terms of freshwater discharge (1457 km3 yr-1) and in terms of drainage basin (3.75 106 km2) located the second largest tropical forest in the World. Here, we report a data-set of continuous (every minute) records of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) (total of 10,000 records), and discrete samples of particulate (POC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon (total of 75 samples) in the mainstem and major tributaries of the Congo river, along the 1700 km stretch from Kisangani to Kinshasa (total river length = 4374 km), during the high water period (December 2013). The pCO2 dynamic range was high ranging from minimum values of 2000 ppm in white waters tributaries (higher turbidity, conductivity and O2, lower DOC), up to maximal values of 18,000 ppm in blackwaters tributaries (lower turbidity, conductivity and O2, higher DOC). In the mainstem, very strong horizontal (cross-section) gradients were imposed by the presence of blackwaters close to the riverbanks and the presence of whitewaters in the middle of the river. In the mainstem, a distinct horizontal (longitudinal) pattern was observed with pCO2 increasing, and conductivity and turbidity decreasing downstream.

  6. Hydraulic characterization of the middle reach of the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, F.; Trigg, M. A.; Schumann, G. J.-P.; Bates, P. D.

    2013-08-01

    The middle reach of the Congo remains one of the most difficult places to access, with ongoing conflicts and a lack of infrastructure. This has resulted in the Congo being perhaps the least understood large river hydraulically, particularly compared to the Amazon, Nile, or Mississippi. Globally the Congo River is important; it is the largest river in Africa and the basin contains some of the largest areas of tropical forests and wetlands in the world, which are important to both the global carbon and methane cycles. This study produced the first detailed hydraulic characterization of the middle reach, utilizing mostly remotely sensed data sets. Using Landsat imagery, a 30 m resolution water-mask was created for the middle reach, from which effective river widths and the number of channels and islands were determined. Water surface slopes were determined using ICESat observations for three different periods during the annual flood pulse, and while the overall slope calculated was similar to previous estimates, greater spatial variability was identified. We find that the water surface slope varies markedly in space but relatively little in time and that this appears to contrast with the Amazon where previous studies indicate that time and spatial variations are of equal magnitude. Five key hydraulic constraints were also identified, which play an important role in the overall dynamics of the Congo. Finally, backwater lengths were approximated for four of these constraints, with the results showing that at high water, over a third of the middle reach is affected by backwater effects.

  7. What Controls the Hydrodynamics of the Central Congo River?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, F.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Despite being the second largest river basin in the world, with a drainage area greater than 3.7 million square kilometres, little is known about the hydraulics of the Congo River. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to a mixture of conflicts and the difficulty of accessing existing data. We present results of studies which have focused primarily on the middle reach of the Congo River, located between Kisangani and Kinshasa, and its six main tributaries (Kasai, Ubangai, Sangha, Ruki, Lulonga and Lomami rivers). Through a combination of remotely sensed datasets and a hydrodynamic model we investigated what factors control the hydrodynamics of the middle reach. From the analysis of the remotely sensed datasets, we discover that variability in river width of the middle reach of the Congo is large and cannot be represented by empirical equations which relate channel geometry to basin area and discharge. Water surface slopes vary from 3.5 cm/km to 9 cm/km, which is far more than previous studies suggest. The remote datasets indicate that there exist 5 large constrictions in the river width which may result in backwater affecting between 11 and 33 percent of middle reach at low and high water respectively. These results were corroborated by the hydrodynamic model. In fact, when all constrictions caused by a narrowing in width of 1 km or more are considered, water levels along 43 percent of the middle reach change by at least 0.5 m. Using the hydrodynamic model we also investigated the importance of the wetlands to the attenuation of the flood wave through the system. Initial results suggest that for the Congo River, floodplains have far more impact on the peak magnitude than the timing of the flood wave. When the model was run with no floodplain interactions an increase in the magnitude of flood peak was observed, with the timing of the waves being consistent with observed measurements.

  8. Seasonal dynamics and Organic Carbon Flux in the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, P.; Coynel, A.; Etcheber, H.; Meybeck, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Congo (Zaire) River, the second world river in terms of discharges and drainage area (Q=40600 m3/s; A=3.5 106 km2) after the Amazon River, is -up to now- in near-pristine state. For up to two years , the mainstream near river mouth (Kinshasa/Brazzaville station) and some major and minor tributaries (Oubangui, Mpoko and Ngoko-Sangha) were surveyed every month, for total suspended sediment (TSS), particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this very flat basin, TSS levels were very low and organic carbon was essentially exported as DOC: 74% of TOC for the tributaries flowing in savannah regions to 86% for those flowing in the rainforest). The seasonal patterns of TSS, POC and DOC showed clockwise hysteresis with river discharges, with maximum levels two to four months before peak flows. At the Kinshasa/Brazzaville station, the DOC distribution is largely influenced by the input of the tributaries draining the marshy forest area (Central depression). In term of fluxes, a marked difference is pointed out between specific fluxes, threefold higher in the forested basin than in savannahs basins. Computation of inputs to Atlantic Ocean showed that the Congo was responsible for 14.4 106 t/yr of TOC of which 12.4 106 t/yr is DOC and 2 106 t/yr is POC. The three biggest tropical rivers (Amazon, Congo and Orinoco) with only 10 percent of the exoreic world area drained to ocean world contribute to 4 percent of its TSS inputs but 29-33 percent of its organic carbon inputs.

  9. Inorganic carbon speciation and fluxes in the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Bienvenu, Dinga Jean; Mann, Paul J.; Hoering, Katherine A.; Poulsen, John R.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Holmes, Robert M.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon chemistry and associated fluxes from the Congo River were investigated at Brazzaville-Kinshasa. Small seasonal variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was found in contrast with discharge-correlated changes in pH, total alkalinity (TA), carbonate species, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). DIC was almost always greater than TA due to the importance of CO2*, the sum of dissolved CO2 and carbonic acid, as a result of low pH. Organic acids in DOC contributed 11-61% of TA and had a strong titration effect on water pH and carbonate speciation. The CO2* and bicarbonate fluxes accounted for ~57% and 43% of the DIC flux, respectively. Congo River surface water released CO2 at a rate of ~109 mol m-2 yr-1. The basin-wide DIC yield was ~8.84 × 104 mol km-2 yr-1. The discharge normalized DIC flux to the ocean amounted to 3.11 × 1011 mol yr-1. The DOC titration effect on the inorganic carbon system may also be important on a global scale for regulating carbon fluxes in rivers.

  10. Discharge and other hydraulic measurements for characterizing the hydraulics of Lower Congo River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, Kevin; Shelton, John M.; Gardiner, Ned; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The first direct measurements of discharge of the Lower Congo River below Malebo Pool and upstream from Kinganga, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were made in July 2008 using acoustic Doppler current profilers, differential GPS, and echo sounders. These measurements were made in support of research that is attempting to understand the distribution of fish species in the Lower Congo River and reasons for separation of species within this large river. Analyses of these measurements show that the maximum depth in the Lower Congo River was in excess of 200 m and maximum water velocities were greater than 4 m/s. The discharge measured near Luozi, DRC was 35,800 m3/s, and decreased slightly beginning midway through the study. Local bedrock controls seem to have a large effect on the flow in the river, even in reaches without waterfalls and rapids. Dramatic changes in bed topography are evident in transects across the river.

  11. Detection and variability of the Congo River plume from satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jo; Lucas, Marc; Dufau, Claire; Sutton, Marion; Lauret, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The Congo River in Africa has the world's second highest annual mean daily freshwater discharge and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial organic carbon into the oceans. It annually discharges an average of 1,250 × 109 m3 of freshwater into the southeast Atlantic producing a vast fresh water plume, whose signature can be traced hundreds of kilometres from the river mouth. Large river plumes such as this play important roles in the ocean carbon cycle, often functioning as carbon sinks. An understanding of their extent and seasonality is therefore essential if they are to be realistically accounted for in global assessments of the carbon cycle. Despite its size, the variability and dynamics of the Congo plume are minimally documented. In this paper we analyse satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level anomaly to describe and quantify the extent, strength and variability of the far-field plume and to explain its behaviour in relation to winds, ocean currents and fresh water discharge. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals strong seasonal and coastal upwelling signals, potential bimodal seasonality of the Angola Current and responses to fresh water discharge peaks in all data sets. The strongest plume-like signatures however were found in the salinity and ocean colour where the dominant sources of variability come from the Congo River itself, rather than from the wider atmosphere and ocean. These two data sets are then analysed using a statistically based water mass detection technique to isolate the behaviour of the plume. The Congo's close proximity to the equator means that the influence of the earth's rotation on the fresh water inflow is relatively small and the plume tends not to form a distinct coastal current. Instead, its behaviour is determined by wind and surface circulation patterns. The main axis of the plume between November and February, following peak river discharge, is oriented northwest, driven

  12. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  13. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin)

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-01-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between −28.1‰ and −5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin. PMID:24954525

  14. The ecological and cultural functions of invertebrates in the Congo River basin.

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2005-01-01

    One of the entomologically richest, yet least studied, regions of Africa is the interior Congo River Basin. Forests of this region have been called Earth's "second lung" (after the Amazon Basin forests) and harbor an immense diversity of invertebrates. In these tropical rainforests live people of several cultures whose lives and livelihoods are...

  15. Macrophytes: Freshwater Forests of Lakes and Rivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermid, Karla J.; Naiman, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological effects on macrophytes (aquatic plants) on the freshwater ecosystem are discussed. Research questions and issues related to these organisms are also discussed, including adaptations for survival in a wet environment, ecological consequences of large-scale macrophyte eradication, seasonal changes in plant…

  16. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  17. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  18. Shift in the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in the Congo River network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Thibault; Bouillon, Steven; Darchambeau, François; Massicotte, Philippe; Borges, Alberto V.

    2016-09-01

    The processing of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) during downstream transport in fluvial networks is poorly understood. Here, we report a dataset of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DOM composition (stable carbon isotope ratios, absorption and fluorescence properties) acquired along a 1700 km transect in the middle reach of the Congo River basin. Samples were collected in the mainstem and its tributaries during high-water (HW) and falling-water (FW) periods. DOC concentrations and DOM composition along the mainstem were found to differ between the two periods because of a reduced lateral mixing between the central water masses of the Congo River and DOM-rich waters from tributaries and also likely because of a greater photodegradation during FW as water residence time (WRT) increased. Although the Cuvette Centrale wetland (one of the world's largest flooded forests) continuously releases highly aromatic DOM in streams and rivers of the Congo Basin, the downstream transport of DOM was found to result in an along-stream gradient from aromatic to aliphatic compounds. The characterization of DOM through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) suggests that this transition results from (1) the losses of aromatic compounds by photodegradation and (2) the production of aliphatic compounds by biological reworking of terrestrial DOM. Finally, this study highlights the critical importance of the river-floodplain connectivity in tropical rivers in controlling DOM biogeochemistry at a large spatial scale and suggests that the degree of DOM processing during downstream transport is a function of landscape characteristics and WRT.

  19. Dissolved major elements exported by the Congo and the Ubangi rivers during the period 1987 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Jean-Luc; NKounkou, Renard-Roger; Krempp, Gérard; Bricquet, Jean-Pierre; Thiébaux, Jean-Pierre; Olivry, Jean-Claude

    1992-07-01

    On the basis of monthly sampling during the period 1987-1989, the geochemistry of the Congo and the Ubangi (second largest tributary of the Congo) rivers was studied in order (1) to understand the seasonal variations of the physico-chemical parameters of the waters and (2) to estimate the annual dissolved fluxes exported by the two rivers. The results presented here correspond to the first three years of measurements carried out for a scientific programme (Interdisciplinary Research Programme on Geodynamics of Peri-Atlantic Intertropical Environments, Operation 'Large River Basins' (PIRAT-GBF) undertaken jointly by Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU) and Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM) planned to run for at least ten years. The Congo River is more diluted than the Ubangi (34 mgl -1 vs. 42 mgl -1). For both rivers, the inorganic dissolved load is composed mainly of HCO 3- and SiO 2. The chemical composition of the water does not change with time. In the Ubangi River, because of the presence of Precambrian carbonate rocks in its catchment, the proportions of HCO 3- and Ca 2+ are higher. On a seasonal scale, the concentration of dissolved cations and anions varies inversely with discharge, except silica. The comparison of the discharge-concentration relationship with a theoretical 'zero dilution' shows that the evolution of the concentration of dissolved substances is a simple dilution by the surface waters, with, in the case of the Ubangi, a small supply of dissolved substances by the surface waters. Using three different methods of calculation, the estimated annual inorganic dissolved flux of the Congo ranges from 39 × 10 6 to 44 × 10 6 tons (according to the year), with about 10% of this coming from the Ubangi drainage basin.

  20. Satellite-based estimates of surface water dynamics in the Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.; Alsdorf, D.; Calmant, S.; da Silva, J. Santos; Prigent, C.; Seyler, F.

    2018-04-01

    In the Congo River Basin (CRB), due to the lack of contemporary in situ observations, there is a limited understanding of the large-scale variability of its present-day hydrologic components and their link with climate. In this context, remote sensing observations provide a unique opportunity to better characterize those dynamics. Analyzing the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS) time series, we first show that surface water extent (SWE) exhibits marked seasonal patterns, well distributed along the major rivers and their tributaries, and with two annual maxima located: i) in the lakes region of the Lwalaba sub-basin and ii) in the "Cuvette Centrale", including Tumba and Mai-Ndombe Lakes. At an interannual time scale, we show that SWE variability is influenced by ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole events. We then estimate water level maps and surface water storage (SWS) in floodplains, lakes, rivers and wetlands of the CRB, over the period 2003-2007, using a multi-satellite approach, which combines the GIEMS dataset with the water level measurements derived from the ENVISAT altimeter heights. The mean annual variation in SWS in the CRB is 81 ± 24 km3 and contributes to 19 ± 5% of the annual variations of GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (33 ± 7% in the Middle Congo). It represents also ∼6 ± 2% of the annual water volume that flows from the Congo River into the Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Origins, seasonality, and fluxes of organic matter in the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Dinga, Bienvenu; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Drake, Travis W.; Six, Johan

    2016-07-01

    The Congo River in central Africa represents a major source of organic matter (OM) to the Atlantic Ocean. This study examined elemental (%OC, %N, and C:N), stable isotopic (δ13C and δ15N), and biomarker composition (lignin phenols) of particulate OM (POM) and dissolved OM (DOM) across the seasonal hydrograph. Even though the Congo exhibits an extremely stable intra-annual discharge regime, seasonal variability in OM composition was evident. DOM appears predominantly derived from vascular plant inputs with greater relative contribution during the rising limb and peak in discharge associated with the major November-December discharge maximum. Generally, POM appears to be sourced from soil-derived mineral-associated OM (low C:N, low Λ8, and higher (Ad:Al)v) but the relative proportion of fresh vascular plant material (higher C:N, higher Λ8, and lower (Ad:Al)v) increases with higher discharge. During the study period (September 2009 to November 2010) the Congo exported 29.21 Tg yr-1 of total suspended sediment (TSS), 1.96 Tg yr-1 of particulate organic carbon (POC), and 12.48 Tg yr-1 of dissolved organic carbon. The Congo exports an order of magnitude lower TSS load in comparison to other major riverine sources of TSS (e.g., Ganges and Brahmaputra), but due to its OM-rich character it actually exports a comparable amount of POC. The Congo is also 2.5 times more efficient at exporting dissolved lignin per unit volume compared to the Amazon. Including Congo dissolved lignin data in residence time calculations for lignin in the Atlantic Ocean results in an approximately 10% reduction from the existing estimate, suggesting that this material is more reactive than previously thought.

  2. Baseline levels and trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from the Congo River Basin (DR Congo).

    PubMed

    Verhaert, Vera; Covaci, Adrian; Bouillon, Steven; Abrantes, Katya; Musibono, Dieudonné; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: (PCBs, PBDEs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB) in sediments and biota from the middle Congo River Basin (CRB) and to investigate their trophic transfer through the aquatic food web using nitrogen stable isotope ratios. To our knowledge, no data on levels of POPs in sediment and biota from the CRB are present in the literature, and studies on trophic transfer and biomagnification profiles of POPs using δ(15)N are scarce in tropical regions. POP levels in the sediment and biota were low, with exception of total PCB levels found in fish from the Itimbiri River (1.4 to 44ng/g ww). Compared to concentrations found in fish from pristine to relatively industrial developed areas, the ∑PCB levels in fish from the Itimbiri were high, indicating the presence of a local PCB contamination source in this catchment. Based on minimum risk level criteria formulated by ATSDR, the consumption of PCB contaminated fish from the Itimbiri river poses a potential risk for humans. The POP levels in biota were not significantly related to the POP levels in sediments, and the BSAF concept (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor) was found to be a poor predictor of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in the present study. With increasing trophic levels, a significant increase in PCB 95, 101, 110, 138, 146, 149, 153, 174, 180 & 187 and p,p'-DDT in Itimbiri and BDE 47 & 99 in Itimbiri, Aruwimi & Lomami river basins was observed. Trophic magnification factors were higher than 1, indicating that biomagnification occurs through the tropical food web. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of total suspended sediment and organic carbon species in the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Seyler, Patrick; Etcheber, Henri; Meybeck, Michel; Orange, Didier

    2005-12-01

    The Congo (Zaire) River, the world's second largest river in terms both of water discharges and of drainage area after the Amazon River, has remained to date in a near-pristine state. For a period between 2 and 6 years, the mainstream near the river mouth (Brazzaville/Kinshasa station) and some of the major and minor tributaries (the Oubangui, Mpoko, and Ngoko-Sangha) were monitored every month for total suspended sediment (TSS), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this large but relatively flat equatorial basin, TSS levels are very low and organic carbon is essentially exported as DOC: from 74% of TOC for the tributaries flowing in savannah regions and 86% for those flowing in the rain forest. The seasonal patterns of TSS, POC, and DOC show clockwise hysteresis in relation to river discharges, with maximum levels recorded 2 to 4 months before peak flows. At the Kinshasa/Brazzaville station, the DOC distribution is largely influenced by the input from the tributaries draining the large marshy forest area located in the center of the basin. There is a marked difference between specific fluxes, threefold higher in the forest basins than in the savannah basins. The computation of inputs to the Atlantic Ocean demonstrates that the Congo is responsible for 14.4 × 106 t/yr of TOC of which 12.4 × 106 t/yr is DOC and 2 × 106 t/yr is POC. The three biggest tropical rivers (the Amazon, the Congo, and the Orinoco), with only 10% of the exoreic world area drained to world oceans, contribute ˜4% of its TSS inputs but 15-18% of its organic carbon inputs. These proportions may double when considering only world rivers discharging into the open ocean.

  4. High Resolution Modelling of the Congo River's Multi-Threaded Main Stem Hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, A. B.; Trigg, M.; Tshimanga, R.; Neal, J. C.; Borman, D.; Smith, M. W.; Bola, G.; Kabuya, P.; Mushie, C. A.; Tschumbu, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of a summer 2017 field campaign by members of the Congo River users Hydraulics and Morphology (CRuHM) project, and a subsequent reach-scale hydraulic modelling study on the Congo's main stem. Sonar bathymetry, ADCP transects, and water surface elevation data have been collected along the Congo's heavily multi-threaded middle reach, which exhibits complex in-channel hydraulic processes that are not well understood. To model the entire basin's hydrodynamics, these in-channel hydraulic processes must be parameterised since it is not computationally feasible to represent them explicitly. Furthermore, recent research suggests that relative to other large global rivers, in-channel flows on the Congo represent a relatively large proportion of total flow through the river-floodplain system. We therefore regard sufficient representation of in-channel hydraulic processes as a Congo River hydrodynamic research priority. To enable explicit representation of in-channel hydraulics, we develop a reach-scale (70 km), high resolution hydraulic model. Simulation of flow through individual channel threads provides new information on flow depths and velocities, and will be used to inform the parameterisation of a broader basin-scale hydrodynamic model. The basin-scale model will ultimately be used to investigate floodplain fluxes, flood wave attenuation, and the impact of future hydrological change scenarios on basin hydrodynamics. This presentation will focus on the methodology we use to develop a reach-scale bathymetric DEM. The bathymetry of only a small proportion of channel threads can realistically be captured, necessitating some estimation of the bathymetry of channels not surveyed. We explore different approaches to this bathymetry estimation, and the extent to which it influences hydraulic model predictions. The CRuHM project is a consortium comprising the Universities of Kinshasa, Rhodes, Dar es Salaam, Bristol, and Leeds, and is funded by Royal

  5. Hydroclimatic Change in the Congo River Basin: Past, Present and Future169

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical regions provide habitat for the world's most diverse fauna and flora, sequester more atmospheric carbon and provide livelihood for millions of people. The hydrological cycle provides vital linkages for maintaining these ecosystem functions, yet, the understanding of its spatiotemporal variability is limited. Research on the hydrological cycle of the Congo River Basin (CRB), which encompasses the second largest rainforests, has been largely ignored. Global Climate Models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most plausible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in hydrologic fluxes can be predicted with the aid hydrological models. In order to address the gaps in knowledge and to highlight the research needs, we i) developed a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key hydrological processes, ii) evaluated the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature in the region, iii) developed a set of climate change scenarios for the CRB and iv) developed a simplified modeling framework to quantify water management options for rain-fed agriculture with the objective of achieving the triple goals of sustainable development: food security, poverty alleviation and ecosystem conservation. The hydrology model, which was validated with observed stream flows at 50 locations, satisfactorily characterizes spatiotemporal variability of key fluxes. Our evaluation of 25 GCM outputs reveal that many GCMs poorly simulate regional precipitation. We implemented a statistical bias-correction method to develop precipitation and temperature projections for two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. These climate forcings were, then, used to drive the hydrology model. Our results show that the near-term projections are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available

  6. Hydrologic control of carbon cycling and aged carbon discharge in the Congo River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schefuß, Enno; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Spencer-Jones, Charlotte L.; Rullkötter, Jürgen; de Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Talbot, Helen M.; Grootes, Pieter M.; Schneider, Ralph R.

    2016-09-01

    The age of organic material discharged by rivers provides information about its sources and carbon cycling processes within watersheds. Although elevated ages in fluvially transported organic matter are usually explained by erosion of soils and sedimentary deposits, it is commonly assumed that mainly young organic material is discharged from flat tropical watersheds due to their extensive plant cover and rapid carbon turnover. Here we present compound-specific radiocarbon data of terrigenous organic fractions from a sedimentary archive offshore the Congo River, in conjunction with molecular markers for methane-producing land cover reflecting wetland extent. We find that the Congo River has been discharging aged organic matter for several thousand years, with apparently increasing ages from the mid- to the Late Holocene. This suggests that aged organic matter in modern samples is concealed by radiocarbon from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. By comparison to indicators for past rainfall changes we detect a systematic control of organic matter sequestration and release by continental hydrology, mediating temporary carbon storage in wetlands. As aridification also leads to exposure and rapid remineralization of large amounts of previously stored labile organic matter, we infer that this process may cause a profound direct climate feedback that is at present underestimated in carbon cycle assessments.

  7. How restructuring river connectivity changes freshwater fish biodiversity and biogeography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Heather L.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Interbasin water transfer projects, in which river connectivity is restructured via man-made canals, are an increasingly popular solution to address the spatial mismatch between supply and demand of fresh water. However, the ecological consequences of such restructuring remain largely unexplored, and there are no general theoretical guidelines from which to derive these expectations. River systems provide excellent opportunities to explore how network connectivity shapes habitat occupancy, community dynamics, and biogeographic patterns. We apply a neutral model (which assumes competitive equivalence among species within a stochastic framework) to an empirically derived river network to explore how proposed changes in network connectivity may impact patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity. Without predicting the responses of individual extant species, we find the addition of canals connecting hydrologically isolated river basins facilitates the spread of common species and increases average local species richness without changing the total species richness of the system. These impacts are sensitive to the parameters controlling the spatial scale of fish dispersal, with increased dispersal affording more opportunities for biotic restructuring at the community and landscape scales. Connections between isolated basins have a much larger effect on local species richness than those connecting reaches within a river basin, even when those within-basin reaches are far apart. As a result, interbasin canal projects have the potential for long-term impacts to continental-scale riverine communities.

  8. Freshwater mussel assemblage structure in a regulated river in the Lower Mississippi river Alluvial Basin, USA

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2007-01-01

    1. This paper documents a diverse, reproducing freshwater mussel community (20 species) in Lower Lake } an impounded, regulated portion of the Little Tallahatchie River below Sardis Dam in Panola Co., Mississippi, USA. 2. Despite being regulated and impounded, the lake has a heterogeneous array of habitats that differ markedly in mussel community attributes...

  9. How did bonobos come to range south of the congo river? Reconsideration of the divergence of Pan paniscus from other Pan populations.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    While investigating the genetic structure in wild bonobos,(1) we realized that the widely accepted scenario positing that the Pleistocene appearance of the Congo River separated the common ancestor of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) into two species is not supported by recent geographical knowledge about the formation of the Congo River. We explored the origin of bonobos using a broader biogeographical perspective by examining local faunas in the central African region. The submarine Congo River sediments and paleotopography of central Africa show that the Congo River has functioned as a geographical barrier for the last 34 million years. This evidence allows us to hypothesize that when the river was first formed, the ancestor of bonobos did not inhabit the current range of the species on the left bank of the Congo River but that, during rare times when the Congo River discharge decreased during the Pleistocene, one or more founder populations of ancestral Pan paniscus crossed the river to its left bank. The proposed scenario for formation of the Congo River and the corridor hypothesis for an ancestral bonobo population is key to understanding the distribution of great apes and their evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Weak Learner Method for Estimating River Discharges using Remotely Sensed Data: Central Congo River as a Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Lee, H.; Yu, H.; Beighley, E.; Durand, M. T.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Hwang, E.

    2017-12-01

    River discharge is a prerequisite for an understanding of flood hazard and water resource management, yet we have poor knowledge of it, especially over remote basins. Previous studies have successfully used a classic hydraulic geometry, at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG), and Manning's equation to estimate the river discharge. Theoretical bases of these empirical methods were introduced by Leopold and Maddock (1953) and Manning (1889), and those have been long used in the field of hydrology, water resources, and geomorphology. However, the methods to estimate the river discharge from remotely sensed data essentially require bathymetric information of the river or are not applicable to braided rivers. Furthermore, the methods used in the previous studies adopted assumptions of river conditions to be steady and uniform. Consequently, those methods have limitations in estimating the river discharge in complex and unsteady flow in nature. In this study, we developed a novel approach to estimating river discharges by applying the weak learner method (here termed WLQ), which is one of the ensemble methods using multiple classifiers, to the remotely sensed measurements of water levels from Envisat altimetry, effective river widths from PALSAR images, and multi-temporal surface water slopes over a part of the mainstem Congo. Compared with the methods used in the previous studies, the root mean square error (RMSE) decreased from 5,089 m3s-1 to 3,701 m3s-1, and the relative RMSE (RRMSE) improved from 12% to 8%. It is expected that our method can provide improved estimates of river discharges in complex and unsteady flow conditions based on the data-driven prediction model by machine learning (i.e. WLQ), even when the bathymetric data is not available or in case of the braided rivers. Moreover, it is also expected that the WLQ can be applied to the measurements of river levels, slopes and widths from the future Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission to be

  11. Skills of General Circulation and Earth System Models in reproducing streamflow to the ocean: the case of Congo river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, M.; Caporaso, L.

    2017-12-01

    Although the importance of water resources in the context of climate change, it is still difficult to correctly simulate the freshwater cycle over the land via General Circulation and Earth System Models (GCMs and ESMs). Existing efforts from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) were mainly devoted to the validation of atmospheric variables like temperature and precipitation, with low attention to discharge.Here we investigate the present-day performances of GCMs and ESMs participating to CMIP5 in simulating the discharge of the river Congo to the sea thanks to: i) the long-term availability of discharge data for the Kinshasa hydrological station representative of more than 95% of the water flowing in the whole catchment; and ii) the River's still low influence by human intervention, which enables comparison with the (mostly) natural streamflow simulated within CMIP5.Our findings suggest how most of models appear overestimating the streamflow in terms of seasonal cycle, especially in the late winter and spring, while overestimation and variability across models are lower in late summer. Weighted ensemble means are also calculated, based on simulations' performances given by several metrics, showing some improvements of results.Although simulated inter-monthly and inter-annual percent anomalies do not appear significantly different from those in observed data, when translated into well consolidated indicators of drought attributes (frequency, magnitude, timing, duration), usually adopted for more immediate communication to stakeholders and decision makers, such anomalies can be misleading.These inconsistencies produce incorrect assessments towards water management planning and infrastructures (e.g. dams or irrigated areas), especially if models are used instead of measurements, as in case of ungauged basins or for basins with insufficient data, as well as when relying on models for future estimates without a preliminary quantification of model biases.

  12. An Investigation of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) in the Tennessee River below Kentucky Lock and Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Division of Water , Murray, KY. Sickel, J. B. 1987. "Survey of Freshwater Mussels in the Kentucky Dam Tailwater at the Site of the Proposed Reed...AN]ITECHNICAL REPORT EL-91-8 AN INVESTIGATION OF FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNiONIDAE) IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER BELOW KENTUCKY LOCK AND DAM by ADA 24 0 265...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS An Investigation of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) in the Tennessee River Below Kentucky Lock and Dam 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew C

  13. Lamprologus markerti, a new lamprologine cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) endemic to the lower Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, west-central Africa.

    PubMed

    Tougas, Stephanie; Stiassny, Melanie L J

    2014-08-15

    A new Lamprologus is described from the lower Congo River (LCR) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lamprologus markerti, new species, is readily distinguished from L. tigripictilis and L. werneri, the LCR endemic lamprologines with which it was once taxonomically conflated, in the possession of a reduced number of gill rakers on the first arch (9-11 versus 12-17), a longer head (32.1-34.7% SL versus 29.3-31.9 and 29.1-32.9% SL, respectively), and a longer predorsal length (33.0-35.9% SL versus 29.3-32.7 and 28.5-32.6% SL, respectively). Further, L. markerti lacks a second intestinal loop present in both L. tigripictilis and L. werneri, and has a highly reduced infraorbital series often consisting of a single first infraorbital (lachrymal) element. 

  14. Mapping Water Level Dynamics over Central Congo River Using PALSAR Images, Envisat Altimetry, and Landsat NDVI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Lee, H.; Jung, H. C.; Beighley, E.; Laraque, A.; Tshimanga, R.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Rivers and wetlands are very important for ecological habitats, and it plays a key role in providing a source of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). The floodplains ecosystems depend on the process between the vegetation and flood characteristics. The water level is a prerequisite to an understanding of terrestrial water storage and discharge. Despite the lack of in situ data over the Congo Basin, which is the world's third largest in size ( 3.7 million km2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge ( 40,500 m3 s-1 annual average between 1902 and 2015 in the main Brazzaville-Kinshasa gauging station), the surface water level dynamics in the wetlands have been successfully estimated using satellite altimetry, backscattering coefficients (σ0) from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and, interferometric SAR technique. However, the water level estimation of the Congo River remains poorly quantified due to the sparse orbital spacing of radar altimeters. Hence, we essentially have limited information only over the sparsely distributed the so-called "virtual stations". The backscattering coefficients from SAR images have been successfully used to distinguish different vegetation types, to monitor flood conditions, and to access soil moistures over the wetlands. However, σ0 has not been used to measure the water level changes over the open river because of very week return signal due to specular scattering. In this study, we have discovered that changes in σ0 over the Congo River occur mainly due to the water level changes in the river with the existence of the water plants (macrophytes, emergent plants, and submersed plant), depending on the rising and falling stage inside the depression of the "Cuvette Centrale". We expand the finding into generating the multi-temporal water level maps over the Congo River using PALSAR σ0, Envisat altimetry, and Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. We also present preliminary estimates of the river

  15. Remotely Sensed Based Lake/Reservoir Routing in Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    Lake and reservoir dynamics can influence local to regional water cycles but are often not well represented in hydrologic models. One challenge that limits their inclusion in models is the need for detailed storage-discharge behavior that can be further complicated in reservoirs where specific operation rules are employed. Here, the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is combined with a remotely sensed based Reservoir Routing (RR) method and applied to the Congo River Basin. Given that topographic data are often continuous over the entire terrestrial surface (i.e., does not differentiate between land and open water), the HRR-RR model integrates topographic derived river networks and catchment boundaries (e.g., HydroSHEDs) with water boundary extents (e.g., Global Lakes and Wetlands Database) to develop the computational framework. The catchments bordering lakes and reservoirs are partitioned into water and land portions, where representative flowpath characteristics are determined and vertical water balance and lateral routings is performed separately on each partition based on applicable process models (e.g., open water evaporation vs. evapotranspiration). To enable reservoir routing, remotely sensed water surface elevations and extents are combined to determine the storage change time series. Based on the available time series, representative storage change patterns are determined. Lake/reservoir routing is performed by combining inflows from the HRR-RR model and the representative storage change patterns to determine outflows. In this study, a suite of storage change patterns derived from remotely sensed measurements are determined representative patterns for wet, dry and average conditions. The HRR-RR model dynamically selects and uses the optimal storage change pattern for the routing process based on these hydrologic conditions. The HRR-RR model results are presented to highlight the importance of lake attenuation/routing in the Congo Basin.

  16. The biogeochemistry of carbon across a gradient of streams and rivers within the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P. J.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Dinga, B. J.; Poulsen, J. R.; Hernes, P. J.; Fiske, G.; Salter, M. E.; Wang, Z. A.; Hoering, K. A.; Six, J.; Holmes, R. M.

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC, pCO2), lignin biomarkers, and theoptical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured in a gradient of streams and rivers within the Congo Basin, with the aim of examining how vegetation cover and hydrology influences the composition and concentration of fluvial carbon (C). Three sampling campaigns (February 2010, November 2010, and August 2011) spanning 56 sites are compared by subbasin watershed land cover type (savannah, tropical forest, and swamp) and hydrologic regime (high, intermediate, and low). Land cover properties predominately controlled the amount and quality of DOC, chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and lignin phenol concentrations (∑8) exported in streams and rivers throughout the Congo Basin. Higher DIC concentrations and changing DOM composition (lower molecular weight, less aromatic C) during periods of low hydrologic flow indicated shifting rapid overland supply pathways in wet conditions to deeper groundwater inputs during drier periods. Lower DOC concentrations in forest and swamp subbasins were apparent with increasing catchment area, indicating enhanced DOC loss with extended water residence time. Surface water pCO2 in savannah and tropical forest catchments ranged between 2,600 and 11,922 µatm, with swamp regions exhibiting extremely high pCO2 (10,598-15,802 µatm), highlighting their potential as significant pathways for water-air efflux. Our data suggest that the quantity and quality of DOM exported to streams and rivers are largely driven by terrestrial ecosystem structure and that anthropogenic land use or climate change may impact fluvial C composition and reactivity, with ramifications for regional C budgets and future climate scenarios.

  17. Water Storage Changes using Floodplain Bathymetry from InSAR and satellite altimetry in the Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, T.; Lee, H.; Jung, H. C.; Beighley, E.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Extensive wetlands and swamps expand along the Congo River and its tributaries. These wetlands store water and attenuate flood wave during high water season. Substantial dissolved and solid substances are also transported with the water flux, influencing geochemical environment and biogeochemistry processes both in the wetlands and the river. To understand the role of the wetlands in partitioning the surface water and the accompanied material movement, water storage change is one of the most fundamental observations. The water flow through the wetlands is complex, affected by topography, vegetation resistance, and hydraulic variations. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been successfully used to map relative water level changes in the vegetated wetlands with high spatial resolution. By examining interferograms generated from ALOS PALSAR along the middle reach of the Congo River floodplain, we found greater water level changes near the Congo mainstem. Integrated analysis of InSAR and Envisat altimetry data has shown that proximal floodplain with higher water level change has lower elevation during dry season. This indicates that the spatial variation of water level change in the Congo floodplain is mostly controlled by floodplain bathymetry. A method based on water level and bathymetry model is proposed to estimate water storage change. The bathymetry model is composed of (1) elevation at the intersection of the floodplain and the river and (2) floodplain bathymetry slope. We first constructed the floodplain bathymetry by selecting an Envisat altimetry profile during low water season to estimate elevation at the intersection of the floodplain and the river. Floodplain bathymetry slope was estimated using InSAR measurements. It is expected that our new method can estimate water storage change with higher temporal resolution corresponding to altimeter's repeat cycle. In addition, given the multi-decadal archive of satellite altimetry measurements

  18. Time and Origin of Cichlid Colonization of the Lower Congo Rapids

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Julia; Misof, Bernhard; Ifuta, Seraphin N.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.

    2011-01-01

    Most freshwater diversity is arguably located in networks of rivers and streams, but, in contrast to lacustrine systems riverine radiations, are largely understudied. The extensive rapids of the lower Congo River is one of the few river stretches inhabited by a locally endemic cichlid species flock as well as several species pairs, for which we provide evidence that they have radiated in situ. We use more that 2,000 AFLP markers as well as multilocus sequence datasets to reconstruct their origin, phylogenetic history, as well as the timing of colonization and speciation of two Lower Congo cichlid genera, Steatocranus and Nanochromis. Based on a representative taxon sampling and well resolved phylogenetic hypotheses we demonstrate that a high level of riverine diversity originated in the lower Congo within about 5 mya, which is concordant with age estimates for the hydrological origin of the modern lower Congo River. A spatial genetic structure is present in all widely distributed lineages corresponding to a trisection of the lower Congo River into major biogeographic areas, each with locally endemic species assemblages. With the present study, we provide a phylogenetic framework for a complex system that may serve as a link between African riverine cichlid diversity and the megadiverse cichlid radiations of the East African lakes. Beyond this we give for the first time a biologically estimated age for the origin of the lower Congo River rapids, one of the most extreme freshwater habitats on earth. PMID:21799840

  19. Velocity mapping in the Lower Congo River: a first look at the unique bathymetry and hydrodynamics of Bulu Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Oberg, Kevin A.; Gardiner, Ned; Shelton, John

    2009-01-01

    The lower Congo River is one of the deepest, most powerful, and most biologically diverse stretches of river on Earth. The river’s 270 m decent from Malebo Pool though the gorges of the Crystal Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean (498 km downstream) is riddled with rapids, cataracts, and deep pools. Much of the lower Congo is a mystery from a hydraulics perspective. However, this stretch of the river is a hotbed for biologists who are documenting evolution in action within the diverse, but isolated, fish populations. Biologists theorize that isolation of fish populations within the lower Congo is due to barriers presented by flow structure and bathymetry. To investigate this theory, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and American Museum of Natural History teamed up with an expedition crew from National Geographic in 2008 to map flow velocity and bathymetry within target reaches in the lower Congo River using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) and echo sounders. Simultaneous biological and water quality sampling was also completed. This paper presents some preliminary results from this expedition, specifically with regard to the velocity structure andbathymetry. Results show that the flow in the bedrock controlled Bulu reach of the lower Congo is highly energetic. Turbulent and secondary flow structures can span the full depth of flow (up to 165 m), while coherent bank-to-bank cross-channel flow structures are absent. Regions of flow separation near the banks are isolated from one another and from the opposite bank by high shear, high velocity zones with depth-averaged flow velocities that can exceed 4 m/s.

  20. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan

    2012-05-01

    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7-63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (<0.7 μm; DOM) from five sites in the Congo River Basin. At all sample locations the organic carbon load was dominated by the dissolved phase (˜82-89% of total organic carbon) and the total suspended sediment load was principally fine particulate material (˜81-91% fine suspended sediment). Distinct compositional and isotopic differences were observed between all fractions. Congo CPOM, FPOM and DOM all originated from vegetation and soil inputs as evidenced by elemental, isotopic and lignin phenol data, however FPOM was derived from much older carbon pools (mean Δ14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67-1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern

  1. Molecular phylogenetics reveals convergent evolution in lower Congo River spiny eels.

    PubMed

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Brown, Bianca; Stiassny, Melanie L J

    2015-10-15

    The lower Congo River (LCR) is a region of exceptional species diversity and endemism in the Congo basin, including numerous species of spiny eels (genus Mastacembelus). Four of these exhibit distinctive phenotypes characterized by greatly reduced optic globes deeply embedded into the head (cryptophthalmia) and reduced (or absent) melanin pigmentation, among other characteristics. A strikingly similar cryptophthalmic phenotype is also found in members of a number of unrelated fish families, strongly suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. However, little is known about the evolutionary processes that shaped diversification in LCR Mastacembelus, their biogeographic origins, or when colonization of the LCR occurred. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from Mastacembelus species collected in the lower Congo River, and compared them with other African species and Asian representatives as outgroups. We analyzed the sequence data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses, and Bayesian coalescent methods for species tree reconstruction, reveal that endemic LCR spiny eels derive from two independent origins, clearly demonstrating convergent evolution of the cryptophthalmic phenotype. Mastacembelus crassus, M. aviceps, and M. simbi form a clade, allied to species found in southern, eastern and central Africa. Unexpectedly, M. brichardi and brachyrhinus fall within a clade otherwise endemic to Lake Tanganikya (LT) ca. 1500 km east of the LCR. Divergence dating suggests the ages of these two clades of LCR endemics differ markedly. The age of the crassus group is estimated at ~4 Myr while colonization of the LCR by the brichardi-brachyrhinus progenitor was considerably more recent, dated at ~0.5 Myr. The phylogenetic framework of spiny eels presented here, the first to include LCR species, demonstrates that cryptophthalmia and associated traits evolved at least twice in Mastacembelus

  2. Records of River Variation in the Shells of Freshwater Bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M.; Romanek, C.

    2005-12-01

    The skeletons of hard-shelled invertebrates such as corals and bivalves are commonly used in marine settings as archives of environmental information. They are less commonly used in freshwater settings where variability in water chemistry makes it more difficult to calibrate chemical proxies such as the Sr:Ca in a shell. Our objective is to evaluate whether trace element concentrations in freshwater bivalve shells contain information on environmental conditions. Multiple elements (Ba, Cu, Mn and Sr) were analyzed within the shells of modern bivalves from four streams on DOE's Savannah River Site in S.C. Laser Ablation ICP-MS was used to measure elemental concentrations across five aragonitic shells from each site. These elements were chosen because they are present in detectable concentrations (ppm) in the shell and they have been suggested as useful proxies for temperature, rainfall, productivity and pollution. Results were compared to historical monthly site records of water chemistry and chemical analyses of water samples collected from the streams where the clams were found. The average shell concentrations of Sr and Mn were significantly different between sites and increased proportionally to water concentration. This was not observed for Ba and Cu. For example, the Ba concentrations of shells collected at a site downstream of a lake were higher than those for shells from stream sites with significantly higher dissolved Ba concentrations. Copper was only detected at dark growth lines with the number of lines and shell material between them varying between shells within the same stream. Intrashell profiles of Ba, Sr and Mn concentrations exhibited cyclical variation. The magnitude of cyclical variation for Mn and Sr within a shell corresponds with the annual variation in monthly water sample concentrations. Again, this pattern was not observed for Ba, especially in shells from the site downstream of a lake. This supports suggestions that particulate organic

  3. Trematode Aspidogastrea found in the freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Hua

    2017-03-30

    To investigate the prevalence of trematode Aspidogastrea in the freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin within Anhui province, China. We initially harvested the freshwater mussels living in the Yangtze River running through Anhui area, and labeled them with corresponding number. Then the samples were dissected for isolating the flukes, which were identified by conventional staining. Infection rate of trematode Aspidogastrea in freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin within the territory of Anhui province was 30.38% (103/339) in general, and a total of 912 flukes of Aspidogastrea were detected in the 103 mussels, with average infection rate of 8.85 for each mussel. Trematode Aspidogastrea is prevalent in the freshwater bivalves living in the Yangtze River basin running through Anhui area, and the treamatode was identified as Aspidogaster sp. belong to Aspidogaste under Aspidogastridae of Aspidogastrea.

  4. Hydrologic controls on Congo River particulate organic carbon source and reservoir age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, J. D.; Schefuß, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Dinga, B. J.; Eglinton, T. I.; McIntyre, C.; Galy, V.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical rivers are a major source of organic matter (OM) to the coastal ocean and play a large role in the global carbon cycle. As such, it is critical to understand the sources, sinks, and transformations of OM during fluvial transit over seasonal and inter-annual timescales. Here we present dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, particulate OM (POM) composition (δ13C, δ15N, Δ14C, N/C), and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) biomarker distributions from a 34-month time-series near the mouth of the Congo River. An end-member mixing model based on δ13C and N/C indicates that exported POM is consistently dominated by C3 tropical rainforest soil inputs, with increasing contributions by C3 tropical plant vegetation and decreasing contributions by autochthonous phytoplankton at high discharge. Calculated Δ14C values of the C3-soil end member reveal significant and variable pre-aging prior to export, especially during the year 2011 when southern-hemisphere discharge reached record lows (mean = -176‰, standard deviation = 93‰). In contrast, Δ14C values were stable near -50‰ between January and June 2013 when southern-hemisphere discharge was highest. These results indicate that headwater POM is diluted and/or overprinted by pre-aged soils during transit through the Cuvette Congolaise swamp forest, while left-bank tributaries export significantly less pre-aged material. GDGT distributions are in agreement, as the methylation and cyclization of branched tetraethers and the GDGT-0/crenarchaeol ratio reflect a significant incorporation of compounds produced in permanently inundated Cuvette Congolaise swamp-forest soils when discharge through this region is high, especially in 2011. This study provides a mechanistic link between hydrology and carbon cycling in the world's second largest tropical river and suggests that, if recent observed decreases in springtime precipitation over the Congo basin persist, future hydrologic conditions will further

  5. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7–63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67–1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern radiocarbon age, elevated C:N (17.2–27.1) and Λ8 values (4.56–7.59 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)). In relation to CPOM, the aged FPOM fraction (320–580 ybp 14C ages) was comparatively degraded, as demonstrated by its nitrogen enrichment (C:N 11.4–14.3), lower Λ8 (2.80–4.31 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) and elevated lignin Ad:Al values similar to soil derived OM. In this study we observed little modification of the OM signature from sample sites near the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa to the head of the estuary (~350 km) highlighting the potential for future studies to

  6. Prevalence of River Epilepsy in the Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Colebunders, Robert; Tepage, Floribert; Rood, Ente; Mandro, Michel; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Musinya, Gisele; Mambandu, Germain; Kabeya, José; Komba, Michel; Levick, Bethany; Mokili, John L; Laudisoit, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Design/Methods An epilepsy prevalence study was carried out in 2014, in two localities of the Bas-Uélé district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Orientale Province of the DRC. Risk factors for epilepsy were identified using a random effects logistic regression model and the distribution of epilepsy cases was investigated using the Moran’s I statistic of spatial auto-correlation. Results Among the 12,776 individuals of Dingila, 373 (2.9%) individuals with epilepsy were identified. In a house-to-house survey in Titule, 68 (2.3%) of the 2,908 people who participated in the survey were found to present episodes of epilepsy. Epilepsy showed a marked spatial pattern with clustering of cases occurring within and between adjacent households. Individual risk of epilepsy was found to be associated with living close to the nearest fast flowing river where blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae)–the vector of Onchocerca volvulus–oviposit and breed. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in villages in the Bas-Uélé district in the DRC was higher than in non-onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa. Living close to a blackflies infested river was found to be a risk factor for epilepsy. PMID:27139245

  7. Physical Effects of Increased Commercial Navigation Traffic on Freshwater Mussels in the Upper Mississippi River: Phase 1 Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT EL-90-3 PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF INCREASED COMMERCIAL of EnNAVIGATION TRAFFIC ON FRESHWATER MUSSELS IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER: PHASE...I Physical Effects of Increased Commercial Navigation Traffic on Freshwater Mussels in the Unner Miqqiqnni River- PhaRA T Studeln .- 12. PERSONAL...0009!5C ’ ) Freshwater musselsD )~j 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Baseline data on freshwater

  8. SUBMERSED MACROPHYTE DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER HUDSON RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the tidal freshwater Hudson River submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) occupies on average 6 percent of the river area with much greater coverage in the mid Hudson (Kingston-Hudson) and much lower areal coverage south of Hyde Park. The native water celery ( Vallisneria americana...

  9. Spatial dynamics of biogeochemical processes in the St. Louis River freshwater estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Great Lakes, river-lake transition zones within freshwater estuaries are hydrologically and biogeochemically dynamic areas that regulate nutrient and energy fluxes between rivers and Great Lakes. The goal of our study was to characterize the biogeochemical properties of th...

  10. A Lagrangian perspective of the hydrological cycle in the Congo River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorí, Rogert; Nieto, Raquel; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Drumond, Anita; Gimeno, Luis

    2017-08-01

    The Lagrangian model FLEXPART is used to identify the moisture sources of the Congo River basin (CRB) and investigate their role in the hydrological cycle. This model allows us to track atmospheric parcels while calculating changes in the specific humidity through the budget of evaporation minus precipitation. This method permits the annual-scale identification of five continental and four oceanic principal regions that provide moisture to the CRB from both hemispheres over the course of the year. The most important is the CRB, which provides more than 50 % of the total atmospheric moisture contribution to precipitation over itself. Additionally, both the land that extends to the east of the CRB and the eastern equatorial South Atlantic Ocean are very important sources, while the Red Sea source is merely important in the (E - P) budget over the CRB despite its high evaporation rate. The moisture-sink patterns over the CRB in air masses that were tracked forward in time from all the sources follow the latitudinal rainfall migration and are mostly highly correlated with the pattern of the precipitation rate, ensuring a link between them. In wet (dry) years, the contribution of moisture to precipitation from the CRB over itself increases (decreases). Despite the enhanced evaporative conditions over the basin during dry years, the vertically integrated moisture flux (VIMF) divergence inhibits precipitation and suggests the transport of moisture from the CRB to remote regions.

  11. A new species of Pseudocrenilabrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Mweru in the Upper Congo River System.

    PubMed

    Katongo, Cyprian; Seehausen, Ole; Snoeks, Jos

    2017-02-26

    Pseudocrenilabrus pyrrhocaudalis sp. nov. is described from Lake Mweru in the upper Congo River drainage, on the border of the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. This species, which appears to be endemic to the lake, lives in sympatry with P. philander. Pseudocrenilabrus pyrrhocaudalis sp. nov. is distinguished from P. philander in nuptial males by the presence of an orange colour on the ventral part of the body and the proximal parts of the anal and caudal fins, a broad band of bright white on the distal edge of anal and caudal fins, a uniform grey head and dorsum, and a subtruncate caudal fin. In addition, P. pyrrhocaudalis has a shorter snout, a narrower head, a smaller interorbital distance, a smaller pre-anal distance, a more slender caudal peduncle and fewer scales around the caudal peduncle in both sexes.

  12. VARIATIONS IN THE SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF FRESHWATER AND ESTUARINE CDOM CAUSED BY PARTITIONING ONTO RIVER AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The optical properties and geochemical cycling of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are altered by its sorption to freshwater and estuarine sediments. Measured partition coefficients (Kp) of Satilla River (Georgia) and Cape Fear River estuary (North Carolina) CDOM ran...

  13. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  14. Genomewide SNP data reveal cryptic phylogeographic structure and microallopatric divergence in a rapids-adapted clade of cichlids from the Congo River.

    PubMed

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Munshi-South, Jason; Stiassny, Melanie L J

    2017-03-01

    The lower Congo River is a freshwater biodiversity hot spot in Africa characterized by some of the world's largest rapids. However, little is known about the evolutionary forces shaping this diversity, which include numerous endemic fishes. We investigated phylogeographic relationships in Teleogramma, a small clade of rheophilic cichlids, in the context of regional geography and hydrology. Previous studies have been unable to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Teleogramma due to lack of variation in nuclear genes and discrete morphological characters among putative species. To sample more broadly across the genome, we analysed double-digest restriction-associated sequencing (ddRAD) data from 53 individuals across all described species in the genus. We also assessed body shape and mitochondrial variation within and between taxa. Phylogenetic analyses reveal previously unrecognized lineages and instances of microallopatric divergence across as little as ~1.5 km. Species ranges appear to correspond to geographic regions broadly separated by major hydrological and topographic barriers, indicating these features are likely important drivers of diversification. Mitonuclear discordance indicates one or more introgressive hybridization events, but no clear evidence of admixture is present in nuclear genomes, suggesting these events were likely ancient. A survey of female fin patterns hints that previously undetected lineage-specific patterning may be acting to reinforce species cohesion. These analyses highlight the importance of hydrological complexity in generating diversity in certain freshwater systems, as well as the utility of ddRAD-Seq data in understanding diversification processes operating both below and above the species level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Simulated hydrologic response to projected changes in precipitation and temperature in the Congo River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, Noel; Saiers, James

    2017-08-01

    Despite their global significance, the impacts of climate change on water resources and associated ecosystem services in the Congo River basin (CRB) have been understudied. Of particular need for decision makers is the availability of spatial and temporal variability of runoff projections. Here, with the aid of a spatially explicit hydrological model forced with precipitation and temperature projections from 25 global climate models (GCMs) under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, we explore the variability in modeled runoff in the near future (2016-2035) and mid-century (2046-2065). We find that total runoff from the CRB is projected to increase by 5 % [-9 %; 20 %] (mean - min and max - across model ensembles) over the next two decades and by 7 % [-12 %; 24 %] by mid-century. Projected changes in runoff from subwatersheds distributed within the CRB vary in magnitude and sign. Over the equatorial region and in parts of northern and southwestern CRB, most models project an overall increase in precipitation and, subsequently, runoff. A simulated decrease in precipitation leads to a decline in runoff from headwater regions located in the northeastern and southeastern CRB. Climate model selection plays an important role in future projections for both magnitude and direction of change. The multimodel ensemble approach reveals that precipitation and runoff changes under business-as-usual and avoided greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RCP4.5) are relatively similar in the near term but deviate in the midterm, which underscores the need for rapid action on climate change adaptation. Our assessment demonstrates the need to include uncertainties in climate model and emission scenario selection during decision-making processes related to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  16. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  17. BIOREMEDIATION AND BIORESTORATION OF A CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED FRESHWATER WETLAND ON THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biostimulation by nutrient enrichment and phytoremediation were studied for the restoration of an acutely stressed freshwater wetland experimentally exposed to crude oil. The research was carried out along the shores of the St. Lawrence River at Ste. Croix, Quebec, Canada. The ...

  18. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers (ESA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  19. Generating daily weather data for ecosystem modelling in the Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritsch, Richard; Pietsch, Stephan A.

    2010-05-01

    Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modelling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit. Although the number of climate measurement stations increased during the last centuries, there are still regions with limited climate data. For example, in the WMO database there are only 16 stations located in Gabon with daily weather measurements. Additionally, the available time series are heavily affected by measurement errors or missing values. In the WMO record for Gabon, on average every second day is missing. Monthly means are more robust and may be estimated over larger areas. Therefore, a good alternative is to interpolate monthly mean values using a sparse network of measurement stations, and based on these monthly data generate daily weather data with defined characteristics. The weather generator MarkSim was developed to produce climatological time series for crop modelling in the tropics. It provides daily values for maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The monthly means can either be derived from the internal climate surfaces or prescribed as additional inputs. We compared the generated outputs observations from three climate stations in Gabon (Lastourville, Moanda and Mouilla) and found that maximum temperature and solar radiation were heavily overestimated during the long dry season. This is due to the internal dependency of the solar radiation estimates to precipitation. With no precipitation a cloudless sky is assumed and thus high incident solar radiation and a large diurnal temperature range. However, in reality it is cloudy in the Congo River Basin during the long dry season. Therefore, we applied a correction factor to solar radiation and temperature range

  20. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of right-bank tributaries of the Oubangui River, and a comparison with the mainstem river (Congo basin, Central African Republic).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Oubangui is a major right-bank tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~500,000 km² of mainly wooded savannahs. Here, we describe data on the physico-chemical characteristics and biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within the central Oubangui catchment collected during 3 field surveys between 2010 and 2012, with land use ranging from wooded savannahs to humid tropical rainforest. Compared to data from two years of sampling at high temporal resolution on the mainstem river in Bangui (Central African Republic), these tributaries show a remarkably wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity and total alkalinity (TA)) in rivers draining dense rainforests to those more typical for (sub)tropical savannah systems. Based on carbon stable isotope data (δ13C), the majority of sites show a corresponding dominance of C3-derived organic matter, with a tendency for increased C4 contributions the more turbid sites such as the Mpoko River. δ13C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were generally similar to those of particulate organic carbon (POC) across the different tributaries. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged between -28.1 ‰ in low-TA rainforest (blackwater) rivers to -5.8 ‰ in the mainstem Oubangui. These variations were strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the dominant weathering regime (silicate versus carbonate weathering) on DIC and CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were consistently oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, and CO2) with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, with highest levels observed in rivers draining rainforest vegetation. The high diversity observed within this subcatchment of the Congo River basin is equivalent to that observed in much larger, heterogeneous catchments, and underscores the importance of

  1. Probability analysis of the relation of salinity to freshwater discharge in the St. Sebastian River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Gain, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The St. Sebastian River lies in the southern part of the Indian River basin on the east coast of Florida. Increases in freshwater discharge due to urbanization and changes in land use have reduced salinity in the St. Sebastian River and, consequently, salinity in the Indian River, affecting the commercial fishing industry. Wind, water temperature, tidal flux, freshwater discharge, and downstream salinity all affect salinity in the St. Sebastian River estuary, but freshwater discharge is the only one of these hydrologic factors which might be affected by water-management practices. A probability analysis of salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary, taking into account the effects of freshwater discharge over a period from May 1992 to March 1996, was used to determine the likelihood (probability) that salinities, as represented by daily mean specific- conductance values, will fall below a given threshold. The effects of freshwater discharge on salinities were evaluated with a simple volumetric model fitted to time series of measured specific conductance, by using nonlinear optimization techniques. Specific-conductance values for two depths at monitored sites represent stratified flow which results from differences in salt concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Layering of freshwater and saltwater is assumed, and the model is applied independently to each layer with the assumption that the water within the layer is well mixed. The model of specific conductance as a function of discharge (a salinity response model) was combined with a model of residual variation to produce a total probability model. Flow distributions and model residuals were integrated to produce a salinity distribution and determine differences in salinity probabilities as a result of changes in water-management practices. Two possible management alternatives were analyzed: stormwater detention (reducing the peak rate of discharge but not reducing the overall flow volume) and

  2. Investigation of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) at Selected Sites in the Lower Ohio and Cumberland Rivers, September 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    tial for negatively affecting aquatic biota. Freshwater mussels, a resource with economic, ecological, and cultural value, could be affected by...Chapor I (WES) conduct a survey of freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) at two areas likely to be affected by proposed water resource developments...TECHNICAL REPORT EL-91-9 S- iINVESTIGATION OF FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNIONIDAE) AT SELECTED SITES IN THE LOWER OHIO AND CUMBERLAND RIVERS, SEPTEMBER

  3. Sediment accretion in tidal freshwater forests and oligohaline marshes of the Waccamaw and Savannah Rivers, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ensign, Scott H.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Noe, Gregory B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Stagg, Camille L.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment accretion was measured at four sites in varying stages of forest-to-marsh succession along a fresh-to-oligohaline gradient on the Waccamaw River and its tributary Turkey Creek (Coastal Plain watersheds, South Carolina) and the Savannah River (Piedmont watershed, South Carolina and Georgia). Sites included tidal freshwater forests, moderately salt-impacted forests at the freshwater–oligohaline transition, highly salt-impacted forests, and oligohaline marshes. Sediment accretion was measured by use of feldspar marker pads for 2.5 year; accessory information on wetland inundation, canopy litterfall, herbaceous production, and soil characteristics were also collected. Sediment accretion ranged from 4.5 mm year−1 at moderately salt-impacted forest on the Savannah River to 19.1 mm year−1 at its relict, highly salt-impacted forest downstream. Oligohaline marsh sediment accretion was 1.5–2.5 times greater than in tidal freshwater forests. Overall, there was no significant difference in accretion rate between rivers with contrasting sediment loads. Accretion was significantly higher in hollows than on hummocks in tidal freshwater forests. Organic sediment accretion was similar to autochthonous litter production at all sites, but inorganic sediment constituted the majority of accretion at both marshes and the Savannah River highly salt-impacted forest. A strong correlation between inorganic sediment accumulation and autochthonous litter production indicated a positive feedback between herbaceous plant production and allochthonous sediment deposition. The similarity in rates of sediment accretion and sea level rise in tidal freshwater forests indicates that these habitats may become permanently inundated if the rate of sea level rise increases.

  4. Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Steen, David A.; Hopkins, Brittney C.; Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0–33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group. PMID:24621919

  5. Freshwater mussel shells (Unionidae) chronicle changes in a North American river over the past 1000 years

    Treesearch

    Andrea K. Fritts; Mark W. Fritts; Wendell R. Haag; Jason A. DeBoer; Andrew F. Casper

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois River was substantially altered during the 20th century with the installation of navigational locks and dams, construction of extensive levee networks, and degradation of water quality. Freshwater mussels were affected by these changes.Weused sclerochronology and stable isotopes to evaluate changes over time in age-andgrowth and food sources for two mussel...

  6. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America)

    PubMed Central

    de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological

  7. Estimating freshwater productivity, overwinter survival, and migration patterns of Klamath River Coho Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manhard, Christopher V.; Som, Nicholas A.; Perry, Russell W.; Faukner, Jimmy; Soto, Toz

    2018-01-01

    An area of great importance to resource management and conservation biology in the Klamath Basin is balancing water usage against the life history requirements of threatened Coho Salmon. One tool for addressing this topic is a freshwater dynamics model to forecast Coho Salmon productivity based on environmental inputs. Constructing such a forecasting tool requires local data to quantify the unique life history processes of Coho Salmon inhabiting this region. Here, we describe analytical methods for estimating a series of sub-models, each capturing a different life history process, which will eventually be synchronized as part of a freshwater dynamics model for Klamath River Coho Salmon. Specifically, we draw upon extensive population monitoring data collected in the basin to estimate models of freshwater productivity, overwinter survival, and migration patterns. Our models of freshwater productivity indicated that high summer temperatures and high winter flows can both adversely affect smolt production and that such relationships are more likely in tributaries with naturally regulated flows due to substantial intraannual environmental variation. Our models of overwinter survival demonstrated extensive variability in survival among years, but not among rearing locations, and demonstrated that a substantial proportion (~ 20%) of age-0+ fish emigrate from some rearing sites in the winter. Our models of migration patterns indicated that many age-0+ fish redistribute in the basin during the summer and winter. Further, we observed that these redistributions can entail long migrations in the mainstem where environmental stressors likely play a role in cueing refuge entry. Finally, our models of migration patterns indicated that changes in discharge are important in cueing the seaward migration of smolts, but that the nature of this behavioral response can differ dramatically between tributaries with naturally and artificially regulated flows. Collectively, these analyses

  8. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    PubMed

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  9. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Jay P.; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K.

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  10. Estuarine Larval Development and Upstream Post-Larval Migration of Freshwater Shrimps in Two Tropical Rivers of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Jonathan P. Benstead; James G. March; Catherine M. Pringle

    2000-01-01

    Migratory freshwater shrimps represent important links between the headwaters and estuaries of many tropical rivers. These species exhibit amphidromous life cycles in which larvae are released by females in upper reaches of rivers; first stage (i.e., newly hatched) larvae drift passively to coastal environments where they develop and metamorphose into postlarvae...

  11. Spatial patterns of native freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Patricia R.; DeJager, Nathan R.; Zigler, Steven J.; Newton, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Multiple physical and biological factors structure freshwater mussel communities in large rivers, and their distributions have been described as clumped or patchy. However, few surveys of mussel populations have been conducted over areas large enough and at resolutions fine enough to quantify spatial patterns in their distribution. We used global and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (i.e., Moran’s I) to quantify spatial patterns of adult and juvenile (≤5 y of age) freshwater mussels across multiple scales based on survey data from 4 reaches (navigation pools 3, 5, 6, and 18) of the Upper Mississippi River, USA. Native mussel densities were sampled at a resolution of ∼300 m and across distances ranging from 21 to 37 km, making these some of the most spatially extensive surveys conducted in a large river. Patch density and the degree and scale of patchiness varied by river reach, age group, and the scale of analysis. In all 4 pools, some patches of adults overlapped patches of juveniles, suggesting spatial and temporal persistence of adequate habitat. In pools 3 and 5, patches of juveniles were found where there were few adults, suggesting recent emergence of positive structuring mechanisms. Last, in pools 3, 5, and 6, some patches of adults were found where there were few juveniles, suggesting that negative structuring mechanisms may have replaced positive ones, leading to a lack of localized recruitment. Our results suggest that: 1) the detection of patches of freshwater mussels requires a multiscaled approach, 2) insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of structuring mechanisms can be gained by conducting independent analyses of adults and juveniles, and 3) maps of patch distributions can be used to guide restoration and management actions and identify areas where mussels are most likely to influence ecosystem function.

  12. Use of seasonal freshwater wetlands by fishes in a temperate river floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henning, Julie A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the use of freshwater wetland restoration and enhancement projects (i.e. non-estuarine wetlands subject to seasonal drying) by fish populations. To quantify fish use of freshwater emergent wetlands and assess the effect of wetland enhancement (i.e. addition of water control structures), two enhanced and two unenhanced emergent wetlands were compared, as well as two oxbow habitats within the Chehalis River floodplain. Eighteen fish species were captured using fyke nets and emigrant traps from January to the beginning of June, with the most abundant being three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and Olympic mudminnow Novumbra hubbsi. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch was the dominant salmonid at all sites. Enhanced wetlands, with their extended hydroperiods, had significantly higher abundances of yearling coho salmon than unenhanced wetlands. Both enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands yielded higher abundances of non-game native fishes than oxbow habitats. Oxbow habitats, however, were dominated by coho salmon. Fish survival in the wetland habitats was dependent on emigration to the river before dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased and wetlands became isolated and stranding occurred. This study suggests that wetland enhancement projects with an outlet to the river channel appear to provide fishes with important temporary habitats if they have the opportunity to leave the wetland as dissolved oxygen levels deteriorate.

  13. The "fault of the Pool" along the Congo River between Kinshasa and Brazzaville, R(D)Congo is no more a myth: Paleostress from small-scale brittle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Ganza, Gloire; Kongota, Elvis; Fukiabantu, Guilain; Mbokola, Dim; Boudzoumou, Florent; Miyouna, Timothée; Gampio, Urbain; Nkodia, Hardy

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale brittle structures such as shear fractures and tension joints are well developed in the indurated Paleozoic Inkisi red sandstones of the West-Congo Supergroup in the "pool" region of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, along the Congo River. They appear to be related to the evolution of intraplate stresses during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene period, possibly related to the opening of the South Atlantic. However, inferring paleostresses from such structures is difficult due to the lack of clear kinematic indicators, so we used mainly the geometry, architecture and sequence of the joint systems to infer paleostresses. A limited number of kinematic indicators for slip sense (displaced pebbles, irregularities on striated surfaces, slickensides) or extension (plume joints) confirm the general conclusions of the joint architecture analysis. We found evidence for two major brittle deformation systems, leading to almost orthogonal fracture sets. They both started by the development of plume joints, which progressively evolved into open tension joints, isolated shear fractures and long (up to several hundred meters) brittle shear zones. The first system started to develop under NE-SW extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNW-SSE horizontal compression while the second (and later), started to develop under NW-SE extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNE-SSW horizontal compression. The second brittle deformation episode was associated with fluid flow as shown by the presence of palygorskite-calcite veins in the most prominent fractures of the second fracture system. Along the NE-SW brittle shear zones which run parallel to the Congo River, carbonate-rich fault-gauge lenses are filled by sand derived from the crushed adjacent walls and calcite vein fragments injected at a high fluid pressure, with late precipitation of palygorskite. Our study demonstrates the existence of two fault systems between Kinshasa and Brazzaville, the first one orthogonal to the trend

  14. Trace metals and persistent organic pollutants in sediments from river-reservoir systems in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Spatial distribution and potential ecotoxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Birane, Niane; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence and spatial distribution of metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs: including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from a river-reservoir system. Surface sediments were sampled from thirteen sites of the Congo River Basin and Lake Ma Vallée, both situated in the vicinity of the capital city Kinshasa (Congo Democratic Republic). Sediment qualities were evaluated using toxicity test based on exposing Ostracods to the sediment samples. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediments subjected to anthropogenic influences, urban runoff and domestic and industrial wastewaters, discharge into the Congo River basin. Ostracods exposed to the sediments resulted in 100% mortality rates after 6d of incubation, indicating the ultimate toxicity of these sediments as well as potential environmental risks. The POPs and PAHs levels in all sediment samples were low, with maximum concentration found in the sediments (area of pool Malebo): OCP value ranged from 0.02 to 2.50 with ∑OCPs: 3.3μgkg(-1); PCB ranged from 0.07 to 0.99 with Total PCBs (∑7×4.3): 15.31μgkg(-1); PAH value ranged from 0.12 to 9.39 with ∑PAHs: 63.89μgkg(-1). Our results indicate that the deterioration of urban river-reservoir water quality result mainly from urban stormwater runoff, untreated industrial effluents which discharge into the river-reservoirs, human activities and uncontrolled urbanization. This study represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in river-reservoir systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Freshwater decapod crustaceans (Palaemonidae, Cambaridae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, H.H. III; Thorp, J.H.; Anderson, G.E.

    Decapod crustaceans (specifically crayfishes and freshwater shrimps) are quite numerous in the drainages of the southeastern United States and occupy an extremely important niche in aquatic systems. As predators they act as disturbance components on benthic freshwater communities and may serve an integral position in the early stages of detrital decomposition. They constitute an important prey item in the diets of a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate predators, including game fishes, such as Micropterus salmoides (La Crepede) and other centrarchids. Researchers at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) employ these crustaceans in studies of the effects of thermal andmore » heavy metal pollution on survival and behavior, as well as in investigations of the fates of heavy metals and radioactive pollution in freshwater environments. A common problem to these studies is the uncertainty of species determinations, and it is our intent to present an illustrated dichotomous key to the decapod crustaceans found in the aquatic habitats of the SRP. In addition, each species is treated separately with reference to specific taxonomic characters, ecology, life history, color patterns, etc. A brief discussion of collecting techniques, preservation and preparation and equipment needed for identification also is presented.« less

  16. Size-selective mortality of steelhead during freshwater and marine life stages related to freshwater growth in the Skagit River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Jamie N.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated freshwater growth and survival from juvenile (ages 0–3) to smolt (ages 1–5) and adult stages in wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss sampled in different precipitation zones of the Skagit River basin, Washington. Our objectives were to determine whether significant size-selective mortality (SSM) in steelhead could be detected between early and later freshwater stages and between each of these freshwater stages and returning adults and, if so, how SSM varied between these life stages and mixed and snow precipitation zones. Scale-based size-at-annulus comparisons indicated that steelhead in the snow zone were significantly larger at annulus 1 than those in the mixed rain–snow zone. Size at annuli 2 and 3 did not differ between precipitation zones, and we found no precipitation zone × life stage interaction effect on size at annulus. Significant freshwater and marine SSM was evident between the juvenile and adult samples at annulus 1 and between each life stage at annuli 2 and 3. Rapid growth between the final freshwater annulus and the smolt migration did not improve survival to adulthood; rather, it appears that survival in the marine environment may be driven by an overall higher growth rate set earlier in life, which results in a larger size at smolt migration. Efforts for recovery of threatened Puget Sound steelhead could benefit by considering that SSM between freshwater and marine life stages can be partially attributed to growth attained in freshwater habitats and by identifying those factors that limit growth during early life stages.

  17. Suspended sediment transport in the freshwater reach of the Hudson river estuary in eastern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, G.R.; Nystrom, E.A.; Litten, S.

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of Hudson River sediment into New York Harbor interferes with navigation lanes and requires continuous dredging. Sediment dynamics at the Hudson estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) have received considerable study, but delivery of sediment to the ETM through the freshwater reach of the estuary has received relatively little attention and few direct measurements. An acoustic Doppler current profiler was positioned at the approximate limit of continuous freshwater to develop a 4-year time series of water velocity, discharge, suspended sediment concentration, and suspended sediment discharge. This data set was compared with suspended sediment discharge data collected during the same period at two sites just above the Hudson head-of-tide (the Federal Dam at Troy) that together represent the single largest source of sediment entering the estuary. The mean annual suspended sediment-discharge from the freshwater reach of the estuary was 737,000 metric tons. Unexpectedly, the total suspended sediment discharge at the study site in November and December slightly exceeded that observed during March and April, the months during which rain and snowmelt typically result in the largest sediment discharge to the estuary. Suspended sediment discharge at the study site exceeded that from the Federal Dam, even though the intervening reach appears to store significant amounts of sediment, suggesting that 30-40% of sediment discharge observed at the study site is derived from tributaries to the estuary between the Federal Dam and study site. A simple model of sediment entering and passing through the freshwater reach on a timescale of weeks appears reasonable during normal hydrologic conditions in adjoining watersheds; however, this simple model may dramatically overestimate sediment delivery during extreme tributary high flows, especially those at the end of, or after, the "flushing season" (October through April). Previous estimates of annual or seasonal sediment delivery

  18. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  20. [Prevalence of metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in wild freshwater fishes from Nenjiang River around Qiqihaer City].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-xin; Sun, Yan-hong; Zhang, Hao; Li, Chao-pin

    2014-08-01

    From May to November 2013, a total of 1175 wild freshwater fishes were collected from the rivers of Chuoer, Yalu, Wuyuer, Alun, and Yin in Nenjiang River basin Qiqihaer City, and examined for metacercariae by direct compression method. The metacercariae were collected by artificial digestion method. Forty Kunming mice were infected with 30-40 metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis. The mice were sacrificed 36 days after infection, and the adult worms were collected from bile duct, and observed under microscope. The results showed that a total of 1 175 fishes, belonging to nine species were taken from the Nenjiang basin of Qiqihaer region. The infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae was 51.2% (602/1 175). All the species were infected besides Silurus asotus, and the highest prevalence (82.7%, 91/149) was found in Longnose gudgeon and the lowest (7.1%, 6/84) in Perccottus glenii. Among the rivers, the highest prevalence of metacercariae was in Wuyuer River. (65.7%, 218/332), and the lowest was in Alun River and Yin River (24.1%, 67/278) (P<0.05). Each part of the body in the Carassius auratus and Pseudorasbora parva were susceptible for metacercariae. The main infection site in Longnose gudgeon was the fish scales, and C. sinensis metacercaria was first discovered in the brain tissue of Phoxinus lagowskii. The experimental results showed that the adult worms of C. sinensis were found in the hepatic bile duct of the mice, with an infection rate of 85.0% (34/40). The suckers, digestive system and reproductive system of C. sinensis were visible clearly.

  1. Biodiversity of freshwater fish of a protected river in India: comparison with unprotected habitat.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Tyagi, Lalit Kumar; Srivastava, Satyendra Mohan; Singh, Shri Prakash; Dubey, Vineet Kumar

    2013-03-01

    In India, freshwater environments are experiencing serious threats to biodiversity, and there is an urgent priority for the search of alternative techniques to promote fish biodiversity conservation and management. With this aim, the present study was undertaken to assess the fish biodiversity within and outside a river protected area, and to evaluate whether the protected river area provides some benefits to riverine fish biodiversity. To assess this, the pattern of freshwater fish diversity was studied in river Gerua, along with some physicochemical conditions, from April 2000 to March 2004. For this, a comparison was made between a 15km stretch of a protected area (Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary), and an unprotected one 85km downstream. In each site some physicochemical conditions were obtained, and fish were caught by normal gears and the diversity per site described. Our results showed that water temperature resulted warmest during the pre-monsoon season (25 degreeC) and low during the winter (14-15 degreeC); turbidity considerably varied by season. In the protected area, a total of 87 species belonging to eight orders, 22 families and 52 genera were collected; while a maximum of 59 species belonging to six orders, 20 families and 42 genera were recorded from the unprotected areas. Cyprinids were found to be the most dominant genera and Salmostoma bacaila was the most numerous species in the sanctuary area. Other numerous species were Eutropiichthys vacha, Notopterus notopterus, Clupisoma garua and Bagarius bagarius. The results indicated more species, greater abundances, larger individuals, and higher number of endangered fishes within the sanctuary area when compared to the unprotected area. Analysis on the mean abundance of endangered and vulnerable species for the evaluated areas in the sanctuary versus unprotected ones indicated significant differences in fish abundance (p<0.05). These results showed that this riverine protected area could be important

  2. Freshwater Ecosystem Services and Hydrologic Alteration in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasarer, L.; Taylor, J.; Rigby, J.; Locke, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Flowing freshwater ecosystems provide a variety of essential ecosystem services including: consumptive water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use; transportation of goods; maintenance of aquatic biodiversity and water quality; and recreation. However, freshwater ecosystem services can oftentimes be at odds with each other. For example, the over-consumption of water for agricultural production or domestic use may alter hydrologic patterns and diminish the ability of flowing waters to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. In the Lower Mississippi River Basin there has been a substantial increase in groundwater-irrigated cropland acreage over the past several decades and subsequent declines in regional aquifer levels. Changes in aquifer levels potentially impact surface water hydrology throughout the region. This study tests the hypothesis that flowing water systems in lowland agricultural watersheds within the Lower Mississippi River Basin have greater hydrologic alteration compared to upland non-agricultural watersheds, particularly with declines in base flow and an increase in extreme low flows. Long-term streamflow records from USGS gauges located in predominantly agricultural and non-agricultural watersheds in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee were evaluated from 1969 -2016 using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) software. Preliminary results from 8 non-agricultural and 5 agricultural watersheds demonstrate a substantial decline in base flow in the agricultural watersheds, which is not apparent in the non-agricultural watersheds. This exploratory study will analyze the trade-off between gains in agricultural productivity and changes in ecohydrological indicators over the last half century in diverse watersheds across the Lower Mississippi River Basin. By quantifying the changes in ecosystem services provided by flowing waters in the past, we can inform sustainable management pathways to better balance services in the future.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Freshwater Inputs in the Shelf Area of the Ofanto River (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verri, G.; Pinardi, N.; Tribbia, J. J.; Gochis, D.; Bryan, F.; Tseng, Y. H.; Navarra, A.; Coppini, G.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to understand and to assess the effects of river freshwater release on the ocean circulation and dynamics focusing on the shelf area near estuaries. A sensitivity study to different modelling approaches, which point to the representation of the dynamics of the river inflow, are presented. The modeling strategy we chose consists of an integrated modeling chain including the atmosphere, the hydrology/hydraulics and the estuarine dynamics in order to force our regional ocean model at the Ofanto outlet in a reliable way. This meteo-hydrological modeling chain allows us to take into account all the physical processes involved in the local water cycle of the Ofanto catchment such as the rainfall, the land surface infiltration/evaporation, the partitioning of total runoff into surface and subsurface runoff and the channel streamflow. In order to achieve our goal, we chose the Ofanto river catchment and its estuary as case study. The Ofanto river is a torrential river flowing across the Southern Italy and ending in the Adriatic Sea; its annual averaged discharge is low (15 m3s-1 following Raicich, 1996) but may significantly increase when heavy rain events occur. In details our regional ocean model is a finite difference numerical model based on NEMO code (Madec, G., 2008) and implemented in the Central Mediterranean Sea with 2km as horizontal resolution. The meteo-hydrological modeling chain consists of: 1) the WRF-ARW model (Skamarock et al., 2008) including NOAH-MP as Land Surface Submodel,; 2) WRF-HYDRO model (Gochis D., et al., 2013) representing the hydrology/hydraulics component with 200m as horizontal resolution, simulating the streamflow discharge along the Ofanto river network.; 3) finally an estuarine box model (Garvine et al., 2006) is inserted downstream of WRF-Hydro and upstream of the regional ocean model. A set of sensitivity experiments has been performed aiming to evaluate the capability of the regional ocean model to decribe the

  4. Arsenic contamination in the freshwater fish ponds of Pearl River Delta: bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Chen, Kun-Ci; Li, Kai-Bin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the extent of arsenic (As) contamination in five common species of freshwater fish (northern snakehead [Channa argus], mandrarin fish [Siniperca chuatsi], largemouth bass [Lepomis macrochirous], bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis] and grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus]) and their associated fish pond sediments collected from 18 freshwater fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The total As concentrations detected in fish muscle and sediment in freshwater ponds around the PRD were 0.05-3.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight (w. wt) and 8.41-22.76 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt), respectively. In addition, the As content was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to total organic carbon (TOC) contents in sediments. Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) showed that omnivorous fish and zooplankton accumulated higher concentrations of heavy metals from the sediment than carnivorous fish. In addition, feeding habits of fish also influence As accumulation in different fish species. In this study, two typical food chains of the aquaculture ponds were selected for investigation: (1) omnivorous food chain (zooplankton, grass carp and bighead carp) and (2) predatory food chain (zooplankton, mud carp and mandarin fish). Significant linear relationships were obtained between log As and δ (15)N. The slope of the regression (-0.066 and -0.078) of the log transformed As concentrations and δ (15)N values, as biomagnifications power, indicated there was no magnification or diminution of As from lower trophic levels (zooplankton) to fish in the aquaculture ponds. Consumption of largemouth bass, northern snakehead and bighead carp might impose health risks of Hong Kong residents consuming these fish to the local population, due to the fact that its cancer risk (CR) value exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels (10(-4)) stipulated by the USEPA.

  5. Absolute water storages in the Congo River floodplains from integration of InSAR and satellite radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Yuan, T.; Jung, H. C.; Aierken, A.; Beighley, E.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Tshimanga, R.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    Floodplains delay the transport of water, dissolved matter and sediments by storing water during flood peak seasons. Estimation of water storage over the floodplains is essential to understand the water balances in the fluvial systems and the role of floodplains in nutrient and sediment transport. However, spatio-temporal variations of water storages over floodplains are not well known due to their remoteness, vastness, and high temporal variability. In this study, we propose a new method to estimate absolute water storages over the floodplains by establishing relations between water depths (d) and water volumes (V) using 2-D water depth maps from the integration of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and altimetry measurements. We applied this method over the Congo River floodplains and modeled the d-V relation using a power function (note that d-V indicates relation between d and V, not d minus V), which revealed the cross-section geometry of the floodplains as a convex curve. Then, we combined this relation and Envisat altimetry measurements to construct time series of floodplain's absolute water storages from 2002 to 2011. Its mean annual amplitude over the floodplains ( 7,777 km2) is 3.860.59 km3 with peaks in December, which lags behind total water storage (TWS) changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and precipitation changes from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) by about one month. The results also exhibit inter-annual variability, with maximum water volume to be 5.9 +- 0.72 km3 in the wet year of 2002 and minimum volume to be 2.01 +- 0.63 km3 in the dry year of 2005. The inter-annual variation of water storages can be explained by the changes of precipitation from TRMM.

  6. Fresh-water discharge salinity relations in the tidal Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1966-01-01

    Sustained flows of fresh water greater than 3,500, 4,400, and 5,300 cubic feet per second into the Delaware River estuary at Trenton, NJ assure low salinity at League Island, Eddystone, and Marcus Hook, respectively. When the discharge at Trenton is less than these critical values, salinity is very sensitive to change in discharge, so that a relatively small decrease in fresh-water discharge results in a relatively great increase in salinity. Comparison of the discharge-salinity relations observed for the 14-year period August 1949-December 1963 with relations proposed by other workers but based on other time periods indicate that such relations change with time and that salinity is affected not only by discharge but also by dredging; construction of breakwater, dikes, and tidal barriers; changing sea level; tidal elevation; tidal range; and wind intensity and direction.

  7. Freshwater aquatic macrophytes as heavy metal monitors - the Ottawa River experience.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D C

    1985-09-01

    The ability of freshwater aquatic vascular plants to accumulate heavy metals was examined in some detail during a five year study. Differences in uptake rate were found to depend on the species of plant, the seasonal growth rate changes and the metal ion being absorbed. Lead and mercury were concentrated to a greater extent than the lighter nickel and copper. Laboratory experiments were designed to establish uptake rate constants which were used to calculate water concentrations of mercury from the analyses of plant samples from the river. 'Background' levels of mercury in aquatic plants of 35-50 ng g(-1) dry weight corresponded to a water concentration near 15 ng L(-1) of total mercury of which 25-30% was methylmercury. Higher concentrations of mercury in the plants indicated a proportional increase in the mercury level in the water.

  8. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify thesemore » services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized soil water content index (SSWI), and standardized streamflow index (SSI). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI12 than SPI12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to

  9. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-05-08

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index ( SPI ), standardized soil water content index ( SSWI ), and standardized streamflow index ( SSI ). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI 12 than SPI 12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to

  10. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized soil water content index (SSWI), and standardized streamflow index (SSI). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI12 than SPI12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to extreme

  11. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; ...

    2017-05-08

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify thesemore » services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized soil water content index (SSWI), and standardized streamflow index (SSI). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI12 than SPI12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to

  12. Field studies of estuarine turbidity under different freshwater flow conditions, Kaipara River, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Steven B.; Green, Malcolm O.; MacDonald, Iain T.; Pritchard, Mark

    2017-11-01

    We present a first interpretation of three days of measurements made in 2013 from the tidal reaches of the Kaipara River (New Zealand) under both low and high freshwater inputs and a neap tidal cycle. During the first day, we occupied two stations that were approximately 6 km apart in a tidal reach that runs for 25 km from the river mouth to the upstream limit of tidal influence. During the second day, longitudinal surveys were conducted over a distance of 6 km centred on the upstream station. The data reveal a turbidity maximum in the form of a high-concentration 'plug' of suspended mud that was advected downstream on the ebbing tide past the upper (HB) measurement station and which exchanged sediment with the seabed by settling at low slack water and by resuspension in the early flooding tide. The data suggest that fine sediment is transported landwards and trapped in the upper part of the tidal reach under these low-flow conditions. On the third day of measurements we repeated the experiments of the first day but later in the year, for a much higher freshwater flow. This interpretation of our data set highlights the potential contribution of a range of processes to the generation of the observed suspended-sediment signals, including resuspension of local bed sediment, advection by the tidal current, settling of suspended sediment over a long timescale compared to the advection timescale, advection of longitudinal gradients in suspended sediment, and suppression of vertical mixing by density stratification of the water column. The level of temporal and spatial detail afforded by these measurements allows a much clearer understanding of the timing and importance of vertical stratification on the transport of suspended particulate matter than is generally possible using fixed-point sensors.

  13. Patterns of seed bank and vegetation diversity along a tidal freshwater river.

    PubMed

    Elsey-Quirk, Tracy; Leck, Mary Allessio

    2015-12-01

    Species richness and diversity may increase with spatial scale related to increased area and heterogeneity of habitat. Yet, in bidirectional hydrologically connected tidal ecosystems, secondary dispersal via hydrochory has the potential to homogenize seed banks, and both life history characteristics and tolerances to environmental conditions influence the composition of plant communities. How species richness, diversity, and composition of seed banks and vegetation change along environmental gradients and at different spatial scales is not well understood. We explored the relationships of seed bank and vegetation diversity across 135 plots along a tidal freshwater river in the Delaware Estuary, USA. Species richness and diversity were partitioned across three hierarchical spatial scales: individual plots, transects perpendicular to the tidal channel, and river kilometers. Community structure was also examined as it related to distance from the tidal channel and location along the tidal river. Species richness was 89 in the seed bank and 54 in the vegetation. Species-area relationships revealed that species richness reached a near maximum asymptote inland (20 m from channel) for the seed bank and at the edge (0 m) for the vegetation. Rare occurrences of species in the seed bank and vegetation were greatest 5 m from the channel edge. As spatial scale increased, seed bank richness increased, associated with the progressive accumulation of species. Seed bank diversity, however, was maximized within small plot areas and along the river. Diversity of the vegetation was maximized locally due to the abundance of a few common species. These findings suggest that suites of common species contributed to high localized vegetation diversity, yet large spatial scales maximized the number and diversity of species in the seed bank and vegetation through rare encounters, as well as the complexity of the landscape. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Consumption of freshwater bivalves by muskrats in the Green River, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hersey, Kimberly Asmus; Clark, Joseph D.; Layzer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are known to prey on freshwater bivalves (mussels and clams) and can negatively impact imperiled mussel species. However, factors that influence muskrat predation on bivalves are poorly understood. We evaluated the feeding ecology of muskrats in the Green River, Kentucky, by using stable isotope analysis of muskrat hair samples and by monitoring bivalve shell deposition at muskrat middens. Bayesian mixing-model analysis of stable isotope δ15N and δ13C ratios revealed that the median muskrat biomass derived from bivalves was 51.4% (5th and 95th percentiles were 39.1 to 63.4%, respectively), a much higher dietary proportion than previously reported. Shell depositions by muskrats at middens decreased with the availability of seasonal emergent vegetation, suggesting that the consumption of animal matter is in response to a scarcity of plant foods, perhaps exacerbated by the altered flow regimes on the Green River. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that muskrats have the potential to impact mussel population growth and recovery in some environments.

  15. River dolphins can act as population trend indicators in degraded freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Samuel T; Risley, Claire L; Barrett, Leigh A; Yujiang, Hao; Ding, Wang

    2012-01-01

    Conservation attention on charismatic large vertebrates such as dolphins is often supported by the suggestion that these species represent surrogates for wider biodiversity, or act as indicators of ecosystem health. However, their capacity to act as indicators of patterns or trends in regional biodiversity has rarely been tested. An extensive new dataset of >300 last-sighting records for the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji and two formerly economically important fishes, the Yangtze paddlefish and Reeves' shad, all of which are probably now extinct in the Yangtze, was collected during an interview survey of fishing communities across the middle-lower Yangtze drainage. Untransformed last-sighting date frequency distributions for these species show similar decline curves over time, and the linear gradients of transformed last-sighting date series are not significantly different from each other, demonstrating that these species experienced correlated population declines in both timing and rate of decline. Whereas species may be expected to respond differently at the population level even in highly degraded ecosystems, highly vulnerable (e.g. migratory) species can therefore display very similar responses to extrinsic threats, even if they represent otherwise very different taxonomic, biological and ecological groupings. Monitoring the status of river dolphins or other megafauna therefore has the potential to provide wider information on the status of other threatened components of sympatric freshwater biotas, and so represents a potentially important monitoring tool for conservation management. We also show that interview surveys can provide robust quantitative data on relative population dynamics of different species.

  16. Taxonomic challenges in freshwater fishes: a mismatch between morphology and DNA barcoding in fish of the north-eastern part of the Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Decru, Eva; Moelants, Tuur; De Gelas, Koen; Vreven, Emmanuel; Verheyen, Erik; Snoeks, Jos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of DNA barcoding to traditional morphology-based species identifications for the fish fauna of the north-eastern Congo basin. We compared DNA sequences (COI) of 821 samples from 206 morphologically identified species. Best match, best close match and all species barcoding analyses resulted in a rather low identification success of 87.5%, 84.5% and 64.1%, respectively. The ratio 'nearest-neighbour distance/maximum intraspecific divergence' was lower than 1 for 26.1% of the samples, indicating possible taxonomic problems. In ten genera, belonging to six families, the number of species inferred from mtDNA data exceeded the number of species identified using morphological features; and in four cases indications of possible synonymy were detected. Finally, the DNA barcodes confirmed previously known identification problems within certain genera of the Clariidae, Cyprinidae and Mormyridae. Our results underscore the large number of taxonomic problems lingering in the taxonomy of the fish fauna of the Congo basin and illustrate why DNA barcodes will contribute to future efforts to compile a reliable taxonomic inventory of the Congo basin fish fauna. Therefore, the obtained barcodes were deposited in the reference barcode library of the Barcode of Life Initiative. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Spatial and temporal relationships among watershed mining, water quality, and freshwater mussel status in an eastern USA river.

    PubMed

    Zipper, Carl E; Donovan, Patricia F; Jones, Jess W; Li, Jing; Price, Jennifer E; Stewart, Roger E

    2016-01-15

    The Powell River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee, USA, drains a watershed with extensive coal surface mining, and it hosts exceptional biological richness, including at-risk species of freshwater mussels, downstream of mining-disturbed watershed areas. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of watershed mining disturbance; their relationship to water quality change in the section of the river that connects mining areas to mussel habitat; and relationships of mining-related water constituents to measures of recent and past mussel status. Freshwater mussels in the Powell River have experienced significant declines over the past 3.5 decades. Over that same period, surface coal mining has influenced the watershed. Water-monitoring data collected by state and federal agencies demonstrate that dissolved solids and associated constituents that are commonly influenced by Appalachian mining (specific conductance, pH, hardness and sulfates) have experienced increasing temporal trends from the 1960s through ~2008; but, of those constituents, only dissolved solids concentrations are available widely within the Powell River since ~2008. Dissolved solids concentrations have stabilized in recent years. Dissolved solids, specific conductance, pH, and sulfates also exhibited spatial patterns that are consistent with dilution of mining influence with increasing distance from mined areas. Freshwater mussel status indicators are correlated negatively with dissolved solids concentrations, spatially and temporally, but the direct causal mechanisms responsible for mussel declines remain unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of upwelling on pathway and freshwater transport of Pearl River plume in northeastern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Jiang, Yuwu; Liu, James T.; Gong, Wenping

    2017-08-01

    In situ observations, satellite images, and numerical modeling results have shown that the Pearl River plume axis extends alongshore and passes through two separate upwelling regions—one off the Guangdong and Fujian coasts (the Yuedong upwelling) and the other in the Taiwan Bank during the initial and medium stages of the Yuedong upwelling, while it is directed offshore when the Yuedong upwelling is strong. Model experiments are conducted to examine the effects of wind strength and baroclinicity on the upwelling and the corresponding pathway and freshwater transport of the Pearl River plume. The baroclinic effect is important to intensifying the horizontal velocity at the upwelling front and freshwater transport in the northeastern South China Sea. The freshwater transport flux is further decomposed into advection, vertical shear, and tidal pumping components, and advection is the dominant contributor. As the Yuedong upwelling develops, the zone with a relatively high-pressure gradient moves offshore due to offshore Ekman transport and the shift in the upwelling front, which is responsible for the offshore transport of the river plume. When the river plume is transported to the outer-shelf, sometimes it can be further entrained into eddies, allowing its export to the open sea.

  19. Characterization of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of three freshwater rivers in Huludao City, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Na; Wang, Qichao; Liang, Zhongzhu; Zheng, Dongmei

    2008-07-01

    Wuli River, Cishan River, and Lianshan River are three freshwater rivers flowing through Huludao City, in a region of northeast China strongly affected by industrialization. Contamination assessment has never been conducted in a comprehensive way. For the first time, the contamination of three rivers impacted by different sources in the same city was compared. This work investigated the distribution and sources of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in the surface sediments of Wuli River, Cishan River, and Lianshan River, and assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM; and threshold effect level/probable effect level, TEL/PEL). Furthermore, this study used a toxic unit approach to compare and gauge the individual and combined metal contamination for Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. Results showed that Hg contamination in the sediments of Wuli River originated from previous sediment contamination of the chlor-alkali producing industry, and Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu contamination was mainly derived from atmospheric deposition and unknown small pollution sources. Heavy metal contamination to Cishan River sediments was mainly derived from Huludao Zinc Plant, while atmospheric deposition, sewage wastewater and unknown small pollution were the primary sources for Lianshan River. The potential acute toxicity in sediment of Wuli River may be primarily due to Hg contamination. Hg is the major toxicity contributor, accounting for 53.3-93.2%, 7.9-54.9% to total toxicity in Wuli River and Lianshan River, respectively, followed by Cd. In Cishan River, Cd is the major sediment toxicity contributor, however, accounting for 63.2-66.9% of total toxicity.

  20. Verification of a ‘freshwater-type’ life history variant of juvenile American shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Larsen, Kimberly A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad are native to the Atlantic coast of North America and were successfully introduced to the Pacific coast in the 1870s. They are now more abundant in the Columbia River than are its native salmon. As in their native range, Columbia River American shad are anadromous and have been assumed to solely exhibit an ‘ocean-type’ life history, characterized by a short period of juvenile rearing in freshwater, followed by seaward migration and saltwater entry before age-1, with sexually mature individuals returning to freshwater to spawn beginning at age-3. During October 2007, emigrating juvenile American shad were captured in the juvenile fish monitoring facility at Bonneville Dam (river kilometer 235) on the Columbia River. Their length frequencies revealed the presence of two modes; the lower mode averaged 77 mm fork length (FL) and the upper mode averaged 184 mm FL. A subsample of fish from each mode was aged using otoliths. Otoliths from the lower mode (n=10) had no annuli, indicating that they were all age-0, while otoliths from the upper mode (n=25) had one or two annuli, indicating that they were either age-1 or age-2, respectively. Spawning adults collected in June 2007 averaged 393 mm FL (range 305-460 mm; n=21) and were estimated to range in age from 3-6. Elemental analyses of juvenile and adult otoliths provide evidence for deviations from the typical migration pattern expected for this species, including extensive freshwater rearing of up to two years. This evidence shows that a ‘freshwater-type’ of juvenile American shad exists as year-round or transient residents in the Columbia River basin. The ecological role of this life history variant within the fish community is unknown.

  1. Metal concentrations of common freshwater and marine fish from the Pearl River Delta, south China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Wong, M H

    2008-05-01

    Sediments and fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) were collected from different fish ponds in the Pearl River Delta (Tanzhou, Sanjiao, Guangzhou, Shipai, Changan, and Mai Po) for the analysis of metalloids and heavy metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)]. The pollution of As in pond sediments was great; however, As in the edible parts of pond fish were within the international permissible safety levels for human consumption. Axial muscles from 10 species each of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were also analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Freshwater fish contained 0.24 to 2.13 mg/kg As, 0.10 to 0.17 mg/kg Cd, 0.09 to 0.36 mg/kg Cr, 0.06 to 0.35 mg/kg Cu, 0.07 to 0.34 mg/kg Hg, 0.04 to 0.36 mg/kg Ni, 0.11 to 0.52 mg/kg Pb, and 2.67 to 19.1 mg/kg Zn (wet weight). Marine fish had higher Hg and lower Pb concentrations than freshwater fish. A few fish species had average concentrations greater than the international standards for Cd and Pb established by the European Union and the China National Standard Management Department. Total Hg concentrations in 10 of 20 market fish species were generally greater than those of the World Health Organization's recommended limit of 0.2 mg/kg for at-risk groups, such as children and pregnant women. Daily intake through fish consumption of these metals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. There appears to be potential threat to local people from Hg contamination because of the high marine fish consumption rate (142 g/d/person).

  2. First-year growth, condition, and size-selective winter mortality of freshwater drum in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    We compared first-year growth and relative condition (Kn) of the 1997 and 1998 year-classes of freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens among three sites in a 235-km reach of the channelized Missouri River and tested for the occurrence of size-selective overwinter mortality during the first winter. Prewinter mean length was 15 mm greater, mean weight was 8 g greater, and mean Kn was 5% greater at the upstream site than at the downstream site. The prewinter mean length of age-0 freshwater drum was significantly greater in 1997 (115 mm) than in 1998 (109 mm), but Kn was significantly greater in 1998 (107) than in 1997 (102). There was no evidence that density-dependent interactions influenced prewinter growth and Kn. Size-selective overwinter mortality of the smallest size-classes of freshwater drum occurred at two of three sites during the 1997-1998 winter, and K n decreased 9-15%. Size-selective overwinter mortality of the 1998 cohort of freshwater drum did not occur during the 1998-1999 winter, and K n declined 0-10%. A prolonged growing season (through early December 1998), in conjunction with less severe winter water temperature conditions, apparently minimized the incidence of size-selective overwinter mortality for the 1998 cohort of freshwater drum. We conclude that size-selective overwinter mortality of age-0 freshwater drum occurs in the lower channelized Missouri River but depends on the length of the prewinter growing season, winter duration, and the severity of winter water temperatures.

  3. Variation in stable isotopes of freshwater mussel shells in a Kentucky river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhardt, A. M.; Haag, W.; Price, S.; Weisrock, D.

    2017-12-01

    Isotopic signatures in freshwater mussel shells can reflect environmental differences among streams and human impacts on river systems. In the southeastern United States, mussels exhibit extraordinary biodiversity, serve an important role as filter feeders, and are sensitive to environmental change. Additionally, their long life-span (up to 50 years) and seasonal shell deposition can permit high-resolution environmental reconstructions. We examined variation in shell stable isotope values among mussel species and locations throughout the Licking River system in Kentucky. We sampled 8 species at 11 locations. These species represented a range of life-history traits, and locations were distributed among tributaries and the main stem of the Licking River. Samples of the outer organic periostracum layer were analysed for organic δ13C and δ15N, while organic δ15N and inorganic δ13C and δ18O were measured in the inner carbonate portion of the shell. At the same location, preliminary results show variations 2‰ in δ13C and 1‰ in δ15N between different species. We suspect these relationships are due to variations in diet and/or body size. Some, though not all, specimens show variation along the growth axis. For the same species at different locations, preliminary results showed a range of 4‰ in δ13C and 10‰ in δ15N values. Isotope ratios of specimens from the main stem were distinct from those of specimens from the river's largest tributary. Overall, δ13C shows distinct values for each tributary, while δ15N shows a general decline downstream. These variations are likely the result of environmental factors such as the degree of karstification and the ratio of forest to pasture within the catchment. We hope to use this study to identify if any isotopically distinct sources, such as fertilizers or animal manure, contribute to the high nutrient load in these systems. These results represent an exploratory effort to describe watershed-scale and mussel

  4. Freshwater Fish Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  5. Assessing the health condition profile in the freshwater fish Astyanax aeneus in Champoton River, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Jiménez, Patricia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; López-López, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers for monitoring aquatic environmental quality has gained considerable interest worldwide. The effects of the environmental conditions of Río Champotón, México, in the hotspot of Mesoamerica, were assessed in Astyanax aeneus, a native fish of the tropics of southwestern México. Pollution from agrochemical residues is a major problem in Río Champotón. Three study sites along the freshwater portion of the river were monitored in April, July, and November 2007 and February 2008. This study includes a water quality index, a set of biomarkers (hepatic glycogen levels and lipid peroxidation in liver, gills, and muscle) to assess the integrated biomarker response, and population bioindicators (gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices and Fulton's condition factor). Although the water quality index suggested low level of contamination in the Río Champotón, biomarkers indicated that A. aeneus is exposed to stressors that impair biological responses. The integrated biomarker response showed stress periods with higher biomarker response and recovery periods with decreasing biomarker values. The somatic indices did not indicate severe effects at the population level. This study illustrates the usefulness of lipid peroxidation evaluation in the assessment of aquatic health conditions and corroborates the suitability of A. aeneus as a sentinel species.

  6. Joint effect of freshwater plume and coastal upwelling on phytoplankton growth off the Changjiang River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Y.-F.; Lin, J.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.-J.

    2013-06-01

    Changjiang River discharges vast amount of unbalanced nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) with N / P > 80 in general) into the East China Sea during summertime. To explore nutrient dynamics and P stress potential for phytoplankton, a cruise was conducted in the Changjiang plume during summer 2011. With 3-D observations of nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and bulk alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), we concluded that the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and coastal upwelling significantly influenced the horizontal and vertical heterogeneities of phytoplankton P-deficiency in the plume. Allochthonous APA was detected at nutrient-enriched freshwater end. Excessive N (~10 to 112 µM) was obserevd throughout the entire plume surface. In the plume fringe where featured by stratification and excess N, diapycnal phosphate supply was blocked to stimulate APA for phytoplankton growth. We observed upwelling outcrops just attaching the turbidity front at seaward side, where Chl a peaked yet much less APA was detected. An external phosphate supply from subsurface, which stimulated phytoplankton growth but inhibited APA, was suggested and the supply was likely sourced from the Nearshore Kuroshio Branch Current. In such hydrographically complicated Changjiang plume, phosphate supply instead of its concentration was more important determining the expression of APA. Meanwhile, allochthounous APA may also alter the usefulness of APA as a P-stress indicator.

  7. Joint effect of freshwater plume and coastal upwelling on phytoplankton growth off the Changjiang River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Y.-F.; Lin, J.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) River discharges vast amount of unbalanced nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus with N / P ratio > 80 in general) into the East China Sea in summer. To study nutrient dynamics and P-stress potential for phytoplankton, a cruise was conducted in the Changjiang plume during summer 2011. With 3-D observations of nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and bulk alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), we concluded that the Changjiang Diluted Water and coastal upwelling significantly influenced the horizontal and vertical heterogeneities of phytoplankton P deficiency in the Changjiang plume. Allochthonous APA was detected at nutrient-enriched freshwater end. Excessive N (~ 10 to 112 μM) was observed throughout the entire plume surface. In the plume fringe featuring stratification and excess N, diapycnal phosphate supply was blocked and phytoplankton APA was stimulated for growth. We observed an upwelling just attaching to the turbidity front at seaward side where Chl a peaked yet much less APA was detected. An external phosphate supply from subsurface, which promoted phytoplankton growth but inhibited APA, was suggested to be sourced from the Nearshore Kuroshio Branch Current. In the so hydrographically complicated Changjiang plume, phosphate supply instead of its concentration may be more important in determining the expression of APA. Meanwhile, allochthonous APA may also alter the usefulness of APA as a P-stress indicator.

  8. Freshwater mussel salvage and relocation at the Pond Eddy Bridge, Delaware River, New York and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2018-03-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, freshwater mussels were salvaged and relocated from the anticipated zone of impact for the Pond Eddy Bridge construction project in New York and Pennsylvania. Five 25-meter (m) by 25-m cells along the Pennsylvania bank of the Delaware River were sampled in three generally straight-line passes by four surveyors wearing snorkel gear for a total of 180 survey minutes per cell. All mussels encountered were collected and identified to species. A subset of individuals was marked with shellfish tags, weighed, and measured prior to relocation upstream from the zone of impact. A total of 3,434 mussels, including 3,393 Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio mussels), 39 Anodonta implicata (alewife floaters), 1 Strophitus undulatus (creeper), and 1 Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater), were salvaged and relocated. All non-eastern elliptio species were georeferenced using a high-resolution global positioning system unit; a subset of tagged eastern elliptio was placed in transects between georeferenced points. These mussels will be monitored to assess the effects of translocation on mortality and body condition at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years.

  9. Freshwater mussel shells (Unionidae) chronicle changes in a North American river over the past 1000years.

    PubMed

    Fritts, Andrea K; Fritts, Mark W; Haag, Wendell R; DeBoer, Jason A; Casper, Andrew F

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois River was substantially altered during the 20th century with the installation of navigational locks and dams, construction of extensive levee networks, and degradation of water quality. Freshwater mussels were affected by these changes. We used sclerochronology and stable isotopes to evaluate changes over time in age-and-growth and food sources for two mussel species: Amblema plicata and Quadrula quadrula. Specimens were collected in years 1894, 1897, 1909, 1912, 1966, and 2013, and archeological specimens were collected circa 850. The von Bertalanffy growth parameter (K) was similar between 850 and 1897, but it increased by 1912 and remained elevated through 2013. Predicted maximum size (L inf ) increased over the past millennium, and 2013 individuals were over 50% larger than in 850. Growth indices showed similar patterns of continual increases in growth. Shells were enriched in 13 C and 15 N during the 20th century, but exhibited a partial return to historical conditions by 2013. These patterns are likely attributable to impoundment, nutrient pollution and eutrophication beginning in the early 20th century followed by recent water quality improvement. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Accumulation of toxic metals and organic micro-pollutants in sediments from tropical urban rivers, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Laffite, Amandine; Grandjean, Dominique; Mulaji, Crispin K; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2017-07-01

    The increasing contamination of fresh water resource by toxic metals and Persistence Organic Pollutants (POPs) is a major environmental concern globally. In the present investigation, surface sediments collected from three main rivers named, Makelele, Kalamu and Nsanga, draining through the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, POPs (including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were performed to determine metal source and pollution status. The results highlighted high concentration of toxic metals in all sediment samples, reaching the values (mg kg -1 ) of 325 (Cu), 549 (Zn), 165 (Pb) and 1.5 (Cd). High values of PCBs and OCPs were detected in sediment samples, e.g. in Makelele river, PCB values ranged from 0.9 to 10.9 with total PCBs (∑7 PCBs × 4.3): 169.3 μg kg -1 ; OCPs from 21.6 to 146.8 with ∑OCPs: 270.6 μg kg -1 . The PBDEs concentrations were higher in investigated rivers comparatively with values detected in many rivers from Sub-Saharan Africa. The ΣPAHs value ranged from 22.6 to 1011.9 μg kg -1 . River contamination may be explained by local intense domestic activities, urban and agricultural runoff, industrial and hospital wastewaters discharge into the rivers without prior treatment. This research provides not only a first baseline information on the extent of contamination in this tropical ecosystem but also represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in the river receiving systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrological trends in Congo basin (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, A.

    2015-12-01

    The last studies concerning some main Congo basin rivers allowed to subdivide their multi-annual flows into several homogeneous phases. As in West Africa, 1970 was the year of the major hydroclimatic event announcing a weaker flowing period. In the absence of long, reliable and available flow series in the whole Congo basin of 3,8 106km2 area, the present study concerns only the Congo River at Brazzaville/Kinshasa and two of the main tributaries of its right bank, Ubangui at Bangui and Sangha at Ouesso, with hydrologic data available from the first half of the 20th century. For Congo River, in comparison with its secular average, after an excess flow noted during the sixties, a significant drop of 10% occurs in the eighties. However, a return to normal conditions is recorded from 1995. For Ubangui and Sangha, the flows remain weaker since 1970. Within the bi-modal hydrological regimes of Sangha and Congo river, because they are equatorial, we also observe since many years a small decline of the secondary flood of april-june. This phenomenon was emphasized especially these last years and is founded in others rivers of Central Africa, where it reflects the variations of de rainfall patterns and the surfaces features. For the Congo basin, the situation is worrying because that affects the inland waterway transport. Moreover that wakes also the project of junction by a canal of the Congo and Chari basins for fighting against the hydrological decline of Lake Chad.

  12. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor).

    PubMed

    Braulik, Gill T; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

  13. Habitat Fragmentation and Species Extirpation in Freshwater Ecosystems; Causes of Range Decline of the Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor)

    PubMed Central

    Braulik, Gill T.; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world’s most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world’s most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin’s range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

  14. Freshwater shrimps (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galvão, R C F; Holanda, I B B; De Carvalho, D P; Almeida, R; Souza, C M M; Lacerda, L D; Bastos, W R

    2018-01-10

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations measured in two freshwater shrimp species (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) showed a relationship with the location of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) from the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon. Between August 2009 and May 2010, 212 shrimp samples were collected in the confluence of the Madeira River with three of its tributaries (Western Amazon). THg concentration was quantified in the exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of the shrimps by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences between the two shrimp species when samples came from the Madeira River, but Hg concentrations were significantly lower in a tributary outside the influence of the gold mining area. Average THg concentrations were higher in the hepatopancreas (up to 160.0 ng g -1 ) and lower in the exoskeleton and muscle tissue (10.0-35.0 ng g -1 and < 0.9-42.0 ng g -1 , respectively). Freshwater shrimps from the Madeira River respond to local environmental levels of Hg and can be considered as biomonitors for environmental Hg at this spatial scale. These organisms are important for moving Hg up food webs including those that harbor economic significant fish species and thus enhancing human exposure.

  15. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  16. Freshwater mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River, Virginia and Tennessee, USA: a featured collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipper, Carl E.; Beaty, Braven; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Jess W.; Krstolic, Jennifer Lynn; Ostby, Brett J.K.; Wolfe, William J.; Donovan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Clinch River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee is arguably the most important river for freshwater mussel conservation in the United States. This featured collection presents investigations of mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River. Analyses of historic water- and sediment-quality data suggest that water column ammonia and water column and sediment metals, including Cu and Zn, may have contributed historically to declining densities and extirpations of mussels in the river's Virginia sections. These studies also reveal increasing temporal trends for dissolved solids concentrations throughout much of the river's extent. Current mussel abundance patterns do not correspond spatially with physical habitat quality, but they do correspond with specific conductance, dissolved major ions, and water column metals, suggesting these and/or associated constituents as factors contributing to mussel declines. Mussels are sensitive to metals. Native mussels and hatchery-raised mussels held in cages in situ accumulated metals in their body tissues in river sections where mussels are declining. Organic compound and bed-sediment contaminant analyses did not reveal spatial correspondences with mussel status metrics, although potentially toxic levels were found. Collectively, these studies identify major ions and metals as water- and sediment-quality concerns for mussel conservation in the Clinch River.

  17. Influence of plant communities on denitrification in a tidal freshwater marsh of the Potomac River, United States.

    PubMed

    Hopfensperger, Kristine N; Kaushal, Sujay S; Findlay, Stuart E G; Cornwell, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether marsh surface elevation, plant community composition (annuals vs. perennials), and organic matter quantity/quality were associated with differences in denitrification rates in an urban tidal freshwater marsh of the Potomac River, United States. We measured denitrification rates using both denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) with acetylene inhibition (June: n = 38, 3234 +/- 303; October: n = 38, 1557 +/- 368 ng N g dry soil(-1) h(-1)) and direct N(2) flux measurements with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) (November: n = 6, 147 +/- 24 mumol m(-2) h(-1)). Organic carbon content and nitrate concentrations in soil, and plant community composition were correlated with elevation, but DEA rates did not differ across marsh surface elevation. Soil organic carbon was highest in plots dominated by perennial graminoids, but DEA rates did not differ across plant community types. The DEA rates increased with increasing soil ammonium concentrations and total N content, and DEA rates differed between summer and fall sampling. The MIMS rates did not differ across plant community types, but were correlated with soil organic N content. Denitrification rates suggest that potential N removal at the site could be substantial. In addition, denitrification rates measured in Dyke Marsh were higher than rates for sediments measured in the adjacent Potomac River. Tidal freshwater marshes can represent an important site for denitrification, and factors fostering denitrification should be considered when restoring urban tidal freshwater wetlands as they are faced with pressures from increasing land use change and sea level rise.

  18. Availability of ferric iron for microbial reduction in bottom sediments of the freshwater tidal Potomac River

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1986-10-01

    The distribution of Fe(III), its availability for microbial reduction, and factors controlling Fe(III) availability were investigated in sediments from a freshwater site in the Potomac River Estuary. Fe(III) reduction in sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions and depth profiles of oxalate-extractable Fe(III) indicated that Fe(III) reduction was limited to depths of 4 cm or less, with the most intense Fe(III) reduction in the top 1 cm. In incubations of the upper 4 cm of the sediments, Fe(III) reduction was as important as methane production as a pathway for anaerobic electron flow because of the high rates of Fe(III) reduction in themore » 0- 0.5-cm interval. Most of the oxalate-extractable Fe(III) in the sediments was not reduced and persisted to a depth of at least 20 cm. The incomplete reduction was not the result of a lack of suitable electron donors. The oxalate-extractable Fe(III) that was preserved in the sediments was considered to be in a form other than amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, since synthetic amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide adsorbed onto clay, and amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide saturated with adsorbed phosphate or fulvic acids were all readily reduced. Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and the mixed Fe(III)-Fe(II) compound(s) that were produced during the reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide in an enrichment culture were oxalate extractable but were not reduced, suggesting that mixed Fe(III)-Fe(II) compounds might account for the persistence of oxalate-extractable Fe(III) in the sediments.« less

  19. Reducing risks of maintenance dredging on freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Big Sunflower River, Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Payne, Barry S

    2004-11-01

    In response to proposed dredging in a 122-km reach of the Big Sunflower River, Mississippi, we studied freshwater mussels (family: Unionidae) using qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative (0.25 m(2) total substratum removal) methods in 1987, 1993, 1994, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Our objectives were to identify important mussel resources, to devise methods for minimizing dredging risks, and to identify habitat improvement features. Approximately 60% of the fauna was located on two high-density shoals characterized by extreme dominance of the commercially valuable threeridge (Amblema plicata). Shallow nearshore and main channel areas comprised approximately 10 and 88% of the aquatic habitat in the project area; however, these areas were of less importance for mussels and supported densities of approximately 5 and 0.5 individuals/m(2), respectively. Throughout the project area the mussel fauna exhibited little or no evidence of recent recruitment, dominance of relatively few species (either A. plicata, or the bank climber Plectomerus dombeyanus), and low species diversity (H') and evenness. No federally listed endangered or threatened mussels were found, although the pyramid pigtoe (Pleurobema pyramidatum), a species listed as endangered in Mississippi, was collected in and upstream of the project area. Two other state-listed species, Plethobasus cyphyus (sheepnose) and Quadrula cylindrica (rabbitsfoot), were only found on gravelly shoals upriver of the project area. Maintenance plans were redesigned to minimize environmental damage; a hydraulic cutterhead dredge will be used in most of the mainstem to reduce risk to nearshore habitats. High-density assemblages on four shoals will not be dredged and 150 and 100 m buffer zones will be left immediately up and downriver. Enhancements for aquatic biota will be created with gravel substratum and wing dams.

  20. Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. I. Model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter H.; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong; Fugate, David

    2014-12-01

    Variations in freshwater inflow have ecological consequences for estuaries ranging among eutrophication, flushing and transport, and high and low salinity impacts on biota. Predicting the potential effects of the magnitude and composition of inflow on estuaries over a range of spatial and temporal scales requires reliable mathematical models. The goal of this study was to develop and test a model of ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the sub-tropical Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) in southwest Florida from 2002 to 2009. The modeling framework combined empirically derived inputs of freshwater and materials from the watershed, daily predictions of salinity, a box model for physical transport, and simulation models of biogeochemical and seagrass dynamics. The CRE was split into 3 segments to estimate advective and dispersive transport of water column constituents. Each segment contained a sub-model to simulate changes in the concentrations of organic nitrogen and phosphorus (ON and OP), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate-nitrite (NOx-), ortho-phosphate (PO4-3), phytoplankton chlorophyll a (CHL), and sediment microalgae (SM). The seaward segment also had sub-models for seagrasses (Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum). The model provided realistic predictions of ON in the upper estuary during wet conditions since organic nitrogen is associated with freshwater inflow and low salinity. Although simulated CHL concentrations were variable, the model proved to be a reliable predictor in time and space. While predicted NOx- concentrations were proportional to freshwater inflow, NH4+ was less predictable due to the complexity of internal cycling during times of reduced freshwater inflow. Overall, the model provided a representation of seagrass biomass changes despite the absence of epiphytes, nutrient effects, or sophisticated translocation in the formulation. The model is being used to investigate the relative importance of colored dissolved organic

  1. Dissolved carbon dynamics in the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone of a coastal river entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estuaries play an important role in the dynamics of dissolved carbon from freshwater to marine systems. This study aims to determine how dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations change along an 88-km long estuarine river with salinity ranging from 0.02 to 29.50. The study is expected to elucidate which processes most likely control carbon dynamics in a freshwater-saltwater mixing system, and to evaluate the net metabolism of this estuary using mixing curves and stable isotope analyses. From November 2014 to February 2016, water samples were collected and in-situ measurements on ambient water conditions were performed during eighteen field trips at six sites from upstream to downstream of the Calcasieu River, which enters the Northern Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States. δ13CDIC and δ13CDOC were measured from May 2015 to February 2017 during five of the field trips. The DIC concentration and δ13CDIC increased rapidly with increasing salinity in the mixing zone. The DIC concentrations appeared to be largely influenced by conservative mixing. The δ13CDIC values were close to those suggested by the conservative mixing model for May 2015, June 2015 and November 2015, but lower than those for July 2015 and February 2016, suggesting that an estuarine river can fluctuate from a balanced to a heterotrophic system (i.e., production/respiration < 1) seasonally. Unlike the DIC longitudinal trend, the DOC concentrations in the river estuary decreased from upstream to downstream, but to a much smaller degree. This river estuary consistently showed depleted δ13CDOC values (-30.56‰ to -25.92‰), suggesting that the DOC source in the mixing zone was highly terrestrially derived. However, in this relatively small isotopic range, δ13CDOC alone has limitations in differentiating carbon produced by aquatic photosynthesis from carbon produced by terrestrial photosynthesis in a river-ocean continuum. These findings suggest that

  2. ESTABLISHING MINIMUM FLOWS AND LEVELS OF FRESHWATER IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER, FLORIDA, USING RESPONSES OF OYSTERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alterations in freshwater inflow resulting from watershed development and water management practices have impacted salinity and water quality and led to declines in oyster populations within southwest Florida estuaries. In the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida watershed management ...

  3. Availability of ferric iron for microbial reduction in bottom sediments of the freshwater tidal potomac river.

    PubMed

    Lovley, D R; Phillips, E J

    1986-10-01

    The distribution of Fe(III), its availability for microbial reduction, and factors controlling Fe(III) availability were investigated in sediments from a freshwater site in the Potomac River Estuary. Fe(III) reduction in sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions and depth profiles of oxalate-extractable Fe(III) indicated that Fe(III) reduction was limited to depths of 4 cm or less, with the most intense Fe(III) reduction in the top 1 cm. In incubations of the upper 4 cm of the sediments, Fe(III) reduction was as important as methane production as a pathway for anaerobic electron flow because of the high rates of Fe(III) reduction in the 0- to 0.5-cm interval. Most of the oxalate-extractable Fe(III) in the sediments was not reduced and persisted to a depth of at least 20 cm. The incomplete reduction was not the result of a lack of suitable electron donors. The oxalate-extractable Fe(III) that was preserved in the sediments was considered to be in a form other than amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, since synthetic amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide adsorbed onto clay, and amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide saturated with adsorbed phosphate or fulvic acids were all readily reduced. Fe(3)O(4) and the mixed Fe(III)-Fe(II) compound(s) that were produced during the reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide in an enrichment culture were oxalate extractable but were not reduced, suggesting that mixed Fe(III)-Fe(II) compounds might account for the persistence of oxalate-extractable Fe(III) in the sediments. The availability of microbially reducible Fe(III) in surficial sediments demonstrates that microbial Fe(III) reduction can be important to organic matter decomposition and iron geochemistry. However, the overall extent of microbial Fe(III) reduction is governed by the inability of microorganisms to reduce most of the Fe(III) in the sediment.

  4. Biotransformation of tributyltin to tin in freshwater river-bed sediments contaminated by an organotin release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Tanner, T.L.; Watt, B.E.

    2004-01-01

    The largest documented release of organotin compounds to a freshwater river system in the United States occurred in early 2000 in central South Carolina. The release consisted of an unknown volume of various organotin compounds such tetrabutyltin (TTBT), tributyltin (TBT), tetraoctyltin (TTOT), and trioctyl tin (TOT) and resulted in a massive fish kill and the permanent closures of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a local city's only drinking-water intake. Initial sampling events in 2000 and 2001 indicated that concentrations of the ecologically toxic TTBT and TBT were each greater than 10 000 ??g/kg in surface-water bed sediments in depositional areas, such as lakes and beaver ponds downstream of the release. Bed-sediment samples collected between 2001 and 2003, however, revealed a substantial decrease in bed-sediment organotin concentrations and an increase in concentrations of degradation intermediate compounds. For example, in bed sediments of a representative beaver pond located about 1.6 km downstream of the release, total organotin concentrations [the sum of TTBT, TBT, and the TBT degradation intermediates dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT)] decreased from 38 670 to 298 ??g/kg. In Crystal Lake, a large lake about 0.4 km downstream from the beaver pond, total organotin concentrations decreased from 28 300 to less than 5 ??g/kg during the same time period. Moreover, bed-sediment inorganic tin concentrations increased from pre-release levels of less than 800 to 32 700 ??g/kg during this time. These field data suggest that the released organotin compounds, such as TBT, are being transformed into inorganic tin by bed-sediment microbial processes. Microcosms were created in the laboratory that contained bed sediment from the two sites and were amended with tributyltin (as tributyltin chloride) under an ambient air headspace and sacrificially analyzed periodically for TBT, the biodegradation intermediates DBT and MBT, and tin. TBT concentrations

  5. Biogeochemical response of organic-rich freshwater marshes in the Louisiana delta plain to chronic river water influx

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, C.M.; Doyle, T.W.; Fry, B.; Hargis, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    To help evaluate effects of Mississippi River inputs to sustainability of coastal Louisiana ecosystems, we compared porewater and substrate quality of organic-rich Panicum hemitomon freshwater marshes inundated by river water annually for more than 30 years (Penchant basin, PB) or not during the same time (Barataria basin, BB). In the marshes receiving river water the soil environment was more reduced, the organic substrate was more decomposed and accumulated more sulfur. The porewater dissolved ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations were an order of magnitude higher and sulfide and alkalinity concentrations were more than twice as high in PB compared with BB marshes. The pH was higher and dissolved iron concentrations were more than an order of magnitude lower in PB marshes than in BB marshes. The influx of nutrient-rich river water did not enhance end-of-year above-ground standing biomass or vertical accretion rates of the shallow substrate. The differences in porewater chemistry and substrate quality are reasonably linked to the long-term influx of river water through biogeochemical processes and transformations involving alkalinity, nitrate and sulfate. The key factor is the continual replenishment of alkalinity, nitrate and sulfate via overland flow during high river stage each year for several weeks to more than 6 months. This leads to a reducing soil environment, pooling of the phytotoxin sulfide and inorganic nutrients in porewater, and internally generated alkalinity. Organic matter decomposition is enhanced under these conditions and root mats degraded. The more decomposed root mat makes these marshes more susceptible to erosion during infrequent high-energy events (for example hurricanes) and regular low-energy events, such as tides and the passage of weather fronts. Our findings were unexpected and, if generally applicable, suggest that river diversions may not be the beneficial mitigating agent of wetland restoration and conservation that they are

  6. Arsenic speciation in environmental multimedia samples from the Youngsan River Estuary, Korea: A comparison between freshwater and saltwater.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Khim, Jong Seong

    2018-06-01

    Differences in the distribution, partitioning, and bioaccumulation characteristics of arsenicals between freshwater and saltwater systems remain poorly understood. To determine the characteristics of distribution and behavior of arsenicals, multimedia environmental samples including water, suspended particles, zooplankton, sediments, and porewater were collected from inner (five sites, freshwater) and outer (five sites, saltwater) regions of the estuary dike of the Youngsan River Estuary in South Korea (Nov., 2012). Six organic and inorganic forms of As were separated and measured using HPLC-ICP/MS equipped with an anion exchange column. Concentrations of arsenicals in water samples of the inner region (mean = 1.5 μg As L -1 ) were significantly lower than in those of the outer region (mean = 5.2 μg As L -1 ). Conversely, concentrations of As in suspended particles in the inner region (mean = 14 μg As g -1 ) were much greater than in the outer region (mean = 5.7 μg As g -1 ). The field-based distribution coefficient (K d ) for As depended strongly on salinity; relatively greater K d values were found in freshwater compared with saltwater. The As V was found to be the major form of As in all water and particle samples in both inner and outer regions. The zooplankton species were significantly distinguishable between the inner and outer regions; cladocerans were the most dominant species in freshwater and cyclopoida were predominantly found in saltwater. The As concentrations in zooplankton were shown to be particle-concentration dependent, suggesting that dietary exposure plays a substantial role in the bioaccumulation of As. Inorganic arsenicals, such as As V and As III were the most dominant forms found in zooplankton. Partitioning behavior of As between porewater and sediments was similar to that in water-particle distributions. The results of the present study enhance the understanding of As biogeochemistry in river and estuarine environments

  7. Three new endemic Aphyosemion species (Cyprinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae) from the Massif du Chaillu in the upper Louessé River system, Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Zee, Jouke R van der; Walsh, Gina; Mikembi, Valdie N Boukaka; Jonker, Michiel N; Alexandre, Marco P; Sonnenberg, Rainer

    2018-01-02

    Three new 'Aphyosemion' species are described from the upper Louessé River in the Massif du Chaillu, Republic of the Congo, based on a combination of DNA, habitat preference, male colour pattern, and morphological data. 'Aphyosemion' cyanoflavum, new species, is a member of the 'A'. ogoense group. It differs from its congeners by a unique colour pattern and cephalic sensory system which contains a wide supra-orbital groove with large, densely pigmented anterior neuromasts and dark frontal neuromasts housed in one pit with one central anterior lobe. 'Aphyosemion' mandoroense, new species, and 'A'. cryptum, new species, are members of the 'A'. coeleste group. 'Aphyosemion' cryptum, new species, is in appearance very similar to 'A'. coeleste, but lacks the typical post opercular metallic green blotch and is generally larger in body size. Initial DNA analyses demonstrate that 'A'. cryptum, new species, is more closely related to 'A'. mandoroense, new species, than to 'A'. coeleste, despite similarity in appearance. 'Aphyosemion' cryptum, new species, and 'A'. coeleste occur syntopic in several locations in a sub-catchment of the upper Louessé system, however differ in microhabitat preference. 'Aphyosemion' mandoroense, new species, differs by male body and fin colour pattern from all species of the 'A'. coeleste group except 'A'. citrineipinnis. From the latter, it can be distinguished by the absence of red pigmentation and a dark grey to black margin in the unpaired fins.

  8. Establishment Patterns of Non-native Fishes: Lessons from the Duluth-Superior Harbor and Lower St. Louis River, an Invasion-prone Great Lakes Freshwater Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River freshwater estuary which drains into western Lake Superior and includes the Duluth-Superior (MN-WI) harbor, has a long history of non-native fish introductions. From 1985 to 2002, seven new fishes were identified in the estuary, an unprecedented rate of non-n...

  9. A new species of freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Pleurobema athearni, from the Coosa River Drainage of Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gangloff, M.M.; Williams, J.D.; Feminella, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The Mobile Basin historically supported one of the most diverse freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) assemblages in North America. More than 65 species of mussels are known from the Basin, but it is difficult to determine how many species were present historically. The drainage's unique physical habitat was largely destroyed between the late 1800s and mid-1900s by impoundment and channel modifications of most of the larger rivers. Many species that were once common are now restricted to small headwater rivers and mid-sized tributaries. Recent Coosa River tributary surveys revealed a new, undescribed species of Pleurobema. This new species, Pleurobema athearni, is distinctive in outward appearance, shell morphometry and reproductive morphology, and can be distinguished from other Coosa River drainage unionids. Our analysis indicates that P. athearni is morphologically different from other similar taxa. It differs both in shell width/length and width/height ratios and thus provides a simple, quantitative means to differentiate this species from P. georgianum (Lea, 1841) Fusconaia barnesiana (Lea, 1838), and F. cerina (Conrad, 1838), which it superficially resembles and that also occur in the area. Our morphological diagnosis of this species is supported by recent molecular analyses that suggest this species is a Pleurobema and one closely related to other endemic Coosa River drainage unionids. The discovery of a new species of large, long-lived macroinvertebrate from a relatively well-sampled drainage in a populated region of the southeast United States underscores the need for more detailed surveys in isolated stretches of tributary streams. It should also serve as a reminder that almost 40 species of aquatic mollusks have been extirpated from the Mobile Basin before anything could be learned about their habitat or life history requirements. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

  10. Final Report: Five years of monitoring reconstructed freshwater tidal wetlands in the urban Anacostia River (2000-2004)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschlag, R.S.; Baldwin, A.H.; Krafft, C.C.; Neff, K.P.; Paul, M.M.; Brittingham, K.D.; Rusello, K.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. USA consisted of over 809 hectares (2000 acres) of freshwater tidal wetlands before mandatory dredging removed most of them in the first half of the 20th century. Much of this13 kilometer (8 mile) reach was transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). Planning processes in the 1980?s envisioned a restoration (rejuvenation) of some wetlands for habitat, aesthetics, water quality and interpretative purposes. Subsequently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in a cost share agreement with the District of Columbia reconstructed wetlands on NPS lands at Kenilworth - 12.5 hectares (1993), Kingman - 27 hectares (2000), a Fringe Marsh - 6.5 hectares (2003) and is currently constructing Heritage Marsh - 2.5 hectares (2005/2006). The USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in conjunction with the University of Maryland Biological Engineering Department was contracted to conduct post-reconstruction monitoring (2000-2004) to document the relative success and progress of the Kingman Marsh reconstruction primarily based on vegetative response but also in conjunction with seed bank and soil characteristics. Results from Kingman were compared to Kenilworth Marsh (reconstructed 7 years prior), Dueling Creek Marsh (last best remaining freshwater tidal wetland bench in the urbanized Anacostia watershed) and Patuxent River Marsh (in a more natural adjacent watershed). Vegetation establishment was initially strong at Kingman, but declined rapidly as measured by cover, richness, diversity , etc. under grazing pressure from resident Canada geese and associated reduction in sediment levels. This decline did not occur at the other wetlands. The decline occurred despite a substantial seed bank that was sustained primarily be water born propagules. Soil development, as true for most juvenile wetlands, was slow with almost no organic matter accumulation. By 2004 only two of 7 planted species remained (mostly Peltandra virginica) at Kingman which did

  11. Flow regime alterations under changing climate in two river basins: Implications for freshwater ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, C.A.; Meyer, J.L.; Poff, N.L.; Hay, L.E.; Georgakakos, A.

    2005-01-01

    We examined impacts of future climate scenarios on flow regimes and how predicted changes might affect river ecosystems. We examined two case studies: Cle Elum River, Washington, and Chattahoochee-Apalachicola River Basin, Georgia and Florida. These rivers had available downscaled global circulation model (GCM) data and allowed us to analyse the effects of future climate scenarios on rivers with (1) different hydrographs, (2) high future water demands, and (3) a river-floodplain system. We compared observed flow regimes to those predicted under future climate scenarios to describe the extent and type of changes predicted to occur. Daily stream flow under future climate scenarios was created by either statistically downscaling GCMs (Cle Elum) or creating a regression model between climatological parameters predicted from GCMs and stream flow (Chattahoochee-Apalachicola). Flow regimes were examined for changes from current conditions with respect to ecologically relevant features including the magnitude and timing of minimum and maximum flows. The Cle Elum's hydrograph under future climate scenarios showed a dramatic shift in the timing of peak flows and lower low flow of a longer duration. These changes could mean higher summer water temperatures, lower summer dissolved oxygen, and reduced survival of larval fishes. The Chattahoochee-Apalachicola basin is heavily impacted by dams and water withdrawals for human consumption; therefore, we made comparisons between pre-large dam conditions, current conditions, current conditions with future demand, and future climate scenarios with future demand to separate climate change effects and other anthropogenic impacts. Dam construction, future climate, and future demand decreased the flow variability of the river. In addition, minimum flows were lower under future climate scenarios. These changes could decrease the connectivity of the channel and the floodplain, decrease habitat availability, and potentially lower the ability

  12. Spatial and temporal trends of freshwater mussel assemblages in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Meramec River basin in east-central Missouri has one of the most diverse unionoid mussel faunas in the central United States with >40 species identified. Data were analyzed from historical surveys to test whether diversity and abundance of mussels in the Meramec River basin (Big, Bourbeuse, and Meramec rivers, representing >400 river miles) decreased between 1978 and 1997. We found that over 20y, species richness and diversity decreased significantly in the Bourbeuse and Meramec rivers but not in the Big River. Most species were found at fewer sites and in lower numbers in 1997 than in 1978. Federally endangered species and Missouri Species of Conservation Concern with the most severe temporal declines were Alasmidonta viridis, Arcidens confragosus, Elliptio crassidens, Epioblasma triquetra, Fusconaia ebena, Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis brittsi, and Simpsonaias ambigua. Averaged across all species, mussels were generally being extirpated from historical sampling sites more rapidly than colonization was occurring. An exception was one reach of the Meramec River between river miles 28.4 and 59.5, where mussel abundance and diversity were greater than in other reaches and where colonization of Margaritiferidae, Lampsilini, and Quadrulini exceeded extirpation. The exact reasons mussel diversity and abundance have remained robust in this 30- mile reach is uncertain, but the reach is associated with increased gradients, few long pools, and vertical rock faces, all of which are preferable for mussels. Complete loss of mussel communities at eight sites (16%) with relatively diverse historical assemblages was attributed to physical habitat changes including bank erosion, unstable substrate, and sedimentation. Mussel conservation efforts, including restoring and protecting riparian habitats, limiting the effects of in-stream sand and gravel mining, monitoring and controlling invasive species, and protecting water quality, may be warranted in the Meramec River basin.

  13. Hydraulic Geometry and Microtopography of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands and Implications for Restoration, Columbia River, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Coleman, Andre M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrologic reconnection of tidal channels, riverine floodplains, and main stem channels are among responses by ecological restoration practitioners to the increasing fragmentation and land conversion occurring in coastal and riparian zones. Design standards and monitoring of such ecological restoration depend upon the characterization of reference sites that vary within and among regions. Few locales, such as the 235 km tidal portion of the Columbia River on the West Coast U.S.A., remain in which the reference conditions and restoration responses of tidal freshwater forested wetlands on temperate zone large river floodplains can be compared. This study developed hydraulic geometry relationshipsmore » for Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) dominated tidal forests (swamps) in the vicinity of Grays Bay on the Columbia River some 37 km from the Pacific Coast using field surveys and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Scaling relationships between catchment area and the parameters of channel cross-sectional area at outlet and total channel length were comparable to tidally influenced systems of San Francisco Bay and the United Kingdom. Dike breaching, culvert replacement, and tide gate replacement all affected channel cross-sectional geometry through changes in the frequency of over-marsh flows. Radiocarbon dating of buried wood provided evidence of changes in sedimentation rates associated with diking, and restoration trajectories may be confounded by historical subsidence behind dikes rendering topographical relationships with water level incomparable to reference conditions. At the same time, buried wood is influencing the development of channel morphology toward characteristics resembling reference conditions. Ecological restoration goals and practices in tidal forested wetland regions of large river floodplains should reflect the interactions of these controlling factors.« less

  14. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  15. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  16. A Survey of the Freshwater Mussel Fauna of the Little Kanawha River Basin,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Mussels, * Aquatic biology, Surveys, Rivers, Basins(Geographic), Natural resources, Population, Distribution, Sampling, Environmental impact...Chemical analysis, Pesticides, Metals, Water quality, Waste water , Waste management, Decision making, West Virginia, Fresh water , Workshops

  17. Genotoxicity Evaluation of an Urban River on Freshwater Planarian by RAPD Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He-Cai; Liu, Tong-Yi; Shi, Chang-Ying; Chen, Guang-Wen; Liu, De-Zeng

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an urban river - the Wei River in Xinxiang, China using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay in planarians. The results showed that the total number of polymorphic bands and varied bands in RAPD patterns of treated planarians decreased with the water sample site far away from the sewage outlet of a factory. In addition, the genome template stability of treated groups decreased and the degree of the decline was negatively related to the distance between the sample site and the sewage outlet, suggesting that the Wei River water had genotoxicity effects on planarians and strengthening the management of the Wei River was necessary. Furthermore, this work also indicated that RAPD assay in planarians was a very promising test for environmental monitoring studies.

  18. Annual variation in recruitment of freshwater mussels and its relationship with river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Patricia R.; Newton, Teresa; Haro, Roger J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Davis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in recruitment dynamics of native mussels and its relationship to river discharge will be useful in designing effective management strategies to enhance conservation of this imperilled fauna.

  19. Evaluating the use of side-scan sonar for detecting freshwater mussel beds in turbid river environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Jarrod; Brewer, Shannon K.; Long, James M.; Campbell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Side-scan sonar is a valuable tool for mapping habitat features in many aquatic systems suggesting it may also be useful for locating sedentary biota. The objective of this study was to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to identify freshwater mussel (unionid) beds and the required environmental conditions. We used side-scan sonar to develop a series of mussel-bed reference images by placing mussel shells within homogenous areas of fine and coarse substrates. We then used side-scan sonar to map a 32-km river reach during spring and summer. Using our mussel-bed reference images, several river locations were identified where mussel beds appeared to exist in the scanned images and we chose a subset of sites (n = 17) for field validation. The validation confirmed that ~60% of the sites had mussel beds and ~80% had some mussels or shells present. Water depth was significantly related to our ability to predict mussel-bed locations: predictive ability was greatest at depths of 1–2 m, but decreased in water >2-m deep. We determined side-scan sonar is an effective tool for preliminary assessments of mussel presence during times when they are located at or above the substrate surface and in relatively fine substrates excluding fine silt.

  20. First DNA Barcode Reference Library for the Identification of South American Freshwater Fish from the Lower Paraná River

    PubMed Central

    Brancolini, Florencia; del Pazo, Felipe; Posner, Victoria Maria; Grimberg, Alexis; Arranz, Silvia Eda

    2016-01-01

    Valid fish species identification is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Here, we provide a sequence reference library based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for a valid identification of 79 freshwater fish species from the Lower Paraná River. Neighbour-joining analysis based on K2P genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for almost all species with a ≥99% bootstrap support each. Identification was successful for 97.8% of species as the minimum genetic distance to the nearest neighbour exceeded the maximum intraspecific distance in all these cases. A barcoding gap of 2.5% was apparent for the whole data set with the exception of four cases. Within-species distances ranged from 0.00% to 7.59%, while interspecific distances varied between 4.06% and 19.98%, without considering Odontesthes species with a minimum genetic distance of 0%. Sequence library validation was performed by applying BOLDs BIN analysis tool, Poisson Tree Processes model and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, along with a reliable taxonomic assignment by experts. Exhaustive revision of vouchers was performed when a conflicting assignment was detected after sequence analysis and BIN discordance evaluation. Thus, the sequence library presented here can be confidently used as a benchmark for identification of half of the fish species recorded for the Lower Paraná River. PMID:27442116

  1. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. DNA barcoding discriminates freshwater fishes from southeastern Nigeria and provides river system-level phylogeographic resolution within some species.

    PubMed

    Nwani, Christopher D; Becker, Sven; Braid, Heather E; Ude, Emmanuel F; Okogwu, Okechukwu I; Hanner, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Fishes are the main animal protein source for human beings and play a vital role in aquatic ecosystems and food webs. Fish identification can be challenging, especially in the tropics (due to high diversity), and this is particularly true for larval forms or fragmentary remains. DNA barcoding, which uses the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) as a target gene, is an efficient method for standardized species-level identification for biodiversity assessment and conservation, pending the establishment of reference sequence libraries. In this study, fishes were collected from three rivers in southeastern Nigeria, identified morphologically, and imaged digitally. DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified, and the standard barcode region was bidirectionally sequenced for 363 individuals belonging to 70 species in 38 genera. All specimen provenance data and associated sequence information were recorded in the barcode of life data systems (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org ). Analytical tools on BOLD were used to assess the performance of barcoding to identify species. Using neighbor-joining distance comparison, the average genetic distance was 60-fold higher between species than within species, as pairwise genetic distance estimates averaged 10.29% among congeners and only 0.17% among conspecifics. Despite low levels of divergence within species, we observed river system-specific haplotype partitioning within eight species (11.4% of all species). Our preliminary results suggest that DNA barcoding is very effective for species identification of Nigerian freshwater fishes.

  3. Evaluating a 5-year metal contamination remediation and the biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod along the Xiangjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Deliang; Pi, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Xiang; Fraser, Dylan J

    2018-05-16

    Effective remediation of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems is desired in many regions, but it requires integrative assessments of sediments, water, and biota that can serve as robust biomonitors. We assessed the effects of a 5-year metal contamination remediation along the Xiangjiang River, China, by comparing concentrations of trace metals in water and surface sediments between 2010-2011 and 2016. We also explored the trace metal biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod (Bellamya aeruginosa). Metal concentrations in water (means and ranges) dropped over time to within permissible limits of drinking water guidelines set by China, USEPA, and WHO in 2016. Although sediment means and ranges of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn also diminished with remediation, those for Cr and Cu slightly increased, and all six metals retained concentrations higher than standards set by China. All metals in sediments could also be associated with anthropogenic inputs using a hierarchical clustering analysis, and they generate high potential ecological risks based on several indices, especially for Cd and As. The bio-sediment accumulation factors of all measured trace metals in gastropod soft tissues and shells were lower than 1.0, except for Ca. Trace metal contents in gastropods were positively correlated with those in water and surface sediments for As (soft tissues) and Cr (shells). Collectively, our results do not yet highlight strong beneficial effects of 5-year remediation and clearly illustrate the heavy metal pollution remaining in Xiangjiang River sediment. Additional physical, chemical, and biological measurements should be implemented to improve sediment quality. We further conclude that gastropod soft tissues and shells can be suitable biomonitors of spatial differences in some heavy metals found within river sediments (e.g., As, Cr).

  4. Freshwater polychaetes (Manayunkia speciosa) near the Detroit River, western Lake Erie: Abundance and life‐history characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Malakauskas, David M.; Malakauskas, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater polychaetes are relatively rare and little-studied members of the benthos of lakes and rivers. We studied one polychaete species (Manayunkia speciosa) in Lake Erie near the mouth of the Detroit River. Abundances at one site were determined between 1961 and 2013 and life‐history characteristics at two sites were determined seasonally (March–November) in 2009–2010 and 2012–2013. Life‐history characteristics included abundances, length‐frequency distributions, presence/absence of constructed tubes, sexual maturity, and number and maturation of young of year (YOY) in tubes. Long-term abundances decreased in successive time periods between 1961 and 2003 (mean range = 57,570 to 2583/m2) but few changes occurred between 2003 and 2013 (mean = 5007/m2; range/y = 2355–8216/m2). Seasonal abundances varied substantially between sites and years, but overall, abundances were low in March–April, high in May–August, and low in September–November. Although reproduction was continuous throughout warmer months, en masse recruitment, as revealed by length–frequency distributions, occurred in a brief period late‐June to mid-July, and possibly in early-September. All life history characteristics, including tube construction, were dependent on water temperatures (> 5 °C in spring and < 15 °C in fall). These results generally agree with and complement laboratory studies of M. speciosa in the Pacific Northwest where M. speciosa hosts parasites that cause substantial fish mortalities. Although abundance ofM. speciosa near the mouth of the Detroit River was 33-fold lower in 2013 than it was in 1961, this population has persisted for five decades and, therefore, has the potential to harbor parasites that may cause fish mortalities in the Great Lakes.

  5. Fish abundances in shoreline habitats and submerged aquatic vegetation in a tidal freshwater embayment of the Potomac River.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Richard T; Jones, R Christian

    2012-05-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is considered an important habitat for juvenile and small forage fish species, but many long-term recruitment surveys do not effectively monitor fish communities in SAV. To better understand the impact of recent large increases of SAV on the fish community in tidal freshwater reaches of the Potomac River, we compared traditional seine sampling from shore with drop ring sampling of SAV beds (primarily Hydrilla) in a shallow water (depths, <1.5 m) embayment, Gunston Cove. To accomplish this, we developed species-specific catch efficiency values for the seine gear and calculated area-based density in both shoreline and SAV habitats in late summer of three different years (2007, 2008, and 2009). For the dominant species (Fundulus diaphanus, Lepomis macrochirus, Etheostoma olmstedi, Morone americana, Lepomis gibbosus, and Fundulus heteroclitus), density was nearly always higher in SAV, but overall, species richness was highest in shoreline habitats sampled with seines. Although historical monitoring of fish in Gunston Cove (and throughout Chesapeake Bay) is based upon seine sampling (and trawl sampling in deeper areas), the high densities of fish and larger areal extent of SAV indicated that complementary sampling of SAV habitats would produce more accurate trends in abundances of common species. Because drop ring samples cover much less area than seines and may miss rare species, a combination of methods that includes seine sampling is needed for biodiversity assessment. The resurgence of SAV in tidal freshwater signifies improving water quality, and methods we evaluated here support improved inferences about population trends and fish community structure as indicators of ecosystem condition.

  6. Palaeolake isolation and biogeographical process of freshwater fishes in the Yellow River

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The Yellow River, one of the very few in the Earth, originated from many dispersive palaeolakes. Taking this unique advantage, we examined the roles of palaeolake isolation vs. geological processes vs. climate in determining current fish biogeographic pattern. We reviewed available data on fish species and their geographical distribution in the river, as well as palaeolake development, geological and climatic parameters. The 138 fish species recorded in the river could be divided into 8 biogeographic regions, corresponding to the distribution of palaeolakes and respective endemic species. Through variation partitioning analysis, palaeolake isolation was the most influential factor explaining 43.6% of the total variance on the current fish distribution. The Quaternary Ice Age produced a transitional distribution for fishes from the glacier to warm water, especially for the subfamily Schizothoracinae, which showed various degrees of specialisation along altitudes. We suggested that fish biogeography in the Yellow river was basically shaped by palaeolake isolation, and further carved under serials of geologic events and contemporary climate change. PMID:28406965

  7. Palaeolake isolation and biogeographical process of freshwater fishes in the Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bin; Huang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The Yellow River, one of the very few in the Earth, originated from many dispersive palaeolakes. Taking this unique advantage, we examined the roles of palaeolake isolation vs. geological processes vs. climate in determining current fish biogeographic pattern. We reviewed available data on fish species and their geographical distribution in the river, as well as palaeolake development, geological and climatic parameters. The 138 fish species recorded in the river could be divided into 8 biogeographic regions, corresponding to the distribution of palaeolakes and respective endemic species. Through variation partitioning analysis, palaeolake isolation was the most influential factor explaining 43.6% of the total variance on the current fish distribution. The Quaternary Ice Age produced a transitional distribution for fishes from the glacier to warm water, especially for the subfamily Schizothoracinae, which showed various degrees of specialisation along altitudes. We suggested that fish biogeography in the Yellow river was basically shaped by palaeolake isolation, and further carved under serials of geologic events and contemporary climate change.

  8. The effects of flow and stream characteristics on the variation in freshwater mussel growth in a Southeast US river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dycus, Justin C.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Peterson, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides insight to the factors affecting the growth of stream-dwelling freshwater mussels. Although hierarchical von Bertalanffy growth models are rarely used for freshwater mussel age and growth studies, this approach can provide important information regarding the ecology of freshwater mussels.

  9. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Hauptmann, Aviaja L.; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Elberling, Bo; Bælum, Jacob; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns. PMID:27708629

  10. Nitrogen dynamics in the tidal freshwater Potomac River, Maryland and Virginia, water years 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shultz, David J.

    1989-01-01

    On an annual basis, river-supplied nitrate is the predominant form of nitrogen supplied to the tidal Potomac River from external sources. Much of the nitrate is associated with high flows that have rapid transit times through the tidal river. The Blue Plains Sewage-Treatment Plant (STP) at Washington, D.C., is the greatest source of all nitrogen species during low-flow periods. Prior to the fall of 1980, ammonia concentrations in depth-integrated, composited water samples were greatest (more than 1.00 mg/L (milligram per liter) as nitrogen) during summer periods near Alexandria, Va., because of loading from the nearby Blue Plains STP and reduced river discharge. After the fall of 1980, initiation of advanced wastewater treatment at the Blue Plains STP reduced ammonia loading to the river by 90 percent and increased nitrate loading by a similar percentage. As a result, concentrations of ammonia during the 1981 low-flow period were less than 0.20 mg/L as nitrogen at Alexandria, while nitrate concentrations were greater than 1.50 mg/L as nitrogen. Concentrations of ammonia and nitrate at Alexandria were shown to be reasonably predictable by use of a simple dilution model that considers only loading from Chain Bridge and the Blue Plains STP. This apparently is the result of the short residence time through the Chain Bridge-to-Alexandria section of the tidal Potomac River, which precludes significant biological alterations. In marked contrast, the residence times of water parcels in the tidal Potomac River from Alexandria to Quantico, Va., are much greater because of the geometry of the reach. Biological nitrogen-cycle transformation processes affect nitrogen-species concentrations to a greater extent in this reach, especially during summer low-flow periods. Mass-balance calculations that separate changes in transport mass from biological transformations indicatethat the tidal Potomac River was a net sink for all the nitrogen constituents during the 1980 and 1981 summer

  11. Heavy metal profile of water, sediment and freshwater cat fish, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Siluriformes: Bagridae), of Cross River, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayotunde, Ezekiel Olatunji; Offem, Benedict Obeten; Ada, Fidelis Bekeh

    2012-09-01

    Cross River serves as a major source of drinking water, transportation, agricultural activities and fishing in Cross River State, Nigeria. Since there is no formal control of effluents discharged into the river, it is important to monitor the levels of metals contaminants in it, thus assessing its suitability for domestic and agricultural use. In order to determine this, three sampling stations designated as Ikom (Station I), Obubra Ogada (Station II) and Calabar (Station III) were randomly selected to study. For this, ten samples of the freshwater Silver Catfish (Chryshchythys nigrogitatus) (29.4-39.5cm SL, 310-510g), sediment and water were collected from each sampling Station from June 2009-June 2010. The heavy metals profiles ofZn, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb, Cd and Cr, in water, sediments and fish muscle were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). In fish, the heavy metals concentration was found to be Cu>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Copper (0.297 +/- 0.022 microg/g), Cadmium (0.011 +/- 0.007 microg/g), Iron (0.371 +/- 0.489 microg/g), Lead (0.008 +/- 0.008 microg/g), were determined for the fish. In water, the order was found to be Fe>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Iron (0.009 +/- 0.00) microg/g), Copper (0.015 +/- 0.01 microg/g), Lead (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g) Cadmium (0.0006 +/- 0.001 microg/g), Zinc (0.0036 +/- 0.003 microg/g), were observed in the surface water, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Copper (0.037 +/- 0.03 microg/g), Iron (0.053 +/- 0.04 microg/g), Lead (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g), Cobalt (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g), Cadmium (0.0006 +/- 0.001 microg/g) and Zinc (.009 +/- 0.0015 microg/g) was observed in the bottom water. In sediments, the concentration order found was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd; the highest mean concentration of 0.057 +/- 0.04 microg/g, 0.043 +/- 0.03 microg/g, 0.0006 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.0009 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.099 +/- 0.00404 microg/g in Iron

  12. Selenium: Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential Applications for Specific Fish Consumption Advisories.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Leanne K; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Harding, Anna K; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-07-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  13. Body burden of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants on freshwater invertebrates: Method development and application in the Danube River.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Pedro A; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Huber, Thomas; Nagy, Claudia; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2016-07-01

    While environmental risk assessment is typically based on toxicant concentrations in water and/or sediment, awareness is increasing that internal concentrations or body burdens are the key to understand adverse effects in organisms. In order to link environmental micropollutants as causes of observed effects, there is an increasing demand for methods to analyse these chemicals in organisms. Here, a multi-target screening method based on pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE) and a modified QuEChERS approach with an additional hexane phase was developed. It is capable to extract and quantify organic micropollutants of diverse chemical classes in freshwater invertebrates. The method was tested on gammarids from the Danube River (within the Joint Danube Survey 3) and target compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, a non-target screening using high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was conducted. A total of 17 pollutants were detected and/or quantified in gammarids at low concentrations. Pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.52 ng g(-1) (wet weight), those of wastewater-derived pollutants from 0.1 to 2.83 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The presence of wastewater-derived pollutants was prominent at all spots sampled. Using non-target screening, we could successfully identify several chlorinated compounds. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates of the Danube River. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for specific fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cusack, Leanne K.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harding, Anna K.; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  15. [Investigation on sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments and Clonorchis sinensis intermediate host infection in a city of Pearl River Delta region, China].

    PubMed

    Man, Wang; Le, Luo; Xue-Qin, Chen; Lei, Li; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2017-10-19

    To understand the current status of the sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments, and Clonorchis sinensis infection of freshwater fish in the aquaculture and market in a city of Pearl River Delta region, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis sinensis. In 2016, based on the distribution of freshwater aquaculture, 36 freshwater fish ponds among 14 towns were selected for sampling and investigation, and 10-20 pieces were collected from each pond. Besides, 3 aquatic product wholesale markets were included, among which 3-6 stalls were selected from each market, and 20-30 pieces were collected from each stall. The metacercaria in the fish was examined by the digestion method. In the 36 fish ponds, there were no toilets with the stool being drained into fish ponds directly, and there was only one pond with duck sheds with the stool being drained into fish ponds directly. Totally 437 pieces of freshwater fish from ponds were detected, with a metacercaria positive rate of 4.35% (19/437). The metacercaria positive fish were distributed in 50% (7/14) of towns and 25% (9/36) ponds. The positive rates of crucian carp, grass carp, dace, aristichthysnobilis, and tilapia were 13.95% (6/43), 4.76% (9/189), 4.44 (2/45), 1.55% (2/129), and 0 (0/31) respectively, with statistically significant difference ( χ 2 = 13.46, P = 0.01). Totally 307 pieces of freshwater fish were collected from the wholesale markets, with a total positive rate of 1.95% (6/307). The positive rate of grass carp and aristichthysnobilis were 3.20% (4/125) and 2.78% (2/72) respectively, and no positive samples were found in crucian carp, dace and tilapia, with no statistically significant difference among the different fish in the infection rate (Fisher exact P = 0.75). The sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments in a city of Pearl River Delta region is relative good. However, there are different degrees of Clonorchis sinensis

  16. Assessment of freshwater ecosystem services in the Beas River Basin, Himalayas region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ncube, Sikhululekile; Beevers, Lindsay; Adeloye, Adebayo J.; Visser, Annie

    2018-06-01

    River systems provide a diverse range of ecosystem services, examples include: flood regulation (regulating), fish (provisioning), nutrient cycling (supporting) and recreation (cultural). Developing water resources through the construction of dams (hydropower or irrigation) can enhance the delivery of provisioning ecosystem services. However, these hydrologic alterations result in reductions in less tangible regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services. This study seeks to understand how multiple impoundments, abstractions and transfers within the upper Beas River Basin, Western Himalayas, India, are affecting the delivery of supporting ecosystem services. Whilst approaches for assessing supporting ecosystem services are under development, the immediate aim of this paper is to set out a framework for their quantification, using the macroinvertebrate index Lotic-Invertebrate Index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE). LIFE is a weighted measure of the flow velocity preferences of the macroinvertebrate community. Flow records from multiple gauging stations within the basin were used to investigate flow variability at seasonal, inter-annual and decadal time scales. The findings show that both mean monthly and seasonal cumulative flows have decreased over time in the Beas River Basin. A positive hydroecological relationship between LIFE and flow was also identified, indicative of macroinvertebrate response to seasonal changes in the flow regime. For example, high LIFE scores (7.7-9.3) in the winter and summer seasons indicate an abundance of macroinvertebrates with a preference for high flows; this represents a high potential for instream supporting ecosystem services delivery. However, further analysis is required to understand these hydroecological interactions in the study basin and the impact on instream supporting ecosystem services delivery.

  17. Quantifying the Ocean, Freshwater and Human Effects on Year-to-Year Variability of One-Sea-Winter Atlantic Salmon Angled in Multiple Norwegian Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J.; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Storvik, Geir O.; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979–2007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions

  18. Quantifying the ocean, freshwater and human effects on year-to-year variability of one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon angled in multiple Norwegian rivers.

    PubMed

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979-2007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to

  19. Rates and probable causes of freshwater tidal marsh failure, Potomac River Estuary, Northern Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine Walsh; Oberg, Erik T.; Steury, Brent W.; Helwig, Ben; Santucci, Vincent L.; Sanders, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Dyke Marsh, a distal tidal marsh along the Potomac River estuary, is diminishing rapidly in areal extent. This study documents Dyke Marsh erosion rates from the early-1860s to the present during pre-mining, mining, and post-mining phases. From the late-1930s to the mid-1970s, Dyke Marsh and the adjacent shallow riverbottom were mined for gravel, resulting in a ~55 % initial loss of area. Marsh loss continued during the post-mining phase (1976–2012). Causes of post-mining loss were unknown, but were thought to include Potomac River flooding. Post-mining areal-erosion rates increased from 0.138 ha yr−1 (~0.37 ac yr−1) to 0.516 ha yr−1(~1.67 ac yr−1), and shoreline-erosion rates increased from 0.76 m yr−1 (~2.5 ft yr−1) to 2.60 m yr−1 (~8.5 ft yr−1). Results suggest the accelerating post-mining erosion reflects a process-driven feedback loop, enabled by the marsh's severely-altered geomorphic and hydrologic baseline system; the primary post-mining degradation process is wave-induced erosion from northbound cyclonic storms. Dyke Marsh erosion rates are now comparable to, or exceed, rates for proximal coastal marshes in the same region. Persistent and accelerated erosion of marshland long after cessation of mining illustrates the long-term, and potentially devastating, effects that temporally-restricted, anthropogenic destabilization can have on estuarine marsh systems.

  20. Tideless estuaries in brackish seas as possible freshwater-marine transition zones for bacteria: the case study of the Vistula river estuary.

    PubMed

    Gołębiewski, Marcin; Całkiewicz, Joanna; Creer, Simon; Piwosz, Kasia

    2017-04-01

    Most bacteria are found either in marine or fresh waters and transitions between the two habitats are rare, even though freshwater and marine bacteria co-occur in brackish habitats. Estuaries in brackish, tideless seas could be habitats where the transition of freshwater phylotypes to marine conditions occurs. We tested this hypothesis in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea) by comparing bacterial communities from different zones of the estuary, via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. We predicted the existence of a core microbiome (CM, a set of abundant OTUs present in all samples) comprising OTUs consisting of populations specific for particular zones of the estuary. The CMs for the entire studied period consisted of only eight OTUs, and this number was even lower for specific seasons: five in spring, two in summer, and one in autumn and winter. Six of the CM OTUs, and another 21 of the 50 most abundant OTUs consisted of zone-specific populations, plausibly representing micro-evolutionary forces. The presence of up to 15% of freshwater phylotypes from the Vistula River in the brackish Gulf of Gdańsk supported our hypothesis, but high dissimilarity between the bacterial communities suggested that freshwater-marine transitions are rare even in tideless estuaries in brackish seas. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Changes in zooplankton community, and seston and zooplankton fatty acid profiles at the freshwater/saltwater interface of the Chowan River, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Rinchard, Jacques; Kimmel, David G.

    2017-01-01

    The variability in zooplankton fatty acid composition may be an indicator of larval fish habitat quality as fatty acids are linked to fish larval growth and survival. We sampled an anadromous fish nursery, the Chowan River, during spring of 2013 in order to determine how the seston fatty acid composition varied in comparison with the zooplankton community composition and fatty acid composition during the period of anadromous larval fish residency. The seston fatty acid profiles showed no distinct pattern in relation to sampling time or location. The mesozooplankton community composition varied spatially and the fatty acid profiles were typical of freshwater species in April. The Chowan River experienced a saltwater intrusion event during May, which resulted in brackish water species dominating the zooplankton community and the fatty acid profile showed an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The saltwater intrusion event was followed by an influx of freshwater due to high precipitation levels in June. The zooplankton community composition once again became dominated by freshwater species and the fatty acid profiles shifted to reflect this change; however, EPA levels remained high, particularly in the lower river. We found correlations between the seston, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton fatty acid compositions. Salinity was the main factor correlated to the observed pattern in species composition, and fatty acid changes in the mesozooplankton. These data suggest that anadromous fish nursery habitat likely experiences considerable spatial variability in fatty acid profiles of zooplankton prey and that are correlated to seston community composition and hydrodynamic changes. Our results also suggest that sufficient prey density as well as a diverse fatty acid composition is present in the Chowan River to support larval fish production. PMID:28828262

  2. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water.

    PubMed

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals - such as the rare earth elements (REE) - have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of temperature on photosynthesis-light response and growth of four phytoplankton species isolated from a tidal freshwater river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coles, J.F.; Jones, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Three cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa Kutz. emend. Elenkin, Merismopedia tenuissima Lemmermann, and Oscillatoria sp.) and one diatom (Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima O. Mull. emend. Simonsen) were isolated from the tidal freshwater Potomac River and maintained at 23??C and 40 ??mol photons??m-2??s-1 on a 16:8 L:D cycle in unialgal culture. Photosynthetic parameters were determined in nutrient-replete cultures growing exponentially at 15, 20, 25, and 30??C by incubation with 14C at six light levels. P(B)(max) was strongly correlated with temperature over the entire range for the cyanobacteria and from 15 to 25??C for Aulacoseira, with Q10 ranging from 1.79 to 2.67. The ?? values demonstrated a less consistent temperature pattern. Photosynthetic parameters indicated an advantage for cyanobacteria at warmer temperatures and in light-limited water columns. P(B)(max) and I(k) values were generally lower than comparable literature and field values, whereas ?? was generally higher, consistent with a somewhat shade acclimated status of our cultures. Specific growth rate (??), as measured by chlorophyll change, was strongly influenced by temperature in all species. Oscillatoria had the highest ?? at all temperatures, joined at lower temperatures by Aulacoseira and at higher temperatures by Microcystis. Values of ?? for Aulacaseira were near the low end of the literature range for diatoms consistent with the light-limited status of the cultures. The cyanobacteria exhibited growth rates similar to those reported in other studies. Q10 for growth ranged from 1.71 for Aulacoseira to 4.16 for Microcystis. Growth rate was highly correlated with P(B)(max) for each species and the regression slope coefficients were very similar for three of the species.

  4. Morphological variation of freshwater crabs Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae) among localities from the middle Paraná River basin during different hydrological periods

    PubMed Central

    Torres, María Victoria; Collins, Pablo Agustín; Giri, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Measures of hydrologic connectivity have been used extensively to describe spatial connections in riverine landscapes. Hydrologic fluctuations constitute an important macrofactor that regulates other environmental variables and can explain the distribution and abundance of organisms. We analysed morphological variations among individuals of two freshwater crab species, Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus, from localities of the middle Paraná River basin during two phases of the local hydrological regime. Specimens were sampled at sites (localities) of Paraná River, Saladillo Stream, Salado River and Coronda River when water levels were falling and rising. The conductivity, pH, temperature and geographical coordinates were recorded at each site. The dorsal cephalothorax of each crab was represented using 16 landmarks for Zilchiopsis collastinensis and 14 landmarks for Trichodactylus borellianus. The Canonical Variate Analyses showed differences in shape (for both species) among the crabs collected from the Paraná and Salado Rivers during the two hydrologic phases. We did not find a general distribution pattern for shape among the crab localities. During falling water, the shapes of Zilchiopsis collastinensis were not related to latitude-longitude gradient (i.e., showing greater overlap in shape), while during rising water the shapes were ordered along a distributional gradient according to geographical location. Contrary, shapes of Trichodactylus borellianus were related to latitude-longitude during falling water and were not related to distributional gradient during rising water. The cephalothorax shape showed, in general, no statistically significant covariations with environmental variables for either species. These results show that each freshwater crab species, from different localities of the middle Paraná River, remain connected; however, these connections change throughout the hydrologic regime of the floodplain system

  5. Freshwater Mussel Shell δ13C Values as a Proxy for δ13CDIC in a Polluted, Temperate River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graniero, L. E.; Gillikin, D. P.; Surge, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater mussel shell δ13C values have been examined as an indicator of ambient δ13C composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in temperate rivers. However, shell δ13C values may be obscured by the assimilation of respired, metabolic carbon (CM) derived from the organism's diet. Water δ18O and δ13CDIC values were collected fortnightly from August 2015 through July 2017 from three sites (one agricultural, one downstream of a wastewater treatment plant, one urban) in the Neuse River, NC to test the reliability of Elliptio complanata shell δ13C values as a proxy for δ13CDIC values. Muscle, mantle, gill, and stomach δ13C values were analyzed to approximate the %CM incorporated into the shell. All tissue δ13C values were within 2‰ of each other, which equates to a ±1% difference in calculated %CM. As such, muscle tissue δ13C values will be used for calculating the %CM, because they have the slowest turnover rate of the tissues sampled. Water temperature and δ18O values were used to calculate predicted aragonite shell δ18O­ values (δ18O­ar) based on the aragonite-water fractionation relationship. To assign dates to each shell microsample, predicted δ18O­ar values were compared to high-resolution serially sampled shell values. Consistent with previous studies, E. complanata cease growth in winter when temperatures are below about 12ºC. Preliminary results indicate that during the growing season, shell δ13C values are lower than expected equilibrium values, reflecting the assimilation of 15% CM, on average. Shell δ13C values are not significantly different than δ13CDIC values, but do not capture the full range of δ13CDIC values during each growing season. Thus, δ13C values of E. complanata shells can be used to reliably reconstruct past δ13CDIC values within 2‰ of coeval values. Further research will investigate how differing land-use affects the relationship between shell δ13C, CM, and δ13CDIC values.

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics in water and sediments of a freshwater system (Antuã River, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M O; Abrantes, N; Gonçalves, F J M; Nogueira, H; Marques, J C; Gonçalves, A M M

    2018-08-15

    Microplastics (particles with a size<5mm), one of the most emerging aquatic pollutants, are of particular concern since they can reach high densities and interact with biotic and abiotic environment. The occurrence of microplastics in freshwater systems is less understood than in marine environment. Hence, the present study aims to provide new insights into microplastics abundances and distribution in Antuã River (Portugal) by applying the isolation method of wet peroxide oxidation with addition of zinc chloride to water and sediment samples collected in March and October 2016, in three sampling sites. The abundance of microplastics in water ranged from 5 to 8.3mgm -3 or 58-193itemsm -3 in March and from 5.8-51.7mgm -3 or 71-1265itemsm -3 in October. In sediments, the abundance ranged from 13.5-52.7mgkg -1 or 100-629itemskg -1 in March and from 2.6-71.4mgkg -1 or 18-514itemskg -1 in October. The water and sediment samples with the greatest abundances were from São João da Madeira and Aguincheira, respectively. Spatio-temporal distribution showed different pattern according to methodological approaches, seasonal and hydrodynamic conditions and the proximity to urban/industry areas. Analysis of plastics by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy underline polyethylene and polypropylene as the most common polymer types identified in this work. The low medium high oxidation ratio was 56:22:22 (%) in March and 61:31:8 (%) in October. Foams and fibers were the most abundant type in São João da Madeira, while fibers and fragments were the most abundant in Aguincheira and Estarreja in water and sediment samples, respectively. This study emphasizes the importance of rivers as carriage systems of microplastics. Further studies should be performed to identify point sources in order to mitigate the microplastics contamination in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis QA test 3, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organism quality and overall performance of the test being conducted by CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected May 5 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 2.9 was conducted from May 10--19, 1994. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh-water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody form -- original; Toxicitymore » test bench sheets; Ammonia analysis request and results; Meter calibration log sheets; and Training documentation forms.« less

  8. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis QA test 2, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organism quality and overall performance of the test being conducted by CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected August 14 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 4.3 was conducted from August 24--September 2, 1993. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh-water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody form -- original;more » Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Ammonia analysis request and results.« less

  9. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis QA test 4, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organisms quality and overall performance of the test being conducted by CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected September 8 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 1.0 was conducted September 13--22, 1994. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh-water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody form -- original; Toxicity testmore » bench sheets; Ammonia analysis request and results; and Meter calibration log sheets.« less

  10. Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. II. Nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong

    2014-12-01

    Short- and long-term changes in estuarine biogeochemical and biological attributes are consequences of variations in both the magnitude and composition of freshwater inputs. A common conceptualization of estuaries depicts nutrient loading from coastal watersheds as the stressor that promotes algal biomass, decreases submarine light penetration, and degrades seagrass habitats. Freshwater inflow depresses salinity while simultaneously introducing colored dissolved organic matter (color or CDOM) which greatly reduces estuarine light penetration. This is especially true for sub-tropical estuaries. This study applied a model of the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) in southwest Florida to explore the relationships between freshwater inflow, nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrass survival. In two independent model series, the loading of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus (DIN and DIP) was reduced by 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% relative to the base model case from 2002 to 2009 (2922 days). While external nutrient loads were reduced by lowering inflow (Q0) in the first series (Q0 series), reductions were accomplished by decreasing the incoming concentrations of DIN and DIP in the second series (NP Series). The model also was used to explore the partitioning of submarine light extinction due to chlorophyll a, CDOM, and turbidity. Results suggested that attempting to control nutrient loading by decreasing freshwater inflow could have minor effects on water column concentrations but greatly influence submarine light and seagrass biomass. This is because of the relative importance of Q0 to salinity and submarine light. In general, light penetration and seagrass biomass decreased with increased inflow and CDOM. Increased chlorophyll a did account for more submarine light extinction in the lower estuary. The model output was used to help identify desirable levels of inflow, nutrient loading, water quality, salinity, and submarine light for seagrass in the lower CRE

  11. Freshwater Megafauna: Flagships for Freshwater Biodiversity under Threat

    PubMed Central

    Carrizo, Savrina F.; Bremerich, Vanessa; Freyhof, Jörg; Harrison, Ian; He, Fengzhi; Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement; Zarfl, Christiane; Darwall, William

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich. Freshwater megafauna co-occur with up to 93% of mapped overall freshwater biodiversity. Fifty-eight percent of the 132 megafauna species included in the study are threatened, with 84% of their collective range falling outside of protected areas. Of all threatened freshwater species, 83% are found within the megafauna range, revealing the megafauna's capacity as flagship and umbrella species for fostering freshwater conservation. PMID:29599539

  12. Freshwater Megafauna: Flagships for Freshwater Biodiversity under Threat.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Savrina F; Jähnig, Sonja C; Bremerich, Vanessa; Freyhof, Jörg; Harrison, Ian; He, Fengzhi; Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement; Zarfl, Christiane; Darwall, William

    2017-10-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich. Freshwater megafauna co-occur with up to 93% of mapped overall freshwater biodiversity. Fifty-eight percent of the 132 megafauna species included in the study are threatened, with 84% of their collective range falling outside of protected areas. Of all threatened freshwater species, 83% are found within the megafauna range, revealing the megafauna's capacity as flagship and umbrella species for fostering freshwater conservation.

  13. Trophic pathways supporting juvenile Chinook and Coho salmon in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska: patterns of freshwater, marine, and terrestrial resource use across a seasonally dynamic habitat mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rine, Kristin M.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Schoen, Erik R.; Nightengale, Timothy L.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions of terrestrial-, freshwater-, and marine-derived prey resources to stream fishes vary over time and space, altering the energy pathways that regulate production. In this study, we determined large-scale use of these resources by juvenile Chinook and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Oncorhynchus kisutch, respectively) in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska. We resolved spatial and temporal trophic patterns among multiple macrohabitat types along a 97 km segment of the river corridor via stable isotope and stomach content analyses. Juvenile salmon were supported primarily by freshwater-derived resources and secondarily by marine and terrestrial sources. The relative contribution of marine-derived prey to rearing salmon was greatest in the fall within off-channel macrohabitats, whereas the contributions of terrestrial invertebrate prey were generally greatest during midsummer, across all macrohabitats. No longitudinal (upstream–downstream) diet pattern was discernable. These results highlight large-scale spatial and seasonal patterns of energy flow and the dynamic interplay of pulsed marine and terrestrial prey subsidies to juvenile Chinook and coho salmon in a large, complex, and relatively pristine glacial river.

  14. Long-term benthic monitoring studies in the freshwater portion of the Potomac River - first annual report. Volume 3. Appendices. Report for September 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Vannote, R.L.; Sweeney, B.W.

    1985-02-28

    The report summarizes the results of the first year of a long-term study of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River extending from Dam No.5 near Williamsport, Maryland downstream to Seneca Pool near Seneca, Maryland. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate long-term trends in the distribution, abundance, and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrates and identify factors controlling the benthic populations, with particular emphasis on factors associated with existing power plant effluents within the study area.

  15. Long-term benthic monitoring studies in the freshwater portion of the Potomac River - first annual report. Volume 1. Text. Report for September 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Vannote, R.L.; Sweeney, B.W.

    1985-02-28

    The report summarizes the results of the first year of a long-term study of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River extending from Dam No. 5 near Williamsport, Maryland downstream to Seneca Pool near Seneca, Maryland. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate long-term trends in the distribution, abundance, and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrates and identify factors controlling the benthic populations, with particular emphasis on factors associated with existing power plant effluents within the study area.

  16. Long-term benthic monitoring studies in the freshwater portion of the Potomac River - first annual report. Volume 2. Tables and figures. Report for September 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Vannote, R.L.; Sweeney, B.W.

    1985-02-28

    The report summarizes the results of the first year of a long-term study of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River extending from Dam No. 5 near Williamsport, Maryland downstream to Seneca Pool near Seneca, Maryland. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate long-term trends in the distribution, abundance, and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrates and identify factors controlling the benthic populations, with particular emphasis on factors associated with existing power plant effluents within the study area.

  17. Incorporating DNA barcodes into a multi-year inventory of the fishes of the hyperdiverse Lower Congo River, with a multi-gene performance assessment of the genus Labeo as a case study.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Osmundson, Todd W; Becker, Sven; Hanner, Robert; Stiassny, Melanie L J

    2011-10-01

    Here we describe preliminary efforts to integrate DNA barcoding into an ongoing inventory of the Lower Congo River (LCR) ichthyofauna. The 350 km stretch of the LCR from Pool Malebo to Boma includes the world's largest river rapids. The LCR ichthyofauna is hyperdiverse and rich in endemism due to high habitat heterogeneity, numerous dispersal barriers, and its downstream location in the basin. We have documented 328 species from the LCR, 25% of which are thought to be endemic. In addition to detailing progress made to generate a reference sequence library of DNA barcodes for these fishes, we ask how DNA can be used at the current stage of the Fish Barcode of Life initiative, as a work in progress currently of limited utility to a wide audience. Two possibilities that we explore are the potential for DNA barcodes to generate discrete diagnostic characters for species, and to help resolve problematic taxa lacking clear morphologically diagnostic characters such as many species of the cyprinid genus Labeo, which we use as a case study. Our molecular analysis helped to clarify the validity of some species that were the subject of historical debate, and we were able to construct a molecular key for all monophyletic and morphologically recognizable species. Several species sampled from across the Congo Basin and widely distributed throughout Central and West Africa were recovered as paraphyletic based on our molecular data. Our study underscores the importance of generating reference barcodes for specimens collected from, or in close proximity to, type localities, particularly where species are poorly understood taxonomically and the extent of their geographical distributions have yet to be established.

  18. Bioavailability of trace metals in sediments of a recovering freshwater coastal wetland in China's Yellow River Delta, and risk assessment for the macrobenthic community.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Li, Xiaoxiao; Pei, Jun; Sun, Tao; Shao, Dongdong; Bai, Junhong; Li, Yanxia

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the speciation of trace metals and their ecological risks to macrobenthic communities in a recovering coastal wetland of China's Yellow River Delta during the freshwater release project. We established 16 sampling sites in three restoration areas and one intertidal reference area, and collected sediments and macrobenthos four times from 2014 to 2015. The instability index for the trace metals showed a moderate risk for Mn and a high risk for Cd. For both Mn and Cd, the carbonate and FeMn-bound fractions appear to contribute mostly to the instability and bioavailability indexes, but for Cd, the exchangeable fraction also have a much higher contribution. The bioavailability index indicated higher bioavailability of trace metals in freshwater restoration areas than that in the intertidal area. The single-factor contamination index indicated that most trace metal concentrations in the macrobenthos were in excess of the national standard. The biota-sediment accumulation factor suggested that the macrobenthos accumulated most As, Cd, and Cu. Redundancy analysis showed clear relationships between the macrobenthos and sediment metal concentrations. Our results will help wetland managers to assess the bioaccumulation risks based on metal speciation, and to improve management of these recovering freshwater wetland ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: a freshwater bivalve study.

    PubMed

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Cravo, A; Shepherd, T J; Pearson, G; Bebianno, M J

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  20. Final report (2002-2004): Benthic macroinvertebrate communities of reconstructed freshwater tidal wetlands in the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brittingham, K.D.; Hammerschlag, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable work has been conducted on the benthic communities of inland aquatic systems, but there remains a paucity of effort on freshwater tidal wetlands. This study characterized the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of recently reconstructed urban freshwater tidal wetlands along the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. The focus of the study was on the two main areas of Kingman Marsh, which were reconstructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2000 using Anacostia dredge material. Populations from this 'new' marsh were compared to those of similarly reconstructed Kenilworth Marsh (1993) just one half mile upstream, the relic reference Dueling Creek Marsh in the upper Anacostia estuary and the outside reference Patuxent freshwater tidal marsh in an adjacent watershed. Benthic macro invertebrate organisms were collected using selected techniques for evaluation including the Ekman bottom grab sampler, sediment corer, D-net and Hester-Dendy sampler. Samples were collected at least seasonally from tidal channels, tidal mudflats, three vegetation/sediment zones (low, middle and high marsh), and pools over a 3-year period (late 2001-2004). The macroinvertebrate communities present at the marsh sites proved to be good indicators of disturbance and stress (Kingman Marsh), pollution, urban vs. rural location (Kenilworth and Patuxent), and similarities between reconstructed and remnant wetlands (Kenilworth and Dueling Creek). Macroinvertebrate density was significantly greater at Kingman Marsh than Kenilworth Marsh due to more numerous chironomids and oligochaetes. This may reflect an increase in unvegetated sediments at Kingman (even at elevations above natural mudflat) due to grazing pressure from over-abundant resident Canada geese. Unvegetated sediments yielded greater macroinvertebrate abundance but lower richness than vegetated marsh sites. Data collected from this study provides information on the extent that benthic macroinvertebrate communities can serve

  1. Assess the presence and potential habitat for reintroduction of priority freshwater mussel species in the Shenango River.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-12-31

    The Shenango River is a principal tributary of the Beaver River, which may provide an opportunity for the relocation of clubshell and northern riffleshell. These federally listed mussels and other species of concern may be present in the Shenango Riv...

  2. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and seasonal patterns in water quality in an embayment-mainstem reach of the tidal freshwater Potomac River, USA: a multiyear study.

    PubMed

    Jones, R Christian; Kelso, Donald P; Schaeffer, Elaine

    2008-12-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in water quality were studied for seven years within an embayment-river mainstem area of the tidal freshwater Potomac River. The purpose of this paper is to determine the important components of spatial and temporal variation in water quality in this study area to facilitate an understanding of management impacts and allow the most effective use of future monitoring resources. The study area received treated sewage effluent and freshwater inflow from direct tributary inputs into the shallow embayment as well as upriver sources in the mainstem. Depth variations were determined to be detectable, but minimal due mainly to the influence of tidal mixing. Results of principal component analysis of two independent water quality datasets revealed clear spatial and seasonal patterns. Interannual variation was generally minimal despite substantial variations in tributary and mainstem discharge among years. Since both spatial and seasonal components were important, data were segmented by season to best determine the spatial pattern. A clear difference was found between a set of stations located within one embayment (Gunston Cove) and a second set in the nearby Potomac mainstem. Parameters most highly correlated with differences were those typically associated with higher densities of phytoplankton: chlorophyll a, photosynthetic rate, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, total phosphorus and Secchi depth. These differences and their consistency indicated two distinct water masses: one in the cove harboring higher algal density and activity and a second in the river with lower phytoplankton activity. A second embayment not receiving sewage effluent generally had an intermediate position. While this was the most consistent spatial pattern, there were two others of a secondary nature. Stations closer to the effluent inputs in the embayment sometimes grouped separately due to elevated ammonia and chloride. Stations closer to tributary inflows into the embayment

  4. Investigating the sources and sinks of water of Congo's wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, R. C. D.; O'Loughlin, F.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Durand, M. T.; Beighley, E., II; Calmant, S.; Lee, H.; Santos Da Silva, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Congo is the second largest river basin in the world and indeed there is still a lot to be investigated about the hydrology of this system. This region presents extensive wetlands that may play an important role on the hydrology, carbon and ecological dynamics of the Congo. However, previous studies indicate that these wetlands behave differently from the Amazon, other major rainforest basin, and how water enters and leaves the Cuvette Centrale wetland is still to be quantified. We investigate the sources and sinks of water to the Congo's wetlands. Our analyses range from simple examinations of precipitation and evaporation historical data to remote sensing datasets and 2 D hydrodynamic modelling of Congo wetlands. Early results show that water levels at wetlands are usually higher than adjacent Congo River water levels and amplitude of variation is considerably smaller. Also, floodplain channels are not observed in this region indicating that surface flows are diffusive. Mean annual precipitation range from 1600 to 2000 mm/year, evapotranspiration estimates are approximately 1100 mm/year while some estimates of groundwater recharge indicate values larger than 300 mm/year. These assessments suggest that volumes coming from local water balance could flood the wetlands to depths of only a few centimeters. Preliminary 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that water coming from main rivers produces at upstream areas can flood only a small part of wetland, mainly alongside these rivers.

  5. Extirpation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) following the invasion of dreissenid mussels in an interconnecting river of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Kovalak, William P.; Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Rick D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous (1992-1994) surveys for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) along main channels of the Detroit River showed that unionids had been extirpated from all but four sites in the upper reaches of the river due to impacts of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis). These four sites were surveyed again in 1998 using the same sampling method (timed-random searches) to determine if they may serve as ''refugia'' where unionids and dreissenids co-exist. Two additional sites were sampled using additional methods (excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches) for comparison with unpublished data collected in 1987 and 1990. A total of four individuals of four species (Actinonaias ligamentina, Cyclonaias tuberculata, Lasmigona complanata and Pleurobema sintoxia) were found by timed-random searches at four sites in 1998 compared to 720 individuals of 24 species in 1992 and 39 individuals of 13 species in 1994. Excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches at the two additional sites yielded only one live specimen of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris compared to 288 individuals of 18 species in 1987 and 1990. Results of this study suggest that remaining densities of unionids in channels of the Detroit River are too low to support viable reproducing populations of any species. Therefore, we conclude that unionids have been extirpated from main channels of the Detroit River due to dreissenid infestation. As the Detroit River was one of the first water bodies in North America to be invaded by dreissenids, it is likely that unionids will also be extirpated from many other rivers and lakes across eastern North America over the next few decades. Resource agencies should be encouraged to implement active management programs to protect remaining unionid populations from zebra mussels.

  6. Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalepa, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of freshwater biology particularly freshwater macroinvertebrates and their effect on water pollution, covering publications of 1976-77. A list of 158 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis QA test 1, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Toxicity testing of split whole sediment samples using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis) was conducted by TVA and CR-ERP personnel as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to provide a quality assurance mechanism for test organism quality and overall performance of the test. In addition, testing included procedures comparing daily renewal versus non-renewal of test sediments. Testing of sediment samples collected July 15 from Poplar Creek Miles 6.0 and 5.1 was conducted from July 21--30, 1993. Results from this test showed no toxicity (survival effects) to fresh-water mussels during a 9-day exposure to the sediments. Sidemore » by side testing of sediments with daily sediment renewal and no sediment renewal showed no differences between methods. This may be due to the absence of toxicity in both samples and may not reflect true differences between the two methods for toxic sediment. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Ammonia analysis request and results.« less

  8. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillus (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from May 12--21, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed an LC{sub 50} value of 1.12 mg Cu/L which is lower than the value of 2.02 mg Cu/L obtained inmore » a previous test. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Copper analysis request and results; and Personnel training documentation.« less

  9. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant/food test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Two different foods, phytoplankton and YCT-Selenastrum (YCT-S), were tested in side by side tests to compare food quality. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from July 6--15, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Although significant reduction in growth, compared tomore » the phytoplankton control, was seen in all treatments, including the YCT-S Control, the consequence of this observation has not been established. Ninety-day testing of juvenile mussels exhibited large variations in growth within treatment and replicate groups. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Copper analysis request and results.« less

  10. Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p < 0.05) of DDTs than in commercial pellets, but correlations between DDT levels in fish feed and muscle were not significant. The elevated biota-sediment accumulating factor for tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) (24.1) indicated that accumulation of DDTs from sediment to the fish was evident. It can be concluded that trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle.

  11. Suspended-sediment and fresh-water discharges in the Ob and Yenisey rivers, 1960-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Bobrovitskaya, N.N.; Babkin, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    Of the world's great rivers, the Ob and Yenisey rank among the largest suppliers of fresh water and among the smallest suppliers of suspended sediment to the coastal ocean. Sediment in the middle reaches of the rivers is mobilized from bordering terraces and exchanged between channels and flood plains. Sediment in the lower reaches of these great rivers is deposited and stored (permanently, on a millennial time scale) in flood plains. Sediment discharges, already small under natural conditions, are diminished further by large manmade reservoirs that trap significant proportions of the moving solids. The long winter freeze and sudden spring breakup impose a peakedness in seasonal water runoff and sediment discharge that contrasts markedly with that in rivers of the tropics and more temperate climates. Very little sediment from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is being transported to the open waters of the Arctic Ocean under present conditions.

  12. Five years (2000-2004) of post-reconstruction monitoring of freshwater tidal wetlands in the urban Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschlag, D.; Krafft, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. USA consisted of over 809 hectares (2000 acres) of freshwater tidal wetlands before mandatory dredging removed most of them in the first half of the 20th century. Much of this13 kilometer (8 mile) reach was transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). Planning processes in the 1980's envisioned a restoration (rejuvenation) of some wetlands for habitat, aesthetics, water quality and interpretative purposes. Subsequently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in a cost share agreement with the District of Columbia reconstructed wetlands on NPS lands at Kenilworth - 12.5 hectares (1993), Kingman 27 hectares (2000), a Fringe Marsh - 6.5 hectares (2003) and is currently constructing Heritage Marsh - 2.5 hectares (2005/2006). The USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in conjunction with the University of Maryland Biological Engineering Department was contracted to conduct post-reconstruction monitoring (2000-2004) to document the relative success and progress of the Kingman Marsh reconstruction primarily based on vegetative response but also in conjunction with seed bank and soil characteristics. Results from Kingman were compared to Kenilworth Marsh (reconstructed 7 years prior), Dueling Creek Marsh (last best remaining freshwater tidal wetland bench in the urbanized Anacostia watershed) and Patuxent River Marsh (in a more natural adjacent watershed). Vegetation establishment was initially strong at Kingman, but declined rapidly as measured by cover, richness, diversity, etc. under grazing pressure from resident Canada geese and associated reduction in sediment levels. This decline did not occur at the other wetlands. The decline occurred despite a substantial seed bank that was sustained primarily be water born propagules. Soil development, as true for most juvenile wetlands, was slow with almost no organic matter accumulation. By 2004 only two of 7 planted species remained (mostly Peltandra virginica) at Kingman which did provide

  13. Biogeochemical and ecological functioning of the low-salinity water lenses in the region of the Rhone River freshwater influence, NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Frédéric; Naudin, Jean-Jacques; Courties, Claude; Rimmelin, Peggy; Oriol, Louise

    2008-07-01

    A quasi-synoptic survey of a eulerian small grid was carried out twice during mid-spring 2002 in the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of hydrological core parameters reveal for the first time, in the region of freshwater influence (ROFI) of the Rhone River, the presence of low-salinity water (LSW) lenses. The present work details the biogeochemical and ecological functioning of the two LSW lenses from a combined analysis of nutrients and organic matter content, taxonomic assemblages of phytoplankton, primary productivity measurements and nitrogen regeneration fluxes. During the first survey, the lens observed is only detached in part from the Rhone River plume and is considered as a juvenile lens. In contrast, the second lens is totally detached from the plume forming a confined 3D structure with a large vertical development and is considered as having a more advanced maturity. A second survey, 4 days later, provided the opportunity to propose a complete sequence of ecological functioning of the LSW lenses, from their formation to a late stage of maturity just before dispersion. Nitrate contents and dissolved organic matter remain in high concentrations during the juvenile stages while the little available phosphate is rapidly exhausted. In such, an unbalanced-nutrient environment picoplankton appear to out-compete bacterioplankton for phosphate and other resources such as ammonium. In turn, the dominance of such prokaryotic assemblages could have involved the rapid development of microzooplankton. The sudden increase in phosphate observed in a more advanced stage of lens maturity is attributed to intense P-regeneration driven by the large abundance of microzooplankton. This top-down control does not seem to enable the prokaryotic assemblages to bloom again but the high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate favour the development of larger phytoplankton. These autotrophic communities rapidly exhaust nutrients and then decline in the confined

  14. Concentration and risk of pharmaceuticals in freshwater systems are related to the population density and the livestock units in Iberian Rivers.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Victoria; Larrañaga, Aitor; Aceña, Jaume; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Considerable amounts of pharmaceuticals are used in human and veterinary medicine, which are not efficiently removed during wastewater and slurries treatment and subsequently entering continuously into freshwater systems. The intrinsic biological activity of these non-regulated pollutants turns their presence in the aquatic environment into an ecological matter of concern. We present the first quantitative study relating the presence of pharmaceuticals and their predicted ecotoxicological effects with human population and livestock units. Four representative Iberian River basins (Spain) were studied: Llobregat, Ebro, Júcar and Guadalquivir. The levels of pharmaceuticals were determined in surface water and sediment samples collected from 77 locations along their stream networks. Predicted total toxic units to algae, Daphnia and fish were estimated for pharmaceuticals detected in surface waters. The use of chemometrics enabled the study of pharmaceuticals for: their spatial distribution along the rivers in two consecutive years; their potential ecotoxicological risk to aquatic organisms; and the relationships among their occurrence and predicted ecotoxicity with human population and animal farming pressure. The Llobregat and the Ebro River basins were characterized as the most polluted and at highest ecotoxicological risk, followed by Júcar and Guadalquivir. No significant acute risks of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms were observed. However potential chronic ecotoxicological effects on algae could be expected at two hot spots of pharmaceuticals pollution identified in the Llobregat and Ebro basins. Analgesics/antiinflammatories, antibiotics and diuretics were the most relevant therapeutic groups across the four river basins. Among them, hydrochlorothiazide and gemfibrozil, as well as azithromycin and ibuprofen were widely spread and concentrated pharmaceuticals in surface waters and sediments, respectively. Regarding their predicted ecotoxicity, sertraline

  15. Tracking the polio virus down the Congo River: a case study on the use of Google Earth™ in public health planning and mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of GIS in public health is growing, a consequence of a rapidly evolving technology and increasing accessibility to a wider audience. Google Earth™ (GE) is becoming an important mapping infrastructure for public health. However, generating traditional public health maps for GE is still beyond the reach of most public health professionals. In this paper, we explain, through the example of polio eradication activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo, how we used GE Earth as a planning tool and we share the methods used to generate public health maps. Results The use of GE improved field operations and resulted in better dispatch of vaccination teams and allocation of resources. It also allowed the creation of maps of high quality for advocacy, training and to help understand the spatiotemporal relationship between all the entities involved in the polio outbreak and response. Conclusion GE has the potential of making mapping available to a new set of public health users in developing countries. High quality and free satellite imagery, rich features including Keyhole Markup Language or image overlay provide a flexible but yet powerful platform that set it apart from traditional GIS tools and this power is still to be fully harnessed by public health professionals. PMID:19161606

  16. The influence of exposure and physiology on microplastic ingestion by the freshwater fish Rutilus rutilus (roach) in the River Thames, UK.

    PubMed

    Horton, Alice A; Jürgens, Monika D; Lahive, Elma; van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G

    2018-05-01

    Microplastics are widespread throughout aquatic environments. However, there is currently insufficient understanding of the factors influencing ingestion of microplastics by organisms, especially higher predators such as fish. In this study we link ingestion of microplastics by the roach Rutilus rutilus, within the non-tidal part of the River Thames, to exposure and physiological factors. Microplastics were found within the gut contents of roach from six out of seven sampling sites. Of sampled fish, 33% contained at least one microplastic particle. The majority of particles were fibres (75%), with fragments and films also seen (22.7% and 2.3% respectively). Polymers identified were polyethylene, polypropylene and polyester, in addition to a synthetic dye. The maximum number of ingested microplastic particles for individual fish was strongly correlated to exposure (based on distance from the source of the river). Additionally, at a given exposure, the size of fish correlated with the actual quantity of microplastics in the gut. Larger (mainly female) fish were more likely to ingest the maximum possible number of particles than smaller (mainly male) fish. This study is the first to show microplastic ingestion within freshwater fish in the UK and provides valuable new evidence of the factors influencing ingestion that can be used to inform future studies on exposure and hazard of microplastics to fish. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization and Modeling of Extreme Freshwater Discharge from Japanese First-Class River Basins to Coastal Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, R.; Yamashiki, Y. A.; Varlamov, S.; Miyazawa, Y.; Gupta, H. V.; Racault, M.; Troselj, J.

    2017-12-01

    We estimated the effects of extreme fluvial outflow events from river mouths on the salinity distribution in the Japanese coastal zones. Targeted extreme event was a typhoon from 06/09/2015 to 12/09/2015, and we generated a set of hourly simulated river outflow data of all Japanese first-class rivers from these basins to the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan during the period by using our model "Cell Distributed Runoff Model Version 3.1.1 (CDRMV3.1.1)". The model simulated fresh water discharges for the case of the typhoon passage over Japan. We used these data with a coupled hydrological-oceanographic model JCOPE-T, developed by Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), for estimation of the circulation and salinity distribution in Japanese coastal zones. By using the model, the coastal oceanic circulation was reproduced adequately, which was verified by satellite remote sensing. In addition to this, we have successfully optimized 5 parameters, soil roughness coefficient, river roughness coefficient, effective porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and effective rainfall by using Shuffled Complex Evolution method developed by University of Arizona (SCE-UA method), that is one of the optimization method for hydrological model. Increasing accuracy of peak discharge prediction of extreme typhoon events on river mouths is essential for continental-oceanic mutual interaction.

  18. Isolation of dissolved organic matter from permafrost soil and freshwater environments of the Kolyma River basin, east Siberia, for high resolution structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinenkov, I. V.; Perminova, I. V.; Bulygina, E. B.; Holmes, R. M.; Davydov, S.; Mann, P. J.; Vonk, J.; Zimov, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are known to be the most vulnerable with respect to climate change. Hence, research on carbon cycling in the Arctic region is very important for understanding the current climatic trends and their consequences. The Kolyma River watershed is one of the Arctic Ocean’s largest. It is dominated by continuous permafrost which is underlain with rich organic soils susceptible to increased fluvial transport. The thaw of permafrost enhanced due to global warming might provide additional large source of organic carbon to the Kolyma River and to the Arctic Ocean as a whole. For estimating the contribution of this source to the total pool of organic carbon, specific structural features of permafrost dissolved organic matter (DOM) as opposed to the waterborne DOM of the Kolyma River should be identified and monitored. The objective of this work was to isolate a representive set of the DOM samples from permafrost soil and freshwater environments of the Kolyma River basin suitable for further structural analysis using high resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectroscopy (FTICR-MS) and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The isolation protocol of DOM used in this study has been developed by Dittmar et al, 2008 for sampling marine DOM for NMR studies. It is based on the solid phase extraction of DOM from seawater using PPL Varian Bond Elute cartridges Those cartridges were shown to possess the highest efficiency in DOM isolation from marine water. Prior to discharge through the cartridge, a water sample was filtered through 0.45 μm filter for separation of particulate matter and acidified to pH 2 using HCl. About 50mg of DOM could be sequestered from aqueous phase using one cartridge. Sorption extent was monitored by measurements of DOC concentration and UV-vis spectra at the inlet and outlet of the cartridge. It was determined that from 60 to 65% of the total DOC could be extracted from the tested samples of freshwater. As a result

  19. Molecular and morphological data of the freshwater fish Glandulocauda melanopleura (Characiformes: Characidae) provide evidences of river captures and local differentiation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Naércio Aquino; Costa-Silva, Guilherme José; Oliveira, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The current distribution of freshwater fishes across multiple basins along Eastern Brazil can be associated to two main events: river captures or temporary paleoconnections. Apparently, river captures had a more significant role on distribution and structuring of species from upland areas, such as Glandulocauda melanopleura. Populations of this species are found in contiguous drainages in presently isolated upper parts of Rio Tietê and the coastal basins of Guaratuba, Itatinga, Itanháem, and Ribeira de Iguape, in the Atlantic Forest domain. The allopatric and disjoint distribution of G. melanopleura associated with variation of morphological characters detected among geographically isolated populations stimulated this study. Thus, an integrative approach was undertaken, including morphological and molecular data, to better understand the evolutionary history of the species and the area where it occurs. Molecular analyses based on two mitochondrial markers revealed a strong genetic structure within G. melanopleura, that allowed recognition of two lineages, one distributed in both the upper Tietê and Itanhaém and the other in the Guaratuba. Overall, morphological data revealed some intraspecific overlapping variation, indicating that all samples are conspecific. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses allied to divergence times and geomorphological information indicate that the current distribution of G. melanopleura is a result of relatively recent river captures involving the Tietê and some other coastal drainages. Although of recent origin, they occurred long enough to completely isolate these populations, since there are no haplotypes sharing between them. The conservation status of this species is also discussed, and our results corroborate the need to understand population structure for conservation planning. PMID:29579069

  20. Microplastics in Freshwater River Sediments in Shanghai, China: A Case Study of Risk Assessment in Mega Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, G.; Xu, P.

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics are plastics that measure less than 5 mm, which attracted exponential interest in recent years. Microplastics are widely distributed in water, sediments, and biotas. Most of distribution studies focus on the marine environment, yet methods to conduct risk assessment are limited. Widespread of microplastics has raised alarm for the well-being of marine living resources because of its negative ecological effects that has been proved. To understand the distribution of microplastics in urban rivers and source of marine microplastics, we investigated into river sediments in Shanghai, the biggest city in China. Seven sampling sites covered most of city central districts including one sampling site from a tidal flat. Density separation, microscopic inspection and identification were conducted to analyze microplastic abundance, shape and color. It is found that pellets were the most prevalent shape, followed by fiber and fragment. White microplastics were the most common type in terms of color. White foamed microplastic pellets were widely distributed in urban river sediments. Microplastic abundance from rivers was one to two orders of magnitude higher than that from the tidal flat. The significant difference between river and tidal flat samples lead to the conclusion that coastal rivers may be the source of microplastics, therefore in situ data and legitimate estimation should be considered by policy-makers. Seven types of microplastics were identified by μ-FT-IR analysis, indicating a secondary source. Comparison between two types of μ-FT-IR instruments was summarized. Framework for environmental risk assessment for microplastics in sediments was proposed. Indicators and ranks were select for the assessment of microplastic in sediments. It is recommended to select the index, integrate statistical data, follow expert opinions extensively and construct comprehensive evaluation method and ecological risk assessment system for the Chinese context.

  1. Microplastics in freshwater river sediments in Shanghai, China: A case study of risk assessment in mega-cities.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guyu; Xu, Pei; Zhu, Bangshang; Bai, Mengyu; Li, Daoji

    2018-03-01

    Microplastics, which are plastic debris with a particle diameter of less than 5 mm, have attracted growing attention in recent years. Its widespread distributions in a variety of habitats have urged scientists to understand deeper regarding their potential impact on the marine living resources. Most studies on microplastics hitherto are focused on the marine environment, and research on risk assessment methodology is still limited. To understand the distribution of microplastics in urban rivers, this study investigated river sediments in Shanghai, the largest urban area in China. Seven sites were sampled to ensure maximum coverage of the city's central districts, and a tidal flat was also included to compare with river samples. Density separation, microscopic inspection and μ-FT-IR analysis were conducted to analyze the characteristics of microplastics and the type of polymers. The average abundance of microplastics in six river sediment samples was 802 items per kilogram of dry weight. The abundance in rivers was one to two orders of magnitude higher than in the tidal flat. White microplastic spheres were most commonly distributed in river sediments. Seven types of microplastics were identified, of which polypropylene was the most prevailing polymers presented. The study then conducted risk assessment of microplastics in sediments based on the observed results, and proposed a framework of environmental risk assessment. After reviewing waste disposal related legislation and regulations in China, this study conclude that in situ data and legitimate estimations should be incorporated as part of the practice when developing environmental policies aiming to tackle microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the water cycle from a freshwater river basin to coastal waters in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobin; Jin, Ling; Yang, Jingping; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Wu, Jichun; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-02-01

    The distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), one class of persistent organic pollutants, in groundwater, especially in confined aquifers remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of 12 PFAAs through a water cycle from the Huai River Basin to the Yellow Sea, including confined aquifers, unconfined aquifers, rivers, and coastal waters. We found the ubiquity of PFAAs in all types of samples, including those from confined aquifers (2.7-6.8 ng/L). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the major PFAAs in all samples, accounting for an average of 49.1% (0.8-84.8%) and 33.3% (6.3-92.2%) of total PFAAs, respectively. Comparing the concentration of PFOA with that of PFOS, we found a higher concentration of PFOA in rivers and a higher concentration of PFOS in confined aquifers. Short-chain perfluoropentanoic acid accounted for an average of 10.3% (1.9-24.6%) of total PFAAs in rivers and coastal waters. Branched isomers of both PFOA and PFOS were detected in most samples (36/42 and 39/42, respectively). One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in the profiles of PFAAs among the different types of water samples. Principal component analysis suggested that rainwater and recent uses of PFAAs could be the major sources of PFAAs in confined aquifers, while recent and current uses of PFAAs could be the major source of PFAAs in unconfined aquifers, rivers and coastal waters. The risk quotients of PFOA and PFOS in groundwater and rivers were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than unity, indicating no immediate risks via drinking water consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Summer use of the tidal freshwaters of the River Seine by three estuarine fish: Coupling telemetry and GIS spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, C.; Coustillas, J.; Zahm, A.; Bunel, M.; Gazeau-Nadin, C.; Rochard, E.

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic telemetry and GIS-based spatial analysis were used to investigate the summer habitat use and movement patterns of three fish species in the tidal freshwaters of the Seine estuary (France). Experimental displacement of tagged individuals of thin-lipped grey mullet (Liza ramada), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and common bream (Abramis brama) were conducted to test for their spatial fidelity and home range establishment. Most tagged individuals (95%) successfully returned to their previously occupied capture site, showing spatial homing abilities. The studied upstream tidal freshwater segment of the Seine estuary was regularly used by grey mullet as a part of its larger summer home range, while European eel and common bream were resident in this segment. The fidelity of eel to small nocturnal refuges and the regular use of intertidal waterbodies at high tide by grey mullet and bream suggested that they possess a capacity of acquiring spatial memory of habitats in a fluctuating environment. Importantly, the scale of movements travelled by each species was positively related to tidal phase. Grey mullet and bream, both visual feeders, exhibited short-term tidal movements to known habitats, providing food resources and contiguous resting habitat suggesting that they have shown behavioural strategies adaptive to fluctuating environments. Eel, in contrast, was found to have a different strategy strongly related to diel dynamics: it stayed in subtidal habitats rich in refuges that remained available at low tide. The results of this study emphasize the importance of restoring intertidal waterbodies and the relevance of considering the availability of adjacent subtidal habitats providing refuge at low tides.

  4. Injuries caused by freshwater stingrays in the Tapajós River Basin: a clinical and sociodemographic study.

    PubMed

    Abati, Paulo Afonso Martins; Torrez, Pasesa Pascuala Quispe; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Tozzi, Fabio Lambertini; Guerreiro, Flávio Mileo Bacelar; Santos, Suellen Aline Torres Dos; Oliveira, Sheyla Mara Silva de; Haddad, Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater stingray envenomations are an important cause of morbidity in riverine populations living in various regions of Brazil. The sequelae include temporary or permanent disability. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects related to stingray injuries in such populations. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Extractive Reserve of Tapajos-Arapiuns, located in the municipalities of Santarém and Aveiro (Pará State). A convenience sample comprising 300 local adults was used to obtain data by means of a questionnaire/ interview. Overall, 19 (6.3%) participants reported having sustained a stingray injury in the 12 months prior to the study. All 19 were injured either while fishing (n=13 [68.4%]) or engaging in other riverine activities. Most injuries [n=14 (73.7%)] occurred from September through November, and most injured respondents [n=15 (78.9%)] reported seeing stingrays at beaches. Severe pain and the appearance of ulcers in the later stages of envenomation were described by 18 (94.7%) and 12 (63.2%) participants, respectively. Freshwater stingray injuries, which should be considered occupational injuries, are common in the study area, especially in places like beaches or in the lakes that form during the dry season, when stingrays are routinely observed. A significant proportion of respondents was unaware of the correct first aid measures and had insufficient resources to treat the complications of these injuries in the locality where they reside. Interactive activities involving local residents - such as lectures and the distribution of simple pamphlets providing information about stingray injuries - are needed.

  5. SIMULATION OF FRESHWATER PLUME FROM LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN AND THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER IN THE WAKE OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spirit of a post-Katrina response, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was set up and applied to the hurricane Katrina affected region of Mississippi River delta, Lake Pontchartran, and the Gulf of Mexico coastline near New Orleans. Following Katrina, there was concern ...

  6. A Survey of the Freshwater Mussels of the Ohio River from Greenup Locks and Dam to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-06

    1823) X x Lampsilis ovata* (Say, 1817) x x Lampsilis fasciola Raf., 1820 x Epioblasma triguetra (Raf., 1820) x __ TOTALS . . . . 38 29 35 41 Summation of...Lampsilis ovata* (Say, 1817) Lainpsilis fasciola * Raf., 1820 Epioblasma triguetra* (Raf., 1820) 42 Summary of River Faunal Changes Three species and

  7. Nitrogen dynamics in the tidal freshwater Potomac River, Maryland and Virginia, water years 1979-81: A water-quality study of the tidal Potomac River and estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Shutz, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    On an annual basis, river supplied nitrate is the predominant form of N supplied to the tidal Potomac River from external sources. Much of the nitrate is associated with high flows that have rapid transit times through the tidal river. After the fall of 1980, initiation of advanced wastewater treatment at the Blue Plains Sewage Treatment Plant (STPP) reduced ammonia loading to the river by 90% and increased nitrate loading by a similar percentage. As a result, concentrations of ammonia during the 1981 low flow period were < 0.20 mg/L as N at alexandria, while nitrate concentrations were > 1.50more » mg/L as N. Despite the reduced availability of ammonia, 15-N uptake studies showed that phytoplankton preferred ammonia to nitrate unless ammonia concentrations were < 0.10 mg/L as N. Nitrification studies during 1981 using a 14-C uptake technique indicate that rates did not vary with sample location, except for one sample from the head of the tidal river, where the rates were much higher. Process models were used in conjunction with mass-balance determinations and individual process studies to estimate rates of processes that were not directly measured. It is estimated that denitrification removed 10 times as much nitrate from the water column during the summer of 1981 as during the summer of 1980. Sedimentation of particulate N is estimated to be the largest sink for N from the water column and was approximately equal to the external annual loading of all N constituents on a daily basis. In summer, when river flows usually are low, the tidal Potomac River appears to be a partially closed system rather than one dominated by transport. Nitrogen constituents, primarily from point sources, are taken up by phytoplankton converted to organic matter, and sedimented from the water column. Some of this N eventually becomes available again by means of benthic exchange. Removal, by transport, out of the tidal river is significant only during winter. 70 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.« less

  8. Associations Between Macroinvertebrates and Paralemanea mexicana, an Endemic Freshwater Red Alga from a Mountain River in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caro-Borrero, A; Carmona-Jiménez, J

    2016-12-01

    Macrophytes are common inhabitants of lotic environments and, depending on their morphological traits, possess adaptations that provide shelter to aquatic invertebrates against strong river flow and predators. They may also be used as a food source by macroinvertebrates. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationship between the red alga Paralemanea mexicana and its role as a shelter and/or food source for lotic macroinvertebrates. We also conducted research on the role of microhabitat and morphological variations of the alga in determining macroinvertebrate taxon abundance, diversity, and functional group composition in a high-current velocity river. Results showed that changes in cover and morphology of P. mexicana were mostly correlated with river current velocity, irradiance, and seasonal variation. In turn, these were related to changes in abundance and diversity of the associated macroinvertebrate community. In addition, six macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups were evaluated for associations with the red alga: filtering and gathering collectors, piercers, scrapers, herbivore shredders, and predators. The results showed that the Trichoptera Hydroptilidae genera Ochrotrichia and Metrichia use P. mexicana as a food source and case-building material. The Trichoptera Glossosomatidae Mortoniella uses the alga as a substrate. The biotic interactions between P. mexicana and associated macroinvertebrates reveal the importance of macrophytes as purveyors of substrate, as food and shelter for macroinvertebrates, and also as promoters of macroinvertebrate community diversity. In addition, it was shown that macroinvertebrate herbivory likely facilitates vegetative propagation of the red alga through increased release and germination of carpospores and new gametophytes.

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of the impact of fluoride (F-) and turbidity on the freshwater snail Physella acuta in a polluted river receiving an industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Julio A; Alonso, Álvaro

    2017-06-01

    We carried out field studies and laboratory experiments to assess the impact of fluoride (F - ) and turbidity on the freshwater snail Physella acuta in a polluted river receiving an industrial effluent (the middle Duraton River, Central Spain). Fluoride concentrations and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the industrial effluent (with the highest values being 0.6 mg F - /L and 55.2 nephelometric turbidity unit). In addition, higher deposition of fine inorganic matter was evident at polluted sampling sites. Conversely, the abundance of P. acuta significantly declined (until its virtual disappearance) downstream from the industrial effluent. Toxicity bioassays showed that P. acuta is a relatively tolerant invertebrate species to fluoride toxicity, with estimated safe concentrations (expressed as LC 0.10 values for infinite hours of exposure) for juvenile and adult snails being 2.4 and 3.7 mg F - /L, respectively. Furthermore, juvenile snails (more sensitive than adult snails) did not show significant alterations in their behavior through 15 days of exposure to 2.6 mg F - /L: mean values of the proportion of test snails located on the water surface habitat, as well as mean values of the sliding movement rate (velocity) of test snails, never showed significant differences when comparing control and treatment glass vessels. It is concluded that instream habitat degradation, derived from increased turbidity levels, might be a major cause for significant reductions in the abundance of P. acuta downstream from the industrial effluent. The presence of the competing gastropod Ancylus fluviatilis could also affect negatively the recovery of P. acuta abundance.

  10. Opportunities for Hydrologic Research in the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Beighley, E., II; Lee, H.; Tshimanga, R.; Spencer, R. G.; O'Loughlin, F.

    2014-12-01

    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and find that there are historic data, ongoing measurement recording efforts, and important model results. Annual rainfall is ~2000 mm/yr along an east-west trend, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. While some studies show rain gauges at specific locations with declines in P greater than 10% from 1960 to 1990, other studies suggest that basin wide decreases from 1951 to 1993 are modest at 4.5% or that the trend is minimal. Studies during the 1950s using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential ET varies little across the basin at a 1100 mm/yr to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data has been collected at 100s of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Discharge of the Congo River at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during 1960-1970 in comparison to background values of the previous decades and of today. There does not appear to be a long-term discharge trend over the century of record. Satellite altimetry measurements collected during high and low flows show that the Cuvette Centrale wetland water levels are consistently 0.5m to 3m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about 1m whereas the Congo is typically less than 15m deep everywhere upstream of Kinshasa. The wetlands do not appear to be marked by sizable channels such that the flows are diffusive. CO2 and CH4 evasion from the Congo waters directly to the atmosphere are estimated at 1.6 to 3.2 Tg/yr for CH4 from the Cuvette wetland waters and 105 to 204 g C/m2/yr for CO2 from waters of the Oubangui River. Using these published results, we suggest seven hypotheses that may lead to important water and carbon cycle discoveries. These hypotheses focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how those waters leave the wetland; on river discharge generated by historic

  11. Relative growth and morphological sexual maturity size of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae) in the Middle Paraná River, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Williner, Verónica; Torres, María Victoria; Carvalho, Débora Azevedo; König, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The relative growth of a number of morphological dimensions of the South American freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Trichodactylidae) were compared and related to sexual dimorphism. Crabs were collected from ponds in the Middle Paraná River in Argentina. A regression model with segmented relationship was used to test for relative growth between these measurements where breakpoints infer the body size at which crabs reach sexual maturity. In both sexes the carapace width and the length, height, and thickness of the right and left chelae were measured, as well as the male pleopod length and the female abdomen width. All of these measurements were found to show positive allometry with the exception of the male pleopod length and the left chelae, which did not show a breakpoint. In females the breakpoint for the abdomen width inferred a morphological sexual maturity at carapace width 6.9 mm. In males the break point for the pleopod length was at carapace width 6.6 mm, with that for the chelae measurements was between carapace widths 6.4 and 6.9 mm. The relative growth pattern in Trichodactylus borellianus was found to be similar to that recorded for other species of the family Trichodactylidae. PMID:25561835

  12. A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m−2 yr−1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m−2 yr−1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m−2 yr−1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean = 219 g C m−2 yr−1 vs. mean = 91 g C m−2 yr−1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean = 0.84 cm yr−1 vs. mean = 0.21 cm yr−1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

  13. Pharmaceutical chemicals, steroids and xenoestrogens in water, sediments and fish from the tidal freshwater Potomac River (Virginia, USA).

    PubMed

    Arya, Golala; Tadayon, Sara; Sadighian, James; Jones, Jennifer; de Mutsert, Kim; Huff, Thomas B; Foster, Gregory D

    2017-06-07

    Selected pharmaceutical chemicals, steroids and xenoestrogens (PCSXs) consisting of 29 endocrine modulators, therapeutic drugs, pesticides, detergents, plastics, and active ingredients in household products were measured in water, riverbed sediments and fish collected in a tributary embayment of the Potomac River (Hunting Creek, Alexandria, VA, USA) in the vicinity of wastewater discharge. A total of 17 PCSXs were found in the Hunting Creek samples, with steroid hormones (e.g., progesterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol), triclosan, dextromethorphan and bisphenol A being the most prominent micropollutants detected.The geospatial distribution of the PCSXs in Hunting Creek indicated that the steroids correlated with wastewater treatment plant discharge in all matrices, but such an association is tentative in Hunting Creek given the complex nature of urban sources of PCSXs and hydrodynamics in an urban tidal river. The sediment PCSX concentrations correlated with sediment total organic carbon content at all sampling sites. For the most part, the PCSXs showed an enrichment in fish tissue relative to sediments when concentrations were normalized to lipids and sediment organic carbon contents, but the influence of endogenous steroids is also an important consideration for these chemicals.

  14. Congo (Brazzaville) Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Congo (Brazzaville) is among the top five oil producers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Oil production comes almost entirely from offshore oil fields. Congo exports almost all of its oil production, and the largest recipients are China and the European Union.

  15. Hyperspectral sensing for turbid water quality monitoring in freshwater rivers: Empirical relationship between reflectance and turbidity and total solids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiunn-Lin; Ho, Chung-Ru; Huang, Chia-Ching; Srivastav, Arun Lal; Tzeng, Jing-Hua; Lin, Yao-Tung

    2014-11-28

    Total suspended solid (TSS) is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ) as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L(-1) and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L(-1) and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R(2) = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R(2) = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS). On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R(2) = 0.66) was better than with the MR approach (R

  16. Hyperspectral Sensing for Turbid Water Quality Monitoring in Freshwater Rivers: Empirical Relationship between Reflectance and Turbidity and Total Solids

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiunn-Lin; Ho, Chung-Ru; Huang, Chia-Ching; Srivastav, Arun Lal; Tzeng, Jing-Hua; Lin, Yao-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Total suspended solid (TSS) is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ) as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L−1 and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L−1 and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R2 = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R2 = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS). On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R2 = 0.66) was better than with the MR approach (R2 = 0

  17. [AIDS in the Congo].

    PubMed

    Ekundzola, J R

    1990-10-01

    In the Congo, the first cases of AIDS were discovered in 1983 a Scientific Committee to Diagnose and Fight AIDS was established by the Ministry of HEALTH whose aim was to officially recognize AIDS in the Congo by: 1) evaluating the national situation, and 2) implementing a prevention program. In 1986 the Government purchased 2 ELISA diagnostic machines and established a blood bank. In 1987 the Government signed an agreement with the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement a short- term plan of action and the National Program Against AIDS was established and implemented with a national policy to prevent and control AIDS. In 1987 a National Symposium on AIDS took place and an IEC strategy developed. In 1988 the Triennial Plan Against AIDS was established for 1989-1991 with WHO to informal and educate people on AIDS, to prevent the HIV transmission through blood, to survey the progress of the epidemic and to treat those infected with HIV. In November 1988 the National Scientific Committee became the Scientific Commission of the national Committee Against AIDS presided over by the Minister of Health and Social Affairs with representation from all other sectors in the country. AIDS in the Congo is transmitted by HIV-1 through sex and blood (10-20%). Women and men alike have been affected representing all strata in society, however those affected are mostly from the urban areas. The seroprevalence in the urban areas is 5%, with 1% in the rural. 20% of those infected had blood transfusions 4-6 years before getting the HIV virus. Between 1983-1989 1940 cases of AIDS were reported to WHO; most of these were in the age group 20-4-. A KAP on AIDS was done showing that more than 90% of the population had head about AIDS: 65% knew about AIDS and 30% were using condoms. (author's modified).

  18. Establishing the Ecological Status of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters from Abrud River Catchment Area Using Benthic Diatom Communities (Ros, ia MontanÄă, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The

  19. Freshwater Ecology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    Freshwater ecosystems include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, and certain types of wetlands. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on freshwater ecology; the guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader or student "on target." Other literature guides related to…

  20. Acute toxicity of endosulfan 35EC to two freshwater bivalve molluscs from Godavari river at Maharashtra State, India.

    PubMed

    Mane, U H; Muley, D V

    1984-11-01

    Static bioassay tests were conducted using commercial grade endosulfan 35EC to study its toxicity during different seasons to two species of Lamellidens from the Godavari river at Paithan (Maharashtra State). Acute toxicity studies for 96 h showed that both species of Lamellidens were more sensitive to endosulfan 35EC in summer, at times of high temperature, pH and total carbonate content of the water used, than in monsoon and winter. LC0 and LC50 values were determined for L. corrianus and L. marginalis, during summer, monsoon and winter. Statistical analyses showed that both species were more sensitive during summer (P less than 0.001) than in monsoon and winter and that L. marginalis was more sensitive to endosulfan 35EC than L. corrianus in summer (P less than 0.001). Behavioural changes and mortality of the bivalves were dose-related. Regression equations and 95% confidence limits for each species were established in different studies. The results are discussed in the light of possible effects of endosulfan on these species of bivalve molluscs.

  1. Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Jennifer L.; Helms, John R.; Kieber, Robert J.; Avery, G. Brooks

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (SR). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and SR values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and aCDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. SR values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.

  2. Variability and prediction of freshwater and nitrate fluxes for the Louisiana-Texas shelf: Mississippi and Atchafalaya River source functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bratkovich, A.; Dinnel, S.P.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Time histories of riverine water discharge, nitrate concentration, and nitrate, flux have been analyzed for the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Results indicate that water discharge variability is dominated by the annual cycle and shorter-time-scale episodic events presumably associated with snowmelt runoff and spring or summer rains. Interannual variability in water discharge is relatively small compared to the above. In contrast, nitrate concentration exhibits strongest variability at decadal time scales. The interannual variability is not monotonic but more complicated in structure. Weak covariability between water discharge and nitrate concentration leads to a relatively “noisy” nitrate flux signal. Nitrate flux variations exhibit a low-amplitude, long-term modulation of a dominant annual cycle. Predictor-hindcastor analyses indicate that skilled forecasts of nitrate concentration and nitrate flux fields are feasible. Water discharge was the most reliably hindcast (on seasonal to interannual time scales) due to the fundamental strength of the annual hydrologic cycle. However, the forecasting effort for this variable was less successful than the hindcasting effort, mostly due to a phase shift in the annual cycle during our relatively short test period (18 mo). Nitrate concentration was more skillfully predicted (seasonal to interannual time scales) due to the relative dominance of the decadal-scale portion of the signal. Nitrate flux was also skillfully forecast even though historical analyses seemed to indicate that it should be more difficult to predict than either water discharge or nitrate concentration.

  3. Characterization of Terrestrial Water Dynamics in the Congo Basin Using GRACE and Satellite Radar Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyongki; Beighley, R. Edward; Alsdorf, Douglas; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Yamazaki, Dai; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (approx.3.7 million sq km), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (approx.40,200 cu m/s annual average). However, the hydrological dynamics of seasonally flooded wetlands and floodplains remains poorly quantified. Here, we separate the Congo wetland into four 3deg 3deg regions, and use remote sensing measurements (i.e., GRACE, satellite radar altimeter, GPCP, JERS-1, SRTM, and MODIS) to estimate the amounts of water filling and draining from the Congo wetland, and to determine the source of the water. We find that the amount of water annually filling and draining the Congo wetlands is 111 cu km, which is about one-third the size of the water volumes found on the mainstem Amazon floodplain. Based on amplitude comparisons among the water volume changes and timing comparisons among their fluxes, we conclude that the local upland runoff is the main source of the Congo wetland water, not the fluvial process of river-floodplain water exchange as in the Amazon. Our hydraulic analysis using altimeter measurements also supports our conclusion by demonstrating that water surface elevations in the wetlands are consistently higher than the adjacent river water levels. Our research highlights differences in the hydrology and hydrodynamics between the Congo wetland and the mainstem Amazon floodplain.

  4. Characterization of Terrestrial Water Dynamics in the Congo Basin Using GRACE and Satellite Radar Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Lyongki; Beighley, R. Edward; Alsdorf, Douglas; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Yamazaki, Dai; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (approximately 3.7 million km^2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (approximately 40,200 cms annual average). However, the hydrological dynamics of seasonally flooded wetlands and floodplains remains poorly quantified. Here, we separate the Congo wetland into four 3 degree x 3 degree regions, and use remote sensing measurements (i.e., GRACE, satellite radar altimeter, GPCP, JERS-1, SRTM, and MODIS) to estimate the amounts of water filling and draining from the Congo wetland, and to determine the source of the water. We find that the amount of water annually filling and draining the Congo wetlands is 111 km^3, which is about one-third the size of the water volumes found on the mainstem Amazon floodplain. Based on amplitude comparisons among the water volume changes and timing comparisons among their fluxes, we conclude that the local upland runoff is the main source of the Congo wetland water, not the fluvial process of river-floodplain water exchange as in the Amazon. Our hydraulic analysis using altimeter measurements also supports our conclusion by demonstrating that water surface elevations in the wetlands are consistently higher than the adjacent river water levels. Our research also highlights differences in the hydrology and hydrodynamics between the Congo wetland and the mainstem Amazon floodplain.

  5. High contamination in the areas surrounding abandoned mines and mining activities: An impact assessment of the Dilala, Luilu and Mpingiri Rivers, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Atibu, Emmanuel K; Lacroix, Pierre; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ray, Nicolas; Giuliani, Gregory; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Slaveykova, Vera I; Poté, John

    2018-01-01

    Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg -1 , respectively. In soil, the values of 175,859, 21,134 and 1164 mg kg -1 were found for Cu, Co and Pb, respectively. These values are much higher than the sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and international soil clean-up standards. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index results indicated important contribution of mining activities to the study sites pollution in addition to natural background. Highest metal accumulation in leaves of Phalaris arundinacea L., was observed, reaching values of 34,061, 5050 and 230 mg kg -1 for Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The ∑REE concentration reached values of 2306, 733, 2796 mg kg -1 in sediment, soil and plant samples, respectively. The above results were combined with geographical information including satellite imagery, hydrography and mining concessions. Maps were produced to present the results in a comprehensive and compelling visual format. The results will be disseminated through an innovative mapping online platform to simplify access to data and to facilitate dialogue between stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution and seasonality of microbial indicators and thermophilic campylobacters in two freshwater bathing sites on the River Lune in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Danso, K; Jones, K

    1999-12-01

    Two freshwater bathing sites, the Crook O'Lune and the University Boathouse, on the River Lune in the north-west of England, were monitored over a 2 year period for the faecal indicators, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci, the pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, and compliance with the EU Directive on Bathing Water Quality. Faecal indicator numbers showed no seasonal variation, with numbers in the bathing season similar to those in the non-bathing season. They were consistently above the EU Guideline and Imperative standards so that if the EU Bathing Water Quality Directive (76/160/EEC) were applied, neither site would comply. Faecal indicator numbers in the sediments were an order of magnitude higher than in the overlying water. Campylobacter numbers showed seasonal variation in the water with higher counts in winter than in the summer, although numbers were low. Higher numbers were found in the sediments but there was no seasonal variation. Analysis of various inputs showed that indicators and campylobacters came from a mixture of sources, namely a sewage treatment works, agricultural run-off, streams and mallards. Microbial numbers in the water at the Crook O'Lune, which is closer to the sources of pollution, were twice those at the Boathouse. In the sediments they were six to eight times higher. Faecal coliforms were all identified as Escherichia coli of which 80% were a single biotype. Faecal streptococci were all enterococci of which 55% were E. avium, 38% E. faecalis and 7% E. durans. Salmonella was not isolated from either the water column or the sediments. Campylobacters were mainly Camp. jejuni, followed by Camp. coli, UPTC and Camp. lari.

  7. Native crustacean species as a bioindicator of freshwater ecosystem pollution: A multivariate and integrative study of multi-biomarker response in active river monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Lidwina; Monferrán, Magdalena Victoria; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Amé, María Valeria

    2018-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Palaemonetes argentinus to evidence the environmental degradation due to pollutants mixture in a freshwater aquatic ecosystem. For this purpose, an active monitoring (96 h exposure) was carried out in seven sites along the Ctalamochita River basin (Córdoba, Argentina), as a case of study. Our results evidenced sewage discharges impact in the water quality index, as well as metal pollution in water (Ag, Al, B, Pb, Hg) and sediments (Hg) with a potential effect on aquatic biota. The accumulation of total metals measured in exposed P. argentinus showed significant correlation with metals in water. Also, metallothioneins in cephalothorax showed significant changes along the basin, correlating with soluble concentrations of Cr, Zn, Cd, Hg, and V measured in shrimp tissues, which would be reflecting their bioavailability in the environment. In addition, the increase in antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes suggests the occurrence of oxidative stress in exposed shrimps. The integrative biomarker response index (IBR) pointed out the effect of metals on P. argentinus but also the occurrence of others pollutants. Finally, a high consensus was observed for water, sediments, and shrimps through the multivariate analysis (90%), indicating that P. argentinus can reflect changes in the abiotic matrixes. Moreover, studied sites were grouped according to their environmental quality. The use of active biomonitoring and the integration of biological responses through an IBR confirm that native biota could be a useful monitoring tool for bioavailable pollutants in aquatic ecosystems constituting a highly valuable approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Freshwater mussel shells as environmental chronicles: Geochemical and taphonomic signatures of mercury-related extirpations in the North Fork Holston River, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.E.; Kowalewski, M.; Neves, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Schreiber, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized freshwater mussel shells to assess mercury (Hg) contamination in the North Fork Holston River that extirpated (caused local extinctions of) a diverse mussel fauna. Shells (n = 366) were collected from five sites situated upstream (two sites), just below (one site), and downstream (two sites) of the town of Saltville, Virginia, where Hg was used to produce chlorine and caustic soda from 1950 to 1972. Shell samples were used to test the (1) utility of geochemical signatures of shells for assessing the spatial variation in Hg levels in the river relative to the contamination source and (2) value of taphonomy (postmortem shell alteration) for distinguishing sites that differ in extirpation histories. Geochemical signatures of 40 shells, analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, indicated a strong longitudinal pattern. All shells from the two upstream sites had low Hg concentrations (<5-31 ??g/kg), shells directly below Saltville had variable, but dramatically higher concentrations (23-4637 ??g/kg), and shells from the two downstream sites displayed intermediate Hg levels (<5-115 ??g/kg) that declined with distance from Saltville. Two pre-industrial shells, collected at Saltville in 1917, yielded very low Hg estimates (5-6 ??g/kg). Hg signatures were consistent among mussel species, suggesting that Hg concentrations were invariant to species type; most likely, highly variable Hg levels, both across sites and through time, overwhelmed any interspecific differences in Hg acquisition. Also, a notable postmortem incorporation of Hg in mussel shells seemed unlikely, as the Hg content was not correlated with shell taphonomy (r = 0.18; p = 0.28). The taphonomic analysis (n = 366) showed that the degree of shell alteration reliably distinguished sites with different extirpation histories. At Saltville, where live mussels have been absent for at least 30 years, shells were most heavily altered and fragmented. Conversely, fresh-looking shells abounded

  9. Biogeochemical factors influencing net mercury methylation in contaminated freshwater sediments from the St. Lawrence River in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Hintelmann, Holger; Ridal, Jeff; Fortin, Danielle; Lean, David R S

    2011-02-01

    The activity of various anaerobic microbes, including sulfate reducers (SRB), iron reducers (FeRP) and methanogens (MPA) has been linked to mercury methylation in aquatic systems, although the relative importance of each microbial group in the overall process is poorly understood in natural sediments. The present study focused on the biogeochemical factors (i.e. the relative importance of various groups of anaerobic microbes (FeRP, SRB, and MPA) that affect net monomethylmercury (MMHg) formation in contaminated sediments of the St. Lawrence River (SRL) near Cornwall (Zone 1), Ontario, Canada. Methylation and demethylation potentials were measured separately by using isotope-enriched mercury species ((200)Hg(2+) and MM(199)Hg(+)) in sediment microcosms treated with specific microbial inhibitors. Sediments were sampled and incubated in the dark at room temperature in an anaerobic chamber for 96h. The potential methylation rate constants (K(m)) and demethylation rates (K(d)) were found to differ significantly between microcosms. The MPA-inhibited microcosm had the highest potential methylation rate constant (0.016d(-1)), whereas the two SRB-inhibited microcosms had comparable potential methylation rate constants (0.003d(-1) and 0.002d(-1), respectively). The inhibition of methanogens stimulated net methylation by inhibiting demethylationand by stimulating methylation along with SRB activity. The inhibition of both methanogens and SRB was found to enhance the iron reduction rates but did not completely stop MMHg production. The strong positive correlation between K(m) and Sulfate Reduction Rates (SRR) and between K(d) and Methane Production Rates (MPR) supports the involvement of SRB in Hg methylation and MPA in MMHg demethylation in the sediments. In contrast, the strong negative correlation between K(d) and Iron Reduction Rates (FeRR) shows that the increase in FeRR corresponds to a decrease in demethylation, indicating that iron reduction may influence net

  10. Opportunities for hydrologic research in the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, Douglas; Beighley, Ed; Laraque, Alain; Lee, Hyongki; Tshimanga, Raphael; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Mahé, Gil; Dinga, Bienvenu; Moukandi, Guy; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2016-06-01

    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and summarize the historic and ongoing research. Annual rainfall is ~1900 mm/yr along an east-west trend across the basin, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. Historic studies using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential evapotranspiration varies little across the basin at 1100 to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data have been collected at hundreds of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Congo River discharge at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during the 1960-1970 decade in comparison to most other decades. Satellite altimetry measurements of high and low flows show that water levels in the "Cuvette Centrale" wetland are 0.5 m to 3.0 m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about a meter and there does not appear to be many sizable channels across the "Cuvette"; thus, wetland flows are diffusive. Cuvette waters alone are estimated to emit about 0.5 Pg CH4 and CO2 equivalents/yr, an amount that is significant compared to global carbon evasions. Using these results, we suggest seven hypotheses that focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how these leave the wetland, on the river discharge generated by historic rainfall, on the connection between climate change and the rainfall-runoff generated by the migrating "tropical rainbelt," on deforestation and hydroelectric power generation, and on the amount of carbon emitted from Congo waters.

  11. Opportunities for Hydrologic Research in the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Beighley, E.; Laraque, A.; Lee, H.; Tshimanga, R.; O'Loughlin, F.; Mahe, G. M.; Dinga, B. J.; Moukandi, G.; Spencer, R.

    2016-12-01

    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and summarize the historic and ongoing research. Annual rainfall is 1900 mm/yr along an east-west trend across the basin, decreasing northward and southward to 1100 mm/yr. Historic studies using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential evapotranspiration varies little across the basin at 1100 to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data have been collected at hundreds of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Congo River discharge at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during the 1960-1970 decade in comparison to most other decades. Satellite altimetry measurements of high and low flows show that water levels in the "Cuvette Centrale" wetland are 0.5m to 3.0m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about a meter and there does not appear to be many sizable channels across the "Cuvette"; thus, wetland flows are diffusive. Cuvette waters alone are estimated to emit about 0.5 Pg CH4 and CO2 equivalents/yr, an amount that is significant compared to global carbon evasions. Using these results, we suggest seven hypotheses that focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how these leave the wetland, on the river discharge generated by historic rainfall, on the connection between climate change and the rainfall-runoff generated by the migrating "tropical rainbelt," on deforestation and hydroelectric power generation, and on the amount of carbon emitted from Congo waters.

  12. Freshwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  13. Human Freshwater Demand for Economic Activity and Ecosystems in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferng, Jiun-Jiun

    2007-12-01

    Freshwater is necessary to economic activity, and humans depend on goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems. However, national freshwater management usually focuses on direct use of domestic freshwater. With an increasing scarcity of freshwater, attention has turned to two indirect uses of freshwater by humans. The first indirect use is freshwater used by foreign countries when producing products for export. The second use is freshwater required by local ecosystems: human survival and development depend on goods and services generated in these ecosystems. This work adopted Taiwan as a case study. In addition to two widely recognized ecosystem freshwater demands, evapotranspiration and reversed river flow, this study suggests that freshwater is a constituent of some abiotic components, such as groundwater in aquifers, because excessive withdrawal has already caused significant land subsidence in Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated results show that Taiwan’s net imports of freshwater through trade amounts to approximately 25% of its total freshwater use for economic production. Integrating industrial policy, trade policy, and national freshwater management is a useful approach for developing strategies to limit the growing use of freshwater in Taiwan. Policy implications are then developed by further analyzing withdrawal sources of freshwater (domestic and foreign) for supporting economic production in Taiwan and identifying the factors (domestic final demand and export) driving freshwater-intensive products.

  14. Integrating the social, hydrological and ecological dimensions of freshwater health: The Freshwater Health Index.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Derek; Shaad, Kashif; Souter, Nicholas J; Farrell, Tracy; Dudgeon, David; Sullivan, Caroline A; Fauconnier, Isabelle; MacDonald, Glen M; McCartney, Matthew P; Power, Alison G; McNally, Amy; Andelman, Sandy J; Capon, Timothy; Devineni, Naresh; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Ng, Cho Nam; Rebecca Shaw, M; Wang, Raymond Yu; Lai, Chengguang; Wang, Zhaoli; Regan, Helen M

    2018-06-15

    Degradation of freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide is a primary cause of increasing water insecurity, raising the need for integrated solutions to freshwater management. While methods for characterizing the multi-faceted challenges of managing freshwater ecosystems abound, they tend to emphasize either social or ecological dimensions and fall short of being truly integrative. This paper suggests that management for sustainability of freshwater systems needs to consider the linkages between human water uses, freshwater ecosystems and governance. We present a conceptualization of freshwater resources as part of an integrated social-ecological system and propose a set of corresponding indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem health and to highlight priorities for management. We demonstrate an application of this new framework -the Freshwater Health Index (FHI) - in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China, where stakeholders are addressing multiple and conflicting freshwater demands. By combining empirical and modeled datasets with surveys to gauge stakeholders' preferences and elicit expert information about governance mechanisms, the FHI helps stakeholders understand the status of freshwater ecosystems in their basin, how ecosystems are being manipulated to enhance or decrease water-related services, and how well the existing water resource management regime is equipped to govern these dynamics over time. This framework helps to operationalize a truly integrated approach to water resource management by recognizing the interplay between governance, stakeholders, freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of: An analysis of flooding in Elk River and Freshwater Creek watersheds, Humboldt County, California (prepared by The Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, California)

    Treesearch

    L. M. Reid

    1999-01-01

    The reviewed report (PL 1999) attempts to demonstrate that logging conducted over the past decade or so in Freshwater and Elk watersheds has not caused increased flooding in downstream portions of the watersheds. However, most of the report's sections include information that supports the hypothesis that logging has aggravated flood hazard, produce conclusions...

  16. Turtles: Freshwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Bowden, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    With their iconic shells, turtles are morphologically distinct in being the only extant or extinct vertebrate animals to have their shoulders and hips inside their rib cages. By the time an asteroid hit the earth 65.5 million years ago, causing the extinction of dinosaurs, turtles were already an ancient lineage that was 70% through their evolutionary history to date. The remarkable evolutionary success of turtles over 220 million years is due to a combination of both conservative and effective life history traits and an essentially unchanging morphology that withstood the test of time. However, the life history traits of many species make them particularly susceptible to overharvest and habitat destruction in the modern world, and a majority of the world’s species face serious conservation challenges with several extinctions documented in modern times. The global plight of turtles is underscored by the fact that the percentage of imperiled species exceeds that of even the critically endangered primates.Freshwater turtles, with over 260 recognized species, have become a focus on a worldwide scale for many conservation issues. This article is a synthesis of a diverse body of information on the general biology of freshwater turtles, with particular emphasis on the extensive research on ecology, life history, and behavior that has been accomplished in the last half century. Much of the research has been applicable to the aforementioned conservation challenges. The studies presented include a combination of laboratory and field experiments and observational studies on this intriguing group of animals.

  17. New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kibadi, Kapay; Panda, Mbutu; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Fraga, Alexandra G.; Filho, Adhemar Longatto; Anyo, Gladys; Pedrosa, Jorge; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Meyers, Wayne M.

    2008-01-01

    We report 3 patients with laboratory-confirmed Buruli ulcer in Kafufu/Luremo, Angola, and Kasongo-Lunda, Democratic Republic of Congo. These villages are near the Kwango/Cuango River, which flows through both countries. Further investigation of artisanal alluvial mining as a risk factor for Buruli ulcer is recommended. PMID:18976574

  18. Nyiragongo Volcano Erupts in the Congo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Nyiragongo, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, erupted today (January 17, 2002), ejecting a large cloud of smoke and ash high into the sky and spewing lava down three sides of the volcano. Mount Nyiragongo is located roughly 10 km (6 miles) north of the town of Goma, near the Congo's border with Rwanda. According to news reports, one river of lava is headed straight toward Goma, where international aid teams are evacuating residents. Already, the lava flows have burned through large swaths of the surrounding jungle and have destroyed dozens of homes. This false-color image was acquired today (January 17) by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) roughly 5 hours after the eruption began. Notice Mount Nyiragongo's large plume (bright white) can be seen streaming westward in this scene. The plume appears to be higher than the immediately adjacent clouds and so it is colder in temperature, making it easy for MODIS to distinguish the volcanic plume from the clouds by using image bands sensitive to thermal radiation. Images of the eruption using other band combinations are located on the MODIS Rapid Response System. Nyiragongo eruptions are extremely hazardous because the lava tends to be very fluid and travels down the slopes of the volcano quickly. Eruptions can be large and spectacular, and flows can reach up to 10s of kilometers from the volcano very quickly. Also, biomass burned from Nyriagongo, and nearby Mount Nyamuragira, eruptions tends to create clouds of smoke that adversely affect the Mountain Gorillas living in the adjacent mountain chain. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Preliminary map showing freshwater heads for the Red River Formation, Bighorn Dolomite, and equivalent rocks of Ordovician age in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; Strausz, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    A map showing freshwater heads for the Ordovician Red River Formation, Bighorn Dolomite, and equivalent rocks has been prepared as part of a study to determine the water-resources potential of the Mississippian Madison Limestone and associated rocks in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North and South Dakota, and Wyoming. Most of the data used to prepare the map are from drill-stem tests of exploration and development wells drilled by the petroleum industry from 1964 to 1978. A short explanation describes the seven categories of reliability used to evaluate the drill-stem-test data and identifies several factors that might explain the apparent anomalous highs and lows on the potentiometric surface. The map is at a scale of 1:1,000 ,000 and the potentiometric contour interval is 100 feet. (USGS)

  20. Long-term benthic monitoring studies in the freshwater portion of the Potomac River. Final report. Research report, 1983-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, A.T.; Ranasinghe, J.A.; Wilson, H.

    1992-11-01

    The goal of the long-term benthic study in the Potomac River was to define power plants effects in the context of overall ecological conditions in the river, so that the ecological impacts associated with power plant operations could be assessed.

  1. Urbanization and the Level of Microplastic Ingestion by Fish: A Comparison of Freshwater Sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River watershed, and Pinfish (Sparidae), from the Brazos Estuary and Inshore Marine Sites, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, K. B.; Peters, C. A.; Bratton, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    While previous research has documented ingestion of macro- and microplastics by aquatic fauna in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, relatively little is known of the environmental and ecological factors influencing the entry and diffusion of plastics and artificial polymers into aquatic foodwebs. Microplastics are defined as 50 μm to 5 mm in length. This study utilized stomach content analysis to compare the level of microplastic artificial polymer ingestion for fish collected from the Brazos River watershed, Brazos estuary, and inshore coastal waters of Texas, USA, in areas with varying levels of urbanization. We collected 318 bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and 118 longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) at 14 freshwater locales, and 11 samples of 298 pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) at 6 saltwater locales. Sunfish averaged 12.6 cm in length, and pinfish averaged 14.9 cm. Sunfish averaged .807 microplastics per fish, and pinfish averaged 1.09. The maximum percentage for pinfish with microplastics present per sample (frequency) was 77%, compared to 75% for sunfish. Mean frequencies per sample were also similar: 45% for sunfish and 47% for pinfish. The Brazos River collections, however, had a greater percentage with frequencies of <.30 (42%) for sunfish, versus 9% for pinfish. Sample sites in the center of urbanized zones, including downtown Waco and Galveston, TX, had the greatest frequencies of ingestion, while sites upstream of Waco, TX, had the least. For pinfish, the mean stomach weight per sample was significantly positively correlated (p=.01) to both the percent of individuals ingesting microplastics (cc=.742) and the mean number of plastic particles ingested per fish (cc=.697). The majority of the microplastics were thread shaped, with blue and grey the dominant colors. Comparison with presence of natural food items suggests microplastic ingestion is predominantly incidental for these sentinel fish species.

  2. Central African Security: Conflict in the Congo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    strategically important Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We were indeed fortunate to have as authors presenters Dr. Crawford Young, Dr. Herb...of this situation is essential for intelligence analysts and for policymakers trying to define and protect U.S. interests in the region. Importance of...DRC The Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as Zaire and the Belgian Congo, has long been one of the most strategically important

  3. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Sara; Bokaean, Mohammad; Shahrivar, Mona Ranjvar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. The viral genome consists of 3 RNA segments of 12 kb (L), 6.8 kb (M), and 3 kb (S). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread tickborne viral infection worldwide: it has been reported in many regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The geographical distribution of CCHFV corresponds most closely with the distribution of members of the tick genera, and Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection. In contrast to human infection, CCHFV infection is asymptomatic in all species. Treatment options for CCHF are limited; immunotherapy and ribavirin are effective in the treatment of CCHF; the efficacy of ribavirin in the treatment of CCHF has not yet been proven. This article reviews the history, epidemiology, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CCHFV, as well as the development of a vaccine against it.

  4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    In mid-September 2009, a 22-year-old critically ill Soldier was medically evacuated from a treatment facility in southern Afghanistan to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany. Despite the efforts of the team at Landstuhl, this patient died and became the US military's first known victim of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). CCHF is caused by a virus, which bears the same name. Because a vaccine is lacking, as well as an effective antiviral treatment, prevention is key. 2015.

  5. Radionuclides, Trace Metals, and Organic Compounds in Shells of Native Freshwater Mussels Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River: 6000 Years Before Present to Current Times

    SciTech Connect

    B. L. Tiller; T. E. Marceau

    2006-01-25

    This report documents concentrations of radionuclides, trace metals, and semivolatile organic compounds measured in shell samples of the western pearl shell mussel collected along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

  6. Description of Hylopanchax paucisquamatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), a new lampeye species from the Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Rainer; Friel, John P; Van der Zee, Jouke R

    2014-08-05

    A new deep-bodied Hylopanchax species is described from the northwestern Congo basin. Hylopanchax paucisquamatus, new species, was collected in the Odzala-Kokoua National Park in the Likouala River drainage of the Republic of Congo. It differs from its congeners, including the deep-bodied H. leki and H. ndeko, by a unique combination of morphological characters, including low number of mid-longitudinal and transverse scales, number of dorsal-fin rays, and position of dorsal-fin origin in relation to anal-fin. It is the only deep-bodied species currently known outside the Kasaï River drainage.

  7. Metrics for assessing freshwater fish in Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide significant value to humans. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately diverse and abundant assemblages of native fishes. Currently, these habitats are impact...

  8. Distribution of heavy metals in vegetation surrounding the Blackstone River, USA: considerations regarding sediment contamination and long term metals transport in freshwater riverine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ozdilek, Hasan Goksel; Mathisen, Paul P; Pellegrino, Don

    2007-04-01

    The Blackstone River, a 74 km interstate stream located in South Central Massachusetts and Rhode Island (USA), has had a long history of problems due to high concentrations of metals such as copper and lead. The river has been subjected to metals load that include contributions from urban runoff, wastewater discharges, contaminated sediments, and also resuspension of contaminated sediments in the river-bed. All of these effects lead to elevated concentrations of metals such as lead, copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium and arsenic. Furthermore, the contaminated sediments located behind impoundments become especially important when higher flows cause resuspension of the previously deposited sediments and associated metals. While it is known that high metals concentrations in this river are found in the bottom sediments, the fate of the metals and impact on the ecosystem are not well known. This paper addresses the potential impacts that metals may have on vegetation and plant tissues in the vicinity of the river Plant tissues (primarily mosses), were collected from a number of sampling sites along a 14 km stretch of this river. At each site, samples were collected from multiple distances from the riverbank. Laboratory analyses made use of both wet digestion and dry ashing digestion methods, followed by analysis using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The wet and dry ashing digestion methods yielded similar results, although the results afforded by the dry ashing methods were slightly lower than the results obtained from the wet method. The results showed that the metals concentrations in vegetation (as determined from plant tissue analyses) were generally inversely related to the distance between the vegetation and the riverbank, with higher metals concentrations existing in plant tissues located close to the riverbank. In addition, it was found that the transport of metals concentrations to the terrestrial vegetation adjacent to this section of the Blackstone

  9. Ecosystem level methane fluxes from tidal freshwater and brackish marshes of the Mississippi River Delta: Implications for coastal wetland carbon projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Johnson, Darren J.; Raynie, Richard C.; Killebrew, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate from seawater inhibits methane production in tidal wetlands, and by extension, salinity has been used as a general predictor of methane emissions. With the need to reduce methane flux uncertainties from tidal wetlands, eddy covariance (EC) techniques provide an integrated methane budget. The goals of this study were to: 1) establish methane emissions from natural, freshwater and brackish wetlands in Louisiana based on EC; and 2) determine if EC estimates conform to a methane-salinity relationship derived from temperate tidal wetlands with chamber sampling. Annual estimates of methane emissions from this study were 62.3 g CH4/m2/yr and 13.8 g CH4/m2/yr for the freshwater and brackish (8–10 psu) sites, respectively. If it is assumed that long-term, annual soil carbon sequestration rates of natural marshes are ~200 g C/m2/yr (7.3 tCO2e/ha/yr), healthy brackish marshes could be expected to act as a net radiative sink, equivalent to less than one-half the soil carbon accumulation rate after subtracting methane emissions (4.1 tCO2e/ha/yr). Carbon sequestration rates would need case-by-case assessment, but the EC methane emissions estimates in this study conformed well to an existing salinity-methane model that should serve as a basis for establishing emission factors for wetland carbon offset projects.

  10. New Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Sublineage, Brazzaville, Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Sven; Linguissi, Laure S. Ghoma; Tekwu, Emmanuel M.; Vouvoungui, Jeannhey C.; Kohl, Thomas A.; Beckert, Patrick; Sidibe, Anissa; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Madzou-Laboum, Igor K.; Kwedi, Sylvie; Penlap Beng, Véronique; Frank, Matthias; Ntoumi, Francine

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading cause of illness and death in Congo. No data are available about the population structure and transmission dynamics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains prevalent in this central Africa country. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected by whole-genome sequencing, we phylogenetically characterized 74 MTBC isolates from Brazzaville, the capital of Congo. The diversity of the study population was high; most strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage, which split into Latin American Mediterranean, Uganda I, Uganda II, Haarlem, X type, and a new dominant sublineage named Congo type (n = 26). Thirty strains were grouped in 5 clusters (each within 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms), from which 23 belonged to the Congo type. High cluster rates and low genomic diversity indicate recent emergence and transmission of the Congo type, a new Euro-American sublineage of MTBC. PMID:28221129

  11. New Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Sublineage, Brazzaville, Congo.

    PubMed

    Malm, Sven; Linguissi, Laure S Ghoma; Tekwu, Emmanuel M; Vouvoungui, Jeannhey C; Kohl, Thomas A; Beckert, Patrick; Sidibe, Anissa; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Madzou-Laboum, Igor K; Kwedi, Sylvie; Penlap Beng, Véronique; Frank, Matthias; Ntoumi, Francine; Niemann, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading cause of illness and death in Congo. No data are available about the population structure and transmission dynamics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains prevalent in this central Africa country. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected by whole-genome sequencing, we phylogenetically characterized 74 MTBC isolates from Brazzaville, the capital of Congo. The diversity of the study population was high; most strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage, which split into Latin American Mediterranean, Uganda I, Uganda II, Haarlem, X type, and a new dominant sublineage named Congo type (n = 26). Thirty strains were grouped in 5 clusters (each within 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms), from which 23 belonged to the Congo type. High cluster rates and low genomic diversity indicate recent emergence and transmission of the Congo type, a new Euro-American sublineage of MTBC.

  12. INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE EFFECTS OF SEASON AND WATER QUALITY ON OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) AND ASSOCIATED FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER ESTUARY, FLORIDA: IMPLICATIONS OF ALTERED FRESHWATER INFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of biological and ecological responses of a Valued Ecosystem Component species, Crassostrea virginica, was used to investigate ecosystem-wide health effects of watershed alterations in the Caloosahatchee River estuary, Florida. The influence of water quality and season on...

  13. Phylogeographical analysis of a cold-temperate freshwater fish, the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glenii) in the Amur and Liaohe River basins of Northeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang; Yin, Wei; Chen, Anhui; Li, Jiao; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2014-10-01

    The Amur sleeper Perccottus glenii (Perciformes, Gobioidei, Odontobutidae) is well known as an invasive fish in the river basins of Eastern and Central Europe, but its genetic background is unavailable across its native habitats in northeast Asia. In this study, we used the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene by sampling 19 populations of P. glenii across its native distributional areas of Liaohe and Amur River basins to explore its evolutionary history. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major clades within P. glenii, among which Clade A and Clade B were co-distributed in the Liaohe and Amur River basins, and Clade C was restricted to the latter. Molecular dating showed that the splits of Clades A, B and C have happened in the late Early-early Middle Pleistocene and the most recent common ancestors of these clades have been presented in the late Middle-early Late Pleistocene. The P. glenii showed very high levels of genetic structure among populations (ΦST = 0.801), probably due to the characters of its life histories with very limited dispersal ability. The admixture of different clades in some populations of P. glenii probably reflects historical secondary contact. These findings indicate that Pleistocene climatic oscillation and river capture were major determinants for genetic variations and evolutionary history of the P. glenii.

  14. The impact of a freshwater fish farm on the community of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and the structure of tetracycline resistance genes in river water.

    PubMed

    Harnisz, Monika; Korzeniewska, Ewa; Gołaś, Iwona

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a fish farm on the structure of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in water of Drwęca River. Samples of upstream river waters; post-production waters and treated post-production waters from fish farm; as well as downstream river waters were monitored for tetracycline resistant bacteria, tetracycline resistant genes, basic physico-chemical parameters and tetracyclines concentration. The river waters was characterized by low levels of pollution, which was determined based on water temperature, pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and tetracycline antibiotics. Culture-dependent (heterotrophic plate counts, counts of bacteria resistant to oxytetracycline (OTC(R)) and doxycycline (DOX(R)), minimum inhibitory concentrations for oxytetracycline and doxycycline, multidrug resistance of OTC(R) and DOX(R), qualitative composition of OTC(R) and DOX(R), prevalence of tet genes in resistant isolates) and culture-independent surveys (quantity of tet gene copies) revealed no significant differences in the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes between the studied samples. The only way in which the fish farm influenced water quality in the Drwęca River was by increasing the diversity of tetracycline-resistance genes. However, it should also be noted that the bacteria of the genera Aeromonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were able to transfer 6 out of 13 tested tet genes into Escherichiacoli, which can promote the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A proposed drainage evolution model for Central Africa—Did the Congo flow east?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the origin of Sub-Saharan biodiversity requires knowing the history of the region's paleo-ecosystems. As water is essential for sustaining of life, the evolving geometry of river basins often have influence on local speciation. With this in mind, we analyse drainage patterns in Central and East Africa. Evidence from marine fossils suggests the Congo Basin was submerged for much of the Cretaceous, and after being uplifted drained eastwards through a paleo-Congo river towards the Indian Ocean. Two remnant peneplains in the Congo Basin are interpreted as evidence that this basin was tectonically stable on at least two occasions in the past. The lower peneplain is interpreted as the base level of the drainage pattern that had its outlet in Tanzania, at the present Rufiji Delta that was once over 500 km wide. The Luangwa, today a tributary of the Zambezi river, was a part of this drainage network. This pattern was subsequently disrupted by uplift associated with the East African Rifting in the Oligocene-Eocene (30-40 Ma). The resulting landlocked system was captured in the Miocene (5-15 Ma) by short rivers draining into the Atlantic Ocean, producing the drainage pattern of Central Africa seen today.

  16. Description of two new Bathyaethiops species (Teleostei: Alestidae) from the Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Timo; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2016-06-02

    Two new species of Bathyaethiops (Teleostei: Characiformes: Alestidae) are described. Bathyaethiops baka n. sp. is a dwarf species with the largest known specimen being only 24.4 mm SL. The species is characterized by an incomplete squamation and a large humeral spot. Bathyaethiops baka n. sp. is known so far only from the Ngoko River of Southeastern Cameroon, a tributary of the Sangha River in the northern Congo basin. The second species, Bathyaethiops flammeus n. sp., shows a diagnostic spot in front of the dorsal-fin base, which is devoid of melanophores and bright red in life. The species is described from the Bakéré River at Yambula-Bakéré, a locality north-west of Kisangani in the Central Congo basin. Other records of Bathyaethiops flammeus n. sp. from the Tshuapa respectively Ruki River at Boende and Eala, Central Congo basin, suggests a wider geographic distribution. A key to all species of Bathyaethiops is provided.

  17. Freshwater Commercial Bycatch: an Understated Conservation Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Graham D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    2011-04-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch in marine systems has been regarded as a global conservation concern by environmental groups, scientists, government, and the public for decades. Fortunately, some headway has been made to mitigate the negative impacts of bycatch in marine environments. In a survey of the literature, we found that despite freshwater commercial fisheries yields comprising 11% of the global commercial catch, bycatch research focusing on freshwater commercial fisheries represented only {approx}3% of the total bycatch literature. This paucity of research is particularly alarming given that freshwater animals and habitats are some of the world's most imperiled. The limited inland bycatchmore » literature that does exist includes examples of population declines attributed to commercial bycatch (e.g., freshwater dolphins in the Yangtze River in China) and illustrates that in some systems bycatch can be substantial (e.g., lake trout bycatch in the Laurentian Great Lakes). Encouraging results from the marine realm can serve as models for bycatch research in freshwater, and lead to measurable gains in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We summarize existing work on inland bycatch in an effort to draw attention to this understated and understudied conservation problem.« less

  18. Uncertainty In Greenhouse Gas Emissions On Carbon Sequestration In Coastal and Freshwater Wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta: A Subsiding Coastline as a Proxy for Future Global Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. R.; DeLaune, R. D.; Roy, E. D.; Corstanje, R.

    2014-12-01

    The highly visible phenomenon of wetland loss in coastal Louisiana (LA) is examined through the prism of carbon accumulation, wetland loss and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Mississippi River Deltaic region experiences higher relative sea level rise due to coupled subsidence and eustatic sea level rise allowing this region to serve as a proxy for future projected golbal sea level rise. Carbon storage or sequestration in rapidly subsiding LA coastal marsh soils is based on vertical marsh accretion and areal change data. While coastal marshes sequester significant amount of carbon through vertical accretion, large amounts of carbon, previously sequested in the soil profile is lost through annual deterioration of these coastal marshes as well as through GHG emissions. Efforts are underway in Louisiana to access the carbon credit market in order to provide significant funding for coastal restoration projects. However, there is very large uncertainty on GHG emission rates related to both marsh type and temporal (daily and seasonal) effects. Very little data currently exists which addresses this uncertainty which can significantly affect the carbon credit value of a particular wetland system. We provide an analysis of GHG emission rates for coastal freshwater, brackish and and salt marshes compared to the net soil carbon sequestration rate. Results demonstrate that there is very high uncertainty on GHG emissions which can substantially alter the carbon credit value of a particular wetland system.

  19. Long-term benthic monitoring studies in the freshwater portion of the Potomac River: 1983 to 1985, cumulative report. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, A.T.; Holland, A.F.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes data from the first three years of a long-term monitoring program to establish baseline conditions in benthic communities on the upper Potomac River. Major sources of variation were considered in an effort to characterize the effect of two power plants on distribution and abundance of the benthos. Distinct changes occurred in benthic communities in the vicinity of power plant discharges. These included decreased abundances of dominant species and reduced occurrences of rare species. Impacts associated with power plants were most severe during summer months and during low flow years.

  20. Long-term benthic monitoring studies in the freshwater portion of the Potomac River: 1983 to 1985, cumulative report. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, A.T.; Holland, A.F.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes data from the first three years of a long-term monitoring program to establish baseline conditions in benthic communities on the upper Potomac River. Major sources of variation were considered in an effort to characterize the effect of two power plants on distribution and abundance of the benthos. Distinct changes occurred in benthic communities in the vicinity of power plant discharges. These included decreased abundances of dominant species and reduced occurrences of rare species. Impacts associated with power plants were most severe during summer months and during low flow years.

  1. Pervasive hydrologic effects on freshwater mussels and riparian trees in southeastern floodplain ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We present long-term growth trends for 13 freshwater mussel species from two unregulated rivers and one regulated river in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also collected baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) tree cores adjacent to mussel collection sites in one river and directly compared tree and mussel chronologies in this river. To extend our analysis...

  2. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from coastal rivers of mid-northern New South Wales, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien; Rourke, Meaghan L.

    2017-01-01

    Tandanus bellingerensis, new species, is described based on specimens from four river drainages (Bellinger, Macleay, Hastings, and Manning rivers) of the mid-northern coast of New South Wales, Australia. Previously, three species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tropicanus of the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland, T. tandanus of the Murray-Darling drainage and coastal streams of central-southern Queensland and New South Wales, and T. bostocki of southwestern Western Australia. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following morphologic characters: a high count of rays in the continuous caudodorsal and anal fins (range 153–169, mode 159), a high count of gill rakers on the first arch (range 35–39, mode 36), and strongly recurved posterior serrae of the pectoral-fin spine. Additionally, results from previously conducted genetic studies corroborate morphologic and taxonomic distinctness of the new species.

  3. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) [PDF – 2 pages] Virus Ecology Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups ... Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Outbreak Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  4. Techniques and equipment required for precise stream gaging in tide-affected fresh-water reaches of the Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Winchell

    1971-01-01

    Current-meter measurements of high accuracy will be required for calibration of an acoustic flow-metering system proposed for installation in the Sacramento River at Chipps Island in California. This report presents an analysis of the problem of making continuous accurate current-meter measurements in this channel where the flow regime is changing constantly in response to tidal action. Gaging-system requirements are delineated, and a brief description is given of the several applicable techniques that have been developed by others. None of these techniques provides the accuracies required for the flowmeter calibration. A new system is described--one which has been assembled and tested in prototype and which will provide the matrix of data needed for accurate continuous current-meter measurements. Analysis of a large quantity of data on the velocity distribution in the channel of the Sacramento River at Chipps Island shows that adequate definition of the velocity can be made during the dominant flow periods--that is, at times other than slack-water periods--by use of current meters suspended at elevations 0.2 and 0.8 of the depth below the water surface. However, additional velocity surveys will be necessary to determine whether or not small systematic corrections need be applied during periods of rapidly changing flow. In the proposed system all gaged parameters, including velocities, depths, position in the stream, and related times, are monitored continuously as a boat moves across the river on the selected cross section. Data are recorded photographically and transferred later onto punchcards for computer processing. Computer programs have been written to permit computation of instantaneous discharges at any selected time interval throughout the period of the current meter measurement program. It is anticipated that current-meter traverses will be made at intervals of about one-half hour over periods of several days. Capability of performance for protracted

  5. An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Cumulative Effects of Tidal Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystem Restoration on Endangered Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.

    The listing of 13 salmon and steelhead stocks in the Columbia River basin (hereafter collectively referred to as “salmon”) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, has stimulated tidal wetland restoration in the lower 235 kilometers of the Columbia River and estuary for juvenile salmon habitat functions. The purpose of the research reported herein was to evaluate the effect on listed salmon of the restoration effort currently being conducted under the auspices of the federal Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Linking changes in the quality and landscape pattern of tidal wetlands in the lower Columbia River andmore » estuary (LCRE) to salmon recovery is a complex problem because of the characteristics of the ecosystem, the salmon, the restoration actions, and available sampling technologies. Therefore, we designed an evidence-based approach to develop, synthesize, and evaluate information to determine early-stage (~10 years) outcomes of the CEERP. We developed an ecosystem conceptual model and from that, a primary hypothesis that habitat restoration activities in the LCRE have a cumulative beneficial effect on juvenile salmon. There are two necessary conditions of the hypothesis: • habitat-based indicators of ecosystem controlling factors, processes, and structures show positive effects from restoration actions, and • fish-based indicators of ecosystem processes and functions show positive effects from restoration actions and habitats undergoing restoration. Our evidence-based approach to evaluate the primary hypothesis incorporated seven lines of evidence, most of which are drawn from the LCRE. The lines of evidence are spatial and temporal synergies, cumulative net ecosystem improvement, estuary-wide meta-analysis, offsite benefits to juvenile salmon, landscape condition evaluation, and evidence-based scoring of global literature. The general methods we used to develop information for the lines of evidence included field

  6. Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Poff, N.L.; Angermeier, P.L.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gleick, P.H.; Hairston, N.G.; Jackson, R.B.; Johnston, C.A.; Richter, B.D.; Steinman, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Human society has used freshwater from rivers, lakes, groundwater, and wetlands for many different urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, but in doing so has overlooked its value in supporting ecosystems. Freshwater is vital to human life and societal well-being, and thus its utilization for consumption, irrigation, and transport has long taken precedence over other commodities and services provided by freshwater ecosystems. However, there is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex aquatic ecosystems provide many economically valuable services and long-term benefits to society. The short-term benefits include ecosystem goods and services, such as food supply, flood control, purification of human and industrial wastes, and habitat for plant and animal life—and these are costly, if not impossible, to replace. Long-term benefits include the sustained provision of those goods and services, as well as the adaptive capacity of aquatic ecosystems to respond to future environmental alterations, such as climate change. Thus, maintenance of the processes and properties that support freshwater ecosystem integrity should be included in debates over sustainable water resource allocation.The purpose of this report is to explain how the integrity of freshwater ecosystems depends upon adequate quantity, quality, timing, and temporal variability of water flow. Defining these requirements in a comprehensive but general manner provides a better foundation for their inclusion in current and future debates about allocation of water resources. In this way the needs of freshwater ecosystems can be legitimately recognized and addressed. We also recommend ways in which freshwater ecosystems can be protected, maintained, and restored.Freshwater ecosystem structure and function are tightly linked to the watershed or catchment of which they are a part. Because riverine networks, lakes, wetlands, and their connecting groundwaters, are literally the

  7. Preliminary assessment of DOC and THM precursor loads from a freshwater restored wetland, an agricultural field, and a tidal wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, R.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Ganju, N.K.; Fleck, J.A.; Burow-Fogg, K.R.; Schoellhamer, D.; Deverel, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta supplies drinking water to more than 22 million people in California. At certain times of the year, Delta waters contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bromide. During these times, chlorination of Delta water for drinking water disinfection will form disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), that can exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for THMs of 80 mg/L. Important sources of DOC and THM precursors (types of DOC that form THMs when chlorinated) to the Delta include rivers, drainage water from peat islands, water from wetlands and areas with extensive riparian vegetation, and in-channel growth of algae and macrophytes. Due to proposed ecosystem restoration and creation of wetlands in the Delta, there is an urgent need for information on the relative loads of DOC and THM precursors produced from three different land uses: restored wetlands constructed for subsidence mitigation, tidal wetlands, and agricultural operations. We have been conducting research in the Delta to provide this information. A restored wetland and agricultural field located on Twitchell Island, and a tidal wetland on Browns Island have been monitored for flow, DOC, and THM precursors. Initial results indicate that the loads of DOC and THM precursors are similar for the restored wetland (surface water only) and the agricultural field. These land uses produce DOC loads of about 14 and 11 g C/m2/yr, respectively, and THM precursor loads of about 1.7 and 1.0 g THM/m2/yr, respectively. Estimates of DOC and THM precursor loads for the tidal wetland site on Browns Island and seepage associated with the restored wetland are being developed.

  8. Intraplate compressional deformation in West-Congo and the Congo basin: related to ridge-puch from the South Atlantic spreading ridge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Everaerts, Michel; Kongota Isasi, Elvis; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire

    2016-04-01

    After the break-up and separation of South America from Africa and the initiation of the South-Atlantic mid-oceanic ridge in the Albian, at about 120 Ma, ridge-push forces started to build-up in the oceanic lithosphere and were transmitted to the adjacent continental plates. This is particularly well expressed in the passive margin and continental interior of Central Africa. According to the relations of Wiens and Stein (1985) between ridge-push forces and basal drag in function of the lithospheric age of oceanic plates, the deviatoric stress reaches a compressional maximum between 50 and 100, Ma after the initiation of the spreading ridge, so broadly corresponding to the Paleocene in this case (~70-20 Ma). Earthquake focal mechanism data show that the West-Congo margin and a large part of the Congo basin are still currently under compressional stresses with an horizontal compression parallel to the direction of the active transform fracture zones. We studied the fracture network along the Congo River in Kinshasa and Brazzaville which affect Cambrian sandstones and probably also the late Cretaceous-Paleocene sediments. Their brittle tectonic evolution is compatible with the buildup of ridge-push forces related to the South-Atlantic opening. Further inland, low-angle reverse faults are found affecting Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous cores from the Samba borehole in the Congo basin and strike-slip movements are recorded as a second brittle phase in the Permian cores of the Dekese well, at the southern margin of the Congo basin. An analysis of the topography and river network of the Congo basin show the development of low-amplitude (50-100 m) long wavelengths (100-300 km) undulations that can be interpreted as lithospheric buckling in response to the compressional intraplate stress field generated by the Mid-Atlantic ridge-push. Wiens, D.A., Stein, S., 1985. Implications of oceanic intraplate seismicity for plate stresses, driving forces and theology. Tectonophysics

  9. Phytoplankton Assemblages in Selected Freshwaters of New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraballo, Y. A.; Wu, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing phytoplankton assemblages in freshwaters is crucial for future management and monitoring of drinking and recreational freshwaters of New Jersey. New Jersey freshwater phytoplankton assemblages are poorly known and there is no list of freshwater phytoplankton taxa in New Jersey. This study seeks to describe phytoplankton assemblages of freshwaters in New Jersey. Results will help address public health, economic and environmental threats related to harmful algal blooms in New Jersey. A total of 49 freshwater sites, including ponds, rivers and reservoirs, were used for this study. Overall results showed 66 taxa of freshwater phytoplankton in 6 major groups and 29 different orders. Green algae had the highest number of taxa, followed by diatoms and blue-greens (cyanobacteria). The most common freshwater taxa in NJ are Synedra spp., Fragilaria spp., Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus spp., and Anabaena spp. Cyanobacteria species are present in more than half of the sites examined in this study. All ten cyanobacteria taxa present in New Jersey freshwaters are capable of producing the endotoxin lipopolysaccharides (LPS), eight can produce the hepatotoxins and six can produce neutoroxins. In addition, some taxa such as Anabaena spp. are capable of simultaneously producing endotoxins, hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and taste and odor compounds. The presence of taxa capable of producing multiple toxins infers the difficulty of management and treatment as well as increased public health effects.

  10. Fisheries indicators, freshwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwak, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries exist among diverse ecosystems and fauna, provide societal benefits, and are influenced by human activities. Fisheries scientists assess the status and sustainability of fisheries by multiple approaches, including abundance and condition indices, population parameters, community indices, modeling, and surveys of habitat and human dimensions. The future sustainability of freshwater fisheries is limited not by available methods but by society’s will.

  11. Genotoxic and teratogenic effect of freshwater sediment samples from the Rhine and Elbe River (Germany) in zebrafish embryo using a multi-endpoint testing strategy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Käufer, M; Gartiser, S; Hafner, C; Schiwy, S; Keiter, S; Gründemann, C; Hollert, H

    2015-11-01

    The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating throughput-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose-response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet

  12. River impoundment and sunfish growth

    Treesearch

    Andrew L. Rypel

    2011-01-01

    Impoundment of rivers by dams is widespread and one of the most devastating anthropogenic impacts to freshwater environments. Linking theoretical and applied research on river impoundment requires an improved capacity for predicting how varying degrees of impoundment affects a range of species. Here, growth of 14 North American sunfish species resilient to river...

  13. Estimated freshwater withdrawals in Texas, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Texas by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: self-supplied irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, industrial and mining, and other (domestic, commercial, livestock). Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, and industrial and mining are illustrated in this report, although all data are tabulated.

  14. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Peyrefitte, C; Marianneau, P; Tordo, N; Bouloy, M

    2015-08-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most widespread arboviroses in the world. It is present in Africa, south-east Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is caused by a nairovirus (Bunyaviridae family) transmitted by several species of ticks. The geographical distribution of the disease coincides with the distribution of Hyalomma ticks. While infected livestock do not show signs of illness, humans are severely affected, with a high mortality rate. The most common symptoms are high fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting and haemorrhages. Pathogenesis studies in interferon-receptor-deficient mice indicated that the interferon response is crucial in controlling virus propagation and in protecting against the disease. Detection of the virus in biological material is currently performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence are used to detect the presence of CCHF virus-specific antibodies. In the 1970s, a formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from suckling mouse brain was used in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but its efficacy remains to be proven. Treatment of patients with ribavirin is recommended by the World Health Organization, but it should be administered as early as possible. Although important progress has been made over the last few decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease are still to be addressed and there is a need to develop efficient vaccines and antivirals.

  15. [Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever].

    PubMed

    Güneş, Turabi

    2006-07-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne virus, which is a member of Bunyaviridae family, Nairovirus genus. CCHF virus has been isolated from 31 different tick species so far, and genus Hyalomma includes the basic vectors of which H. anatolicum, H. marginatum, H. detritum, H. dromedarii, H. excavatum and H. turanicum are frequently found in the geography in which Turkey takes place. The virus is transmitted via the bite of infected ticks or direct contact with CCHF infected patients and the products of infected animals. Following 2-9 days incubation period, the disease abruptly starts with fever, feeling cold, shivering, headache, muscle and joint aches. After a few days hemorrhage develops at various parts of the body. Since an effective vaccine and a specific antiviral therapy have not been found yet, the high mortality rate which may reach to 10-60%, and a wide geography affecting approximately 40 countries including Turkey, CCHF attracts the attention of both scientific and mediatic world, in recent years. In this article, the structure, vectors and reservoirs of CCHF virus, together with the epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and strategies of treatment and prevention, have been reviewed.

  16. Freshwater mussels of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James D.; Butler, Robert S.; Warren, Gary L.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive guide to all aspects of the freshwater mussel fauna in Florida,Freshwater Mussels of Florida covers the ecology, biology, distribution, and conservation of the many species of bivalve mollusks in the Sunshine State. In the past three decades, researchers, the public, businesses that depend on wildlife, and policy makers have given more attention to the threatened natural diversity of the Southeast, including freshwater mussels. This compendium meets the increasingly urgent need to catalog this imperiled group of aquatic organisms in the United States.

  17. Sustaining healthy freshwater ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Poff, N.L.

    2004-01-01

    Functionally intact and biologically complex freshwater ecosystems provide many economically valuable commodities and services to society. The services supplied by freshwater ecosystems include flood control, transportation, recreation, purification of human and industrial wastes, habitat for plants and animals, and production of fish and other foods and marketable goods. These human benefits are called ecological services, defined as “the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life” (Daily 1997). Over the long term, healthy freshwater ecosystems are likely to retain the adaptive capacity to sustain production of these ecological services in the face of future environmental disruptions such as climate change.

  18. Ecosystem Services of Rivers: The Don River (Russian Federation) and the Roanoke River (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of ecosystem services recognizes the services, and benefits, provided to people by ecosystems. River systems provide many services to people, including freshwater provisioning, carbon storage, fisheries, recreation, transportation, and biodiversity. Here, we review th...

  19. Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing innovative research on the prediction, prevention, control and mitigation of freshwater HABs as well as the drivers, life cycle patterns, and fate of and effects from from less-common, less

  20. Modeling sediment supply of the Congo watershed since the last 23 ka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molliex, Stéphane; Kettner, Albert J.; Laurent, Dimitri; Droz, Laurence; Marsset, Tania; Laraque, Alain; Rabineau, Marina

    2017-04-01

    The Congo River is the world's second river in term of drainage area (3.7 millions of km2) and water discharge (42,000 m3.s-1). Located in equatorial Africa, the basin extends over the two hemispheres, leading to an annual homogeneous repartition of climatic parameters and modest variation in intra-annual discharge. Monitored for decades, a large dataset is available for both the hydrology and sediment load for the Congo system. Moreover, the Quaternary Congo turbidite system geometry has been widely studied and an abundance of paleo-environmental parameters have been inferred from chemical proxies analyzed from offshore cores. These numerous data, both onshore and offshore, allow for accurate calibration of numeric modeling and for efficient comparison between observed and simulated data. This study aims (i) to quantify the evolution of sediment supply leaving the Congo watershed during the last 23 ka; (ii) to decipher the forcing parameters controlling the sediment supply over glacial/interglacial stages. HydroTrend is a model that simulates water discharge and sediment load leaving a hydrologic system. It is based on morphologic, climatic, hydrologic, lithologic, land cover and anthropogenic factors. After calibrating the present-day discharge and sediment load, we simulated discharge and sediment supply over 23 ka, integrating the changes in environmental conditions during this period. Results show that present-day simulations fit the observed data well if a significant part of sediments is being trapped by the catchment, in the floodplain. The long-term simulations show that the changes in climatic conditions (temperature and precipitations) between glacial and interglacial stages only account for a maximum variation of about 20 % of the sediment supply. The resulting land cover changes are most likely a more significant factor controlling the sediment supply; the loss of forest during colder and dryer stages can be responsible for up to 50 % of sediment

  1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating. PMID:24447877

  2. Thiaminase activity in native freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Sweet, Stephanie; Galbraith, Heather S.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the Great Lakes has been attributed to elevated levels of thiaminase I enzyme activity in invasive prey species; however, few studies have investigated thiaminase activity in native prey species. Some of the highest levels of thiaminase activity have been measured in invasive dreissenid mussels with little understanding of background levels contributed by native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae). In this study, thiaminase activity was measured in two freshwater mussel species, Elliptio complanata and Strophitus undulatus, from the Delaware and Susquehanna River drainage basins located in north eastern United States. Thiaminase activity was also measured in gravid and non-gravid S. undulatus. Average thiaminase activity differed significantly between species (7.2 and 42.4 μmol/g/min, for E. complanata and S. undulatus respectively) with no differences observed between drainage basins. Gravid S. undulatus had significantly lower thiaminase activity (28.0 μmol/g/min) than non-gravid mussels (42.4 μmol/g/min). Our results suggest that a suite of factors may regulate thiaminase activity in freshwater mussels and that native freshwater mussel thiaminase activity is within the range observed for invasive dreissenids. These results add to our understanding of the complexities in identifying the ecological conditions that set the stage for thiamine deficiency.

  3. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY: ROLE OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATION AND SEASONAL FRESHWATER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were observed in northern San Francisco Bay, California, during spring and summer 1996 at three sites: Central Bay, Suisun Bay, and the Sacramento River. These sites spanned a salinity gradient from marine to freshwater, an...

  4. The large-scale freshwater cycle of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serreze, Mark C.; Barrett, Andrew P.; Slater, Andrew G.; Woodgate, Rebecca A.; Aagaard, Knut; Lammers, Richard B.; Steele, Michael; Moritz, Richard; Meredith, Michael; Lee, Craig M.

    2006-11-01

    This paper synthesizes our understanding of the Arctic's large-scale freshwater cycle. It combines terrestrial and oceanic observations with insights gained from the ERA-40 reanalysis and land surface and ice-ocean models. Annual mean freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean is dominated by river discharge (38%), inflow through Bering Strait (30%), and net precipitation (24%). Total freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic is dominated by transports through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (35%) and via Fram Strait as liquid (26%) and sea ice (25%). All terms are computed relative to a reference salinity of 34.8. Compared to earlier estimates, our budget features larger import of freshwater through Bering Strait and larger liquid phase export through Fram Strait. While there is no reason to expect a steady state, error analysis indicates that the difference between annual mean oceanic inflows and outflows (˜8% of the total inflow) is indistinguishable from zero. Freshwater in the Arctic Ocean has a mean residence time of about a decade. This is understood in that annual freshwater input, while large (˜8500 km3), is an order of magnitude smaller than oceanic freshwater storage of ˜84,000 km3. Freshwater in the atmosphere, as water vapor, has a residence time of about a week. Seasonality in Arctic Ocean freshwater storage is nevertheless highly uncertain, reflecting both sparse hydrographic data and insufficient information on sea ice volume. Uncertainties mask seasonal storage changes forced by freshwater fluxes. Of flux terms with sufficient data for analysis, Fram Strait ice outflow shows the largest interannual variability.

  5. Characterizing Congo Basin rainfall and climate using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data and limited rain gauge ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munzimi, Yolande A.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Adusei, Bernard; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of Congo River basin hydrological behavior is poor because of the basin’s limited hydrometeorological observation network. In cases such as the Congo basin where ground data are scarce, satellite-based estimates of rainfall, such as those from the joint NASA/JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), can be used to quantify rainfall patterns. This study tests and reports the use of limited rainfall gauge data within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to recalibrate a TRMM science product (TRMM 3B42, version 6) in characterizing precipitation and climate in the Congo basin. Rainfall estimates from TRMM 3B42, version 6, are compared and adjusted using ground precipitation data from 12 DRC meteorological stations from 1998 to 2007. Adjustment is achieved on a monthly scale by using a regression-tree algorithm. The output is a new, basin-specific estimate of monthly and annual rainfall and climate types across the Congo basin. This new product and the latest version-7 TRMM 3B43 science product are validated by using an independent long-term dataset of historical isohyets. Standard errors of the estimate, root-mean-square errors, and regression coefficients r were slightly and uniformly better with the recalibration from this study when compared with the 3B43 product (mean monthly standard errors of 31 and 40 mm of precipitation and mean r2 of 0.85 and 0.82, respectively), but the 3B43 product was slightly better in terms of bias estimation (1.02 and 1.00). Despite reasonable doubts that have been expressed in studies of other tropical regions, within the Congo basin the TRMM science product (3B43) performed in a manner that is comparable to the performance of the recalibrated product that is described in this study.

  6. Simulating Freshwater Availability under Future Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Zeng, N.; Motesharrei, S.; Gustafson, K. C.; Rivas, J.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Kalnay, E.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater availability is a key factor for regional development. Precipitation, evaporation, river inflow and outflow are the major terms in the estimate of regional water supply. In this study, we aim to obtain a realistic estimate for these variables from 1901 to 2100. First we calculated the ensemble mean precipitation using the 2011-2100 RCP4.5 output (re-sampled to half-degree spatial resolution) from 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs) participating the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The projections are then combined with the half-degree 1901-2010 Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS3.2 dataset after bias correction. We then used the combined data to drive our UMD Earth System Model (ESM), in order to generate evaporation and runoff. We also developed a River-Routing Scheme based on the idea of Taikan Oki, as part of the ESM. It is capable of calculating river inflow and outflow for any region, driven by the gridded runoff output. River direction and slope information from Global Dominant River Tracing (DRT) dataset are included in our scheme. The effects of reservoirs/dams are parameterized based on a few simple factors such as soil moisture, population density and geographic regions. Simulated river flow is validated with river gauge measurements for the world's major rivers. We have applied our river flow calculation to two data-rich watersheds in the United States: Phoenix AMA watershed and the Potomac River Basin. The results are used in our SImple WAter model (SIWA) to explore water management options.

  7. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  8. Anthropogenic litter in urban freshwater ecosystems: distribution and microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoellein, Timothy; Rojas, Miguel; Pink, Adam; Gasior, Joseph; Kelly, John

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (i.e. garbage; AL) and its ecosystem effects in marine environments are well documented. Rivers receive AL from terrestrial habitats and represent a major source of AL to marine environments, but AL is rarely studied within freshwater ecosystems. Our objectives were to 1) quantify AL density in urban freshwaters, 2) compare AL abundance among freshwater, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, and 3) characterize the activity and composition of AL biofilms in freshwater habitats. We quantified AL from the Chicago River and Chicago's Lake Michigan shoreline, and found that AL abundance in Chicago freshwater ecosystems was comparable to previously reported data for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, although AL density and composition differed among habitats. To assess microbial interactions with AL, we incubated AL and natural substrates in 3 freshwater ecosystems, quantified biofilm metabolism as gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR), and characterized biofilm bacterial community composition via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The main driver of biofilm community composition was incubation location (e.g., river vs pond), but there were some significant differences in biofilm composition and metabolism among substrates. For example, biofilms on organic substrates (cardboard and leaves) had lower GPP than hard substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum and tiles). In addition, bacterial communities on organic substrates were distinct in composition from those on hard substrates, with higher relative abundances of bacteria associated with cellulose decomposition. Finally, we used our results to develop a conceptual diagram designed to unite the study of AL in terrestrial and freshwater environments with the well-established field of marine debris research. We suggest this broad perspective will be useful for future studies which synthesize AL sources, ecosystem effects, and fate across multiple ecosystem

  9. Anthropogenic Litter in Urban Freshwater Ecosystems: Distribution and Microbial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hoellein, Timothy; Rojas, Miguel; Pink, Adam; Gasior, Joseph; Kelly, John

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (i.e. garbage; AL) and its ecosystem effects in marine environments are well documented. Rivers receive AL from terrestrial habitats and represent a major source of AL to marine environments, but AL is rarely studied within freshwater ecosystems. Our objectives were to 1) quantify AL density in urban freshwaters, 2) compare AL abundance among freshwater, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, and 3) characterize the activity and composition of AL biofilms in freshwater habitats. We quantified AL from the Chicago River and Chicago's Lake Michigan shoreline, and found that AL abundance in Chicago freshwater ecosystems was comparable to previously reported data for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, although AL density and composition differed among habitats. To assess microbial interactions with AL, we incubated AL and natural substrates in 3 freshwater ecosystems, quantified biofilm metabolism as gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR), and characterized biofilm bacterial community composition via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The main driver of biofilm community composition was incubation location (e.g., river vs pond), but there were some significant differences in biofilm composition and metabolism among substrates. For example, biofilms on organic substrates (cardboard and leaves) had lower GPP than hard substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum and tiles). In addition, bacterial communities on organic substrates were distinct in composition from those on hard substrates, with higher relative abundances of bacteria associated with cellulose decomposition. Finally, we used our results to develop a conceptual diagram designed to unite the study of AL in terrestrial and freshwater environments with the well-established field of marine debris research. We suggest this broad perspective will be useful for future studies which synthesize AL sources, ecosystem effects, and fate across multiple ecosystem

  10. A hierarchical classification of freshwater mussel diversity in North America

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide...

  11. Freshwater mussels of the Delta National Forest, Mississippi Final Report

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-three species of freshwater mussels were collected during a survey of aquatic habitats in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi. An additional 6 species not encountered in this survey were reported by an earlier study in the Big Sunflower River near the northern proclamation boundary of the Forest. These species are included here, bringing the total species...

  12. Acute Arthritis in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Ahmeti, Salih; Ajazaj-Berisha, Lindita; Halili, Bahrije; Shala, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a severe viral disease caused by a Nairovirus. An atypical manifestation in the form of acute arthritis was found in a confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Kosova-Hoti strain positive patient. Acute arthritis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) may be as a result of immune mechanisms or the bleeding disorder underlying CCHF. PMID:24926169

  13. Estimation of surface water storage in the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, F.; Neal, J. C.; Schumann, G.; Beighley, E.; Bates, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    For many large river basins, especially in Africa, the lack of access to in-situ measurements, and the large areas involved, make modelling of water storage and runoff difficult. However, remote sensing datasets are useful alternative sources of information, which overcome these issues. In this study, we focus on the Congo Basin and, in particular, the cuvette central. Despite being the second largest river basin on earth and containing a large percentage of the world's tropical wetlands and forest, little is known about this basin's hydrology. Combining discharge estimates from in-situ measurements and outputs from a hydrological model, we build the first large-scale hydrodynamic model for this region to estimate the volume of water stored in the corresponding floodplains and to investigate how important these floodplains are to the behaviour of the overall system. This hydrodynamic model covers an area over 1.6 million square kilometres and 13 thousand kilometres of rivers and is calibrated to water surface heights at 33 virtual gauging stations obtained from ESA's Envisat satellite. Our results show that the use of different sources of discharge estimations and calibration via Envisat observations can produce accurate water levels and downstream discharges. Our model produced un-biased (bias =-0.08 m), sub-metre Root Mean Square Error (RMSE =0.862 m) with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 80% (NSE =0.81). The spatial-temporal variations in our simulated inundated areas are consistent with the pattern obtained from satellites. Overall, we find a high correlation coefficient (R =0.88) between our modelled inundated areas and those estimated from satellites.

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Muhammad; Rahim, Afaq; Ali, Iftikhar

    2017-01-01

    The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks and is characterized by fever and bleeding. It was seen for the first time in the south of present day Ukraine and thus named, Crimean fever. 1 In 1956, the virus was isolated in a patient with similar symptoms residing in Congo, Kenya and the virus was named Congo virus. The viruses causing these two diseases were the same and hence was termed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Humans are the only known host that develops disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Freshwater Marsh. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans and student data sheets, and a poster. The overview describes how the freshwater marsh is an important natural resource for plant, animal, and human populations and how the destruction of marshes causes…

  16. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  17. Urban growth, climate change, and freshwater availability

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Green, Pamela; Balk, Deborah; Fekete, Balazs M.; Revenga, Carmen; Todd, Megan; Montgomery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 3 billion additional urban dwellers are forecasted by 2050, an unprecedented wave of urban growth. While cities struggle to provide water to these new residents, they will also face equally unprecedented hydrologic changes due to global climate change. Here we use a detailed hydrologic model, demographic projections, and climate change scenarios to estimate per-capita water availability for major cities in the developing world, where urban growth is the fastest. We estimate the amount of water physically available near cities and do not account for problems with adequate water delivery or quality. Modeled results show that currently 150 million people live in cities with perennial water shortage, defined as having less than 100 L per person per day of sustainable surface and groundwater flow within their urban extent. By 2050, demographic growth will increase this figure to almost 1 billion people. Climate change will cause water shortage for an additional 100 million urbanites. Freshwater ecosystems in river basins with large populations of urbanites with insufficient water will likely experience flows insufficient to maintain ecological process. Freshwater fish populations will likely be impacted, an issue of special importance in regions such as India's Western Ghats, where there is both rapid urbanization and high levels of fish endemism. Cities in certain regions will struggle to find enough water for the needs of their residents and will need significant investment if they are to secure adequate water supplies and safeguard functioning freshwater ecosystems for future generations. PMID:21444797

  18. A Synopsis of Global Mapping of Freshwater Habitats and Biodiversity: Implications for Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; DeRolph, Christopher R.

    Accurately mapping freshwater habitats and biodiversity at high-resolutions across the globe is essential for assessing the vulnerability and threats to freshwater organisms and prioritizing conservation efforts. Since the 2000s, extensive efforts have been devoted to mapping global freshwater habitats (rivers, lakes, and wetlands), the spatial representation of which has changed dramatically over time with new geospatial data products and improved remote sensing technologies. Some of these mapping efforts, however, are still coarse representations of actual conditions. Likewise, the resolution and scope of global freshwater biodiversity compilation efforts have also increased, but are yet to mirror the spatial resolution and fidelitymore » of mapped freshwater environments. In our synopsis, we find that efforts to map freshwater habitats have been conducted independently of those for freshwater biodiversity; subsequently, there is little congruence in the spatial representation and resolution of the two efforts. We suggest that global species distribution models are needed to fill this information gap; however, limiting data on habitat characteristics at scales that complement freshwater habitats has prohibited global high-resolution biogeography efforts. Emerging research trends, such as mapping habitat alteration in freshwater ecosystems and trait biogeography, show great promise in mechanistically linking global anthropogenic stressors to freshwater biodiversity decline and extinction risk.« less

  19. Restricted-Range Fishes and the Conservation of Brazilian Freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Cristiano; Buckup, Paulo A.; Menezes, Naercio A.; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T.; Kasecker, Thais P.; Ramos Neto, Mario B.; da Silva, José Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Freshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms) and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29%) watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26%) show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40%) critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked drainage systems

  20. Restricted-range fishes and the conservation of Brazilian freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Cristiano; Buckup, Paulo A; Menezes, Naercio A; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T; Kasecker, Thais P; Ramos Neto, Mario B; da Silva, José Maria C

    2010-06-30

    Freshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms) and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce. Using data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29%) watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26%) show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40%) critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future. We provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked drainage systems. Proper management (e. g. forestry code enforcement, landscape

  1. 3D stratigraphic modeling of the Congo turbidite system since 210 ka: an investigation of factors controlling sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Dimitri; Picot, Marie; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Rabineau, Marina; Granjeon, Didier; Molliex, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    The geometry and internal functioning of turbidite systems are relatively well-constrained today. However, the respective role of autogenic (topographic compensation, dynamics of turbidity currents…) and allogenic factors (tectonics, sea-level, climate) governing their architectural evolution is still under debate. The geometry of the Quaternary Congo Fan is characterized by successive sedimentary prograding/retrograding cycles bounded by upfan avulsions, reflecting a periodic control of sedimentation (Picot et al., 2016). Multi-proxy studies revealed a strong interplay between autogenic control and climate forcing as evidenced by changes in fluvial sediment supplies consistent with arid and humid periods in the Congo River Basin. In the light of these results, the aim of this study is to investigate the relative impact of internal and external forcing factors controlling, both in time and space, the formation and evolution of depocenters of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan since 210 ka. This work represents the first attempt to model in 3D the stratigraphic architecture of the Congo turbidite system using DionisosFlow (IFP-EN), a diffusion process-based software. It allows the simulation of sediment transport and the 3D geometry reproduction of sedimentary units based on physical processes such as sea level changes, tectonics, sediment supply and transport. According to the modeling results, the role of topographic compensation in the deep-sea fan geometry is secondary compared to climate changes in the drainage basin. It appears that a periodic variation of sediment discharge and water flow is necessary to simulate the timing and volume of prograding/retrograding sedimentary cycles and more particularly the upfan avulsion events. The best-fit simulations show that the overriding factor for such changes corresponds to the expansion of the vegetation cover in the catchment basin associated to the Milankovitch cycle of precession which controlled the West African Monsoon

  2. Violence, selection and infant mortality in Congo.

    PubMed

    Dagnelie, Olivier; Luca, Giacomo Davide De; Maystadt, Jean-François

    2018-05-01

    This paper documents the effects of the recent civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo on mortality both in utero and during the first year of life. It instruments for conflict intensity using a mineral price index, which exploits the exogenous variation in the potential value of mineral resources generated by changes in world mineral prices to predict the geographic distribution of the conflict. Using estimates of civil war exposure on mortality across male and female newborn to assess their relative health, it provides evidence of culling effect (in utero selection) as a consequence of in utero shocks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  4. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Sonter, Laura J.; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa’s tropical forests are among the world’s largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection — forest management that is low or nonexistent — ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy’s influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  5. Pore-fluid chemistry along the main axis of an active lobe at the Congo deep-sea fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croguennec, C.; Ruffine, L.; Guyader, V.; Le Bruchec, J.; Ruesch, B.; Caprais, J.; Cathalot, C.; de Prunelé, A.; Germain, Y.; Bollinger, C.; Dennielou, B.; Olu, K.; Rabouille, C.

    2013-12-01

    The distal lobes of the Congo deep-sea fan constitute a unique in situ laboratory to study early diagenesis of marine sediments. They are located at water depth of about 5000 m and result from the deposition of sediment transported by turbidity currents along the channel-levee systems and submarine canyon connected to the Congo River. Thus, a huge amount of organic matter, transported from the river to the lobes, undergoes decomposition processes involving different oxidants present within the sedimentary column. This drastically changes the chemistry of the pore fluids, allowing the occurence of a succession of biogeochemical processes. The present study is part of an ongoing project which aims at better understanding the role and the fate of organic matter transported to the lobe systems, as well as its implication in the distribution of the living communities encountered there. Thus, pore fluids have been sampled from 8 Calypso cores in order to determine the concentration of dissolved elements. Five sites have been investigated: four of them are located along the main axis of a currently active lobe, the last one being located on a lobe disconnected from the chenals. The analyses of methane, major (Cl, SO4, Mg, Ca, K, Na) and minor (Sr, Ba, B, Li, Mn) elements have been carried out along with total alkalinity determination. The resulting profiles show a highly heterogeneous pore-fluid chemistry. Sulphate concentration near the seawater/sediment interface varies from 3 to 29 mM, indicating intense sulphate reduction. Surprisingly the lowest values are found at the site which is disconnected from the active lobe. The manganese cycle is well defined for all cores. The core recovered at the more distal lobe exhibits very peculiar pore-fluid profiles which are likely related to a geological event, most likely sediment slide and remobilization. References: Babonneau, N., Savoye, B., Cremer, M. & Klein, B., 2002. Morphology and architecture of the present canyon and

  6. Sensitivity of the Freshwater Plume to Winds in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. K.; Pant, V.; Rao, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The role of winds in determining the dispersal pattern of freshwater plume in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) is investigated by using a high resolution three dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) with realistic coastline and bathymetry. In the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal (BoB) receives substantial freshwater by excess precipitation over evaporation and river runoff. Major rivers like Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Irrawaddy discharge freshwater volume in range between 1.5 x 1012 m3 and 1.83 x 1013 m3. About three-fourths of all riverine influx into the BoB occurs during the summer monsoon period from May until September. Multiple experiments are carried out with idealized winds replicating the seasonal wind patterns in the study region. Idealized winds of 8ms-1 with directions as southwesterly, southeasterly, northeasterly, and northerly used to force the model. Monthly climatology of river discharge from the seven major rivers in the domain are included by identifying their geographic locations. Model simulations show distinct behavioural patterns of the dispersal of riverine freshwater plumes in response to the direction of idealized winds. Comparison of different idealized experiments show the largest variability of the transport pathways in the northern BoB, where the largest freshwater volume is discharged through the rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra. Freshwater pool remains bounded to the northern-northeastern boundary of the BoB when forced with southwesterly winds, whereas the northeasterly winds produce a remarkable southward transport of freshwater along the east coast of India. These signatures of low salinity waters along the east coast of India have also been observed in observations during October-November. Further, the southeasterly winds produce strong mixing of low saline waters in the northern BoB. The northerly wind stress, however, limits the channelized flow of riverine freshwater either through the eastern or western

  7. Palynofacies reveal fresh terrestrial organic matter inputs in the terminal lobes of the Congo deep-sea fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnyder, Johann; Stetten, Elsa; Baudin, François; Pruski, Audrey M.; Martinez, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    The Congo deep-sea fan is directly connected to the Congo River by a unique submarine canyon. The Congo River delivers up to 2×1012gPOC/yr, a part of which is funnelled by the submarine canyon and feeds the deep-sea environments. The more distal part of the Congo deep-sea fan, the terminal lobe area, has a surface of 2500 km2 and is situated up to 800 km offshore at depths of 4750-5000 m. It is a remarkable place to study the fate and distribution of the organic matter transferred from the continent to the deep ocean via turbidity currents. Forty-two samples were analyzed from the terminal lobes, including sites from the active channel, one of its levees and an abandoned distal channel. Samples were collected using multitube cores and push-cores using a Victor 6000 ROV, which surveyed the dense chemosynthetic habitats that locally characterize the terminal lobes. Palynofacies reveal a remarkably well-preserved, dominantly terrestrial particulate organic matter assemblage, that has been transferred from the continent into the deep-sea by turbidity currents. Delicate plant structures, cuticle fragments and plant cellular material is often preserved, highlighting the efficiency of turbidity currents to transfer terrestrial organic matter to the sea-floor, where it is preserved. Moreover, the palynofacies data reveal a general sorting by density or buoyancy of the organic particles, as the turbulent currents escaped the active channel, feeding the levees and the more distal, abandoned channel area. Finally, in addition to aforementioned hydrodynamic factors controlling the organic matter accumulation, a secondary influence of chemosynthetic habitats on organic matter preservation is also apparent. Palynofacies is therefore a useful tool to record the distribution of organic matter in recent and ancient deep-sea fan environments, an important topic for both academic and petroleum studies.

  8. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-04-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  9. Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale. PMID:17407383

  10. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  11. Freshwater Choices in China: Options That Will Impact South and Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    engineering infrastructure upstream on shared international river basins within its borders, and will be able to effectively use the threat of...constructing hydro-engineering infrastructure upstream on shared international river basins within its borders, and will be able to effectively use the...international river basins within its borders, China will be able to effectively use the threat of restricting freshwater flows as a political weapon to

  12. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  13. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    PubMed

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (<5 mm), fibres being the most frequent type (46.6%). We observed that fish consumed more microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vulnerability of European freshwater catchments to climate change.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Danijela; Carrizo, Savrina F; Kärcher, Oskar; Walz, Ariane; David, Jonathan N W

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study was to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are as follows: (i) exposure to climate change, (ii) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions and (iii) resilience potential. Our vulnerability framework includes 1685 freshwater species of plants, fishes, molluscs, odonates, amphibians, crayfish and turtles alongside key features within and between catchments, such as topography and connectivity. Several methodologies were used to combine these dimensions across a variety of future climate change models and scenarios. The resulting indices were overlaid to assess the vulnerability of European freshwater ecosystems at the catchment scale (18 783 catchments). The Balkan Lakes Ohrid and Prespa and Mediterranean islands emerge as most vulnerable to climate change. For the 2030s, we showed a consensus among the applied methods whereby up to 573 lake and river catchments are highly vulnerable to climate change. The anthropogenic disruption of hydrological habitat connectivity by dams is the major factor reducing climate change resilience. A gap analysis demonstrated that the current European protected area network covers <25% of the most vulnerable catchments. Practical steps need to be taken to ensure the persistence of freshwater biodiversity under climate change. Priority should be placed on enhancing stakeholder cooperation at the major basin scale towards preventing further degradation of freshwater ecosystems and maintaining connectivity among catchments. The catchments identified as most vulnerable to climate change provide preliminary targets for

  15. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  16. Calcium and other ions in blood and skeleton of Nicaraguan fresh-water shark.

    PubMed

    URIST, M R

    1962-09-21

    The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, employing archaic but effective means of regulating the physical-chemical composition of its body fluids, thrives in tropical fresh-water rivers and lakes. The ionic strength of the serum and the concentrations of total solutes, calcium, urea, and other ions are below the levels found in marine elasmobranchs but higher than the levels in teleosts. The patterns of the calcium deposits of the vertebrae are identical in marine and fresh-water subspecies.

  17. Ecophysiology of Freshwater Verrucomicrobia Inferred from Metagenome-Assembled Genomes

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaomei; Stevens, Sarah L. R.; Chan, Leong-Keat; Bertilsson, Stefan; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malmstrom, Rex R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes are critical in carbon and nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Members of the Verrucomicrobia are ubiquitous in such systems, and yet their roles and ecophysiology are not well understood. In this study, we recovered 19 Verrucomicrobia draft genomes by sequencing 184 time-series metagenomes from a eutrophic lake and a humic bog that differ in carbon source and nutrient availabilities. These genomes span four of the seven previously defined Verrucomicrobia subdivisions and greatly expand knowledge of the genomic diversity of freshwater Verrucomicrobia. Genome analysis revealed their potential role as (poly)saccharide degraders in freshwater, uncovered interesting genomic features for this lifestyle, and suggested their adaptation to nutrient availabilities in their environments. Verrucomicrobia populations differ significantly between the two lakes in glycoside hydrolase gene abundance and functional profiles, reflecting the autochthonous and terrestrially derived allochthonous carbon sources of the two ecosystems, respectively. Interestingly, a number of genomes recovered from the bog contained gene clusters that potentially encode a novel porin-multiheme cytochrome c complex and might be involved in extracellular electron transfer in the anoxic humus-rich environment. Notably, most epilimnion genomes have large numbers of so-called “Planctomycete-specific” cytochrome c-encoding genes, which exhibited distribution patterns nearly opposite to those seen with glycoside hydrolase genes, probably associated with the different levels of environmental oxygen availability and carbohydrate complexity between lakes/layers. Overall, the recovered genomes represent a major step toward understanding the role, ecophysiology, and distribution of Verrucomicrobia in freshwater. IMPORTANCE Freshwater Verrucomicrobia spp. are cosmopolitan in lakes and rivers, and yet their roles and ecophysiology are not well understood, as cultured freshwater

  18. Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239

  19. Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Bay with its tributary estuaries forms the largest estuarine system in North America. Between its mouth at the Virginia Capes and its head at Turkey...stratification. Sta PO-02-02 (at the mouth of the river), however, shows this seasonal response to a lesser degree. The distance from the freshwater...boundary and the closeness to the local saltwater boundary at the mouth of the Potomac are thought to be responsible for this phenomenon. 64. Another

  20. The effect of increasing salinity and forest mortality on soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in tidal freshwater forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Lockaby, B. Graeme; Conner, William H.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal freshwater wetlands are sensitive to sea level rise and increased salinity, although little information is known about the impact of salinification on nutrient biogeochemistry in tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We quantified soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization using seasonal in situ incubations of modified resin cores along spatial gradients of chronic salinification (from continuously freshwater tidal forest to salt impacted tidal forest to oligohaline marsh) and in hummocks and hollows of the continuously freshwater tidal forest along the blackwater Waccamaw River and alluvial Savannah River. Salinification increased rates of net N and P mineralization fluxes and turnover in tidal freshwater forested wetland soils, most likely through tree stress and senescence (for N) and conversion to oligohaline marsh (for P). Stimulation of N and P mineralization by chronic salinification was apparently unrelated to inputs of sulfate (for N and P) or direct effects of increased soil conductivity (for N). In addition, the tidal wetland soils of the alluvial river mineralized more P relative to N than the blackwater river. Finally, hummocks had much greater nitrification fluxes than hollows at the continuously freshwater tidal forested wetland sites. These findings add to knowledge of the responses of tidal freshwater ecosystems to sea level rise and salinification that is necessary to predict the consequences of state changes in coastal ecosystem structure and function due to global change, including potential impacts on estuarine eutrophication.

  1. An Update on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Appannanavar, Suma B; Mishra, Baijayantimala

    2011-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community. PMID:21887063

  2. Is Congo red an amyloid-specific dye?

    PubMed

    Khurana, R; Uversky, V N; Nielsen, L; Fink, A L

    2001-06-22

    Congo red (CR) binding, monitored by characteristic yellow-green birefringence under crossed polarization has been used as a diagnostic test for the presence of amyloid in tissue sections for several decades. This assay is also widely used for the characterization of in vitro amyloid fibrils. In order to probe the structural specificity of Congo red binding to amyloid fibrils we have used an induced circular dichroism (CD) assay. Amyloid fibrils from insulin and the variable domain of Ig light chain demonstrate induced CD spectra upon binding to Congo red. Surprisingly, the native conformations of insulin and Ig light chain also induced Congo red circular dichroism, but with different spectral shapes than those from fibrils. In fact, a wide variety of native proteins exhibited induced CR circular dichroism indicating that CR bound to representative proteins from different classes of secondary structure such as alpha (citrate synthase), alpha + beta (lysozyme), beta (concavalin A), and parallel beta-helical proteins (pectate lyase). Partially folded intermediates of apomyoglobin induced different Congo red CD bands than the corresponding native conformation, however, no induced CD bands were observed with unfolded protein. Congo red was also found to induce oligomerization of native proteins, as demonstrated by covalent cross-linking and small angle x-ray scattering. Our data suggest that Congo red is sandwiched between two protein molecules causing protein oligomerization. The fact that Congo red binds to native, partially folded conformations and amyloid fibrils of several proteins shows that it must be used with caution as a diagnostic test for the presence of amyloid fibrils in vitro.

  3. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modu, B.; Herbert, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9% falls in Chad republic. Since its formation, the basin continues to experienced water shortage due to the activities of Dams combination, increase in irrigations and general reduction in rainfall. Chad basin needs an external water source for it to be function at sustainable level, hence needs for exploitation of higher east African river basin called Congo basin; which covers an area of 3.7 million square km lies in an astride the equator in west-central Africa-world second largest river basin after Amazon. The Congo River almost pans around republic of Congo, the democratic republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, part of Cameroun, and Tanzania. The remotely sensed imagery analysis and observation revealed that Congo basin is on the elevation of 275 to 460 meters and the Chad basin is on elevation of 240 meters. This implies that water can be drained from Congo basin via headrace down to the Chad basin for the water sustainability.

  4. Relative Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Methanotrophs at the Oxic–Anoxic Interface of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Sandrine; Moalic, Yann; Gautey, Sébastien; Lesongeur, Françoise; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Sitting at ∼5,000 m water depth on the Congo-Angola margin and ∼760 km offshore of the West African coast, the recent lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan receives large amounts of fluvial sediments (3–5% organic carbon). This organic-rich sedimentation area harbors habitats with chemosynthetic communities similar to those of cold seeps. In this study, we investigated relative abundance, diversity and distribution of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) communities at the oxic–anoxic interface of sedimentary habitats by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative sequence analysis of particulate mono-oxygenase (pmoA) genes. Our findings revealed that sedimentary habitats of the recent lobe complex hosted type I and type II MOB cells and comparisons of pmoA community compositions showed variations among the different organic-rich habitats. Furthermore, the pmoA lineages were taxonomically more diverse compared to methane seep environments and were related to those found at cold seeps. Surprisingly, MOB phylogenetic lineages typical of terrestrial environments were observed at such water depth. In contrast, MOB cells or pmoA sequences were not detected at the previous lobe complex that is disconnected from the Congo River inputs. PMID:28487684

  5. Relative Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Methanotrophs at the Oxic-Anoxic Interface of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Sandrine; Moalic, Yann; Gautey, Sébastien; Lesongeur, Françoise; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Sitting at ∼5,000 m water depth on the Congo-Angola margin and ∼760 km offshore of the West African coast, the recent lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan receives large amounts of fluvial sediments (3-5% organic carbon). This organic-rich sedimentation area harbors habitats with chemosynthetic communities similar to those of cold seeps. In this study, we investigated relative abundance, diversity and distribution of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) communities at the oxic-anoxic interface of sedimentary habitats by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative sequence analysis of particulate mono-oxygenase ( pmoA ) genes. Our findings revealed that sedimentary habitats of the recent lobe complex hosted type I and type II MOB cells and comparisons of pmoA community compositions showed variations among the different organic-rich habitats. Furthermore, the pmoA lineages were taxonomically more diverse compared to methane seep environments and were related to those found at cold seeps. Surprisingly, MOB phylogenetic lineages typical of terrestrial environments were observed at such water depth. In contrast, MOB cells or pmoA sequences were not detected at the previous lobe complex that is disconnected from the Congo River inputs.

  6. Aliphatic hydrocarbons and triterpenes of the Congo deep-sea fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méjanelle, Laurence; Rivière, Béatrice; Pinturier, Laurence; Khripounoff, Alexis; Baudin, François; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Hydrocarbons were analyzed in sediments from the Congo River deep-sea fan, from the Congo River, and in sinking particles collected by sediment traps 40 m above the sediment. Studied sites encompassed three lobes of decreasing age of formation along the canyon: sites A, F and C and a another lobe system, disconnected from the active channel since 4 ka, Site E. Terrestrial long-chain odd n-alkanes were dominant in all sediments of the lobe system. Unsaturated terpenoids sourced by higher plants, such as gammacerene, lupene, ursene and oleanene, were also detected. At site C, characterized by high accumulation rates (10-20 cm yr-1), the organic matter spends less time in the oxic layer than at other sites and high phytadiene concentrations 10-17 μg gOC-1) evidenced recent terrestrial and phytoplanktonic remains reworked in anaerobic conditions. In these sediments, organic carbon-normalized concentrations of terrestrial alkanes and terpenoids were several fold higher than in the lobe sediments with lower accumulation rates (sites A and F), arguing for a more rapid degradation of terrestrial hydrocarbons than bulk organic carbon in the first steps of pre-diagenesis. Ample variations in the contributions of biomarkers from higher plants, ferns, bacteria and angiosperms, indicate an heterogeneous contribution of the soil and vegetation detritus delivered to the Congo lobe sediments. Lower concentrations in terrestrial hydrocarbons at site E, 45 km away from the active canyon, indicated that river particles are still admixed to the dominant marine organic matter. Diploptene and hop-7(21)-ene have a dual origin, from terrestrial and marine microorganisms. Scatter in their relationship to gammacerene argues for a contribution of marine microorganisms, in addition to soils-sourced microorganisms. The close distribution patterns of diploptene, hop-21-ene, hop-7(21)ene and neohop-13(18)-ene is in line with the hypothesis of sequential clay-catalyzed isomerisation of bacterial

  7. Mycoremediation of congo red dye by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; G, Mangai; K, Vignesh; J, Sangeetha

    2011-10-01

    Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was to study the factors influencing mycoremediation of Congo red. Several basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes species were tested for the decolourisation of Congo red (0.05 g/l) in a semi synthetic broth at static and shaking conditions. Poor decolourisation was observed when the dye acted as the sole source of nitrogen, whereas semi synthetic broth supplemented with fertilizer resulted in better decolourisation. Decolourisation of Congo red was checked in the presence of salts of heavy metals such as mercuric chloride, lead acetate and zinc sulphate. Decolourisation parameters such as temperature, pH, and rpm were optimized and the decolourisation obtained at optimized conditions varied between 29.25- 97.28% at static condition and 82.1- 100% at shaking condition. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed bands with molecular weights ranging between 66.5 to 71 kDa, a characteristic of the fungal laccases. High efficiency decolourisation of Congo red makes these fungal forms a promising choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Congo red.

  8. Detection of Human Monkeypox in the Republic of the Congo Following Intensive Community Education

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Mary G.; Emerson, Ginny L.; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Muyembe, Jean J.; Bikindou, Alain; McCollum, Andrea M.; Moses, Cynthia; Wilkins, Kimberly; Zhao, Hui; Damon, Inger K.; Karem, Kevin L.; Li, Yu; Carroll, Darin S.; Mombouli, Jean V.

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox is an acute viral infection with a clinical course resembling smallpox. It is endemic in northern and central Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but it is reported only sporadically in neighboring Republic of the Congo (ROC). In October 2009, interethnic violence in northwestern DRC precipitated the movement of refugees across the Ubangi River into ROC. The influx of refugees into ROC heightened concerns about monkeypox in the area, because of the possibility that the virus could be imported, or that incidence could increase caused by food insecurity and over reliance on bush meat. As part of a broad-based campaign to improve health standards in refugee settlement areas, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) sponsored a program of intensive community education that included modules on monkeypox recognition and prevention. In the 6 months immediately following the outreach, 10 suspected cases of monkeypox were reported to health authorities. Laboratory testing confirmed monkeypox virus infection in two individuals, one of whom was part of a cluster of four suspected cases identified retrospectively. Anecdotes collected at the time of case reporting suggest that the outreach campaign contributed to detection of suspected cases of monkeypox. PMID:23400570

  9. Turbulent forces within river plumes affect spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    When rivers drain into oceans through narrow mouths, hydraulic forces squeeze the river water into buoyant plumes that are clearly visible in satellite images. Worldwide, river plumes not only disperse freshwater, sediments, and nutrients but also spread pollutants and organisms from estuaries into the open ocean. In the United States, the Columbia River—the largest river by volume draining into the Pacific Ocean from North America—generates a plume at its mouth that transports juvenile salmon and other fish into the ocean. Clearly, the behavior and spread of river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, affect the nation's fishing industry as well as the global economy.

  10. Ecogeomorphological feedbacks in a tidal freshwater marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.; Engelhardt, K.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal freshwater marshes are critical components of fluvial and estuarine ecosystems. However, ecogeomorphological feedbacks (i.e., feedbacks between sediment dynamics and the vegetation community) in freshwater marshes have not received as much attention as within their saltwater counterparts. This study evaluates the role of these feedbacks in stabilizing marsh-surface elevation, relative to sea-level rise, in Dyke Marsh Preserve (Potomac River, USA). Specifically, we relate the composition of the vegetation community to current and historical patterns of sedimentation that occur on bimonthly to decadal time scales. Along with a ~3-year time series of bimonthly and seasonal-scale observations, 210Pb (half-life 22.3 y) profiles are used to identify sites with relatively steady sediment accumulation (i.e., stable sediments) and those with numerous deposition/erosion events (i.e., unstable sediments). Differences in the vegetation community (e.g., composition, stem density) and sediment character (e.g., organic content, grain size) among sites in each of these stability categories are examined with statistical techniques and compared to observations of marsh-surface elevation change. The resulting insights are placed into a geomorphological context to assess the potential response of this marsh to rapid global environmental change.

  11. Eutrophication of freshwater and marine ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Val H.; Joye, Samantha B.; Howarth, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Initial understanding of the links between nutrients and aquatic productivity originated in Europe in the early 1900s, and our knowledge base has expanded greatly during the past 40 yr. This explosion of eutrophication-related research has made it unequivocally clear that a comprehensive strategy to prevent excessive amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from entering our waterways is needed to protect our lakes, rivers, and coasts from water quality deterioration. However, despite these very significant advances, cultural eutrophication remains one of the foremost problems for protecting our valuable surface water resources. The papers in this special issue provide a valuable cross section and synthesis of our current understanding of both freshwater and marine eutrophication science. They also serve to identify gaps in our knowledge and will help to guide future research.

  12. The decline of North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Jelks, Howard L.; Burkhead, Noel M.

    2009-01-01

    North America has a broad array of freshwater ecosystems because of the continent's complex geography and geological history. Within a multitude of habitats—that include streams, large rivers, natural lakes, springs, and wetlands—rich assemblages of fishes reside, representing diverse taxonomic groups with unique ecological requirements. They face an unprecedented conservation crisis.1 In the last few decades, the proportion of inland fishes of North America, which are considered imperiled or extinct, increased from 20 to 40%.2 Although extinctions have occurred, many species and populations are declining in range size and abundance. The fish biota of the continent as a whole remains diverse; however, we can take action to stem any further declines.

  13. Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals in Oklahoma, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.

  14. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  15. The Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group of the eastern Congo Basin: An example of perennial lacustrine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, Alexis; Blanpied, Christian; Delvaux, Damien

    2017-08-01

    The intracratonic Congo Basin, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is the largest sedimentary basin of Africa. The Jurassic strata outcrop along its eastern margin, south of Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville). In the last century, the Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group was described as a lacustrine series containing a thin basal marine limestone designed as the ;Lime Fine; beds. Since the proposal of this early model, the depositional environment of the Stanleyville Group, and especially the possible marine incursion, has been debated, but without re-examining the existing cores, outcrop samples and historical fossils from the type location near Kisangani that are available at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (MRAC/KMMA, Tervuren, Belgium). In order to refine the former sedimentology, a series of nine exploration cores drilled in the Kisangani sub-basin have been described. This study aims at integrating sedimentary facies in existing sedimentary models and to discuss the hypothesis of the presence of Kimmeridgian marine deposits along the Congo River near Kisangani, a region which lies in the middle of the African continent. Eight facies have been identified, which permit a reinterpretation of the depositional environment and paleogeography of the Stanleyville Group. The base of the Stanleyville Group is interpreted to represent a conglomeratic fluvial succession, which filled an inherited Triassic paleotopography. Above these conglomerates, a transition to a typically lacustrine system is interpreted, which includes: (1) a basal profundal, sublittoral (brown to dark fine-grained siltstones with microbial carbonates, i.e., the ;Lime Fine; beds) and littoral lacustrine series; covered by (2) a sublittoral to profundal interval (brown to dark organic-rich, fine-grained siltstones), which corresponds to the maximum extent of the paleo-lake; and, finally (3) a shallow lacustrine series (greenish calcareous siltstones and sandstones with red siltstones

  16. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy.

  17. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A.; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M.; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well-being—energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  18. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Likens, Gene E.; Pace, Michael L.; Utz, Ryan M.; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. PMID:29311318

  20. Relationships between water, otolith, and scale chemistries of westslope cutthroat trout from the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: the potential application of hard-part chemistry to describe movements in freshwater

    Treesearch

    Brian K. Wells; Bruce E. Rieman; James L. Clayton; Donna L. Horan; Cynthia M. Jones

    2003-01-01

    We quantified Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Sr:Ca, and Ba:Ca molar ratios from an area representing the summer 2000 growth season on otoliths and scales from 1-year-old westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhyncus clarki lewisi collected from three streams in the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, system. We also quantified Mg:Ca, Sr:Ca, and Ba:Ca molar ratios in the water...

  1. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-25

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L -1 ), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  2. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, S.; Kasereka, J. Kigotsi; Georgis, J. F.; Barthe, C.

    2016-09-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analysed in detail for the first time. It is based on data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN (DE) in the 2500 km × 2500 km region increases from about 1.70% in the beginning of the period to 5.90% in 2013, and it is in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. However, the increase of DE is not uniform over the whole region. The average monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a strong activity from October to March and a low one from June to August, associated with the ITCZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56% of the flashes are located south of the equator in the 10°S-10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year. The annual flash density and number of stormy days show a sharp maximum localized in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km- 2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond to a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range at altitudes that exceed 3000 m. The presence of these mountains plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003).

  3. Marine nutrient contributions to tidal creeks in Virginia: spawning marine fish as nutrient vectors to freshwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macavoy, S. E.; Garman, G. C.

    2006-12-01

    Coastal freshwater streams are typically viewed as conduits for the transport of sediment and nutrients to the coasts. Some coastal streams however experience seasonal migrations of anadromous fish returning to the freshwater to spawn. The fish may be vectors for the delivery of marine nutrients to nutrient poor freshwater in the form of excreted waste and post-spawning carcasses. Nutrients derived from marine sources are 13C, 15N and 34S enriched relative to nutrients in freshwater. Here we examine sediment, particulate organic matter (POM), invertebrates and fish in two tidal freshwater tributaries of the James River USA. The d15N of POM became elevated (from 3.8 to 6.5%), coincident with the arrival of anadromous river herring (Alosa sp), indicating a pulse of marine nitrogen. However, the elevated 15N was not observed in sediment samples or among invertebrates, which did not experience a seasonal isotopic shift (there were significant differences however among the guilds of invertebrate). Anadromous Alosa aestivalis captured within the tidal freshwater were 13C and 34S enriched (-19.3 and 17.2%, respectively) relative to resident freshwater fishes (-26.4 and 3.6% respectively) captured within 2 weeks of the Alosa. Although it is likely that marine derived nitrogen was detected in the tidal freshwater, it was not in sufficient abundance to change the isotope signature of most ecosystem components.

  4. Biota connect aquatic habitats throughout freshwater ecosystem mosaics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Kate A.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Fritz, Ken M.; Autrey, Bradley; DeMeester, Julie; Kepner, William G.; Lane, Charles R.; Leibowitz, Scott; Pollard, Amina I.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are linked at various spatial and temporal scales by movements of biota adapted to life in water. We review the literature on movements of aquatic organisms that connect different types of freshwater habitats, focusing on linkages from streams and wetlands to downstream waters. Here, streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, ponds, and other freshwater habitats are viewed as dynamic freshwater ecosystem mosaics (FEMs) that collectively provide the resources needed to sustain aquatic life. Based on existing evidence, it is clear that biotic linkages throughout FEMs have important consequences for biological integrity and biodiversity. All aquatic organisms move within and among FEM components, but differ in the mode, frequency, distance, and timing of their movements. These movements allow biota to recolonize habitats, avoid inbreeding, escape stressors, locate mates, and acquire resources. Cumulatively, these individual movements connect populations within and among FEMs and contribute to local and regional diversity, resilience to disturbance, and persistence of aquatic species in the face of environmental change. Thus, the biological connections established by movement of biota among streams, wetlands, and downstream waters are critical to the ecological integrity of these systems. Future research will help advance our understanding of the movements that link FEMs and their cumulative effects on downstream waters.

  5. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  6. Ribavirin for treating Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Samuel; Henschke, Nicholas; Maayan, Nicola; Mills, Inga; Buckley, Brian S; Kakourou, Artemisia; Marshall, Rachel

    2018-06-05

    Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that occurs in parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. Since 2000 the infection has caused epidemics in Turkey, Iran, Russia, Uganda and Pakistan. Good-quality general supportive medical care helps reduce mortality. There is uncertainty and controversy about treating CCHF with the antiviral drug ribavirin. To assess the effects of ribavirin for treating people with Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (OVID); Science Citation Index-Expanded, Social Sciences Citation index, conference proceedings (Web of Science); and CINAHL (EBSCOHost). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for trials in progress. We conducted all searches up to 16 October 2017. We also contacted experts in the field and obtained further studies from these sources. We evaluated studies assessing the use of ribavirin in people with suspected or confirmed Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever. We included randomised control trials (RCTs); non-randomised studies (NRSs) that included more than 10 participants designed as cohort studies with comparators; and case-control studies. Two review authors assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. For non-randomized studies we used the ROBINS-I tool to assess risk of bias. The main effects analysis included all studies where we judged the risk of bias to be low, moderate or high. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RRs) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MDs), and used meta-analyses where appropriate. We carried out a subsidiary appraisal and analysis of studies with critical risk of bias for the primary outcome, as these are often cited to support using ribavirin. For the main effects analysis, five studies met our inclusion criteria: one RCT with 136

  7. Pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Akıncı, Esragül; Bodur, Hürrem; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2013-07-01

    Although Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne disease, little is known about its pathogenesis. The interaction of the virus with host cells is most likely responsible for the pathogenesis of CCHF. The main contributors are endothelial cells (ECs) and immune cells. There are 2 theories underlying the CCHF pathogenesis: One is that the virus interacts with the ECs directly and the other that it interacts indirectly via immune cells with subsequent release of soluble mediators. ECs are activated upon infection by the upregulation of soluble molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Probably, in severe cases, deregulation and excessive release of the cytokines accompanied by endothelial activation have toxic effects, leading to increased vascular permeability, vasodilatation, and subsequently hypotension, multiple organ failure, shock, and death. Studies indicate that CCHF virus (CCHFV) also can impair the innate immune system and cause a delay in adaptive immune response, which is critical for the clearance of CCHFV. The virus has many different ways to block the immune response, leading to uncontrolled viral replication followed by systemic spread of the virus throughout the body. Partial activation of dendritic cells and macrophages, delayed induction of interferons, weak antibody response, apoptosis of lymphocytes, and hemophagocytosis are some of these tactics. However, there are many points waiting for clarification about the pathogenesis of CCHF. Although the high risk of contagiousness limits research, we need more studies to understand the CCHF pathogenesis better. Here we review the main characteristics of the pathogenesis of CCHF.

  8. Status of the Mussel Resource in Little South Fork Cumberland River

    Treesearch

    Melvin L. Warren; Wendell R. Haag; Brooks M. Burr

    1999-01-01

    As recently as the 198Os, the Little South Fork Cumberland River of southeastern Kentucky supported a diverse freshwater mussel fauna (Starnes and Bogan 1982; Appendix A). The Little South Fork represented one of the last rivers to support a high number of mussel species in the Cumberland River drainage of Kentucky and Tennessee. The river was first surveyed...

  9. Estimated withdrawals and use of freshwater in New Hampshire, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura; Horn, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Estimated freshwater withdrawals during 1990 in New Hampshire totaled about 422 million gallons per day from ground-water and surface-water sources. The largest withdrawals were for thermoelectric-power generation (60 percent), public supply (23 percent), and industrial use (9 percent). Most withdrawals, 358 million gallons per day, were made from surface- water sources, as compared to 63.7 million gallons per day from ground-water sources. The largest with- drawals were in the Merrimack river basin (322 million gallons per day). An additional 46,000 million gallons per day was used instream for hydroelectric-power generation, primarily in the Upper Androscoggin and Upper Connecticut River subbasins. Other information describing water-use patterns is shown in tables, bar graphs, pie charts, maps, and accompanying text. The data are aggregated by river basin (hydrologic cataloging unit), and all values are reported in million gallons per day.

  10. Estimated withdrawals and use of freshwater in Vermont, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.; Medalie, Laura

    1996-01-01

    Estimated freshwater withdrawals during 1990 in Vermont totaled about 632 million gallons per day. The largest withdrawals were for thermoelectric- power generation (82 percent), industrial use (7 percent), and public supply (6 percent). Most withdrawals, 587 million gallons per day, were made from surface-water sources as compared to 44.9 million gallons per day from ground-water sources. The largest withdrawals were in the Upper Connecticut-Mascomo River Basin (525 million gallons per day). About 17,700 million gallons per day were used instream for hydroelectric-poser generation, the largest of which were in the Upper Connecticut-Mascoma and Otter River Basins. Other information describing water-use patters is shown in tables, bar graphs, pie charts, maps, and accompanying text. The data are aggregated by river basin (hydrologic cataloging unit), and all amounts are reports in million gallons per day.

  11. PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN LARGE RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO (ICTIOBUS BUBALUS) IN THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...

  12. When Organic-Rich Turbidites Reach 5000 m: "Cold-Seep Like" Life in the Congo Deep-Sea Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, L.; Toffin, L.; Cathalot, C.; Olu, K.; Brandily, C.; Bessette, S.; Lesongeur, F.; Godfroy, A.; Khripounoff, A.; Decker, C.; Taillefert, M.; Rabouille, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Congo canyon, located on the west coast of Africa, is a unique example of a canyon directly connected to a major river (The Congo River). Turbidites are responsible for a large input of terrestrial organic matter at depths up to 5000 m. These high inputs led to global high organic matter mineralization rates, with very localized hot spots that were visually observed and specifically sampled with a ROV. These hot spots, featuring substantial concentration of reduced compounds, mainly methane and sulfides, were recognizable in surface by the presence of reduced sediment patches, bacterial mats, and/or vesicomyid bivalves that host bacterial endosymbionts able to process H2S. In this paper we present geochemical sediment profiles of sulfate, methane, sulfide and dissolved iron together with phylogenetic diversity of 16S rRNA communities. This will give a first understanding of biogeochemical processes occurring in this peculiar ecosystem, mainly sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and subsequent anaerobic oxidation of methane with bacterial and archaeal assemblages similar to cold seeps environments. Iron also seems to play a major role in this system and iron/sulfur interactions as a sink for H2S can probably compete with H2S consumption by chemosynthetic bivalves, estimated at one site by vesicomyds gills incubations in a sulfide-rich solution.

  13. First record of epizootic ulcerative syndrome from the Upper Congo catchment: An outbreak in the Bangweulu swamps, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, C F; Huchzermeyer, K D A; Christison, K W; Macey, B M; Colly, P A; Hang'ombe, B M; Songe, M M

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) amongst wild fish populations in the Bangweulu swamps, an inland delta, in the north of Zambia during 2014. The area supports a large and diverse fish fauna related to, but distinct from, that of the Zambezi River system where EUS outbreaks have occurred since 2006. A sizeable artisanal fishery, based on extensive fish weirs, is sustained by the annual flooding of the swamps, and observations of the disease outbreak by fishermen were recorded. Signs typical of infection with Aphanomyces invadans were observed in a number of species. Clinical observations, histology and molecular diagnostic methods were used to confirm infection with A. invadans in two of the most commonly and severely affected species. Several features of the wetland may have contributed to the outbreak and the annual recurrence of the disease. Modes by which the disease may have been introduced into the swamps are discussed. The outbreak is of great significance as the Bangweulu swamps drain into the Congo River in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa's largest drainage system with an extensive and diverse fish fauna previously unaffected by EUS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  15. Effects of metal pollution on genetics of freshwater mussels in a southeastern Missouri mining district

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.Y.

    Lead mining has historically been in operation in Missouri since the 1700`s, and an extensively mineralized region known as the ``Old Lead Belt`` in the southeastern portion of the state contained some of the most substantial deposits in the district. Although mining is currently inactive in this region, intensive past mining resulted in accumulation of large tailings piles placed adjacent to aquatic resources. Erosion and accidental releases of mine tailings rich in lead, zinc, cadmium and copper have resulted in contamination in the Big River drainage, one of two principal tributaries in the Meramec River Basin. Substantial bioaccumulation of metalsmore » has previously been documented for freshwater mussels collected from the Big River, as well as for other aquatic biota. This research project investigated the effects of metal pollution on biochemical genetic variability among three populations of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis ventricosa in the Meramec River Basin. Specimens were collected from metal-contaminated reaches of the Big River, and two reference populations in Meramec and Bourbeuse Rivers. Using techniques of starch gel electrophoresis, significant differences were found in allozyme frequencies at the phosphoglucomutase locus between mussels collected from the metal-contaminated Big River versus reference populations, suggesting that certain allozyme genotypes may be more sensitive than others to metal pollutants. The genetic response to geographic variation in environmental contamination between the L. ventricosa populations examined in the Meramec River Basin suggests that differential pollution-induced selection of allozyme genotypes has occurred in the Big River.« less

  16. Freshwater and Atlantic water in the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Hanzlick, D.; Aagaard, K.

    1980-09-20

    Hydrographic data from the Kara Sea show significant storage of freshwater (approx.2.5 years of river input). This provides a buffer against large changes in ice and hydrographic conditions that might otherwise result from an anomalous year's runoff. The distribution of freshwater in the Kara Sea closely corresponds to bottom contours, indicating strong bathymetric influence on the spreading pattern. Observations also indicate areas within the Kara Sea in which the upward flux of sensible heat influences the thickness and the extent of ice coverage. Warm, saline Atlantic water which flows into the Kara Sea is particularly important in this regard. However,more » there is evidence that the flow of Atlantic water bifurcates in the northern reaches of the Kara Sea, so that one portion continues southward while the other curves back and exits with relatively little local heat loss.« less

  17. The rapid return of marine-derived nutrients to a freshwater food web following dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tonra, Christopher M; Sager-Fradkin, Kimberly A.; Morley, Sarah A; Duda, Jeff; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Dam removal is increasingly being recognized as a viable river restoration action. Although the main beneficiaries of restored connectivity are often migratory fish populations, little is known regarding recovery of other parts of the freshwater food web, particularly terrestrial components. We measured stable isotopes in key components to the freshwater food web: salmon, freshwater macroinvertebrates and a river specialist bird, American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), before and after removal of the Elwha Dam, WA, USA. Less than a year after dam removal, salmon returned to the system and released marine-derived nutrients (MDN). In that same year we documented an increase in stable-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in American dippers. These results indicate that MDN from anadromous fish, an important nutrient subsidy that crosses the aquatic–terrestrial boundary, can return rapidly to food webs after dams are removed which is an important component of ecosystem recovery.

  18. Simulated effects of ground-water pumpage on stream-aquifer flow in the vicinity of federally protected species of freshwater mussels in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin (Subarea 4), southeastern Alabama, northwestern Florida, and southwestern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albertson, Phillip N.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2002-01-01

    Simulation results indicate that ground-water withdrawal in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin during times of drought could reduce stream-aquifer flow and cause specific stream reaches to go dry. Of the 37 reaches that were studied, 8 reaches ranked highly sensitive to pumpage, 13 reaches ranked medium, and 16 reaches ranked low. Of the eight reaches that ranked high, seven contain at least one federally protected mussel species. Small tributary streams such as Gum, Jones, Muckalee, Spring, and Cooleewahee Creeks would go dry at lower pumping rates than needed to dry up larger streams. Other streams that were ranked high may go dry depending on the amount of upstream flow entering the reach; this condition is indicated for some reaches on Spring Creek. A dry stream condition is of particular concern to water and wildlife managers because adequate streamflow is essential for mussel survival.

  19. The Congolobe project, a multidisciplinary study of Congo deep-sea fan lobe complex: Overview of methods, strategies, observations and sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabouille, C.; Olu, K.; Baudin, F.; Khripounoff, A.; Dennielou, B.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Babonneau, N.; Bayle, C.; Beckler, J.; Bessette, S.; Bombled, B.; Bourgeois, S.; Brandily, C.; Caprais, J. C.; Cathalot, C.; Charlier, K.; Corvaisier, R.; Croguennec, C.; Cruaud, P.; Decker, C.; Droz, L.; Gayet, N.; Godfroy, A.; Hourdez, S.; Le Bruchec, J.; Saout, J.; Le Saout, M.; Lesongeur, F.; Martinez, P.; Mejanelle, L.; Michalopoulos, P.; Mouchel, O.; Noel, P.; Pastor, L.; Picot, M.; Pignet, P.; Pozzato, L.; Pruski, A. M.; Rabiller, M.; Raimonet, M.; Ragueneau, O.; Reyss, J. L.; Rodier, P.; Ruesch, B.; Ruffine, L.; Savignac, F.; Senyarich, C.; Schnyder, J.; Sen, A.; Stetten, E.; Sun, Ming Yi; Taillefert, M.; Teixeira, S.; Tisnerat-Laborde, N.; Toffin, L.; Tourolle, J.; Toussaint, F.; Vétion, G.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Bez, M.; Congolobe Group:

    2017-08-01

    The presently active region of the Congo deep-sea fan (around 330,000 km2), called the terminal lobes or lobe complex, covers an area of 2500 km2 at 4700-5100 m water depth and 750-800 km offshore. It is a unique sedimentary area in the world ocean fed by a submarine canyon and a channel-levee system which presently deliver large amounts of organic carbon originating from the Congo River by turbidity currents. This particularity is due to the deep incision of the shelf by the Congo canyon, up to 30 km into the estuary, which funnels the Congo River sediments into the deep-sea. The connection between the river and the canyon is unique for major world rivers. In 2011, two cruises (WACS leg 2 and Congolobe) were conducted to simultaneously investigate the geology, organic and inorganic geochemistry, and micro- and macro-biology of the terminal lobes of the Congo deep-sea fan. Using this multidisciplinary approach, the morpho-sedimentary features of the lobes were characterized along with the origin and reactivity of organic matter, the recycling and burial of biogenic compounds, the diversity and function of bacterial and archaeal communities within the sediment, and the biodiversity and functioning of the faunal assemblages on the seafloor. Six different sites were selected for this study: Four distributed along the active channel from the lobe complex entrance to the outer rim of the sediment deposition zone, and two positioned cross-axis and at increasing distance from the active channel, thus providing a gradient in turbidite particle delivery and sediment age. This paper aims to provide the general context of this multidisciplinary study. It describes the general features of the site and the overall sampling strategy and provides the initial habitat observations to guide the other in-depth investigations presented in this special issue. Detailed bathymetry of each sampling site using 0.1-1 m resolution multibeam obtained with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV

  20. Migration of Sakhalin taimen (Parahucho perryi): Evidence of freshwater resident life history types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Rand, P.S.; Fukushima, M.; Zolotukhin, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Sakhalin taimen (Parahucho perryi) range from the Russian Far East mainland along the Sea of Japan coast, and Sakhalin, Kuril, and Hokkaido Islands and are considered to primarily be an anadromous species. We used otolith strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) to determine the chronology of migration between freshwater and saltwater and identify migratory contingents of taimen collected from the Koppi River, Russia. In addition, we examined taimen from the Sarufutsu River, Japan and Tumnin River, Russia that were captured in marine waters. Transects of otolith Sr/Ca for the Sarufutsu River fish were consistent with patterns observed in anadromous salmonids. Two fish from the Tumnin River appeared to be recent migrants to saltwater and one fish was characterized by an otolith Sr/Ca transect consistent with marine migration. Using these transects as benchmarks, all Koppi River taimen were classified as freshwater residents. These findings suggest more work is needed to assess life history variability among locations and the role of freshwater productivity in controlling migratory behavior in taimen. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  1. Forcing, variability, and pathway of a freshwater-driven current in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janout, Markus; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Hölemann, Jens; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula; Polyakov, Igor; Bacon, Sheldon; Coward, Andrew; Karcher, Michael; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Kassens, Heidi; Timokhov, Leo

    2015-04-01

    Siberian river water is a first-order contribution to the Arctic freshwater budget, with the Ob, Yenisey, and Lena supplying nearly half of the total surface freshwater flux. However, few details are known regarding where, when and how the freshwater transverses the vast Siberian shelf seas. This paper investigates the mechanism, variability and pathways of the fresh Kara Sea outflow through Vilkitsky Strait towards the Laptev Sea. We utilize a high-resolution ocean model and recent shipboard observations to characterize the freshwater-laden Vilkitsky Strait Current (VSC), and shed new light on the little-studied region between the Kara and Laptev Seas, characterized by harsh ice conditions, contrasting water masses, straits and a large submarine canyon. The VSC is 10-20 km wide, surface-intensified, and varies seasonally (maximum from August-March) and interannually. Average freshwater (volume) transport is 500 ± 120 km3 a-1 (0.53 ± 0.08 Sv), with a baroclinic flow contribution of 50-90%. Interannual transport variability is explained by a storage-release mechanism, where blocking-favorable summer winds hamper the outflow and cause accumulation of freshwater in the Kara Sea. The year following a blocking event is characterized by enhanced transports driven by a baroclinic flow along the coast that is set up by increased freshwater volumes. Eventually, the VSC merges with a slope current and provides a major pathway for Eurasian river water towards the Western Arctic along the Eurasian continental slope. Kara (and Laptev) Sea freshwater transport is not correlated with the Arctic Oscillation, but rather driven by regional summer pressure patterns.

  2. [Emerging diseases. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Kuljić-Kapulica, Nada

    2004-01-01

    Recognized for many years in central Asia and Eastern Europe, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe zoonotic disease which affects people coming into contact with livestock or ticks. The range of the CCHF virus is now known to extend form central Asia to India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and to most of Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa. CCHF virus is a member of the Bunyavirus family, and is classified as a Nairovirus. After an incubation period of approximately 3 to 6 days the abrupt onset of acute febrile illness occurs. The first symptoms are similar to severe influenza and include fever, headache, severe back and abdominal pain. The hemorrhagic fever manifestations occur after several days of illnesses and include petechial rash, ecchymoses, hematemmesis, and melenna. Cases typically present with some form of hepatitis. The mortality rate is 10-50% in different outbreaks with deaths typically occurring during the second week of illness. The genus Hyalomma of ixodid ticks is the most important vector of the CCHF virus. Vertebrates including birds and small animals provide excellent amplifier hosts of both the virus and the tick. The virus can be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals and from person to person. Early diagnosis is possible in special laboratories using antigen detection by imunofluorescence or ELISA tests or molecular methods as PCR and antibody detection. Tick control measures need to be emphasized and utilized to prevent CCHF. This includes spraying camp sites, clothing and danger areas with acaricides or repellent. Strict isolation of patients with CCHF and a focus on barrier nursing would help to prevent nosocomial spread. Presently the vaccine is a dangerous mouse brain-derived version. Future development of a vaccine would help to prevent human infection.

  3. Congo crimean hemorrhagic Fever in balochistan.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Abdul Baqi; Shaikh, Muzaffar; Khan, Zahir

    2007-09-01

    To observe the pattern and mortality of Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Balochistan. Case series. Department of Medicine, Sandeman Provincial Hospital and Bolan Medical Complex Hospital, Quetta, from September, 1995 to August, 2005. Two hundred and twenty-six febrile patients with bleeding of sudden onset, with initial signs and symptoms including headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, vomiting, red eyes, flushed face, red throat and petechiae on the palate of both sexes were screened for CCHF over a period of 10 years. Clinical criteria for initial diagnosis directed the subsequent diagnostic work-up. The ages of these patients ranged from 7 years to 74 years. Sixty-three percent of these patients were positive for CCHF. Males were 68% of the total patients. Over the years, CCHF showed a gradual increase ranging from 43% to 80%. Total mortality was 15%, all being secondary cases. Death was not observed in primary CCHF cases. In this study, suspicion of viral hemorrhagic fever was raised in 62% cases at the time of admission and the patients were immediately isolated, noninvasive procedures were instigated and barrier nursing was implemented. None of the family and hospital staff members who had close contact with the patient became ill, while those who were not suspected initially (38%) infected the health care workers and the family members. Although CCHF is rare, this study stresses the need for proper health facilities in Pakistan and to include VHF (viral hemorrhagic fevers) in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever with hemorrhagic tendencies of sudden onset.

  4. World of Fresh Water: A Resource for Studying Issues of Freshwater Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Janet; Sigford, Ann; Drummond, Robert; Novy, Nancy

    Activities in this packet were developed in reference to research conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, Minnesota (MED-D). The research helps us better understand the effects of pollutants on freshwater systems such as lakes, rivers, and streams and determines how we can best keep these…

  5. Using morphometrics to identify glochidia from a diverse freshwater mussel community

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Kennedy; Wendell R. Haag

    2005-01-01

    We measured shell length, hinge length, and height of glochidia from 21 freshwater mussel species occurring in the Sipsey River, Alabama, to test our ability to identify species based on these glochidial morphometrics. Glochidial size and shape differed widely among species; for all 3 dimensions, mean values for the largest species were 5 to 73 greater than for the...

  6. Validation of annual growth rings in freshwater mussel shells using cross dating .Can

    Treesearch

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of dendrochronological cross-dating methods for studying long-term, interannual growth patterns in freshwater mussels, including validation of annual shell ring formation. Using 13 species from three rivers, we measured increment widths between putative annual rings on shell thin sections and then removed age-related variation by...

  7. Testing the assumption of annual shell ring deposition in freshwater mussels

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Amy M. Commens-Carson

    2008-01-01

    We tested the assumption of annual shell ring deposition by freshwater mussels in three rivers using 17 species. In 2000, we notched shell margins, returned animals to the water, and retrieved them in 2001. In 2003, we measured shells, affixed numbered tags, returned animals, and retrieved them in 2004 and 2005. We validated deposition of a single internal annulus per...

  8. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    PubMed

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Host fishes and reproductive biology of 6 freshwater mussel species from the Mobile Basin, USA

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1997-01-01

    Host fishes were identified for 6 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from the Black Warrior River drainage, Mobile Basin, USA: Stropkitus subwxus, Pleurohema furvum, Ptyckobranchus greeni, Lampsilis perovalis, Medionidus acutissimus, and Villosa nebulosna. Hosts were determined as those that produced juvenile mussels from...

  10. Host fishes and infection strategies of freshwater mussels in large Mobile Basin streams, USA

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    We investigated host fishes, timing and modes of glochidial release, and host-attraction strategies for 7 species of freshwater mussels from the Buttahatchee and Sipsey rivers (Mobile Basin), Alabama and Mississippi, USA. We determined hosts as fish species that produced juvenile mussels from laboratory-induced glochidial infections. We established the following...

  11. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Outbreak of cholera in the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and cholera worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Alyson Ann

    2011-10-13

    Cholera is an acute intestinal disease caused by infection of the Vibrio cholerae bacterium.  Often manifested as a constant diarrhoeal disease, Cholera is associated with significant mortality as well as economic loss due to the strain on health care.  Cholera often affects nations with lower economic status.  The recent outbreak of cholera in the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo has affected thousands of people.  Here we review the past cholera epidemiology, molecular mechanisms of the bacterium, and the political and environmental aspects that affect the treatment and eradication of this disease.

  13. Inhabitants of the Fresh-Water Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Joseph; Schroeder, Marlene

    This learner's guide is designed to assist middle school students in studying freshwater organisms. Following a brief introduction to freshwater ecology, simple line drawings facilitate the identification of plants and animals common to Florida's freshwater ecosystems. Emphasis of the short text which accompanies each illustration is upon the…

  14. Nitrogen fluxes in the forests of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Makelele, Isaac; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    The tropical forest of the Congo basin remains very poorly investigated and understood; mainly because of logistic, political and research capacity constraints. Nevertheless, characterization and monitoring of fundamental processes in this biome is vital to understand future responses and to correctly parameterize Earth system models. Nutrient fluxes are key in these processes for the functioning of tropical forests, since CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon fluxes and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, resulting in a unique and integrate dataset. The questions to be answered: How do the N-budgets of four different forest types in the Congo Basin compare? How do these fluxes compare to fluxes in the Amazon forest? What is the influence from the strong slash-and-burn regimes on the N-cycle in the natural forests? We answer these questions with our empirical dataset of one hydrological year, combined with satellite and modeling data.

  15. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  16. Democratic Republic of Congo: Status of women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banza, Elvire Nzeba

    2015-12-01

    There is one physics department in the Democratic Republic of Congo, at the University of Kinshasa. Since 2001, one woman graduate continued her studies in England, where she received a PhD, and currently two master's degree graduates from this program have joined the faculty as assistant professors.

  17. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Congo: Elections and the Battle for Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Twenty million voters cast ballots July 30, 2006, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's first free election since 1960. A runoff election three months later, between transitional president Joseph Kabila and transitional vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba, gave Kabila a mandate to lead the war-torn nation for five more years. The elections, in…

  19. An Examination of Indiscipline in Secondary Schools in the Congo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bafoua, Justin

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate some of the causes of lack of discipline in secondary schools in the Congo Republic according to teachers, students, and parents; (2) look into the effects that discipline problems have on the students' performances and their development as responsible citizens and (3) suggest or recommend measures…

  20. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. PMID:26116678

  1. Freshwater sculpins: phylogenetics to ecology

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; David A. Schmetterling

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater sculpins (Cottidae) are a diverse and ecologically important component of cool- and coldwater ecosystems throughout the northern hemisphere. More than 60 sculpin species occur in a variety of habitats, and sculpin distributions range from highly localized to widespread. Despite the frequently high biomass of sculpins and their numerous ecosystem functions,...

  2. Standard methods for sampling North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This important reference book provides standard sampling methods recommended by the American Fisheries Society for assessing and monitoring freshwater fish populations in North America. Methods apply to ponds, reservoirs, natural lakes, and streams and rivers containing cold and warmwater fishes. Range-wide and eco-regional averages for indices of abundance, population structure, and condition for individual species are supplied to facilitate comparisons of standard data among populations. Provides information on converting nonstandard to standard data, statistical and database procedures for analyzing and storing standard data, and methods to prevent transfer of invasive species while sampling.

  3. Lac Télé structure, Republic of Congo: Geological setting of a cryptozoological and biodiversity hotspot, and evidence against an impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad

    2010-11-01

    Lac Télé is a large lake, ˜5.6 km in diameter, with an ovoid shape, situated at 17°10'E, 1°20'N, in the great tropical rain forest region of the Republic of Congo. This lake has attracted widespread attention, mainly because of the legends among the local people that it harbours a strange animal known as the Mokele-Mbembe, but also because it is situated in a region that is a hotbed of biodiversity and conservation efforts with respect to various endangered mammalian species, including gorillas and chimpanzees. Because of its appearance, Lac Télé has been regarded as a possible meteorite impact structure. Various expeditions, studying cryptozoology, conservation ecology, biodiversity, and the impact hypothesis, have visited Lac Télé in the past several decades. The Lac Télé structure is located in the NW part of the intracratonic Congo Basin, in a region dominated by Holocene alluvium, dense tropical rain forest, and swamps which form part of the basin of the Likouala aux Herbes, a multi-branched meandering river flowing over very low gradients into the Sangha river, a major tributary of the Congo river. Previous bathymetric studies have shown that the average depth of Lac Télé is only 4 m, including organic-rich silty sediments. The structure is that of a flat-bottomed dish. Modelling of the Lac Télé as an impact structure indicates a number of features which ought to be present. The absence of any of these features, coupled with the irregular ovoid shape, the palynological record, and the location of the structure at the intersection of major regional lineaments, is regarded as evidence against the impact hypothesis. Lac Télé as an isolated lake ecosystem is not unique in the Congo Basin, and there are several other similar small shallow isolated lakes surrounded by rain forest and marshes, some of which formed by damming of drainage systems by neotectonic faults. It is suggested that the formation of Lac Télé may be related to its location

  4. Origin and distribution of the organic matter in the distal lobe of the Congo deep-sea fan - A Rock-Eval survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudin, François; Stetten, Elsa; Schnyder, Johann; Charlier, Karine; Martinez, Philippe; Dennielou, Bernard; Droz, Laurence

    2017-08-01

    The Congo River, the second largest river in the world, is a major source of organic matter for the deep Atlantic Ocean because of the connection of its estuary to the deep offshore area by a submarine canyon which feeds a vast deep-sea fan. The lobe zone of this deep-sea fan is the final receptacle of the sedimentary inputs presently channelled by the canyon and covers an area of 2500 km². The quantity and the source of organic matter preserved in recent turbiditic sediments from the distal lobe of the Congo deep-sea fan were assessed using Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses. Six sites, located at approximately 5000 m water-depth, were investigated. The mud-rich sediments of the distal lobe contain high amounts of organic matter ( 3.5 to 4% Corg), the origin of which is a mixture of terrestrial higher-plant debris, soil organic matter and deeply oxidized phytoplanktonic material. Although the respective contribution of terrestrial and marine sources of organic matter cannot be precisely quantified using Rock-Eval analyses, the terrestrial fraction is dominant according to similar hydrogen and oxygen indices of both suspended and bedload sediments from the Congo River and that deposited in the lobe complex. The Rock-Eval signature supports the 70% to 80% of the terrestrial fraction previously estimated using C/N and δ13Corg data. In the background sediment, the organic matter distribution is homogeneous at different scales, from a single turbiditic event to the entire lobe, and changes in accumulation rates only have a limited effect on the quantity and quality of the preserved organic matter. Peculiar areas with chemosynthetic bivalves and/or bacterial mats, explored using ROV Victor 6000, show a Rock-Eval signature similar to background sediment. This high organic carbon content associated to high sedimentation rates (> 2 to 20 mm.yr-1) in the Congo distal lobe complex implies a high burial rate for organic carbon. Consequently, the Congo deep-sea fan represents an

  5. Night-time lights as a proxy of human pressure on freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Montanari, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The presence and availability of freshwater resources at the global scale control the dynamics and the biodiversity of river ecosystems, as well as the human development and the security of people and economies. The increasing human pressure on freshwater is known to potentially drive significant alterations on both ecohydrological and social dynamics. To date, a spatially-detailed snapshot (i.e. single in time) analysis of human water security and river biodiversity threats revealed that the majority of the world's population and river ecosystems are exposed to high levels of endangerment. However, the temporal evolution of these effects at the global scale is still unexplored. To this aim, moving from the recent progress on remote sensing techniques, we employed yearly averaged night-time light images available from 1992 to 2013 as a proxy of anthropogenic presence and activity and we investigated how threats to human water security and river biodiversity evolved in time in 405 major river basins. Our results show a consistent correlation between nightlights and ecohydrological and threats, providing innovative support for freshwater resources management.

  6. Amazonian freshwater habitats experiencing environmental and socioeconomic threats affecting subsistence fisheries.

    PubMed

    Alho, Cleber J R; Reis, Roberto E; Aquino, Pedro P U

    2015-09-01

    Matching the trend seen among the major large rivers of the globe, the Amazon River and its tributaries are facing aquatic ecosystem disruption that is affecting freshwater habitats and their associated biodiversity, including trends for decline in fishery resources. The Amazon's aquatic ecosystems, linked natural resources, and human communities that depend on them are increasingly at risk from a number of identified threats, including expansion of agriculture; cattle pastures; infrastructure such as hydroelectric dams, logging, mining; and overfishing. The forest, which regulates the hydrological pulse, guaranteeing the distribution of rainfall and stabilizing seasonal flooding, has been affected by deforestation. Flooding dynamics of the Amazon Rivers are a major factor in regulating the intensity and timing of aquatic organisms. This study's objective was to identify threats to the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, and to seek instruments for conservation and sustainable use, taking principally fish diversity and fisheries as factors for analysis.

  7. Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rawlins, M.A.; Steele, M.; Holland, M.M.; Adam, J.C.; Cherry, J.E.; Francis, J.A.; Groisman, P.Y.; Hinzman, L.D.; Huntington, T.G.; Kane, D.L.; Kimball, J.S.; Kwok, R.; Lammers, R.B.; Lee, C.M.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; McDonald, K.C.; Podest, E.; Pundsack, J.W.; Rudels, B.; Serreze, Mark C.; Shiklomanov, A.; Skagseth, O.; Troy, T.J.; Vorosmarty, C.J.; Wensnahan, M.; Wood, E.F.; Woodgate, R.; Yang, D.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic cycle intensification is an expected manifestation of a warming climate. Although positive trends in several global average quantities have been reported, no previous studies have documented broad intensification across elements of the Arctic freshwater cycle (FWC). In this study, the authors examine the character and quantitative significance of changes in annual precipitation, evapotranspiration, and river discharge across the terrestrial pan-Arctic over the past several decades from observations and a suite of coupled general circulation models (GCMs). Trends in freshwater flux and storage derived from observations across the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas are also described. With few exceptions, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and river discharge fluxes from observations and the GCMs exhibit positive trends. Significant positive trends above the 90% confidence level, however, are not present for all of the observations. Greater confidence in the GCM trends arises through lower interannual variability relative to trend magnitude. Put another way, intrinsic variability in the observations tends to limit confidence in trend robustness. Ocean fluxes are less certain, primarily because of the lack of long-term observations. Where available, salinity and volume flux data suggest some decrease in saltwater inflow to the Barents Sea (i.e., a decrease in freshwater outflow) in recent decades. A decline in freshwater storage across the central Arctic Ocean and suggestions that large-scale circulation plays a dominant role in freshwater trends raise questions as to whether Arctic Ocean freshwater flows are intensifying. Although oceanic fluxes of freshwater are highly variable and consistent trends are difficult to verify, the other components of the Arctic FWC do show consistent positive trends over recent decades. The broad-scale increases provide evidence that the Arctic FWC is experiencing intensification. Efforts that aim to develop an adequate

  8. Linking freshwater fishery management to global food security and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Peter B; Reidy Liermann, Catherine A; Revenga, Carmen

    2016-10-24

    Fisheries are an essential ecosystem service, but catches from freshwaters are often overlooked. Hundreds of millions of people around the world benefit from low-cost protein, recreation, and commerce provided by freshwater fisheries, particularly in regions where alternative sources of nutrition and employment are scarce. Here, we derive a gridded global map of riverine fisheries and assess its implications for biodiversity conservation, fishery sustainability, and food security. Catches increase with river discharge and human population density, and 90% of global catch comes from river basins with above-average stress levels. Fish richness and catches are positively but not causally correlated, revealing that fishing pressure is most intense in rivers where potential impacts on biodiversity are highest. Merging our catch analysis with nutritional and socioeconomic data, we find that freshwater fisheries provide the equivalent of all dietary animal protein for 158 million people. Poor and undernourished populations are particularly reliant on inland fisheries compared with marine or aquaculture sources. The spatial coincidence of productive freshwater fisheries and low food security highlights the critical role of rivers and lakes in providing locally sourced, low-cost protein. At the same time, intensive fishing in regions where rivers are already degraded by other stressors may undermine efforts to conserve biodiversity. This syndrome of poverty, nutritional deficiency, fishery dependence, and extrinsic threats to biodiverse river ecosystems underscores the high stakes for improving fishery management. Our enhanced spatial data on estimated catches can facilitate the inclusion of inland fisheries in environmental planning to protect both food security and species diversity.

  9. Recent trends and changes in freshwater discharge into Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, S. J.; Stieglitz, M.; McKenna, E.; Wood, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Recent trends and changes in the observed river discharge into Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays (HJUBs) for the period 1964-1994 will be presented. Forty-two rivers with outlets into these bays contribute on average 700 cubic kilometers (= 0.02 sverdrups) of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. River discharge attains a mean annual peak of 4.2 cubic kilometers per day on average each 17 June for the system as a whole, whereas the minimum of 0.6 cubic kilometers occurs on average each 3 April. The Nelson River supplies as much as 30% of the daily discharge for the entire system during winter, but diminishes in relative importance during spring and summer. Runoff rates per contributing area are highest (lowest) on the eastern (western) shores of Hudson and James Bays. Linear trend analyses reveal decreasing discharge in 38 out of the 42 rivers over the 31-year period. By 1994, the total annual freshwater discharge into the Arctic Ocean diminished by 110 cubic kilometers from its values in 1964, equivalent to a reduction of 0.0035 sverdrups. The annual peak discharge rates associated with snowmelt advanced by 16 days between 1964 and 1994 and has diminished slightly in intensity. There is a direct correlation between the time of this hydrological event and the latitude of a river's mouth; the timing of the peak discharge rates varies by 5 days for each degree of latitude. Continental snowmelt induces a seasonal pulse of freshwater from HJUBs that is tracked along its path into the Labrador Current and that coincides with ocean salinity anomalies on the inner Newfoundland Shelf. The talk will end with a discussion on the implications of a changing freshwater regime in HJUBs.

  10. Linking freshwater fishery management to global food security and biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Peter B.; Reidy Liermann, Catherine A.; Revenga, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries are an essential ecosystem service, but catches from freshwaters are often overlooked. Hundreds of millions of people around the world benefit from low-cost protein, recreation, and commerce provided by freshwater fisheries, particularly in regions where alternative sources of nutrition and employment are scarce. Here, we derive a gridded global map of riverine fisheries and assess its implications for biodiversity conservation, fishery sustainability, and food security. Catches increase with river discharge and human population density, and 90% of global catch comes from river basins with above-average stress levels. Fish richness and catches are positively but not causally correlated, revealing that fishing pressure is most intense in rivers where potential impacts on biodiversity are highest. Merging our catch analysis with nutritional and socioeconomic data, we find that freshwater fisheries provide the equivalent of all dietary animal protein for 158 million people. Poor and undernourished populations are particularly reliant on inland fisheries compared with marine or aquaculture sources. The spatial coincidence of productive freshwater fisheries and low food security highlights the critical role of rivers and lakes in providing locally sourced, low-cost protein. At the same time, intensive fishing in regions where rivers are already degraded by other stressors may undermine efforts to conserve biodiversity. This syndrome of poverty, nutritional deficiency, fishery dependence, and extrinsic threats to biodiverse river ecosystems underscores the high stakes for improving fishery management. Our enhanced spatial data on estimated catches can facilitate the inclusion of inland fisheries in environmental planning to protect both food security and species diversity. PMID:27791055

  11. First freshwater coralline alga and the role of local features in a major biome transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žuljević, A.; Kaleb, S.; Peña, V.; Despalatović, M.; Cvitković, I.; de Clerck, O.; Le Gall, L.; Falace, A.; Vita, F.; Braga, Juan C.; Antolić, B.

    2016-01-01

    Coralline red algae are significant components of sea bottom and up to now considered as exclusively marine species. Here we present the first coralline alga from a freshwater environment, found in the Cetina River (Adriatic Sea watershed). The alga is fully adapted to freshwater, as attested by reproductive structures, sporelings, and an inability to survive brackish conditions. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the species belongs to Pneophyllum and is described as P. cetinaensis sp. nov. The marine-freshwater transition most probably occurred during the last glaciation. The brackish-water ancestor was preadapted to osmotic stress and rapid changes in water salinity and temperature. The particular characteristics of the karst Cetina River, such as hard water enriched with dissolved calcium carbonate and a pH similar to the marine environment, favoured colonization of the river by a marine species. The upstream advance and dispersal is facilitated by exceptionally pronounced zoochory by freshwater gastropods. Pneophyllum cetinaensis defies the paradigm of Corallinales as an exclusively marine group.

  12. First freshwater coralline alga and the role of local features in a major biome transition.

    PubMed

    Žuljević, A; Kaleb, S; Peña, V; Despalatović, M; Cvitković, I; De Clerck, O; Le Gall, L; Falace, A; Vita, F; Braga, Juan C; Antolić, B

    2016-01-21

    Coralline red algae are significant components of sea bottom and up to now considered as exclusively marine species. Here we present the first coralline alga from a freshwater environment, found in the Cetina River (Adriatic Sea watershed). The alga is fully adapted to freshwater, as attested by reproductive structures, sporelings, and an inability to survive brackish conditions. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the species belongs to Pneophyllum and is described as P. cetinaensis sp. nov. The marine-freshwater transition most probably occurred during the last glaciation. The brackish-water ancestor was preadapted to osmotic stress and rapid changes in water salinity and temperature. The particular characteristics of the karst Cetina River, such as hard water enriched with dissolved calcium carbonate and a pH similar to the marine environment, favoured colonization of the river by a marine species. The upstream advance and dispersal is facilitated by exceptionally pronounced zoochory by freshwater gastropods. Pneophyllum cetinaensis defies the paradigm of Corallinales as an exclusively marine group.

  13. Homogenization patterns of the world’s freshwater fish faunas

    PubMed Central

    Villéger, Sébastien; Blanchet, Simon; Beauchard, Olivier; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the “Homogocene era” is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes. PMID:22025692

  14. Homogenization patterns of the world's freshwater fish faunas.

    PubMed

    Villéger, Sébastien; Blanchet, Simon; Beauchard, Olivier; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2011-11-01

    The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the "Homogocene era" is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes.

  15. Effects of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal plain drainages in the southeastern U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Mark S.; Meador, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This review focuses on the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal rivers and estuaries of the southeastern U.S. Influences of salinity on freshwater fish species can be explained partly through responses evidenced by behavior, physiology, growth, reproduction, and food habits during all aspects of life history. Factors influencing the rate of salinity change affect the community structure and dynamics of freshwater fishes in brackish environments. Our understanding of the relation between salinity and the life history of freshwater fishes is limited because little ecological research has been conducted in low-salinity habitats that we consider an “interface” between freshwater streams and the estuary proper. Much of the available data are descriptive in nature and describe best general patterns, but more specific studies are required to better determine the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes. Improved understanding of the influence of human-induced changes on the productivity and viability of these important systems will require a new research focus.

  16. Contribution of glacier runoff to freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, E.G.; Hood, E.; Smikrud, K.

    2010-01-01

    Watersheds along the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) are undergoing climate warming, glacier volume loss, and shifts in the timing and volume of freshwater delivered to the eastern North Pacific Ocean. We estimate recent mean annual freshwater discharge to the GOA at 870 km3 yr-1. Small distributed coastal drainages contribute 78% of the freshwater discharge with the remainder delivered by larger rivers penetrating coastal ranges. Discharge from glaciers and icefields accounts for 47% of total freshwater discharge, with 10% coming from glacier volume loss associated with rapid thinning and retreat of glaciers along the GOA. Our results indicate the region of the GOA from Prince William Sound to the east, where glacier runoff contributes 371 km3 yr -1, is vulnerable to future changes in freshwater discharge as a result of glacier thinning and recession. Changes in timing and magnitude of freshwater delivery to the GOA could impact coastal circulation as well as biogeochemical fluxes to near-shore marine ecosystems and the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Land Ice Freshwater Budget of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans: 1. Data, Methods, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Tedstone, A. J.; King, M. D.; Howat, I. M.; Enderlin, E. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Noel, B.

    2018-03-01

    The freshwater budget of the Arctic and sub-polar North Atlantic Oceans has been changing due, primarily, to increased river runoff, declining sea ice and enhanced melting of Arctic land ice. Since the mid-1990s this latter component has experienced a pronounced increase. We use a combination of satellite observations of glacier flow speed and regional climate modeling to reconstruct the land ice freshwater flux from the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic glaciers and ice caps for the period 1958-2016. The cumulative freshwater flux anomaly exceeded 6,300 ± 316 km3 by 2016. This is roughly twice the estimate of a previous analysis that did not include glaciers and ice caps outside of Greenland and which extended only to 2010. From 2010 onward, the total freshwater flux is about 1,300 km3/yr, equivalent to 0.04 Sv, which is roughly 40% of the estimated total runoff to the Arctic for the same time period. Not all of this flux will reach areas of deep convection or Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas. We note, however, that the largest freshwater flux anomalies, grouped by ocean basin, are located in Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. The land ice freshwater flux displays a strong seasonal cycle with summer time values typically around five times larger than the annual mean. This will be important for understanding the impact of these fluxes on fjord circulation, stratification, and the biogeochemistry of, and nutrient delivery to, coastal waters.

  18. Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula E; Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Koelmans, Albert A

    2018-02-20

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers, and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates with different species traits, using a wide range of microplastic concentrations. Standardized 28 days single species bioassays were performed under environmentally relevant exposure conditions using polystyrene microplastics (20-500 μm) mixed with sediment at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% sediment dry weight (dw). Microplastics caused no effects on the survival of Gammarus pulex, Hyalella azteca, Asellus aquaticus, Sphaerium corneum, and Tubifex spp. and no effects were found on the reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus. No significant differences in growth were found for H. azteca, A. aquaticus, S. corneum, L. variegatus, and Tubifex spp. However, G. pulex showed a significant reduction in growth (EC 10 = 1.07% sediment dw) and microplastic uptake was proportional with microplastic concentrations in sediment. These results indicate that although the risks of environmentally realistic concentrations of microplastics may be low, they still may affect the biodiversity and the functioning of aquatic communities which after all also depend on the sensitive species.

  19. Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers, and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates with different species traits, using a wide range of microplastic concentrations. Standardized 28 days single species bioassays were performed under environmentally relevant exposure conditions using polystyrene microplastics (20–500 μm) mixed with sediment at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% sediment dry weight (dw). Microplastics caused no effects on the survival of Gammarus pulex, Hyalella azteca, Asellus aquaticus, Sphaerium corneum, and Tubifex spp. and no effects were found on the reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus. No significant differences in growth were found for H. azteca, A. aquaticus, S. corneum, L. variegatus, and Tubifex spp. However, G. pulex showed a significant reduction in growth (EC10 = 1.07% sediment dw) and microplastic uptake was proportional with microplastic concentrations in sediment. These results indicate that although the risks of environmentally realistic concentrations of microplastics may be low, they still may affect the biodiversity and the functioning of aquatic communities which after all also depend on the sensitive species. PMID:29337537

  20. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts

  1. Freshwater Biodiversity and Insect Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.; Monaghan, Michael T.; Pauls, Steffen U.

    2016-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than one percent of Earth’s surface, but harbor more than six percent of all insect species: nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are exceptionally susceptible to environmental change, and exhibit marked ecological gradients. The amphibiotic lifestyles of aquatic insects result in complex contributions of extinction and allopatric and non-allopatric speciation in species diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bio-indicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification. PMID:24160433

  2. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2014-08-29

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Global change impacts on river ecosystems: A high-resolution watershed study of Ebro river metabolism.

    PubMed

    Val, Jonatan; Chinarro, David; Pino, María Rosa; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    Global change is transforming freshwater ecosystems, mainly through changes in basin flow dynamics. This study assessed how the combination of climate change and human management of river flow impacts metabolism of the Ebro River (the largest river basin in Spain, 86,100km(2)), assessed as gross primary production-GPP-and ecosystem respiration-ER. In order to investigate the influence of global change on freshwater ecosystems, an analysis of trends and frequencies from 25 sampling sites of the Ebro river basin was conducted. For this purpose, we examined the effect of anthropogenic flow control on river metabolism with a Granger causality study; simultaneously, took into account the effects of climate change, a period of extraordinary drought (largest in past 140years). We identified periods of sudden flow changes resulting from both human management and global climate effects. From 1998 to 2012, the Ebro River basin was trending toward a more autotrophic condition indicated by P/R ratio. Particularly, the results show that floods that occurred after long periods of low flows had a dramatic impact on the respiration (i.e., mineralization) capacity of the river. This approach allowed for a detailed characterization of the relationships between river metabolism and drought impacts at the watershed level. These findings may allow for a better understanding of the ecological impacts provoked by flow management, thus contributing to maintain the health of freshwater communities and ecosystem services that rely on their integrity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    PubMed

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  5. [Human African trypanosomiasis in the urban milieu: the example of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic if the Congo, in 1998 and 1999].

    PubMed

    Bilengue, C M; Meso, V K; Louis, F J; Lucas, P

    2001-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is an essentially rural disease. Occurrence in urban areas is uncommon except in cities that reproduce rural conditions conducive to the survival of glossinidae, i.e., forest and water. This is the case in neighborhoods near the zoo in Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo and in the residual mangrove forest in Conakry, Guinea. In Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, an average of 39 cases were reported annually from 1970 to 1995. This figure increased to 254 in 1996 and 226 in 1997. This sharp rise led authorities to organize screening operations in some neighborhoods of the capital city. Results documented 433 cases in 1998 and 912 cases in 1999. The highest prevalence was found in outlying areas. This finding was probably related to focus of screening in these locations and to the practice of market gardening on plots surrounding the city. Placement of 276 insect traps along the Ndjili River led to the capture of 42,231 glossinidae over a 4 month period. Taken together, these findings indicate that the conditions necessary for active disease transmission are now reunited and that priority should be given to intensifying screening operations and information campaigns to health care providers working in the city.

  6. Diversity, Replication, Pathogenicity and Cell Biology of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Adolfo García-Sastre, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Diversity, Replication, Pathogenicity and Cell Biology of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0876 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...localization and antigenic characterization of Crimean - Congo hemorrhagic fever virus glycoproteins. J.Virol. 79: 6152-61. Ahmed, A., McFalls,

  7. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  8. Microplastics in freshwater systems: a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs.

    PubMed

    Eerkes-Medrano, Dafne; Thompson, Richard C; Aldridge, David C

    2015-05-15

    Plastic contamination is an increasing environmental problem in marine systems where it has spread globally to even the most remote habitats. Plastic pieces in smaller size scales, microplastics (particles <5 mm), have reached high densities (e.g., 100,000 items per m(3)) in waters and sediments, and are interacting with organisms and the environment in a variety of ways. Early investigations of freshwater systems suggest microplastic presence and interactions are equally as far reaching as are being observed in marine systems. Microplastics are being detected in freshwaters of Europe, North America, and Asia, and the first organismal studies are finding that freshwater fauna across a range of feeding guilds ingest microplastics. Drawing from the marine literature and these initial freshwater studies, we review the issue of microplastics in freshwater systems to summarise current understanding, identify knowledge gaps and suggest future research priorities. Evidence suggests that freshwater systems may share similarities to marine systems in the types of forces that transport microplastics (e.g. surface currents); the prevalence of microplastics (e.g. numerically abundant and ubiquitous); the approaches used for detection, identification and quantification (e.g. density separation, filtration, sieving and infrared spectroscopy); and the potential impacts (e.g. physical damage to organisms that ingest them, chemical transfer of toxicants). Differences between freshwater and marine systems include the closer proximity to point sources in freshwaters, the typically smaller sizes of freshwater systems, and spatial and temporal differences in the mixing/transport of particles by physical forces. These differences between marine and freshwater systems may lead to differences in the type of microplastics present. For example, rivers may show a predictable pattern in microplastic characteristics (size, shape, relative abundance) based on waste sources (e.g. household vs

  9. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Newton, Ryan J; Dila, Deborah K; McLellan, Sandra L

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an "urban microbial signature," and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas , and Pseudomonas , which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with potential

  10. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Newton, Ryan J.; Dila, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an “urban microbial signature,” and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas, which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with

  11. Global hidden harvest of freshwater fish revealed by household surveys.

    PubMed

    Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne; Funge-Smith, Simon; McIntyre, Peter B

    2018-06-18

    Consumption of wild-caught freshwater fish is concentrated in low-income countries, where it makes a critical contribution to food security and livelihoods. Underestimation of inland harvests in official statistics has long been suspected due to unmonitored subsistence fisheries. To overcome the lack of data from extensive small-scale harvests, we used household consumption surveys to estimate freshwater fish catches in 42 low- and middle-income countries between 1997 and 2014. After accounting for trade and aquaculture, these countries collectively consumed 3.6 MT (CI, 1.5-5.8) more wild-caught freshwater fish than officially reported, reflecting a net underreporting of 64.8% (CI, 27.1-103.9%). Individual countries were more likely to underestimate ( n = 31) than overestimate ( n = 11) catches, despite conservative assumptions in our calculations. Extrapolating our findings suggests that the global inland catch reported as 10.3 MT in 2008 was more likely 16.6 MT (CI, 2.3-30.9), which accords with recent independent predictions for rivers and lakes. In human terms, these hidden harvests are equivalent to the total animal protein consumption of 36.9 (CI, 30.8-43.4) million people, including many who rely upon wild fish to achieve even minimal protein intake. The widespread underreporting uncovered by household consumption surveys indicates that inland fisheries contribute far more to global food security than has been recognized previously. Our findings also amplify concerns about the sustainability of intensive fishery exploitation as degradation of rivers, lakes, and wetlands continues apace.

  12. The Freshwater Information Platform - an online network supporting freshwater biodiversity research and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kloiber, Astrid; De Wever, Aaike; Bremerich, Vanessa; Strackbein, Jörg; Hering, Daniel; Jähnig, Sonja; Kiesel, Jens; Martens, Koen; Tockner, Klement

    2017-04-01

    Species distribution data is crucial for improving our understanding of biodiversity and its threats. This is especially the case for freshwater environments, which are heavily affected by the global biodiversity crisis. Currently, a huge body of freshwater biodiversity data is often difficult to access, because systematic data publishing practices have not yet been adopted by the freshwater research community. The Freshwater Information Platform (FIP; www.freshwaterplatform.eu) - initiated through the BioFresh project - aims at pooling freshwater related research information from a variety of projects and initiatives to make it easily accessible for scientists, water managers and conservationists as well as the interested public. It consists of several major components, three of which we want to specifically address: (1) The Freshwater Biodiversity Data Portal aims at mobilising freshwater biodiversity data, making them online available Datasets in the portal are described and documented in the (2) Freshwater Metadatabase and published as open access articles in the Freshwater Metadata Journal. The use of collected datasets for large-scale analyses and models is demonstrated in the (3) Global Freshwater Biodiversity Atlas that publishes interactive online maps featuring research results on freshwater biodiversity, resources, threats and conservation priorities. Here we present the main components of the FIP as tools to streamline open access freshwater data publication arguing this will improve the capacity to protect and manage freshwater biodiversity in the face of global change.

  13. Congo Basin precipitation: Assessing seasonality, regional interactions, and sources of moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Ellen L. E.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Li, Harry; Collins, Owen; Vettoretti, Guido; Noone, David

    2017-07-01

    Precipitation in the Congo Basin was examined using a version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM) with water tagging capability. Using regionally defined water tracers, or tags, the moisture contribution from different source regions to Congo Basin precipitation was investigated. We found that the Indian Ocean and evaporation from the Congo Basin were the dominant moisture sources and that the Atlantic Ocean was a comparatively small source of moisture. In both rainy seasons the southwestern Indian Ocean contributed about 21% of the moisture, while the recycling ratio for moisture from the Congo Basin was about 25%. Near the surface, a great deal of moisture is transported from the Atlantic into the Congo Basin, but much of this moisture is recirculated back over the Atlantic in the lower troposphere. Although the southwestern Indian Ocean is a major source of Indian Ocean moisture, it is not associated with the bulk of the variability in precipitation over the Congo Basin. In wet years, more of the precipitation in the Congo Basin is derived from Indian Ocean moisture, but the spatial distribution of the dominant sources is shifted, reflecting changes in the midtropospheric circulation over the Indian Ocean. During wet years there is increased transport of moisture from the equatorial and eastern Indian Ocean. Our results suggest that reliably capturing the linkages between the large-scale circulation patterns over the Indian Ocean and the local circulation over the Congo Basin is critical for future projections of Congo Basin precipitation.

  14. Molecular Insights into Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    DOE PAGES

    Zivcec, Marko; Scholte, Florine; Spiropoulou, Christina; ...

    2016-04-21

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of vaccines and antivirals to treat human CCHFV infections remains limited and controversial. Research into pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of CCHFV and other nairoviruses is limited. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of CCHFV replication and pathogenesis in the past decade. Here we review the most recent molecular advances in CCHFV-related research, and provide perspectives on future research.

  15. The Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-29

    Rwanda and Uganda, marched into Kinshasa and ousted longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko. Within one year, tensions between then- President Laurent...Congolese were registered to vote in the 2006 elections, including 2.9 million in Kinshasa , the capital. In the presidential elections, there were 33...Bemba and the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC) In March 2007, the Congolese army and Bemba’s militia clashed in Kinshasa , forcing Bemba to

  16. Molecular Insights into Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Zivcec, Marko; Scholte, Florine E M; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric

    2016-04-21

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of vaccines and antivirals to treat human CCHFV infections remains limited and controversial. Research into pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of CCHFV and other nairoviruses is limited. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of CCHFV replication and pathogenesis in the past decade. Here we review the most recent molecular advances in CCHFV-related research, and provide perspectives on future research.

  17. Molecular Insights into Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Zivcec, Marko; Scholte, Florine; Spiropoulou, Christina

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of vaccines and antivirals to treat human CCHFV infections remains limited and controversial. Research into pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of CCHFV and other nairoviruses is limited. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of CCHFV replication and pathogenesis in the past decade. Here we review the most recent molecular advances in CCHFV-related research, and provide perspectives on future research.

  18. Phylogeography of an Island endemic, the Puerto Rican Freshwater Crab (Epilobocera sinuatifrons).

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin D; Pringle, Catherine M; Hughes, Jane M

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Puerto Rican crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons (Pseudothelphusidae), has a freshwater-dependant life-history strategy, although the species has some capabilities for terrestrial movement as adults. In contrast to all other freshwater decapods on the island (e.g., caridean shrimp), E. sinuatifrons does not undertake amphidromous migration, and is restricted to purely freshwater habitats and adjacent riparian zones. As Puerto Rico has a dynamic geologic history, we predicted that both the life history of E. sinuatifrons and the geological history of the island would be important determinants of phylogeographic structuring in the species. Using a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) gene, we tested for deviations from panmixia among and within rivers draining Puerto Rico and used statistical phylogeography to explore processes that may explain extant patterns of genetic variation in the species. While populations of E. sinuatifrons were significantly differentiated among rivers, they were likely to be recently derived because nested clade analysis (NCA) indicated evolutionarily recent restricted gene flow with isolation by distance (IBD) and contiguous range expansion at various spatial scales. Ongoing drainage rearrangements associated with faulting and land slippage were invoked as processes involved in sporadic gene flow among rivers throughout the Pleistocene. Patterns of genetic differentiation conformed to IBD and population demographic statistics were nonsignificant, indicating that although recently derived, populations from different rivers were in drift-mutation equilibrium. A shallow (0.6 million years ago), paraphyletic split was observed in the haplotype network, which NCA indicated arose via allopatric fragmentation. This split coincides with an area of high relief in central Puerto Rico that may have experienced relatively little drainage rearrangements. Shallow but significant genetic isolation of

  19. Circulation in a bay influenced by flooding of a river discharging outside the bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehi, Shigeho; Takagi, Takamasa; Okabe, Katsuaki; Takayanagi, Kazufumi

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of a river discharging outside a bay on circulation in the bay, we carried out current and salinity measurements from mooring systems and hydrographic observations in Matsushima Bay, Japan, and off the Naruse River, which discharges outside the bay. Previously, enhancement of horizontal circulation in the bay induced by increased freshwater input from the Naruse River was reported to have degraded the seedling yield of wild Pacific oysters in the bay, but the freshwater inflow from the river was not directly measured. Our hydrographic observations in Katsugigaura Strait, approximately 3 km southwest of the Naruse River mouth, detected freshwater derived from the river. The mooring data revealed that freshwater discharged by the river flowed into Matsushima Bay via the strait and that the freshwater transport increased when the river was in flood. The inflow through straits other than Katsugigaura was estimated by a box model analysis to be 26-145 m3 s-1 under normal river discharge conditions, and it decreased to 6 m3 s-1 during flood conditions. During flood events, the salt and water budgets in the bay were maintained by the horizontal circulation: inflow occurred mainly via Katsugigaura Strait, and outflow was mainly via other straits.

  20. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  1. Modeling the influence of atmospheric leading modes on the variability of the Arctic freshwater cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederdrenk, L.; Sein, D.; Mikolajewicz, U.

    2013-12-01

    Global general circulation models show remarkable differences in modeling the Arctic freshwater cycle. While they agree on the general sinks and sources of the freshwater budget, they differ largely in the magnitude of the mean values as well as in the variability of the freshwater terms. Regional models can better resolve the complex topography and small scale processes, but they are often uncoupled, thus missing the air-sea interaction. Additionally, regional models mostly use some kind of salinity restoring or flux correction, thus disturbing the freshwater budget. Our approach to investigate the Arctic hydrologic cycle and its variability is a regional atmosphere-ocean model setup, consisting of the global ocean model MPIOM with high resolution in the Arctic coupled to the regional atmosphere model REMO. The domain of the atmosphere model covers all catchment areas of the rivers draining into the Arctic. To account for all sinks and sources of freshwater in the Arctic, we include a discharge model providing terrestrial lateral waterflows. We run the model without salinity restoring but with freshwater correction, which is set to zero in the Arctic. This allows for the analysis of a closed freshwater budget in the Artic region. We perform experiments for the second half of the 20th century and use data from the global model MPIOM/ECHAM5 performed with historical conditions, that was used within the 4th Assessment Report of the IPCC, as forcing for our regional model. With this setup, we investigate how the dominant modes of large-scale atmospheric variability impact the variability in the freshwater components. We focus on the two leading empirical orthogonal functions of winter mean sea level pressure, as well as on the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Siberian High. These modes have a large impact on the Arctic Ocean circulation as well as on the solid and liquid export through Fram Strait and through the Canadian archipelago. However, they cannot explain

  2. Review of Ghana's water resources: the quality and management with particular focus on freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeleliere, E.; Cobbina, S. J.; Duwiejuah, A. B.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater resources are continually decreasing in quality and quantity. Approximately, 1% of this freshwater is accessible in lakes, river channels and underground for domestic use. The study reviewed literature on water resources with focus on freshwater, the quality of our freshwater in terms of physical, chemical and biological variables, the main mechanisms of management, and the challenges associated with these mechanisms as well as blending integrated water management with the indigenous or traditional management of water resources for sustainable development and peaceful co-existence. Also the review offered potent recommendations for policy makers to consider sustainable management of freshwater resources. A total of 95 articles were downloaded from Google scholar in water-related issues. The search took place from June to September 2017, and research articles from 1998 to 2018 were reviewed. Basically Ghana is made up of three discharge or outlet systems, namely the Coastal River Systems which is the least and Volta constituting the largest and with the South-Western been the intermediate. Also, freshwater resources usage can be put into two main categories, namely ex situ (withdrawal use) and in situ or in-stream use, and could also be referred to as the consumptive and non-consumptive use, respectively. With the exception of localised pollution engineered by illegal mining and other nuisance perpetuated by indigenes, the quality of water (surface and groundwater) in Ghana is generally better. The review outlined high microbial contamination of water as almost all surface waters are contaminated with either E. coli, faecal coliforms or total coliforms or all. However, these contaminations were more prevalent in surface water than groundwater.

  3. Geochemical proxies of North American freshwater routing during the Younger Dryas cold event.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Peter U; Haley, Brian A; Klinkhammer, Gary P; Simmons, Kathleen; Brook, Edward J; Meissner, Katrin J

    2007-04-17

    The Younger Dryas cold interval represents a time when much of the Northern Hemisphere cooled from approximately 12.9 to 11.5 kiloyears B.P. The cause of this event, which has long been viewed as the canonical example of abrupt climate change, was initially attributed to the routing of freshwater to the St. Lawrence River with an attendant reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. However, this mechanism has recently been questioned because current proxies and dating techniques have been unable to confirm that eastward routing with an increase in freshwater flux occurred during the Younger Dryas. Here we use new geochemical proxies (DeltaMg/Ca, U/Ca, and (87)Sr/(86)Sr) measured in planktonic foraminifera at the mouth of the St. Lawrence estuary as tracers of freshwater sources to further evaluate this question. Our proxies, combined with planktonic delta(18)O(seawater) and delta(13)C, confirm that routing of runoff from western Canada to the St. Lawrence River occurred at the start of the Younger Dryas, with an attendant increase in freshwater flux of 0.06 +/- 0.02 Sverdrup (1 Sverdrup = 10(6) m(3).s(-1)). This base discharge increase is sufficient to have reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and caused the Younger Dryas cold interval. In addition, our data indicate subsequent fluctuations in the freshwater flux to the St. Lawrence River of approximately 0.06-0.12 Sverdrup, thus explaining the variability in the overturning circulation and climate during the Younger Dryas.

  4. Geochemical proxies of North American freshwater routing during the Younger Dryas cold event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, A.E.; Clark, P.U.; Haley, B.A.; Klinkhammer, G.P.; Simmons, K.; Brook, E.J.; Meissner, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Younger Dryas cold interval represents a time when much of the Northern Hemisphere cooled from ???12.9 to 11.5 kiloyears B.P. The cause of this event, which has long been viewed as the canonical example of abrupt climate change, was initially attributed to the routing of freshwater to the St. Lawrence River with an attendant reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. However, this mechanism has recently been questioned because current proxies and dating techniques have been unable to confirm that eastward routing with an increase in freshwater flux occurred during the Younger Dryas. Here we use new geochemical proxies (??Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr) measured in planktonic foraminifera at the mouth of the St. Lawrence estuary as tracers of freshwater sources to further evaluate this question. Our proxies, combined with planktonic ??18Oseawater and ??13C, confirm that routing of runoff from western Canada to the St. Lawrence River occurred at the start of the Younger Dryas, with an attendant increase in freshwater flux of 0.06 ?? 0.02 Sverdrup (1 Sverdrup = 106 m3??s-1). This base discharge increase is sufficient to have reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and caused the Younger Dryas cold interval. In addition, our data indicate subsequent fluctuations in the freshwater flux to the St. Lawrence River of ???0.06-0.12 Sverdrup, thus explaining the variability in the overturning circulation and climate during the Younger Dryas. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  5. Variability in aerobic methane oxidation over the past 1.2 Myrs recorded in microbial biomarker signatures from Congo fan sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Helen M.; Handley, Luke; Spencer-Jones, Charlotte L.; Dinga, Bienvenu Jean; Schefuß, Enno; Mann, Paul J.; Poulsen, John R.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas known to have perturbed global climate in the past, especially when released in large quantities over short time periods from continental or marine sources. It is therefore crucial to understand and, if possible, quantify the individual and combined response of these variable methane sources to natural climate variability. However, past changes in the stability of greenhouse gas reservoirs remain uncertain and poorly constrained by geological evidence. Here, we present a record from the Congo fan of a highly specific bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) biomarker for aerobic methane oxidation (AMO), 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol (aminopentol), that identifies discrete periods of increased AMO as far back as 1.2 Ma. Fluctuations in the concentration of aminopentol, and other 35-aminoBHPs, follow a pattern that correlates with late Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate cycles, with highest concentrations during warm periods. We discuss possible sources of aminopentol, and the methane consumed by the precursor methanotrophs, within the context of the Congo River setting, including supply of methane oxidation markers from terrestrial watersheds and/or marine sources (gas hydrate and/or deep subsurface gas reservoir). Compound-specific carbon isotope values of -30‰ to -40‰ for BHPs in ODP 1075 and strong similarities between the BHP signature of the core and surface sediments from the Congo estuary and floodplain wetlands from the interior of the Congo River Basin, support a methanotrophic and likely terrigenous origin of the 35-aminoBHPs found in the fan sediments. This new evidence supports a causal connection between marine sediment BHP records of tropical deep sea fans and wetland settings in the feeding river catchments, and thus tropical continental hydrology. Further research is needed to better constrain the different sources and pathways of methane emission. However, this study identifies the large potential

  6. HESS Opinions: A planetary boundary on freshwater use is misleading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heistermann, Maik

    2017-07-01

    In 2009, a group of prominent Earth scientists introduced the planetary boundaries (PB) framework: they suggested nine global control variables, and defined corresponding thresholds which, if crossed, could generate unacceptable environmental change. The concept builds on systems theory, and views Earth as a complex adaptive system in which anthropogenic disturbances may trigger non-linear, abrupt, and irreversible changes at the global scale, and push the Earth system outside the stable environmental state of the Holocene. While the idea has been remarkably successful in both science and policy circles, it has also raised fundamental concerns, as the majority of suggested processes and their corresponding planetary boundaries do not operate at the global scale, and thus apparently lack the potential to trigger abrupt planetary changes. This paper picks up the debate with specific regard to the planetary boundary on global freshwater use. While the bio-physical impacts of excessive water consumption are typically confined to the river basin scale, the PB proponents argue that water-induced environmental disasters could build up to planetary-scale feedbacks and system failures. So far, however, no evidence has been presented to corroborate that hypothesis. Furthermore, no coherent approach has been presented to what extent a planetary threshold value could reflect the risk of regional environmental disaster. To be sure, the PB framework was revised in 2015, extending the planetary freshwater boundary with a set of basin-level boundaries inferred from environmental water flow assumptions. Yet, no new evidence was presented, either with respect to the ability of those basin-level boundaries to reflect the risk of regional regime shifts or with respect to a potential mechanism linking river basins to the planetary scale. So while the idea of a planetary boundary on freshwater use appears intriguing, the line of arguments presented so far

  7. Woody vegetation communities of tidal freshwater swamps in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida (US) with comparisons to similar systems in the US and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Conner, William H.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of most tidal freshwater swamps in the southeastern US fit within the communities described in this study. Because studies that make inferences between environmental drivers (e.g. salinity, hydroperiod, hurricanes) and specific community types are best applied to the same communities (but perhaps different river systems), this work provides a framework by which tidal freshwater forested wetlands can be accurately compared based on their tree communities. We suggest that, within the broad range of our inventories, the four communities described identify the primary associations that should be tracked within most tidal freshwater swamps of the US. However, we identify some river basins in the US that do not fit this construct. Diversity of major tree communities in tidal freshwater swamps outside the US is generally much lower (with the notable exception of Amazonian hardwood tidal várzea), as are basal area values.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation using design of experiments: a review and example of the Congo red degradation.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Vasilios A; Islam, Md Azharul; Stalikas, Constantine; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2010-03-15

    The use of chemometric methods such as response surface methodology (RSM) based on statistical design of experiments (DOEs) is becoming increasingly widespread in several sciences such as analytical chemistry, engineering and environmental chemistry. Applied catalysis, is certainly not the exception. It is clear that photocatalytic processes mated with chemometric experimental design play a crucial role in the ability of reaching the optimum of the catalytic reactions. The present article reviews the major applications of RSM in modern experimental design combined with photocatalytic degradation processes. Moreover, the theoretical principles and designs that enable to obtain a polynomial regression equation, which expresses the influence of process parameters on the response are thoroughly discussed. An original experimental work, the photocatalytic degradation of the dye Congo red (CR) using TiO(2) suspensions and H(2)O(2), in natural surface water (river water) is comprehensively described as a case study, in order to provide sufficient guidelines to deal with this subject, in a rational and integrated way. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA barcoding Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Lakra, Wazir Singh; Singh, M; Goswami, Mukunda; Gopalakrishnan, A; Lal, K K; Mohindra, V; Sarkar, U K; Punia, P P; Singh, K V; Bhatt, J P; Ayyappan, S

    2016-11-01

    DNA barcoding is a promising technique for species identification using a short mitochondrial DNA sequence of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. In the present study, DNA barcodes were generated from 72 species of freshwater fish covering the Orders Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Synbranchiformes, and Osteoglossiformes representing 50 genera and 19 families. All the samples were collected from diverse sites except the species endemic to a particular location. Species were represented by multiple specimens in the great majority of the barcoded species. A total of 284 COI sequences were generated. After amplification and sequencing of 700 base pair fragment of COI, primers were trimmed which invariably generated a 655 base pair barcode sequence. The average Kimura two-parameter (K2P) distances within-species, genera, families, and orders were 0.40%, 9.60%, 13.10%, and 17.16%, respectively. DNA barcode discriminated congeneric species without any confusion. The study strongly validated the efficiency of COI as an ideal marker for DNA barcoding of Indian freshwater fishes.

  10. Collaboration between Higher Education and Labor Market in Kinshasa, DR Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etshim, Rachal

    2017-01-01

    The transition of new graduate students from school to the labor market in Democratic Republic of Congo has been a major topic for debate over the last twenty years. This study identifies the factors affecting collaboration between higher education and the labor market in Kinshasa, the Capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Even though…

  11. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  12. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Data Sources)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When EPA release the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database, it referenced numerous data sources that are included below. The Traits Database report covers the development of a database of freshwater biological traits with additional traits that are relevan...

  14. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  15. Why are freshwater fish so threatened?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Closs, Gerard P.; Angermeier, Paul; Darwall, William R.T.; Balcombe, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding why so many freshwater fish species are threatened requires some understanding of their biology, diversity, distribution, biogeography and ecology, but also some appreciation of the social, economic and political forces that are causing humans to destroy the natural ecosystems upon which we all ultimately depend. To begin to understand the diversity of freshwater fishes, we first need to consider the processes that generated and continue to sustain the diversity of species we see today. Based on an understanding of how freshwater fish diversity is generated and sustained, we consider how vulnerable or resilient various freshwater fishes are to the range of anthropogenic impacts that impinge on freshwater ecosystems. Finally, we discuss how social, political and economic drivers influence human impacts on natural systems, and the changes needed to current models of development that can lead to a sustainable future for humans and the diverse range of freshwater fish species with which we share our planet. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the key issues and threats driving the declines in freshwater fish diversity identified in Chapter 1; subsequent chapters provide more detail on the key issues and address our options for developing a sustainable future for freshwater fishes.

  16. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  17. Freshwater for resilience: a shift in thinking.

    PubMed Central

    Folke, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Humanity shapes freshwater flows and biosphere dynamics from a local to a global scale. Successful management of target resources in the short term tends to alienate the social and economic development process from its ultimate dependence on the life-supporting environment. Freshwater becomes transformed into a resource for optimal management in development, neglecting the multiple functions of freshwater in dynamic landscapes and its fundamental role as the bloodstream of the biosphere. The current tension of these differences in worldview is exemplified through the recent development of modern aquaculture contrasted with examples of catchment-based stewardship of freshwater flows in dynamic landscapes. In particular, the social and institutional dimension of catchment management is highlighted and features of social-ecological systems for resilience building are presented. It is concluded that this broader view of freshwater provides the foundation for hydrosolidarity. PMID:14728796

  18. Why are there so few freshwater fish species in most estuaries?

    PubMed

    Whitfield, A K

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater fish assemblage in most estuaries is not as species rich as the marine assemblage in the same systems. Coupled with this differential richness is an apparent inability by most freshwater fish species to penetrate estuarine zones that are mesohaline (salinity: 5·0-17·9), polyhaline (salinity: 18·0-29·9) or euhaline (salinity: 30·0-39·9). The reason why mesohaline waters are avoided by most freshwater fishes is difficult to explain from a physiological perspective as many of these species would be isosmotic within this salinity range. Perhaps, a key to the poor penetration of estuarine waters by freshwater taxa is an inability to develop chloride cells in gill filament epithelia, as well as a lack of other osmoregulatory adaptations present in euryhaline fishes. Only a few freshwater fish species, especially some of those belonging to the family Cichlidae, have become fully euryhaline and have successfully occupied a wide range of estuaries, sometimes even dominating in hyperhaline systems (salinity 40+). Indeed, this review found that there are few fish species that can be termed holohaline (i.e. capable of occupying waters with a salinity range of 0-100+) and, of these taxa, there is a disproportionally high number of freshwater species (e.g. Cyprinodon variegatus, Oreochromis mossambicus and Sarotherodon melanotheron). Factors such as increased competition for food and higher predation rates by piscivorous fishes and birds may also play an important role in the low species richness and abundance of freshwater taxa in estuaries. Added to this is the relatively low species richness of freshwater fishes in river catchments when compared with the normally higher diversity of marine fish species for potential estuarine colonization from the adjacent coastal waters. The almost complete absence of freshwater fish larvae from the estuarine ichthyoplankton further reinforces the poor representation of this guild within these systems. An explanation as

  19. Understanding the linkages between a tidal freshwater forested wetland and an adjoining bottomland hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Brooke Czwartacki; Carl C. Trettin; Timothy J. Callahan

    2016-01-01

    The low-gradient coastal topography of the southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain, coupled with large oceanic tidal amplitudes cause rivers that discharge to the coast to exhibit tidal influence of tides far inland. In those reaches, tidal-freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) occupy floodplains which eventually transition to non-tidal, bottomland hardwood-forested ...

  20. Freshwater wetlands: fertile grounds for the invasive Phragmites australis in a climate change context

    PubMed Central

    Tougas-Tellier, Marie-Andrée; Morin, Jean; Hatin, Daniel; Lavoie, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will likely affect flooding regimes, which have a large influence on the functioning of freshwater riparian wetlands. Low water levels predicted for several fluvial systems make wetlands especially vulnerable to the spread of invaders, such as the common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most invasive species in North America. We developed a model to map the distribution of potential germination grounds of the common reed in freshwater wetlands of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) under current climate conditions and used this model to predict their future distribution under two climate change scenarios simulated for 2050. We gathered historical and recent (remote sensing) data on the distribution of common reed stands for model calibration and validation purposes, then determined the parameters controlling the species establishment by seed. A two-dimensional model and the identified parameters were used to simulate the current (2010) and future (2050) distribution of germination grounds. Common reed stands are not widespread along the St. Lawrence River (212 ha), but our model suggests that current climate conditions are already conducive to considerable further expansion (>16,000 ha). Climate change may also exacerbate the expansion, particularly if river water levels drop, which will expose large bare areas propitious to seed germination. This phenomenon may be particularly important in one sector of the river, where existing common reed stands could increase their areas by a factor of 100, potentially creating the most extensive reedbed complex in North America. After colonizing salt and brackishwater marshes, the common reed could considerably expand into the freshwater marshes of North America which cover several million hectares. The effects of common reed expansion on biodiversity are difficult to predict, but likely to be highly deleterious given the competitiveness of the invader and the biological richness of freshwater

  1. A numerical study of the ex-ROFI of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal, N.; Souza, A.; Durazo, R.

    1997-08-01

    The freshwater discharge of the Colorado River into the Gulf of California has been reduced to negligible quantities since the construction of the Hoover Dam in 1935. These radical anthropogenic changes in the hydrography of the Colorado River Delta had striking repercussions on both physical and biological processes. Using historical river discharge data, the changes in the flow dynamics and hydrographic patterns before and after the drastic freshwater reduction are studied numerically, using a three-dimensional nonlinear shelf model. The results are applied to assess the environmental impact of the reduction of river discharge on the area. Satellite imagery is also used to compare our results with observed fronts.

  2. Congo red modulates ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations in single pancreatic acinar cells of mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ze-bing; Wang, Hai-yan; Sun, Na-na; Wang, Jing-ke; Zhao, Meng-qin; Shen, Jian-xin; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P; Fan, Xue-gong; Wu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Congo red, a secondary diazo dye, is usually used as an indicator for the presence of amyloid fibrils. Recent studies show that congo red exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its pharmacological profile remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of congo red on ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. Methods: Acutely dissociated pancreatic acinar cells of mice were prepared. A U-tube drug application system was used to deliver drugs into the bath. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were monitored by whole-cell recording of Ca2+-activated Cl− currents and by using confocal Ca2+ imaging. For intracellular drug application, the drug was added in pipette solution and diffused into cell after the whole-cell configuration was established. Results: Bath application of ACh (10 nmol/L) induced typical Ca2+ oscillations in dissociated pancreatic acinar cells. Addition of congo red (1, 10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently enhanced Ach-induced Ca2+ oscillations, but congo red alone did not induce any detectable response. Furthermore, this enhancement depended on the concentrations of ACh: congo red markedly enhanced the Ca2+ oscillations induced by ACh (10–30 nmol/L), but did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations induced by ACh (100–10000 nmol/L). Congo red also enhanced the Ca2+ oscillations induced by bath application of IP3 (30 μmol/L). Intracellular application of congo red failed to alter ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations. Conclusion: Congo red significantly modulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells, and this pharmacological effect should be fully considered when developing congo red as a novel therapeutic drug. PMID:25345744

  3. The long-term evolution of the Congo deep-sea fan: A basin-wide view of the interaction between a giant submarine fan and a mature passive margin (ZaiAngo project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anka, Zahie; Séranne, Michel; Lopez, Michel; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Savoye, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    We have integrated the relatively unknown distal domains of the Lower Congo basin, where the main depocenters of the Congo submarine fan are located, with the better-constrained successions on the shelf and upper slope, through the analysis of thousands of km of 2D seismic reflection profiles off-shore the Congo-Angola passive margin. The basin architecture is depicted by two ca. 800-km-long regional cross sections through the northern (Congo) and southern (Angola) margin. A large unit deposited basinward of the Aptian salt limit is likely to be the abyssal-plain equivalent of the upper-Cretaceous carbonate shelf that characterized the first post-rift deposits in West-equatorial African margins. A latest-Turonian shelf-deepening event is recorded in the abyssal plain as a long period (Coniacian-Eocene) of condensed sedimentation and basin starvation. The onset of the giant Tertiary Congo deep-sea fan in early Oligocene following this event reactivates the abyssal plain as the main depocenter of the basin. The time-space partitioning of sedimentation within the deep-sea fan results from the interplay among increasing sediment supply, margin uplift, rise of the Angola salt ridge, and canyon incision throughout the Neogene. Oligocene-early Miocene turbidite sedimentation occurs mainly in NW-SE grabens and ponded inter-diapir basins on the southern margin (Angola). Seaward tilting of the margin and downslope salt withdrawal activates the up-building of the Angola escarpment, which leads to a northward (Congo) shift of the transfer zones during late Miocene. Around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, the incision of the Congo submarine canyon confines the turbidite flows and drives a general basinward progradation of the submarine fan into the abyssal plain The slope deposition is dominated by fine-grained hemipelagic deposits ever since. Results from this work contribute to better understand the signature in the ultra-deep deposits of processes acting on the continental

  4. How well do basic models describe the turbidity currents coming down Monterey and Congo Canyon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartigny, M.; Simmons, S.; Heerema, C.; Xu, J. P.; Azpiroz, M.; Clare, M. A.; Cooper, C.; Gales, J. A.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Paull, C. K.; Sumner, E. J.; Talling, P.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents rival rivers in their global capacity to transport sediment and organic carbon. Furthermore, turbidity currents break submarine cables that now transport >95% of our global data traffic. Accurate turbidity current models are thus needed to quantify their transport capacity and to predict the forces exerted on seafloor structures. Despite this need, existing numerical models are typically only calibrated with scaled-down laboratory measurements due to the paucity of direct measurements of field-scale turbidity currents. This lack of calibration thus leaves much uncertainty in the validity of existing models. Here we use the most detailed observations of turbidity currents yet acquired to validate one of the most fundamental models proposed for turbidity currents, the modified Chézy model. Direct measurements on which the validation is based come from two sites that feature distinctly different flow modes and grain sizes. The first are from the multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) in Monterey Canyon, California. An array of six moorings along the canyon axis captured at least 15 flow events that lasted up to hours. The second is the deep-sea Congo Canyon, where 10 finer grained flows were measured by a single mooring, each lasting several days. Moorings captured depth-resolved velocity and suspended sediment concentration at high resolution (<30 second) for each of the 25 events. We use both datasets to test the most basic model available for turbidity currents; the modified Chézy model. This basic model has been very useful for river studies over the past 200 years, as it provides a rapid estimate of how flow velocity varies with changes in river level and energy slope. Chézy-type models assume that the gravitational force of the flow equals the friction of the river-bed. Modified Chézy models have been proposed for turbidity currents. However, the absence of detailed measurements of friction and sediment concentration within

  5. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: methodology and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kigotsi, Jean; Soula, Serge; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The global climatology of lightning issued from space observations (OTD and LIS) clearly showed the maximum of the thunderstorm activity is located in a large area of the Congo Basin, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The first goal of the present study is to compare observations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) over a 9-year period (2005-2013) in this 2750 km × 2750 km area. The second goal is to analyse the lightning activity in terms of time and space variability. The detection efficiency (DE) of the WWLLN relative to LIS has increased between 2005 and 2013, typically from about 1.70 % to 5.90 %, in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. The mean monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a maximum between November and March and a minimum between June and August, associated with the ICTZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, depending on the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world. The annual flash density shows a sharp maximum localized in eastern DRC regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. This annual maximum systematically located west of Kivu Lake corresponds to that previously identified by many authors as the worldwide maximum which Christian et al. (2013) falsely attributed to Rwanda. Another more extended region within the Congo Basin exhibits moderately large values, especially during the beginning of the period analyzed. A comparison of both patterns of lightning density from the WWLLN and from LIS allows to validate the representativeness of this world network and to restitute the total lightning activity in terms of lightning density and rate.

  6. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war inmore » Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.« less

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of congo red using copper substituted cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirankumar, V. S.; Hardik, B.; Sumathi, S.

    2017-11-01

    Co1-xCuxFe2O4 nanoparticles with x = 0 and 0.5 were synthesized through the combustion method. The as-made materials are face centered-cubic close-packed spinel structures. The characterization techniques such as powder XRD, FTIR, UV-DRS and SEM studies collectively verified that the formed products are cobalt ferrite and copper substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. In addition, the mean crystalline size, lattice parameter and band gap energy of nanoparticles are calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained Co1-xCuxFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles is evaluated by monitoring the degradation of congo red under visible light irradiation.

  8. [Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: an enemy at the gates].

    PubMed

    Pittalis, Silvia; Meschi, Silvia; Castilletti, Maria Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Puro, Vicenzo

    2009-09-01

    Crimea-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne viral zoonosis with the potential of human-to-human transmission. The disease occurs in extensive areas in Asia, South-eastern Europe and Africa. Haemorrhagic manifestations constitute a prominent symptom of the late disease stage, with case fatality rates from 9 to 50%. The recent increase in the number of cases in Eastern Europe and the potential for nosocomial outbreaks indicate the advisability of diagnosis in every patient hospitalized in Italy with haemorrhagic fever.

  9. Molecular Insights into Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zivcec, Marko; Scholte, Florine E. M.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Spengler, Jessica R.; Bergeron, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of vaccines and antivirals to treat human CCHFV infections remains limited and controversial. Research into pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of CCHFV and other nairoviruses is limited. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of CCHFV replication and pathogenesis in the past decade. Here we review the most recent molecular advances in CCHFV-related research, and provide perspectives on future research. PMID:27110812

  10. [The prevalence of yaws among the Aka in the Congo].

    PubMed

    Coldiron, M; Obvala, D; Mouniaman-Nara, I; Pena, J; Blondel, C; Porten, K

    2013-05-01

    This study, conducted in 2012 in two districts of the Congo (Bétou and Enyellé), screened for yaws (endemic treponemiasis) that could be treated by a single dose of azithromycin. The screening involved a clinical history, followed by a clinical examination of the children reporting dermatological problems. A rapid diagnostic test for treponema was performed on the children with suspicious lesions. Of 6215 children screened, 485 (7.8%) had such lesions; 480 (99.0%) of them had a rapid diagnostic test, and it was positive for 183 (38.1%). This so-called Morges strategy is aimed at eradicating yaws in endemic areas.

  11. Using oxygen isotopes to establish freshwater sources in Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia, a Northwestern Atlantic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrigan, Elizabeth A.; Kienast, Markus; Thomas, Helmuth; Wallace, Douglas W. R.

    2017-12-01

    A weekly time-series of oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements was collected over a 16-month period from near-surface (1 m) and near-bottom (60 m) waters of Bedford Basin, a coastal fjord adjacent to the Scotian Shelf, off eastern Canada. The time-series was complemented with δ18O measurements of local precipitation (rain and snow), river, and wastewater runoff. The isotopic composition of precipitation displayed strong seasonality with an average (volume-weighted) δ18O value of -5.39‰ (±0.96) for summer and a depleted value of -10.37‰ (±2.96) over winter. Winter precipitation exhibited more depleted and variable δ18O of solid precipitation relative to rainfall. The annual, amount-weighted average δ18O of Sackville River discharge (-6.49‰ ± 0.82) was not statistically different from precipitation (-7.24‰ ± 0.92), but exhibited less seasonal variation. Freshwater end-members (zero-salinity intercepts) estimated from annual and seasonal regressions of δ18O versus salinity (S) for Bedford Basin near-surface samples were consistent with the δ18O of summer precipitation and the annual, amount-weighted average for the Sackville River. However, the isotopically depleted signature of winter precipitation was not observed clearly in near-surface waters of Bedford Basin, which might reflect isotope enrichment during sublimation from accumulated snowfall prior to melting and discharge, or retention and mixing within the drainage basin. In near bottom waters, most of the δ18O-S variation (average freshwater end-member: 7.47‰ ± 2.17) could be explained by vertical mixing with near-surface waters (average freshwater end-member: -6.23‰ ± 0.34) and hence with locally-derived freshwater. However the near-bottom δ18O-S variation suggested an additional contribution of a freshwater end-member with a δ18O of -15.55‰ ± 2.3, consistent with a remotely-derived freshwater end-member identified previously for the Scotian Shelf. Residuals from a long

  12. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents