Science.gov

Sample records for consequence code system

  1. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rollstin, J.A. ); Chanin, D.I. ); Jow, H.N. )

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management.

  2. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Chanin, D.I. )

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Chanin, D.I. ); Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian )

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems.

  4. A review of the Melcor Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS): Capabilities and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.

    1995-02-01

    MACCS was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship to estimate the offsite consequences of potential severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs). MACCS was publicly released in 1990. MACCS was developed to support the NRC`s probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) efforts. PSA techniques can provide a measure of the risk of reactor operation. PSAs are generally divided into three levels. Level one efforts identify potential plant damage states that lead to core damage and the associated probabilities, level two models damage progression and containment strength for establishing fission-product release categories, and level three efforts evaluate potential off-site consequences of radiological releases and the probabilities associated with the consequences. MACCS was designed as a tool for level three PSA analysis. MACCS performs probabilistic health and economic consequence assessments of hypothetical accidental releases of radioactive material from NPPs. MACCS includes models for atmospheric dispersion and transport, wet and dry deposition, the probabilistic treatment of meteorology, environmental transfer, countermeasure strategies, dosimetry, health effects, and economic impacts. The computer systems MACCS is designed to run on are the 386/486 PC, VAX/VMS, E3M RISC S/6000, Sun SPARC, and Cray UNICOS. This paper provides an overview of MACCS, reviews some of the applications of MACCS, international collaborations which have involved MACCS, current developmental efforts, and future directions.

  5. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Helton, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  6. SASSYS LMFBR systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time.

  7. Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above.

  8. Myelography CPT Coding Updates: Effects of 4 New Codes and Unintended Consequences.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, F H; Tu, R K; Nicola, G N; Hirsch, J A

    2016-06-01

    The Current Procedural Terminology of the American Medical Association has recently introduced coding changes for myelography with the introduction of new bundled codes. The aim of this review was to help neuroradiologists understand these code changes and their unintended consequences and to discuss various scenarios in which permutations of various codes could occur in clinical practice.

  9. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  10. New French Regulation for NPPs and Code Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Faidy, Claude

    2006-07-01

    On December 2005, the French regulator issued a new regulation for French nuclear power plants, in particular for pressure equipment (PE). This regulation need first to agree with non-nuclear PE regulation and add to that some specific requirements, in particular radiation protection requirements. Different advantages are in these proposal, it's more qualitative risk oriented and it's an important link with non-nuclear industry. Only few components are nuclear specific. But, the general philosophy of the existing Codes (RCC-M [15], KTA [16] or ASME [17]) have to be improved. For foreign Codes, it's plan to define the differences in the user specifications. In parallel to that, a new safety classification has been developed by French utility. The consequences is the need to cross all these specifications to define a minimum quality level for each components or systems. In the same time a new concept has been developed to replace the well known 'Leak Before Break methodology': the 'Break Exclusion' methodology. This paper will summarize the key aspects of these different topics. (authors)

  11. SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    The SASSYS code provides detailed steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analyses of the reactor core, inlet and outlet coolant plenums, primary and intermediate heat-removal systems, steam generators, and emergency shut-down heat removal systems in liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The main purpose of the code is to analyze the consequences of failures in the shut-down heat-removal system and to determine whether this system can perform its mission adequately even with some of its components inoperable. The code is not plant-specific. It is intended for use with any LMFBR, using either a loop or a pool design, a once-through steam generator or an evaporator-superheater combination, and either a homogeneous core or a heterogeneous core with internal-blanket assemblies.

  12. SASSYS-1 LMFBR systems analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P. Vilim, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The SASSYS-1 LMFBR systems analysis code has been developed to analyze the consequences of failures in the shutdown heat removal system and to determine whether this system can perform its mission adequately even with some of its components inoperable. The code is especially intended for analyzing the coolability of the reactor core in cases involving natural circulation flows at decay heat power levels. In addition, the code is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel.

  13. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  14. Software Systems: Consequence versus Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Ray; Winter, Victor L.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this panel is to present different perspectives and opinions regarding the issues surrounding why software should or shouldn't be entrusted with critical (high consequence) functionality.

  15. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Validation of the long-term exposure pathway models in the NRC's accident consequence code MACCS

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1992-01-01

    The task described in this paper was performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) were compared to post-Chernobyl data from various sources, though mainly from Norway, for verification or identification of areas for possible improvement. The reason for choosing data from Norway for this purpose is partly that Chernobyl fallout levels in Norway are higher than in any other country in western Europe and partly that Norway has been deeply involved in many different types of experiments examining the behavior of radioactive materials in the environment since the early 1960s.

  17. A coded tracking telemetry system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howey, P.W.; Seegar, W.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Titus, K.; Amlaner, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the general characteristics of an automated radio telemetry system designed to operate for prolonged periods on a single frequency. Each transmitter sends a unique coded signal to a receiving system that encodes and records only the appropriater, pre-programmed codes. A record of the time of each reception is stored on diskettes in a micro-computer. This system enables continuous monitoring of infrequent signals (e.g. one per minute or one per hour), thus extending operation life or allowing size reduction of the transmitter, compared to conventional wildlife telemetry. Furthermore, when using unique codes transmitted on a single frequency, biologists can monitor many individuals without exceeding the radio frequency allocations for wildlife.

  18. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

    1976-01-01

    The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

  19. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  20. Power System Optimization Codes Modified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    A major modification of and addition to existing Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) space power system optimization codes was completed. These modifications relate to the global minimum mass search driver programs containing three nested iteration loops comprising iterations on cycle temperature ratio, and three separate pressure ratio iteration loops--one loop for maximizing thermodynamic efficiency, one for minimizing radiator area, and a final loop for minimizing overall power system mass. Using the method of steepest ascent, the code sweeps through the pressure ratio space repeatedly, each time with smaller iteration step sizes, so that the three optimum pressure ratios can be obtained to any desired accuracy for each of the objective functions referred to above (i.e., maximum thermodynamic efficiency, minimum radiator area, and minimum system mass). Two separate options for the power system heat source are available: 1. A nuclear fission reactor can be used. It is provided with a radiation shield 1. (composed of a lithium hydride (LiH) neutron shield and tungsten (W) gamma shield). Suboptions can be used to select the type of reactor (i.e., fast spectrum liquid metal cooled or epithermal high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). 2. A solar heat source can be used. This option includes a parabolic concentrator and heat receiver for raising the temperature of the recirculating working fluid. A useful feature of the code modifications is that key cycle parameters are displayed, including the overall system specific mass in kilograms per kilowatt and the system specific power in watts per kilogram, as the results for each temperature ratio are computed. As the minimum mass temperature ratio is encountered, a message is printed out. Several levels of detailed information on cycle state points, subsystem mass results, and radiator temperature profiles are stored for this temperature ratio condition and can be displayed or printed by users.

  1. Power System Optimization Codes Modified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    A major modification of and addition to existing Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) space power system optimization codes was completed. These modifications relate to the global minimum mass search driver programs containing three nested iteration loops comprising iterations on cycle temperature ratio, and three separate pressure ratio iteration loops--one loop for maximizing thermodynamic efficiency, one for minimizing radiator area, and a final loop for minimizing overall power system mass. Using the method of steepest ascent, the code sweeps through the pressure ratio space repeatedly, each time with smaller iteration step sizes, so that the three optimum pressure ratios can be obtained to any desired accuracy for each of the objective functions referred to above (i.e., maximum thermodynamic efficiency, minimum radiator area, and minimum system mass). Two separate options for the power system heat source are available: 1. A nuclear fission reactor can be used. It is provided with a radiation shield 1. (composed of a lithium hydride (LiH) neutron shield and tungsten (W) gamma shield). Suboptions can be used to select the type of reactor (i.e., fast spectrum liquid metal cooled or epithermal high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). 2. A solar heat source can be used. This option includes a parabolic concentrator and heat receiver for raising the temperature of the recirculating working fluid. A useful feature of the code modifications is that key cycle parameters are displayed, including the overall system specific mass in kilograms per kilowatt and the system specific power in watts per kilogram, as the results for each temperature ratio are computed. As the minimum mass temperature ratio is encountered, a message is printed out. Several levels of detailed information on cycle state points, subsystem mass results, and radiator temperature profiles are stored for this temperature ratio condition and can be displayed or printed by users.

  2. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  3. High Consequence System Surety. Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.T.

    1994-07-11

    High Consequence System Surety is an ongoing project at Sandia National Laboratories. This project pulls together a multi- disciplinary team to integrate the elements of surety into an encompassing process. The surety process will be augmented and validated by applying it to an automated system handling a critical nuclear weapon component at the Mason & Hanger Pantex Plant. This paper presents the development to date of an integrated, high consequence surety process.

  4. High Consequence System Surety process description

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents work-in-progress accomplished prior to programmatic changes that negated bringing this effort to conclusion as originally intended. The High Consequence System Surety (HCS{sup 2}) project pulls together a multi-disciplinary team to integrate the elements of surety safety, security, control, reliability and quality--into a new, encompassing process. The benefit of using this process is enhanced surety in the design of a high consequence system through an up-front, designed-in approach. This report describes the integrated, high consequence surety process and includes a hypothetical example to illustrate the process.

  5. Calculations of reactor-accident consequences, Version 2. CRAC2: computer code user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, L.T.; Johnson, J.D.; Blond, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revision of the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences computer code, CRAC, developed for the Reactor Safety Study. The CRAC2 computer code incorporates significant modeling improvements in the areas of weather sequence sampling and emergency response, and refinements to the plume rise, atmospheric dispersion, and wet deposition models. New output capabilities have also been added. This guide is to facilitate the informed and intelligent use of CRAC2. It includes descriptions of the input data, the output results, the file structures, control information, and five sample problems.

  6. Software development methodology for high consequence systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, L.S.; Bouchard, J.F.; Collins, E.W.; Eisenhour, M.; Neidigk, D.D.; Shortencarier, M.J.; Trellue, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes a Software Development Methodology for High Consequence Systems. A High Consequence System is a system whose failure could lead to serious injury, loss of life, destruction of valuable resources, unauthorized use, damaged reputation or loss of credibility or compromise of protected information. This methodology can be scaled for use in projects of any size and complexity and does not prescribe any specific software engineering technology. Tasks are described that ensure software is developed in a controlled environment. The effort needed to complete the tasks will vary according to the size, complexity, and risks of the project. The emphasis of this methodology is on obtaining the desired attributes for each individual High Consequence System.

  7. An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

  8. The CALOR93 code system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a program package, CALOR93, that has been developed to design and analyze different detector systems, in particular, calorimeters which are used in high energy physics experiments to determine the energy of particles. One`s ability to design a calorimeter to perform a certain task can have a strong influence upon the validity of experimental results. The validity of the results obtained with CALOR93 has been verified many times by comparison with experimental data. The codes (HETC93, SPECT93, LIGHT, EGS4, MORSE, and MICAP) are quite generalized and detailed enough so that any experimental calorimeter setup can be studied. Due to this generalization, some software development is necessary because of the wide diversity of calorimeter designs.

  9. Human factors in high consequence manufacturing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Grose, E.

    1997-11-01

    A high consequence system is often defined as one in which the potential exists for severe or catastrophic accidents. Familiar examples include nuclear power plants, airline and other mass transportation, dams and reservoirs, and large-scale food processing. Many manufacturing systems also qualify as high consequence systems. Much of the authors` experience with high consequence systems derives from work associated with the surveillance and dismantlement of nuclear weapons for the US Department of Energy. With such operations, there exists a risk of high explosive detonation accompanied by radiological dispersal and, potentially, nuclear detonation. Analysis of major industrial accidents such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Bhopal have revealed that these incidents were not attributable to a single event or direct cause, but were the result of multiple factors that combined to create a condition ripe for an accident. In each case, human error was a critical factor contributing to the accident. Consequently, many authors have emphasized the need for greater appreciation of systematic factors and in particular, human activities. This paper discusses approaches used in hazard analysis of US nuclear weapons operations to assess risk associated with human factors.

  10. A systematic approach to understand the functional consequences of non-protein coding risk regions

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Jia, Li; Frenkel, Baruch; Henderson, Brian E.; Tanay, Amos; Haiman, Christopher A.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of genetic association studies is to elucidate genes and novel biological mechanisms involved in disease. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified many common genetic variants that are significantly associated with complex diseases such as cancer. In contrast to Mendelian disorders, a sizable fraction of the variants lies outside known protein-coding regions; therefore, understanding their biological consequences presents a major challenge in human genetics. Here we describe an integrated framework to allow non-protein coding loci to be annotated with respect to regulatory functions. This will facilitate identification of target genes as well as prioritize variants for functional testing. PMID:20023379

  11. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  12. System Safety and the Unintended Consequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and identification of risks often result in design changes or modification of operational steps. This paper identifies the potential of unintended consequences as an over-looked result of these changes. Examples of societal changes such as prohibition, regulatory changes including mandating lifeboats on passenger ships, and engineering proposals or design changes to automobiles and spaceflight hardware are used to demonstrate that the System Safety Engineer must be cognizant of the potential for unintended consequences as a result of an analysis. Conclusions of the report indicate the need for additional foresight and consideration of the potential effects of analysis-driven design, processing changes, and/or operational modifications.

  13. SSAC - SPACE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space System Architecture Code (SSAC) is a computer program for performing sensitivity studies on operating parameters of space missions. Data is included for a mission to Mars and back to Earth (launch parameters are for even numbered years between 2014 and 2028). SSAC is a menu-driven tool that can examine the effects of varying such parameters as crew size for piloted missions, chemical vs. nuclear electric propulsion, specific impulse, and other variables. The structure of SSAC allows user control over the following options: 1) mass scaling; 2) number of stages for multistage missions; 3) specific impulse; 4) electric propulsion efficiency; 5) aerobraking; 6) payload mass; 7) Mars Lander parameters; 8) crew resource requirements; 9) escape spiral times; 10) total propulsion times; 11) attitude control parameters; 12) telecommunications options and 13) optimum trajectories. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS and is intended to be run interactively, although it can be modified for batch mode. The program has a menu-based user interface and requires 59K of main memory. Many different parameter dependencies can be graphically displayed on Tektronix-compatible output devices. SSAC is available in DEC VAX BACKUP format on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape (standard distribution media) or a TK50 tape cartridge. This program was developed in 1990 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. DEC, VAX, and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Tektronix is a trademark of Tektronix, Inc.

  14. Correlation and synchrony transfer in integrate-and-fire neurons: basic properties and consequences for coding.

    PubMed

    Shea-Brown, Eric; Josić, Kresimir; de la Rocha, Jaime; Doiron, Brent

    2008-03-14

    We study how pairs of neurons transfer correlated input currents into correlated spikes. Over rapid time scales, correlation transfer increases with both spike time variability and rate; the dependence on variability disappears at large time scales. This persists for a nonlinear membrane model and for heterogeneous cell pairs, but strong nonmonotonicities follow from refractory effects. We present consequences for population coding and for the encoding of time-varying stimuli.

  15. Production code control system for hydrodynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, D.M.

    1997-08-18

    We describe how the Production Code Control System (pCCS), written in Perl, has been used to control and monitor the execution of a large hydrodynamics simulation code in a production environment. We have been able to integrate new, disparate, and often independent, applications into the PCCS framework without the need to modify any of our existing application codes. Both users and code developers see a consistent interface to the simulation code and associated applications regardless of the physical platform, whether an MPP, SMP, server, or desktop workstation. We will also describe our use of Perl to develop a configuration management system for the simulation code, as well as a code usage database and report generator. We used Perl to write a backplane that allows us plug in preprocessors, the hydrocode, postprocessors, visualization tools, persistent storage requests, and other codes. We need only teach PCCS a minimal amount about any new tool or code to essentially plug it in and make it usable to the hydrocode. PCCS has made it easier to link together disparate codes, since using Perl has removed the need to learn the idiosyncrasies of system or RPC programming. The text handling in Perl makes it easy to teach PCCS about new codes, or changes to existing codes.

  16. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Work on partial unit memory codes continued; it was shown that for a given virtual state complexity, the maximum free distance over the class of all convolutional codes is achieved within the class of unit memory codes. The effect of phase-lock loop (PLL) tracking error on coding system performance was studied by using the channel cut-off rate as the measure of quality of a modulation system. Optimum modulation signal sets for a non-white Gaussian channel considered an heuristic selection rule based on a water-filling argument. The use of error correcting codes to perform data compression by the technique of syndrome source coding was researched and a weight-and-error-locations scheme was developed that is closely related to LDSC coding.

  17. Performance of convolutionally coded unbalanced QPSK systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Yuen, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the performance of three representative convolutionally coded unbalanced quadri-phase-shift-keying (UQPSK) systems in the presence of noisy carrier reference and crosstalk. The use of a coded UQPSK system for transmitting two telemetry data streams with different rates and different powers has been proposed for the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar mission. Analytical expressions for bit error rates in the presence of a noisy carrier phase reference are derived for three representative cases: (1) I and Q channels are coded independently; (2) I channel is coded, Q channel is uncoded; and (3) I and Q channels are coded by a common 1/2 code. For rate 1/2 convolutional codes, QPSK modulation can be used to reduce the bandwidth requirement.

  18. HERCULES: A Pattern Driven Code Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Kartsaklis, Christos; Hernandez, Oscar R; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Ilsche, Thomas; Joubert, Wayne; Graham, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    New parallel computers are emerging, but developing efficient scientific code for them remains difficult. A scientist must manage not only the science-domain complexity but also the performance-optimization complexity. HERCULES is a code transformation system designed to help the scientist to separate the two concerns, which improves code maintenance, and facilitates performance optimization. The system combines three technologies, code patterns, transformation scripts and compiler plugins, to provide the scientist with an environment to quickly implement code transformations that suit his needs. Unlike existing code optimization tools, HERCULES is unique in its focus on user-level accessibility. In this paper we discuss the design, implementation and an initial evaluation of HERCULES.

  19. [Some consequences of the application of the new Swiss penal code on legal psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Gasser, Jacques; Gravier, Bruno

    2007-09-19

    The new text of the Swiss penal code, which entered into effect at the beginning of 2007, has many incidences on the practice of the psychiatrists realizing expertises in the penal field or engaged in the application of legal measures imposing a treatment. The most notable consequences of this text are, on the one hand, a new definition of the concept of penal irresponsibility which is not necessarily any more related to a psychiatric diagnosis and, on the other hand, a new definition of legal constraints that justice can take to prevent new punishable acts and which appreciably modifies the place of the psychiatrists in the questions binding psychiatric care and social control.

  20. Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, V.H.; Fink, R.K.; Bertch, W.J.; Callow, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running on a mainframe. Concluding remarks will identify potential areas of expert system application with specific areas that are being considered in a current research program. The difficulty of interaction between an analysis code and an expert system is due to the incompatibility between the FORTRAN environment used for the analysis code and the AI environment used for the expert system. Three methods, excluding file transfer techniques, are discussed to help overcome this incompatibility. The first method is linking the FORTRAN routines to the LISP environment on the same computer. Various LISP dialects available on mainframes and their interlanguage communication capabilities are discussed. The second method involves network interaction between a LISP machine and a mainframe computer. Comparisons between the linking method and networking are noted. The third method involves the use of an expert system tool that is campatible with a FORTRAN environment. Several available tools are discussed. With the interaction methods identified, several potential application areas are considered. Selection of the specific areas that will be developed for the pilot project and applied to a thermal-hydraulic energy analysis code are noted.

  1. The design of wavefront coded imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shun; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong

    2016-10-01

    Wavefront Coding is a new method to extend the depth of field, which combines optical design and signal processing together. By using optical design software ZEMAX ,we designed a practical wavefront coded imaging system based on a conventional Cooke triplet system .Unlike conventional optical system, the wavefront of this new system is modulated by a specially designed phase mask, which makes the point spread function (PSF)of optical system not sensitive to defocus. Therefore, a series of same blurred images obtained at the image plane. In addition, the optical transfer function (OTF) of the wavefront coded imaging system is independent of focus, which is nearly constant with misfocus and has no regions of zeros. All object information can be completely recovered through digital filtering at different defocus positions. The focus invariance of MTF is selected as merit function in this design. And the coefficients of phase mask are set as optimization goals. Compared to conventional optical system, wavefront coded imaging system obtains better quality images under different object distances. Some deficiencies appear in the restored images due to the influence of digital filtering algorithm, which are also analyzed in this paper. The depth of field of the designed wavefront coded imaging system is about 28 times larger than initial optical system, while keeping higher optical power and resolution at the image plane.

  2. Code Usage Analysis System (CUAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsley, P. H.; Oliver, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A set of computer programs is offered to aid a user in evaluating performance of an application program. The system provides reports of subroutine usage, program errors, and segment loading which occurred during the execution of an application program. It is presented in support of the development and validation of the space vehicle dynamics project.

  3. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  4. Cavity approach to the Sourlas code system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2009-11-01

    The statistical physics properties of regular and irregular Sourlas codes are investigated in this paper by the cavity method. At finite temperatures, the free-energy density of these coding systems is derived and compared with the result obtained by the replica method. In the zero-temperature limit, the Shannon’s bound is recovered in the case of infinite-body interactions while the code rate is still finite. However, the decoding performance as obtained by the replica theory has not considered the zero-temperature entropic effect. The cavity approach is able to consider the ground-state entropy. It leads to a set of evanescent cavity fields propagation equations which further improve the decoding performance as confirmed by our numerical simulations on single instances. For the irregular Sourlas code, we find that it takes the trade-off between good dynamical property and high performance of decoding. In agreement with the results found from the algorithmic point of view, the decoding exhibits a first-order phase transition as occurs in the regular code system with three-body interactions. The cavity approach for the Sourlas code system can be extended to consider first-step replica symmetry breaking.

  5. Fast decoding algorithms for coded aperture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byard, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    Fast decoding algorithms are described for a number of established coded aperture systems. The fast decoding algorithms for all these systems offer significant reductions in the number of calculations required when reconstructing images formed by a coded aperture system and hence require less computation time to produce the images. The algorithms may therefore be of use in applications that require fast image reconstruction, such as near real-time nuclear medicine and location of hazardous radioactive spillage. Experimental tests confirm the efficacy of the fast decoding techniques.

  6. Phobos lander coding system: Software and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Pollara, F.

    1988-01-01

    The software developed for the decoding system used in the telemetry link of the Phobos Lander mission is described. Encoders and decoders are provided to cover the three possible telemetry configurations. The software can be used to decode actual data or to simulate the performance of the telemetry system. The theoretical properties of the codes chosen for this mission are analyzed and discussed.

  7. Implementing a modular system of computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1983-07-01

    A modular computation system has been developed for nuclear reactor core analysis. The codes can be applied repeatedly in blocks without extensive user input data, as needed for reactor history calculations. The primary control options over the calculational paths and task assignments within the codes are blocked separately from other instructions, admitting ready access by user input instruction or directions from automated procedures and promoting flexible and diverse applications at minimum application cost. Data interfacing is done under formal specifications with data files manipulated by an informed manager. This report emphasizes the system aspects and the development of useful capability, hopefully informative and useful to anyone developing a modular code system of much sophistication. Overall, this report in a general way summarizes the many factors and difficulties that are faced in making reactor core calculations, based on the experience of the authors. It provides the background on which work on HTGR reactor physics is being carried out.

  8. Graphics-System Color-Code Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulppo, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit originally developed for a flight simulator interfaces a computer graphics system with color monitor. Subsystem is intended for particular display computer (AGT-130, ADAGE Graphics Terminal) and specific color monitor (beam penetration tube--Penetron). Store-and-transmit channel is one of five in graphics/color-monitor interface. Adding 5-bit color code to existing graphics programs requires minimal programing effort.

  9. Coding and decoding for code division multiple user communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new algorithm is introduced which decodes code division multiple user communication signals. The algorithm makes use of the distinctive form or pattern of each signal to separate it from the composite signal created by the multiple users. Although the algorithm is presented in terms of frequency-hopped signals, the actual transmitter modulator can use any of the existing digital modulation techniques. The algorithm is applicable to error-free codes or to codes where controlled interference is permitted. It can be used when block synchronization is assumed, and in some cases when it is not. The paper also discusses briefly some of the codes which can be used in connection with the algorithm, and relates the algorithm to past studies which use other approaches to the same problem.

  10. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  11. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  12. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  13. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 1, Computer Codes Volume 3: Utility Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2004-09-14

    This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.

  14. LPGS. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-d) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) to body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.

  15. Analog system for computing sparse codes

    DOEpatents

    Rozell, Christopher John; Johnson, Don Herrick; Baraniuk, Richard Gordon; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Ortman, Robert Lowell

    2010-08-24

    A parallel dynamical system for computing sparse representations of data, i.e., where the data can be fully represented in terms of a small number of non-zero code elements, and for reconstructing compressively sensed images. The system is based on the principles of thresholding and local competition that solves a family of sparse approximation problems corresponding to various sparsity metrics. The system utilizes Locally Competitive Algorithms (LCAs), nodes in a population continually compete with neighboring units using (usually one-way) lateral inhibition to calculate coefficients representing an input in an over complete dictionary.

  16. Bilingual processing of ASL-English code-blends: The consequences of accessing two lexical representations simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals who are fluent in American Sign Language (ASL) and English often produce code-blends - simultaneously articulating a sign and a word while conversing with other ASL-English bilinguals. To investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying code-blend processing, we compared picture-naming times (Experiment 1) and semantic categorization times (Experiment 2) for code-blends versus ASL signs and English words produced alone. In production, code-blending did not slow lexical retrieval for ASL and actually facilitated access to low-frequency signs. However, code-blending delayed speech production because bimodal bilinguals synchronized English and ASL lexical onsets. In comprehension, code-blending speeded access to both languages. Bimodal bilinguals’ ability to produce code-blends without any cost to ASL implies that the language system either has (or can develop) a mechanism for switching off competition to allow simultaneous production of close competitors. Code-blend facilitation effects during comprehension likely reflect cross-linguistic (and cross-modal) integration at the phonological and/or semantic levels. The absence of any consistent processing costs for code-blending illustrates a surprising limitation on dual-task costs and may explain why bimodal bilinguals code-blend more often than they code-switch. PMID:22773886

  17. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

  18. [Remodeling of Cardiovascular System: Causes and Consequences].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, E V; Kipenko, A V; Penniyaynen, V A; Pasatetckaia, N A; Tsyrline, V A

    2016-01-01

    Literature and our data suggest the regulatory action of a number of biologically active substances (catecholamines, cardiac glycosides, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor) on the growth and proliferation of heart cells. By using of organotypic tissue culture has proved that the basis of this regulation is the ability of test substances, receptor- or transducer-mediated signaling to modulate the function of Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase. There is a delay in the development of vascular smooth muscle in the late postnatal period in rats with the blockade of the sympathetic nervous system in the prenatal period. The relationship between vascular remodeling and contractile activity is described. It seems that one of the causes of high blood pressure is a remodeling of the cardiovascular system, which precedes the development of hypertension.

  19. Suppressing feedback in a distributed video coding system by employing real field codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louw, Daniel J.; Kaneko, Haruhiko

    2013-12-01

    Single-view distributed video coding (DVC) is a video compression method that allows for the computational complexity of the system to be shifted from the encoder to the decoder. The reduced encoding complexity makes DVC attractive for use in systems where processing power or energy use at the encoder is constrained, for example, in wireless devices and surveillance systems. One of the biggest challenges in implementing DVC systems is that the required rate must be known at the encoder. The conventional approach is to use a feedback channel from the decoder to control the rate. Feedback channels introduce their own difficulties such as increased latency and buffering requirements, which makes the resultant system unsuitable for some applications. Alternative approaches, which do not employ feedback, suffer from either increased encoder complexity due to performing motion estimation at the encoder, or an inaccurate rate estimate. Inaccurate rate estimates can result in a reduced average rate-distortion performance, as well as unpleasant visual artifacts. In this paper, the authors propose a single-view DVC system that does not require a feedback channel. The consequences of inaccuracies in the rate estimate are addressed by using codes defined over the real field and a decoder employing successive refinement. The result is a codec with performance that is comparable to that of a feedback-based system at low rates without the use of motion estimation at the encoder or a feedback path. The disadvantage of the approach is a reduction in average rate-distortion performance in the high-rate regime for sequences with significant motion.

  20. Regulatory consequences of neuronal ELAV-like protein binding to coding and non-coding RNAs in human brain

    PubMed Central

    Scheckel, Claudia; Drapeau, Elodie; Frias, Maria A; Park, Christopher Y; Fak, John; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Kou, Yan; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal ELAV-like (nELAVL) RNA binding proteins have been linked to numerous neurological disorders. We performed crosslinking-immunoprecipitation and RNAseq on human brain, and identified nELAVL binding sites on 8681 transcripts. Using knockout mice and RNAi in human neuroblastoma cells, we showed that nELAVL intronic and 3' UTR binding regulates human RNA splicing and abundance. We validated hundreds of nELAVL targets among which were important neuronal and disease-associated transcripts, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) transcripts. We therefore investigated RNA regulation in AD brain, and observed differential splicing of 150 transcripts, which in some cases correlated with differential nELAVL binding. Unexpectedly, the most significant change of nELAVL binding was evident on non-coding Y RNAs. nELAVL/Y RNA complexes were specifically remodeled in AD and after acute UV stress in neuroblastoma cells. We propose that the increased nELAVL/Y RNA association during stress may lead to nELAVL sequestration, redistribution of nELAVL target binding, and altered neuronal RNA splicing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10421.001 PMID:26894958

  1. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Neymotin, L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions.

  2. CAOS: Code for Adaptive Optics Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, M.; Verinaud, C.; Femenia, B.; Riccardi, A.; Fini, L.

    2011-06-01

    The CAOS "system" (where CAOS stands for Code for Adaptive Optics Systems) is properly said a Problem Solving Environment (PSE). It is essentially composed of a graphical programming interface (the CAOS Application Builder) which can load different packages (set of modules). Current publicly distributed packages are the Software Package CAOS (the original adaptive optics package), the Software Package AIRY (an image-reconstruction-oriented package - AIRY stands for Astronomical Image Restoration with interferometrY), the Software Package PAOLAC (a simple CAOS interface for the analytic IDL code PAOLA developed by Laurent Jolissaint - PAOLAC stands for PAOLA within Caos), and a couple of private packages (not publicly distributed but restricted to the corresponding consortia): SPHERE (especially developed for the VLT planet finder SPHERE), and AIRY-LN (a specialized version of AIRY for the LBT instrument LINC-NIRVANA). Another package is also being developed: MAOS (that stands for Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics Simulations), developed for multi-reference multiconjugate AO studies purpose but still in a beta-version form.

  3. Improved neutron activation prediction code system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saqui, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    Two integrated neutron activation prediction code systems have been developed by modifying and integrating existing computer programs to perform the necessary computations to determine neutron induced activation gamma ray doses and dose rates in complex geometries. Each of the two systems is comprised of three computational modules. The first program module computes the spatial and energy distribution of the neutron flux from an input source and prepares input data for the second program which performs the reaction rate, decay chain and activation gamma source calculations. A third module then accepts input prepared by the second program to compute the cumulative gamma doses and/or dose rates at specified detector locations in complex, three-dimensional geometries.

  4. SINFAC - SYSTEMS IMPROVED NUMERICAL FLUIDS ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, F. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to the April 1983 revision of SINDA, a general thermal analyzer program. The purpose of the additional routines is to allow for the modeling of active heat transfer loops. The modeler can simulate the steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different heat transfer loop components including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs and many types of valves and fittings. In addition, the program contains a property analysis routine that can be used to compute the thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. SINFAC can simulate the response to transient boundary conditions. SINFAC was first developed as a method for computing the steady-state performance of two phase systems. It was then modified using CNFRWD, SINDA's explicit time-integration scheme, to accommodate transient thermal models. However, SINFAC cannot simulate pressure drops due to time-dependent fluid acceleration, transient boil-out, or transient fill-up, except in the accumulator. SINFAC also requires the user to be familiar with SINDA. The solution procedure used by SINFAC is similar to that which an engineer would use to solve a system manually. The solution to a system requires the determination of all of the outlet conditions of each component such as the flow rate, pressure, and enthalpy. To obtain these values, the user first estimates the inlet conditions to the first component of the system, then computes the outlet conditions from the data supplied by the manufacturer of the first component. The user then estimates the temperature at the outlet of the third component and computes the corresponding flow resistance of the second component. With the flow resistance of the second component, the user computes the conditions down stream, namely the inlet conditions of the third. The computations follow for the rest of the system, back to the first component

  5. Irregular Repeat-Accumulate Codes for Volume Holographic Memory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Fekri, Faramarz

    2004-09-01

    We investigate the application of irregular repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We introduce methodologies to design efficient IRA codes. We show that a judiciously designed IRA code for a typical VHM can be as good as the optimized irregular low-density-parity-check codes while having the additional advantage of lower encoding complexity. Moreover, we present a method to reduce the error-floor effect of the IRA codes in the VHM systems. This method explores the structure of the noise pattern in holographic memories. Finally, we explain why IRA codes are good candidates for the VHM systems.

  6. Control of Chromatin Structure by Spt6: Different Consequences in Coding and Regulatory Regions▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ivanovska, Iva; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Rando, Oliver J.; Robert, François; Winston, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Spt6 is a highly conserved factor required for normal transcription and chromatin structure. To gain new insights into the roles of Spt6, we measured nucleosome occupancy along Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III in an spt6 mutant. We found that the level of nucleosomes is greatly reduced across some, but not all, coding regions in an spt6 mutant, with nucleosome loss preferentially occurring over highly transcribed genes. This result provides strong support for recent studies that have suggested that transcription at low levels does not displace nucleosomes, while transcription at high levels does, and adds the idea that Spt6 is required for restoration of nucleosomes at the highly transcribed genes. Unexpectedly, our studies have also suggested that the spt6 effects on nucleosome levels across coding regions do not cause the spt6 effects on mRNA levels, suggesting that the role of Spt6 across coding regions is separate from its role in transcriptional regulation. In the case of the CHA1 gene, regulation by Spt6 likely occurs by controlling the position of the +1 nucleosome. These results, along with previous studies, suggest that Spt6 regulates transcription by controlling chromatin structure over regulatory regions, and its effects on nucleosome levels over coding regions likely serve an independent function. PMID:21098123

  7. Control of chromatin structure by spt6: different consequences in coding and regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Iva; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Rando, Oliver J; Robert, François; Winston, Fred

    2011-02-01

    Spt6 is a highly conserved factor required for normal transcription and chromatin structure. To gain new insights into the roles of Spt6, we measured nucleosome occupancy along Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III in an spt6 mutant. We found that the level of nucleosomes is greatly reduced across some, but not all, coding regions in an spt6 mutant, with nucleosome loss preferentially occurring over highly transcribed genes. This result provides strong support for recent studies that have suggested that transcription at low levels does not displace nucleosomes, while transcription at high levels does, and adds the idea that Spt6 is required for restoration of nucleosomes at the highly transcribed genes. Unexpectedly, our studies have also suggested that the spt6 effects on nucleosome levels across coding regions do not cause the spt6 effects on mRNA levels, suggesting that the role of Spt6 across coding regions is separate from its role in transcriptional regulation. In the case of the CHA1 gene, regulation by Spt6 likely occurs by controlling the position of the +1 nucleosome. These results, along with previous studies, suggest that Spt6 regulates transcription by controlling chromatin structure over regulatory regions, and its effects on nucleosome levels over coding regions likely serve an independent function.

  8. [The Medical Information Systems Project clinical coding and surgeons: why should surgeons code and how?].

    PubMed

    Bensadoun, H

    2001-02-01

    The clinical coding system recently instituted in France, the PMSI (Projet de Médicalisation du Système d'Information), has become an unavoidable element in funding allocations for short-term private and public hospitalization centers. Surgeons must take into serious consideration this controversial medicoeconomic instrument. Coding is a dire time-consuming task but, like the hospitalization or surgery report, is an essential part of the discharge procedure. Coding can in the long run be used to establish pricing by pathology. Surgeons should learn the rules and the logic behind this coding system: which, not being based on a medical rationale, may be somewhat difficult to understand. Choosing the right main diagnosis and the comobidity Items is crucial. Quality homogeneous coding is essential if one expects the health authorities to make good use of the system. Our medical societies have a role to play in promoting and harmonizing the coding technique.

  9. Classification and Coding, An Introduction and Review of Classification and Coding Systems. Management Guide No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacConnell, W.

    Nearly all organizations are faced with problems of classifying and coding financial data, management and technical information, components, stores, etc. and need to apply some logical and meaningful system of identification. This report examines the objectives and applications of classification and coding systems and reviews eight systems…

  10. The impact of codes and standards on PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power systems, as field-installed and wired electrical power systems, may be subject to codes such as the National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) and standards established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and Underwriters Laboratories (UL{reg_sign}). Codes and standards may be required, not only by the local jurisdiction where the system is installed, but also by the purchasing agency. While the application and enforcement of the applicable codes and standards may enhance safety, it may also affect performance and increase system costs. Although there is an increase in the number of components and systems that meet standards and codes, systems are still being installed with components that do not comply with any standards, while using installation methods that do not comply with the required codes. Performance and cost may be impacted by code compliance, but safety and product liability will dictate the final approach.

  11. SCALE Code System 6.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.

  12. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    Navigation through a three-dimensional indoor environment is a formidable challenge for an autonomous micro air vehicle. A main obstacle to indoor navigation is maintaining a robust navigation solution (i.e. air vehicle position and attitude estimates) given the inadequate access to satellite positioning information. A MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) based inertial navigation system provides a small, power efficient means of maintaining a vehicle navigation solution; however, unmitigated error propagation from relatively noisy MEMS sensors results in the loss of a usable navigation solution over a short period of time. Several navigation systems use camera imagery to diminish error propagation by measuring the direction to features in the environment. Changes in feature direction provide information regarding direction for vehicle movement, but not the scale of movement. Movement scale information is contained in the depth to the features. Depth-from-defocus is a classic technique proposed to derive depth from a single image that involves analysis of the blur inherent in a scene with a narrow depth of field. A challenge to this method is distinguishing blurriness caused by the focal blur from blurriness inherent to the observed scene. In 2007, MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory demonstrated replacing the traditional rounded aperture with a coded aperture to produce a complex blur pattern that is more easily distinguished from the scene. A key to measuring depth using a coded aperture then is to correctly match the blur pattern in a region of the scene with a previously determined set of blur patterns for known depths. As the depth increases from the focal plane of the camera, the observable change in the blur pattern for small changes in depth is generally reduced. Consequently, as the depth of a feature to be measured using a depth-from-defocus technique increases, the measurement performance decreases. However, a Fresnel zone

  13. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System

    PubMed Central

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high—and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  14. Efficient Signal, Code, and Receiver Designs for MIMO Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    for AWGN channels has long been studied. There are well-known soft-decision codes like the turbo codes and LDPC codes that can approach capacity to...bits) low density parity check (LDPC) code 1. 2. The coded bits are randomly interleaved so that bits nearby go through different sub-channels, and are...0, 1, 1) and −5 ∼ (010). Gray-labeling is also used in systems like bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) [4]. MSB 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 111 1 1 0 0 0

  15. Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

    2006-01-01

    Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

  16. Communication Systems Simulator with Error Correcting Codes Using MATLAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, C.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Pardo, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics of a simulator for channel coding techniques used in communication systems, are described. This software has been designed for engineering students in order to facilitate the understanding of how the error correcting codes work. To help students understand easily the concepts related to these kinds of codes, a…

  17. Communication Systems Simulator with Error Correcting Codes Using MATLAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, C.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Pardo, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics of a simulator for channel coding techniques used in communication systems, are described. This software has been designed for engineering students in order to facilitate the understanding of how the error correcting codes work. To help students understand easily the concepts related to these kinds of codes, a…

  18. A Neural Code That Is Isometric to Vocal Output and Correlates with Its Sensory Consequences.

    PubMed

    Vyssotski, Alexei L; Stepien, Anna E; Keller, Georg B; Hahnloser, Richard H R

    2016-10-01

    What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns. NIf multiunit firing during song precedes responses in auditory cortical neurons by about 50 ms, revealing delayed congruence between NIf spiking and a neural representation of auditory feedback. Our findings suggest that NIf codes for imminent acoustic events within vocal performance.

  19. A Neural Code That Is Isometric to Vocal Output and Correlates with Its Sensory Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Stepien, Anna E.; Keller, Georg B.; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

    2016-01-01

    What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns. NIf multiunit firing during song precedes responses in auditory cortical neurons by about 50 ms, revealing delayed congruence between NIf spiking and a neural representation of auditory feedback. Our findings suggest that NIf codes for imminent acoustic events within vocal performance. PMID:27723764

  20. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  1. Nuclear modules of ITER tokamak systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Finn, P.; Hassanein, A.; Willms, S.; Barr, W.; Bushigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Haines, J.

    1987-10-01

    Nuclear modules were developed to model various reactor components in the ITER systems code. Several design options and cost algorithms are included for each component. The first wall, blanket and shield modules calculate the beryllium zone thickness, the disruptions results, the nuclear responses in different components including the toroidal field coils. Tungsten shield/water coolant/steel structure and steel shield/water coolant are the shield options for the inboard and outboard sections of the reactor. Lithium nitrate dissolved in the water coolant with a variable beryllium zone thickness in the outboard section of the reactor provides the tritium breeding capability. The reactor vault module defines the thickness of the reactor wall and the roof based on the dose equivalent during operation including skyshine contribution. The impurity control module provides the design parameters for the divertor including plate design, heat load, erosion rate, tritium permeation through the plate material to the coolant, plasma contamination by sputtered impurities, and plate lifetime. Several materials: Be, C, V, Mo, and W can be used for the divertor plate to cover a range of plasma edge temperatures. The tritium module calculates tritium and deuterium flow rates for the reactor plant. The tritium inventory in the fuelers, neutral beams, vacuum pumps, impurity control, first wall, and blanket is calculated. Tritium requirements are provided for different operating conditions. The nuclear models are summarized in this paper including the different design options and key analyses of each module. 39 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Automatic counterfeit protection system code classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beusekom, Joost; Schreyer, Marco; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Wide availability of cheap high-quality printing techniques make document forgery an easy task that can easily be done by most people using standard computer and printing hardware. To prevent the use of color laser printers or color copiers for counterfeiting e.g. money or other valuable documents, many of these machines print Counterfeit Protection System (CPS) codes on the page. These small yellow dots encode information about the specific printer and allow the questioned document examiner in cooperation with the manufacturers to track down the printer that was used to generate the document. However, the access to the methods to decode the tracking dots pattern is restricted. The exact decoding of a tracking pattern is often not necessary, as tracking the pattern down to the printer class may be enough. In this paper we present a method that detects what CPS pattern class was used in a given document. This can be used to specify the printer class that the document was printed on. Evaluation proved an accuracy of up to 91%.

  3. Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K.

    1997-06-01

    A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.

  4. High rate concatenated coding systems using bandwidth efficient trellis inner codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    High-rate concatenated coding systems with bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes and Reed-Solomon (RS) outer codes are investigated for application in high-speed satellite communication systems. Two concatenated coding schemes are proposed. In one the inner code is decoded with soft-decision Viterbi decoding, and the outer RS code performs error-correction-only decoding (decoding without side information). In the other, the inner code is decoded with a modified Viterbi algorithm, which produces reliability information along with the decoded output. In this algorithm, path metrics are used to estimate the entire information sequence, whereas branch metrics are used to provide reliability information on the decoded sequence. This information is used to erase unreliable bits in the decoded output. An errors-and-erasures RS decoder is then used for the outer code. The two schemes have been proposed for high-speed data communication on NASA satellite channels. The rates considered are at least double those used in current NASA systems, and the results indicate that high system reliability can still be achieved.

  5. Tanden Mirror Reactor Systems Code (TMRSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Rothe, K.E.; Barrett, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a computer code developed to model a tandem mirror reactor. This is the first tandem mirror reactor model to couple the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are included in this paper. These studies are designed (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  6. An Expert System for Learning the National Electric Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply hypertext and expert system technology to the National Electric Code to assist with learning and using the...code’s large quantity of text. Hypertext brings to the expert system a very quick and efficient way of viewing and moving through the code. The user...controls the direction taken based on their selection of a hypertext path. The expert system , through a series of exercises, provides the training

  7. Coding for Frequency - Shift - Keyed (FSK) Communication System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI TECHNICAL REPORT AFATL-TR-73-245 DECEMBER 1973 ɛy J> % ̂ A... Communication System Dr. John J. Komo Distribui-.ion limited to ll—5—r" ■ ■ this report documents test f^T™^^^^^ limitation applied^eX m’ŕ^^ dist...FREQUENCY-SHIFT-KEYED COMMUNICATION SYSTEM . 3 III CYCLIC CODES .... 11 IV RANDOM ERROR-CORRECTING CODES V BURST ERROR-CORRECTING CODES

  8. VeryVote: A Voter Verifiable Code Voting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquim, Rui; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo

    Code voting is a technique used to address the secure platform problem of remote voting. A code voting system consists in secretly sending, e.g. by mail, code sheets to voters that map their choices to entry codes in their ballot. While voting, the voter uses the code sheet to know what code to enter in order to vote for a particular candidate. In effect, the voter does the vote encryption and, since no malicious software on the PC has access to the code sheet it is not able to change the voter’s intention. However, without compromising the voter’s privacy, the vote codes are not enough to prove that the vote is recorded and counted as cast by the election server.

  9. RAMONA-4B code for BWR systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-12-31

    The RAMONA-4B code is a coupled thermal-hydraulic, 3D kinetics code for plant transient analyses of a complete Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) system including Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), Balance of Plant (BOP) and containment. The complete system representation enables an integrated and coupled systems analysis of a BWR without recourse to prescribed boundary conditions.

  10. Selected Systems Engineering Process Deficiencies and Their Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence Dale

    2006-01-01

    The systems engineering process is well established and well understood. While this statement could be argued in the light of the many systems engineering guidelines and that have been developed, comparative review of these respective descriptions reveal that they differ primarily in the number of discrete steps or other nuances, and are at their core essentially common. Likewise, the systems engineering textbooks differ primarily in the context for application of systems engineering or in the utilization of evolved tools and techniques, not in the basic method. Thus, failures in systems engineering cannot credibly be attributed to implementation of the wrong systems engineering process among alternatives. However, numerous systems failures can be attributed to deficient implementation of the systems engineering process. What may clearly be perceived as a system engineering deficiency in retrospect can appear to be a well considered system engineering efficiency in real time - an efficiency taken to reduce cost or meet a schedule, or more often both. Typically these efficiencies are grounded on apparently solid rationale, such as reuse of heritage hardware or software. Over time, unintended consequences of a systems engineering process deficiency may begin to be realized, and unfortunately often the consequence is system failure. This paper describes several actual cases of system failures that resulted from deficiencies in their systems engineering process implementation, including the Ariane 5 and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  12. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  13. Parents' Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Sara, Ed.; Super, Charles M., Ed.

    This volume presents observations and thinking of scholars from a variety of disciplines about parental cultural belief systems. The chapters are concerned with the sources and consequences of parental ethnotheories in a number of societies. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction" (Sara Harkness and Charles M. Super); (2)…

  14. Parents' Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Sara, Ed.; Super, Charles M., Ed.

    This volume presents observations and thinking of scholars from a variety of disciplines about parental cultural belief systems. The chapters are concerned with the sources and consequences of parental ethnotheories in a number of societies. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction" (Sara Harkness and Charles M. Super); (2)…

  15. Modern Nuclear Data Evaluation with the TALYS Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, A. J.; Rochman, D.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a general overview of nuclear data evaluation and its applications as developed at NRG, Petten. Based on concepts such as robustness, reproducibility and automation, modern calculation tools are exploited to produce original nuclear data libraries that meet the current demands on quality and completeness. This requires a system which comprises differential measurements, theory development, nuclear model codes, resonance analysis, evaluation, ENDF formatting, data processing and integral validation in one integrated approach. Software, built around the TALYS code, will be presented in which all these essential nuclear data components are seamlessly integrated. Besides the quality of the basic data and its extensive format testing, a second goal lies in the diversity of processing for different type of users. The implications of this scheme are unprecedented. The most important are: 1. Complete ENDF-6 nuclear data files, in the form of the TENDL library, including covariance matrices, for many isotopes, particles, energies, reaction channels and derived quantities. All isotopic data files are mutually consistent and are supposed to rival those of the major world libraries. 2. More exact uncertainty propagation from basic nuclear physics to applied (reactor) calculations based on a Monte Carlo approach: "Total" Monte Carlo (TMC), using random nuclear data libraries. 3. Automatic optimization in the form of systematic feedback from integral measurements back to the basic data. This method of work also opens a new way of approaching the analysis of nuclear applications, with consequences in both applied nuclear physics and safety of nuclear installations, and several examples are given here. This applied experience and feedback is integrated in a final step to improve the quality of the nuclear data, to change the users vision and finally to orchestrate their integration into simulation codes.

  16. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  17. FORTRAN Automated Code Evaluation System (FACES) user's manual, version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A system which provides analysis services for FORTRAN based software systems not normally available from system software is presented. The system is not a compiler, and compiler syntax diagnostics are not duplicated. For maximum adaptation to FORTRAN dialects, the code presented to the system is assumed to be compiler acceptable. The system concentrates on acceptable FORTRAN code features which are likely to produce undesirable results and identifies potential trouble areas before they become execution time malfunctions.

  18. TDRSS telecommunications system, PN code analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, R.; Gold, R.; Kaiser, F.

    1976-01-01

    The pseudo noise (PN) codes required to support the TDRSS telecommunications services are analyzed and the impact of alternate coding techniques on the user transponder equipment, the TDRSS equipment, and all factors that contribute to the acquisition and performance of these telecommunication services is assessed. Possible alternatives to the currently proposed hybrid FH/direct sequence acquisition procedures are considered and compared relative to acquisition time, implementation complexity, operational reliability, and cost. The hybrid FH/direct sequence technique is analyzed and rejected in favor of a recommended approach which minimizes acquisition time and user transponder complexity while maximizing probability of acquisition and overall link reliability.

  19. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is...

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is...

  1. 14 CFR 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section Sec. 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is...

  2. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is...

  3. Bar-Code System for a Microbiological Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Kirschner, Larry

    2007-01-01

    A bar-code system has been assembled for a microbiological laboratory that must examine a large number of samples. The system includes a commercial bar-code reader, computer hardware and software components, plus custom-designed database software. The software generates a user-friendly, menu-driven interface.

  4. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  5. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Code structure, system models, and solution methods. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents, and operational transients, such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling, approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I provides modeling theory and associated numerical schemes.

  6. Performance optimization of spectral amplitude coding OCDMA system using new enhanced multi diagonal code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imtiaz, Waqas A.; Ilyas, M.; Khan, Yousaf

    2016-11-01

    This paper propose a new code to optimize the performance of spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) system. The unique two-matrix structure of the proposed enhanced multi diagonal (EMD) code and effective correlation properties, between intended and interfering subscribers, significantly elevates the performance of SAC-OCDMA system by negating multiple access interference (MAI) and associated phase induce intensity noise (PIIN). Performance of SAC-OCDMA system based on the proposed code is thoroughly analyzed for two detection techniques through analytic and simulation analysis by referring to bit error rate (BER), signal to noise ratio (SNR) and eye patterns at the receiving end. It is shown that EMD code while using SDD technique provides high transmission capacity, reduces the receiver complexity, and provides better performance as compared to complementary subtraction detection (CSD) technique. Furthermore, analysis shows that, for a minimum acceptable BER of 10-9 , the proposed system supports 64 subscribers at data rates of up to 2 Gbps for both up-down link transmission.

  7. Interface requirements for coupling a containment code to a reactor system thermal hydraulic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    To perform a complete analysis of a reactor transient, not only the primary system response but the containment response must also be accounted for. Such transients and accidents as a loss of coolant accident in both pressurized water and boiling water reactors and inadvertent operation of safety relief valves all challenge the containment and may influence flows because of containment feedback. More recently, the advanced reactor designs put forth by General Electric and Westinghouse in the US and by Framatome and Seimens in Europe rely on the containment to act as the ultimate heat sink. Techniques used by analysts and engineers to analyze the interaction of the containment and the primary system were usually iterative in nature. Codes such as RELAP or RETRAN were used to analyze the primary system response and CONTAIN or CONTEMPT the containment response. The analysis was performed by first running the system code and representing the containment as a fixed pressure boundary condition. The flows were usually from the primary system to the containment initially and generally under choked conditions. Once the mass flows and timing are determined from the system codes, these conditions were input into the containment code. The resulting pressures and temperatures were then calculated and the containment performance analyzed. The disadvantage of this approach becomes evident when one performs an analysis of a rapid depressurization or a long term accident sequence in which feedback from the containment can occur. For example, in a BWR main steam line break transient, the containment heats up and becomes a source of energy for the primary system. Recent advances in programming and computer technology are available to provide an alternative approach. The author and other researchers have developed linkage codes capable of transferring data between codes at each time step allowing discrete codes to be coupled together.

  8. System Measures Errors Between Time-Code Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cree, David; Venkatesh, C. N.

    1993-01-01

    System measures timing errors between signals produced by three asynchronous time-code generators. Errors between 1-second clock pulses resolved to 2 microseconds. Basic principle of computation of timing errors as follows: central processing unit in microcontroller constantly monitors time data received from time-code generators for changes in 1-second time-code intervals. In response to any such change, microprocessor buffers count of 16-bit internal timer.

  9. System Measures Errors Between Time-Code Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cree, David; Venkatesh, C. N.

    1993-01-01

    System measures timing errors between signals produced by three asynchronous time-code generators. Errors between 1-second clock pulses resolved to 2 microseconds. Basic principle of computation of timing errors as follows: central processing unit in microcontroller constantly monitors time data received from time-code generators for changes in 1-second time-code intervals. In response to any such change, microprocessor buffers count of 16-bit internal timer.

  10. Coded error probability evaluation for antijam communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Levitt, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    We present a general union-Chernoff bound on the bit error probability for coded communication systems and apply it to examples of antijam systems. The key feature of this bound is the decoupling of the coding aspects of the system from the remaining part of the communication system which includes jamming, suboptimum detectors, and arbitrary decoding metrics which may or may not use jammer state knowledge

  11. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1996-04-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents.

  12. Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

  13. The Modified Cognitive Constructions Coding System: Reliability and Validity Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Galia S.; Diamond, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    The cognitive constructions coding system (CCCS) was designed for coding client's expressed problem constructions on four dimensions: intrapersonal-interpersonal, internal-external, responsible-not responsible, and linear-circular. This study introduces, and examines the reliability and validity of, a modified version of the CCCS--a version that…

  14. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is...) A fifth digit, appended as a decimal, has been assigned for internal control by the BTS of... different fifth digit code number from that assigned by the BTS may be adopted for internal recordkeeping...

  15. The Modified Cognitive Constructions Coding System: Reliability and Validity Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Galia S.; Diamond, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    The cognitive constructions coding system (CCCS) was designed for coding client's expressed problem constructions on four dimensions: intrapersonal-interpersonal, internal-external, responsible-not responsible, and linear-circular. This study introduces, and examines the reliability and validity of, a modified version of the CCCS--a version that…

  16. Binary random systematic erasure code for RAID system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Pengguo; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Liang; Yuan, Dezhai

    2017-03-01

    As the increasing expansion of data scale, storage systems grow in size and complexity, the requirements for systems scalability and methodologies to recover simultaneous disk and sector failures are inevitable. To ensure high reliability and flexible scalability, erasure codes with high fault tolerance and flexibility are required. In this pa per, we present a class of erasure codes satisfied the previous requirements, which referred as Binary Random Systematic erasure code, called BRS code for short. BRS code constructs its generator matrix based on random matrix, whose elements are in Galois Field GF (2), and takes the advantage of exclusive-or (XOR) operations to make it work much fast. It is designed as a systematic code to facilitate the store and recovery. Moreover, δ random redundancies make the probability of successfully decoding controllable. Our evaluations and experiments show that BRS code is flexible on parameters and fault tolerance setting, and has high computing efficiency on encoding and decoding speeds, what is more, when the code length is long enough, BRS code is approximately MDS, thus make it have nearly optimal storage efficiency.

  17. Gastrointestinal disorders of the critically ill. Systemic consequences of ileus.

    PubMed

    Madl, Christian; Druml, Wilfred

    2003-06-01

    Ileus refers to the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine either by functional (adynamic or paralytic ileus) or mechanical bowel obstruction. The diffuse gastrointestinal dysmotility during functional and mechanical ileus may result in intestinal dilatation, increased luminal pressure and gut wall ischaemia which may lead to increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Any type of ileus may promote abdominal fluid sequestration with severe systemic hypovolaemia, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with the evolution of bacterial translocation and systemic invasive infections and inflammation of the intestinal wall with concomitant release of cytokines and the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The most serious complications of ileus are mediated by an increase in IAP. Intra-abdominal hypertension has been found in up to 20% of critically ill patients and may lead to a broad pattern of systemic consequences with multiple organ dysfunction, including cardiovascular, hepatic, pulmonary, renal and neurological function. The abdominal compartment syndrome is an emergency condition which is defined as elevation of IAP above 20 to 25 mmHg and the presence of systemic consequences. Therapeutic considerations include the maintenance of adequate hydration status, avoidance of drugs known to impair intestinal perfusion, stimulation of gastric and intestinal motility and various nutritional aspects. Colonic tube placement after decompressive colonoscopy may be effective in reducing intestinal dilatation. In the abdominal compartment syndrome the 'open abdominal approach' with decompressive laparotomy by opening the peritoneal cavity and temporary abdominal closure is the therapy of choice.

  18. Concatenated coding systems employing a unit-memory convolutional code and a byte-oriented decoding algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. N.

    1976-01-01

    Concatenated coding systems utilizing a convolutional code as the inner code and a Reed-Solomon code as the outer code are considered. In order to obtain very reliable communications over a very noisy channel with relatively small coding complexity, it is proposed to concatenate a byte oriented unit memory convolutional code with an RS outer code whose symbol size is one byte. It is further proposed to utilize a real time minimal byte error probability decoding algorithm, together with feedback from the outer decoder, in the decoder for the inner convolutional code. The performance of the proposed concatenated coding system is studied, and the improvement over conventional concatenated systems due to each additional feature is isolated.

  19. Concatenated coding systems employing a unit-memory convolutional code and a byte-oriented decoding algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L.-N.

    1977-01-01

    Concatenated coding systems utilizing a convolutional code as the inner code and a Reed-Solomon code as the outer code are considered. In order to obtain very reliable communications over a very noisy channel with relatively modest coding complexity, it is proposed to concatenate a byte-oriented unit-memory convolutional code with an RS outer code whose symbol size is one byte. It is further proposed to utilize a real-time minimal-byte-error probability decoding algorithm, together with feedback from the outer decoder, in the decoder for the inner convolutional code. The performance of the proposed concatenated coding system is studied, and the improvement over conventional concatenated systems due to each additional feature is isolated.

  20. A highly specific coding system for structural chromosomal alterations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Martínez-Fernández, M L

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC, from the name in Spanish) has developed a very simple and highly specific coding system for structural chromosomal alterations. Such a coding system would be of value at present due to the dramatic increase in the diagnosis of submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications through molecular techniques. In summary, our new coding system allows the characterization of: (a) the type of structural anomaly; (b) the chromosome affected; (c) if the alteration affects the short or/and the long arm, and (d) if it is a non-pure dicentric, a non-pure isochromosome, or if it affects several chromosomes. We show the distribution of 276 newborn patients with these types of chromosomal alterations using their corresponding codes according to our system. We consider that our approach may be useful not only for other registries, but also for laboratories performing these studies to store their results on case series. Therefore, the aim of this article is to describe this coding system and to offer the opportunity for this coding to be applied by others. Moreover, as this is a SYSTEM, rather than a fixed code, it can be implemented with the necessary modifications to include the specific objectives of each program. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Decomposition of the optical transfer function: wavefront coding imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyo, Gonzalo; Harvey, Andy R.

    2005-10-01

    We describe the mapping of the optical transfer function (OTF) of an incoherent imaging system into a geometrical representation. We show that for defocused traditional and wavefront-coded systems the OTF can be represented as a generalized Cornu spiral. This representation provides a physical insight into the way in which wavefront coding can increase the depth of field of an imaging system and permits analytical quantification of salient OTF parameters, such as the depth of focus, the location of nulls, and amplitude and phase modulation of the wavefront-coding OTF.

  2. Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

    1996-02-01

    Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

  3. DUCS—A fully automated code and documentation distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. S.; Saitta, B.; Gervasi, O.; Bower, G. R.; Rothenberg, A.; Waite, A. P.

    1990-08-01

    The Distributed Updata Control System (DUCS) is a code distribution system developed for the SLD collaboration to distribute code, documentation and news times between remote collaborators and SLAC. The system runs on both VM and VMS systems and is currently running at a total of 18 sites on two different continents, using both BITNET and DECNET connections. Software updates and news items can be submitted from any site where DUCS is installed and are distributed to all other sites. When an update arrives at a remote site it is installed appropriately without any manual intervention. The details of the installation depend on the type of file, but for source code, installation includes compilation and the insertion of the resulting object module into the appropriate library. Whenever an error occurs the error log is returned to the originator of the update. DUCS maintains both development and production code, subdivided into an arbitrary number of sections. A mechanism is provided to move code from the development area to the production area. DUCS also contains many utilities which enable the status of each node to be ascertained and any manual intervention necessary to correct unanticipated conditions to be performed. The system has been running now for nearly three years and has distributed over 20,000 code updates. It is proving a valuable tool for remote collaborators who are now able to participate in code development as easily as if they were at SLAC.

  4. Performance results for a hybrid coding system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    Results of computer simulation studies of the hybrid pull-up bootstrap decoding algorithm, using a constraint length 24, nonsystematic, rate 1/2 convolutional code for the symmetric channel with both binary and eight-level quantized outputs. Computational performance was used to measure the effect of several decoder parameters and determine practical operating constraints. Results reveal that the track length may be reduced to 500 information bits with small degradation in performance. The optimum number of tracks per block was found to be in the range from 7 to 11. An effective technique was devised to efficiently allocate computational effort and identify reliably decoded data sections. Long simulations indicate that a practical bootstrap decoding configuration has a computational performance about 1.0 dB better than sequential decoding and an output bit error rate about .0000025 near the R sub comp point.

  5. CODING IN THE MAMMALIAN GUSTATORY SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, Alan; Accolla, Riccardo; Simon, Sidney A.

    2010-01-01

    To understand gustatory physiology and associated dysfunctions it is important to know how stimuli placed in the mouth are encoded both in the periphery and in taste-related brain centres. The identification of distinct taste receptors, together with electrophysiological recordings and behavioural assessments in response to taste stimuli, suggest that information about distinct taste modalities (e.g., sweet versus bitter) are transmitted from the periphery to the brain via segregated pathways. In contrast, gustatory neurons throughout the brain are more broadly tuned, indicating that ensembles of neurons encode taste qualities. Recent evidence reviewed here suggests that the coding of gustatory stimuli is not immutable, but is dependant on a variety of factors including appetite regulating molecules and associative learning. PMID:20493563

  6. Codes, standards, and PV power systems. A 1996 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J

    1996-06-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) electrical power systems gain increasing acceptance for both off-grid and utility-interactive applications, the safety, durability, and performance of these systems gains in importance. Local and state jurisdictions in many areas of the country require that all electrical power systems be installed in compliance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}). Utilities and governmental agencies are now requiring that PV installations and components also meet a number of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. PV installers are working more closely with licensed electricians and electrical contractors who are familiar with existing local codes and installation practices. PV manufacturers, utilities, balance of systems manufacturers, and standards representatives have come together to address safety and code related issues for future PV installations. This paper addresses why compliance with the accepted codes and standards is needed and how it is being achieved.

  7. Climate-induced tree mortality: Earth system consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Henry D.; Macalady, Alison K.; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Saleska, Scott; Huxman, Travis E.; McDowell, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and the Earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems and, in particular, forests exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets [Bonan, 2008; Chapin et al., 2008].According to new research, tree mortality associated with elevated temperatures and drought has the potential to rapidly alter forest ecosystems, potentially affecting feedbacks to the Earth system [Allen et al., 2010]. Several lines of recent research demonstrate how tree mortality rates in forests may be sensitive to climate change—particularly warming and drying. This emerging consequence of global change has important effects on Earth system processes (Figure 1).

  8. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  9. Equipment Readiness Code Rule System (ERCRULES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Teknowledge by the US Army. It is used as the instructional vehicle for training in expert systems by the Army Artificial Intelligence Training Cell ( AITC ...Fort Gordon, GA. As part of the rule development process (see Chapter 4), it was determined that the AITC would provide training to CAA and TRADOC...a base of technical support at the AITC for the operation of the system into the future. 3-4. DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED TOOL. The expert system tool

  10. Convolutionally-Coded Unbalanced QPSK Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Yuen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses error-rate performance for three convolutionallycoded unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (UQPSK) communication systems with noisy carriers that introduce crosstalk. Systems analyzed unbalanced in sense that each transmits two data streams with different bit rates and (in some cases) different powers.

  11. Lossless Coding Standards for Space Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    The International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is preparing to issue its first recommendation for a digital data compression standard. Because the space data systems of primary interest are employed to support scientific investigations requiring accurate representation, this initial standard will be restricted to lossless compression.

  12. Code System to Model Aqueous Geochemical Equilibria.

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSON, S. R.

    2001-08-23

    Version: 00 MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution ofsolid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and each compositionally and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase.

  13. On the Performance of Code Acquisition in MIMO CDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangchoon; An, Jinyoung

    This letter investigates the effects of using multiple transmit antennas on code acquisition for preamble search in the CDMA uplink when MIMO is used for signal transmission and reception. The performance of a ML code acquisition technique in the presence of MIMO channel is analyzed by considering the detection and miss probabilities. The acquisition performance is numerically evaluated on a frequency selective fading channel. It is found that the performance of code acquisition scheme for a SIMO system is better than that for the case of MIMO on the low thresholds in terms of detection performance and MAT.

  14. The FORTRAN static source code analyzer program (SAP) system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Merwarth, P.; Oneill, M.; Goorevich, C.; Waligora, S.

    1982-01-01

    A source code analyzer program (SAP) designed to assist personnel in conducting studies of FORTRAN programs is described. The SAP scans FORTRAN source code and produces reports that present statistics and measures of statements and structures that make up a module. The processing performed by SAP and of the routines, COMMON blocks, and files used by SAP are described. The system generation procedure for SAP is also presented.

  15. Analytical considerations in the code qualification of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1995-02-01

    The paper addresses several analytical topics in the design and qualification of piping systems which have a direct bearing on the prediction of stresses in the pipe and hence on the application of the equations of NB, NC and ND-3600 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. For each of the analytical topics, the paper summarizes the current code requirements, if any, and the industry practice.

  16. ARAC: A flexible real-time dose consequence assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1993-10-07

    Since its beginning, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), an emergency radiological dose assessment service of the US Government, has been called on to do consequence assessments for releases into the atmosphere of radionuclides and a variety of other substances. Some of the more noteworthy emergency responses have been for the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power reactor accidents, and more recently, for a cloud of gases from a rail-car spill into the Sacramento river of the herbicide metam sodium, smoke from hundreds of burning oil wells in Kuwait, and ash clouds from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The spatial scales of these responses range from local, to regional, to global, and the response periods from hours, to weeks, to months. Because of the variety of requirements of each unique assessment, ARAC has developed and maintains a flexible system of people, computer software and hardware.

  17. Design of wavefront coding optical system with annular aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Shen, Weimin

    2016-10-01

    Wavefront coding can extend the depth of field of traditional optical system by inserting a phase mask into the pupil plane. In this paper, the point spread function (PSF) of wavefront coding system with annular aperture are analyzed. Stationary phase method and fast Fourier transform (FFT) method are used to compute the diffraction integral respectively. The OTF invariance is analyzed for the annular aperture with cubic phase mask under different obscuration ratio. With these analysis results, a wavefront coding system using Maksutov-Cassegrain configuration is designed finally. It is an F/8.21 catadioptric system with annular aperture, and its focal length is 821mm. The strength of the cubic phase mask is optimized with user-defined operand in Zemax. The Wiener filtering algorithm is used to restore the images and the numerical simulation proves the validity of the design.

  18. 3D neutronic codes coupled with thermal-hydraulic system codes for PWR, and BWR and VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K.; Lizorkin, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the objectives of code development for coupling 3D neutronics codes with thermal-hydraulic system codes. The present status of coupling ATHLET with three 3D neutronics codes for VVER- and LWR-reactors is presented. After describing the basic features of the 3D neutronic codes BIPR-8 from Kurchatov-Institute, DYN3D from Research Center Rossendorf and QUABOX/CUBBOX from GRS, first applications of coupled codes for different transient and accident scenarios are presented. The need of further investigations is discussed.

  19. Progress on China nuclear data processing code system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Xiaofei; Ge, Zhigang; Li, Songyang; Wu, Haicheng; Wen, Lili; Wang, Wenming; Zhang, Huanyu

    2017-09-01

    China is developing the nuclear data processing code Ruler, which can be used for producing multi-group cross sections and related quantities from evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format [1]. The Ruler includes modules for reconstructing cross sections in all energy range, generating Doppler-broadened cross sections for given temperature, producing effective self-shielded cross sections in unresolved energy range, calculating scattering cross sections in thermal energy range, generating group cross sections and matrices, preparing WIMS-D format data files for the reactor physics code WIMS-D [2]. Programming language of the Ruler is Fortran-90. The Ruler is tested for 32-bit computers with Windows-XP and Linux operating systems. The verification of Ruler has been performed by comparison with calculation results obtained by the NJOY99 [3] processing code. The validation of Ruler has been performed by using WIMSD5B code.

  20. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  1. User's guide for the GSMP/OCMHD system code

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, C. B.; Berry, G. F.

    1980-12-01

    The Systems Analysis group of the ANL Engineering Division conducts overall system studies for various power plant concepts, utilizing a computer simulation code. Analytical investigations explore a range of possible performance variables, in order to determine the sensitivity of a specific plant design to variation in key system parameters and, ultimately, to establish probable system performance limits. To accomplish this task, a Generalized System Modeling Program (GSMP) has been developed that will analyze and simulate the particular system of interest for any number of different configurations, automatically holding constraints while conducting either sensitivity studies or optimizations. One system investigated, while developing the ANL/GSMP code, is an open-cycle magneto-hydrodynamic (OCMHD) power plant. By linking mathematical models representing these OCMHD power plant components to the executive level GSMP driver the resulting system code, GSMP/OCMHD, can be used to simulate any OCMHD power plant configuration. This report, a user's guide for GSMP/OCMHD, describes the process for setting up an OCMHD configuration, preparing the input defining that configuration, running the computer code and interpreting the results generated.

  2. Tritium module for ITER/Tiber system code

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Willms, S.; Busigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    A tritium module was developed for the ITER/Tiber system code to provide information on capital costs, tritium inventory, power requirements and building volumes for these systems. In the tritium module, the main tritium subsystems/emdash/plasma processing, atmospheric cleanup, water cleanup, blanket processing/emdash/are each represented by simple scaleable algorithms. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Inter-Rater Reliability of an Electronic Discussion Coding System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.

    A "cognote" system was developed for coding electronic discussion groups and promoting critical thinking. Previous literature has provided an account of the strategy as applied to several academic settings. This paper addresses the research around establishing the inter-rater reliability of the cognote system. The findings suggest three indicators…

  4. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  5. Power Control of Turbo Coded System in Lognormal Shadowing Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Joon

    Traditionally, it has been considered that the received signal to noise power ratio should be uniformly preserved to maximize system capacity for uncoded system with reliable feedback channel. However, once channel coding is employed as a building block, another power control scheme presents better performance. In this paper, we consider several power reallocation schemes for an effective use of limited power in a turbo coded system in lognormal shadowing channel. We show that the proposed power reallocation can reduce the decoding error probability by almost two orders of magnitude and provide a power gain of 0.87dB at a target bit error rate of 10-4 over the equal power allocation among all code symbols. We also propose applying different power levels and cut-off thresholds on systematic and parity bits, and investigate the effect of channel estimation error.

  6. FORTRAN Automated Code Evaluation System (faces) system documentation, version 2, mod 0. [error detection codes/user manuals (computer programs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A system is presented which processes FORTRAN based software systems to surface potential problems before they become execution malfunctions. The system complements the diagnostic capabilities of compilers, loaders, and execution monitors rather than duplicating these functions. Also, it emphasizes frequent sources of FORTRAN problems which require inordinate manual effort to identify. The principle value of the system is extracting small sections of unusual code from the bulk of normal sequences. Code structures likely to cause immediate or future problems are brought to the user's attention. These messages stimulate timely corrective action of solid errors and promote identification of 'tricky' code. Corrective action may require recoding or simply extending software documentation to explain the unusual technique.

  7. A systems neurophysiology approach to voluntary event coding.

    PubMed

    Petruo, Vanessa A; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Münchau, Alexander; Beste, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Mechanisms responsible for the integration of perceptual events and appropriate actions (sensorimotor processes) have been subject to intense research. Different theoretical frameworks have been put forward with the "Theory of Event Coding (TEC)" being one of the most influential. In the current study, we focus on the concept of 'event files' within TEC and examine what sub-processes being dissociable by means of cognitive-neurophysiological methods are involved in voluntary event coding. This was combined with EEG source localization. We also introduce reward manipulations to delineate the neurophysiological sub-processes most relevant for performance variations during event coding. The results show that processes involved in voluntary event coding included predominantly stimulus categorization, feature unbinding and response selection, which were reflected by distinct neurophysiological processes (the P1, N2 and P3 ERPs). On a system's neurophysiological level, voluntary event-file coding is thus related to widely distributed parietal-medial frontal networks. Attentional selection processes (N1 ERP) turned out to be less important. Reward modulated stimulus categorization in parietal regions likely reflecting aspects of perceptual decision making but not in other processes. The perceptual categorization stage appears central for voluntary event-file coding.

  8. Bilingual Processing of ASL-English Code-Blends: The Consequences of Accessing Two Lexical Representations Simultaneously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer A. F.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals who are fluent in American Sign Language (ASL) and English often produce "code-blends"--simultaneously articulating a sign and a word while conversing with other ASL-English bilinguals. To investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying code-blend processing, we compared picture-naming times (Experiment 1) and semantic categorization…

  9. Bilingual Processing of ASL-English Code-Blends: The Consequences of Accessing Two Lexical Representations Simultaneously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer A. F.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals who are fluent in American Sign Language (ASL) and English often produce "code-blends"--simultaneously articulating a sign and a word while conversing with other ASL-English bilinguals. To investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying code-blend processing, we compared picture-naming times (Experiment 1) and semantic categorization…

  10. Focal Manual for CAI Coding on the TSS/8 System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbs, H. Dewey; And Others

    Basic information is provided in this manual for coding drill-and-practice CAI (computer-assisted instruction) applications in the language FOCAL (Formulating On-line Calculations in Algebraic Language). This language is available on the Digital Equipment Corporation Time-Sharing 8 system (TSS/8). While FOCAL is oriented toward solution of…

  11. The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): Development, Validation, and Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kring, Ann M.; Sloan, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information on the development and validation of the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES; A. M. Kring & D. Sloan, 1991). Grounded in a dimensional model of emotion, FACES provides information on the valence (positive, negative) of facial expressive behavior. In 5 studies, reliability and validity data from 13 diverse…

  12. The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): Development, Validation, and Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kring, Ann M.; Sloan, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information on the development and validation of the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES; A. M. Kring & D. Sloan, 1991). Grounded in a dimensional model of emotion, FACES provides information on the valence (positive, negative) of facial expressive behavior. In 5 studies, reliability and validity data from 13 diverse…

  13. Results from the coded aperture neutron imaging system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John T.; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays ({approx}1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a new approach to fast-neutron imaging - a coded aperture neutron imaging system (CANIS). Coded aperture neutron imaging should offer a highly efficient solution for improved detection speed, range, and sensitivity. We have demonstrated fast neutron and gamma ray imaging with several different configurations of coded masks patterns and detectors including an 'active' mask that is composed of neutron detectors. Here we describe our prototype detector and present some initial results from laboratory tests and demonstrations.

  14. Results from the Coded Aperture Neutron Imaging System (CANIS).

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John T.; Brennan, James S.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays ({approx}1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a new approach to fast-neutron imaging- a coded aperture neutron imaging system (CANIS). Coded aperture neutron imaging should offer a highly efficient solution for improved detection speed, range, and sensitivity. We have demonstrated fast neutron and gamma ray imaging with several different configurations of coded masks patterns and detectors including an 'active' mask that is composed of neutron detectors. Here we describe our prototype detector and present some initial results from laboratory tests and demonstrations.

  15. Development of new two-dimensional spectral/spatial code based on dynamic cyclic shift code for OCDMA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellali, Nabiha; Najjar, Monia; Ferchichi, Moez; Rezig, Houria

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a new two-dimensional spectral/spatial codes family, named two dimensional dynamic cyclic shift codes (2D-DCS) is introduced. The 2D-DCS codes are derived from the dynamic cyclic shift code for the spectral and spatial coding. The proposed system can fully eliminate the multiple access interference (MAI) by using the MAI cancellation property. The effect of shot noise, phase-induced intensity noise and thermal noise are used to analyze the code performance. In comparison with existing two dimensional (2D) codes, such as 2D perfect difference (2D-PD), 2D Extended Enhanced Double Weight (2D-Extended-EDW) and 2D hybrid (2D-FCC/MDW) codes, the numerical results show that our proposed codes have the best performance. By keeping the same code length and increasing the spatial code, the performance of our 2D-DCS system is enhanced: it provides higher data rates while using lower transmitted power and a smaller spectral width.

  16. Testing geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of selected portions of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will: (1) ensure that we are providing adequately for all significant processes occurring in natural systems; (2) determine the adequacy of the mathematical descriptions of the processes; (3) check the adequacy and completeness of thermodynamic data as a function of temperature for solids, aqueous species and gases; and (4) determine the sensitivity of model results to the manner in which the problem is conceptualized by the user and then translated into constraints in the code input. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions. The kinetics of silica precipitation in EQ6 will be tested using field data from silica-lined drain channels carrying hot water away from the Wairakei borefield.

  17. Confidence Intervals for Error Rates Observed in Coded Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.

    2015-05-01

    We present methods to compute confidence intervals for the codeword error rate (CWER) and bit error rate (BER) of a coded communications link. We review several methods to compute exact and approximate confidence intervals for the CWER, and specifically consider the situation in which the true CWER is so low that only a handful, if any, codeword errors are able to be simulated. In doing so, we answer the question of how long an error-free simulation must be run in order to certify that a given CWER requirement is met with a given level of confidence, and discuss the bias introduced by aborting a simulation after observing the first codeword error. Next, we turn to the lesser studied problem of determining confidence intervals for the BER of coded systems. Since bit errors in systems that use coding or higher-order modulation do not occur independently, blind application of a method that assumes independence leads to inappropriately narrow confidence intervals. We present a new method to compute the confidence interval properly, using the first and second sample moments of the number of bit errors per codeword. This is the first method we know of to compute a confidence interval for the BER of a coded or higher-order modulation system.

  18. What's in a code? Towards a formal account of the relation of ontologies and coding systems.

    PubMed

    Rector, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    Terminologies are increasingly based on "ontologies" developed in description logics and related languages such as the new Web Ontology Language, OWL. The use of description logic has been expected to reduce ambiguity and make it easier determine logical equivalence, deal with negation, and specify EHRs. However, this promise has not been fully realised: in part because early description logics were relatively inexpressive, in part, because the relation between coding systems, EHRs, and ontologies expressed in description logics has not been fully understood. This paper presents a unifying approach using the expressive formalisms available in the latest version of OWL, OWL 1.1.

  19. Code for Analyzing and Designing Spacecraft Power System Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert

    2005-01-01

    GPHRAD is a computer code for analysis and design of disk or circular-sector heat-rejecting radiators for spacecraft power systems. A specific application is for Stirling-cycle/linear-alternator electric-power systems coupled to radioisotope general-purpose heat sources. GPHRAD affords capabilities and options to account for thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density) of either metal-alloy or composite radiator materials.

  20. Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

  1. Use of post-Chernobyl data from Norway to validate the long-term exposure pathway models in the accident consequence code MACCS

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes a task performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), consisting of using post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in the NRC's program for probabilistic risk analysis, level 3, of the MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Because of unfortunate combinations of weather conditions, the levels of Chernobyl fallout in parts of Norway were quite high, with large areas contaminated to more than 100 kBq/m[sup 2] of radioactive cesium. Approximately 6% of the total amount of radioactive cesium released from Chernobyl is deposited on Norwegian territory, according to a countrywide survey performed by the Norwegian National Institute for Radiation Hygiene. Accordingly, a very large monitoring effort was carried out in Norway, and some of the results of this effort have provided important new insights into the ways in which radioactive cesium behaves in the environment. In addition to collection and evaluation of post-Chernobyl monitoring results, some experiments were also performed as part of the task. Some experiments performed pre-Chernobyl were also relevant, and some conclusions could be drawn from these. In most connections, the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is inadequate are, however, also pointed out in the paper.

  2. Temporal Coding of Periodicity Pitch in the Auditory System: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Cariani, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines a taxonomy of neural pulse codes and reviews neurophysiological evidence for interspike interval-based representations for pitch and timbre in the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus. Neural pulse codes can be divided into channel-based codes, temporal-pattern codes, and time-of-arrival codes. Timings of discharges in auditory nerve fibers reflect the time structure of acoustic waveforms, such that the interspike intervals that are produced precisely convey information concerning stimulus periodicities. Population-wide inter-spike interval distributions are constructed by summing together intervals from the observed responses of many single Type I auditory nerve fibers. Features in such distributions correspond closely with pitches that are heard by human listeners. The most common all-order interval present in the auditory nerve array almost invariably corresponds to the pitch frequency, whereas the relative fraction of pitchrelated intervals amongst all others qualitatively corresponds to the strength of the pitch. Consequently, many diverse aspects of pitch perception are explained in terms of such temporal representations. Similar stimulus-driven temporal discharge patterns are observed in major neuronal populations of the cochlear nucleus. Population-interval distributions constitute an alternative time-domain strategy for representing sensory information that complements spatially organized sensory maps. Similar autocorrelation-like representations are possible in other sensory systems, in which neural discharges are time-locked to stimulus waveforms. PMID:10714267

  3. Upgrades to the NESS (Nuclear Engine System Simulation) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittje, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concept is being evaluated as a potential propulsion technology for human expeditions to the moon and Mars. The need for exceptional propulsion system performance in these missions has been documented in numerous studies, and was the primary focus of a considerable effort undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's. The NASA Glenn Research Center is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies with the aid of the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code. This paper presents the additional capabilities and upgrades made to this code in order to perform higher fidelity NTR propulsion system analysis and design.

  4. Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.

  5. Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    TEUCHERT, E.

    1999-04-21

    Version 00 VSOP94 (Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes linked together for the simulation of reactor life histories. It comprises neutron cross section libraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D diffusion calculation based on neutron flux synthesis with depletion and shut-down features, in-core and out-of-pile fuel management, fuel cycle cost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (at present restricted to Pebble Bed HTRs). Various techniques have been employed to accelerate the iterative processes and to optimize the internal data transfer. The code system has been used extensively for comparison studies of reactors, their fuel cycles, and related detailed features. In addition to its use in research and development work for the High Temperature Reactor, the system has been applied successfully to Light Water and Heavy Water Reactors.

  6. An Expert System for the Development of Efficient Parallel Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    We have built the prototype of an expert system to assist the user in the development of efficient parallel code. The system was integrated into the parallel programming environment that is currently being developed at NASA Ames. The expert system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. It uses static program structure information and performance data in order to automatically determine causes of poor performance and to make suggestions for improvements. In this paper we give an overview of our programming environment, describe the prototype implementation of our expert system, and demonstrate its usefulness with several case studies.

  7. Coded multiple chirp spread spectrum system and overlay service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Junghwan; Pratt, Timothy; Ha, Tri T.

    1988-01-01

    An asynchronous spread-spectrum system called coded multiple chirp is proposed, and the possible spread-spectrum overlay over an analog FM-TV signal is investigated by computer simulation. Multiple single-sloped up and down chirps are encoded by a pseudonoise code and decoded by dechirpers (pulse-compression filters) followed by a digital code correlator. The performance of the proposed system, expressed in terms of in probability of bit error and code miss probability, is similar to that of FSK (frequency shift keying) using codewords if sufficient compression gain is used. When chirp is used to overlay an FM-TV channel, two chirp signals with data rate up to 25 kb/s could be overlaid in a 36-MHz satellite transponder without significant mutual interference. Performance estimates for a VSAT (very small aperture terminal) earth station operating at C-band show that a 2.4-m antenna and 300-mW transmitter could send a 2.4-kb/s signal to a large central earth station over an occupied channel.

  8. Coded multiple chirp spread spectrum system and overlay service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Junghwan; Pratt, Timothy; Ha, Tri T.

    1988-01-01

    An asynchronous spread-spectrum system called coded multiple chirp is proposed, and the possible spread-spectrum overlay over an analog FM-TV signal is investigated by computer simulation. Multiple single-sloped up and down chirps are encoded by a pseudonoise code and decoded by dechirpers (pulse-compression filters) followed by a digital code correlator. The performance of the proposed system, expressed in terms of in probability of bit error and code miss probability, is similar to that of FSK (frequency shift keying) using codewords if sufficient compression gain is used. When chirp is used to overlay an FM-TV channel, two chirp signals with data rate up to 25 kb/s could be overlaid in a 36-MHz satellite transponder without significant mutual interference. Performance estimates for a VSAT (very small aperture terminal) earth station operating at C-band show that a 2.4-m antenna and 300-mW transmitter could send a 2.4-kb/s signal to a large central earth station over an occupied channel.

  9. What is Code Biology?

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Marcello

    2017-10-06

    Various independent discoveries have shown that many organic codes exist in living systems, and this implies that they came into being during the history of life and contributed to that history. The genetic code appeared in a population of primitive systems that has been referred to as the common ancestor, and it has been proposed that three distinct signal processing codes gave origin to the three primary kingdoms of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. After the genetic code and the signal processing codes, on the other hand, only the ancestors of the eukaryotes continued to explore the coding space and gave origin to splicing codes, histone code, tubulin code, compartment codes and many others. A first theoretical consequence of this historical fact is the idea that the Eukarya became increasingly more complex because they maintained the potential to bring new organic codes into existence. A second theoretical consequence comes from the fact that the evolution of the individual rules of a code can take an extremely long time, but the origin of a new organic code corresponds to the appearance of a complete set of rules and from a geological point of view this amounts to a sudden event. The great discontinuities of the history of life, in other words, can be explained as the result of the appearance of new codes. A third theoretical consequence comes from the fact that the organic codes have been highly conserved in evolution, which shows that they are the great invariants of life, the sole entities that have gone intact through billions of years while everything else has changed. This tells us that the organic codes are fundamental components of life and their study - the new research field of Code Biology - is destined to become an increasingly relevant part of the life sciences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical laboratory sciences data transmission: the NPU coding system.

    PubMed

    Pontet, Françoise; Magdal Petersen, Ulla; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Nordin, Gunnar; Bruunshuus, Ivan; Ihalainen, Jarkko; Karlsson, Daniel; Forsum, Urban; Dybkaer, René; Schadow, Gunther; Kuelpmann, Wolf; Férard, Georges; Kang, Dongchon; McDonald, Clement; Hill, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    In health care services, technology requires that correct information be duly available to professionals, citizens and authorities, worldwide. Thus, clinical laboratory sciences require standardized electronic exchanges for results of laboratory examinations. The NPU (Nomenclature, Properties and Units) coding system provides a terminology for identification of result values (property values). It is structured according to BIPM, ISO, IUPAC and IFCC recommendations. It uses standard terms for established concepts and structured definitions describing: which part of the universe is examined, which component of relevance in that part, which kind-of-property is relevant. Unit and specifications can be added where relevant [System(spec)-Component(spec); kind-of-property(spec) = ? unit]. The English version of this terminology is freely accessible at http://dior.imt.liu.se/cnpu/ and http://www.labterm.dk, directly or through the IFCC and IUPAC websites. It has been nationally used for more than 10 years in Denmark and Sweden and has been translated into 6 other languages. The NPU coding system provides a terminology for dedicated kinds-of-property following the international recommendations. It fits well in the health network and is freely accessible. Clinical laboratory professionals worldwide will find many advantages in using the NPU coding system, notably with regards to an accreditation process.

  11. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  12. A seismic data compression system using subband coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a study of seismic data compression techniques and a compression algorithm based on subband coding. The algorithm includes three stages: a decorrelation stage, a quantization stage that introduces a controlled amount of distortion to allow for high compression ratios, and a lossless entropy coding stage based on a simple but efficient arithmetic coding method. Subband coding methods are particularly suited to the decorrelation of nonstationary processes such as seismic events. Adaptivity to the nonstationary behavior of the waveform is achieved by dividing the data into separate blocks that are encoded separately with an adaptive arithmetic encoder. This is done with high efficiency due to the low overhead introduced by the arithmetic encoder in specifying its parameters. The technique could be used as a progressive transmission system, where successive refinements of the data can be requested by the user. This allows seismologists to first examine a coarse version of waveforms with minimal usage of the channel and then decide where refinements are required. Rate-distortion performance results are presented and comparisons are made with two block transform methods.

  13. MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system. [Sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, M.B.

    1984-07-02

    For a number of years the MORSE user community has requested additional help in setting up problems using various options. The sample problems distributed with MORSE did not fully demonstrate the capability of the code. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the code originators had a complete set of sample problems, but funds for documenting and distributing them were never available. Recently the number of requests for listings of input data and results for running some particular option the user was trying to implement has increased to the point where it is not feasible to handle them on an individual basis. Consequently it was decided to package a set of sample problems which illustrates more adequately how to run MORSE. This write-up may be added to Part III of the MORSE report. These sample problems include a combined neutron-gamma case, a neutron only case, a gamma only case, an adjoint case, a fission case, a time-dependent fission case, the collision density case, an XCHEKR run and a PICTUR run.

  14. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe) for Energy Delivery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    also operate in accordance with ISO 9001 . • NIST National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). NVLAP provides third-party...accredited and ISO 9001 :2008 registered. 4.3 SAIC Accreditation and Certification Services SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation )19...and exec t [ ISO /IEC 2005]. f a software system indicates that the SCALe analysis di by a CERT secure coding standard. Successful conforma antees that

  15. Transparently Interposing User Code at the System Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    toolkit , interposition agents. egie School of Computer Science~0-on e DOCTORAL THESIS in the field of Computer Science Transparently Interposing User...of such facilities unwieldy at best. This dissertation presents a toolkit that substantially increases the ease of interposing user code between...than in terms of the intercepted system calls themselves. This toolkit helps enable new interposition agents to be written, many of which would not

  16. Enabling Handicapped Nonreaders to Independently Obtain Information: Initial Development of an Inexpensive Bar Code Reader System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan

    A project to develop and evaluate a bar code reader system as a self-directed information and instructional aid for handicapped nonreaders is described. The bar code technology involves passing a light sensitive pen or laser over a printed code with bars which correspond to coded numbers. A system would consist of a portable device which could…

  17. An Automated, Multi-Step Monte Carlo Burnup Code System.

    SciTech Connect

    TRELLUE, HOLLY R.

    2003-07-14

    Version 02 MONTEBURNS Version 2 calculates coupled neutronic/isotopic results for nuclear systems and produces a large number of criticality and burnup results based on various material feed/removal specifications, power(s), and time intervals. MONTEBURNS is a fully automated tool that links the LANL MCNP Monte Carlo transport code with a radioactive decay and burnup code. Highlights on changes to Version 2 are listed in the transmittal letter. Along with other minor improvements in MONTEBURNS Version 2, the option was added to use CINDER90 instead of ORIGEN2 as the depletion/decay part of the system. CINDER90 is a multi-group depletion code developed at LANL and is not currently available from RSICC. This MONTEBURNS release was tested with various combinations of CCC-715/MCNPX 2.4.0, CCC-710/MCNP5, CCC-700/MCNP4C, CCC-371/ORIGEN2.2, ORIGEN2.1 and CINDER90. Perl is required software and is not included in this distribution. MCNP, ORIGEN2, and CINDER90 are not included.

  18. Code-Time Diversity for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time diversity is achieved in direct sequence spread spectrum by receiving different faded delayed copies of the transmitted symbols from different uncorrelated channel paths when the transmission signal bandwidth is greater than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. In this paper, a new time diversity scheme is proposed for spread spectrum systems. It is called code-time diversity. In this new scheme, N spreading codes are used to transmit one data symbol over N successive symbols interval. The diversity order in the proposed scheme equals to the number of the used spreading codes N multiplied by the number of the uncorrelated paths of the channel L. The paper represents the transmitted signal model. Two demodulators structures will be proposed based on the received signal models from Rayleigh flat and frequency selective fading channels. Probability of error in the proposed diversity scheme is also calculated for the same two fading channels. Finally, simulation results are represented and compared with that of maximal ration combiner (MRC) and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems. PMID:24982925

  19. Coding of procedures documented by general practitioners in Swedish primary care-an explorative study using two procedure coding systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Procedures documented by general practitioners in primary care have not been studied in relation to procedure coding systems. We aimed to describe procedures documented by Swedish general practitioners in electronic patient records and to compare them to the Swedish Classification of Health Interventions (KVÅ) and SNOMED CT. Methods Procedures in 200 record entries were identified, coded, assessed in relation to two procedure coding systems and analysed. Results 417 procedures found in the 200 electronic patient record entries were coded with 36 different Classification of Health Interventions categories and 148 different SNOMED CT concepts. 22.8% of the procedures could not be coded with any Classification of Health Interventions category and 4.3% could not be coded with any SNOMED CT concept. 206 procedure-concept/category pairs were assessed as a complete match in SNOMED CT compared to 10 in the Classification of Health Interventions. Conclusions Procedures documented by general practitioners were present in nearly all electronic patient record entries. Almost all procedures could be coded using SNOMED CT. Classification of Health Interventions covered the procedures to a lesser extent and with a much lower degree of concordance. SNOMED CT is a more flexible terminology system that can be used for different purposes for procedure coding in primary care. PMID:22230095

  20. Coding of procedures documented by general practitioners in Swedish primary care-an explorative study using two procedure coding systems.

    PubMed

    Vikström, Anna; Hägglund, Maria; Nyström, Mikael; Strender, Lars-Erik; Koch, Sabine; Hjerpe, Per; Lindblad, Ulf; Nilsson, Gunnar H

    2012-01-09

    Procedures documented by general practitioners in primary care have not been studied in relation to procedure coding systems. We aimed to describe procedures documented by Swedish general practitioners in electronic patient records and to compare them to the Swedish Classification of Health Interventions (KVÅ) and SNOMED CT. Procedures in 200 record entries were identified, coded, assessed in relation to two procedure coding systems and analysed. 417 procedures found in the 200 electronic patient record entries were coded with 36 different Classification of Health Interventions categories and 148 different SNOMED CT concepts. 22.8% of the procedures could not be coded with any Classification of Health Interventions category and 4.3% could not be coded with any SNOMED CT concept. 206 procedure-concept/category pairs were assessed as a complete match in SNOMED CT compared to 10 in the Classification of Health Interventions. Procedures documented by general practitioners were present in nearly all electronic patient record entries. Almost all procedures could be coded using SNOMED CT.Classification of Health Interventions covered the procedures to a lesser extent and with a much lower degree of concordance. SNOMED CT is a more flexible terminology system that can be used for different purposes for procedure coding in primary care.

  1. A System for Coding the Presenting Requests of Ambulatory Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Philip; Gordon, Michael J.; Gilson, John S.

    1977-01-01

    Effective methods developed to review and study the care of patients in hospital have not been applicable to ambulatory care, in which definitive diagnosis is the exception rather than the rule. A reasonable alternative to using diagnosis as the basis for assessing ambulatory care is to use the problems or requests presented by the patients themselves. A system has been developed for classifying and coding this information for flexible computer retrieval. Testing indicates that the system is simple in design, easily mastered by nonphysicians and provides reliable, useful data at a low cost. PMID:855324

  2. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantum chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.

  3. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    DOE PAGES

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantummore » chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.« less

  4. The penelope code system. Specific features and recent improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvat, Francesc

    2014-06-01

    Since its first release, back in 1996, the Monte Carlo code system penelope has evolved into a flexible and reliable tool for describing coupled electron-photon transport in complex material structures. The present article contains an overview of the physical interaction models, particle tracking methods, geometry tools, and variance-reduction techniques implemented in penelope. Recent refinements aimed at improving the accuracy of the code, and its stability under variations of user-defined simulation parameters, are also described. These include the use of reliable cross sections for the ionization of inner atomic electron shells by electron/positron impact, a reformulation of the random-hinge method, and the use of fuzzy quadric surfaces in the description of the geometry.

  5. Medium-rate speech coding simulator for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperi, Maurizio; Perosino, F.; Rusina, F.; Albertengo, G.; Biglieri, E.

    1986-01-01

    Channel modeling and error protection schemes for speech coding are described. A residual excited linear predictive (RELP) coder for bit rates 4.8, 7.2, and 9.6 kbit/sec is outlined. The coder at 9.6 kbit/sec incorporates a number of channel error protection techniques, such as bit interleaving, error correction codes, and parameter repetition. Results of formal subjective experiments (DRT and DAM tests) under various channel conditions, reveal that the proposed coder outperforms conventional LPC-10 vocoders by 2 subjective categories, thus confirming the suitability of the RELP coder at 9.6 kbit/sec for good quality speech transmission in mobile satellite systems.

  6. [Behavior ethogram and PAE coding system of Cervus nippon sichuanicus].

    PubMed

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Yue, Bi-Song; Ning, Ji-Zu; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei; Guo, Yan-Shu; Mi, Jun; Zuo, Lin; Xiong, Yuan-Qing

    2010-02-01

    A monthly 5-day periodic observation at 06:00-18:00 from March to November 2007 was conducted to record the behavioral processes, contents, and results, and the surrounding habitats of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Donglie, Chonger, and Reer villages of Tiebu Natural Reserve of Sichuan Province. The behavioral ethogram, vigilance behaviors ethogram and its PAE (posture, act, and environment) coding system of the Sichuan sika deer were established, which filled the gap of the PAE coding of ungulates vigilance behaviors. A total of 11 kinds of postures, 83 acts, and 136 behaviors were recorded and distinguished, with the relative frequency of each behavior in relation to gender, age, and season described. Compared with other ungulates, the behavioral repertoire of Sichuan sika deer was mostly similar to that of other cervid animals.

  7. Nexus: A modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The management of simulation workflows represents a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantum chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.

  8. Validation of hydrogeochemical codes using the New Zealand geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Glassley, W.

    1992-12-01

    Evaluation of the performance of a nuclear waste repository requires that numerous parameters be evaluated over a broad range of conditions using codes. The capabilities of these codes must be demonstrated using complex natural systems in which the processes of interest have already occurred or are occurring. We have initiated such a test of geochemical and hydrological simulation codes, using the geothermal areas of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Areas that have been evolving for a few tens to a few tens of thousands of years are of particular interest. This effort will help determine the extent to which simplified modeling approaches can be used in performance assessment calculations. To guide the selection of natural systems, we are attempting to map potential repository regions dominated by equilibrium processes and those dominated by kinetically controlled processes. To do so, fluid velocities and temperatures were computed using the V-TOUGH code assuming an equivalent continuum, dual porosity model. These results were then used to compare advective fluid flow rate with silica dissolution/precipitation rates, using Damkoehler numbers. Only the first 5000 years of repository operation were considered. The results identify a migrating envelope of kinetically dominated activity several meters wide in the vicinity of waste packages that contrasts with other parts of the repository. The Lake Rotokawa region, New Zealand, has been used in our first test effort, since it contains environments that are examples of kinetic and equilibrium processes. The results of tests involving equilibrium processes show excellent correspondence between simulated and observed mineral alteration sequences, although discrepancies in some mineral parageneses demonstrate that operator decisions in conducting simulations must be considered an integral part of validation efforts.

  9. National Combustion Code: A Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Robert M.; Liu, Nan-Suey

    1997-01-01

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division conducts both basic research and technology, and system technology research for aerospace propulsion systems components. The research within the division, which is both computational and experimental, is aimed at improving fundamental understanding of flow physics in inlets, ducts, nozzles, turbomachinery, and combustors. This article and the following three articles highlight some of the work accomplished in 1996. A multidisciplinary combustor design system is critical for optimizing the combustor design process. Such a system should include sophisticated computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. The goal of the present effort is to develop some of the enabling technologies and to demonstrate their overall performance in an integrated system called the National Combustion Code.

  10. Transmission over UWB channels with OFDM system using LDPC coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziwoki, Grzegorz; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Sulek, Wojciech

    2009-06-01

    Hostile wireless environment requires use of sophisticated signal processing methods. The paper concerns on Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmission over Personal Area Networks (PAN) including MB-OFDM specification of physical layer. In presented work the transmission system with OFDM modulation was connected with LDPC encoder/decoder. Additionally the frame and bit error rate (FER and BER) of the system was decreased using results from the LDPC decoder in a kind of turbo equalization algorithm for better channel estimation. Computational block using evolutionary strategy, from genetic algorithms family, was also used in presented system. It was placed after SPA (Sum-Product Algorithm) decoder and is conditionally turned on in the decoding process. The result is increased effectiveness of the whole system, especially lower FER. The system was tested with two types of LDPC codes, depending on type of parity check matrices: randomly generated and constructed deterministically, optimized for practical decoder architecture implemented in the FPGA device.

  11. Performance enhancement of successive interference cancellation scheme based on spectral amplitude coding for optical code-division multiple-access systems using Hadamard codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltaif, Tawfig; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Shaari, Sahbudin; Hamarsheh, Mohammad M. N.

    2009-04-01

    A successive interference cancellation scheme is applied to optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) systems with spectral amplitude coding (SAC). A detailed analysis of this system, with Hadamard codes used as signature sequences, is presented. The system can easily remove the effect of the strongest signal at each stage of the cancellation process. In addition, simulation of the prose system is performed in order to validate the theoretical results. The system shows a small bit error rate at a large number of active users compared to the SAC OCDMA system. Our results reveal that the proposed system is efficient in eliminating the effect of the multiple-user interference and in the enhancement of the overall performance.

  12. Fish stranding in freshwater systems: sources, consequences, and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Nagrodski, Alexander; Raby, Graham D; Hasler, Caleb T; Taylor, Mark K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-07-30

    Fish can become stranded when water levels decrease, often rapidly, as a result of anthropogenic (e.g., canal drawdown, hydropeaking, vessel wakes) and natural (e.g., floods, drought, winter ice dynamics) events. We summarize existing research on stranding of fish in freshwater, discuss the sources, consequences, and mitigation options for stranding, and report current knowledge gaps. Our literature review revealed that ∼65.5% of relevant peer-reviewed articles were found to focus on stranding associated with hydropower operations and irrigation projects. In fact, anthropogenic sources of fish stranding represented 81.8% of available literature compared to only 19.9% attributed to natural fish stranding events. While fish mortality as a result of stranding is well documented, our analysis revealed that little is known about the sublethal and long-term consequences of stranding on growth and population dynamics. Furthermore, the contribution of stranding to annual mortality rates is poorly understood as are the potential ecosystem-scale impacts. Mitigation strategies available to deal with stranding include fish salvage, ramping rate limitations, and physical habitat works (e.g., to contour substrate to minimize stranding). However, a greater knowledge of the factors that cause fish stranding would promote the development and refinement of mitigation strategies that are economically and ecologically sustainable.

  13. Performance of a space-time block coded code division multiple access system over Nakagami-m fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangbin; Dong, Tao; Xu, Dazhuan; Bi, Guangguo

    2010-09-01

    By introducing an orthogonal space-time coding scheme, multiuser code division multiple access (CDMA) systems with different space time codes are given, and corresponding system performance is investigated over a Nakagami-m fading channel. A low-complexity multiuser receiver scheme is developed for space-time block coded CDMA (STBC-CDMA) systems. The scheme can make full use of the complex orthogonality of space-time block coding to simplify the high decoding complexity of the existing scheme. Compared to the existing scheme with exponential decoding complexity, it has linear decoding complexity. Based on the performance analysis and mathematical calculation, the average bit error rate (BER) of the system is derived in detail for integer m and non-integer m, respectively. As a result, a tight closed-form BER expression is obtained for STBC-CDMA with an orthogonal spreading code, and an approximate closed-form BER expression is attained for STBC-CDMA with a quasi-orthogonal spreading code. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve almost the same performance as the existing scheme with low complexity. Moreover, the simulation results for average BER are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  14. Error correcting coding-theory for structured light illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-06-01

    Intensity discrete structured light illumination systems project a series of projection patterns for the estimation of the absolute fringe order using only the temporal grey-level sequence at each pixel. This work proposes the use of error-correcting codes for pixel-wise correction of measurement errors. The use of an error correcting code is advantageous in many ways: it allows reducing the effect of random intensity noise, it corrects outliners near the border of the fringe commonly present when using intensity discrete patterns, and it provides a robustness in case of severe measurement errors (even for burst errors where whole frames are lost). The latter aspect is particular interesting in environments with varying ambient light as well as in critical safety applications as e.g. monitoring of deformations of components in nuclear power plants, where a high reliability is ensured even in case of short measurement disruptions. A special form of burst errors is the so-called salt and pepper noise, which can largely be removed with error correcting codes using only the information of a given pixel. The performance of this technique is evaluated using both simulations and experiments.

  15. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on current and future aircraft are increasing and as a result are stressing the energy collection, control, and dissipation capabilities of current thermal management systems and technology. The thermal loads for hypersonic vehicles will be no exception. In fact, with their projected high heat loads and fluxes, hypersonic vehicles are a prime example of systems that will require thermal management systems (TMS) that have been optimized and integrated with the entire vehicle to the maximum extent possible during the initial design stages. This will not only be to meet operational requirements, but also to fulfill weight and performance constraints in order for the vehicle to takeoff and complete its mission successfully. To meet this challenge, the TMS can no longer be two or more entirely independent systems, nor can thermal management be an after thought in the design process, the typical pervasive approach in the past. Instead, a TMS that was integrated throughout the entire vehicle and subsequently optimized will be required. To accomplish this, a method that iteratively optimizes the TMS throughout the vehicle will not only be highly desirable, but advantageous in order to reduce the manhours normally required to conduct the necessary tradeoff studies and comparisons. A thermal management engineering computer code that is under development and being managed at Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, is discussed. The primary goal of the code is to aid in the development of a hypersonic vehicle TMS that has been optimized and integrated on a total vehicle basis.

  16. A hydrodynamic study of pleural drainage systems: some practical consequences.

    PubMed

    Manzanet, Gerardo; Vela, Antonio; Corell, Ricardo; Morón, Ramón; Calderón, Rogelio; Suelves, Consuelo

    2005-06-01

    A pleural drainage system must be capable of efficiently evacuating the air or fluids from the pleural cavity so that adequate lung reexpansion can take place. The air flow and negative pressure of the system will depend on the particular design of each model. This experimental study analyzes the specifications and performance of the pleural drainage systems currently on the market. Thirteen models of pleural drainage systems connected to wall suction were examined. The models were classified into the following three groups: dry systems; wet systems; and single-chamber systems. We determined the ambient air flow and the negative pressure generated according to the suction level. The components of each model are also described. Under normal conditions, dry (except for the Sentinel Seal; Sherwood Medical; Tullamore, Ireland), wet, and single-chamber systems reach similar air flow rates (17 to 30, 24 to 27, and 22 to 28 L/min, respectively). With higher wall suction levels, wet systems increase the air flow (26 to 49 L/min) but the negative pressure becomes unstable because of the water loss phenomenon, dry systems increase the air flow (29 to 50 L/min) without modifying the regulator pressure, and single-chamber systems also raise the air flow (45 to 51 L/min) but increase the negative pressure. When there is an air leak, dry systems (except for the Sentinel Seal) lose less negative pressure than the other systems. The functioning of these systems can be optimized only by applying a suitable wall suction level adjusted to each case. Although the three types of systems are capable of evacuating adequate air flow rates, the negative pressure and the capacity to maintain it in the presence of an air leak are different in each system. Being fitted with valves and not water compartments makes the dry systems the safest and the ideal for use when the patient has to be moved.

  17. System Design Considerations In Bar-Code Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome

    1984-08-01

    The unified transfer function approach to the design of laser barcode scanner signal acquisition hardware is considered. The treatment of seemingly disparate system areas such as the optical train, the scanning spot, the electrical filter circuits, the effects of noise, and printing errors is presented using linear systems theory. Such important issues as determination of depth of modulation, filter specification, tolerancing of optical components, and optimi-zation of system performance in the presence of noise are discussed. The concept of effective spot size to allow for impact of optical system and analog processing circuitry upon depth of modulation is introduced. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles, but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic bar-code symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

  18. Consequences of organizational justice expectations in a selection system.

    PubMed

    Bell, Bradford S; Wiechmann, Darin; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2006-03-01

    This study examined several consequences of applicants' expectations of organizational justice at multiple stages in a selection process. The authors assessed the justice expectations of 1,832 job applicants prior to their participation in a testing process and examined how these expectations influenced their pretest attitudes and intentions as well as their perceptions of the testing process. Results revealed that applicants with higher expectations of justice reported higher levels of pretest motivation and more positive job acceptance and recommendation intentions. Justice expectations were also positively related to applicants' perceptions of justice in the testing process. Results provided some evidence that justice expectations have a moderating influence, such that justice perceptions have a greater influence on applicants' affective and cognitive states when expectations of justice are high. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of research on organizational justice and applicant perceptions.

  19. Trellis coded multilevel DPSK system with doppler correction for mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A trellis coded multilevel differential phase shift keyed mobile communication system. The system of the present invention includes a trellis encoder for translating input signals into trellis codes; a differential encoder for differentially encoding the trellis coded signals; a transmitter for transmitting the differentially encoded trellis coded signals; a receiver for receiving the transmitted signals; a differential demodulator for demodulating the received differentially encoded trellis coded signals; and a trellis decoder for decoding the differentially demodulated signals.

  20. A LONE code for the sparse control of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaramella, G.; Borzì, A.

    2016-03-01

    In many applications with quantum spin systems, control functions with a sparse and pulse-shaped structure are often required. These controls can be obtained by solving quantum optimal control problems with L1-penalized cost functionals. In this paper, the MATLAB package LONE is presented aimed to solving L1-penalized optimal control problems governed by unitary-operator quantum spin models. This package implements a new strategy that includes a globalized semi-smooth Krylov-Newton scheme and a continuation procedure. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the LONE code in computing accurate sparse optimal control solutions.

  1. Quantum Random Access Codes Using Single d -Level Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Hameedi, Alley; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Random access codes (RACs) are used by a party to, with limited communication, access an arbitrary subset of information held by another party. Quantum resources are known to enable RACs that break classical limitations. Here, we study quantum and classical RACs with high-level communication. We derive average performances of classical RACs and present families of high-level quantum RACs. Our results show that high-level quantum systems can significantly increase the advantage of quantum RACs over their classical counterparts. We demonstrate our findings in an experimental realization of a quantum RAC with four-level communication.

  2. Possible consequences of absence of "Jupiters" in planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1994-01-01

    The formation of the gas giant planets Jupiter and Saturn probably required the growth of massive approximately 15 Earth-mass cores on a time scale shorter than the approximately 10(7) time scale for removal of nebular gas. Relatively minor variations in nebular parameters could preclude the growth of full-size gas giants even in systems in which the terrestrial planet region is similar to our own. Systems containing "failed Jupiters," resembling Uranus and Neptune in their failure to capture much nebular gas, would be expected to contain more densely populated cometary source regions. They will also eject a smaller number of comets into interstellar space. If systems of this kind were the norm, observation of hyperbolic comets would be unexpected. Monte Carlo calculations of the orbital evolution of region of such systems (the Kuiper belt) indicate that throughout Earth history the cometary impact flux in their terrestrial planet regions would be approximately 1000 times greater than in our Solar System. It may be speculated that this could frustrate the evolution of organisms that observe and seek to understand their planetary system. For this reason our observation of these planets in our Solar System may tell us nothing about the probability of similar gas giants occurring in other planetary systems. This situation can be corrected by observation of an unbiased sample of planetary systems.

  3. [Data coding in the Israeli healthcare system - do choices provide the answers to our system's needs?].

    PubMed

    Zelingher, Julian; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The IsraeLi healthcare system has undergone major processes for the adoption of health information technologies (HIT), and enjoys high Levels of utilization in hospital and ambulatory care. Coding is an essential infrastructure component of HIT, and ts purpose is to represent data in a simplified and common format, enhancing its manipulation by digital systems. Proper coding of data enables efficient identification, storage, retrieval and communication of data. UtiLization of uniform coding systems by different organizations enables data interoperability between them, facilitating communication and integrating data elements originating in different information systems from various organizations. Current needs in Israel for heaLth data coding include recording and reporting of diagnoses for hospitalized patients, outpatients and visitors of the Emergency Department, coding of procedures and operations, coding of pathology findings, reporting of discharge diagnoses and causes of death, billing codes, organizational data warehouses and national registries. New national projects for cLinicaL data integration, obligatory reporting of quality indicators and new Ministry of Health (MOH) requirements for HIT necessitate a high Level of interoperability that can be achieved only through the adoption of uniform coding. Additional pressures were introduced by the USA decision to stop the maintenance of the ICD-9-CM codes that are also used by Israeli healthcare, and the adoption of ICD-10-C and ICD-10-PCS as the main coding system for billing purpose. The USA has also mandated utilization of SNOMED-CT as the coding terminology for the ELectronic Health Record problem list, and for reporting quality indicators to the CMS. Hence, the Israeli MOH has recently decided that discharge diagnoses will be reported using ICD-10-CM codes, and SNOMED-CT will be used to code the cLinical information in the EHR. We reviewed the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of these two coding

  4. YALINA analytical benchmark analyses using the deterministic ERANOS code system.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Aliberti, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-08-31

    The growing stockpile of nuclear waste constitutes a severe challenge for the mankind for more than hundred thousand years. To reduce the radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste, the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has been proposed. One of the most important issues of ADSs technology is the choice of the appropriate neutron spectrum for the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MA) and Long Lived Fission Products (LLFP). This report presents the analytical analyses obtained with the deterministic ERANOS code system for the YALINA facility within: (a) the collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research (JIPNR) Sosny of Belarus; and (b) the IAEA coordinated research projects for accelerator driven systems (ADS). This activity is conducted as a part of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) of DOE/NNSA.

  5. A new balanced modulation code for a phase-image-based holographic data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2005-08-01

    We propose a new balanced modulation code for coding data pages for phase-image-based holographic data storage systems. The new code addresses the coding subtleties associated with phase-based systems while performing a content-based search in a holographic database. The new code, which is a balanced modulation code, is a modification of the existing 8:12 modulation code, and removes the false hits that occur in phase-based content-addressable systems due to phase-pixel subtractions. We demonstrate the better performance of the new code using simulations and experiments in terms of discrimination ratio while content addressing through a holographic memory. The new code is compared with the conventional coding scheme to analyse the false hits due to subtraction of phase pixels.

  6. Earth system consequences of a Pine Island Glacier collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mattias; Schmittner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    An intermediate complexity climate model is used to simulate the impact of an accelerated Pine Island Glacier mass loss on the large-scale ocean circulation and climate. Simulations are performed for pre-industrial conditions using hosing levels consistent with present day observation of 3,000 m3 s-1, at an accelerated rate of 6,000 m3 s-1, and at a total collapse rate of 100,000 m3 s-1, and in all experiments the hosing lasted 100 years. It is shown that even a modest input of meltwater from the glacier can introduce an initial cooling over the upper part of the Southern Ocean due to increased stratification and ice cover leading to a reduced upward heat flux from Circumpolar Deep Water. This causes global ocean heat content to increase and global surface air temperatures to decrease. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) increases, presumably due to changes in the density difference between Antarctic Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. Simulations with a simultaneous hosing and increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations show smaller effects of the hosing on global surface air temperature and ocean heat content, which we attribute to the melting of Southern Ocean sea ice. The sensitivity of the AMOC to the hosing is also reduced as the warming by the atmosphere completely dominates the perturbations. Further consequences for oceanic biogeochemical cycles in realistic future warming scenarios are discussed.

  7. Abstract feature codes: The building blocks of the implicit learning system.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Katharina; Esser, Sarah; Haider, Hilde

    2017-07-01

    According to the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001), action and perception are represented in a shared format in the cognitive system by means of feature codes. In implicit sequence learning research, it is still common to make a conceptual difference between independent motor and perceptual sequences. This supposedly independent learning takes place in encapsulated modules (Keele, Ivry, Mayr, Hazeltine, & Heuer 2003) that process information along single dimensions. These dimensions have remained underspecified so far. It is especially not clear whether stimulus and response characteristics are processed in separate modules. Here, we suggest that feature dimensions as they are described in the TEC should be viewed as the basic content of modules of implicit learning. This means that the modules process all stimulus and response information related to certain feature dimensions of the perceptual environment. In 3 experiments, we investigated by means of a serial reaction time task the nature of the basic units of implicit learning. As a test case, we used stimulus location sequence learning. The results show that a stimulus location sequence and a response location sequence cannot be learned without interference (Experiment 2) unless one of the sequences can be coded via an alternative, nonspatial dimension (Experiment 3). These results support the notion that spatial location is one module of the implicit learning system and, consequently, that there are no separate processing units for stimulus versus response locations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. System for Processing Coded OFDM Under Doppler and Fading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Haiping; Darden, Scott; Lee, Dennis; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2005-01-01

    An advanced communication system has been proposed for transmitting and receiving coded digital data conveyed as a form of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in the presence of such adverse propagation-channel effects as large dynamic Doppler shifts and frequency-selective multipath fading. Such adverse channel effects are typical of data communications between mobile units or between mobile and stationary units (e.g., telemetric transmissions from aircraft to ground stations). The proposed system incorporates novel signal processing techniques intended to reduce the losses associated with adverse channel effects while maintaining compatibility with the high-speed physical layer specifications defined for wireless local area networks (LANs) as the standard 802.11a of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE 802.11a). OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique that is widely used for wireless transmission of data in LANs and in metropolitan area networks (MANs). OFDM has been adopted in IEEE 802.11a and some other industry standards because it affords robust performance under frequency-selective fading. However, its intrinsic frequency-diversity feature is highly sensitive to synchronization errors; this sensitivity poses a challenge to preserve coherence between the component subcarriers of an OFDM system in order to avoid intercarrier interference in the presence of large dynamic Doppler shifts as well as frequency-selective fading. As a result, heretofore, the use of OFDM has been limited primarily to applications involving small or zero Doppler shifts. The proposed system includes a digital coherent OFDM communication system that would utilize enhanced 802.1la-compatible signal-processing algorithms to overcome effects of frequency-selective fading and large dynamic Doppler shifts. The overall transceiver design would implement a two-frequency-channel architecture (see figure

  9. Behavioral and systemic consequences of long-term inflammatory challenge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina; Lund, Sten; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-11-15

    Inflammatory reactions are involved in a diversity of diseases, including major depressive disorder. Cytokines act as intercellular signaling molecules and mediators of inflammation between the periphery and the brain. Within the brain, evidence from animal studies of acute inflammation has shown that elevated cytokine levels are linked to behavioral responses of sickness and depression-like behavior. Although chronic inflammation is more translational to human depression than acute studies, little is known on central cytokine expression and associated behavioral responses following chronic immune challenges. The present study assessed behavioral changes and a selection of cytokines in the brain and in the blood in rats randomized to receive a single or 8week administration with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 600μg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Acute and long-term LPS treatments caused similar sickness and depression-like behavior. Chronic LPS administration did not have an effect on blood cytokine levels, indicating endotoxin tolerance, whereas increased fasting blood glucose was observed, indicating insulin resistance, a metabolic consequence of chronic inflammation. While a single LPS injection produced a generalized cytokine response in the brain, long-term LPS administration produced a specific central cytokine response with increased interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon (IFN)-γ. These cytokines can explain the behavioral changes observed, and could indicate microglia activation, although future studies are needed to uncover this assumption. Taken together, although the behavioral outcome was similar between acute and chronic LPS administration, the central cytokine response was distinct. As the long-term LPS paradigm also posed a metabolic demand, this setting may reflect a more translational insight into inflammatory reactions in human depression, and could prove useful for assessing cytokine down-stream effects and experimental antidepressant drug products.

  10. Codebase: A commercially developed code management system and code transfer facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, K.; Pfeifer, P.

    1989-12-01

    The CODEBASE package has been developed by the commercial software house BASE GmbH according to requirements typical for large HEP collaboration. CODEBASE runs currently on IBM/MVS, IBM/VM, VAX/VMS, and UNIX machines. An installations on CRAYs under UNICOS is foreseen. With code being developed by geographically distributed teams, priority has been given to powerful tools for code distribution and for well documented version keeping. Truly alternative versions of code are supported. Ease of use is provided by a menu-type full-screen interface which is common to all installations and which itself is interfaced to the respective local editor

  11. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Industry Classification System codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... Classification System codes and size standards. (a)(1) The contracting officer shall determine the appropriate North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code and related small business size standard and...

  12. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. (a) The contracting officer shall determine the... North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. (a) * * * For...

  13. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems... Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.512 Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems. (a) General. Procedural terminology and coding systems are designed to provide physicians and third party payers with a...

  14. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems... Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.512 Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems. (a) General. Procedural terminology and coding systems are designed to provide physicians and third party payers with a...

  15. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems... Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.512 Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems. (a) General. Procedural terminology and coding systems are designed to provide physicians and third party payers with a...

  16. Origin and evolution of the Saturn system: Observational consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    A number of important cosmogonic questions concerning the Saturn system can be addressed with a Saturn-orbiter-dual-probe spacecraft mission. These questions include: The origin of the Saturn system; the source of Saturn's excess luminosity; the mechanism by which the irregular satellites were captured; the influence of Saturn's early luminosity on the composition of its regular satellites; and the origin of the rings. The first two topics can be studied by measurements made from an entry probe into Saturn's atmosphere, while the remaining issues can be investigated by measurements conducted from an orbiter. Background information is provided on these five questions describing the critical experiments needed to help resolve them.

  17. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  18. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Claudia M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Azevedo, Andrea A; McGrath, David G

    2013-06-05

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3-5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation.

  19. Spatiotemporal Coding of Individual Chemicals by the Gustatory System

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Sam; Campillo Rodriguez, Chelsey; Sun, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Four of the five major sensory systems (vision, olfaction, somatosensation, and audition) are thought to use different but partially overlapping sets of neurons to form unique representations of vast numbers of stimuli. The only exception is gustation, which is thought to represent only small numbers of basic taste categories. However, using new methods for delivering tastant chemicals and making electrophysiological recordings from the tractable gustatory system of the moth Manduca sexta, we found chemical-specific information is as follows: (1) initially encoded in the population of gustatory receptor neurons as broadly distributed spatiotemporal patterns of activity; (2) dramatically integrated and temporally transformed as it propagates to monosynaptically connected second-order neurons; and (3) observed in tastant-specific behavior. Our results are consistent with an emerging view of the gustatory system: rather than constructing basic taste categories, it uses a spatiotemporal population code to generate unique neural representations of individual tastant chemicals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results provide a new view of taste processing. Using a new, relatively simple model system and a new set of techniques to deliver taste stimuli and to examine gustatory receptor neurons and their immediate followers, we found no evidence for labeled line connectivity, or basic taste categories such as sweet, salty, bitter, and sour. Rather, individual tastant chemicals are represented as patterns of spiking activity distributed across populations of receptor neurons. These representations are transformed substantially as multiple types of receptor neurons converge upon follower neurons, leading to a combinatorial coding format that uniquely, rapidly, and efficiently represents individual taste chemicals. Finally, we found that the information content of these neurons can drive tastant-specific behavior. PMID:26338341

  20. Spatiotemporal Coding of Individual Chemicals by the Gustatory System.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Sam; Campillo Rodriguez, Chelsey; Sun, Kui; Stopfer, Mark

    2015-09-02

    Four of the five major sensory systems (vision, olfaction, somatosensation, and audition) are thought to use different but partially overlapping sets of neurons to form unique representations of vast numbers of stimuli. The only exception is gustation, which is thought to represent only small numbers of basic taste categories. However, using new methods for delivering tastant chemicals and making electrophysiological recordings from the tractable gustatory system of the moth Manduca sexta, we found chemical-specific information is as follows: (1) initially encoded in the population of gustatory receptor neurons as broadly distributed spatiotemporal patterns of activity; (2) dramatically integrated and temporally transformed as it propagates to monosynaptically connected second-order neurons; and (3) observed in tastant-specific behavior. Our results are consistent with an emerging view of the gustatory system: rather than constructing basic taste categories, it uses a spatiotemporal population code to generate unique neural representations of individual tastant chemicals. Our results provide a new view of taste processing. Using a new, relatively simple model system and a new set of techniques to deliver taste stimuli and to examine gustatory receptor neurons and their immediate followers, we found no evidence for labeled line connectivity, or basic taste categories such as sweet, salty, bitter, and sour. Rather, individual tastant chemicals are represented as patterns of spiking activity distributed across populations of receptor neurons. These representations are transformed substantially as multiple types of receptor neurons converge upon follower neurons, leading to a combinatorial coding format that uniquely, rapidly, and efficiently represents individual taste chemicals. Finally, we found that the information content of these neurons can drive tastant-specific behavior. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512309-13$15.00/0.

  1. FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu

    2015-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.

  2. [Aging of the respiratory system: anatomical changes and physiological consequences].

    PubMed

    Ketata, W; Rekik, W K; Ayadi, H; Kammoun, S

    2012-10-01

    The respiratory system undergoes progressive involution with age, resulting in anatomical and functional changes that are exerted on all levels. The rib cage stiffens and respiratory muscles weaken. Distal bronchioles have reduced diameter and tend to be collapsed. Mobilized lung volumes decrease with age while residual volume increases. Gas exchanges are modified with a linear decrease of PaO(2) up to the age of 70 years and a decreased diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia, hypoxia and exercise decrease in the elderly. Knowledge of changes in the respiratory system related to advancing age is a medical issue of great importance in order to distinguish the effects of aging from those of diseases.

  3. [Formal care systems consequences of a vision on informal caretakers].

    PubMed

    Escuredo Rodríguez, Bibiana

    2006-10-01

    Care for dependent persons falls, fundamentally, on their family members who usually perceive this situation as a problem due to its repercussions on the family group in general and on the health and quality of life for the informal caretaker in particular. The burden which an informal caretaker assumes depends on diverse variables among which the most important are considered to be social assistance and the forms of help which the caretaker has to rely on. At the same time, the resources and help available are determined by the vision which the formal system has for informal caretakers; therefore, it is important that nurses, as caretakers in the formal system, have a clear idea about the situations that are created and that nurses reflect on the alternatives which allow a dependent person to be cared for without forgetting the needs and rights of the caretakers.

  4. Thermal consequences of impacts in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, Fred J.; Davison, Thomas M.; Collins, Gareth S.; O'Brien, David P.

    2013-12-01

    Collisions between planetesimals were common during the first approximately 100 Myr of solar system formation. Such collisions have been suggested to be responsible for thermal processing seen in some meteorites, although previous work has demonstrated that such events could not be responsible for the global thermal evolution of a meteorite parent body. At this early epoch in solar system history, however, meteorite parent bodies would have been heated or retained heat from the decay of short-lived radionuclides, most notably 26Al. The postimpact structure of an impacted body is shown here to be a strong function of the internal temperature structure of the target body. We calculate the temperature-time history of all mass in these impacted bodies, accounting for their heating in an onion-shell-structured body prior to the collision event and then allowing for the postimpact thermal evolution as heat from both radioactivities and the impact is diffused through the resulting planetesimal and radiated to space. The thermal histories of materials in these bodies are compared with what they would be in an unimpacted, onion-shell body. We find that while collisions in the early solar system led to the heating of a target body around the point of impact, a greater amount of mass had its cooling rates accelerated as a result of the flow of heated materials to the surface during the cratering event.

  5. EMPIRE: Nuclear Reaction Model Code System for Data Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, M.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Obložinský, P.; Sin, M.; Trkov, A.; Wienke, H.; Zerkin, V.

    2007-12-01

    EMPIRE is a modular system of nuclear reaction codes, comprising various nuclear models, and designed for calculations over a broad range of energies and incident particles. A projectile can be a neutron, proton, any ion (including heavy-ions) or a photon. The energy range extends from the beginning of the unresolved resonance region for neutron-induced reactions (∽ keV) and goes up to several hundred MeV for heavy-ion induced reactions. The code accounts for the major nuclear reaction mechanisms, including direct, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus ones. Direct reactions are described by a generalized optical model (ECIS03) or by the simplified coupled-channels approach (CCFUS). The pre-equilibrium mechanism can be treated by a deformation dependent multi-step direct (ORION + TRISTAN) model, by a NVWY multi-step compound one or by either a pre-equilibrium exciton model with cluster emission (PCROSS) or by another with full angular momentum coupling (DEGAS). Finally, the compound nucleus decay is described by the full featured Hauser-Feshbach model with γ-cascade and width-fluctuations. Advanced treatment of the fission channel takes into account transmission through a multiple-humped fission barrier with absorption in the wells. The fission probability is derived in the WKB approximation within the optical model of fission. Several options for nuclear level densities include the EMPIRE-specific approach, which accounts for the effects of the dynamic deformation of a fast rotating nucleus, the classical Gilbert-Cameron approach and pre-calculated tables obtained with a microscopic model based on HFB single-particle level schemes with collective enhancement. A comprehensive library of input parameters covers nuclear masses, optical model parameters, ground state deformations, discrete levels and decay schemes, level densities, fission barriers, moments of inertia and γ-ray strength functions. The results can be converted into ENDF-6 formatted files using the

  6. Functional consequences of B-repeat sequence variation in the staphylococcal biofilm protein Aap: deciphering the assembly code.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Catherine L; Conrady, Deborah G; Herr, Andrew B

    2017-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen that can form robust biofilms that render the bacteria resistant to antibiotic action and immune responses. Intercellular adhesion in S. epidermidis biofilms is mediated by the cell wall-associated accumulation-associated protein (Aap), via zinc-mediated self-assembly of its B-repeat region. This region contains up to 17 nearly identical sequence repeats, with each repeat assumed to be functionally equivalent. However, Aap B-repeats exist as two subtypes, defined by a cluster of consensus or variant amino acids. These variable residues are positioned near the zinc-binding (and dimerization) site and the stability determinant for the B-repeat fold. We have characterized four B-repeat constructs to assess the functional relevance of the two Aap B-repeat subtypes. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments demonstrated that constructs with the variant sequence show reduced or absent Zn(2+)-induced dimerization. Likewise, circular dichroism thermal denaturation experiments showed that the variant sequence could significantly stabilize the fold, depending on its location within the construct. Crystal structures of three of the constructs revealed that the side chains from the variant sequence form an extensive bonding network that can stabilize the fold. Furthermore, altered distribution of charged residues between consensus and variant sequences changes the electrostatic potential in the vicinity of the Zn(2+)-binding site, providing a mechanistic explanation for the loss of zinc-induced dimerization in the variant constructs. These data suggest an assembly code that defines preferred oligomerization modes of the B-repeat region of Aap and a slip-grip model for initial contact followed by firm intercellular adhesion during biofilm formation. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  8. Corrosion consequences of microfouling in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the potential fouling and corrosion problems associated with microbial film formation throughout the water reclamation system (WRS) designed for the Space Station Freedom. It is shown that the use of advanced metal sputtering techiques combined with image analysis and FTIR spectroscopy will present realistic solutions for investigating the formation and function of biofilm on different alloys, the subsequent corrosion, and the efficiency of different treatments. These techniques, used in combination with electrochemical measurements of corrosion, will provide a powerful approach to examinations of materials considered for use in the WRS.

  9. Corrosion consequences of microfouling in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the potential fouling and corrosion problems associated with microbial film formation throughout the water reclamation system (WRS) designed for the Space Station Freedom. It is shown that the use of advanced metal sputtering techiques combined with image analysis and FTIR spectroscopy will present realistic solutions for investigating the formation and function of biofilm on different alloys, the subsequent corrosion, and the efficiency of different treatments. These techniques, used in combination with electrochemical measurements of corrosion, will provide a powerful approach to examinations of materials considered for use in the WRS.

  10. The Use of Automated SNOMED CT Clinical Coding in Clinical Decision Support Systems for Preventive Care.

    PubMed

    Al-Hablani, Bader

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss and analyze the use of automated SNOMED CT clinical coding in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for preventive care. The central question that this study seeks to answer is whether the utilization of SNOMED CT in CDSSs can improve preventive care. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2012 on SNOMED CT, CDSS, and preventive care. Outcome measures were the sensitivity or specificity of SNOMED CT coded data and the positive predictive value or negative predictive value of SNOMED CT coded data. Additionally, we documented the publication year, research question, study design, results, and conclusions of these studies. The reviewed studies suggested that SNOMED CT successfully represents clinical terms and negated clinical terms. The use of SNOMED CT in CDSS can be considered to provide an answer to the problem of medical errors as well as for preventive care in general. Enhancement of the modifiers and synonyms found in SNOMED CT will be necessary to improve the expected outcome of the integration of SNOMED CT with CDSS. Moreover, the application of the tree-augmented naïve (TAN) Bayesian network method can be considered the best technique to search SNOMED CT data and, consequently, to help improve preventive health services.

  11. The Use of Automated SNOMED CT Clinical Coding in Clinical Decision Support Systems for Preventive Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hablani, Bader

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to discuss and analyze the use of automated SNOMED CT clinical coding in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for preventive care. The central question that this study seeks to answer is whether the utilization of SNOMED CT in CDSSs can improve preventive care. Method PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2012 on SNOMED CT, CDSS, and preventive care. Outcome Measures Outcome measures were the sensitivity or specificity of SNOMED CT coded data and the positive predictive value or negative predictive value of SNOMED CT coded data. Additionally, we documented the publication year, research question, study design, results, and conclusions of these studies. Results The reviewed studies suggested that SNOMED CT successfully represents clinical terms and negated clinical terms. Conclusion The use of SNOMED CT in CDSS can be considered to provide an answer to the problem of medical errors as well as for preventive care in general. Enhancement of the modifiers and synonyms found in SNOMED CT will be necessary to improve the expected outcome of the integration of SNOMED CT with CDSS. Moreover, the application of the tree-augmented naïve (TAN) Bayesian network method can be considered the best technique to search SNOMED CT data and, consequently, to help improve preventive health services. PMID:28566995

  12. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  13. Charged and neutral particle transport methods and applications: The CALOR code system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Charlton, L.A.

    1997-04-01

    The CALOR code system, which is a complete radiation transport code system, is described with emphasis on the high-energy (> 20 MeV) nuclear collision models. Codes similar to CALOR are also briefly discussed. A current application using CALOR which deals with the development of the National Spallation Neutron Source is also given.

  14. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  17. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  19. Verification of ARES transport code system with TAKEDA benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Penghe; Chen, Mengteng; Zhao, Jingchang; Zhang, Shun; Chen, Yixue

    2015-10-01

    Neutron transport modeling and simulation are central to many areas of nuclear technology, including reactor core analysis, radiation shielding and radiation detection. In this paper the series of TAKEDA benchmarks are modeled to verify the critical calculation capability of ARES, a discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code system. SALOME platform is coupled with ARES to provide geometry modeling and mesh generation function. The Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel sweep algorithm is applied to accelerate the traditional transport calculation process. The results show that the eigenvalues calculated by ARES are in excellent agreement with the reference values presented in NEACRP-L-330, with a difference less than 30 pcm except for the first case of model 3. Additionally, ARES provides accurate fluxes distribution compared to reference values, with a deviation less than 2% for region-averaged fluxes in all cases. All of these confirms the feasibility of ARES-SALOME coupling and demonstrate that ARES has a good performance in critical calculation.

  20. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian [Livermore, CA; Vetter, Kai M [Alameda, CA

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  1. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  2. RFSYS: an inventory code for RF system parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Treadwell, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    RFSYS is a program which maintains an inventory of rf system parameters associated with the 200 MeV Linear Accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The program, written by Elliott Treadwell, of the Linac group, offers five modes of operation: (1) Allocates memory space for additional rf systems (data arrays). (2) Prints a total or partial list of old tube parameters on an ADM-3 terminal. (3) Changes tube data stored in the master array. If the number of systems increases, this mode permits the user to enter new data. (4) Computes the average time of operation for a given tube and system. (5) Stops program execution. There is an exit option, (a) create one output data file or (b) create three output files, one of which contains column headers and coded comments. All output files are stored on the CYBER-175 disc, and eventually on high density (6250 B.P.I.) magnetic tapes. This arrangement eliminates the necessity for online data buffers.

  3. A simple model of optimal population coding for sensory systems.

    PubMed

    Doi, Eizaburo; Lewicki, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    A fundamental task of a sensory system is to infer information about the environment. It has long been suggested that an important goal of the first stage of this process is to encode the raw sensory signal efficiently by reducing its redundancy in the neural representation. Some redundancy, however, would be expected because it can provide robustness to noise inherent in the system. Encoding the raw sensory signal itself is also problematic, because it contains distortion and noise. The optimal solution would be constrained further by limited biological resources. Here, we analyze a simple theoretical model that incorporates these key aspects of sensory coding, and apply it to conditions in the retina. The model specifies the optimal way to incorporate redundancy in a population of noisy neurons, while also optimally compensating for sensory distortion and noise. Importantly, it allows an arbitrary input-to-output cell ratio between sensory units (photoreceptors) and encoding units (retinal ganglion cells), providing predictions of retinal codes at different eccentricities. Compared to earlier models based on redundancy reduction, the proposed model conveys more information about the original signal. Interestingly, redundancy reduction can be near-optimal when the number of encoding units is limited, such as in the peripheral retina. We show that there exist multiple, equally-optimal solutions whose receptive field structure and organization vary significantly. Among these, the one which maximizes the spatial locality of the computation, but not the sparsity of either synaptic weights or neural responses, is consistent with known basic properties of retinal receptive fields. The model further predicts that receptive field structure changes less with light adaptation at higher input-to-output cell ratios, such as in the periphery.

  4. Evaluation of playground injuries based on ICD, E codes, international classification of external cause of injury codes (ICECI), and abbreviated injury scale coding systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, N C; Ang, A; Heng, D; Chen, J; Wong, H B

    2007-01-01

    The survey is aimed to describe the epidemiology of playground related injuries in Singapore based on the ICD-9, AIS/ ISS and PTS scoring systems, and mechanisms and causes of such injuries according to E codes and ICECI codes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey examined children (< 16 years old), who sought treatment for or died of unintentional injuries in the ED of three hospitals, two primary care centers and the sole Forensic Medicine Department of Singapore. A data dictionary was compiled using guidelines from CDC/WHO. The ISS, AIS and PTS, ICD-9, ICECI v1 and E codes were used to describe the details of the injuries. 19,094 childhood injuries were recorded in the database, of which 1617 were playground injuries (8.5%). The injured children (mean age=6.8 years, SD 2.9 years) were predo-minantly male (M:F ratio = 1.71:1). Falls were the most frequent in-juries (70.7%) using ICECI. 25.0% of injuries involved radial and ulnar fractures (ICD-9 code). 99.4% of these injuries were minor, with PTS scores of 9-12. Children aged 6-10 years, were prone to upper limb injuries (71.1%) based on AIS. The use of international coding systems in injury surveillance facilitated standardisation of description and comparison of playground injuries.

  5. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  6. Using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software in high-consequence safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.A.; Preckshot, G.G.; Gallagher, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    This Paper is based On work performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[ to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in understanding the state of the art with respect to applying commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) -software to high-consequence safety systems. These systems, for which the consequences of failure can be severe or catastrophic, must be developer implemented, and maintained in ways that Provide assurance that catastrophic consequences will be prevented. This paper discusses various aspects of the question of using commercially available software in these systems. Risk, grading, and system assessment are discussed, and relevant standards are summarized. A recommendation for addressing key issues regarding the use of commercial software in high-consequence safety systems is given.

  7. Performance Analysis of a CDMA VSAT System With Convoltional and Reed-Solomon Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Error Correction (FEC), Walsh codes and PN sequences are used to generate a CDMA system and FEC is used to further improve the performance. Convolutional and block coding methods are examined and the results are obtained for each different case, including concatenated use of the codes, The performance of the system is given in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER), As observed from the results, the performance is mainly affected by the number of users and the code

  8. Variable weight Khazani-Syed code using hybrid fixed-dynamic technique for optical code division multiple access system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah

    2016-10-01

    Future Internet consists of a wide spectrum of applications with different bit rates and quality of service (QoS) requirements. Prioritizing the services is essential to ensure that the delivery of information is at its best. Existing technologies have demonstrated how service differentiation techniques can be implemented in optical networks using data link and network layer operations. However, a physical layer approach can further improve system performance at a prescribed received signal quality by applying control at the bit level. This paper proposes a coding algorithm to support optical domain service differentiation using spectral amplitude coding techniques within an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) scenario. A particular user or service has a varying weight applied to obtain the desired signal quality. The properties of the new code are compared with other OCDMA codes proposed for service differentiation. In addition, a mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of the proposed code using two different detection techniques, namely direct decoding and complementary subtraction.

  9. Development of System Based Code: Case Study of Life-Cycle Margin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai Asayama; Masaki Morishita; Masanori Tashimo

    2006-07-01

    For a leap of progress in structural deign of nuclear plant components, The late Professor Emeritus Yasuhide Asada proposed the System Based Code. The key concepts of the System Based Code are; (1) life-cycle margin optimization, (2) expansion of technical options as well as combinations of technical options beyond the current codes and standards, and (3) designing to clearly defined target reliabilities. Those concepts are very new to most of the nuclear power plant designers who are naturally obliged to design to current codes and standards; the application of the concepts of the System Based Code to design will lead to entire change of practices that designers have long been accustomed to. On the other hand, experienced designers are supposed to have expertise that can support and accelerate the development of the System Based Code. Therefore, interfacing with experienced designers is of crucial importance for the development of the System Based Code. The authors conducted a survey on the acceptability of the System Based Code concept. The results were analyzed from the possibility of improving structural design both in terms of reliability and cost effectiveness by the introduction of the System Based Code concept. It was concluded that the System Based Code is beneficial for those purposes. Also described is the expertise elicited from the results of the survey that can be reflected to the development of the System Based Code. (authors)

  10. Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System.

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER, RANDAL S.

    2009-09-10

    Version 00 PARTISN (PARallel, TIme-Dependent SN) is the evolutionary successor to CCC-547/DANTSYS. The PARTISN code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent or dependent multigroup discrete ordinates form of the Boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, the Solver Module, and the Edit Module, respectively. PARTISN is the evolutionary successor to the DANTSYSTM code system package. The Input and Edit Modules in PARTISN are very similar to those in DANTSYS. However, unlike DANTSYS, the Solver Module in PARTISN contains one, two, and three-dimensional solvers in a single module. In addition to the diamond-differencing method, the Solver Module also has Adaptive Weighted Diamond-Differencing (AWDD), Linear Discontinuous (LD), and Exponential Discontinuous (ED) spatial differencing methods. The spatial mesh may consist of either a standard orthogonal mesh or a block adaptive orthogonal mesh. The Solver Module may be run in parallel for two and three dimensional problems. One can now run 1-D problems in parallel using Energy Domain Decomposition (triggered by Block 5 input keyword npeg>0). EDD can also be used in 2-D/3-D with or without our standard Spatial Domain Decomposition. Both the static (fixed source or eigenvalue) and time-dependent forms of the transport equation are solved in forward or adjoint mode. In addition, PARTISN now has a probabilistic mode for Probability of Initiation (static) and Probability of Survival (dynamic) calculations. Vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, or inhomogeneous boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering and inhomogeneous sources are permitted. PARTISN solves the transport equation on orthogonal (single level or block-structured AMR) grids in 1-D (slab, two

  11. Moment Tensor code for the Antelope Environmental Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J.; Newman, R.; Vernon, F.; van den Hazel, G.

    2012-04-01

    The time domain seismic moment tensor inversion software package written by Dreger (2003) and updated by Minson & Dreger (2008) has been rewritten for inclusion into the open-source contributed code repository for the Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) Antelope Environmental Monitoring System. The new code-base was written natively in the Python language and utilizes the Python interface to Antelope (Lindquist et al., 2008) for data access, Scientific Tools for Python library (Eric Jones et al., 2001) for computation and analysis, and the ObsPy library (Beyreuther et al., 2010) for graphical representation. The new code archives all data products into a Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) 3.0 schema table for easy access and distribution of solutions. Stability of the analysis, verification of results and correlation of solutions with similar methods are discussed in this presentation. Analysis is focused on regional earthquakes recorded by Earthscope's USArray network and event parameters are taken from real time and post-event processed data analysis at the Array Network Facility (ANF). A calibrated velocity model representative of the south-west continental United States is used for the analysis. Beyreuther, M., Barsch, R., Krischer, L., Megies, T., Behr, Y. and Wassermann, J. (2010) ObsPy: A Python Toolbox for Seismology, Seismic Research Letters, 81(3), 530-533. Dreger, D. (2003) TDMT_INV: Time Domain Seismic Moment Tensor INVersion, International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Volume 81B, p 1627. Eric Jones, Travis Oliphant, Pearu Peterson (2001) SciPy: Open Source Scientific Tools for Python, "http://www.scipy.org/" Lindquist, K.G., Clemesha, A., Newman, R.L. and Vernon, F.L. (2008) The Python Interface to Antelope and Applications. Eos Trans. AGU 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract G43A-0671 Minson, S. & Dreger, D. (2008) Stable inversions for complete moment tensors. Geophys. J. Int., 174, 585-592 Saikia, C. (1994) Modified frequency

  12. Multiparticle Monte Carlo Code System for Shielding and Criticality Use.

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    Version 00 COG is a modern, full-featured Monte Carlo radiation transport code that provides accurate answers to complex shielding, criticality, and activation problems.COG was written to be state-of-the-art and free of physics approximations and compromises found in earlier codes. COG is fully 3-D, uses point-wise cross sections and exact angular scattering, and allows a full range of biasing options to speed up solutions for deep penetration problems. Additionally, a criticality option is available for computing Keff for assemblies of fissile materials. ENDL or ENDFB cross section libraries may be used. COG home page: http://cog.llnl.gov. Cross section libraries are included in the package. COG can use either the LLNL ENDL-90 cross section set or the ENDFB/VI set. Analytic surfaces are used to describe geometric boundaries. Parts (volumes) are described by a method of Constructive Solid Geometry. Surface types include surfaces of up to fourth order, and pseudo-surfaces such as boxes, finite cylinders, and figures of revolution. Repeated assemblies need be defined only once. Parts are visualized in cross-section and perspective picture views. A lattice feature simplifies the specification of regular arrays of parts. Parallel processing under MPI is supported for multi-CPU systems. Source and random-walk biasing techniques may be selected to improve solution statistics. These include source angular biasing, importance weighting, particle splitting and Russian roulette, pathlength stretching, point detectors, scattered direction biasing, and forced collisions. Criticality – For a fissioning system, COG will compute Keff by transporting batches of neutrons through the system. Activation – COG can compute gamma-ray doses due to neutron-activated materials, starting with just a neutron source. Coupled Problems – COG can solve coupled problems involving neutrons, photons, and electrons. COG 11.1 is an updated version of COG11.1 BETA 2 (RSICC C00777MNYCP02). New

  13. Web- and system-code based, interactive, nuclear power plant simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K. D.; Jain, P.; Rizwan, U.

    2006-07-01

    Using two different approaches, on-line, web- and system-code based graphical user interfaces have been developed for reactor system analysis. Both are LabVIEW (graphical programming language developed by National Instruments) based systems that allow local users as well as those at remote sites to run, interact and view the results of the system code in a web browser. In the first approach, only the data written by the system code in a tab separated ASCII output file is accessed and displayed graphically. In the second approach, LabVIEW virtual instruments are coupled with the system code as dynamic link libraries (DLL). RELAP5 is used as the system code to demonstrate the capabilities of these approaches. From collaborative projects between teams in geographically remote locations to providing system code experience to distance education students, these tools can be very beneficial in many areas of teaching and R and D. (authors)

  14. Evaluation and implementation of QR Code Identity Tag system for Healthcare in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Vassilya; Bilgin, Sami

    2016-01-01

    For this study, we designed a QR Code Identity Tag system to integrate into the Turkish healthcare system. This system provides QR code-based medical identification alerts and an in-hospital patient identification system. Every member of the medical system is assigned a unique QR Code Tag; to facilitate medical identification alerts, the QR Code Identity Tag can be worn as a bracelet or necklace or carried as an ID card. Patients must always possess the QR Code Identity bracelets within hospital grounds. These QR code bracelets link to the QR Code Identity website, where detailed information is stored; a smartphone or standalone QR code scanner can be used to scan the code. The design of this system allows authorized personnel (e.g., paramedics, firefighters, or police) to access more detailed patient information than the average smartphone user: emergency service professionals are authorized to access patient medical histories to improve the accuracy of medical treatment. In Istanbul, we tested the self-designed system with 174 participants. To analyze the QR Code Identity Tag system's usability, the participants completed the System Usability Scale questionnaire after using the system.

  15. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care.

  16. Comparision of adaptive quadrature mirror filter subband coding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Jonathan E.; Marcozzi, Elena; Raveglia, Dalmazio

    1990-06-01

    We investigate high quality coding systems by exploiting both statistical andpsychovisual video signal properties. Source image filtering via Quadrature Mirror Filters (QMF) and quantization of the obtained subbands, seem suitable to exploit both these signal properties. All the investigated QMF filters are separable, non-recursive, and oftwo different types. The first type consists of linear phase filters which allow, after synthesis, exact cancellation of all aliasing, but the overall characteristic of the analysis-synthesis system has amplitudeonly approximately constant The secondtype is constitutedby more sophisticated filters which allow exact signal reconsiruction and, naturally, cancellation of all aliasing; however, the single filters constituting the bank can be nonlinear phase filters. These can be implemented by a lattice structure which induces, and thereby guarantees, perfectreconstruction even ifthelatticeparameters arecoarsely quantized. Uniform quantizers havebeenchosen for all subbands, with DPCM for the lowest frequency band and PCM for the higher frequency bands. Certain quantizer parameters are adapted to the type of filter used. Additional parameters are adaptively adjusted according to the statistics of the subbands. This work aims at finding a satisfactory compromise between the characteristics of the QMF filter bank and those of the coders.

  17. Coding the Assembly of Polyoxotungstates with a Programmable Reaction System.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de la Oliva, Andreu; Sans, Victor; Miras, Haralampos N; Long, De-Liang; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-05-01

    Chemical transformations are normally conducted in batch or flow mode, thereby allowing the chemistry to be temporally or spatially controlled, but these approaches are not normally combined dynamically. However, the investigation of the underlying chemistry masked by the self-assembly processes that often occur in one-pot reactions and exploitation of the potential of complex chemical systems requires control in both time and space. Additionally, maintaining the intermediate constituents of a self-assembled system "off equilibrium" and utilizing them dynamically at specific time intervals provide access to building blocks that cannot coexist under one-pot conditions and ultimately to the formation of new clusters. Herein, we implement the concept of a programmable networked reaction system, allowing us to connect discrete "one-pot" reactions that produce the building block{W11O38} ≡ {W11} under different conditions and control, in real time, the assembly of a series of polyoxometalate clusters {W12O42} ≡ {W12}, {W22O74} ≡ {W22} 1a, {W34O116} ≡ {W34} 2a, and {W36O120} ≡ {W36} 3a, using pH and ultraviolet-visible monitoring. The programmable networked reaction system reveals that is possible to assemble a range of different clusters using {W11}-based building blocks, demonstrating the relationship between the clusters within the family of iso-polyoxotungstates, with the final structural motif being entirely dependent on the building block libraries generated in each separate reaction space within the network. In total, this approach led to the isolation of five distinct inorganic clusters using a "fixed" set of reagents and using a fully automated sequence code, rather than five entirely different reaction protocols. As such, this approach allows us to discover, record, and implement complex one-pot reaction syntheses in a more general way, increasing the yield and reproducibility and potentially giving access to nonspecialists.

  18. Coding the Assembly of Polyoxotungstates with a Programmable Reaction System

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chemical transformations are normally conducted in batch or flow mode, thereby allowing the chemistry to be temporally or spatially controlled, but these approaches are not normally combined dynamically. However, the investigation of the underlying chemistry masked by the self-assembly processes that often occur in one-pot reactions and exploitation of the potential of complex chemical systems requires control in both time and space. Additionally, maintaining the intermediate constituents of a self-assembled system “off equilibrium” and utilizing them dynamically at specific time intervals provide access to building blocks that cannot coexist under one-pot conditions and ultimately to the formation of new clusters. Herein, we implement the concept of a programmable networked reaction system, allowing us to connect discrete “one-pot” reactions that produce the building block{W11O38} ≡ {W11} under different conditions and control, in real time, the assembly of a series of polyoxometalate clusters {W12O42} ≡ {W12}, {W22O74} ≡ {W22} 1a, {W34O116} ≡ {W34} 2a, and {W36O120} ≡ {W36} 3a, using pH and ultraviolet–visible monitoring. The programmable networked reaction system reveals that is possible to assemble a range of different clusters using {W11}-based building blocks, demonstrating the relationship between the clusters within the family of iso-polyoxotungstates, with the final structural motif being entirely dependent on the building block libraries generated in each separate reaction space within the network. In total, this approach led to the isolation of five distinct inorganic clusters using a “fixed” set of reagents and using a fully automated sequence code, rather than five entirely different reaction protocols. As such, this approach allows us to discover, record, and implement complex one-pot reaction syntheses in a more general way, increasing the yield and reproducibility and potentially giving access to nonspecialists. PMID:28414229

  19. A dual-sided coded-aperture radiation detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, R. D.; Hood, W. E.; Polichar, R. M.; Cardone, F. H.; Chavez, L. G.; Grubbs, S. G.; Huntley, B. P.; Kuharski, R. A.; Shyffer, R. T.; Fabris, L.; Ziock, K. P.; Labov, S. E.; Nelson, K.

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a large-area, mobile, coded-aperture radiation imaging system for localizing compact radioactive sources in three dimensions while rejecting distributed background. The 3D Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS-3D) has been tested at speeds up to 95 km/h and has detected and located sources in the millicurie range at distances of over 100 m. Radiation data are imaged to a geospatially mapped world grid with a nominal 1.25- to 2.5-m pixel pitch at distances out to 120 m on either side of the platform. Source elevation is also extracted. Imaged radiation alarms are superimposed on a side-facing video log that can be played back for direct localization of sources in buildings in urban environments. The system utilizes a 37-element array of 5×5×50 cm 3 cesium-iodide (sodium) detectors. Scintillation light is collected by a pair of photomultiplier tubes placed at either end of each detector, with the detectors achieving an energy resolution of 6.15% FWHM (662 keV) and a position resolution along their length of 5 cm FWHM. The imaging system generates a dual-sided two-dimensional image allowing users to efficiently survey a large area. Imaged radiation data and raw spectra are forwarded to the RadioNuclide Analysis Kit (RNAK), developed by our collaborators, for isotope ID. An intuitive real-time display aids users in performing searches. Detector calibration is dynamically maintained by monitoring the potassium-40 peak and digitally adjusting individual detector gains. We have recently realized improvements, both in isotope identification and in distinguishing compact sources from background, through the installation of optimal-filter reconstruction kernels.

  20. System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.

    2007-09-25

    A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

  1. Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29).

  2. TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 3; Evaluation of System Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.

    1999-01-01

    TFANS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFANS consists of: The codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. Cup3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report evaluates TFANS versus full-scale and ADP 22" fig data using the semi-empirical wake modelling in the system. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume 1: System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume II: User's Manual, TFANS Version 1.4; Volume III: Evaluation of System Codes.

  3. Error correction coding for frequency-hopping multiple-access spread spectrum communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A communication system which would effect channel coding for frequency-hopped multiple-access is described. It is shown that in theory coding can increase the spectrum utilization efficiency of a system with mutual interference to 100 percent. Various coding strategies are discussed and some initial comparisons are given. Some of the problems associated with implementing the type of system described here are discussed.

  4. Modifying real convolutional codes for protecting digital filtering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redinbo, G. R.; Zagar, Bernhard

    1993-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for protecting digital filters from temporary and permanent failures that are not easily detected by conventional fault-tolerant computer design principles, on the basis of the error-detecting properties of real convolutional codes. Erroneous behavior is detected by externally comparing the calculated and regenerated parity samples. Great simplifications are obtainable by modifying the code structure to yield simplified parity channels with finite impulse response structures. A matrix equation involving the original parity values of the code and the polynomial of the digital filter's transfer function is formed, and row manipulations separate this equation into a set of homogeneous equations constraining the modifying scaling coefficients and another set which defines the code parity values' implementation.

  5. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft are presented.

  6. Optimization of Power Systems Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep, Kusum

    2008-10-01

    This talk highlights the recently proposed Real Coded Crossover Operator, called the Laplace Crossover (LX) of [1] and Real Coded Mutation Operator called Power Mutation (PM) of [2], wherein The performance of LX and PM is compared with Heuristic Crossover (HX) and Non-Uniform Mutation (NUM) and Makinen, Periaux and Toivanen Mutation (MPTM). The test bed is a set of 20 test problems available in global optimization literature. Various performance criterion like computational cost, success rate, solution quality, efficiency and reliability are reported using two kinds of analysis. The results show that LX-PM outperforms all other GAs considered. In this paper, the above algorithms are extended for obtaining global optimal solution of constrained optimization problems. Constraints are handled using the parameter less approach proposed by Deb and the six RCGAs described above are modified accordingly. Comparison is shown with other existing RCGAs using Simulated Binary Crossover (SBX) and Polynomial Mutation (POL) of [3], [4]. Inclusion of two operators, SBX and POL, gives rise to two more combinations namely, LX with POL and SBX with PM. Two new RCGAs namely, LX-POL and SBX-PM are proposed by taking these two operators into account. Thus, in all, nine RCGAs are used for comparative study, namely: LX-POL, LX-PM, LX-MPTM, LX-NUM, HX-PM, HX-MPTM, HX-NUM, SBX-POL and SBX-PM. A set of 25 benchmark test problems are chosen, consisting of linear/nonlinear objective function and equality/inequality constraint. Comparison is made with respect to percentage of success, the average number of function evaluations and execution of successful runs. It is observed that the overall success rate of LX-POL is better than all other RCGAs. Based on extensive analysis, it is concluded that LX-POL clearly outperform other RCGAs considered in this study. The problem of optimization of Directional Over current Relay is modeled as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem. It is required

  7. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards...

  8. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. (a) The contracting officer shall determine the...

  9. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. Contracting...

  10. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. Contracting...

  11. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards...

  12. Cause-consequence analysis of a generic Space Station computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauperas, John

    This paper reviews the application of a cause-consequence analysis technique to summarize the safety concerns and proposed safeguards for a generic Space Station computer system. The cause-consequence diagram included in this paper presents a summary of causal factors for the initiating event. The diagram also identifies the inherent safety features of the computer system, both hardware and software, that preclude unwanted command and control functions. Additional safeguards needed to prevent or minimize the occurrence of the noted safety critical hazards are also shown in the event tree portion of the diagram. A complex safety analysis of a computer system application is summarized on a single page for management review.

  13. Analysis of the KUCA MEU experiments using the ANL code system

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroya, S.; Hayashi, M.; Kanda, K.; Shibata, T.; Woodruff, W.L.; Matos, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides some preliminary results on the analysis of the KUCA critical experiments using the ANL code system. Since this system was employed in the earlier neutronics calculations for the KUHFR, it is important to assess its capabilities for the KUHFR. The KUHFR has a unique core configuration which is difficult to model precisely with current diffusion theory codes. This paper also provides some results from a finite-element diffusion code (2D-FEM-KUR), which was developed in a cooperative research program between KURRI and JAERI. This code provides the capability for mockup of a complex core configuration as the KUHFR. Using the same group constants generated by the EPRI-CELL code, the results of the 2D-FEM-KUR code are compared with the finite difference diffusion code (DIF3D(2D) which is mainly employed in this analysis.

  14. The Unintended Consequences of the Adoption of Electronic Medical Record Systems on Healthcare Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganju, Kartik K.

    2016-01-01

    In my dissertation, I study unintended consequences of the adoption of EMR systems. In my three essays, I examine how the adoption of EMR systems affects neighboring hospitals (spillover effects), can be used by hospitals to further its objectives in an unconventional manner ("upcoding" of patient case mix data), and how EMR adoption may…

  15. The Unintended Consequences of the Adoption of Electronic Medical Record Systems on Healthcare Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganju, Kartik K.

    2016-01-01

    In my dissertation, I study unintended consequences of the adoption of EMR systems. In my three essays, I examine how the adoption of EMR systems affects neighboring hospitals (spillover effects), can be used by hospitals to further its objectives in an unconventional manner ("upcoding" of patient case mix data), and how EMR adoption may…

  16. Optical CDMA system using 2-D run-length limited code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Maw-Yang; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, time-spreading wavelength-hopping optical CDMA system using 2-D run-length limited code is investigated. The run-length limited code we use here is predicated upon spatial coding scheme, which can improve system performance significantly. In our proposed system, we employ carrier-hopping prime code and its shifted version as signature sequences. Based on the zero auto-correlation sidelobes property of signature sequence, we propose a two-state trellis coding architecture, which utilizes 2-D parallel detection scheme. The proposed scheme is compact and simple that can be applied to more complicated trellis to further enhance system performance. Multiple access interference is the main deterioration factor in optical CDMA system that affects system performance adversely. Aside from the multiple access interference, some of the adverse impacts of system performance are also taken into consideration, which include thermal noise, shot noise, relative intensity noise, and beat noise.

  17. Three narrative-based coding systems: Innovative moments, ambivalence and ambivalence resolution.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Miguel M; Ribeiro, António P; Mendes, Inês; Alves, Daniela; Silva, Joana; Rosa, Catarina; Braga, Cátia; Batista, João; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Oliveira, João Tiago

    2016-11-18

    Narrative and dialogical perspectives suggest that personal meaning systems' flexibility is an important resource for change in psychotherapy. Drawn from these theoretical backgrounds, a research program focused on the identification of Innovative Moments (IMs)-exceptions to the inflexible meaning systems present in psychopathological suffering-has been carried out. For this purpose, three process-oriented coding systems were developed: The IMs Coding System, the Ambivalence Coding System, and the Ambivalence Resolution Coding System. They allow, respectively, for the study of change, ambivalence, and ambivalence resolution in therapy. This paper presents these coding systems, the main findings that resulted from their application to different samples and therapeutic models, the main current and future lines of research, as well as the clinical applications of this research program.

  18. Development of A Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System For HEDS: Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Gabriel, Tony A.; Miller, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Modifications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code HETC are underway to extend the code to include transport of energetic heavy ions, such as are found in the galactic cosmic ray spectrum in space. The new HETC code will be available for use in radiation shielding applications associated with missions, such as the proposed manned mission to Mars. In this work the current status of code modification is described. Methods used to develop the required nuclear reaction models, including total, elastic and nuclear breakup processes, and their associated databases are also presented. Finally, plans for future work on the extended HETC code system and for its validation are described.

  19. Development of System Based Code: Methodologies for Life-Cycle Margin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Masaki Morishita; Tai Asayama; Masanori Tashimo

    2006-07-01

    The late Professor Emeritus Yasuhide Asada proposed the System Based Code concept, which intends the optimization of design of nuclear plants through margin exchange among a variety of technical options which are not allowed by current codes and standards. The key technology of the System Based Code is margin exchange evaluation methodology. This paper describes recent progress with regards to margin exchange methodologies in Japan. (authors)

  20. Improving the performance of BICM-ID and MLC systems with different FEC codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, T.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

    2013-07-01

    In bandwidth limited communication systems, the high data rate transmission with performance close to capacity limits is achieved by applying multilevel modulation schemes in association with powerful forward error correction (FEC) coding, i.e. coded modulation systems. The most important practical approaches to coded modulation systems are multilevel coding with multistage decoding (MLC/MSD) and bit interleaved coded modulation with iterative demapping and decoding (BICM-ID). Multilevel modulation formats such as M-QAM, which can be used as a part of coded modulation systems, have the capability of multilevel protection. Based on this fact, we investigate the methods to improve the performance of BICM-ID using multiple interleavers with different binary channel coding schemes such as convolutional codes, turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Moreover, an MLC system with parallel decoding on levels (PDL) at the receiver is considered. In our contribution, we propose to design the individual coding schemes using the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts for individual bit levels in the constellation. Our simulation results show that the BICM-ID systems, taking into account different bit-level protections, can provide an improvement of 0.65 dB, 1.2 dB and 1.5 dB for 256-QAM with turbo, LDPC and convolutional codes, respectively. On the other hand, MLC systems with PDL designed using EXIT charts for individual bit levels can slightly improve the performance and eliminate the error floor compared to the systems with MSD.

  1. Automotive Gas Turbine Power System-Performance Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1997-01-01

    An open cycle gas turbine numerical modelling code suitable for thermodynamic performance analysis (i.e. thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, cycle state points, working fluid flowrates etc.) of automotive and aircraft powerplant applications has been generated at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Technology Division. The use this code can be made available to automotive gas turbine preliminary design efforts, either in its present version, or, assuming that resources can be obtained to incorporate empirical models for component weight and packaging volume, in later version that includes the weight-volume estimator feature. The paper contains a brief discussion of the capabilities of the presently operational version of the code, including a listing of input and output parameters and actual sample output listings.

  2. Channel coding for underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanjun; Zhang, Yonglei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhou, Lin; Niu, Jiong

    2017-01-01

    CDMA is an effective multiple access protocol for underwater acoustic networks, and channel coding can effectively reduce the bit error rate (BER) of the underwater acoustic communication system. For the requirements of underwater acoustic mobile networks based on CDMA, an underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system (UWA/SCCDMA) based on the direct-sequence spread spectrum is proposed, and its channel coding scheme is studied based on convolution, RA, Turbo and LDPC coding respectively. The implementation steps of the Viterbi algorithm of convolutional coding, BP and minimum sum algorithms of RA coding, Log-MAP and SOVA algorithms of Turbo coding, and sum-product algorithm of LDPC coding are given. An UWA/SCCDMA simulation system based on Matlab is designed. Simulation results show that the UWA/SCCDMA based on RA, Turbo and LDPC coding have good performance such that the communication BER is all less than 10-6 in the underwater acoustic channel with low signal to noise ratio (SNR) from -12 dB to -10dB, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the convolutional coding. The system based on Turbo coding with Log-MAP algorithm has the best performance.

  3. Reliability of ICD-10 external cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Clapperton, Angela J; Killian, Jessica J; Stephan, Karen L; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Availability of ICD-10 cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) strengthens its value as a public health surveillance tool. This study quantified the completeness of external cause ICD-10 codes in the NCIS for Victorian deaths (as assigned by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in the yearly Cause of Death data). It also examined the concordance between external cause ICD-10 codes contained in the NCIS and a re-code of the same deaths conducted by an independent coder. Of 7,400 NCIS external cause deaths included in this study, 961 (13.0%) did not contain an ABS assigned ICD-10 code and 225 (3.0%) contained only a natural cause code. Where an ABS assigned external cause ICD-10 code was present (n=6,214), 4,397 (70.8%) matched exactly with the independently assigned ICD-10 code. Coding disparity primarily related to differences in assignment of intent and specificity. However, in a small number of deaths (n=49, 0.8%) there was coding disparity for both intent and external cause category. NCIS users should be aware of the limitations of relying only on ICD-10 codes contained within the NCIS for deaths prior to 2007 and consider using these in combination with the other NCIS data fields and code sets to ensure optimum case identification.

  4. SEACC: the systems engineering and analysis computer code for small wind systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, P.K.C.; Kertesz, V.

    1983-03-01

    The systems engineering and analysis (SEA) computer program (code) evaluates complete horizontal-axis SWECS performance. Rotor power output as a function of wind speed and energy production at various wind regions are predicted by the code. Efficiencies of components such as gearbox, electric generators, rectifiers, electronic inverters, and batteries can be included in the evaluation process to reflect the complete system performance. Parametric studies can be carried out for blade design characteristics such as airfoil series, taper rate, twist degrees and pitch setting; and for geometry such as rotor radius, hub radius, number of blades, coning angle, rotor rpm, etc. Design tradeoffs can also be performed to optimize system configurations for constant rpm, constant tip speed ratio and rpm-specific rotors. SWECS energy supply as compared to the load demand for each hour of the day and during each session of the year can be assessed by the code if the diurnal wind and load distributions are known. Also available during each run of the code is blade aerodynamic loading information.

  5. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  6. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  7. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. (a) The contracting officer shall determine the...

  8. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  9. Coding hazardous tree failures for a data management system

    Treesearch

    Lee A. Paine

    1978-01-01

    Codes for automatic data processing (ADP) are provided for hazardous tree failure data submitted on Report of Tree Failure forms. Definitions of data items and suggestions for interpreting ambiguously worded reports are also included. The manual is intended to insure the production of accurate and consistent punched ADP cards which are used in transfer of the data to...

  10. System M: A Program Logic for Code Sandboxing and Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-22

    reasoning followed in, e.g., the method of Owicki- Gries [26] and its successor, rely-guarantee reasoning [17], makes no synchronization assumption...policies via dependent types. In Proc. IEEE S&P, 2011. [25] G. C. Necula. Proof-carrying code. In Proc. POPL, 1997. [26] S. Owicki and D. Gries . An

  11. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  12. De novo, systemic, deleterious amino acid substitutions are common in large cytoskeleton-related protein coding regions

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Rebecca J.; Thompson, Grace R.; Samy, Mohammad D.; Blanck, George

    2017-01-01

    Human mutagenesis is largely random, thus large coding regions, simply on the basis of probability, represent relatively large mutagenesis targets. Thus, we considered the possibility that large cytoskeletal-protein related coding regions (CPCRs), including extra-cellular matrix (ECM) coding regions, would have systemic nucleotide variants that are not present in common SNP databases. Presumably, such variants arose recently in development or in recent, preceding generations. Using matched breast cancer and blood-derived normal datasets from the cancer genome atlas, CPCR single nucleotide variants (SNVs) not present in the All SNPs(142) or 1000 Genomes databases were identified. Using the Protein Variation Effect Analyzer internet-based tool, it was discovered that apparent, systemic mutations (not shared among others in the analysis group) in the CPCRs, represented numerous deleterious amino acid substitutions. However, no such deleterious variants were identified among the (cancer blood-matched) variants shared by other members of the analysis group. These data indicate that private SNVs, which potentially have a medical consequence, occur de novo with significant frequency in the larger, human coding regions that collectively impact the cytoskeleton and ECM. PMID:28357075

  13. Accuracy and time requirements of a bar-code inventory system for medical supplies.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L B; Weinswig, M H; De Muth, J E

    1988-02-01

    The effects of implementing a bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to nursing units at a university teaching hospital were evaluated. Data on the time required to issue medical supplies to three nursing units at a 480-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital were collected (1) before the bar-code system was implemented (i.e., when the manual system was in use), (2) one month after implementation, and (3) four months after implementation. At the same times, the accuracy of the central supply perpetual inventory was monitored using 15 selected items. One-way analysis of variance tests were done to determine any significant differences between the bar-code and manual systems. Using the bar-code system took longer than using the manual system because of a significant difference in the time required for order entry into the computer. Multiple-use requirements of the central supply computer system made entering bar-code data a much slower process. There was, however, a significant improvement in the accuracy of the perpetual inventory. Using the bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to the nursing units takes longer than using the manual system. However, the accuracy of the perpetual inventory was significantly improved with the implementation of the bar-code system.

  14. Performance analysis of optical wireless communication system based on two-fold turbo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Huang, Dexiu; Yuan, Xiuhua

    2005-11-01

    Optical wireless communication (OWC) is beginning to emerge in the telecommunications market as a strategy to meet last-mile demand owing to its unique combination of features. Turbo codes have an impressive near Shannon-limit error correcting performance. Twofold turbo codes have been recently introduced as the least complex member of the multifold turbo code family. In this paper, at first, we present the mathematical model of signal and optical wireless channel with fading and bit error rate model with scintillation, then we provide a new turbo code method to use in OWC system, we can obtain a better BER curse of OWC system with twofold turbo code than with common turbo code.

  15. DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O`Dell, R.D.; Walters, W.F.

    1995-06-01

    The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZ{Theta} symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing.

  16. Candidate codes in the gustatory system of caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Larvae of tobacco hornworms offer unique opportunities to relate the electrophysiological output of identified chemosensory neurons to specific behavioral responses. Larvae can discriminate among three preferred plants with only eight functioning gustatory receptors. They can be induced to prefer any one of the plants, and these preferences can be reversed. All eight neurons respond to each plant sap. Two fire too infrequently to permit detailed analysis. Analyses of the remaining six show that all electrophysiological responses consist of phasic and tonic components. Only the "salt best" cell fires during the phasic period. Temporal analysis of the spike train during this period shows that tomato and tobacco could be distinguished from Jerusalem cherry but not from each other by a rate code. Measurements of behavioral response times together with the nonspecificity of this with respect of food plants, unacceptable plants, and sodium chloride eliminate a phasic period rate code as a probable mechanism for complex discrimination. Events occurring in the tonic period, when all cells are firing, suggest a major role for this period. Analyses of variance in the interval frequencies of the large and medium spikes suggest that a variance code could allow discrimination among the three plants as long as both cells were firing at the same time. Evidence has been found for temporal patterning in the tonic response of the "salt best" cell to Jerusalem cherry but is absent elsewhere. The most likely basis for coding the difference between each of the three plants is across- fiber patterning in which the relative rates of firing and the variances of all the sensory neurons in the tonic phase are critical. PMID:7069398

  17. Incorporating prior knowledge of urban scene spatial structure in aperture code designs for surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, John R.; Thelen, Brian J.; Subotic, Nikola

    2010-08-01

    Two major missions of Surveillance systems are imaging and ground moving target indication (GMTI). Recent advances in coded aperture electro optical systems have enabled persistent surveillance systems with extremely large fields of regard. The areas of interest for these surveillance systems are typically urban, with spatial topologies having a very definite structure. We incorporate aspects of a priori information on this structure in our aperture code designs to enable optimized dealiasing operations for undersampled focal plane arrays. Our framework enables us to design aperture codes to minimize mean square error for image reconstruction or to maximize signal to clutter ratio for GMTI detection. In this paper we present a technical overview of our code design methodology and show the results of our designed codes on simulated DIRSIG mega-scene data.

  18. Experience of development of the national surgical interventions coding system in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shtevnina, Julia I; Rauzina, Svetlana E; Shvyrev, Sergey L; Zarubina, Tatyana V

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses development issues of surgical procedures coding systems for use at the national and international levels within the health information systems. The work was carried out using the Russian and foreign experiences, including international standard ISO/FDIS 1828:2012. The development system structure contains basic categories of medical entities (axes): surgical deed and surgical subdeed, objects, site and interventional equipment. Abdominal surgeries (528 procedures) were entered in the coding system database and structured according defined categories.

  19. Analysis of airborne antenna systems using geometrical theory of diffraction and moment method computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, Richard G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Computer codes have been developed to analyze antennas on aircraft and in the presence of scatterers. The purpose of this study is to use these codes to develop accurate computer models of various aircraft and antenna systems. The antenna systems analyzed are a P-3B L-Band antenna, an A-7E UHF relay pod antenna, and traffic advisory antenna system installed on a Bell Long Ranger helicopter. Computer results are compared to measured ones with good agreement. These codes can be used in the design stage of an antenna system to determine the optimum antenna location and save valuable time and costly flight hours.

  20. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. )

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  1. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system. Version 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W.

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  2. Turbo product codes and their application in the fourth-generation mobile communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yejun; Zhu, Guangxi; Liu, Ying Zhuang; Liu, Jian

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we firstly present turbo product codes (TPCs) for forward error correction (FEC) coding, including TPCs encoding process and decoding principle, and then compare TPCs with turbo convolutional codes (TCCs) error coding solution. The performance of TPCs is shown to be closer to the Shannon limit than TCCs. Secondly, we introduce TPCs" application in the 4th generation (4G) mobile communication system which is being developed in our country at present. The concept of TPC-OFDM system which promises higher code rate than conventional OFDM is first modified. Finally, simulation results show that the simplified 4G uplink systems offer Bit Error Rate of nearly 0 over IMT-2000 channel at Eb/N0 > 15dB.

  3. TVENT1: a computer code for analyzing tornado-induced flow in ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Tang, P.K.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-07-01

    TVENT1 is a new version of the TVENT computer code, which was designed to predict the flows and pressures in a ventilation system subjected to a tornado. TVENT1 is essentially the same code but has added features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, and changing the resistance of dampers and filters. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Other features also have been added to make the code more versatile. Example problems are included to demonstrate the code's applications.

  4. Radiation Transport Calculations of a Simple Structure Using the Vehicle Code System with 69-Group Cross Sections and the Monte-Carlo Neutron and Photon Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Code System (VCS) User’s Manual , Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL-TM-4648 (1974). (UNCLASSIFIED) 3. F.R. Mynatt , F.J. Muckenthaler and P.N...and L.M. Petrie, Vehicle Code System (VCS) User’s Manual , Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL-TM-4648 (1974). (UNCLASSIFIED) 3. F.R. Mynatt , F.J

  5. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to; Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7; Windows installer

  6. Vision Aided Inertial Navigation System Augmented with a Coded Aperture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    diameter of focal blur for clear aperture number n m C (x, y ) Laplacian of Gaussian for image over x and y n/a F(2p, e) Fourier transform of image in...polar coordinates Ap and e n/a F (x) Fourier transform of x n/a it Focal length of lens m J; (p,e) Image in polar coordinates p and e m g...captures a Fourier transform of each image at various angles rather than low resolution images [38]. Multiple coded images have also been used, with

  7. Integration of QR codes into an anesthesia information management system for resident case log management.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Alexander; Weissman, Charles; Levin, Phillip D

    2015-04-01

    Quick response (QR) codes containing anesthesia syllabus data were introduced into an anesthesia information management system. The code was generated automatically at the conclusion of each case and available for resident case logging using a smartphone or tablet. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use and usability/user-friendliness of such system. Resident case logging practices were assessed prior to introducing the QR codes. QR code use and satisfactions amongst residents was reassessed at three and six months. Before QR code introduction only 12/23 (52.2%) residents maintained a case log. Most of the remaining residents (9/23, 39.1%) expected to receive a case list from the anesthesia information management system database at the end of their residency. At three months and six months 17/26 (65.4%) and 15/25 (60.0%) residents, respectively, were using the QR codes. Satisfaction was rated as very good or good. QR codes for residents' case logging with smartphones or tablets were successfully introduced in an anesthesia information management system and used by most residents. QR codes can be successfully implemented into medical practice to support data transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Associative recall in a volume holographic storage system based on phase-code multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, G.; Denz, C.; Orlov, S. S.; Phillips, B.; Hesselink, L.

    2001-12-01

    We present two different techniques on how to realize a content-addressed holographic memory when using phase-code multiplexing, relying on simple intensity measurements rather than phase distributions. Theoretical and experimental results of associative recall in a phase-coded system designed for digital data storage will be presented and compared to the corresponding method when using angular multiplexing.

  9. A QR code identification technology in package auto-sorting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Yi-Juan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Mao, Guo-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Traditional manual sorting operation is not suitable for the development of Chinese logistics. For better sorting packages, a QR code recognition technology is proposed to identify the QR code label on the packages in package auto-sorting system. The experimental results compared with other algorithms in literatures demonstrate that the proposed method is valid and its performance is superior to other algorithms.

  10. Comparison of procedure coding systems for level 1 and 2 hospitals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Montewa, Lebogang; Hanmer, Lyn; Reagon, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    The ability of three procedure coding systems to reflect the procedure concepts extracted from patient records from six hospitals was compared, in order to inform decision making about a procedure coding standard for South Africa. A convenience sample of 126 procedure concepts was extracted from patient records at three level 1 hospitals and three level 2 hospitals. Each procedure concept was coded using ICPC-2, ICD-9-CM, and CCSA-2001. The extent to which each code assigned actually reflected the procedure concept was evaluated (between 'no match' and 'complete match'). For the study sample, CCSA-2001 was found to reflect the procedure concepts most completely, followed by ICD-9-CM and then ICPC-2. In practice, decision making about procedure coding standards would depend on multiple factors in addition to coding accuracy.

  11. Demonstration of Vibrational Braille Code Display Using Large Displacement Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Arouette, Xavier; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Miki, Norihisa

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a vibrational Braille code display with large-displacement micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuator arrays. Tactile receptors are more sensitive to vibrational stimuli than to static ones. Therefore, when each cell of the Braille code vibrates at optimal frequencies, subjects can recognize the codes more efficiently. We fabricated a vibrational Braille code display that used actuators consisting of piezoelectric actuators and a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) as cells. The HDAM that encapsulated incompressible liquids in microchambers with two flexible polymer membranes could amplify the displacement of the MEMS actuator. We investigated the voltage required for subjects to recognize Braille codes when each cell, i.e., the large-displacement MEMS actuator, vibrated at various frequencies. Lower voltages were required at vibration frequencies higher than 50 Hz than at vibration frequencies lower than 50 Hz, which verified that the proposed vibrational Braille code display is efficient by successfully exploiting the characteristics of human tactile receptors.

  12. A Mechanism to Avoid Collusion Attacks Based on Code Passing in Mobile Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimez, Marc; Esparza, Oscar; Muñoz, Jose L.; Alins-Delgado, Juan J.; Mata-Díaz, Jorge

    Mobile agents are software entities consisting of code, data, state and itinerary that can migrate autonomously from host to host executing their code. Despite its benefits, security issues strongly restrict the use of code mobility. The protection of mobile agents against the attacks of malicious hosts is considered the most difficult security problem to solve in mobile agent systems. In particular, collusion attacks have been barely studied in the literature. This paper presents a mechanism that avoids collusion attacks based on code passing. Our proposal is based on a Multi-Code agent, which contains a different variant of the code for each host. A Trusted Third Party is responsible for providing the information to extract its own variant to the hosts, and for taking trusted timestamps that will be used to verify time coherence.

  13. The Marriage of Residential Energy Codes and Rating Systems: Conflict Resolution or Just Conflict?

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-08-21

    After three decades of coexistence at a distance, model residential energy codes and residential energy rating systems have come together in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code. At the October, 2013, International Code Council’s Public Comment Hearing, a new compliance path based on an Energy Rating Index was added to the IECC. Although not specifically named in the code, RESNET’s HERS rating system is the likely candidate Index for most jurisdictions. While HERS has been a mainstay in various beyond-code programs for many years, its direct incorporation into the most popular model energy code raises questions about the equivalence of a HERS-based compliance path and the traditional IECC performance compliance path, especially because the two approaches use different efficiency metrics, are governed by different simulation rules, and have different scopes with regard to energy impacting house features. A detailed simulation analysis of more than 15,000 house configurations reveals a very large range of HERS Index values that achieve equivalence with the IECC’s performance path. This paper summarizes the results of that analysis and evaluates those results against the specific Energy Rating Index values required by the 2015 IECC. Based on the home characteristics most likely to result in disparities between HERS-based compliance and performance path compliance, potential impacts on the compliance process, state and local adoption of the new code, energy efficiency in the next generation of homes subject to this new code, and future evolution of model code formats are discussed.

  14. Using A Natural Language Processing System to Extract and Code Family History Data from Admission Reports

    PubMed Central

    Friedlin, Jeff; McDonald, Clement J.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a rule-based natural language processing (NLP) system for extracting and coding clinical data from free text reports. We studied the systems ability to accurately extract and code family history data from hospital admission notes. The system searches the family history for 12 diseases (and relative degree). It achieved a sensitivity of .96 and a PPV of .97 for disease extraction, and .96 and .93 respectively for relative categorization. PMID:17238544

  15. Lattice physics capabilities of the SCALE code system using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M. D.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes ongoing calculations used to validate the TRITON depletion module in SCALE for light water reactor (LWR) fuel lattices. TRITON has been developed to provide improved resolution for lattice physics mixed-oxide fuel assemblies as programs to burn such fuel in the United States begin to come online. Results are provided for coupled TRITON/PARCS analyses of an LWR core in which TRITON was employed for generation of appropriately weighted few-group nodal cross-sectional sets for use in core-level calculations using PARCS. Additional results are provided for code-to-code comparisons for TRITON and a suite of other depletion packages in the modeling of a conceptual next-generation boiling water reactor fuel assembly design. Results indicate that the set of SCALE functional modules used within TRITON provide an accurate means for lattice physics calculations. Because the transport solution within TRITON provides a generalized-geometry capability, this capability is extensible to a wide variety of non-traditional and advanced fuel assembly designs. (authors)

  16. A user's manual for MASH 1. 0: A Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.

    1992-03-01

    The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System, MASH, calculates neutron and gamma-ray environments and radiation protection factors for armored military vehicles, structures, trenches, and other shielding configurations by coupling a forward discrete ordinates air-over-ground transport calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo treatment of the shielding geometry. Efficiency and optimum use of computer time are emphasized. The code system include the GRTUNCL and DORT codes for air-over-ground transport calculations, the MORSE code with the GIFT5 combinatorial geometry package for adjoint shielding calculations, and several peripheral codes that perform the required data preparations, transformations, and coupling functions. MASH is the successor to the Vehicle Code System (VCS) initially developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The discrete ordinates calculation determines the fluence on a coupling surface surrounding the shielding geometry due to an external neutron/gamma-ray source. The Monte Carlo calculation determines the effectiveness of the fluence at that surface in causing a response in a detector within the shielding geometry, i.e., the dose importance'' of the coupling surface fluence. A coupling code folds the fluence together with the dose importance, giving the desired dose response. The coupling code can determine the dose response a a function of the shielding geometry orientation relative to the source, distance from the source, and energy response of the detector. This user's manual includes a short description of each code, the input required to execute the code along with some helpful input data notes, and a representative sample problem (input data and selected output edits) for each code.

  17. Nurses' attitudes toward the use of the bar-coding medication administration system.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sana Daya; Hasman, Arie; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Dimassi, Hani

    2010-01-01

    This study determines nurses' attitudes toward bar-coding medication administration system use. Some of the factors underlying the successful use of bar-coding medication administration systems that are viewed as a connotative indicator of users' attitudes were used to gather data that describe the attitudinal basis for system adoption and use decisions in terms of subjective satisfaction. Only 67 nurses in the United States had the chance to respond to the e-questionnaire posted on the CARING list server for the months of June and July 2007. Participants rated their satisfaction with bar-coding medication administration system use based on system functionality, usability, and its positive/negative impact on the nursing practice. Results showed, to some extent, positive attitude, but the image profile draws attention to nurses' concerns for improving certain system characteristics. The high bar-coding medication administration system skills revealed a more negative perception of the system by the nursing staff. The reasons underlying dissatisfaction with bar-coding medication administration use by skillful users are an important source of knowledge that can be helpful for system development as well as system deployment. As a result, strengthening bar-coding medication administration system usability by magnifying its ability to eliminate medication errors and the contributing factors, maximizing system functionality by ascertaining its power as an extra eye in the medication administration process, and impacting the clinical nursing practice positively by being helpful to nurses, speeding up the medication administration process, and being user-friendly can offer a congenial settings for establishing positive attitude toward system use, which in turn leads to successful bar-coding medication administration system use.

  18. Systems engineering applied to integrated safety management for high consequence facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, R; Morais, B

    1998-11-10

    Integrated Safety Management is a concept that is being actively promoted by the U.S. Department of Energy as a means of assuring safe operation of its facilities. The concept involves the integration of safety precepts into work planning rather than adjusting for safe operations after defining the work activity. The system engineering techniques used to design an integrated safety management system for a high consequence research facility are described. An example is given to show how the concepts evolved with the system design.

  19. Overview of the arthritis Cost Consequence Evaluation System (ACCES): a pharmacoeconomic model for celecoxib.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, D; Goldstein, J L; McGuire, A; Schwartz, J S; Burke, T; Maniadakis, N

    2000-12-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analyses have become useful and essential tools for health care decision makers who increasingly require such analyses prior to placing a drug on a national, regional or hospital formulary. Previous health economic models of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been restricted to evaluating a narrow range of agents within specific health care delivery systems using medical information derived from homogeneous clinical trial data. This paper summarizes the Arthritis Cost Consequence Evaluation System (ACCES)--a pharmacoeconomic model that has been developed to predict and evaluate the costs and consequences associated with the use of celecoxib in patients with arthritis, compared with other NSAIDs and NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents. The advantage of this model is that it can be customized to reflect local practice patterns, resource utilization and costs, as well as provide context-specific health economic information to a variety of providers and/or decision makers.

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Different MicroRNA Types Using the ZIP-Code Array System

    PubMed Central

    Weishaupt, Sonja U.; Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important negative regulators of gene expression. Their implication in tumorigenesis is based on their dysregulation in many human cancer diseases. Interestingly, in tumor cells, an altered ratio of precursor and mature miRNA levels has been described. Consequently, differences in miRNA type levels have a high potential as biomarkers and comparative high-throughput-based detection might permit a more accurate characterization of subtypes, especially in the case of very heterogeneous tumor entities. Several molecular methods exist for the detection of mature and precursor miRNAs. DNA microarrays are predestinated as a high-throughput method for comprehensive miRNA detection in tumors. However, the simultaneous array-based detection of both these miRNA types is limited because the mature miRNA sequence is identically present in both forms. Here we present a ZIP-code DNA microarray-based system in combination with a novel labeling approach, which enables the simultaneous detection of precursor and mature miRNAs in one single experiment. Using synthetic miRNA templates, we demonstrate the specificity of the method for the different miRNA types, as well as the detection range up to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, mature and precursor miRNAs were detected and validated in human tumor cells. PMID:24078866

  1. A survey to identify the clinical coding and classification systems currently in use across Europe.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, S; Minmagh, C; Kennedy, J; Zeimet, M; Bommezijn, H; Bryant, J

    2001-01-01

    This is a survey to identify what clinical coding systems are currently in use across the European Union, and the states seeking membership to it. We sought to identify what systems are currently used and to what extent they were subject to local adaptation. Clinical coding should facilitate identifying key medical events in a computerised medical record, and aggregating information across groups of records. The emerging new driver is as the enabler of the life-long computerised medical record. A prerequisite for this level of functionality is the transfer of information between different computer systems. This transfer can be facilitated either by working on the interoperability problems between disparate systems or by harmonising the underlying data. This paper examines the extent to which the latter has occurred across Europe. Literature and Internet search. Requests for information via electronic mail to pan-European mailing lists of health informatics professionals. Coding systems are now a de facto part of health information systems across Europe. There are relatively few coding systems in existence across Europe. ICD9 and ICD 10, ICPC and Read were the most established. However the local adaptation of these classification systems either on a by country or by computer software manufacturer basis; significantly reduces the ability for the meaning coded with patients computer records to be easily transferred from one medical record system to another. There is no longer any debate as to whether a coding or classification system should be used. Convergence of different classifications systems should be encouraged. Countries and computer manufacturers within the EU should be encouraged to stop making local modifications to coding and classification systems, as this practice risks significantly slowing progress towards easy transfer of records between computer systems.

  2. The health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Blaauw, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, there is an increased reliance on casual staff in the health sector. Recent policy attention in South Africa has focused on the interrelated challenges of agency nursing and moonlighting in the health sector. This paper examines the potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting among South African nurses. During 2010, a cluster random sample of 80 hospitals was selected in four South African provinces. On the survey day, all nurses providing clinical care completed a self-administered questionnaire after giving informed consent. The questionnaire obtained information on socio-demographics, involvement in agency nursing and moonlighting, and self-reported indicators of potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting. A weighted analysis was done using STATA(®) 13. In the survey, 40.7% of nurses reported moonlighting or working for an agency in the preceding year. Of all participants, 51.5% reported feeling too tired to work, 11.5% paid less attention to nursing work on duty, and 10.9% took sick leave when not actually sick in the preceding year. Among the moonlighters, 11.9% had taken vacation leave to do agency work or moonlighting, and 9.8% reported conflicting schedules between their primary and secondary jobs. In the bivariate analysis, moonlighting nurses were significantly more likely than non-moonlighters to take sick leave when not sick (p=0.011) and to pay less attention to nursing work on duty (p=0.035). However, in a multiple logistic regression analysis, the differences between moonlighters and non-moonlighters did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for other socio-demographic variables. Although moonlighting did not emerge as a statistically significant predictor, the reported health system consequences are serious. A combination of strong nursing leadership, effective management, and consultation with and buy-in from front-line nurses is needed to counteract the potential

  3. Reporting Codes and Fuel Pathways for the EPA Moderated Transaction System (EMTS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Users should reference this document for a complete list of all reporting codes and all possible fuel pathways for Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and Fuels Averaging, Banking and Trading (ABT) users of the EPA Moderated Transaction System (EMTS).

  4. Use of generalized curvilinear coordinate systems in electromagnetic and hybrid codes

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author develops a code to simulate the dynamics in the magnetosphere system. The calculation involves a single level, structured, curvilinear 2D mesh. The mesh density is varied to support regions which demand higher resolution.

  5. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome. PMID:20962126

  6. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Mary H; Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome.

  7. Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. II - Systems performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Jawad A.; Brackett, Charles A.

    1989-08-01

    A technique based on optical orthogonal codes was presented by Salehi (1989) to establish a fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (FO-CDMA) communications system. The results are used to derive the bit error rate of the proposed FO-CDMA system as a function of data rate, code length, code weight, number of users, and receiver threshold. The performance characteristics for a variety of system parameters are discussed. A means of reducing the effective multiple-access interference signal by placing an optical hard-limiter at the front end of the desired optical correlator is presented. Performance calculations are shown for the FO-CDMA with an ideal optical hard-limiter, and it is shown that using a optical hard-limiter would, in general, improve system performance.

  8. Tracking "Large" or "Smal": Boundaries and their Consequences for Veterinary Students within the Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermilya, Jenny R.

    In this dissertation, I use 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with veterinary medical students to explore the experience of being in an educational program that tracks students based on the species of non-human animals that they wish to treat. Specifically, I examine how tracking produces multiple boundaries for veterinary students. The boundaries between different animal species produce consequences for the treatment of those animals; this has been well documented. Using a symbolic interactionist perspective, my research extends the body of knowledge on species boundaries by revealing other consequences of this boundary work. For example, I analyze the symbolic boundaries involved in the gendering of animals, practitioners, and professions. I also examine how boundaries influence the collective identity of students entering an occupation segmented into various specialties. The collective identity of veterinarian is one characterized by care, thus students have to construct different definitions of care to access and maintain the collective identity. The tracking system additionally produces consequences for the knowledge created and reproduced in different areas of animal medicine, creating a system of power and inequality based on whose knowledge is privileged, how, and why. Finally, socially constructed boundaries generated from tracking inevitably lead to cases that do not fit. In particular, horses serve as a "border species" for veterinary students who struggle to place them into the tracking system. I argue that border species, like other metaphorical borders, have the potential to challenge discourses and lead to social change.

  9. Sexual dimorphism in gender plasticity and its consequences for breeding system evolution.

    PubMed

    Delph, Lynda F

    2003-01-01

    Flowering plants are able to develop gametes throughout their lives. As a consequence, environmental conditions can impact this development and alter a plant's functional gender or the degree to which it achieves fitness through male or female function. Two dimorphic breeding systems are widespread among angiosperm families: gynodioecy (hermaphrodites and females) and dioecy (males and females). Gynodioecy can evolve into dioecy, via loss of female function on the hermaphrodites, or it can remain stable. Here I discuss how developmental plasticity of gender can impact the sex ratio of populations and thereby influence the transition of one breeding system into another. I review studies showing that greater plasticity of fruit production by hermaphrodites as compared with females causes sex ratios among populations to vary in response to environmental conditions, with higher female frequency expected in harsh or low-quality sites. I also review how dioecy may evolve in dry sites to avoid inbreeding and any consequent inbreeding depression. Taken together, these studies show the importance of understanding how ecological development affects functional gender and consequently the evolutionary stability or malleability of dimorphic breeding systems.

  10. Feasibility and Reliability of a Coding System to Capture In-Session Group Behavior in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Benjamin O; Tomlinson, Kristin; Myers, Mark G; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has explored the role of in-session behavior during motivational enhancement (ME) in group formats. The current study presents initial feasibility of assessing behavior of high school students (N = 425) attending Project Options, a voluntary secondary drug and alcohol prevention program utilizing ME techniques. Building on previous research exploring client language supporting/opposing health behavior, student group behavior was coded live at the specific utterance and global level; group leader behavior was also coded globally. Interrater reliability of the coding system was assessed, and preliminary validity of the coding system was examined by exploring associations between characteristics of group members and in-session group behavior. Initial reliability estimates were excellent for the specific behavior codes. Reliability of the global codes was mixed, with raters demonstrating good reliability on support for unhealthy behavior, opposition to unhealthy behavior, and support for healthy behavior. Reliability of the group leader codes was fair to poor. Greater percent healthy talk was associated with a lower percentage of group members reporting lifetime alcohol use. The results of the current study suggest that some in-session behavior at the group level can be coded reliably via live observation and that in-session behavior at the group level is associated with alcohol use prior to attending the program. Future research is needed to explore the utility of in-session behavior in terms of predicting future behavior at the group and individual level.

  11. Feasibility and Reliability of a Coding System to Capture In-Session Group Behavior in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Kristin; Myers, Mark G.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has explored the role of in-session behavior during motivational enhancement (ME) in group formats. The current study presents initial feasibility of assessing behavior of high school students (N=425) attending Project Options, a voluntary secondary drug and alcohol prevention program utilizing ME techniques. Building on previous research exploring client language supporting/opposing health behavior, student group behavior was coded live at the specific utterance and global level; group leader behavior was also coded globally. Interrater reliability of the coding system was assessed, and preliminary validity of the coding system was examined by exploring associations between characteristics of group members and in-session group behavior. Initial reliability estimates were excellent for the specific behavior codes. Reliability of the global codes was mixed, with raters demonstrating good reliability on support for unhealthy behavior, opposition to unhealthy behavior, and support for healthy behavior. Reliability of the group leader codes was fair to poor. Greater percent healthy talk was associated with a lower percentage of group members reporting lifetime alcohol use. The results of the current study suggest that some in-session behavior at the group level can be coded reliably via live observation and that in-session behavior at the group level is associated with alcohol use prior to attending the program. Future research is needed to explore the utility of in-session behavior in terms of predicting future behavior at the group and individual level. PMID:26271299

  12. Adaptive Switching Technique for Space-Time/Frequency Coded OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Change, Namseok; Gil, Gye-Tae; Kang, Joonhyuk; Yu, Gangyoul

    In this letter, a switched transmission technique is presented that can provide the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems with additional diversity gain. The space-time block coding (STBC) and space-frequency block coding (SFBC) are considered for the transmission of the OFDM signals. A proper coding scheme is selected based on the estimated normalized delay spread and normalized Doppler spread. The selection criterion is derived empirically. It is shown through computer simulations that the proposed switching technique can improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of an OFDM system when the corresponding wireless channel has some time variation of time selectivity as well as frequency selectivity.

  13. Power optimization of wireless media systems with space-time block codes.

    PubMed

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun; Jafarkhani, Hamid; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    2004-07-01

    We present analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of power control in wireless media systems with multiple antennas. We formulate a set of optimization problems aimed at minimizing total power consumption of wireless media systems subject to a given level of QoS and an available bit rate. Our formulation takes into consideration the power consumption related to source coding, channel coding, and transmission of multiple-transmit antennas. In our study, we consider Gauss-Markov and video source models, Rayleigh fading channels along with the Bernoulli/Gilbert-Elliott loss models, and space-time block codes.

  14. Systems guide to MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport Code)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, B.L.; West, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    The subject of this report is the implementation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport Code - Version 3 (MCNP) on the different types of computer systems, especially the IBM MVS system. The report supplements the documentation of the RSIC computer code package CCC-200/MCNP. Details of the procedure to follow in executing MCNP on the IBM computers, either in batch mode or interactive mode, are provided.

  15. Information Retrieval System for Japanese Standard Disease-Code Master Using XML Web Service

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Kenji; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Information retrieval system of Japanese Standard Disease-Code Master Using XML Web Service is developed. XML Web Service is a new distributed processing system by standard internet technologies. With seamless remote method invocation of XML Web Service, users are able to get the latest disease code master information from their rich desktop applications or internet web sites, which refer to this service. PMID:14728364

  16. A User's Manual for MASH V1.5 - A Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System

    SciTech Connect

    C. O. Slater; J. M. Barnes; J. O. Johnson; J.D. Drischler

    1998-10-01

    The Monte Carlo ~djoint ~ielding Code System, MASH, calculates neutron and gamma- ray environments and radiation protection factors for armored military vehicles, structures, trenches, and other shielding configurations by coupling a forward discrete ordinates air- over-ground transport calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo treatment of the shielding geometry. Efficiency and optimum use of computer time are emphasized. The code system includes the GRTUNCL and DORT codes for air-over-ground transport calculations, the MORSE code with the GIFT5 combinatorial geometry package for adjoint shielding calculations, and several peripheral codes that perform the required data preparations, transformations, and coupling functions. The current version, MASH v 1.5, is the successor to the original MASH v 1.0 code system initially developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The discrete ordinates calculation determines the fluence on a coupling surface surrounding the shielding geometry due to an external neutron/gamma-ray source. The Monte Carlo calculation determines the effectiveness of the fluence at that surface in causing a response in a detector within the shielding geometry, i.e., the "dose importance" of the coupling surface fluence. A coupling code folds the fluence together with the dose importance, giving the desired dose response. The coupling code can determine the dose response as a function of the shielding geometry orientation relative to the source, distance from the source, and energy response of the detector. This user's manual includes a short description of each code, the input required to execute the code along with some helpful input data notes, and a representative sample problem.

  17. Coded acoustic wave sensors and system using time diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for distinguishing between sensors that are to be wirelessly detected is provided. An interrogator device uses different, distinct time delays in the sensing signals when interrogating the sensors. The sensors are provided with different distinct pedestal delays. Sensors that have the same pedestal delay as the delay selected by the interrogator are detected by the interrogator whereas other sensors with different pedestal delays are not sensed. Multiple sensors with a given pedestal delay are provided with different codes so as to be distinguished from one another by the interrogator. The interrogator uses a signal that is transmitted to the sensor and returned by the sensor for combination and integration with the reference signal that has been processed by a function. The sensor may be a surface acoustic wave device having a differential impulse response with a power spectral density consisting of lobes. The power spectral density of the differential response is used to determine the value of the sensed parameter or parameters.

  18. History by history statistical estimators in the BEAM code system.

    PubMed

    Walters, B R B; Kawrakow, I; Rogers, D W O

    2002-12-01

    A history by history method for estimating uncertainties has been implemented in the BEAMnrc and DOSXYznrc codes replacing the method of statistical batches. This method groups scored quantities (e.g., dose) by primary history. When phase-space sources are used, this method groups incident particles according to the primary histories that generated them. This necessitated adding markers (negative energy) to phase-space files to indicate the first particle generated by a new primary history. The new method greatly reduces the uncertainty in the uncertainty estimate. The new method eliminates one dimension (which kept the results for each batch) from all scoring arrays, resulting in memory requirement being decreased by a factor of 2. Correlations between particles in phase-space sources are taken into account. The only correlations with any significant impact on uncertainty are those introduced by particle recycling. Failure to account for these correlations can result in a significant underestimate of the uncertainty. The previous method of accounting for correlations due to recycling by placing all recycled particles in the same batch did work. Neither the new method nor the batch method take into account correlations between incident particles when a phase-space source is restarted so one must avoid restarts.

  19. An 8-PSK TDMA uplink modulation and coding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of 8-phase shift keying (8PSK) modulation and greater than 2 bits/sec/Hz drove the design of the Nyquist filter to one specified to have a rolloff factor of 0.2. This filter when built and tested was found to produce too much intersymbol interference and was abandoned for a design with a rolloff factor of 0.4. The preamble is limited to 100 bit periods of the uncoded bit period of 5 ns for a maximum preamble length of 500 ns or 40 8PSK symbol times at 12.5 ns per symbol. For 8PSK modulation, the required maximum degradation of 1 dB in -20 dB cochannel interference (CCI) drove the requirement for forward error correction coding. In this contract, the funding was not sufficient to develop the proposed codec so the codec was limited to a paper design during the preliminary design phase. The mechanization of the demodulator is digital, starting from the output of the analog to digital converters which quantize the outputs of the quadrature phase detectors. This approach is amenable to an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) replacement in the next phase of development.

  20. Computationally Efficient Blind Code Synchronization for Asynchronous DS-CDMA Systems with Adaptive Antenna Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chia-Chang

    2005-12-01

    A novel space-time adaptive near-far robust code-synchronization array detector for asynchronous DS-CDMA systems is developed in this paper. There are the same basic requirements that are needed by the conventional matched filter of an asynchronous DS-CDMA system. For the real-time applicability, a computationally efficient architecture of the proposed detector is developed that is based on the concept of the multistage Wiener filter (MWF) of Goldstein and Reed. This multistage technique results in a self-synchronizing detection criterion that requires no inversion or eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix. As a consequence, this detector achieves a complexity that is only a linear function of the size of antenna array ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]), the rank of the MWF ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]), the system processing gain ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]), and the number of samples in a chip interval ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]), that is,[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. The complexity of the equivalent detector based on the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) or the subspace-based eigenstructure analysis is a function of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. Moreover, this multistage scheme provides a rapid adaptive convergence under limited observation-data support. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance and convergence behavior of the proposed detector with the size of the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-element antenna array, the amount of the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-sample support, and the rank of the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-stage MWF. The performance advantage of the proposed detector over other DS-CDMA detectors is investigated as well.

  1. Code System to Calculate Tornado-Induced Flow Material Transport.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDRAE, R. W.

    1999-11-18

    Version: 00 TORAC models tornado-induced flows, pressures, and material transport within structures. Its use is directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and their primary release pathway, the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other structures and can model other airflow pathways within a facility. In a nuclear facility, this network system could include process cells, canyons, laboratory offices, corridors, and offgas systems. TORAC predicts flow through a network system that also includes ventilation system components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These ventilation system components are connected to the rooms and corridors of the facility to form a complete network for moving air through the structure and, perhaps, maintaining pressure levels in certain areas. The material transport capability in TORAC is very basic and includes convection, depletion, entrainment, and filtration of material.

  2. Code regenerative clean-up loop transponder for a mu-type ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A loop transponder for regenerating the code of a mu type ranging system is disclosed. It includes a phase locked loop, a code generator, and a loop detector. The function of the phase locked loop is to provide phase lock between a received component wk of the range signal and a replica rafter wk of the received component, provided by the code generator. The code generator also provides a replica of the next component rafter w(w+1). The loop detector responds to wk rafler wk and rafter w(k+1) to determine when the next component w(k+1) is received and controls the code generator to supply w(k+1) to the phase locked loop and to generate a replica rafter w(k+2) of the next component.

  3. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  4. Reduction of artefacts and noise for a wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Zhang, Chengshuo

    2016-07-01

    Because of obvious drawbacks including serious artefacts and noise in a decoded image, the existing wavefront coding infrared imaging systems are seriously restricted in application. The proposed ultra-precision diamond machining technique manufactures an optical phase mask with a form manufacturing errors of approximately 770 nm and a surface roughness value Ra of 5.44 nm. The proposed decoding method outperforms the classical Wiener filtering method in three indices of mean square errors, mean structural similarity index and noise equivalent temperature difference. Based on the results mentioned above and a basic principle of wavefront coding technique, this paper further develops a wavefront coding infrared imaging system. Experimental results prove that our wavefront coding infrared imaging system yields a decoded image with good quality over a temperature range from -40 °C to +70 °C.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Image Phantom Code System to Calibrate in vivo Measurement Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, DAVE

    1997-07-17

    Version 00 MRIPP provides relative calibration factors for the in vivo measurement of internally deposited photon emitting radionuclides within the human body. The code includes a database of human anthropometric structures (phantoms) that were constructed from whole body Magnetic Resonance Images. The database contains a large variety of human images with varying anatomical structure. Correction factors are obtained using Monte Carlo transport of photons through the voxel geometry of the phantom. Correction factors provided by MRIPP allow users of in vivo measurement systems (e.g., whole body counters) to calibrate these systems with simple sources and obtain subject specific calibrations. Note that the capability to format MRI data for use with this system is not included; therefore, one must use the phantom data included in this package. MRIPP provides a simple interface to perform Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport through the human body. MRIPP also provides anthropometric information (e.g., height, weight, etc.) for individuals used to generate the phantom database. A modified Voxel version of the Los Alamos National Laboratory MCNP4A code is used for the Monte Carlo simulation. The Voxel version Fortran patch to MCNP4 and MCNP4A (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport simulation) and the MCNP executable are included in this distribution, but the MCNP Fortran source is not included. It was distributed by RSICC as CCC-200 but is now obsoleted by the current release MCNP4B.

  6. The use of interleaving for reducing radio loss in convolutionally coded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.; Yuen, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The use of interleaving after convolutional coding and deinterleaving before Viterbi decoding is proposed. This effectively reduces radio loss at low-loop Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) by several decibels and at high-loop SNRs by a few tenths of a decibel. Performance of the coded system can further be enhanced if the modulation index is optimized for this system. This will correspond to a reduction of bit SNR at a certain bit error rate for the overall system. The introduction of interleaving/deinterleaving into communication systems designed for future deep space missions does not substantially complicate their hardware design or increase their system cost.

  7. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files.

  8. The next big challenge for EPs: The transition to ICD-10-CM coding system.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The long-delayed transition to the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification administrative codes (lCD-10-CM) is set to take place in October, presenting a host of challenges for EPs. A new analysis suggests roughly a quarter of the clinical encounters that take place in the ED will involve complexity in the transition to the new system. Further, experts anticipate workflow challenges as well as new considerations when making planning decisions and reporting to public health departments. The number of codes available to providers will jump from 14,000 to 80,000 with the transition to the new coding system. Investigators found that that 23% of the visits, or 27% of the codes, emergency medicine physicians use are complex. The new coding system requires much more specificity, but there are also instances in which definitions have been altered or blended together, essentially changing the concepts described. While all EPs will face some challenges with the new coding system, analysts are particularly concerned about smaller EDs and physician groups because these practices typically don't have the ICD-10-CM implementation teams that larger systems have.

  9. A 10-digit geo-coding system for classification of geomorphosites in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Vishwas

    2015-04-01

    India is a country with rich geo-wealth and geoheritage. There are numerous fascinating and exquisite landforms and landscapes in the Indian subcontinent that have immense cultural, socio-economic and scientific value and are significant from the point of view of geotourism and geoeducation. Presently, India has 32 World Heritage Properties, including seven natural properties. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has declared 26 geosites as National Geological Monuments. Although a few attempts have been made in the last ten years to identify and catalog noteworthy geomorphosites in India, till date no attempt has been made to undertake multi-criteria or multi-attribute assessment and classification of the potential geomorphosites. In view of the limitations and difficulties in the ranking and/or scoring system adopted in many earlier studies on geoheritage sites, a simple ten-digit geo-coding system for some potential geomorphosites in India is suggested. The 10-digit coding system is a numerical scheme for the arrangement of geomorphosites on the basis of some key scientific value criteria, additional value criteria and management criteria as well as the IUCN geo-theme codes and the code numbers assigned to major geomorphic provinces in a region/country. This coding system could be used to establish a classification and the priority of geomorphosites and could be applied to any area or region in the world. The user-friendly geo-coding system has the potential to classify and sort geomorphosites of different characters, origin and value.

  10. Health consequences and health systems response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program.

    PubMed

    Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L

    2007-03-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond.

  11. The sympathetic nervous system and the physiologic consequences of spaceflight: a hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Convertino, V. A.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness and the cardiovascular abnormalities on return from space could be due, at least in part, to alterations in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. In this article, the authors review the rationale and evidence for an autonomic mediation of diverse changes that occur with spaceflight, including the anemia and hypovolemia of weightlessness and the tachycardia and orthostatic intolerance on return from space. This hypothesis is supported by studies of two groups of persons known to have low catecholamine levels: persons subjected to prolonged bedrest and persons with syndromes characterized by low circulating catecholamines (Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome and dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency). Both groups exhibit the symptoms mentioned. The increasing evidence that autonomic mechanisms underlie many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness suggests that new pharmacologic approaches (such as administration of beta-blockers and/or sympathomimetic amines) based on these findings may attenuate these unwanted effects.

  12. The sympathetic nervous system and the physiologic consequences of spaceflight: a hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Convertino, V. A.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness and the cardiovascular abnormalities on return from space could be due, at least in part, to alterations in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. In this article, the authors review the rationale and evidence for an autonomic mediation of diverse changes that occur with spaceflight, including the anemia and hypovolemia of weightlessness and the tachycardia and orthostatic intolerance on return from space. This hypothesis is supported by studies of two groups of persons known to have low catecholamine levels: persons subjected to prolonged bedrest and persons with syndromes characterized by low circulating catecholamines (Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome and dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency). Both groups exhibit the symptoms mentioned. The increasing evidence that autonomic mechanisms underlie many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness suggests that new pharmacologic approaches (such as administration of beta-blockers and/or sympathomimetic amines) based on these findings may attenuate these unwanted effects.

  13. An Embedded System for Safe, Secure and Reliable Execution of High Consequence Software

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY,JAMES A.

    2000-08-29

    As more complex and functionally diverse requirements are placed on high consequence embedded applications, ensuring safe and secure operation requires an execution environment that is ultra reliable from a system viewpoint. In many cases the safety and security of the system depends upon the reliable cooperation between the hardware and the software to meet real-time system throughput requirements. The selection of a microprocessor and its associated development environment for an embedded application has the most far-reaching effects on the development and production of the system than any other element in the design. The effects of this choice ripple through the remainder of the hardware design and profoundly affect the entire software development process. While state-of-the-art software engineering principles indicate that an object oriented (OO) methodology provides a superior development environment, traditional programming languages available for microprocessors targeted for deeply embedded applications do not directly support OO techniques. Furthermore, the microprocessors themselves do not typically support nor do they enforce an OO environment. This paper describes a system level approach for the design of a microprocessor intended for use in deeply embedded high consequence applications that both supports and enforces an OO execution environment.

  14. Code System for Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Reactor Core Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERT,; BENEDETTI, L.

    2001-03-05

    Version 00 SCORE-EVET was developed to study multidimensional transient fluid flow in nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays. The conservation equations used were derived by volume averaging the transient compressible three-dimensional local continuum equations in Cartesian coordinates. No assumptions associated with subchannel flow have been incorporated into the derivation of the conservation equations. In addition to the three-dimensional fluid flow equations, the SCORE-EVET code contains a one-dimensional steady state solution scheme to initialize the flow field, steady state and transient fuel rod conduction models, and comprehensive correlation packages to describe fluid-to-fuel rod interfacial energy and momentum exchange. Velocity and pressure boundary conditions can be specified as a function of time and space to model reactor transient conditions, such as a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or flow blockage. The basic volume-averaged transient three-dimensional equations for flow in porous media are solved in their general form with constitutive relationships and boundary conditions tailored to define the porous medium as a matrix of fuel rods. By retaining generality in the form of the conservation equations, a wide range of fluid flow problem configurations, from computational regions representing a single fuel rod subchannel to multichannels, or even regions without a fuel rod, can be modeled without restrictive assumptions. The completeness of the conservation equations has allowed SCORE-EVET to be used, with modification to the constitutive relationships, to calculate three-dimensional laminar boundary layer development, flow fields in large bodies of water, and, with the addition of a turbulence model, turbulent flow in pipe expansions and tees.

  15. Multi-Dimensional, Discrete-Ordinates Based Cross Section Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Code System.

    SciTech Connect

    KODELI, IVAN-ALEXANDER

    2008-05-22

    Version 01 SUSD3D 2008 calculates sensitivity coefficients and standard deviation in the calculated detector responses or design parameters of interest due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. One-, two- and three-dimensional transport problems can be studied. Several types of uncertainties can be considered, i.e. those due to (1) neutron/gamma multi-group cross sections, (2) energy-dependent response functions, (3) secondary angular distribution (SAD) or secondary energy distribution (SED) uncertainties. SUSD3D, initially released in 2000, is loosely based on the SUSD code by K. Furuta, Y. Oka and S. Kondo from the University of Tokyo in Japan. SUSD 2008 modifications are primarily relevant for the sensitivity calculations of the critical systems and include: o Correction of the sensitivity calculation for prompt fission and number of delayed neutrons per fission (MT=18 and MT=455). o An option allows the re-normalization of the prompt fission spectra covariance matrices to be applied via the "normalization" of the sensitivity profiles. This option is useful in case if the fission spectra covariances (MF=35) used do not comply with the ENDF-6 Format Manual rules. o For the criticality calculations the normalization can be calculated by the code SUSD3D internally. Parameter NORM should be set to 0 in this case. Total number of neutrons per fission (MT=452) sensitivities for all the fissile materials must be requested in the SUSD3D OVERLAY-2 input deck in order to allow the correct normalization. o The cross section data format reading was updated, mostly for critical systems (e.g. MT18 reaction). o Fission spectra uncertainties can be calculated using the file MF35 data processed by the ERROR-J code. o Cross sections can be input directly using input card "xs" (vector data only). o k-eff card was added for subcritical systems. o This version of SUSD3D code is compatible with the single precision DANTSYS code package (CCC-0547/07 and /08, which are the

  16. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; hide

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  17. Wave-front coded optical readout for the MEMS-based uncooled infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Jia, Wei; Hui, Mei; Yu, Xiaomei; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Weiyu

    2012-11-01

    In the space limited infrared imaging system based MEMS, the adjustment of optical readout part is inconvenient. This paper proposed a method of wave-front coding to extend the depth of focus/field of the optical readout system, to solve the problem above, and to reduce the demanding for precision in processing and assemblage of the optical readout system itself as well. The wave-front coded imaging system consists of optical coding and digital decoding. By adding a CPM (Cubic Phase Mask) on the pupil plane, it becomes non-sensitive to defocussing within an extended range. The system has similar PSFs and almost equally blurred intermediate images can be obtained. Sharp images are supposed to be acquired based on image restoration algorithms, with the same PSF as a decoding core. We studied the conventional optical imaging system, which had the same optical performance with the wave-front coding one for comparing. Analogue imaging experiments were carried out. And one PSF was used as a simple direct inverse filter, for imaging restoration. Relatively sharp restored images were obtained. Comparatively, the analogue defocussing images of the conventional system were badly destroyed. Using the decrease of the MTF as a standard, we found the depth of focus/field of the wave-front coding system had been extended significantly.

  18. The integration of system specifications and program coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebke, W. R.

    1970-01-01

    Experience in maintaining up-to-date documentation for one module of the large-scale Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System 2 (MEDLARS 2) is described. Several innovative techniques were explored in the development of this system's data management environment, particularly those that use PL/I as an automatic documenter. The PL/I data description section can provide automatic documentation by means of a master description of data elements that has long and highly meaningful mnemonic names and a formalized technique for the production of descriptive commentary. The techniques discussed are practical methods that employ the computer during system development in a manner that assists system implementation, provides interim documentation for customer review, and satisfies some of the deliverable documentation requirements.

  19. Intensity-Invariant Coding in the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system faithfully represents sufficient details from sound sources such that downstream cognitive processes are capable of acting upon this information effectively even in the face of signal uncertainty, degradation or interference. This robust sound source representation leads to an invariance in perception vital for animals to interact effectively with their environment. Due to unique nonlinearities in the cochlea, sound representations early in the auditory system exhibit a large amount of variability as a function of stimulus intensity. In other words, changes in stimulus intensity, such as for sound sources at differing distances, create a unique challenge for the auditory system to encode sounds invariantly across the intensity dimension. This challenge and some strategies available to sensory systems to eliminate intensity as an encoding variable are discussed, with a special emphasis upon sound encoding. PMID:21540053

  20. Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants.

    PubMed

    Harvey, India; Bolgan, Samuela; Mosca, Daniel; McLean, Colin; Rusconi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Studies on hacking have typically focused on motivational aspects and general personality traits of the individuals who engage in hacking; little systematic research has been conducted on predispositions that may be associated not only with the choice to pursue a hacking career but also with performance in either naïve or expert populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that two traits that are typically enhanced in autism spectrum disorders-attention to detail and systemizing-may be positively related to both the choice of pursuing a career in information security and skilled performance in a prototypical hacking task (i.e., crypto-analysis or code-breaking). A group of naïve participants and of ethical hackers completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient, including an attention to detail scale, and the Systemizing Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001, 2003). They were also tested with behavioral tasks involving code-breaking and a control task involving security X-ray image interpretation. Hackers reported significantly higher systemizing and attention to detail than non-hackers. We found a positive relation between self-reported systemizing (but not attention to detail) and code-breaking skills in both hackers and non-hackers, whereas attention to detail (but not systemizing) was related with performance in the X-ray screening task in both groups, as previously reported with naïve participants (Rusconi et al., 2015). We discuss the theoretical and translational implications of our findings.

  1. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination...

  2. A Spanish version for the new ERA-EDTA coding system for primary renal disease.

    PubMed

    Zurriaga, Óscar; López-Briones, Carmen; Martín Escobar, Eduardo; Saracho-Rotaeche, Ramón; Moina Eguren, Íñigo; Pallardó Mateu, Luis; Abad Díez, José María; Sánchez Miret, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The European Renal Association and the European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) have issued an English-language new coding system for primary kidney disease (PKD) aimed at solving the problems that were identified in the list of "Primary renal diagnoses" that has been in use for over 40 years. In the context of Registro Español de Enfermos Renales (Spanish Registry of Renal Patients, [REER]), the need for a translation and adaptation of terms, definitions and notes for the new ERA-EDTA codes was perceived in order to help those who have Spanish as their working language when using such codes. Bilingual nephrologists contributed a professional translation and were involved in a terminological adaptation process, which included a number of phases to contrast translation outputs. Codes, paragraphs, definitions and diagnostic criteria were reviewed and agreements and disagreements aroused for each term were labelled. Finally, the version that was accepted by a majority of reviewers was agreed. A wide agreement was reached in the first review phase, with only 5 points of discrepancy remaining, which were agreed on in the final phase. Translation and adaptation into Spanish represent an improvement that will help to introduce and use the new coding system for PKD, as it can help reducing the time devoted to coding and also the period of adaptation of health workers to the new codes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Surety of human elements of high consequence systems: An organic model

    SciTech Connect

    FORSYTHE,JAMES C.; WENNER,CAREN A.

    2000-04-25

    Despite extensive safety analysis and application of safety measures, there is a frequent lament, ``Why do we continue to have accidents?'' Two breakdowns are prevalent in risk management and prevention. First, accidents result from human actions that engineers, analysts and management never envisioned and second, controls, intended to preclude/mitigate accident sequences, prove inadequate. This paper addresses the first breakdown, the inability to anticipate scenarios involving human action/inaction. The failure of controls has been addressed in a previous publication (Forsythe and Grose, 1998). Specifically, this paper presents an approach referred to as surety. The objective of this approach is to provide high levels of assurance in situations where potential system failure paths cannot be fully characterized. With regard to human elements of complex systems, traditional approaches to human reliability are not sufficient to attain surety. Consequently, an Organic Model has been developed to account for the organic properties exhibited by engineered systems that result from human involvement in those systems.

  4. Economic consequences of aviation system disruptions: A reduced-form computable general equilibrium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhenhua; Rose, Adam Z.; Prager, Fynnwin; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2017-01-01

    The state of the art approach to economic consequence analysis (ECA) is computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling. However, such models contain thousands of equations and cannot readily be incorporated into computerized systems used by policy analysts to yield estimates of economic impacts of various types of transportation system failures due to natural hazards, human related attacks or technological accidents. This paper presents a reduced-form approach to simplify the analytical content of CGE models to make them more transparent and enhance their utilization potential. The reduced-form CGE analysis is conducted by first running simulations one hundred times, varying key parameters, such as magnitude of the initial shock, duration, location, remediation, and resilience, according to a Latin Hypercube sampling procedure. Statistical analysis is then applied to the “synthetic data” results in the form of both ordinary least squares and quantile regression. The analysis yields linear equations that are incorporated into a computerized system and utilized along with Monte Carlo simulation methods for propagating uncertainties in economic consequences. Although our demonstration and discussion focuses on aviation system disruptions caused by terrorist attacks, the approach can be applied to a broad range of threat scenarios.

  5. Comprehensive transportation risk assessment system based on unit-consequence factors

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1994-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement requires a comprehensive transportation risk analysis of radioactive waste shipments for large shipping campaigns. Thousands of unique shipments involving truck and rail transport must be analyzed; a comprehensive risk analysis is impossible with currently available methods. Argonne National Laboratory developed a modular transportation model that can handle the demands imposed by such an analysis. The modular design of the model facilitates the simple addition/updating of transportation routes and waste inventories, as required, and reduces the overhead associated with file maintenance and quality assurance. The model incorporates unit-consequences factors generated with the RADTRAN 4 transportation risk analysis code that are combined with an easy-to-use, menu-driven interface on IBM-compatible computers running under DOS. User selection of multiple origin/destination site pairs for the shipment of multiple radioactive waste inventories is permitted from pop-up lists. Over 800 predefined routes are available among more than 30 DOE sites and waste inventories that include high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, and greater-than-Class C waste.

  6. The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Safety Analysis Code System, Version 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Brunett, A. J.; Sumner, T.

    2017-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code is developed by Argonne National Laboratory for thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic analysis of power and flow transients in liquidmetal- cooled nuclear reactors (LMRs). SAS4A was developed to analyze severe core disruption accidents with coolant boiling and fuel melting and relocation, initiated by a very low probability coincidence of an accident precursor and failure of one or more safety systems. SASSYS-1, originally developed to address loss-of-decay-heat-removal accidents, has evolved into a tool for margin assessment in design basis accident (DBA) analysis and for consequence assessment in beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. SAS4A contains detailed, mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, its coolant, fuel elements, and structural members to accident conditions. The core channel models in SAS4A provide the capability to analyze the initial phase of core disruptive accidents, through coolant heat-up and boiling, fuel element failure, and fuel melting and relocation. Originally developed to analyze oxide fuel clad with stainless steel, the models in SAS4A have been extended and specialized to metallic fuel with advanced alloy cladding. SASSYS-1 provides the capability to perform a detailed thermal/hydraulic simulation of the primary and secondary sodium coolant circuits and the balance-ofplant steam/water circuit. These sodium and steam circuit models include component models for heat exchangers, pumps, valves, turbines, and condensers, and thermal/hydraulic models of pipes and plena. SASSYS-1 also contains a plant protection and control system modeling capability, which provides digital representations of reactor, pump, and valve controllers and their response to input signal changes.

  7. Requirements for migration of NSSD code systems from LTSS to NLTSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to address the requirements necessary for a successful conversion of the Nuclear Design (ND) application code systems to the NLTSS environment. The ND application code system community can be characterized as large-scale scientific computation carried out on supercomputers. NLTSS is a distributed operating system being developed at LLNL to replace the LTSS system currently in use. The implications of change are examined including a description of the computational environment and users in ND. The discussion then turns to requirements, first in a general way, followed by specific requirements, including a proposal for managing the transition.

  8. Novel secure and bandwidth efficient optical code division multiplexed system for future access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Simranjit

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a spectrally coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system using a hybrid modulation scheme has been investigated. The idea is to propose an effective approach for simultaneous improvement of the system capacity and security. Data formats, NRZ (non-return to zero), DQPSK (differential quadrature phase shift keying), and PoISk (polarisation shift keying) are used to get the orthogonal modulated signal. It is observed that the proposed hybrid modulation provides efficient utilisation of bandwidth, increases the data capacity and enhances the data confidentiality over existing OCDMA systems. Further, the proposed system performance is compared with the current state-of-the-art OCDMA schemes.

  9. Field-based tests of geochemical modeling codes: New Zealand hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will determine how the codes can be used to predict the chemical and mineralogical response of the environment to nuclear waste emplacement. Field-based exercises allow us to test the models on time scales unattainable in the laboratory. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei and Kawerau geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions.

  10. Field-based tests of geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-06-01

    Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will determine how the codes can be used to predict the chemical and mineralogical response of the environment to nuclear waste emplacement. Field-based exercises allow us to test the models on time scales unattainable in the laboratory. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei and Kawerau geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions.

  11. EBT reactor systems analysis and cost code: description and users guide (Version 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Uckan, N.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.

    1984-06-01

    An ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor systems analysis and cost code that incorporates the most recent advances in EBT physics has been written. The code determines a set of reactors that fall within an allowed operating window determined from the coupling of ring and core plasma properties and the self-consistent treatment of the coupled ring-core stability and power balance requirements. The essential elements of the systems analysis and cost code are described, along with the calculational sequences leading to the specification of the reactor options and their associated costs. The input parameters, the constraints imposed upon them, and the operating range over which the code provides valid results are discussed. A sample problem and the interpretation of the results are also presented.

  12. Modelling of Be Disks in Binary Systems Using the Hydrodynamic Code PLUTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, I. H.; Panoglou, D.; Jones, C. E.; Carciofi, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    The study of the gas structure and dynamics of Be star disks is critical to our understanding of the Be star phenomenon. The central star is the major force driving the evolution of these disks, however other external forces may also affect the formation of the disk, for example, the gravitational torque produced in a close binary system. We are interested in understanding the gravitational effects of a low-mass binary companion on the formation and growth of a disk in a close binary system. To study these effects, we used the grid-based hydrodynamic code PLUTO. Because this code has not been used to study such systems before, we compared our simulations against codes used in previous work on binary systems. We were able to simulate the formation of a disk in both an isolated and binary system. Our current results suggest that PLUTO is in fact a well suited tool to study the dynamics of Be disks.

  13. Auto Code Generation for Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.

  14. The development of efficient coding for an electronic mail system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for efficiently representing scanned electronic documents were investigated. Major results include the definition and preliminary performance results of a Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), offering a potential order of magnitude improvement over standard facsimile techniques for representing textual material.

  15. Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, India; Bolgan, Samuela; Mosca, Daniel; McLean, Colin; Rusconi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Studies on hacking have typically focused on motivational aspects and general personality traits of the individuals who engage in hacking; little systematic research has been conducted on predispositions that may be associated not only with the choice to pursue a hacking career but also with performance in either naïve or expert populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that two traits that are typically enhanced in autism spectrum disorders—attention to detail and systemizing—may be positively related to both the choice of pursuing a career in information security and skilled performance in a prototypical hacking task (i.e., crypto-analysis or code-breaking). A group of naïve participants and of ethical hackers completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient, including an attention to detail scale, and the Systemizing Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001, 2003). They were also tested with behavioral tasks involving code-breaking and a control task involving security X-ray image interpretation. Hackers reported significantly higher systemizing and attention to detail than non-hackers. We found a positive relation between self-reported systemizing (but not attention to detail) and code-breaking skills in both hackers and non-hackers, whereas attention to detail (but not systemizing) was related with performance in the X-ray screening task in both groups, as previously reported with naïve participants (Rusconi et al., 2015). We discuss the theoretical and translational implications of our findings. PMID:27242491

  16. Medical terminology coding systems and medicolegal death investigation data: searching for a standardized method of electronic coding at a statewide medical examiner's office.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Sarah L; Davis, Wayland L; Nolte, Kurt B

    2009-01-01

    Medical examiner and coroner reports are a rich source of data for epidemiologic research. To maximize the utility of this information, medicolegal death investigation data need to be electronically coded. In order to determine the best option for coding, we evaluated four different options (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT], International Classification of Disease [ICD] coding, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms [SNOMED CT], and an in-house system), then conducted internal and external needs assessments to determine which system best met the needs of a centralized, statewide medical examiner's office. Although all four systems offer distinct advantages and disadvantages, SNOMED CT is the most accurate for coding pathologic diagnoses, with ICD-10 the best option for classifying the cause of death. For New Mexico's Office of the Medical Investigator, the most feasible coding option is an upgrade of an in-house coding system, followed by linkage to ICD codes for cause of death from the New Mexico Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics, and ideally, SNOMED classification of pathologic diagnoses.

  17. Efficient Frequency Sharing of Baseband and Subcarrier Coding UHF RFID Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsugi, Jin; Kawakita, Yuusuke

    UHF band passive RFID systems are being steadily adopted by industries because of their capability of long range automatic identification with passive tags. For an application which demands a large number of readers located in a limited geographical area, referred to as dense reader mode, interference rejection among readers is important. The coding method, baseband or subcarrier coding, in the tag-to-reader communication link results in a significant influence on the interference rejection performance. This paper examines the frequency sharing of baseband and subcarrier coding UHF RFID systems from the perspective of their transmission delay using a media access control (MAC) simulator. The validity of the numerical simulation was verified by an experiment. It is revealed that, in a mixed operation of baseband and subcarrier systems, assigning as many channels as possible to baseband system unless they do not exploit the subcarrier channels is the general principle for efficient frequency sharing. This frequency sharing principle is effective both to baseband and subcarrier coding systems. Otherwise, mixed operation fundamentally increases the transmission delay in subcarrier coding systems.

  18. Object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction for depth video coding in 3D video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Jaejoon; Lim, Ilsoon; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the 3D video system using the MVD (multi-view video plus depth) data format is being actively studied. The system has many advantages with respect to virtual view synthesis such as an auto-stereoscopic functionality, but compression of huge input data remains a problem. Therefore, efficient 3D data compression is extremely important in the system, and problems of low temporal consistency and viewpoint correlation should be resolved for efficient depth video coding. In this paper, we propose an object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction method to resolve the problems where object-adaptive mean-depth difference between a current block, to be coded, and a reference block are compensated during inter prediction. In addition, unique properties of depth video are exploited to reduce side information required for signaling decoder to conduct the same process. To evaluate the coding performance, we have implemented the proposed method into MVC (multiview video coding) reference software, JMVC 8.2. Experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed method is especially efficient for depth videos estimated by DERS (depth estimation reference software) discussed in the MPEG 3DV coding group. The coding gain was up to 11.69% bit-saving, and it was even increased when we evaluated it on synthesized views of virtual viewpoints.

  19. The CCONE Code System and its Application to Nuclear Data Evaluation for Fission and Other Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, O. Iwamoto, N.; Kunieda, S.; Minato, F.; Shibata, K.

    2016-01-15

    A computer code system, CCONE, was developed for nuclear data evaluation within the JENDL project. The CCONE code system integrates various nuclear reaction models needed to describe nucleon, light charged nuclei up to alpha-particle and photon induced reactions. The code is written in the C++ programming language using an object-oriented technology. At first, it was applied to neutron-induced reaction data on actinides, which were compiled into JENDL Actinide File 2008 and JENDL-4.0. It has been extensively used in various nuclear data evaluations for both actinide and non-actinide nuclei. The CCONE code has been upgraded to nuclear data evaluation at higher incident energies for neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced reactions. It was also used for estimating β-delayed neutron emission. This paper describes the CCONE code system indicating the concept and design of coding and inputs. Details of the formulation for modelings of the direct, pre-equilibrium and compound reactions are presented. Applications to the nuclear data evaluations such as neutron-induced reactions on actinides and medium-heavy nuclei, high-energy nucleon-induced reactions, photonuclear reaction and β-delayed neutron emission are mentioned.

  20. The CCONE Code System and its Application to Nuclear Data Evaluation for Fission and Other Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, O.; Iwamoto, N.; Kunieda, S.; Minato, F.; Shibata, K.

    2016-01-01

    A computer code system, CCONE, was developed for nuclear data evaluation within the JENDL project. The CCONE code system integrates various nuclear reaction models needed to describe nucleon, light charged nuclei up to alpha-particle and photon induced reactions. The code is written in the C++ programming language using an object-oriented technology. At first, it was applied to neutron-induced reaction data on actinides, which were compiled into JENDL Actinide File 2008 and JENDL-4.0. It has been extensively used in various nuclear data evaluations for both actinide and non-actinide nuclei. The CCONE code has been upgraded to nuclear data evaluation at higher incident energies for neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced reactions. It was also used for estimating β-delayed neutron emission. This paper describes the CCONE code system indicating the concept and design of coding and inputs. Details of the formulation for modelings of the direct, pre-equilibrium and compound reactions are presented. Applications to the nuclear data evaluations such as neutron-induced reactions on actinides and medium-heavy nuclei, high-energy nucleon-induced reactions, photonuclear reaction and β-delayed neutron emission are mentioned.

  1. The health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Blaauw, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, there is an increased reliance on casual staff in the health sector. Recent policy attention in South Africa has focused on the interrelated challenges of agency nursing and moonlighting in the health sector. Objective This paper examines the potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting among South African nurses. Methods During 2010, a cluster random sample of 80 hospitals was selected in four South African provinces. On the survey day, all nurses providing clinical care completed a self-administered questionnaire after giving informed consent. The questionnaire obtained information on socio-demographics, involvement in agency nursing and moonlighting, and self-reported indicators of potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting. A weighted analysis was done using STATA(®) 13. Results In the survey, 40.7% of nurses reported moonlighting or working for an agency in the preceding year. Of all participants, 51.5% reported feeling too tired to work, 11.5% paid less attention to nursing work on duty, and 10.9% took sick leave when not actually sick in the preceding year. Among the moonlighters, 11.9% had taken vacation leave to do agency work or moonlighting, and 9.8% reported conflicting schedules between their primary and secondary jobs. In the bivariate analysis, moonlighting nurses were significantly more likely than non-moonlighters to take sick leave when not sick (p=0.011) and to pay less attention to nursing work on duty (p=0.035). However, in a multiple logistic regression analysis, the differences between moonlighters and non-moonlighters did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for other socio-demographic variables. Conclusion Although moonlighting did not emerge as a statistically significant predictor, the reported health system consequences are serious. A combination of strong nursing leadership, effective management, and consultation with and buy-in from front

  2. Financial system loss as an example of high consequence, high frequency events

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1996-07-01

    Much work has been devoted to high consequence events with low frequency of occurrence. Characteristic of these events are bridge failure (such as that of the Tacoma Narrows), building failure (such as the collapse of a walkway at a Kansas City hotel), or compromise of a major chemical containment system (such as at Bhopal, India). Such events, although rare, have an extreme personal, societal, and financial impact. An interesting variation is demonstrated by financial losses due to fraud and abuse in the money management system. The impact can be huge, entailing very high aggregate costs, but these are a result of the contribution of many small attacks and not the result of a single (or few) massive events. Public awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milikin or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These event,s although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. This paper explores the magnitude of financial system losses and identifies new areas for analysis of high consequence events including the potential effect of malevolent intent.

  3. Forest fire management to avoid unintended consequences: a case study of Portugal using system dynamics.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ross D; de Neufville, Richard; Claro, João; Oliveira, Tiago; Pacheco, Abílio P

    2013-11-30

    Forest fires are a serious management challenge in many regions, complicating the appropriate allocation to suppression and prevention efforts. Using a System Dynamics (SD) model, this paper explores how interactions between physical and political systems in forest fire management impact the effectiveness of different allocations. A core issue is that apparently sound management can have unintended consequences. An instinctive management response to periods of worsening fire severity is to increase fire suppression capacity, an approach with immediate appeal as it directly treats the symptom of devastating fires and appeases the public. However, the SD analysis indicates that a policy emphasizing suppression can degrade the long-run effectiveness of forest fire management. By crowding out efforts to preventative fuel removal, it exacerbates fuel loads and leads to greater fires, which further balloon suppression budgets. The business management literature refers to this problem as the firefighting trap, wherein focus on fixing problems diverts attention from preventing them, and thus leads to inferior outcomes. The paper illustrates these phenomena through a case study of Portugal, showing that a balanced approach to suppression and prevention efforts can mitigate the self-reinforcing consequences of this trap, and better manage long-term fire damages. These insights can help policymakers and fire managers better appreciate the interconnected systems in which their authorities reside and the dynamics that may undermine seemingly rational management decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue and its metabolic consequences during obesity.

    PubMed

    Frigolet, Maria E; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a worldwide disease that is accompanied by several metabolic abnormalities such as hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The accelerated adipose tissue growth and fat cell hypertrophy during the onset of obesity precedes adipocyte dysfunction. One of the features of adipocyte dysfunction is dysregulated adipokine secretion, which leads to an imbalance of pro-inflammatory, pro-atherogenic versus anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing adipokines. The production of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components by adipocytes is exacerbated during obesity, contributing to the systemic RAS and its consequences. Increased adipose tissue RAS has been described in various models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) including fructose and high-fat feeding. Up-regulation of the adipose RAS by DIO promotes inflammation, lipogenesis and reactive oxygen species generation and impairs insulin signaling, all of which worsen the adipose environment. Consequently, the increase of circulating RAS, for which adipose tissue is partially responsible, represents a link between hypertension, insulin resistance in diabetes and inflammation during obesity. However, other nutrients and food components such as soy protein attenuate adipose RAS, decrease adiposity, and improve adipocyte functionality. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms by which adipose RAS modulates systemic RAS and how it is enhanced in obesity, which will explain the simultaneous development of metabolic syndrome alterations. Finally, dietary interventions that prevent obesity and adipocyte dysfunction will maintain normal RAS concentrations and effects, thus preventing metabolic diseases that are associated with RAS enhancement. © 2013.

  5. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended. PMID:24174954

  6. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation.

    PubMed

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended.

  7. ESC-EEC-EPC code system for plasma core and edge equilibrium and particle orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xujing

    2013-10-01

    A new Edge Equilibrium Code (EEC), which is a new solver of the Grad-Shafranov equation complementing the existing ESC code (based on Fourier representation) is presented. EEC, being developed specifically for the near edge region with an arbitrary shape of the plasma boundary, uses adaptive flux coordinates with Hermite finite element representation. A special routine for fast solving the sparse matrix equations was created for EEC. The edge solution of EEC is matched with the core solution from ESC through a virtual boundary and the two codes communicate as two parallel processes. This approach addresses the future needs in enhancing functionality of EEC without conflicting with the interface of both codes. The code was complemented by Edge Particle Code (EPC) for massive calculation of collisional particle orbits using GPU. The resulting ESC-EEC-EPC code system acquired unmatched ability (a) in fast free and fixed boundary equilibrium calculations for arbitrary plasma shapes, (b) in using both r - z and different flux coordinates, (c) in choosing different combinations of input profiles, (d) in performing equilibrium reconstruction together with variances analysis, and (e) in assessing the diagnostics used for equilibrium reconstruction. Chinese National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program 2011GB105003, US DOE SBIR grant # 94307S10-II.

  8. Hierarchical security system using real-valued data and orthogonal code in Fourier domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Seo, Dong-Hoan; Hwang, Kwang-Il; Lim, Tae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    We propose a novel hierarchical encryption scheme using orthogonal code in Fourier domain and decryption based on interferometer system. The proposed system is composed of hierarchical ciphertexts with positive real values which can be applied for practical transmission such as Internet, and decryption keys with real valued function which has orthogonal characteristic in the decryption system. Since the original information is encrypted on the Fourier plane, the proposed encryption is more tolerant to loss of key information by scratching or cutting than encryption in a spatial domain. The resulting image using Fourier transform and an interferometer system with constant phase retarder is then decrypted by use of a ciphertext with different security level and each of decryption keys made from the multiplication of orthogonal code and random phase code in order to enhance the level of security. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method and the fault-tolerance properties of data loss through several simulations.

  9. Implementing a bar-coded bedside medication administration system.

    PubMed

    Yates, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Hospitals across the nation are struggling with implementing electronic medication administration and reporting (eMAR) systems as part of patient safety programs. St Luke's Hospital in Chesterfield, Mo, initiated their eMAR initiative in June 2003, initiating program start-up in September 2004. This case study documents how the project was approached, its overall success, and what was learned along the way. Also included is a recent update highlighting the expansion of St Luke's patient safety initiative, adapting eMAR to two specialty units: dialysis and laboratory processes.

  10. Ultra-wideband communication system prototype using orthogonal frequency coded SAW correlators.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Daniel R; Kozlovski, Nikolai Y; Malocha, Donald C

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system results utilizing orthogonal frequency coded SAW correlators. Orthogonal frequency coding (OFC) and pseudo-noise (PN) coding provides a means for spread-spectrum UWB. The use of OFC spectrally spreads a PN sequence beyond that of CDMA; allowing for improved correlation gain. The transceiver approach is still very similar to that of the CDMA approach, but provides greater code diversity. Use of SAW correlators eliminates many of the costly components that are typically needed in the intermediate frequency (IF) section in the transmitter and receiver, and greatly reduces the signal processing requirements. Development and results of an experimental prototype system with center frequency of 250 MHz are presented. The prototype system is configured using modular RF components and benchtop pulse generator and frequency source. The SAW correlation filters used in the test setup were designed using 7 chip frequencies within the transducer. The fractional bandwidth of approximately 29% was implemented to exceed the defined UWB specification. Discussion of the filter design and results are presented and are compared with packaged device measurements. A prototype UWB system using OFC SAW correlators is demonstrated in wired and wireless configurations. OFC-coded SAW filters are used for generation of a transmitted spread-spectrum UWB and matched filter correlated reception. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation system outputs are compared. The results demonstrate the feasibility of UWB SAW correlators for use in UWB communication transceivers.

  11. 110 °C range athermalization of wavefront coding infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Shi, Zelin; Chang, Zheng; Liu, Haizheng; Zhao, Yaohong

    2017-09-01

    110 °C range athermalization is significant but difficult for designing infrared imaging systems. Our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system adopts an optical phase mask with less manufacturing errors and a decoding method based on shrinkage function. The qualitative experiments prove that our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system has three prominent merits: (1) working well over a temperature range of 110 °C; (2) extending the focal depth up to 15.2 times; (3) achieving a decoded image being approximate to its corresponding in-focus infrared image, with a mean structural similarity index (MSSIM) value greater than 0.85.

  12. Design and implementation of encrypted and decrypted file system based on USBKey and hardware code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kehe; Zhang, Yakun; Cui, Wenchao; Jiang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    To protect the privacy of sensitive data, an encrypted and decrypted file system based on USBKey and hardware code is designed and implemented in this paper. This system uses USBKey and hardware code to authenticate a user. We use random key to encrypt file with symmetric encryption algorithm and USBKey to encrypt random key with asymmetric encryption algorithm. At the same time, we use the MD5 algorithm to calculate the hash of file to verify its integrity. Experiment results show that large files can be encrypted and decrypted in a very short time. The system has high efficiency and ensures the security of documents.

  13. Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, Michael E.; Marshall, William J.

    2014-09-12

    SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.

  14. Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system

    DOE PAGES

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; ...

    2014-09-12

    SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport asmore » well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.« less

  15. Input coding for neuro-electronic hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    George, Jude Baby; Abraham, Grace Mathew; Singh, Katyayani; Ankolekar, Shreya M; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Liquid State Machines have been proposed as a framework to explore the computational properties of neuro-electronic hybrid systems (Maass et al., 2002). Here the neuronal culture implements a recurrent network and is followed by an array of linear discriminants implemented using perceptrons in electronics/software. Thus in this framework, it is desired that the outputs of the neuronal network, corresponding to different inputs, be linearly separable. Previous studies have demonstrated this by either using only a small set of input stimulus patterns to the culture (Hafizovic et al., 2007), large number of input electrodes (Dockendorf et al., 2009) or by using complex schemes to post-process the outputs of the neuronal culture prior to linear discriminance (Ortman et al., 2011). In this study we explore ways to temporally encode inputs into stimulus patterns using a small set of electrodes such that the neuronal culture's output can be directly decoded by simple linear discriminants based on perceptrons. We demonstrate that network can detect the timing and order of firing of inputs on multiple electrodes. Based on this, we demonstrate that the neuronal culture can be used as a kernel to transform inputs which are not linearly separable in a low dimensional space, into outputs in a high dimension where they are linearly separable. Thus simple linear discriminants can now be directly connected to outputs of the neuronal culture and allow for implementation of any function for such a hybrid system.

  16. Monte Carlo Capabilities of the SCALE Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rearden, B. T.; Petrie, L. M.; Peplow, D. E.; Bekar, K. B.; Wiarda, D.; Celik, C.; Perfetti, C. M.; Ibrahim, A. M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a "plug-and-play" framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE's graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2, to be released in 2014, will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. An overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.

  17. Reconciliation of international administrative coding systems for comparison of colorectal surgery outcome.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, A; Chang, D; Mamidanna, R; Middleton, S; Joy, M; Penninckx, F; Darzi, A; Livingston, E; Faiz, O

    2014-07-01

    Significant variation in colorectal surgery outcomes exists between different countries. Better understanding of the sources of variable outcomes using administrative data requires alignment of differing clinical coding systems. We aimed to map similar diagnoses and procedures across administrative coding systems used in different countries. Administrative data were collected in a central database as part of the Global Comparators (GC) Project. In order to unify these data, a systematic translation of diagnostic and procedural codes was undertaken. Codes for colorectal diagnoses, resections, operative complications and reoperative interventions were mapped across the respective national healthcare administrative coding systems. Discharge data from January 2006 to June 2011 for patients who had undergone colorectal surgical resections were analysed to generate risk-adjusted models for mortality, length of stay, readmissions and reoperations. In all, 52 544 case records were collated from 31 institutions in five countries. Mapping of all the coding systems was achieved so that diagnosis and procedures from the participant countries could be compared. Using the aligned coding systems to develop risk-adjusted models, the 30-day mortality rate for colorectal surgery was 3.95% (95% CI 0.86-7.54), the 30-day readmission rate was 11.05% (5.67-17.61), the 28-day reoperation rate was 6.13% (3.68-9.66) and the mean length of stay was 14 (7.65-46.76) days. The linkage of international hospital administrative data that we developed enabled comparison of documented surgical outcomes between countries. This methodology may facilitate international benchmarking. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. A contextual coding system for transplantation and end stage diseases.

    PubMed

    Jacquelinet, Christian; Burgun, Anita; Djabbour, Sami; Delamarre, Denis; Clerc, Patrick; Boutin, Bernard; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The Establissement français des Greffes (EfG) is a state agency dealing with Public Health issues related to organ, tissue and cell transplantation in France. EfG maintains a national information system (EfG-IS) for the evaluation of organ transplantation activities. The EfG-IS is moving toward a new n-tier architecture comprising a terminological server. Because this terminological server is shared by various kind of transplant teams and dialysis centers to record patients data at different time point, contextualisation of terms appeared as a functional requirement. We report in this paper various contexts for medical terms and how they have been taken into account.

  19. [Alternative tactile system: C-fibers coding the affective aspect].

    PubMed

    Hua, Qing-Ping; Luo, Fei

    2007-10-01

    It has been accepted that human tactile sensation is mediated exclusively by large myelinated (Abeta) fibres. Nevertheless, recent studies indicated a dual mechanoceptive innervation of the skin in various mammals. Besides the known A fibers, the skin is also innervated by slow-conducting, low-threshold, small unmyelinated (C) afferents. These unmyelinated fibers respond vigorously to innocuous skin deformation, but poorly to rapid skin movement. They project to outer lamina II of spinal cord, and form synapse with the secondary sensory neurons. The latter then project to insular cortex via spinothalamic tracts. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that a slowly moving tactile stimulus along hairy skin produced a strong activation of the insular cortex. Pleasant touch has also been demonstrated to activate orbitofrontal cortex adjacent to areas responding to pleasant taste and smell. Overall, the response characteristics and activated brain regions suggest that they are related with the limbic system and affective aspect rather than tactile discriminative function.

  20. Engine structures modeling software system: Computer code. User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    ESMOSS is a specialized software system for the construction of geometric descriptive and discrete analytical models of engine parts, components and substructures which can be transferred to finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN. The software architecture of ESMOSS is designed in modular form with a central executive module through which the user controls and directs the development of the analytical model. Modules consist of a geometric shape generator, a library of discretization procedures, interfacing modules to join both geometric and discrete models, a deck generator to produce input for NASTRAN and a 'recipe' processor which generates geometric models from parametric definitions. ESMOSS can be executed both in interactive and batch modes. Interactive mode is considered to be the default mode and that mode will be assumed in the discussion in this document unless stated otherwise.

  1. Symbolic coding for noninvertible systems: uniform approximation and numerical computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyn, Wolf-Jürgen; Hüls, Thorsten; Schenke, Andre

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the homoclinic theorem, which conjugates a map near a transversal homoclinic orbit to a Bernoulli subshift, extends from invertible to specific noninvertible dynamical systems. In this paper, we provide a unifying approach that combines such a result with a fully discrete analog of the conjugacy for finite but sufficiently long orbit segments. The underlying idea is to solve appropriate discrete boundary value problems in both cases, and to use the theory of exponential dichotomies to control the errors. This leads to a numerical approach that allows us to compute the conjugacy to any prescribed accuracy. The method is demonstrated for several examples where invertibility of the map fails in different ways.

  2. Racial disparity and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system: exploring consequences for deterrence.

    PubMed

    Taxman, Faye S; Byrne, James M; Pattavina, April

    2005-11-01

    Minority (over) representation in the criminal justice system remains a puzzle, both from a policy and an intervention perspective. Cross-sectional reviews of the policies and practices of the criminal justice system often find differential rates of involvement in the criminal justice system that are associated with the nature of the criminal charge/act or characteristics of the offender; however, longitudinal reviews of the race effect often show it to be confounded by procedural and extralegal variables. This review focuses on how the cumulative policies and practices of the criminal justice system contribute to churning, or the recycling of individuals through the system. In conducting our review, we describe how the same criminal justice processes and practices adversely affect select communities. The consequences of policies and procedures that contribute to churning may affect the legitimacy of the criminal justice system as a deterrent to criminal behavior. A research agenda on issues related to legitimacy of the criminal justice system aimed at a better understanding of how this affects individual and community behavior is presented.

  3. SUBAERF2 - WING AND FLAP SYSTEM ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    The SUBAERF2 program was developed to provide for the aerodynamic analysis and design of low speed wing flap systems. SUBAERF2 is based on a linearized theory lifting surface solution. It is particularly well suited to configurations which, because of high speed flight requirements, must employ thin wings with highly swept leading edges. The program is applicable to wings with either sharp or rounded leading edges. This program is a new and improved version of LAR-13116 and LAR-12987, which it replaces. The low speed aerodynamic analysis method used in SUBAERF2 provides estimates of wing performance which include the effects of attainable leading-edge thrust and vortex lift. This basic aerodynamic analysis method has been improved to provide for the convenient, efficient and accurate treatment of simple leading-edge and trailing-edge flap systems. The user inputs flap geometry directly. Solutions can be found for various combinations of leading and trailing edge flap deflections. The program provides for the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 pairs of leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflection schedules. A revised attainable thrust algorithm improves accuracy at the low Mach numbers sometimes encountered in wind tunnel testing. Also added is a means of estimating the distribution of leading edge separation vortex forces. The revised program has been particularly useful in the subsonic analysis of vehicles designed for supersonic cruise. The SUBAERF2 program is written in FORTRAN V for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 175 computer operating under NOS 2.4 with a central memory requirement of approximately 115K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was originally developed in 1983 and later revised in 1988.

  4. The Development of a Portable Hard Disk Encryption/Decryption System with a MEMS Coded Lock.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Tang, Jian; Xu, Peng; Li, Yibin; Li, Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system with a MEMS coded lock is presented, which can authenticate the user and provide the key for the AES encryption/decryption module. The portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system is composed of the authentication module, the USB portable hard-disk interface card, the ATA protocol command decoder module, the data encryption/decryption module, the cipher key management module, the MEMS coded lock controlling circuit module, the MEMS coded lock and the hard disk. The ATA protocol circuit, the MEMS control circuit and AES encryption/decryption circuit are designed and realized by FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array). The MEMS coded lock with two couplers and two groups of counter-meshing-gears (CMGs) are fabricated by a LIGA-like process and precision engineering method. The whole prototype was fabricated and tested. The test results show that the user's password could be correctly discriminated by the MEMS coded lock, and the AES encryption module could get the key from the MEMS coded lock. Moreover, the data in the hard-disk could be encrypted or decrypted, and the read-write speed of the dataflow could reach 17 MB/s in Ultra DMA mode.

  5. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Composite Coding for Diagonal Motion in the Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding information coding is important for resolving the functions of visual neural circuits. The motion vision system is a classic model for studying information coding as it contains a concise and complete information-processing circuit. In Drosophila, the axon terminals of motion-detection neurons (T4 and T5) project to the lobula plate, which comprises four regions that respond to the four cardinal directions of motion. The lobula plate thus represents a topographic map on a transverse plane. This enables us to study the coding of diagonal motion by investigating its response pattern. By using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, we found that the axon terminals of T4 and T5 cells in the lobula plate were activated during diagonal motion. Further experiments showed that the response to diagonal motion is distributed over the following two regions compared to the cardinal directions of motion—a diagonal motion selective response region and a non-selective response region—which overlap with the response regions of the two vector-correlated cardinal directions of motion. Interestingly, the sizes of the non-selective response regions are linearly correlated with the angle of the diagonal motion. These results revealed that the Drosophila visual system employs a composite coding for diagonal motion that includes both independent coding and vector decomposition coding. PMID:27695103

  6. The Development of a Portable Hard Disk Encryption/Decryption System with a MEMS Coded Lock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Tang, Jian; Xu, Peng; Li, Yibin; Li, Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system with a MEMS coded lock is presented, which can authenticate the user and provide the key for the AES encryption/decryption module. The portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system is composed of the authentication module, the USB portable hard-disk interface card, the ATA protocol command decoder module, the data encryption/decryption module, the cipher key management module, the MEMS coded lock controlling circuit module, the MEMS coded lock and the hard disk. The ATA protocol circuit, the MEMS control circuit and AES encryption/decryption circuit are designed and realized by FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array). The MEMS coded lock with two couplers and two groups of counter-meshing-gears (CMGs) are fabricated by a LIGA-like process and precision engineering method. The whole prototype was fabricated and tested. The test results show that the user's password could be correctly discriminated by the MEMS coded lock, and the AES encryption module could get the key from the MEMS coded lock. Moreover, the data in the hard-disk could be encrypted or decrypted, and the read-write speed of the dataflow could reach 17 MB/s in Ultra DMA mode. PMID:22291566

  7. Sequential decoding with ARQ and code combining: A robust hybrid FEC/ARQ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, Samir; Haccoun, David

    1988-07-01

    Sequential decoding with ARQ (automatic-repeat-request) and code combining under the timeout condition is considered. That is, whenever the decoding time of a given packet exceeds some predetermined duration, decoding is stopped and retransmission of the packet is requested. However, the unsuccessful packets are not discarded, but are combined with their retransmitted copies. It is shown that the use of code combining allows sequential decoding to operate efficiently even when the coding rate R exceeds the computational cutoff rate Rcomp. Furthermore, an analysis of the selective-repeat ARQ scheme shows that the use of code combining yields a significant throughput even at very high channel error rates, thus making the system very robust under severe degradations of the channel.

  8. Fingerprinting Codes for Internet-Based Live Pay-TV System Using Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shuhui; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Satoh, Takashi; Morimura, Yoshitaka; Minoh, Michihiko

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of the Internet as well as the increasing demand for broadband services, live pay-television broadcasting via the Internet has become a promising business. To get this implemented, it is necessary to protect distributed contents from illegal copying and redistributing after they are accessed. Fingerprinting system is a useful tool for it. This paper shows that the anti-collusion code has advantages over other existing fingerprinting codes in terms of efficiency and effectivity for live pay-television broadcasting. Next, this paper presents how to achieve efficient and effective anti-collusion codes based on unital and affine plane, which are two known examples of balanced incomplete block design (BIBD). Meanwhile, performance evaluations of anti-collusion codes generated from unital and affine plane are conducted. Their practical explicit constructions are given last.

  9. An Integrated Program Structure and System of Account Codes for PPBS in Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donald R.

    This monograph presents a comprehensive but tentative matrix program structure and system of account codes that have been integrated to facilitate the implementation of PPB systems in local school districts. It is based on the results of an extensive analysis of K-12 public school district programs and management practices. In its entirety, the…

  10. Translating expert system rules into Ada code with validation and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Lee; Duckworth, R. James; Green, Peter; Michalson, Bill; Gosselin, Dave; Nainani, Krishan; Pease, Adam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this ongoing research and development program is to develop software tools which enable the rapid development, upgrading, and maintenance of embedded real-time artificial intelligence systems. The goals of this phase of the research were to investigate the feasibility of developing software tools which automatically translate expert system rules into Ada code and develop methods for performing validation and verification testing of the resultant expert system. A prototype system was demonstrated which automatically translated rules from an Air Force expert system was demonstrated which detected errors in the execution of the resultant system. The method and prototype tools for converting AI representations into Ada code by converting the rules into Ada code modules and then linking them with an Activation Framework based run-time environment to form an executable load module are discussed. This method is based upon the use of Evidence Flow Graphs which are a data flow representation for intelligent systems. The development of prototype test generation and evaluation software which was used to test the resultant code is discussed. This testing was performed automatically using Monte-Carlo techniques based upon a constraint based description of the required performance for the system.

  11. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image…

  12. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image…

  13. A coded aperture imaging system optimized for hard X-ray and gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Huters, A. F.; Leventhal, M.; Maccallum, C. J.; Reber, J. D.; Stang, P. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.

    1985-01-01

    A coded aperture imaging system was designed for the Gamma-Ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS). The system is optimized for imaging 511 keV positron-annihilation photons. For a galactic center 511-keV source strength of 0.001 sq/s, the source location accuracy is expected to be + or - 0.2 deg.

  14. Radiation and confinement in 0D fusion systems codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, H.; Kemp, R.; Fable, E.; Wenninger, R.

    2016-07-01

    In systems modelling for fusion power plants, it is essential to robustly predict the performance of a given machine design (including its respective operating scenario). One measure of machine performance is the energy confinement time {τ\\text{E}} that is typically predicted from experimentally derived confinement scaling laws (e.g. IPB98(y,2)). However, the conventionally used scaling laws have been derived for ITER which—unlike a fusion power plant—will not have significant radiation inside the separatrix. In the absence of a new high core radiation relevant confinement scaling, we propose an ad hoc correction to the loss power {{P}\\text{L}} used in the ITER confinement scaling and the calculation of the stored energy {{W}\\text{th}} by the radiation losses from the ‘core’ of the plasma {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} . Using detailed ASTRA / TGLF simulations, we find that an appropriate definition of {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} is given by 60% of all radiative losses inside a normalised minor radius {ρ\\text{core}}=0.75 . We consider this an improvement for current design predictions, but it is far from an ideal solution. We therefore encourage more detailed experimental and theoretical work on this issue.

  15. Code System to Calculate Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimate.

    SciTech Connect

    HARLAN, CHARLENE P.

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PC-BATLE is an analytical stochastic model designed to simulate combat engagements between a security force at a nuclear facility and an adversary force attempting to steal nuclear materials or to cause the release of radiological materials through an act of sabotage. The engagement is modeled as a modified continuous-time Markov process in which the state of the process at any time is the number of guards and adversaries currently in the system. Casualties to guards and adversaries are determined automatically by the model based on combatant characteristics and site parameters. Combatant characteristics which are specified as input data include force size, type of weapon used, posture, percent of time delaying (an attempt to prolong the engagement), proficiency, defense or assault tactic, and degradation in firing due to an individual's posture. Site parameters include range of the engagement, exposure to the combatants, and degradation in firing due to target illumination. Reinforcements to either or both forces can be specified by the user and will automatically be included at the appropriate time. Output consists of data on engagement duration, combatant survival, and win probabilities.

  16. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  17. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-900 series system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David

    1995-06-01

    This handbook explicates the hardware and software properties of a time division multiplex system. This system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is then merged with frame synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information in this handbook is required by users to design congruous interface and attest effective utilization of this encoder system. Aydin Vector provides all of the components for these systems to Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility.

  18. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-900 series system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, David

    1995-01-01

    This handbook explicates the hardware and software properties of a time division multiplex system. This system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is then merged with frame synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information in this handbook is required by users to design congruous interface and attest effective utilization of this encoder system. Aydin Vector provides all of the components for these systems to Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility.

  19. Heatwave early warning systems and adaptation advice to reduce human health consequences of heatwaves.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Dianne; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil

    2011-12-01

    With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS). HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans.

  20. Security of Classic PN-Spreading Codes for Hybrid DS/FH Spread-Spectrum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiao; Olama, Mohammed M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Djouadi, Seddik M

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid direct sequence/frequency hopping (DS/FH) spread-spectrum communication systems have recently received considerable interest in commercial applications in addition to their use in military communications because they accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. The security of hybrid DS/FH systems strongly depends on the choice of PN-spreading code employed. In this paper, we examine the security, in terms of unicity distance, of linear maximal-length, Gold, and Kasami PN-spreading codes for DS, FH, and hybrid DS/FH spread-spectrum systems without additional encryption methods. The unicity distance is a measure of the minimum amount of ciphertext required by an eavesdropper to uniquely determine the specific key used in a cryptosystem and hence break the cipher. Numerical results are presented to compare the security of the considered PN-spreading codes under known-ciphertext attacks.

  1. Feature-based coding system: a new way of characterizing hypnosis styles.

    PubMed

    Varga, Katalin; Kekecs, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study, the authors introduce a new system to assess hypnosis style. The Feature-Based Coding System (FBCS) comprises 24 standard individual hypnosis sessions, which were videotaped and coded according to both a previous and the new coding system. In addition, both subjects and hypnotists filled the Archaic Involvement Measure (AIM), the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), and the Dyadic Interactional Harmony Questionnaire (DIH). The interrater agreement of FBCS was good and the construct Maternal-Paternal Axis had a good internal consistency (α = .95). Construct validity was also supported by the findings. Based on these results, a larger scale study is warranted to further establish the reliability and usefulness of this tool.

  2. Architectural and Algorithmic Requirements for a Next-Generation System Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    V.A. Mousseau

    2010-05-01

    This document presents high-level architectural and system requirements for a next-generation system analysis code (NGSAC) to support reactor safety decision-making by plant operators and others, especially in the context of light water reactor plant life extension. The capabilities of NGSAC will be different from those of current-generation codes, not only because computers have evolved significantly in the generations since the current paradigm was first implemented, but because the decision-making processes that need the support of next-generation codes are very different from the decision-making processes that drove the licensing and design of the current fleet of commercial nuclear power reactors. The implications of these newer decision-making processes for NGSAC requirements are discussed, and resulting top-level goals for the NGSAC are formulated. From these goals, the general architectural and system requirements for the NGSAC are derived.

  3. Summary of Code Barriers:Summary of Code and Standard Barriers to the Implementation of High Performance Home Systems Designs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    Building codes serve to ensure minimum requirements for safety, durability, and energy efficiency of homes.To enable innovation and to support continual improvement, building codes are updated on a 2-3 year basis to (1) include new methods of and/or materials for construction and (2), where needed, revise the current methods of construction to better meet the intent of the code. This report discusses issues of wind pressure resistance in walls with exterior rigid foam sheathing installed directly over framing members.

  4. Validation of the U.S. NRC coupled code system TRITON/TRACE/PARCS with the special power excursion reactor test III (SPERT III)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R. C.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T.; Hudson, N.

    2012-07-01

    The Special Power Excursion Reactor Test III (SPERT III) was a series of reactivity insertion experiments conducted in the 1950's. This paper describes the validation of the U.S. NRC Coupled Code system TRITON/PARCS/TRACE to simulate reactivity insertion accidents (RIA) by using several of the SPERT III tests. The work here used the SPERT III E-core configuration tests in which the RIA was initiated by ejecting a control rod. The resulting super-prompt reactivity excursion and negative reactivity feedback produced the familiar bell shaped power increase and decrease. The energy deposition during such a power peak has important safety consequences and provides validation basis for core coupled multi-physics codes. The transients of five separate tests are used to benchmark the PARCS/TRACE coupled code. The models were thoroughly validated using the original experiment documentation. (authors)

  5. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  6. Time trend of injection drug errors before and after implementation of bar-code verification system.

    PubMed

    Sakushima, Ken; Umeki, Reona; Endoh, Akira; Ito, Yoichi M; Nasuhara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Bar-code technology, used for verification of patients and their medication, could prevent medication errors in clinical practice. Retrospective analysis of electronically stored medical error reports was conducted in a university hospital. The number of reported medication errors of injected drugs, including wrong drug administration and administration to the wrong patient, was compared before and after implementation of the bar-code verification system for inpatient care. A total of 2867 error reports associated with injection drugs were extracted. Wrong patient errors decreased significantly after implementation of the bar-code verification system (17.4/year vs. 4.5/year, p< 0.05), although wrong drug errors did not decrease sufficiently (24.2/year vs. 20.3/year). The source of medication errors due to wrong drugs was drug preparation in hospital wards. Bar-code medication administration is effective for prevention of wrong patient errors. However, ordinary bar-code verification systems are limited in their ability to prevent incorrect drug preparation in hospital wards.

  7. BCH Codes for Coherent Star DQAM Systems with Laser Phase Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Zibar, Darko; Sergeyev, Sergey; Popov, Sergei

    2017-03-01

    Coherent optical systems have relatively high laser phase noise, which affects the performance of forward error correction (FEC) codes. In this paper, we propose a method for selecting Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for coherent systems with star-shaped constellations and M-ary differential quadrature amplitude modulation (DQAM). Our method supports constellations of any order M which is a power of 2, and includes differential M-ary phase shift keying as a special case. Our approach is straightforward, requiring only short pre-FEC simulations to parameterize a statistical model, based on which we select codes analytically. It is applicable to pre-FEC bit error rates (BERs) of around 10-3. We evaluate the accuracy of our approach using numerical simulations. For a target post-FEC BER of 10-5, codes selected with our method yield BERs within 2× target. Lastly, we extend our method to systems with interleaving, which enables us to use codes with lower overhead.

  8. Feasibility of coded vibration in a vibro-ultrasound system for tissue elasticity measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinxin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Li, Tianjie; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The ability of various methods for elasticity measurement and imaging is hampered by the vibration amplitude on biological tissues. Based on the inference that coded excitation will improve the performance of the cross-correlation function of the tissue displacement waves, the idea of exerting encoded external vibration on tested samples for measuring its elasticity is proposed. It was implemented by integrating a programmable vibration generation function into a customized vibro-ultrasound system to generate Barker coded vibration for elasticity measurement. Experiments were conducted on silicone phantoms and porcine muscles. The results showed that coded excitation of the vibration enhanced the accuracy and robustness of the elasticity measurement especially in low signal-to-noise ratio scenarios. In the phantom study, the measured shear modulus values with coded vibration had an R(2 )= 0.993 linear correlation to that of referenced indentation, while for single-cycle pulse the R(2) decreased to 0.987. In porcine muscle study, the coded vibration also obtained a shear modulus value which is more accurate than the single-cycle pulse by 0.16 kPa and 0.33 kPa at two different depths. These results demonstrated the feasibility and potentiality of the coded vibration for enhancing the quality of elasticity measurement and imaging.

  9. A transport based one-dimensional perturbation code for reactivity calculations in metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Tracy Renee

    1995-02-01

    A one-dimensional reactivity calculation code is developed using first order perturbation theory. The reactivity equation is based on the multi-group transport equation using the discrete ordinates method for angular dependence. In addition to the first order perturbation approximations, the reactivity code uses only the isotropic scattering data, but cross section libraries with higher order scattering data can still be used with this code. The reactivity code obtains all the flux, cross section, and geometry data from the standard interface files created by ONEDANT, a discrete ordinates transport code. Comparisons between calculated and experimental reactivities were done with the central reactivity worth data for Lady Godiva, a bare uranium metal assembly. Good agreement is found for isotopes that do not violate the assumptions in the first order approximation. In general for cases where there are large discrepancies, the discretized cross section data is not accurately representing certain resonance regions that coincide with dominant flux groups in the Godiva assembly. Comparing reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and a straight Δk/k calculation shows agreement within 10% indicating the perturbation of the calculated fluxes is small enough for first order perturbation theory to be applicable in the modeled system. Computation time comparisons between reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and straight {Delta}k/k calculations indicate considerable time can be saved performing a calculation with a perturbation code particularly as the complexity of the modeled problems increase.

  10. What are the downstream water availability consequences of switching to more efficient irrigation systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the magnitude and frequency of droughts in many parts of the world; to minimize negative consequences of droughts, irrigators may need to adapt their irrigation practices. One of these adaptations is switching to more efficient technologies. Efficient irrigation systems usually reduce irrigation losses to baseflow and runoff which diminishes return flows, a significant component of downstream water availability in many irrigated river basins. The purpose of this study is to understand how farmers' investment in more efficient irrigation systems (as a climate change adaptation strategy) impact downstream water availability and, therefore, regional agricultural productivity. Our case study area is Washington State's Yakima River Basin (YRB), a heavily irrigated agricultural basin with relatively low irrigation efficiency and significant contribution of return flow to summer water availability. Similar to many other snow-dominant basins in the western U.S., the YRB has already experienced major droughts in 20% of the years between 1980 and 2010, and droughts are projected to be doubled by 2070. To simulate farmers' investment decisions, we apply an integrated hydrologic-agricultural-economic platform. Components include a tightly coupled agricultural-hydrologic model (VIC-CropSyst), a river system model specifically developed for the YRB (Yakima RiverWare) and an economic model that simulates farmers' investment decisions. The modeling platform also simulates return flows, thereby capturing downstream water availability throughout the irrigation season. It can also simulate the impacts of changes in downstream water availability on crop yield. The results demonstrate that a modified return flow regime negatively impacts downstream water availability for irrigation during the late irrigation season, when water supply is already limiting. The results can be used to inform sustainable agriculture that take into account both

  11. Development of a numerical computer code and circuit element models for simulation of firing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-07-02

    Numerical simulation of firing systems requires both the appropriate circuit analysis framework and the special element models required by the application. We have modified the SPICE circuit analysis code (version 2G.6), developed originally at the Electronic Research Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, to allow it to be used on MSDOS-based, personal computers and to give it two additional circuit elements needed by firing systems--fuses and saturating inductances. An interactive editor and a batch driver have been written to ease the use of the SPICE program by system designers, and the interactive graphical post processor, NUTMEG, supplied by U. C. Berkeley with SPICE version 3B1, has been interfaced to the output from the modified SPICE. Documentation and installation aids have been provided to make the total software system accessible to PC users. Sample problems show that the resulting code is in agreement with the FIRESET code on which the fuse model was based (with some modifications to the dynamics of scaling fuse parameters). In order to allow for more complex simulations of firing systems, studies have been made of additional special circuit elements--switches and ferrite cored inductances. A simple switch model has been investigated which promises to give at least a first approximation to the physical effects of a non ideal switch, and which can be added to the existing SPICE circuits without changing the SPICE code itself. The effect of fast rise time pulses on ferrites has been studied experimentally in order to provide a base for future modeling and incorporation of the dynamic effects of changes in core magnetization into the SPICE code. This report contains detailed accounts of the work on these topics performed during the period it covers, and has appendices listing all source code written documentation produced.

  12. IR performance study of an adaptive coded aperture "diffractive imaging" system employing MEMS "eyelid shutter" technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalanobis, A.; Reyner, C.; Patel, H.; Haberfelde, T.; Brady, David; Neifeld, Mark; Kumar, B. V. K. Vijaya; Rogers, Stanley

    2007-09-01

    Adaptive coded aperture sensing is an emerging technology enabling real time, wide-area IR/visible sensing and imaging. Exploiting unique imaging architectures, adaptive coded aperture sensors achieve wide field of view, near-instantaneous optical path repositioning, and high resolution while reducing weight, power consumption and cost of air- and space born sensors. Such sensors may be used for military, civilian, or commercial applications in all optical bands but there is special interest in diffraction imaging sensors for IR applications. Extension of coded apertures from Visible to the MWIR introduces the effects of diffraction and other distortions not observed in shorter wavelength systems. A new approach is being developed under the DARPA/SPO funded LACOSTE (Large Area Coverage Optical search-while Track and Engage) program, that addresses the effects of diffraction while gaining the benefits of coded apertures, thus providing flexibility to vary resolution, possess sufficient light gathering power, and achieve a wide field of view (WFOV). The photonic MEMS-Eyelid "sub-aperture" array technology is currently being instantiated in this DARPA program to be the heart of conducting the flow (heartbeat) of the incoming signal. However, packaging and scalability are critical factors for the MEMS "sub-aperture" technology which will determine system efficacy as well as military and commercial usefulness. As larger arrays with 1,000,000+ sub-apertures are produced for this LACOSTE effort, the available Degrees of Freedom (DOF) will enable better spatial resolution, control and refinement on the coding for the system. Studies (SNR simulations) will be performed (based on the Adaptive Coded Aperture algorithm implementation) to determine the efficacy of this diffractive MEMS approach and to determine the available system budget based on simulated bi-static shutter-element DOF degradation (1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, etc..) trials until the degradation level where it is

  13. Risk from a pressurized toxic gas system: Part 2, Dispersal consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.; Martin, D.; Lane, S.G.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1995-04-01

    During the preparation of a Safety Analysis Report at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we studied the release of chlorine from a compressed gas experimental apparatus. This paper presents the second part in a series of two papers on this topic. The first paper focuses on the frequency of an unmitigated release from the system; this paper discusses the consequences of the release. The release of chlorine from the experimental apparatus was modeled as an unmitigated blowdown through a 0.25 inch (0.0064 m) outside diameter tube. The physical properties of chlorine were considered as were the dynamics of the fluid flow problem. The calculated release rate was used as input for the consequence assessment. Downwind concentrations as a function of time were evaluated and then compared to suggested guidelines. For comparison purposes, a typical water treatment plant was briefly studied. The lower hazard presented by the LLNL operation becomes evident when its release is compared to the release of material from a water treatment plant, a hazard which is generally accepted by the public.

  14. Risk from a pressurized toxic gas system: Part 2, Dispersal consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.; Altenbach, T.J.; Lane, S.G.; Martin, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    During the preparation of a Safety Analysis Report at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. we studied the release of chlorine from a compressed gas experimental apparatus. This paper presents the second pan in a series of two papers on this topic. The first paper focuses on the frequency of an unmitigated release from the system; paper focuses the consequences of the release. The release of chlorine from the experimental apparatus was modeled as an unmitigated blowdown through a 0.25 inch (0.006.4 m) outside diameter tube. The physical properties of chlorine were considered as were the dynamics of the fluid flow problem. The calculated release rate was used as input for the consequence assessment. Downwind concentrations as a function of time were evaluated and then compared to suggested guidelines. For comparison purposes, a typical water treatment plant was briefly studied. The lower hazard presented by the LLNL operation becomes evident when its release is compared to the release of material from a water treatment plant, a hazard which is generally accepted by the public.

  15. Development of OCDMA system based on Flexible Cross Correlation (FCC) code with OFDM modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Anuar, M. S.; Arief, A. R.; Rashidi, C. B. M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of the OCDMA systems is governed by numerous quantitative parameters such as the data rate, simultaneous number of users, the powers of transmitter and receiver, and the type of codes. This paper analyzes the performance of the OCDMA system using OFDM technique to enhance the channel data rate, to save power and increase the number of user of OSCDMA systems compared with previous hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system. The average received signal to noise ratio (SNR) with the nonlinearity of subcarriers is derived. The theoretical results have been evaluated based on BER and number of users as well as amount of power saved. The proposed system gave better performance and save around -6 dBm of the power as well as increase the number of users twice compare to SCM/OCDMA system. In addition it is robust against interference and much more spectrally efficient than SCM/OCDMA system. The system was designed based on Flexible Cross Correlation (FCC) code which is easier construction, less complexity of encoder/decoder design and flexible in-phase cross-correlation for uncomplicated to implement using Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) for the OCDMA systems for any number of users and weights. The OCDMA-FCC_OFDM improves the number of users (cardinality) 108% compare to SCM/ODCMA-FCC system.

  16. Application of P4 Polyphase codes pulse compression method to air-coupled ultrasonic testing systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Honggang; Zhou, Zhenggan

    2017-07-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic testing systems are usually restricted by low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The use of pulse compression techniques based on P4 Polyphase codes can improve the ultrasound SNR. This type of codes can generate higher Peak Side Lobe (PSL) ratio and lower noise of compressed signal. This paper proposes the use of P4 Polyphase sequences to code ultrasound with a NDT system based on air-coupled piezoelectric transducer. Furthermore, the principle of selecting parameters of P4 Polyphase sequence for obtaining optimal pulse compression effect is also studied. Successful results are presented in molded composite material. A hybrid signal processing method for improvement in SNR up to 12.11dB and in time domain resolution about 35% are achieved when compared with conventional pulse compression technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a code system DEURACS for theoretical analysis and prediction of deuteron-induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Shinsuke; Kouno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Iwamoto, Osamu; Ye, Tao; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We have developed an integrated code system dedicated for theoretical analysis and prediction of deuteron-induced reactions, which is called DEUteron-induced Reaction Analysis Code System (DEURACS). DEURACS consists of several calculation codes based on theoretical models to describe respective reaction mechanisms and it was successfully applied to (d,xp) and (d,xn) reactions. In the present work, the analysis of (d,xn) reactions is extended to higher incident energy up to nearly 100 MeV and also DEURACS is applied to (d,xd) reactions at 80 and 100 MeV. The DEURACS calculations reproduce the experimental double-differential cross sections for the (d,xn) and (d,xd) reactions well.

  18. A Structural Systems Biology Approach for Quantifying the Systemic Consequences of Missense Mutations in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tammy M. K.; Goehring, Lucas; Jeffery, Linda; Lu, Yu-En; Hayles, Jacqueline; Novák, Béla; Bates, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gauging the systemic effects of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) is an important topic in the pursuit of personalized medicine. However, it is a non-trivial task to understand how a change at the protein structure level eventually affects a cell's behavior. This is because complex information at both the protein and pathway level has to be integrated. Given that the idea of integrating both protein and pathway dynamics to estimate the systemic impact of missense mutations in proteins remains predominantly unexplored, we investigate the practicality of such an approach by formulating mathematical models and comparing them with experimental data to study missense mutations. We present two case studies: (1) interpreting systemic perturbation for mutations within the cell cycle control mechanisms (G2 to mitosis transition) for yeast; (2) phenotypic classification of neuron-related human diseases associated with mutations within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We show that the application of simplified mathematical models is feasible for understanding the effects of small sequence changes on cellular behavior. Furthermore, we show that the systemic impact of missense mutations can be effectively quantified as a combination of protein stability change and pathway perturbation. PMID:23093928

  19. A structural systems biology approach for quantifying the systemic consequences of missense mutations in proteins.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tammy M K; Goehring, Lucas; Jeffery, Linda; Lu, Yu-En; Hayles, Jacqueline; Novák, Béla; Bates, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Gauging the systemic effects of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) is an important topic in the pursuit of personalized medicine. However, it is a non-trivial task to understand how a change at the protein structure level eventually affects a cell's behavior. This is because complex information at both the protein and pathway level has to be integrated. Given that the idea of integrating both protein and pathway dynamics to estimate the systemic impact of missense mutations in proteins remains predominantly unexplored, we investigate the practicality of such an approach by formulating mathematical models and comparing them with experimental data to study missense mutations. We present two case studies: (1) interpreting systemic perturbation for mutations within the cell cycle control mechanisms (G2 to mitosis transition) for yeast; (2) phenotypic classification of neuron-related human diseases associated with mutations within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We show that the application of simplified mathematical models is feasible for understanding the effects of small sequence changes on cellular behavior. Furthermore, we show that the systemic impact of missense mutations can be effectively quantified as a combination of protein stability change and pathway perturbation.

  20. A Modular Computer Code for Simulating Reactive Multi-Species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

    SciTech Connect

    TP Clement

    1999-06-24

    RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in

  1. Increasing average power in medical ultrasonic endoscope imaging system by coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-12-01

    Medical ultrasonic endoscope is the combination of electronic endoscope and ultrasonic sensor technology. Ultrasonic endoscope sends the ultrasonic probe into coelom through biopsy channel of electronic endoscope and rotates it by a micro pre-motor, which requires that the length of ultrasonic probe is no more than 14mm and the diameter is no more than 2.2mm. As a result, the ultrasonic excitation power is very low and it is difficult to obtain a sharp image. In order to increase the energy and SNR of ultrasonic signal, we introduce coded excitation into the ultrasonic imaging system, which is widely used in radar system. Coded excitation uses a long coded pulse to drive ultrasonic transducer, which can increase the average transmitting power accordingly. In this paper, in order to avoid the overlapping between adjacent echo, we used a four-figure Barker code to drive the ultrasonic transducer, which is modulated at the operating frequency of transducer to improve the emission efficiency. The implementation of coded excitation is closely associated with the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer. In this paper, the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer excited by a shock pulse δ(t) is firstly analyzed, and then the exciting pulse generated by special ultrasonic transmitting circuit composing of MD1211 and TC6320. In the final part of the paper, we designed an experiment to validate the coded excitation with transducer operating at 5MHz and a glass filled with ultrasonic coupling liquid as the object. Driven by a FPGA, the ultrasonic transmitting circuit output a four-figure Barker excitation pulse modulated at 5MHz, +/-20 voltage and is consistent with the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer after matched by matching circuit. The reflected echo from glass possesses coded character, which is identical with the simulating result by Matlab. Furthermore, the signal's amplitude is higher.

  2. "Going solid": a model of system dynamics and consequences for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R; Rasmussen, J

    2005-01-01

    

 Rather than being a static property of hospitals and other healthcare facilities, safety is dynamic and often on short time scales. In the past most healthcare delivery systems were loosely coupled—that is, activities and conditions in one part of the system had only limited effect on those elsewhere. Loose coupling allowed the system to buffer many conditions such as short term surges in demand. Modern management techniques and information systems have allowed facilities to reduce inefficiencies in operation. One side effect is the loss of buffers that previously accommodated demand surges. As a result, situations occur in which activities in one area of the hospital become critically dependent on seemingly insignificant events in seemingly distant areas. This tight coupling condition is called "going solid". Rasmussen's dynamic model of risk and safety can be used to formulate a model of patient safety dynamics that includes "going solid" and its consequences. Because the model addresses the dynamic aspects of safety, it is particularly suited to understanding current conditions in modern healthcare delivery and the way these conditions may lead to accidents. PMID:15805459

  3. Friendly Fire: Biological Functions and Consequences of Chromosomal Targeting by CRISPR-Cas Systems

    PubMed Central

    Heussler, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea target foreign elements, such as bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids, through the incorporation of short sequences (termed spacers) from the foreign element into the CRISPR array, thereby allowing sequence-specific targeting of the invader. Thus, CRISPR-Cas systems are typically considered a microbial adaptive immune system. While many of these incorporated spacers match targets on bacteriophages and plasmids, a noticeable number are derived from chromosomal DNA. While usually lethal to the self-targeting bacteria, in certain circumstances, these self-targeting spacers can have profound effects in regard to microbial biology, including functions beyond adaptive immunity. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies that focus on the functions and consequences of CRISPR-Cas self-targeting, including reshaping of the host population, group behavior modification, and the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas self-targeting as a tool in microbial biotechnology. Understanding the effects of CRISPR-Cas self-targeting is vital to fully understanding the spectrum of function of these systems. PMID:26929301

  4. Different features of work systems in Indonesia and their consequent approaches.

    PubMed

    Manuaba, A

    1997-12-01

    Indonesia, with its ultimate development goal of "developing the people and the community as a whole," in fact is facing problems in the execution of this goal. With a population of more than 200 million persons, different in sociocultural background, educational level and environmental conditions, it is understandable that the process and results of technological choices and transfers for various target groups will be different. A wide range of work systems is found, from the simplest man-tool system to the most complex. The conditions are becoming even more complex, a phenomenon especially evident through studies of their sociocultural, psychological, and environmental factors. As a consequence, if success is to be gained in anticipating and understanding the role of Indonesia in the global competition that lies ahead, a very wise approach to the situation by using local values that are often based on traditional habits and customs in a modern context should be carried out. This approach will require an immense amount of time, dedication and effort. Improvement endeavors that have been carried out in different work systems in different types of activities and industries, showed that if the improvement to be sustained, a holistic, systemic, and interdisciplined participatory approach should be taken into consideration where the technical, economical, ergonomic, sociocultural, energy, and environmental factors will play significant roles.

  5. Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

  6. Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging System with Chirp-Coded Excitation for Assessing Biomechanical Properties of Elasticity Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Guan-Chun; Chiang, Hsing-Jung; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Li, Chien-Ming; Chen, Pei-Jarn; Chen, Tainsong

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of soft tissues vary with pathological phenomenon. Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a noninvasive method used to analyze the local biomechanical properties of soft tissues in clinical diagnosis. However, the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) is diminished because of the attenuation of ultrasonic energy by soft tissues. Therefore, to improve the quality of elastography, the eSNR and depth of ultrasound penetration must be increased using chirp-coded excitation. Moreover, the low axial resolution of ultrasound images generated by a chirp-coded pulse must be increased using an appropriate compression filter. The main aim of this study is to develop an ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation using a Tukey window for assessing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues. In this study, we propose an ultrasound elasticity imaging system equipped with a 7.5-MHz single-element transducer and polymethylpentene compression plate to measure strains in soft tissues. Soft tissue strains were analyzed using cross correlation (CC) and absolution difference (AD) algorithms. The optimal parameters of CC and AD algorithms used for the ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation were determined by measuring the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) of a homogeneous phantom. Moreover, chirp-coded excitation and short pulse excitation were used to measure the elasticity properties of the phantom. The elastographic qualities of the tissue-mimicking phantom were assessed in terms of Young’s modulus and elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe). The results show that the developed ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation modulated by a Tukey window can acquire accurate, high-quality elastography images. PMID:28793718

  7. Longer term consequences of the Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) aircraft system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    An assessment of the STOL aircraft and the various means of employing it are discussed in the light of a research study to evaluate the efficacy of such analyses. It was determined that current approaches to assessment are generally inadequate for investigating the full social consequences of implementing a new technology. It is stated that a meaningful methodology of technology assessment must reflect mechanisms underlying the relationship of technology to social change. Interrelated methods which are discussed are: (1) gaming and simulation as heurisitic approaches in analysis and inquiry, (2) long range planning and questions of the future, (3) planning theory as a background for critical analysis of policy planning, and (4) social theory, with particular emphasis on social change and systems theories.

  8. Homebirth, freebirth and doulas: casualty and consequences of a broken maternity system.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, H G; Jackson, M; Stevens, J

    2011-03-01

    In Australia private homebirth remains unfunded and uninsured and publicly funded homebirth models are not widely available. Doulas are increasingly hired by women for support during childbirth and freebirth (birth intentionally unattended by a health professional) appears to be on the rise. The recently released Improving Maternity Services in Australia--The Report of the Maternity Services Review (MSR) exclude homebirth from the funding and insurance reforms proposed. Drawing on recent research we argue that homebirth has become a casualty of a broken maternity system. The recent rise in the numbers of women employing doulas and choosing to birth at home unattended by any health professional, we argue, is in part a consequence of not adequately meeting the needs of women for continuity of midwifery care and non-medicalised birthing options.

  9. Numerical and behavioral effects within a pulse-driven system: consequences for shared prey.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kenneth A; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2008-03-01

    Some of the clearest examples of the ramifying effects of resource pulses exist in deciduous forests dominated by mast-producing trees, such as oaks, beech, and hornbeam. Seed production in these forests represents only the first of several pulsed events. Secondary pulses emerge as mast-consuming small rodents numerically respond to seed production and tertiary pulses emerge as generalist predators numerically respond to rodents. Raptors may also respond behaviorally (i.e., diet shifts) to subsequent crashes in small rodents following the crash phase in seed production. In oak-dominated forest in the Hudson Valley, New York, these various pulse and crash phases act synergistically, although not simultaneously, to influence thrush population dynamics through predation on nests, juveniles, and adults. As a consequence, factors limiting population growth rate and their age-specific action vary as a function of past acorn production. We highlight these interactions based on our eight-year study of thrush demography, acorn production, and small mammal abundance coupled with information on regional adult thrush population trends from the Breeding Bird Survey. We use these data sets to demonstrate the sequence of primary to tertiary pulses and how they influence breeding thrush populations. To extend our discussion beyond masting phenomena in the eastern United States, we briefly review the literature of alternative avian prey within pulsed systems to show (1) numerical and behavioral responses by generalist predators are ubiquitous in pulsed systems, and this contributes to (2) variability in reproduction and survivorship of avian prey linked to the underlying dynamics of the pulse. We conclude by exploring the broad consequences of cascading resource pulses for alternative prey based upon the indirect interaction of apparent competition among shared prey and the nature of temporal variability on populations.

  10. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-02

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS.

  11. Alzheimer's disease and the law: positive and negative consequences of structural stigma and labeling in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Werner, Perla; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-11-01

    To explore the meaning and consequences of labeling on structural stigma in the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the legal system. This qualitative study was made up of three focus groups including social workers and lawyers (n = 26). Participants were asked to report their experience in circumstances in which persons with AD and their family members engage with the legal system. Thematic analysis using the constant comparative method was used. The discussions in the focus groups raised two overall themes. (1) The significance of the medical diagnostic labeling of AD in the legal system and (2) the consequences of labeling of AD within the legal system. This last theme included four sub-themes: (a) negative consequences of labeling; (b) reasons associated with negative consequences of labeling; (c) positive consequences of labeling; and (d) reasons associated with positive consequences of labeling. Findings of the study provide a first foundation for future research on the meaning and consequences of labeling in legal cases involving persons with AD. They suggest that increasing judges' knowledge about AD and reforming the existing 'status-based' legal capacity legislation might benefit by limiting the legal weight given today to the medical diagnosis.

  12. Automatic construction of rule-based ICD-9-CM coding systems

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Richárd; Szarvas, György

    2008-01-01

    Background In this paper we focus on the problem of automatically constructing ICD-9-CM coding systems for radiology reports. ICD-9-CM codes are used for billing purposes by health institutes and are assigned to clinical records manually following clinical treatment. Since this labeling task requires expert knowledge in the field of medicine, the process itself is costly and is prone to errors as human annotators have to consider thousands of possible codes when assigning the right ICD-9-CM labels to a document. In this study we use the datasets made available for training and testing automated ICD-9-CM coding systems by the organisers of an International Challenge on Classifying Clinical Free Text Using Natural Language Processing in spring 2007. The challenge itself was dominated by entirely or partly rule-based systems that solve the coding task using a set of hand crafted expert rules. Since the feasibility of the construction of such systems for thousands of ICD codes is indeed questionable, we decided to examine the problem of automatically constructing similar rule sets that turned out to achieve a remarkable accuracy in the shared task challenge. Results Our results are very promising in the sense that we managed to achieve comparable results with purely hand-crafted ICD-9-CM classifiers. Our best model got a 90.26% F measure on the training dataset and an 88.93% F measure on the challenge test dataset, using the micro-averaged Fβ=1 measure, the official evaluation metric of the International Challenge on Classifying Clinical Free Text Using Natural Language Processing. This result would have placed second in the challenge, with a hand-crafted system achieving slightly better results. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that hand-crafted systems – which proved to be successful in ICD-9-CM coding – can be reproduced by replacing several laborious steps in their construction with machine learning models. These hybrid systems preserve the favourable

  13. Code-division multiple-access protocol for active RFID systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Gustaw; Szabatin, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Most of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems operating in HF and UHF bands employ narrowband modulations (FSK or ASK) with Manchester coding. However, these simple transmission schemes are vulnerable to narrowband interference (NBI) generated by other radio systems working in the same frequency band, and also suffer from collision problem and need special anti-collision procedures. This becomes especially important when operating in a noisy, crowded industrial environment. In this paper we show the performance of RFID system with DS-CDMA transmission in comparison to a standard system with FSK modulation defined in ISO 18000-7. Our simulation results show that without any bandwidth expansion the immunity against NBI can be improved by 8 dB and the system capacity can be 7 times higher when using DS-CDMA transmission instead of FSK modulation with Manchester coding.

  14. Digital-coded matrix system simplifies design and construction of flow charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, E.

    1971-01-01

    Matrix system utilizing unique digital code enables drawing block diagrams with parallel blocks. Complete freedom is obtained in laying out diagram, and it is possible to go directly from matrix to finished drawing. Need to rough out diagram is eliminated and time involved is greatly reduced.

  15. Study of the Spectral Disentangling Code KOREL in eclipsing triple systems: Application to RV Crt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Hensberge, H.

    2004-12-01

    The KOREL code is applied to artificial spectra of binaries and a hierarchical triple with one rather faint component to understand better its possibilities and limitations. We present also the first successfully disentangled spectra of the eclipsing triple system RV Crt, whose components may be in the PMS evolutionary phase (Machado 1997).

  16. Paired Learners' Verbalised Strategies for Determining Grammatical Correctness: A Turn-Based System for Coding Metatalk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of a new coding system that incorporates the various types of metatalk that occurred during paired learners' engagement in a consciousness-raising task. On the basis of previous studies, metalanguage (e.g. with or without terminology), knowledge sources (e.g. intuition), and verbalisation strategies…

  17. Users manual for the FORSS sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code system

    SciTech Connect

    Lucius, J.L.; Weisbin, C.R.; Marable, J.H.; Drischler, J.D.; Wright, R.Q.; White, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    FORSS is a code system used to study relationships between nuclear reaction cross sections, integral experiments, reactor performance parameter predictions and associated uncertainties. This report describes the computing environment and the modules currently used to implement FORSS Sensitivity and Uncertainty Methodology.

  18. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  19. Recent development for the ITS code system: Parallel processing and visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, W.C.; Turner, C.D.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.; Kensek, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    A brief overview is given for two software developments related to the ITS code system. These developments provide parallel processing and visualization capabilities and thus allow users to perform ITS calculations more efficiently. Timing results and a graphical example are presented to demonstrate these capabilities.

  20. Analyzing Multiple Dimensions of Web-based Courses: The Development and Piloting of a Coding System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Mingming; Meskill, Carla

    2000-01-01

    Presents the development and piloting of a coding system for evaluation of asynchronous Web-based instruction/learning. Processes were guided by four prominent education perspectives and the extended examination of, and survey data from, 17 archived Web-based courses. These served as the bases for the development and application of the coding…

  1. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  2. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  3. Stress, Neural Systems, and Genetic Code: An Interview with Neuroscientist Judy Cameron. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates some early life stresses can have a profound impact, resulting in changes in brain function and behavior, and even differences in the ways some genes express their particular genetic code signature. At various times during early development, different neural systems appear to have an increased sensitivity to stress and can…

  4. The Development of a Coding System for the Assessment of Organizational Decision-Making as Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Allen J.

    This paper is an account of the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the Decision-Proposal Modification Coding System (DPM), which allows researchers to study more accurately the many aspects of group decision making in organizations. Following an introduction that reviews and supports arguments for process-oriented research on decision…

  5. A System for Coding Integration and Differentiation Messages (SID): Operationalizing Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Dorothy Lenk

    A "System for coding Integration and Differentiation messages" in group communication (SID) was developed, based on the theoretical and empirical work of W. C. Schutz, W. Bennis and H. Shepard, and A. Koestler. In SID, integrating messages are defined as those dealing with material internal to the group and having positive affect, or…

  6. Threshold-Based OSIC Detection Algorithm for Per-Antenna-Coded TIMO-OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinzheng; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Pengcheng

    Threshold-based ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC) detection algorithm is proposed for per-antenna-coded (PAC) two-input multiple-output (TIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Successive interference cancellation (SIC) is performed selectively according to channel conditions. Compared with the conventional OSIC algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the complexity significantly with only a slight performance degradation.

  7. The Development of a Systematic Coding System for Elementary Students' Drawings of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nicole; Duncan, Daphne; Dyehouse, Melissa; Strobel, Johannes; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2011-01-01

    The Draw an Engineer Test (DAET) is a common measure of students' perceptions of engineers. The coding systems currently used for K-12 research are general rubrics or checklists to capture the images presented in the drawing, which leave out some of the richness of students' perceptions, currently only captured with an accompanying student…

  8. MatLab script to C code converter for embedded processors of FLASH LLRF control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujnowski, K.; Siemionczyk, A.; Pucyk, P.; Szewiński, J.; Pożniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    The low level RF control system (LLRF) of FEL serves for stabilization of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the superconducting niobium, resonant, microwave cavities and for controlling high power (MW) klystron. LLRF system of FLASH accelerator bases on FPGA technology and embedded microprocessors. Basic and auxiliary functions of the systems are listed as well as used algorithms for superconductive cavity parameters identification. These algorithms were prepared originally in Matlab. The main part of the paper presents implementation of the cavity parameters identification algorithm in a PowerPC processor embedded in the FPGA circuit VirtexIIPro. A construction of a very compact Matlab script converter to C code was presented, referred to as M2C. The application is designed specifically for embedded systems of very confined resources. The generated code is optimized for the weight. The code should be transferable between different hardware platforms. The converter generates a code for Linux and for stand-alone applications. Functional structure of the program was described and the way it is acting. FLEX and BIZON tools were used for construction of the converter. The paper concludes with an example of the M2C application to convert a complex identification algorithm for superconductive cavities in FLASH laser.

  9. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  10. The Development of a Systematic Coding System for Elementary Students' Drawings of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nicole; Duncan, Daphne; Dyehouse, Melissa; Strobel, Johannes; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2011-01-01

    The Draw an Engineer Test (DAET) is a common measure of students' perceptions of engineers. The coding systems currently used for K-12 research are general rubrics or checklists to capture the images presented in the drawing, which leave out some of the richness of students' perceptions, currently only captured with an accompanying student…

  11. Randomization of Symbol Repetition of Punch Cards with Superimposed Coding in Information-Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirovich, L. Ya

    The article shows the effect of the irregularity of using separate symbols on search noise on punch cards with superimposed symbol coding in information-search system (IPS). A binomial law of random value distribution of repetition of each symbol is established and analyzed. A method of determining the maximum value of symbol repetition is…

  12. GRAVE: An Interactive Geometry Construction and Visualization Software System for the TORT Nuclear Radiation Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.

    2000-05-07

    A software system, GRAVE (Geometry Rendering and Visual Editor), has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform interactive visualization and development of models used as input to the TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional visualization displays are included. Display capabilities include image rotation, zoom, translation, wire-frame and translucent display, geometry cuts and slices, and display of individual component bodies and material zones. The geometry can be interactively edited and saved in TORT input file format. This system is an advancement over the current, non-interactive, two-dimensional display software. GRAVE is programmed in the Java programming language and can be implemented on a variety of computer platforms. Three- dimensional visualization is enabled through the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), a free-ware C++ software library developed for geometric and data visual display. Future plans include an extension of the system to read inputs using binary zone maps and combinatorial geometry models containing curved surfaces, such as those used for Monte Carlo code inputs. Also GRAVE will be extended to geometry visualization/editing for the DORT two-dimensional transport code and will be integrated into a single GUI-based system for all of the ORNL discrete ordinates transport codes.

  13. Paired Learners' Verbalised Strategies for Determining Grammatical Correctness: A Turn-Based System for Coding Metatalk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of a new coding system that incorporates the various types of metatalk that occurred during paired learners' engagement in a consciousness-raising task. On the basis of previous studies, metalanguage (e.g. with or without terminology), knowledge sources (e.g. intuition), and verbalisation strategies…

  14. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... short-run and long-run impact on the cost of the health insurance program, other medical care costs... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems. 405.512 Section 405.512 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  15. [Procedure for coding the causes of death in some circulatory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Kakorina, E P; Aleksandrova, G A; Frank, G A; Mal'kov, P G; Zaĭratians, O V; Vaĭsman, D Sh

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the unification of requirements for coding the causes of death in circulatory system diseases, by taking into account the recently updated ICD-10 and the Consensus of the Expert Council Task Force on Pathological Anatomy, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (27 February 2014).

  16. GENGA: a GPU code for planet formation and planetary system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas Grimm, Simon; Stadel, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    We present GENGA, a GPU code designed and optimised for (exo)planetary formation - and orbital evolution simulations. The use of the parallel computing power of GPUs allows GENGA to achieve a significant speedup compared to other N-body codes. GENGA runs about 30 - 50 times faster than the Mercury code.GENGA can be used with three different computational modes: The main mode permits to integrate a N-body system with up to 8192 fully interacting planetesimals, orbiting a central mass.The test particle mode can include up to 1 million massless bodies in the presence of massive planets or protoplanets. The third mode allows the parallel integration of up to 100000 samples of small exoplanetary systems with different parameters. With this functionality, GENGA can be used in a variety of applications in planetary and exoplanetary science. Possible applications of GENGA are: the late stage of terrestrial planet formation, study core accretion models for gas giants in the presence of planetesimals, simulate the evolution of asteroids and asteroid families, find stable configurations of exoplanetary systems to restrict the detected orbital parameters, and many more.Since such simulations can often take billions of time steps to complete, or require the cover of a very large parameter space, it makes it necessary to use a highly optimised code, running on the today's most efficient hardware. As a bonus, the use of GPUs allows a real time visualisation of the simulations on the screen.In our presentation we will give an overview of the possibilities of the code and discuss the newest results and applications of GENGA. The code is published as open source software under https://bitbucket.org/sigrimm/genga.

  17. Space communication system for compressed data with a concatenated Reed-Solomon-Viterbi coding channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A space communication system incorporating a concatenated Reed Solomon Viterbi coding channel is discussed for transmitting compressed and uncompressed data from a spacecraft to a data processing center on Earth. Imaging (and other) data are first compressed into source blocks which are then coded by a Reed Solomon coder and interleaver, followed by a convolutional encoder. The received data is first decoded by a Viterbi decoder, followed by a Reed Solomon decoder and deinterleaver. The output of the latter is then decompressed, based on the compression criteria used in compressing the data in the spacecraft. The decompressed data is processed to reconstruct an approximation of the original data-producing condition or images.

  18. Integration of a supersonic unsteady aerodynamic code into the NASA FASTEX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A supersonic unsteady aerodynamic loads prediction method based on the constant pressure method was integrated into the NASA FASTEX system. The updated FASTEX code can be employed for aeroelastic analyses in subsonic and supersonic flow regimes. A brief description of the supersonic constant pressure panel method, as applied to lifting surfaces and body configurations, is followed by a documentation of updates required to incorporate this method in the FASTEX code. Test cases showing correlations of predicted pressure distributions, flutter solutions, and stability derivatives with available data are reported.

  19. A Low Cost Correlator Structure in the Pseudo-Noise Code Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijun; Li, Ying; Yu, Dunshan; Zhang, Xing

    The critical problem of the pseudo-noise (PN) code acquisition system is the contradiction between the acquisition performance and the calculation complexity. This paper presents a low cost correlator (LCC) structure that can search for two PN code phases in a single accumulation period by eliminating redundant computation. Compared with the part-parallel structure that is composed of two serial correlators (PARALLEL2), the proposed LCC structure has the same performance while saves about 22% chip area and 34% power consumption if uses the Carry-look-ahead (CLA) adder, 17% chip area and 25% power consumption if uses the Ripple-carry (RPL) adder.

  20. Commissioning of a motion system to investigate dosimetric consequences due to variability of respiratory waveforms.

    PubMed

    Cetnar, Ashley J; James, Joshua; Wang, Brain

    2016-01-08

    A commercially available six-dimensional (6D) motion system was assessed for accuracy and clinical use in our department. Positional accuracy and respiratory waveform reproducibility were evaluated for the motion system. The system was then used to investigate the dosimetric consequences of respiratory waveform variation when an internal target volume (ITV) approach is used for motion management. The maximum deviations are 0.3 mm and 0.22° for translation and rotation accuracy, respectively, for the tested clinical ranges. The origin reproducibility is less than±0.1 mm. The average differences are less than 0.1 mm with a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mm between waveforms of actual patients and replication of those waveforms by HexaMotion for three breath-hold and one free-breathing waveform. A modified gamma analysis shows greater than 98% agreement with a 0.5 mm and 100 ms threshold. The motion system was used to investigate respiratory waveform variation and showed that, as the amplitude of the treatment waveform increases above that of the simulation waveform, the periphery of the target volume receives less dose than expected. However, by using gating limits to terminate the beam outside of the simulation amplitude, the results are as expected dosimetrically. Specifically, the average dose difference in the periphery between treating with the simulation waveform and the larger amplitude waveform could be up to 12% less without gating limits, but only differed 2% or less with the gating limits in place. The general functionality of the system performs within the manufacturer's specifications and can accurately replicate patient specific waveforms. When an ITV approach is used for motion management, we found the use of gating limits that coincide with the amplitude of the patient waveform at simulation helpful to prevent the potential underdosing of the target due to changes in patient respiration.

  1. Evasion of tumours from the control of the immune system: consequences of brief encounters.

    PubMed

    Al-Tameemi, Mohannad; Chaplain, Mark; d'Onofrio, Alberto

    2012-09-25

    In this work a mathematical model describing the growth of a solid tumour in the presence of an immune system response is presented. Specifically, attention is focused on the interactions between cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and tumour cells in a small, avascular multicellular tumour. At this stage of the disease the CTLs and the tumour cells are considered to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium or cancer dormancy. The precise biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which CTLs can control a cancer and keep it in a dormant state are still not completely understood from a biological and immunological point of view. The mathematical model focuses on the spatio-temporal dynamics of tumour cells, immune cells, chemokines and "chemorepellents" in an immunogenic tumour. The CTLs and tumour cells are assumed to migrate and interact with each other in such a way that lymphocyte-tumour cell complexes are formed. These complexes result in either the death of the tumour cells (the normal situation) or the inactivation of the lymphocytes and consequently the survival of the tumour cells. In the latter case, we assume that each tumour cell that survives its "brief encounter" with the CTLs undergoes certain beneficial phenotypic changes. We explore the dynamics of the model under these assumptions and show that the process of immuno-evasion can arise as a consequence of these encounters. We show that the proposed mechanism not only shape the dynamics of the total number of tumor cells and of CTLs, but also the dynamics of their spatial distribution. We also briefly discuss the evolutionary features of our model, by framing them in the recent quasi-Lamarckian theories. Our findings might have some interesting implication of interest for clinical practice. Indeed, immuno-editing process can be seen as an "involuntary" antagonistic process acting against immunotherapies, which aim at maintaining a tumor in a dormant state, or at suppressing it.

  2. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-600 series system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currier, S. F.; Powell, W. R.

    1986-08-01

    The hardware and software characteristics of a time division multiplex system are described. The system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is merged with synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information presented herein is required by users to design compatible interfaces and assure effective utilization of this encoder system. GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility has flown approximately 50 of these systems through 1984 on sounding rockets with no inflight failures. Aydin Vector manufactures all of the components for these systems.

  3. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-600 series system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currier, S. F.; Powell, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The hardware and software characteristics of a time division multiplex system are described. The system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is merged with synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information presented herein is required by users to design compatible interfaces and assure effective utilization of this encoder system. GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility has flown approximately 50 of these systems through 1984 on sounding rockets with no inflight failures. Aydin Vector manufactures all of the components for these systems.

  4. Temporal code in the vibrissal system Part II: Roughness surface discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfán, F. D.; Albarracín, A. L.; Felice, C. J.

    2007-11-01

    Previous works have purposed hypotheses about the neural code of the tactile system in the rat. One of them is based on the physical characteristics of vibrissae, such as frequency of resonance; another is based on discharge patterns on the trigeminal ganglion. In this work, the purpose is to find a temporal code analyzing the afferent signals of two vibrissal nerves while vibrissae sweep surfaces of different roughness. Two levels of pressure were used between the vibrissa and the contact surface. We analyzed the afferent discharge of DELTA and GAMMA vibrissal nerves. The vibrissae movements were produced using electrical stimulation of the facial nerve. The afferent signals were analyzed using an event detection algorithm based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The algorithm was able to detect events of different duration. The inter-event times detected were calculated for each situation and represented in box plot. This work allowed establishing the existence of a temporal code at peripheral level.

  5. [An update of the diagnostic coding system by the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergencies].

    PubMed

    Benito Fernández, J; Luaces Cubells, C; Gelabert Colomé, G; Anso Borda, I

    2015-06-01

    The Quality Working Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergencies (SEUP) presents an update of the diagnostic coding list. The original list was prepared and published in Anales de Pediatría in 2000, being based on the International Coding system ICD-9-CM current at that time. Following the same methodology used at that time and based on the 2014 edition of the ICD-9-CM, 35 new codes have been added to the list, 15 have been updated, and a list of the most frequent references to trauma diagnoses in pediatrics have been provided. In the current list of diagnoses, SEUP reflects the significant changes that have taken place in Pediatric Emergency Services in the last decade. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A DS-UWB Cognitive Radio System Based on Bridge Function Smart Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yafei; Hong, Sheng; Zhao, Guodong; Zhang, Fengyuan; di, Jinshan; Zhang, Qishan

    This paper proposes a direct-sequence UWB Gaussian pulse of cognitive radio systems based on bridge function smart sequence matrix and the Gaussian pulse. As the system uses the spreading sequence code, that is the bridge function smart code sequence, the zero correlation zones (ZCZs) which the bridge function sequences' auto-correlation functions had, could reduce multipath fading of the pulse interference. The Modulated channel signal was sent into the IEEE 802.15.3a UWB channel. We analysis the ZCZs's inhibition to the interference multipath interference (MPI), as one of the main system sources interferences. The simulation in SIMULINK/MATLAB is described in detail. The result shows the system has better performance by comparison with that employing Walsh sequence square matrix, and it was verified by the formula in principle.

  7. A Coded Structured Light System Based on Primary Color Stripe Projection and Monochrome Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2013-01-01

    Coded Structured Light techniques represent one of the most attractive research areas within the field of optical metrology. The coding procedures are typically based on projecting either a single pattern or a temporal sequence of patterns to provide 3D surface data. In this context, multi-slit or stripe colored patterns may be used with the aim of reducing the number of projected images. However, color imaging sensors require the use of calibration procedures to address crosstalk effects between different channels and to reduce the chromatic aberrations. In this paper, a Coded Structured Light system has been developed by integrating a color stripe projector and a monochrome camera. A discrete coding method, which combines spatial and temporal information, is generated by sequentially projecting and acquiring a small set of fringe patterns. The method allows the concurrent measurement of geometrical and chromatic data by exploiting the benefits of using a monochrome camera. The proposed methodology has been validated by measuring nominal primitive geometries and free-form shapes. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained by using a time-multiplexing gray code strategy. PMID:24129018

  8. A coded structured light system based on primary color stripe projection and monochrome imaging.

    PubMed

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2013-10-14

    Coded Structured Light techniques represent one of the most attractive research areas within the field of optical metrology. The coding procedures are typically based on projecting either a single pattern or a temporal sequence of patterns to provide 3D surface data. In this context, multi-slit or stripe colored patterns may be used with the aim of reducing the number of projected images. However, color imaging sensors require the use of calibration procedures to address crosstalk effects between different channels and to reduce the chromatic aberrations. In this paper, a Coded Structured Light system has been developed by integrating a color stripe projector and a monochrome camera. A discrete coding method, which combines spatial and temporal information, is generated by sequentially projecting and acquiring a small set of fringe patterns. The method allows the concurrent measurement of geometrical and chromatic data by exploiting the benefits of using a monochrome camera. The proposed methodology has been validated by measuring nominal primitive geometries and free-form shapes. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained by using a time-multiplexing gray code strategy.

  9. THE CODE OF THE STREET AND INMATE VIOLENCE: INVESTIGATING THE SALIENCE OF IMPORTED BELIEF SYSTEMS*

    PubMed Central

    MEARS, DANIEL P.; STEWART, ERIC A.; SIENNICK, SONJA E.; SIMONS, RONALD L.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have long argued that inmate behaviors stem in part from cultural belief systems that they “import” with them into incarcerative settings. Even so, few empirical assessments have tested this argument directly. Drawing on theoretical accounts of one such set of beliefs—the code of the street—and on importation theory, we hypothesize that individuals who adhere more strongly to the street code will be more likely, once incarcerated, to engage in violent behavior and that this effect will be amplified by such incarceration experiences as disciplinary sanctions and gang involvement, as well as the lack of educational programming, religious programming, and family support. We test these hypotheses using unique data that include measures of the street code belief system and incarceration experiences. The results support the argument that the code of the street belief system affects inmate violence and that the effect is more pronounced among inmates who lack family support, experience disciplinary sanctions, and are gang involved. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24068837

  10. A novel repetition space-time coding scheme for mobile FSO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Cao, Yang; Li, Shu-ming; Yang, Shao-wen

    2015-03-01

    Considering the influence of more random atmospheric turbulence, worse pointing errors and highly dynamic link on the transmission performance of mobile multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optics (FSO) communication systems, this paper establishes a channel model for the mobile platform. Based on the combination of Alamouti space-time code and time hopping ultra-wide band (TH-UWB) communications, a novel repetition space-time coding (RSTC) method for mobile 2×2 free-space optical communications with pulse position modulation (PPM) is developed. In particular, two decoding methods of equal gain combining (EGC) maximum likelihood detection (MLD) and correlation matrix detection (CMD) are derived. When a quasi-static fading and weak turbulence channel model are considered, simulation results show that whether the channel state information (CSI) is known or not, the coding system demonstrates more significant performance of the symbol error rate (SER) than the uncoding. In other words, transmitting diversity can be achieved while conveying the information only through the time delays of the modulated signals transmitted from different antennas. CMD has almost the same effect of signal combining with maximal ratio combining (MRC). However, when the channel correlation increases, SER performance of the coding 2×2 system degrades significantly.

  11. National Combustion Code, a Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System, Will Be Transferred to the Commercial Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and Flow Parametrics will enter into an agreement to commercialize the National Combustion Code (NCC). This multidisciplinary combustor design system utilizes computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. This integrated system can facilitate and enhance various phases of the design and analysis process.

  12. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression are reported which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft. In addition to presenting new and potentially significant system considerations, this report attempts to fill a need for a comprehensive tutorial which makes much of this very subject accessible to readers whose disciplines lie outside of communication theory.

  13. Interfacing Hoare Logic and Type Systems for Foundational Proof-Carrying Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Our frame- work permits the typed assembly language to have a “foreign function” interface, in which stubs, initially provided when the program is...integrate programs compiled from different source type systems. In the process, we are explicitly manipulating the interface between Hoare logic and a...Java or ML) and compile (type-correct) programs from that language into machine code with a safety proof. However, the run- time systems of these

  14. Consequences of Circadian and Sleep Disturbances for the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Alibhai, Faisal J; Tsimakouridze, Elena V; Reitz, Cristine J; Pyle, W Glen; Martino, Tami A

    2015-07-01

    Circadian rhythms play a crucial role in our cardiovascular system. Importantly, there has been a recent flurry of clinical and experimental studies revealing the profound adverse consequences of disturbing these rhythms on the cardiovascular system. For example, circadian disturbance worsens outcome after myocardial infarction with implications for patients in acute care settings. Moreover, disturbing rhythms exacerbates cardiac remodelling in heart disease models. Also, circadian dyssynchrony is a causal factor in the pathogenesis of heart disease. These discoveries have profound implications for the cardiovascular health of shift workers, individuals with circadian and sleep disorders, or anyone subjected to the 24/7 demands of society. Moreover, these studies give rise to 2 new frontiers for translational research: (1) circadian rhythms and the cardiac sarcomere, which sheds new light on our understanding of myofilament structure, signalling, and electrophysiology; and (2) knowledge translation, which includes biomarker discovery (chronobiomarkers), timing of therapies (chronotherapy), and other new promising approaches to improve the management and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Reconsidering circadian rhythms in the clinical setting benefits repair mechanisms, and offers new promise for patients. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies.

  16. Ecosocial consequences and policy implications of disease management in East African agropastoral systems.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Gilioli, Gianni; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2009-08-04

    International research and development efforts in Africa have brought ecological and social change, but analyzing the consequences of this change and developing policy to manage it for sustainable development has been difficult. This has been largely due to a lack of conceptual and analytical models to access the interacting dynamics of the different components of ecosocial systems. Here, we examine the ecological and social changes resulting from an ongoing suppression of trypanosomiasis disease in cattle in an agropastoral community in southwest Ethiopia to illustrate how such problems may be addressed. The analysis combines physiologically based demographic models of pasture, cattle, and pastoralists and a bioeconomic model that includes the demographic models as dynamic constraints in the economic objective function that maximizes the utility of individual consumption under different level of disease risk in cattle. Field data and model analysis show that suppression of trypanosomiasis leads to increased cattle and human populations and to increased agricultural development. However, in the absence of sound management, these changes will lead to a decline in pasture quality and increase the risk from tick-borne diseases in cattle and malaria in humans that would threaten system sustainability and resilience. The analysis of these conflicting outcomes of trypanosomiasis suppression is used to illustrate the need for and utility of conceptual bioeconomic models to serve as a basis for developing policy for sustainable agropastoral resource management in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Ecosocial consequences and policy implications of disease management in East African agropastoral systems

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Gilioli, Gianni; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2009-01-01

    International research and development efforts in Africa have brought ecological and social change, but analyzing the consequences of this change and developing policy to manage it for sustainable development has been difficult. This has been largely due to a lack of conceptual and analytical models to access the interacting dynamics of the different components of ecosocial systems. Here, we examine the ecological and social changes resulting from an ongoing suppression of trypanosomiasis disease in cattle in an agropastoral community in southwest Ethiopia to illustrate how such problems may be addressed. The analysis combines physiologically based demographic models of pasture, cattle, and pastoralists and a bioeconomic model that includes the demographic models as dynamic constraints in the economic objective function that maximizes the utility of individual consumption under different level of disease risk in cattle. Field data and model analysis show that suppression of trypanosomiasis leads to increased cattle and human populations and to increased agricultural development. However, in the absence of sound management, these changes will lead to a decline in pasture quality and increase the risk from tick-borne diseases in cattle and malaria in humans that would threaten system sustainability and resilience. The analysis of these conflicting outcomes of trypanosomiasis suppression is used to illustrate the need for and utility of conceptual bioeconomic models to serve as a basis for developing policy for sustainable agropastoral resource management in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19620722

  18. Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Dianne; Ebi, Kristie L.; Forsberg, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS). HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. Objective: To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. Methods: We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Findings and Conclusions: Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans. PMID:22408593

  19. The consequences of physiological resistances on metabolite removal from the patient-artifical kidney system.

    PubMed

    Popovich, R P; Hlavinka, D J; Bomar, J B; Moncrief, J W; Decherd, J F

    1975-01-01

    A diffusion limited, multicompartment patient-artifical kidney transport model has been developed. The physiological transport parameters have been clincially elevated for radiosotopically tagged urea, creatinine, uric acid, vitamin B12, and inulin with anuric, chronic uremic patients. Concomitant hemodialysis simulations illustrate that a 3 compartment patient model is adequate to characterize physiological transport. However, because of the high value of the transcapillary mass transfer coefficient, it is concluded that a 2 compartment (intracellular/extracellular) model is adequate to define mass transfer in the patient-artifical kidney system: a single pool may be assumed for very low hemodialyzer (less than 20 ml/min) clearances. Dialysis simulations also demonstrate that a point of diminshing returns is reached with respect to increasing mass removal from the patient, via increasing dialyzer clearance for middle molecules. In a 5 hr hemodialysis simulation the system becomes limited by physiological mass transfer resistances for dialyzer clearances greater than 100 ml/min. It is concluded that physiological transport resistances significantly impeded the removal of middle molecules from the patient-artifical kidney system. As a result, a single, well mixed pool assumption is not generally adequate to describe solute transport. A consequence of this conclusion is that the M2-hr hypothesis, which is based on a single pool assumption, cannot be generally utilized to accurately adjust hemodialysis treatment schedules for equivalent middle molecule removal. We are currently analyzing the patient-artifical kidney system to define improved adjustments modes for equivalent mass removal employing a 2 pool patiemt model.

  20. An experimental study of the concatenated Reed-Solomon/Viterbi channel coding system performance and its impact on space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.; Lee, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The need for efficient space communication at very low bit error probabilities to the specification and implementation of a concatenated coding system using an interleaved Reed-Solomon code as the outer code and a Viterbi-decoded convolutional code as the inner code. Experimental results of this channel coding system are presented under an emulated S-band uplink and X-band downlink two-way space communication channel, where both uplink and downlink have strong carrier power. This work was performed under the NASA End-to-End Data Systems program at JPL. Test results verify that at a bit error probability of 10 to the -6 power or less, this concatenated coding system does provide a coding gain of 2.5 dB or more over the Viterbi-decoded convolutional-only coding system. These tests also show that a desirable interleaving depth for the Reed-Solomon outer code is 8 or more. The impact of this "virtually" error-free space communication link on the transmission of images is discussed and examples of simulation results are given.