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Sample records for conserved promiscuous hiv

  1. Novel and promiscuous CTL epitopes in conserved regions of Gag targeted by individuals with early subtype C HIV type 1 infection from southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Masemola, Agatha M; Mashishi, Tumelo N; Khoury, Greg; Bredell, Helba; Paximadis, Maria; Mathebula, Tiyani; Barkhan, Debra; Puren, Adrian; Vardas, Efthyia; Colvin, Mark; Zijenah, Lynn; Katzenstein, David; Musonda, Rosemary; Allen, Susan; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha; Gray, Glenda; McIntyre, James; Karim, Salim Abdool; Sheppard, Haynes W; Gray, Clive M

    2004-10-01

    Characterization of optimal CTL epitopes in Gag can provide crucial information for evaluation of candidate vaccines in populations at the epicenter of the HIV-1 epidemic. We screened 38 individuals with recent subtype C HIV-1 infection using overlapping consensus C Gag peptides and hypothesized that unique HLA-restricting alleles in the southern African population would determine novel epitope identity. Seventy-four percent of individuals recognized at least one Gag peptide pool. Ten epitopic regions were identified across p17, p24, and p2p7p1p6, and greater than two-thirds of targeted regions were directed at: TGTEELRSLYNTVATLY (p17, 35%); GPKEPFRDYVDRFFKTLRAEQATQDV (p24, 19%); and RGGKLDKWEKIRLRPGGKKHYMLKHL (p17, 15%). After alignment of these epitopic regions with consensus M and a consensus subtype C sequence from the cohort, it was evident that the regions targeted were highly conserved. Fine epitope mapping revealed that five of nine identified optimal Gag epitopes were novel: HLVWASREL, LVWASRELERF, LYNTVATLY, PFRDYVDRFF, and TLRAEQATQD, and were restricted by unique HLA-Cw*08, HLA-A*30/B*57, HLA-A*29/B*44, and HLA-Cw*03 alleles, respectively. Notably, three of the mapped epitopes were restricted by more than one HLA allele. Although these epitopes were novel and restricted by unique HLA, they overlapped or were embedded within previously described CTL epitopes from subtype B HIV-1 infection. These data emphasize the promiscuous nature of epitope binding and support our hypothesis that HLA diversity between populations can shape fine epitope identity, but may not represent a constraint for universal recognition of Gag in highly conserved domains.

  2. Pirating conserved phage mechanisms promotes promiscuous staphylococcal pathogenicity island transfer.

    PubMed

    Bowring, Janine; Neamah, Maan M; Donderis, Jorge; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Alite, Christian; Ciges-Tomas, J Rafael; Maiques, Elisa; Medmedov, Iltyar; Marina, Alberto; Penades, Jose R

    2017-08-08

    Targeting conserved and essential processes is a successful strategy to combat enemies. Remarkably, the clinically important Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) use this tactic to spread in nature. SaPIs reside passively in the host chromosome, under the control of the SaPI-encoded master repressor, Stl. It has been assumed that SaPI de-repression is effected by specific phage proteins that bind to Stl, initiating the SaPI cycle. Different SaPIs encode different Stl repressors, so each targets a specific phage protein for its de-repression. Broadening this narrow vision, we report here that SaPIs ensure their promiscuous transfer by targeting conserved phage mechanisms. This is accomplished because the SaPI Stl repressors have acquired different domains to interact with unrelated proteins, encoded by different phages, but in all cases performing the same conserved function. This elegant strategy allows intra- and inter-generic SaPI transfer, highlighting these elements as one of nature's most fascinating subcellular parasites.

  3. Protein promiscuity: drug resistance and native functions--HIV-1 case.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Tawfik, Dan S; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Sen, Taner; Jernigan, Bob

    2005-06-01

    activity and fitness of the virus. A chain of compensatory mutations follows this, and then the virus becomes fully fit and drug resistant. Ben Berkhout and Rogier Sanders subscribe to the evolution of new protein functions through gene duplication. With two identical protein domains, one domain can be released from a constraint imposed by the original function and it is thus free to move in sequence space toward a new function without loss of the original function. They emphasize that the forced evolution of drug-resistance differs significantly from the spontaneous evolution of an additional protein function. For instance, the latter process could proceed gradually on an evolutionary time scale, whereas the acquisition of drug-resistance is an all or nothing process for a virus, leading to the failure or success of therapy. They find no evidence to the thesis that resistance-mutations appear more rapidly in promiscuous domains than native domains. Berkhout and Sanders illustrate the genetic plasticity of HIV-1 by citing examples in which well-conserved amino acid residues of catalytic domains are forced to mutate under drug-pressure. HIV drug resistance biology is very complex. Instead of a viral protein, a drug can be targeted at a cellular protein. For example, Berkhout and Sanders claim, a drug targeted at the cellular protein CCR5 inhibits the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to CCR5. However, Env mutates so that it binds to the CCR5-drug complex and develops drug resistance. Interestingly, CCR5 has not evolved to bind to Env, but to a series of chemokines. Andrzej Kloczkowski, Taner Sen, and Bob Jernigan point out the importance of protein motions for binding. They believe it is likely that different ligands can bind to the diverse protein conformations sampled in the course of normal protein conformational fluctuations. They have been applying simple elastic network models to extract the motions as normal modes, which yield relatively small numbers

  4. An evolutionarily conserved mutual interdependence between Aire and microRNAs in promiscuous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Olga; Tykocinski, Lars-Oliver; Dooley, James; Liston, Adrian; Kyewski, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The establishment and maintenance of central tolerance depends to a large extent on the ability of medullary thymic epithelial cells to express a variety of tissue-restricted antigens, the so-called promiscuous gene expression (pGE). Autoimmune regulator (Aire) is to date the best characterised transcriptional regulator known to at least partially coordinate pGE. There is accruing evidence that the expression of Aire-dependent and -independent genes is modulated by higher order chromatin configuration, epigenetic modifications and post-transcriptional control. Given the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) as potent post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression, we investigated their role in the regulation of pGE in purified mouse and human thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Microarray profiling of TEC subpopulations revealed evolutionarily conserved cell type and differentiation-specific miRNA signatures with a subset of miRNAs being significantly upregulated during terminal medullary thymic epithelial cell differentiation. The differential regulation of this subset of miRNAs was correlated with Aire expression and some of these miRNAs were misexpressed in the Aire knockout thymus. In turn, the specific absence of miRNAs in TECs resulted in a progressive reduction of Aire expression and pGE, affecting both Aire-dependent and -independent genes. In contrast, the absence of miR-29a only affected the Aire-dependent gene pool. These findings reveal a mutual interdependence of miRNA and Aire. © 2013 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published byWiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Weinheim.

  5. Equivalent T cell epitope promiscuity in ecologically diverse human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Kirsten E; Swaminathan, Harish; Copin, Richard; Lun, Desmond S; Ernst, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    The HLA (human leukocyte antigen) molecules that present pathogen-derived epitopes to T cells are highly diverse. Correspondingly, many pathogens such as HIV evolve epitope variants in order to evade immune recognition. In contrast, another persistent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has highly conserved epitope sequences. This raises the question whether there is also a difference in the ability of these pathogens' epitopes to bind diverse HLA alleles, referred to as an epitope's binding promiscuity. To address this question, we compared the in silico HLA binding promiscuity of T cell epitopes from pathogens with distinct infection strategies and outcomes of human exposure. We used computer algorithms to predict the binding affinity of experimentally-verified microbial epitope peptides to diverse HLA-DR, HLA-A and HLA-B alleles. We then analyzed binding promiscuity of epitopes derived from HIV and M. tuberculosis. We also analyzed promiscuity of epitopes from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is known to exhibit epitope diversity, and epitopes of Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium tetani toxins, as these bacteria do not depend on human hosts for their survival or replication, and their toxin antigens are highly immunogenic human vaccines. We found that B. anthracis and C. tetani epitopes were the most promiscuous of the group that we analyzed. However, there was no consistent difference or trend in promiscuity in epitopes contained in HIV, M. tuberculosis, and S. pyogenes. Our results show that human pathogens with distinct immune evasion strategies and epitope diversities exhibit equivalent levels of T cell epitope promiscuity. These results indicate that differences in epitope promiscuity do not account for the observed differences in epitope variation and conservation.

  6. Equivalent T Cell Epitope Promiscuity in Ecologically Diverse Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Kirsten E.; Swaminathan, Harish; Copin, Richard; Lun, Desmond S.; Ernst, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The HLA (human leukocyte antigen) molecules that present pathogen-derived epitopes to T cells are highly diverse. Correspondingly, many pathogens such as HIV evolve epitope variants in order to evade immune recognition. In contrast, another persistent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has highly conserved epitope sequences. This raises the question whether there is also a difference in the ability of these pathogens’ epitopes to bind diverse HLA alleles, referred to as an epitope’s binding promiscuity. To address this question, we compared the in silico HLA binding promiscuity of T cell epitopes from pathogens with distinct infection strategies and outcomes of human exposure. Methods We used computer algorithms to predict the binding affinity of experimentally-verified microbial epitope peptides to diverse HLA-DR, HLA-A and HLA-B alleles. We then analyzed binding promiscuity of epitopes derived from HIV and M. tuberculosis. We also analyzed promiscuity of epitopes from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is known to exhibit epitope diversity, and epitopes of Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium tetani toxins, as these bacteria do not depend on human hosts for their survival or replication, and their toxin antigens are highly immunogenic human vaccines. Results We found that B. anthracis and C. tetani epitopes were the most promiscuous of the group that we analyzed. However, there was no consistent difference or trend in promiscuity in epitopes contained in HIV, M. tuberculosis, and S. pyogenes. Conclusions Our results show that human pathogens with distinct immune evasion strategies and epitope diversities exhibit equivalent levels of T cell epitope promiscuity. These results indicate that differences in epitope promiscuity do not account for the observed differences in epitope variation and conservation. PMID:23951341

  7. Promiscuous glycan site recognition by antibodies to the high-mannose patch of gp120 broadens neutralization of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Sok, Devin; Doores, Katie J.; Briney, Bryan; Le, Khoa M.; Saye-Francisco, Karen F.; Ramos, Alejandra; Kulp, Daniel W.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Menis, Sergey; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Seaman, Michael S.; Schief, William R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) that target the high-mannose patch centered around the glycan at position 332 on HIV Env are promising vaccine leads and therapeutic candidates as they effectively protect against mucosal SHIV challenge and strongly suppress SHIV viraemia in established infection in macaque models. However, these antibodies demonstrate varying degrees of dependency on the N332 glycan site and the origins of their neutralization breadth are not always obvious. By measuring neutralization on an extended range of glycan site viral variants, we found that some bnMAbs can utilize alternate N-linked glycans in the absence of the N332 glycan site and therefore neutralize a substantial number of viruses lacking the site. Furthermore, many of the antibodies can neutralize viruses in which the N332 glycan site is shifted to the 334 position. Finally, we found that a combination of three antibody families that target the high-mannose patch can lead to 99% neutralization coverage of a large panel of viruses containing the N332/334 glycan site and up to 66% coverage for viruses that lack the N332/334 glycan site. The results indicate that a diverse response against the high-mannose patch may provide near equivalent coverage as a combination of bnMAbs targeting multiple epitopes. Additionally, the ability of some bnMAbs to utilize other N-linked glycan sites can help counter neutralization escape mediated by shifting of glycosylation sites. Overall, this work highlights the importance of promiscuous glycan binding properties in bnMAbs to the high-mannose patch for optimal anti-viral activity either in protective or therapeutic modalities. PMID:24828077

  8. Short communication: association of HLA-A*1101 with resistance and B*4006 with susceptibility to HIV and HIV-TB: an in silico analysis of promiscuous T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, S; Selvaraj, P; Swaminathan, S; Narendran, G

    2009-10-01

    We have shown the association of HLA-A*11 with resistance and HLA-B*40 and -DR2 with susceptibility to HIV and HIV-TB. In the present study, we performed high-resolution subtyping of HLA-A*11 and -B*40 to identify the subtype level association, using the polymerase chain reaction-based sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe method. Underrepresentation of HLA-A*1101 was observed in overall HIV [p(c) = 0.012, OR 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.72)] and HIV(+)TB(+) [p(c) = 0.001, OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.46)] compared to healthy controls. Significantly higher frequencies of HLA-B*4006 were observed in overall HIV [p = 0.0001, p(c) = 0.004, OR 2.71 (95% CI 1.58-4.75)], HIV(+)TB(-) [p = 0.0003, p(c) = 0.008, OR 2.82 (95% CI 1.56-5.17)], and HIV(+)TB(+) [p = 0.003, p(c) = 0.086, OR 2.56 (95% CI 1.33-4.95)] compared to healthy controls. An in silico analysis of potential T cell epitopes of consensus Gag and Pol sequences of HIV-1 subtype C Indian strains revealed relatively higher number of promiscuous HLA-B40, HLA-DRB1*1501, and -DRB1*1502 (HLA-DR2)-restricted epitopes in contrast to limited numbers of promiscuous binders restricted by HLA-A*1101. The results suggest that HLA-A*1101 may be associated with protection against HIV and the development of TB in HIV patients while HLA-B*4006 may be associated with susceptibility to HIV and TB development in HIV patients. The present study also suggests that the extent of promiscuity of T cell epitopes of HIV-1 subtype C restricted by HLA alleles exerting opposing effects might differ.

  9. Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian patients recognize CTL epitopes from a conserved immunodominant region of HIV-1 Gag and Nef.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Madhuri R; Bhonge, Leena S; Lakhashe, Samir K; Shankarkumar, U; Sane, Suvarna S; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mahajan, Bharati A; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2005-09-01

    Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes recognized by the targeted population is critical for HIV-1 vaccine design. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 47 Indian subjects at different stages of HIV-1 infection were tested for HIV-1 Gag-, Nef-, and Env-specific T cell responses by interferon (IFN)- gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, using pools of overlapping peptides. The Gag and Nef antigens were targeted by 83% and 36% of responders. Five immunodominant regions, 4 in Gag and 1 in Nef, were identified in the study; these regions are conserved across clades, including the African subtype C clade. Three antigenic regions were also found to be recognized by CTLs of the study participants. These regions were not identified as immunodominant regions in studies performed in Africa, which highlights the importance of differential clustering of responses within HIV-1 subtype C. Twenty-six putative epitopes--15 Gag (10 in p24 and 5 in p17), 10 Nef, and 1 Env (gp 41)--were predicted using a combination of peptide matrix ELISPOT assay and CTL epitope-prediction software. Ninety percent of the predicted epitopes were clustered in the conserved immunodominant regions of the Gag and Nef antigens. Of 26 predicted epitopes, 8 were promiscuous, 3 of which were highly conserved across clades. Three Gag and 4 Nef epitopes were novel. The identification of conserved epitopes will be important in the planning of an HIV-1 vaccine strategy for subtype C-affected regions.

  10. Promiscuous tumor targeting phage proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Amanda L; Gillespie, James W; Petrenko, Valery A

    2016-03-01

    Cancer cell-specific targeting ligands against numerous cancer cell lines have been selected previously and used as ligands for cell-specific delivery of chemotherapies and various nanomedicines. However, tumor heterogeneity is one recognized problem hampering clinical translation of targeted anti-cancer medicines. Therefore, a novel class of targeting ligands is required that recognize receptors expressed between a variety of cancer phenotypes, identified here as 'promiscuous' ligands. In this work, promiscuous phage fusion proteins were first identified by a novel selection scheme to enrich for pan-cancer cell binding abilities, as indicated by conserved structural motifs identified previously in other cancer types. Additionally, peptide sequences containing a combination of motifs were identified to modulate binding. A panel of phage fusion proteins was studied for their specificity and selectivity for lung and pancreatic cancer cells. Phage displaying the fusion peptides GSLEEVSTL or GEFDELMTM, the two predominate clones with greatest binding ability, were used to modify preformed, doxorubicin-loaded, liposomes. These modified liposomes increased cytotoxicity up to 8.1-fold in several cancer cell lines when compared with unmodified liposomal doxorubicin. Taken together, these data indicate that promiscuous phage proteins, selected against different cancer cell lines, can be used as targeting ligands for treatment of heterogeneous tumor populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. HIV-1 conserved-element vaccines: relationship between sequence conservation and replicative capacity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Morgane; Manocheewa, Siriphan; Swain, J Victor; Lanxon-Cookson, Erinn C; Kim, Moon; Westfall, Dylan H; Larsen, Brendan B; Gilbert, Peter B; Mullins, James I

    2013-05-01

    To overcome the problem of HIV-1 variability, candidate vaccine antigens have been designed to be composed of conserved elements of the HIV-1 proteome. Such candidate vaccines could be improved with a better understanding of both HIV-1 evolutionary constraints and the fitness cost of specific mutations. We evaluated the in vitro fitness cost of 23 mutations engineered in the HIV-1 subtype B Gag-p24 Center-of-Tree (COT) protein through fitness competition assays. While some mutations at conserved sites exacted a high fitness cost, as expected under the assumption that the most conserved residue confers the highest fitness, there was no overall strong relationship between sequence conservation and replicative capacity. By comparing sites that have evolved since the beginning of the epidemic to those that have remain unchanged, we found that sites that have evolved over time were more likely to correspond to HLA-associated sites and that their mutation had limited fitness costs. Our data showed no transcendent link between high conservation and high fitness cost, indicating that merely focusing on conserved segments of HIV-1 would not be sufficient for a successful vaccine strategy. Nonetheless, a subset of sites exacted a high fitness cost upon mutation--these sites have been under selective pressure to change since the beginning of the epidemic but have proved virtually nonmutable and could constitute preferred targets for vaccine design.

  12. Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi.

    PubMed Central

    Rowland-Jones, S L; Dong, T; Fowke, K R; Kimani, J; Krausa, P; Newell, H; Blanchard, T; Ariyoshi, K; Oyugi, J; Ngugi, E; Bwayo, J; MacDonald, K S; McMichael, A J; Plummer, F A

    1998-01-01

    Many people who remain persistently seronegative despite frequent HIV exposure have HIV-specific immune responses. The study of these may provide information about mechanisms of natural protective immunity to HIV-1. We describe the specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HIV in seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi who are apparently resistant to HIV infection. These women have had frequent exposure to a range of African HIV-1 variants, primarily clades A, C, and D, for up to 12 yr without becoming infected. Nearly half of them have CTL directed towards epitopes previously defined for B clade virus, which are largely conserved in the A and D clade sequences. Stronger responses are frequently elicited using the A or D clade version of an epitope to stimulate CTL, suggesting that they were originally primed by exposure to these virus strains. CTL responses have been defined to novel epitopes presented by HLA class I molecules associated with resistance to infection in the cohort, HLA-A*6802 and HLA-B18. Estimates using a modified interferon-gamma Elispot assay indicate a circulating frequency of CTL to individual epitopes of between 1:3,200 and 1:50,000. Thus, HIV-specific immune responses-particularly cross-clade CTL activity- may be responsible for protection against persistent HIV infection in these African women. PMID:9802890

  13. Monitoring drug promiscuity over time

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Drug promiscuity and polypharmacology are much discussed topics in pharmaceutical research. Experimentally, promiscuity can be studied by profiling of compounds on arrays of targets. Computationally, promiscuity rates can be estimated by mining of compound activity data. In this study, we have assessed drug promiscuity over time by systematically collecting activity records for approved drugs. For 518 diverse drugs, promiscuity rates were determined over different time intervals. Significant differences between the number of reported drug targets and the promiscuity rates derived from activity records were frequently observed. On the basis of high-confidence activity data, an increase in average promiscuity rates from 1.5 to 3.2 targets per drug was detected between 2000 and 2014. These promiscuity rates are lower than often assumed. When the stringency of data selection criteria was reduced in subsequent steps, non-realistic increases in promiscuity rates from ~6 targets per drug in 2000 to more than 28 targets were obtained. Hence, estimates of drug promiscuity significantly differ depending on the stringency with which target annotations and activity data are considered. PMID:25352982

  14. Full-Length HIV-1 Immunogens Induce Greater Magnitude and Comparable Breadth of T Lymphocyte Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Regions Compared with Conserved-Region-Only HIV-1 Immunogens in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; SanMiguel, Adam; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; Smith, Kaitlin; Lewis, Mark G.; Szinger, James J.; Korber, Bette

    2012-01-01

    A global HIV-1 vaccine will likely need to induce immune responses against conserved HIV-1 regions to contend with the profound genetic diversity of HIV-1. Here we evaluated the capacity of immunogens consisting of only highly conserved HIV-1 sequences that are aimed at focusing cellular immune responses on these potentially critical regions. We assessed in rhesus monkeys the breadth and magnitude of T lymphocyte responses elicited by adenovirus vectors expressing either full-length HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Env immunogens or concatenated immunogens consisting of only highly conserved HIV-1 sequences. Surprisingly, we found that the full-length immunogens induced comparable breadth (P = 1.0) and greater magnitude (P = 0.01) of CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against conserved HIV-1 regions compared with the conserved-region-only immunogens. Moreover, the full-length immunogens induced a 5-fold increased total breadth of HIV-1-specific T lymphocyte responses compared with the conserved-region-only immunogens (P = 0.007). These results suggest that full-length HIV-1 immunogens elicit a substantially increased magnitude and breadth of cellular immune responses compared with conserved-region-only HIV-1 immunogens, including greater magnitude and comparable breadth of responses against conserved sequences. PMID:22896617

  15. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Roff, Shannon R; Sanou, Missa P; Rathore, Mobeen H; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2015-01-01

    Cross-reactive peptides on HIV-1 and FIV p24 protein sequences were studied using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated HIV-1-infected long-term survivors (LTS; >10 y of infection without antiretroviral therapy, ART), short-term HIV-1 infected subjects not on ART, and ART-treated HIV-1 infected subjects. IFNγ-ELISpot and CFSE-proliferation analyses were performed with PBMC using overlapping HIV-1 and FIV p24 peptides. Over half of the HIV-1 infected subjects tested (22/31 or 71%) responded to one or more FIV p24 peptide pools by either IFNγ or T-cell proliferation analysis. PBMC and T cells from infected subjects in all 3 HIV(+) groups predominantly recognized one FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp14) by IFNγ production and one additional FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp9) by T-cell proliferation analysis. Furthermore, evaluation of overlapping SIV p24 peptide sequences identified conserved epitope(s) on the Fp14/Hp15-counterpart of SIV, Sp14, but none on Fp9-counterpart of SIV, Sp9. The responses to these FIV peptide pools were highly reproducible and persisted throughout 2-4 y of monitoring. Intracellular staining analysis for cytotoxins and phenotyping for CD107a determined that peptide epitopes from Fp9 and Fp14 pools induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecules including perforin, granzyme B, granzyme A, and/or expression of CD107a. Selected FIV and corresponding SIV epitopes recognized by HIV-1 infected patients indicate that these protein sequences are evolutionarily conserved on both SIV and HIV-1 (e.g., Hp15:Fp14:Sp14). These studies demonstrate that comparative immunogenicity analysis of HIV-1, FIV, and SIV can identify evolutionarily-conserved T cell-associated lentiviral epitopes, which could be used as a vaccine for prophylaxis or immunotherapy.

  16. Amine promiscuity and toxicology analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther C Y; Steeno, Gregory; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Zhang, Liying; Shah, Falgun; Price, David A

    2017-02-01

    Drug discovery programs often face challenges to obtain sufficient duration of action of the drug (i.e. seek longer half-lives). If the pharmacodynamic response is driven by free plasma concentration of the drug then extending the plasma drug concentration is a valid approach. Half-life is dependent on the volume of distribution, which in turn can be dependent upon the ionization state of the molecule. Basic compounds tend to have a higher volume of distribution leading to longer half-lives. However, it has been shown that bases may also have higher promiscuity. In this work, we describe an analysis of in vitro pharmacological profiling and toxicology data investigating the role of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in imparting promiscuity and thus off-target toxicity. Primary amines are found to be less promiscuous in in vitro assays and have improved profiles in in vivo toxicology studies compared to secondary and tertiary amines.

  17. Ion Channel Activity of Vpu Proteins Is Conserved throughout Evolution of HIV-1 and SIV

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Timo; Bolduan, Sebastian; Hertel, Brigitte; Groß, Christine; Hamacher, Kay; Schubert, Ulrich; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpu is encoded exclusively by HIV-1 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). The transmembrane domain of the protein has dual functions: it counteracts the human restriction factor tetherin and forms a cation channel. Since these two functions are causally unrelated it remains unclear whether the channel activity has any relevance for viral release and replication. Here we examine structure and function correlates of different Vpu homologs from HIV-1 and SIV to understand if ion channel activity is an evolutionary conserved property of Vpu proteins. An electrophysiological testing of Vpus from different HIV-1 groups (N and P) and SIVs from chimpanzees (SIVcpz), and greater spot-nosed monkeys (SIVgsn) showed that they all generate channel activity in HEK293T cells. This implies a robust and evolutionary conserved channel activity and suggests that cation conductance may also have a conserved functional significance. PMID:27916968

  18. Ion Channel Activity of Vpu Proteins Is Conserved throughout Evolution of HIV-1 and SIV.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Timo; Bolduan, Sebastian; Hertel, Brigitte; Groß, Christine; Hamacher, Kay; Schubert, Ulrich; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpu is encoded exclusively by HIV-1 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). The transmembrane domain of the protein has dual functions: it counteracts the human restriction factor tetherin and forms a cation channel. Since these two functions are causally unrelated it remains unclear whether the channel activity has any relevance for viral release and replication. Here we examine structure and function correlates of different Vpu homologs from HIV-1 and SIV to understand if ion channel activity is an evolutionary conserved property of Vpu proteins. An electrophysiological testing of Vpus from different HIV-1 groups (N and P) and SIVs from chimpanzees (SIVcpz), and greater spot-nosed monkeys (SIVgsn) showed that they all generate channel activity in HEK293T cells. This implies a robust and evolutionary conserved channel activity and suggests that cation conductance may also have a conserved functional significance.

  19. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Reiter, Samuel J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-12-19

    Success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. Additionally, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  20. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S; Dewdney, Tamaria G; Reiter, Samuel J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Kovari, Iulia A; Kovari, Ladislau C

    2013-01-18

    The success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. In addition, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  1. Molecular Basis of Symbiotic Promiscuity

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Broughton, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Eukaryotes often form symbioses with microorganisms. Among these, associations between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for the nitrogen input into various ecological niches. Plants of many different families have evolved the capacity to develop root or stem nodules with diverse genera of soil bacteria. Of these, symbioses between legumes and rhizobia (Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Rhizobium) are the most important from an agricultural perspective. Nitrogen-fixing nodules arise when symbiotic rhizobia penetrate their hosts in a strictly controlled and coordinated manner. Molecular codes are exchanged between the symbionts in the rhizosphere to select compatible rhizobia from pathogens. Entry into the plant is restricted to bacteria that have the “keys” to a succession of legume “doors”. Some symbionts intimately associate with many different partners (and are thus promiscuous), while others are more selective and have a narrow host range. For historical reasons, narrow host range has been more intensively investigated than promiscuity. In our view, this has given a false impression of specificity in legume-Rhizobium associations. Rather, we suggest that restricted host ranges are limited to specific niches and represent specialization of widespread and more ancestral promiscuous symbioses. Here we analyze the molecular mechanisms governing symbiotic promiscuity in rhizobia and show that it is controlled by a number of molecular keys. PMID:10704479

  2. Clinical Control of HIV-1 by Cytotoxic T Cells Specific for Multiple Conserved Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Murakoshi, Hayato; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chikata, Takayuki; Naruto, Takuya; Maruyama, Rie; Tamura, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Naoki; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identification and characterization of CD8+ T cells effectively controlling HIV-1 variants are necessary for the development of AIDS vaccines and for studies of AIDS pathogenesis, although such CD8+ T cells have been only partially identified. In this study, we sought to identify CD8+ T cells controlling HIV-1 variants in 401 Japanese individuals chronically infected with HIV-1 subtype B, in which protective alleles HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare, by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. We identified 13 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells controlling HIV-1 in Japanese individuals, though 9 of these epitopes were not previously reported. The breadths of the T cell responses to the 13 epitopes were inversely associated with plasma viral load (P = 2.2 × 10−11) and positively associated with CD4 count (P = 1.2 × 10−11), indicating strong synergistic effects of these T cells on HIV-1 control in vivo. Nine of these epitopes were conserved among HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals, whereas three out of four nonconserved epitopes were cross-recognized by the specific T cells. These findings indicate that these 12 epitopes are strong candidates for antigens for an AIDS vaccine. The present study highlighted a strategy to identify CD8+ T cells controlling HIV-1 and demonstrated effective control of HIV-1 by those specific for 12 conserved or cross-reactive epitopes. IMPORTANCE HLA-B*27-restricted and HLA-B*57-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in controlling HIV-1 in Caucasians and Africans, whereas it is unclear which CTLs control HIV-1 in Asian countries, where HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare. A recent study showed that HLA-B*67:01 and HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotypes were protective alleles in Japanese individuals, but it is unknown whether CTLs restricted by these alleles control HIV-1. In this study, we identified 13 CTLs controlling HIV-1 in Japan by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. They included 5 HLA-B*52

  3. AIRE: From promiscuous molecular partnerships to promiscuous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Jakub; Goldfarb, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a unique transcriptional regulator that induces promiscuous expression of thousands of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), a step critical for the induction of immunological self-tolerance. The past 15 years have seen dramatic progress in our understanding of how AIRE induces immunological self-tolerance on a molecular level. This major advancement can be greatly attributed to the identification of a large variety of proteins that physically associate with AIRE, supporting and regulating its transcription-transactivation capacity. These diverse molecular partnerships have been shown to play roles in shuttling AIRE to the nucleus, securing AIRE's interaction with nuclear matrix and chromatin, releasing RNA polymerase-II from its stalled state and potentiating AIRE-mediated gene expression, among others. In this review we discuss the relationship of AIRE with its vast and rather diverse repertoire of partners and highlight how such "promiscuous partnerships" contribute to the phenomenon of "promiscuous gene expression" in the thymus. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Comparative analysis of protein interaction networks reveals that conserved pathways are susceptible to HIV-1 interception.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoning; Yoon, Byung-Jun

    2011-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) is the major pathogen that causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). With the availability of large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) measurements, comparative network analysis can provide a promising way to study the host-virus interactions and their functional significance in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Until now, there have been a large number of HIV studies based on various animal models. In this paper, we present a novel framework for studying the host-HIV interactions through comparative network analysis across different species. Based on the proposed framework, we test our hypothesis that HIV-1 attacks essential biological pathways that are conserved across species. We selected the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus PPI networks with the largest coverage among the PPI networks that are available from public databases. By using a local network alignment algorithm based on hidden Markov models (HMMs), we first identified the pathways that are conserved in both networks. Next, we analyzed the HIV-1 susceptibility of these pathways, in comparison with random pathways in the human PPI network. Our analysis shows that the conserved pathways have a significantly higher probability of being intercepted by HIV-1. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis shows that most of the enriched GO terms are related to signal transduction, which has been conjectured to be one of the major mechanisms targeted by HIV-1 for the takeover of the host cell. This proof-of-concept study clearly shows that the comparative analysis of PPI networks across different species can provide important insights into the host-HIV interactions and the detailed mechanisms of HIV-1. We expect that comparative multiple network analysis of various species that have different levels of susceptibility to similar lentiviruses may provide a very effective framework for generating novel, and experimentally verifiable hypotheses on the

  5. Specialized Dynamical Properties of Promiscuous Residues Revealed by Simulated Conformational Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The ability to interact with different partners is one of the most important features in proteins. Proteins that bind a large number of partners (hubs) have been often associated with intrinsic disorder. However, many examples exist of hubs with an ordered structure, and evidence of a general mechanism promoting promiscuity in ordered proteins is still elusive. An intriguing hypothesis is that promiscuous binding sites have specific dynamical properties, distinct from the rest of the interface and pre-existing in the protein isolated state. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of the intrinsic dynamics of promiscuous residues in a large protein data set. Different computational methods, from coarse-grained elastic models to geometry-based sampling methods and to full-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations, were used to generate conformational ensembles for the isolated proteins. The flexibility and dynamic correlations of interface residues with a different degree of binding promiscuity were calculated and compared considering side chain and backbone motions, the latter both on a local and on a global scale. The study revealed that (a) promiscuous residues tend to be more flexible than nonpromiscuous ones, (b) this additional flexibility has a higher degree of organization, and (c) evolutionary conservation and binding promiscuity have opposite effects on intrinsic dynamics. Findings on simulated ensembles were also validated on ensembles of experimental structures extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Additionally, the low occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms observed for promiscuous residues indicated a tendency to preserve binding diversity at these positions. A case study on two ubiquitin-like proteins exemplifies how binding promiscuity in evolutionary related proteins can be modulated by the fine-tuning of the interface dynamics. The interplay between promiscuity and flexibility highlighted here can inspire new directions in protein

  6. Conserved Structural Elements in the V3 Crown of HIV-1 gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Burke, V; Totrov, M; Williams, C; Cardozo, T; Gorny, M; Zolla-Pazner, S; Kong, X

    2010-01-01

    Binding of the third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cell-surface coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4 during viral entry suggests that there are conserved structural elements in this sequence-variable region. These conserved elements could serve as epitopes to be targeted by a vaccine against HIV-1. Here we perform a systematic structural analysis of representative human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies in complex with V3 peptides, revealing that the crown of V3 has four conserved structural elements: an arch, a band, a hydrophobic core and the peptide backbone. These are either unaffected by or are subject to minimal sequence variation. As these regions are targeted by cross-clade neutralizing human antibodies, they provide a blueprint for the design of vaccine immunogens that could elicit broadly cross-reactive protective antibodies.

  7. Nosology, ontology and promiscuous realism.

    PubMed

    Binney, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Medics may consider worrying about their metaphysics and ontology to be a waste of time. I will argue here that this is not the case. Promiscuous realism is a metaphysical position which holds that multiple, equally valid, classification schemes should be applied to objects (such as patients) to capture different aspects of their complex and heterogeneous nature. As medics at the bedside may need to capture different aspects of their patients' problems, they may need to use multiple classification schemes (multiple nosologies), and thus consider adopting a different metaphysics to the one commonly in use.

  8. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain

    PubMed Central

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe S.; Seemann, Stefan E.; Jensen, Mads Krogh; Hansen, Mathias; Gorodkin, Jan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A distance constrained secondary structural model of the ≈10 kb RNA genome of the HIV-1 has been predicted but higher-order structures, involving long distance interactions, are currently unknown. We present the first global RNA secondary structure model for the HIV-1 genome, which integrates both comparative structure analysis and information from experimental data in a full-length prediction without distance constraints. Besides recovering known structural elements, we predict several novel structural elements that are conserved in HIV-1 evolution. Our results also indicate that the structure of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping protein-coding regions the COS is supported by a particular high frequency of compensatory base changes, suggesting functional importance for this element. This new structural element potentially organizes the whole genome into three major domains protruding from a conserved core structure with potential roles in replication and evolution for the virus. PMID:26476446

  9. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain.

    PubMed

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe S; Seemann, Stefan E; Jensen, Mads Krogh; Hansen, Mathias; Gorodkin, Jan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-12-02

    A distance constrained secondary structural model of the ≈10 kb RNA genome of the HIV-1 has been predicted but higher-order structures, involving long distance interactions, are currently unknown. We present the first global RNA secondary structure model for the HIV-1 genome, which integrates both comparative structure analysis and information from experimental data in a full-length prediction without distance constraints. Besides recovering known structural elements, we predict several novel structural elements that are conserved in HIV-1 evolution. Our results also indicate that the structure of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping protein-coding regions the COS is supported by a particular high frequency of compensatory base changes, suggesting functional importance for this element. This new structural element potentially organizes the whole genome into three major domains protruding from a conserved core structure with potential roles in replication and evolution for the virus.

  10. Touchdown digital polymerase chain reaction for quantification of highly conserved sequences in the HIV-1 genome.

    PubMed

    De Spiegelaere, Ward; Malatinkova, Eva; Kiselinova, Maja; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Verhofstede, Chris; Vogelaers, Dirk; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2013-08-15

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an emerging absolute quantification method based on the limiting dilution principle and end-point PCR. This methodology provides high flexibility in assay design without influencing quantitative accuracy. This article describes an assay to quantify HIV DNA that targets a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 genome that hampers optimal probe design. To maintain high specificity and allow probe binding and hydrolysis of a probe with low melting temperature, a two-stage touchdown PCR was designed with a first round of amplification at high temperature and a subsequent round at low temperature to allow accumulation of fluorescence.

  11. Elicitation from virus-naive individuals of cytotoxic T lymphocytes directed against conserved HIV-1 epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Reche, Pedro A; Keskin, Derin B; Hussey, Rebecca E; Ancuta, Petronela; Gabuzda, Dana; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2006-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) protect against viruses including HIV-1. To avoid viral escape mutants that thwart immunity, we chose 25 CTL epitopes defined in the context of natural infection with functional and/or structural constraints that maintain sequence conservation. By combining HLA binding predictions with knowledge concerning HLA allele frequencies, a metric estimating population protection coverage (PPC) was computed and epitope pools assembled. Strikingly, only a minority of immunocompetent HIV-1 infected individuals responds to pools with PPC >95%. In contrast, virus-naive individuals uniformly expand IFNγ producing cells and mount anti-HIV-1 cytolytic activity. This disparity suggests a vaccine design paradigm shift from infected to normal subjects. PMID:16674822

  12. Liquefaction of semen generates and later degrades a conserved semenogelin peptide that enhances HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Roan, Nadia R; Liu, Haichuan; Usmani, Shariq M; Neidleman, Jason; Müller, Janis A; Avila-Herrera, Aram; Gawanbacht, Ali; Zirafi, Onofrio; Chu, Simon; Dong, Ming; Kumar, Senthil T; Smith, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Fändrich, Marcus; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Witkowska, H Ewa; Greene, Warner C

    2014-07-01

    Semen enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been carefully examined. Immediately postejaculation, semen exists as a semisolid coagulum, which then converts to a more liquid form in a process termed liquefaction. We demonstrate that early during liquefaction, semen exhibits maximal HIV-enhancing activity that gradually declines upon further incubation. The decline in HIV-enhancing activity parallels the degradation of peptide fragments derived from the semenogelins (SEMs), the major components of the coagulum that are cleaved in a site-specific and progressive manner upon initiation of liquefaction. Because amyloid fibrils generated from SEM fragments were recently demonstrated to enhance HIV infection, we set out to determine whether any of the liquefaction-generated SEM fragments associate with the presence of HIV-enhancing activity. We identify SEM1 from amino acids 86 to 107 [SEM1(86-107)] to be a short, cationic, amyloidogenic SEM peptide that is generated early in the process of liquefaction but that, conversely, is lost during prolonged liquefaction due to the activity of serine proteases. Synthetic SEM1(86-107) amyloids directly bind HIV-1 virions and are sufficient to enhance HIV infection of permissive cells. Furthermore, endogenous seminal levels of SEM1(86-107) correlate with donor-dependent variations in viral enhancement activity, and antibodies generated against SEM1(86-107) recognize endogenous amyloids in human semen. The amyloidogenic potential of SEM1(86-107) and its virus-enhancing properties are conserved among great apes, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved function. These studies identify SEM1(86-107) to be a key, HIV-enhancing amyloid species in human semen and underscore the dynamic nature of semen's HIV-enhancing activity. Semen, the most common vehicle for HIV transmission, enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been investigated. Semen naturally undergoes

  13. Liquefaction of Semen Generates and Later Degrades a Conserved Semenogelin Peptide That Enhances HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haichuan; Usmani, Shariq M.; Neidleman, Jason; Müller, Janis A.; Avila-Herrera, Aram; Gawanbacht, Ali; Zirafi, Onofrio; Chu, Simon; Dong, Ming; Kumar, Senthil T.; Smith, James F.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Fändrich, Marcus; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Semen enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been carefully examined. Immediately postejaculation, semen exists as a semisolid coagulum, which then converts to a more liquid form in a process termed liquefaction. We demonstrate that early during liquefaction, semen exhibits maximal HIV-enhancing activity that gradually declines upon further incubation. The decline in HIV-enhancing activity parallels the degradation of peptide fragments derived from the semenogelins (SEMs), the major components of the coagulum that are cleaved in a site-specific and progressive manner upon initiation of liquefaction. Because amyloid fibrils generated from SEM fragments were recently demonstrated to enhance HIV infection, we set out to determine whether any of the liquefaction-generated SEM fragments associate with the presence of HIV-enhancing activity. We identify SEM1 from amino acids 86 to 107 [SEM1(86-107)] to be a short, cationic, amyloidogenic SEM peptide that is generated early in the process of liquefaction but that, conversely, is lost during prolonged liquefaction due to the activity of serine proteases. Synthetic SEM1(86-107) amyloids directly bind HIV-1 virions and are sufficient to enhance HIV infection of permissive cells. Furthermore, endogenous seminal levels of SEM1(86-107) correlate with donor-dependent variations in viral enhancement activity, and antibodies generated against SEM1(86-107) recognize endogenous amyloids in human semen. The amyloidogenic potential of SEM1(86-107) and its virus-enhancing properties are conserved among great apes, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved function. These studies identify SEM1(86-107) to be a key, HIV-enhancing amyloid species in human semen and underscore the dynamic nature of semen's HIV-enhancing activity. IMPORTANCE Semen, the most common vehicle for HIV transmission, enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been investigated. Semen

  14. Mating behaviour: promiscuous mothers have healthier young.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Martin; Champion de Crespigny, Fleur E; Tregenza, Tom

    2007-01-23

    A small marsupial has thrown new light on the question of why females typically mate with several males: promiscuous female antechinuses have many more surviving offspring because males that are successful in sperm competition also sire healthy offspring.

  15. A Highly Conserved Residue in HIV-1 Nef Alpha Helix 2 Modulates Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Aaron L.; Dirk, Brennan S.; Coutu, Mathieu; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; Arts, Eric J.; Finzi, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extensive genetic diversity is a defining characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and poses a significant barrier to the development of an effective vaccine. To better understand the impact of this genetic diversity on the HIV-1 pathogenic factor Nef, we compiled a panel of reference strains from the NIH Los Alamos HIV Database. Initial sequence analysis identified point mutations at Nef residues 13, 84, and 92 in subtype C reference strain C.BR92025 from Brazil. Functional analysis revealed impaired major histocompatibility complex class I and CD4 downregulation of strain C.BR92025 Nef, which corresponded to decreased protein expression. Metabolic labeling demonstrated that strain C.BR92025 Nef has a greater rate of protein turnover than subtype B reference strain B.JRFL that, on the basis of mutational analysis, is related to Nef residue A84. An alanine-to-valine substitution at position 84, located in alpha helix 2 of Nef, was sufficient to alter the rate of turnover of an otherwise highly expressed Nef protein. In conclusion, these findings highlight HIV-1 Nef residue A84 as a major determinant of protein expression that may offer an additional avenue to disrupt or mediate the effects of this key HIV-1 pathogenic factor. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Nef protein has been established as a key pathogenic determinant of HIV/AIDS, but there is little knowledge of how the extensive genetic diversity of HIV-1 affects Nef function. Upon compiling a set of subtype-specific reference strains, we identified a subtype C reference strain, C.BR92025, that contained natural polymorphisms at otherwise highly conserved residues 13, 84, and 92. Interestingly, strain C.BR92025 Nef displayed impaired Nef function and had decreased protein expression. We have demonstrated that strain C.BR92025 Nef has a higher rate of protein turnover than highly expressed Nef proteins and that this higher rate of protein turnover is due to an alanine-to-valine substitution

  16. CPSF6 Defines a Conserved Capsid Interface that Modulates HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Torsten; Elliott, Tom; Lee, KyeongEun; KewalRamani, Vineet N.; Chin, Jason W.; Towers, Greg J.; James, Leo C.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV-1 genome enters cells inside a shell comprised of capsid (CA) protein. Variation in CA sequence alters HIV-1 infectivity and escape from host restriction factors. However, apart from the Cyclophilin A-binding loop, CA has no known interfaces with which to interact with cellular cofactors. Here we describe a novel protein-protein interface in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA, determined by X-ray crystallography, which mediates both viral restriction and host cofactor dependence. The interface is highly conserved across lentiviruses and is accessible in the context of a hexameric lattice. Mutation of the interface prevents binding to and restriction by CPSF6-358, a truncated cytosolic form of the RNA processing factor, cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6). Furthermore, mutations that prevent CPSF6 binding also relieve dependence on nuclear entry cofactors TNPO3 and RanBP2. These results suggest that the HIV-1 capsid mediates direct host cofactor interactions to facilitate viral infection. PMID:22956906

  17. Conservation of HIV-1 T cell epitopes across time and clades: validation of immunogenic HLA-A2 epitopes selected for the GAIA HIV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Lauren; Koita, Ousmane A; Sangare, Kotou; Ardito, Matthew T; Boyle, Christine M; Rozehnal, John; Tounkara, Karamoko; Dao, Sounkalo M; Koné, Youssouf; Koty, Zoumana; Buus, Soren; Moise, Leonard; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2012-12-14

    HIV genomic sequence variability has complicated efforts to generate an effective globally relevant vaccine. Regions of the viral genome conserved in sequence and across time may represent the "Achilles' heel" of HIV. In this study, highly conserved T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools combining HLA-A2 supertype binding predictions with relative global conservation. Analysis performed in 2002 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and again in 2009, on 43,822 sequences, yielded 38 HLA-A2 epitopes. These epitopes were experimentally validated for HLA binding and immunogenicity with PBMCs from HIV-infected patients in Providence, Rhode Island, and/or Bamako, Mali. Thirty-five (92%) stimulated an IFNγ response in PBMCs from at least one subject. Eleven of fourteen peptides (79%) were confirmed as HLA-A2 epitopes in both locations. Validation of these HLA-A2 epitopes conserved across time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that such epitopes could provide effective coverage of virus diversity and would be appropriate for inclusion in a globally relevant HIV vaccine.

  18. Conservation of HIV-1 T cell epitopes across time and clades: Validation of immunogenic HLA-A2 epitopes selected for the GAIA HIV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Lauren; Koita, Ousmane A.; Sangare, Kotou; Ardito, Matthew T.; Boyle, Christine M.; Rozehnal, John; Tounkara, Karamoko; Dao, Sounkalo M.; Koné, Youssouf; Koty, Zoumana; Buus, Soren; Moise, Leonard; Martin, William D.; De Groot, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    HIV genomic sequence variability has complicated efforts to generate an effective globally relevant vaccine. Regions of the viral genome conserved in sequence and across time may represent the “Achilles’ heel” of HIV. In this study, highly conserved T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools combining HLA-A2 supertype binding predictions with relative global conservation. Analysis performed in 2002 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and again in 2009, on 43,822 sequences, yielded 38 HLA-A2 epitopes. These epitopes were experimentally validated for HLA binding and immunogenicity with PBMCs from HIV-infected patients in Providence, Rhode Island, and/or Bamako, Mali. Thirty-five (92%) stimulated an IFNγ response in PBMCs from at least one subject. Eleven of fourteen peptides (79%) were confirmed as HLA-A2 epitopes in both locations. Validation of these HLA-A2 epitopes conserved across time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that such epitopes could provide effective coverage of virus diversity and would be appropriate for inclusion in a globally relevant HIV vaccine. PMID:23102976

  19. Promiscuity in alkaline phosphatase superfamily. Unraveling evolution through molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    López-Canut, Violeta; Roca, Maite; Bertrán, Juan; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2011-08-10

    We here present a theoretical study of the alkaline hydrolysis of a phosphodiester (methyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate or MpNPP) in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), a monoesterase that also presents promiscuous activity as a diesterase. The analysis of our simulations, carried out by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potentials, shows that the reaction takes place through a D(N)A(N) or dissociative mechanism, the same mechanism employed by AP in the hydrolysis of monoesters. The promiscuous activity observed in this superfamily can be then explained on the basis of a conserved reaction mechanism. According to our simulations the specialization in the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters or phosphodiesters, developed in different members of the superfamily, is a consequence of the interactions established between the protein and the oxygen atoms of the phosphate group and, in particular, with the oxygen atom that bears the additional alkyl group when the substrate is a diester. A water molecule, belonging to the coordination shell of the Mg(2+) ion, and residue Lys328 seem to play decisive roles stabilizing a phosphomonoester substrate, but the latter contributes to increase the energy barrier for the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters. Then, mutations affecting the nature or positioning of Lys328 lead to an increased diesterase activity in AP. Finally, the capacity of this enzymatic family to catalyze the reaction of phosphoesters having different leaving groups, or substrate promiscuity, is explained by the ability of the enzyme to stabilize different charge distributions in the leaving group using different interactions involving either one of the zinc centers or residues placed on the outer side of the catalytic site.

  20. Activation of the DNA Damage Response Is a Conserved Function of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr That Is Independent of SLX4 Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Fregoso, Oliver I; Emerman, Michael

    2016-09-13

    There has been extraordinary progress in understanding the roles of lentiviral accessory proteins in antagonizing host antiviral defense proteins. However, the precise primary function of the accessory gene Vpr remains elusive. Here we suggest that engagement with the DNA damage response is an important function of primate lentiviral Vpr proteins because of its conserved function among diverse lentiviral lineages. In contrast, we show that, for HIV-1, HIV-2, and related Vpr isolates and orthologs, there is a lack of correlation between DNA damage response activation and interaction with the host SLX4 protein complex of structure specific endonucleases; some Vpr proteins are able to interact with SLX4, but the majority are not. Using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 method to knock out SLX4, we formally showed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr orthologs can still activate the DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest in the absence of SLX4. Together, our data suggest that activation of the DNA damage response, but not SLX4 interaction, is conserved and therefore indicative of an important function of Vpr. Our data also indicate that Vpr activates the DNA damage response through an SLX4-independent mechanism that remains uncharacterized. HIV-1 and HIV-2 belong to a family of viruses called lentiviruses that infect at least 40 primate species, including humans. Lentiviruses have been circulating in primates for at least 5 million years. In order to better fight HIV, we must understand the viral and host factors necessary for infection, adaptation, and transmission of these viruses. Using the natural variation of HIV-1, HIV-2, and related lentiviruses, we have investigated the role of the DNA damage response in the viral life cycle. We have found that the ability of lentiviruses to activate the DNA damage response is largely conserved. However, we also found that the SLX4 host factor is not required for this activation, as was

  1. Probing protein flexibility reveals a mechanism for selective promiscuity

    PubMed Central

    Pabon, Nicolas A; Camacho, Carlos J

    2017-01-01

    Many eukaryotic regulatory proteins adopt distinct bound and unbound conformations, and use this structural flexibility to bind specifically to multiple partners. However, we lack an understanding of how an interface can select some ligands, but not others. Here, we present a molecular dynamics approach to identify and quantitatively evaluate the interactions responsible for this selective promiscuity. We apply this approach to the anticancer target PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. We discover that while unbound PD-1 exhibits a hard-to-drug hydrophilic interface, conserved specific triggers encoded in the cognate ligands activate a promiscuous binding pathway that reveals a flexible hydrophobic binding cavity. Specificity is then established by additional contacts that stabilize the PD-1 cavity into distinct bound-like modes. Collectively, our studies provide insight into the structural basis and evolution of multiple binding partners, and also suggest a biophysical approach to exploit innate binding pathways to drug seemingly undruggable targets. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22889.001 PMID:28432789

  2. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Palladino, Claudia; Briz, Veronica; Rudolph, Jochen M.; Fackler, Oliver T.; Relloso, Miguel; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121–137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection. PMID:26700863

  3. Increased sequence coverage through combined targeting of variant and conserved epitopes correlates with control of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, Justine; Kim, Moon; Carlson, Jonathan M; Heckerman, David; Czartoski, Julie; Migueles, Stephen A; Maenza, Janine; McElrath, M Juliana; Mullins, James I; Frahm, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of an HIV vaccine is that of contending with the extensive sequence variability found in circulating viruses. Induction of HIV-specific T-cell responses targeting conserved regions and induction of HIV-specific T-cell responses recognizing a high number of epitope variants have both been proposed as strategies to overcome this challenge. We addressed the ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from 30 untreated HIV-infected subjects with and without control of virus replication to recognize all clade B Gag sequence variants encoded by at least 5% of the sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV database (1,300 peptides) using gamma interferon and interleukin-2 (IFN-γ/IL-2) FluoroSpot analysis. While targeting of conserved regions was similar in the two groups (P = 0.47), we found that subjects with control of virus replication demonstrated marginally lower recognition of Gag epitope variants than subjects with normal progression (P = 0.05). In viremic controllers and progressors, we found variant recognition to be associated with viral load (r = 0.62, P = 0.001). Interestingly, we show that increased overall sequence coverage, defined as the overall proportion of HIV database sequences targeted through the Gag-specific repertoire, is inversely associated with viral load (r = -0.38, P = 0.03). Furthermore, we found that sequence coverage, but not variant recognition, correlated with increased recognition of a panel of clade B HIV founder viruses (r = 0.50, P = 0.004). We propose sequence coverage by HIV Gag-specific immune responses as a possible correlate of protection that may contribute to control of virus replication. Additionally, sequence coverage serves as a valuable measure by which to evaluate the protective potential of future vaccination strategies.

  4. Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Walters, James R.; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Davey, John W.; Whibley, Annabel; Nadeau, Nicola J.; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Martin, Simon H.; Salazar, Camilo; Lewis, James J.; Adler, Sebastian; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Baker, Dean A.; Baxter, Simon W.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Chauhan, Ritika; Counterman, Brian A.; Dalmay, Tamas; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Gordon, Karl; Heckel, David G.; Hines, Heather M.; Hoff, Katharina J.; Holland, Peter W.H.; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Robert T.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Kersey, Paul; Lamas, Gerardo; Lawson, Daniel; Mapleson, Daniel; Maroja, Luana S.; Martin, Arnaud; Moxon, Simon; Palmer, William J.; Papa, Riccardo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Pauchet, Yannick; Ray, David A.; Rosser, Neil; Salzberg, Steven L.; Supple, Megan A.; Surridge, Alison; Tenger-Trolander, Ayse; Vogel, Heiko; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Wilson, Derek; Yorke, James A.; Yuan, Furong; Balmuth, Alexi L.; Eland, Cathlene; Gharbi, Karim; Thomson, Marian; Gibbs, Richard A.; Han, Yi; Jayaseelan, Joy C.; Kovar, Christie; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M.; Ongeri, Fiona; Pu, Ling-Ling; Qu, Jiaxin; Thornton, Rebecca L.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Linares, Mauricio; Blaxter, Mark L.; Constant, Richard H. ffrench; Joron, Mathieu; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.; Reed, Robert D.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Mallet, James; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated1. We used genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation2-5 . We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,657 predicted genes for Heliconius, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organisation has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous, when butterflies split from the silkmoth lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, H. melpomene, H. timareta, and H. elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. Closely related Heliconius species clearly exchange protective colour pattern genes promiscuously, implying a major role for hybridization in adaptive radiation. PMID:22722851

  5. Badapple: promiscuity patterns from noisy evidence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeremy J; Ursu, Oleg; Lipinski, Christopher A; Sklar, Larry A; Oprea, Tudor I; Bologa, Cristian G

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay data analysis continues to be an essential, routine, yet challenging task in modern drug discovery and chemical biology research. The challenge is to infer reliable knowledge from big and noisy data. Some aspects of this problem are general with solutions informed by existing and emerging data science best practices. Some aspects are domain specific, and rely on expertise in bioassay methodology and chemical biology. Testing compounds for biological activity requires complex and innovative methodology, producing results varying widely in accuracy, precision, and information content. Hit selection criteria involve optimizing such that the overall probability of success in a project is maximized, and resource-wasteful "false trails" are avoided. This "fail-early" approach is embraced both in pharmaceutical and academic drug discovery, since follow-up capacity is resource-limited. Thus, early identification of likely promiscuous compounds has practical value. Here we describe an algorithm for identifying likely promiscuous compounds via associated scaffolds which combines general and domain-specific features to assist and accelerate drug discovery informatics, called Badapple: bioassay-data associative promiscuity pattern learning engine. Results are described from an analysis using data from MLP assays via the BioAssay Research Database (BARD) http://bard.nih.gov. Specific examples are analyzed in the context of medicinal chemistry, to illustrate associations with mechanisms of promiscuity. Badapple has been developed at UNM, released and deployed for public use two ways: (1) BARD plugin, integrated into the public BARD REST API and BARD web client; and (2) public web app hosted at UNM. Badapple is a method for rapidly identifying likely promiscuous compounds via associated scaffolds. Badapple generates a score associated with a pragmatic, empirical definition of promiscuity, with the overall goal to identify "false trails" and streamline workflows. Unlike

  6. Antagonism of BST-2/Tetherin Is a Conserved Function of the Env Glycoprotein of Primary HIV-2 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Shingai, Masashi; Welbourn, Sarah; Martin, Malcolm A; Borrego, Pedro; Taveira, Nuno; Strebel, Klaus

    2016-12-15

    Although HIV-2 does not encode a vpu gene, the ability to antagonize bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) is conserved in some HIV-2 isolates, where it is controlled by the Env glycoprotein. We previously reported that a single-amino-acid difference between the laboratory-adapted ROD10 and ROD14 Envs controlled the enhancement of virus release (referred to here as Vpu-like) activity. Here, we investigated how conserved the Vpu-like activity is in primary HIV-2 isolates. We found that half of the 34 tested primary HIV-2 Env isolates obtained from 7 different patients enhanced virus release. Interestingly, most HIV-2 patients harbored a mixed population of viruses containing or lacking Vpu-like activity. Vpu-like activity and Envelope functionality varied significantly among Env isolates; however, there was no direct correlation between these two functions, suggesting they evolved independently. In comparing the Env sequences from one HIV-2 patient, we found that similar to the ROD10/ROD14 Envs, a single-amino-acid change (T568I) in the ectodomain of the TM subunit was sufficient to confer Vpu-like activity to an inactive Env variant. Surprisingly, however, absence of Vpu-like activity was not correlated with absence of BST-2 interaction. Taken together, our data suggest that maintaining the ability to antagonize BST-2 is of functional relevance not only to HIV-1 but also to HIV-2 as well. Our data show that as with Vpu, binding of HIV-2 Env to BST-2 is important but not sufficient for antagonism. Finally, as observed previously, the Vpu-like activity in HIV-2 Env can be controlled by single-residue changes in the TM subunit. Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 and HIV-2 encode accessory proteins whose function is to overcome host restriction mechanisms. Vpu is a well-studied HIV-1 accessory protein that enhances virus release by antagonizing the host restriction factor BST-2. HIV-2 does not encode a vpu gene. Instead, the HIV-2 Env glycoprotein was found to antagonize BST-2

  7. Activation of the DNA Damage Response Is a Conserved Function of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr That Is Independent of SLX4 Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There has been extraordinary progress in understanding the roles of lentiviral accessory proteins in antagonizing host antiviral defense proteins. However, the precise primary function of the accessory gene Vpr remains elusive. Here we suggest that engagement with the DNA damage response is an important function of primate lentiviral Vpr proteins because of its conserved function among diverse lentiviral lineages. In contrast, we show that, for HIV-1, HIV-2, and related Vpr isolates and orthologs, there is a lack of correlation between DNA damage response activation and interaction with the host SLX4 protein complex of structure specific endonucleases; some Vpr proteins are able to interact with SLX4, but the majority are not. Using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 method to knock out SLX4, we formally showed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr orthologs can still activate the DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest in the absence of SLX4. Together, our data suggest that activation of the DNA damage response, but not SLX4 interaction, is conserved and therefore indicative of an important function of Vpr. Our data also indicate that Vpr activates the DNA damage response through an SLX4-independent mechanism that remains uncharacterized. PMID:27624129

  8. No genome barriers to promiscuous DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, R.

    1984-06-01

    Farrelly and Butow (1983) used the term 'promiscuous DNA' in their report of the apparent natural transfer of yeast mitochondrial DNA sequences into the nuclear genome. Ellis (1982) applied the same term in an editorial comment. It is pointed out since that time the subject of DNA's promiscuity has exploded with a series of reports. According to a report by Stern (1984), movement of DNA sequences between chloroplasts and mitochondria is not just a rare event but is a rampant process. It was recently concluded that 'the widespread presence of ctDNA sequences in plant mtDNA is best regarded as a dramatic demonstration of the dynamo nature of interactions between the chloroplast and the mitochondrion, similar to the ongoing process of interorganellar DNA transfer already documented between mitochondrion and nucleus and between chloroplast and nucleus'.

  9. Identification of conserved subdominant HIV Type 1 CD8(+) T Cell epitopes restricted within common HLA Supertypes for therapeutic HIV Type 1 vaccines.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Kløverpris, Henrik; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Stryhn, Anette; Buus, Søren; Karlsson, Annika; Vinner, Lasse; Goulder, Philip; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2012-11-01

    The high HIV-1 prevalence, up to 4.6% in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, makes it a relevant location for testing of therapeutic vaccines. With the aim of performing a clinical study in Guinea-Bissau, after first testing the vaccine for safety in Denmark, Europe, we here describe the design of a universal epitope peptide-based T cell vaccine with relevance for any geographic locations. The two major obstacles when designing such a vaccine are the high diversities of the HIV-1 genome and of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. We selected 15 CD8-restricted epitopes predicted from conserved regions of HIV-1 that were subdominant (i.e., infrequently targeted) within natural infections. Moreover, the epitopes were predicted to be restricted to at least one of the five common HLA supertypes (HLA-A01, A02, A03, B07, and B44). Here, we validated the resulting peptide-specific, HLA-restricted T cell specificities using peptide-MHC class I tetramer labeling of CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. The selected vaccine epitopes are infrequently targeted in HIV-1-infected individuals from both locations. Moreover, we HLA-typed HIV-1-infected individuals and demonstrated that the selected vaccine epitopes, when targeted, are restricted to the five most common HLA supertypes at both locations. Thus, the HLA supertype-directed approach achieved HLA coverage of 95% and 100% of the examined cohorts in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark, respectively. In conclusion, the selected vaccine epitopes match the host populations and HIV-1 strains of these two distant geographic regions, justifying clinical testing in both locations.

  10. Female economic dependence and the morality of promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael E; Pound, Nicholas; Scott, Isabel M

    2014-10-01

    In environments in which female economic dependence on a male mate is higher, male parental investment is more essential. In such environments, therefore, both sexes should value paternity certainty more and thus object more to promiscuity (because promiscuity undermines paternity certainty). We tested this theory of anti-promiscuity morality in two studies (N = 656 and N = 4,626) using U.S. samples. In both, we examined whether opposition to promiscuity was higher among people who perceived greater female economic dependence in their social network. In Study 2, we also tested whether economic indicators of female economic dependence (e.g., female income, welfare availability) predicted anti-promiscuity morality at the state level. Results from both studies supported the proposed theory. At the individual level, perceived female economic dependence explained significant variance in anti-promiscuity morality, even after controlling for variance explained by age, sex, religiosity, political conservatism, and the anti-promiscuity views of geographical neighbors. At the state level, median female income was strongly negatively related to anti-promiscuity morality and this relationship was fully mediated by perceived female economic dependence. These results were consistent with the view that anti-promiscuity beliefs may function to promote paternity certainty in circumstances where male parental investment is particularly important.

  11. Control of HIV-1 replication in vitro by vaccine-induced human CD8+ T cells through conserved subdominant Pol epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tina; Borthwick, Nicola J.; Gilmour, Jill; Hayes, Peter; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Objective The specificity of CD8+ T cells is critical for early control of founder/transmitted and reactivated HIV-1. To tackle HIV-1 variability and escape, we designed vaccine immunogen HIVconsv assembled from 14 highly conserved regions of mainly Gag and Pol proteins. When administered to HIV-1-negative human volunteers in trial HIV-CORE 002, HIVconsv vaccines elicited CD8+ effector T cells which inhibited replication of up to 8 HIV-1 isolates in autologous CD4+ cells. This inhibition correlated with interferon-γ production in response to Gag and Pol peptide pools, but direct evidence of the inhibitory specificity was missing. Here, we aimed to define through recognition of which epitopes these effectors inhibit HIV-1 replication. Design CD8+ T-cells from the 3 broadest HIV-1 inhibitors out of 23 vaccine recipients were expanded in culture by Gag or Pol peptide restimulation and tested in viral inhibition assay (VIA) using HIV-1 clade B and A isolates. Methods Frozen PBMCs were expanded first using peptide pools from Gag or Pol conserved regions and tested on HIV-1-infected cells in VIA or by individual peptides for their effector functions. Single peptide specificities responsible for inhibition of HIV-1 replication were then confirmed by single-peptide expanded effectors tested on HIV-1-infected cells. Results We formally demonstrated that the vaccine-elicited inhibitory human CD8+ T cells recognized conserved epitopes of both Pol and Gag proteins. We defined 7 minimum epitopes, of which 3 were novel, presumably naturally subdominant. The effectors were oligofunctional producing several cytokines and chemokines and killing peptide-pulsed target cells. Conclusions These results implicate the use of functionally conserved regions of Pol in addition to the widely used Gag for T-cell vaccine design. Proportion of volunteers developing these effectors and their frequency in circulating PBMC are separate issues, which can be addressed, if needed, by more efficient

  12. Sequence conservation, HLA-E-Restricted peptide, and best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes in gag P24 (capsid) of HIV-1 subtype B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Dharmawan, Ruben; Sari, Yulia; Sariyatun, Ratna

    2017-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a cause of global health problem. Continuous studies of HIV-1 genetic and immunological profiles are important to find strategies against the virus. This study aimed to conduct analysis of sequence conservation, HLA-E-restricted peptide, and best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes in p24 (capsid) of HIV-1 subtype B worldwide. The p24-coding sequences from 3,557 HIV subtype B isolates were aligned using MUSCLE and analysed. Some highly conserved regions (sequence conservation ≥95%) were observed. Two considerably long series of sequences with conservation of 100% was observed at base 349-356 and 550-557 of p24 (HXB2 numbering). The consensus from all aligned isolates was precisely the same as consensus B in the Los Alamos HIV Database. The HLA-E-restricted peptide in amino acid (aa) 14-22 of HIV-1 p24 (AISPRTLNA) was found in 55.9% (1,987/3,557) of HIV-1 subtype B worldwide. Forty-four best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes were observed, in which VKNWMTETL epitope (aa 181-189 of p24) restricted by B*4801 was the most frequent, as found in 94.9% of isolates. The results of this study would contribute information about HIV-1 subtype B and benefits for further works willing to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against the virus.

  13. Structures of Human Pumilio with Noncognate RNAs Reveal Molecular Mechanisms for Binding Promiscuity

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta,Y.; Nair, D.; Wharton, R.; Aggarwal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Pumilio is a founder member of the evolutionarily conserved Puf family of RNA-binding proteins that control a number of physiological processes in eukaryotes. A structure of human Pumilio (hPum) Puf domain bound to a Drosophila regulatory sequence showed that each Puf repeat recognizes a single nucleotide. Puf domains in general bind promiscuously to a large set of degenerate sequences, but the structural basis for this promiscuity has been unclear. Here, we describe the structures of hPum Puf domain complexed to two noncognate RNAs, CycBreverse and Puf5. In each complex, one of the nucleotides is ejected from the binding surface, in effect, acting as a 'spacer.' The complexes also reveal the plasticity of several Puf repeats, which recognize noncanonical nucleotides. Together, these complexes provide a molecular basis for recognition of degenerate binding sites, which significantly increases the number of mRNAs targeted for regulation by Puf proteins in vivo.

  14. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  15. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  16. Steroid promiscuity: Diversity of enzyme action. Preface.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard; Kotelevtsev, Yuri; Mason, J Ian

    2015-07-01

    This Special Issue on the topic of Steroid and Sterol Signaling: Promiscuity and Diversity, dwells on the growing realization that the 'one ligand, one binding site' and 'one enzyme, one reaction' concepts are out of date. Focusing on cytochromes P450 (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), and related enzymes, the Special Issue highlights that a single enzyme can bind to diverse substrates, and in different conformations, and can catalyze multiple different conversions (and in different directions), thereby, generating an unexpectedly wide spectrum of ligands that can have subtly different biological actions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol Signaling' . Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered Response Hierarchy and Increased T-Cell Breadth upon HIV-1 Conserved Element DNA Vaccination in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Viraj; Valentin, Antonio; Rosati, Margherita; Alicea, Candido; Singh, Ashish K.; Jalah, Rashmi; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Mothe, Beatriz; Brander, Christian; Rolland, Morgane; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24gag elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55gag increased both magnitude of CE responses and breadth of Gag immunity, demonstrating alteration of the hierarchy of epitope recognition in the presence of pre-existing CE-specific responses. Inclusion of a conserved element immunogen provides a novel and effective strategy to broaden responses against highly diverse pathogens by avoiding decoy epitopes, while focusing responses to critical viral elements for which few escape pathways exist. PMID:24465991

  18. Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF) region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. Results The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2) and non-canonical (B2 and C1422) HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF→AAA) and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef’s association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN) were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that this highly

  19. Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function.

    PubMed

    Meuwissen, Pieter J; Stolp, Bettina; Iannucci, Veronica; Vermeire, Jolien; Naessens, Evelien; Saksela, Kalle; Geyer, Matthias; Vanham, Guido; Arien, Kevin K; Fackler, Oliver T; Verhasselt, Bruno

    2012-04-27

    The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF) region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2) and non-canonical (B2 and C1422) HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF→AAA) and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef's association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN) were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Based on these findings, we propose that this highly conserved three amino acid VGF

  20. Conserved Interaction of Lentiviral Vif Molecules with HIV-1 Gag and Differential Effects of Species-Specific Vif on Virus Production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwen; Ling, Limian; Li, Zhaolong; Wang, Hong; Rui, Yajuan; Gao, Wenying; Wang, Shaohua; Su, Xing; Wei, Wei; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2017-04-01

    The virion infectivity factor (Vif) open reading frame is conserved among most lentiviruses. Vif molecules contribute to viral replication by inactivating host antiviral factors, the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. However, various species of lentiviral Vif proteins have evolved different strategies for overcoming host APOBEC3. Whether different species of lentiviral Vif proteins still preserve certain common features has not been reported. Here, we show for the first time that diverse lentiviral Vif molecules maintain the ability to interact with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor (Pr55(Gag)) polyprotein. Surprisingly, bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Vif, but not HIV-1 Vif, interfered with HIV-1 production and viral infectivity even in the absence of APOBEC3. Further analysis revealed that BIV Vif demonstrated an enhanced interaction with Pr55(Gag) compared to that of HIV-1 Vif, and BIV Vif defective for the Pr55(Gag) interaction lost its ability to inhibit HIV-1. The C-terminal region of capsid (CA) and the p2 region of Pr55(Gag), which are important for virus assembly and maturation, were involved in the interaction. Transduction of CD4(+) T cells with BIV Vif blocked HIV-1 replication. Thus, the conserved Vif-Pr55(Gag) interaction provides a potential target for the future development of antiviral strategies.IMPORTANCE The conserved Vif accessory proteins of primate lentiviruses HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and BIV all form ubiquitin ligase complexes to target host antiviral APOBEC3 proteins for degradation, with different cellular requirements and using different molecular mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that BIV Vif can interfere with HIV-1 Gag maturation and suppress HIV-1 replication through interaction with the precursor of the Gag (Pr55(Gag)) of HIV-1 in virus-producing cells. Moreover, the HIV-1 and SIV Vif proteins are conserved in terms of their interactions with HIV-1 Pr55(Gag) although HIV-1 Vif proteins

  1. Our bodies are our own: resistance to ABC-based HIV-prevention programmes in northern Tanzanian conservation organisations.

    PubMed

    Reid-Hresko, John

    2014-01-01

    ABC-based HIV-prevention programmes have been widely employed in northern Tanzanian wildlife conservation settings in an attempt to (re)shape the sexual behaviours of conservation actors. Utilising findings from 66 semi-structured interviews conducted in 2009-2010, this paper examines ABC prevention as a form of Foucauldian governmentality--circulating technologies of power that mobilise disciplinary technologies and attempt to transform such efforts into technologies of the self--and explores how individuals understand and respond to attempts to govern their behaviour. ABC regimes attempt to rework subjectivity, positioning HIV-related behaviours within a risk-based neoliberal rationality. However, efforts to use ABC as a technology to govern populations and individual bodies are largely incommensurate with existing Tanzanian sociocultural formations, including economic and gendered inequalities, and local understandings of sexuality. The language research participants used to talk about ABC and the justifications they offered for non-compliance illuminate this discrepancy. Data reveal that the recipients of ABC campaigns are active producers of understandings that work for them in their lives, but may not produce the behavioural shifts envisioned by programme goals. These findings corroborate previous research, which questions the continued plausibility of ABC as a stand-alone HIV- prevention framework.

  2. The highly conserved codon following the slippery sequence supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Suneeth F; Crowe-McAuliffe, Caillan; Graves, Ryan; Cardno, Tony S; McKinney, Cushla; Poole, Elizabeth S; Tate, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 utilises -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating -1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the 'intercodon') contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules-eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA-were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to -1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted) ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1.

  3. Polyclonal B Cell Responses to Conserved Neutralization Epitopes in a Subset of HIV-1-Infected Individuals▿†

    PubMed Central

    Tomaras, Georgia D.; Binley, James M.; Gray, Elin S.; Crooks, Emma T.; Osawa, Keiko; Moore, Penny L.; Tumba, Nancy; Tong, Tommy; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L.; Decker, Julie; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Gao, Feng; Alam, S. Munir; Easterbrook, Philippa; Abdool Karim, Salim; Kamanga, Gift; Crump, John A.; Cohen, Myron; Shaw, George M.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Montefiori, David C.; Morris, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    A small proportion of HIV-infected individuals generate a neutralizing antibody (NAb) response of exceptional magnitude and breadth. A detailed analysis of the critical epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies should help to define optimal targets for vaccine design. HIV-1-infected subjects with potent cross-reactive serum neutralizing antibodies were identified by assaying sera from 308 subjects against a multiclade panel of 12 “tier 2” viruses (4 each of subtypes A, B, and C). Various neutralizing epitope specificities were determined for the top 9 neutralizers, including clade A-, clade B-, clade C-, and clade A/C-infected donors, by using a comprehensive set of assays. In some subjects, neutralization breadth was mediated by two or more antibody specificities. Although antibodies to the gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) were identified in some subjects, the subjects with the greatest neutralization breadth targeted gp120 epitopes, including the CD4 binding site, a glycan-containing quaternary epitope formed by the V2 and V3 loops, or an outer domain epitope containing a glycan at residue N332. The broadly reactive HIV-1 neutralization observed in some subjects is mediated by antibodies targeting several conserved regions on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. PMID:21849452

  4. Conserved signatures indicate HIV-1 transmission is under strong selection and thus is not a "stochastic" process.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mileidy; DeVico, Anthony L; Spouge, John L

    2017-02-24

    Recently, Oberle et al. published a paper in Retrovirology evaluating the question of whether selection plays a role in HIV transmission. The Oberle study found no obvious genotypic or phenotypic differences between donors and recipients of epidemiologically linked pairs from the Swiss cohort. Thus, Oberle et al. characterized HIV-1 B transmission as largely "stochastic", an imprecise and potentially misleading term. Here, we re-analyzed their data and placed them in the context of transmission data for over 20 other human and animal trials. The present study finds that the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses from the Swiss cohort show the same non-random genetic signatures conserved in 118 HIV-1, 40 SHIV, and 12 SIV T/F viruses previously published by two independent groups. We provide alternative interpretations of the Swiss cohort data and conclude that the sequences of their donor viruses lacked variability at the specific sites where other studies were able to demonstrate genotypic selection. Oberle et al. observed no phenotypic selection in vitro, so the problem of determining the in vivo phenotypic mechanisms that cause genotypic selection in HIV remains open.

  5. Mycobacterial F420H2-Dependent Reductases Promiscuously Reduce Diverse Compounds through a Common Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Chris; Jirapanjawat, Thanavit; Afroze, Shahana; Ney, Blair; Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Lee, Brendon M.; Russell, Robyn J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Oakeshott, John G.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Warden, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    An unusual aspect of actinobacterial metabolism is the use of the redox cofactor F420. Studies have shown that actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases promiscuously hydrogenate diverse organic compounds in biodegradative and biosynthetic processes. These enzymes therefore represent promising candidates for next-generation industrial biocatalysts. In this work, we undertook the first broad survey of these enzymes as potential industrial biocatalysts by exploring the extent, as well as mechanistic and structural bases, of their substrate promiscuity. We expressed and purified 11 enzymes from seven subgroups of the flavin/deazaflavin oxidoreductase (FDOR) superfamily (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, B4) from the model soil actinobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis. These enzymes reduced compounds from six chemical classes, including fundamental monocycles such as a cyclohexenone, a dihydropyran, and pyrones, as well as more complex quinone, coumarin, and arylmethane compounds. Substrate range and reduction rates varied between the enzymes, with the A1, A3, and B1 groups exhibiting greatest promiscuity. Molecular docking studies suggested that structurally diverse compounds are accommodated in the large substrate-binding pocket of the most promiscuous FDOR through hydrophobic interactions with conserved aromatic residues and the isoalloxazine headgroup of F420H2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of derivatized reaction products showed reduction occurred through a common mechanism involving hydride transfer from F420H- to the electron-deficient alkene groups of substrates. Reduction occurs when the hydride donor (C5 of F420H-) is proximal to the acceptor (electrophilic alkene of the substrate). These findings suggest that engineered actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases are promising novel biocatalysts for the facile transformation of a wide range of α,β-unsaturated compounds. PMID:28620367

  6. [Coreceptors of HIV infection and the development of HIV entry inhibitors: overview and targets].

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Hiroo

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 CXCR4 was identified as a coreceptor for HIV-1. This finding has lead to further identification of more than ten G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as coreceptors for HIV/SIV. Cell tropisms and coreceptor uses of HIV during the course of HIV infection are summarized. Promiscuous properties of correlations between chemokines and their chemokine receptor uses and also between variable amino acid sequences in the V3 region of HIV gp120 Env and HIV coreceptor uses are discussed. This promiscuous property of HIV-1 is claimed to be a possible cause of a difficulty in developing highly effective entry inhibitors and in addition to allow rapid appearance of immune escape HIV mutants. Representative agents that inhibit HIV entry with a special reference to inhibitors of coreceptor use and gp41 function are summarized. gp41 is discussed as a promising target for the development of effective entry inhibitors.

  7. Peptide promiscuity: an evolutionary concept for plant defense.

    PubMed

    Franco, Octavio Luiz

    2011-04-06

    The phenomenon of protein promiscuity, in which multiple functions are associated with a single peptide structure, has gained attention in several research fields, including the plant defense field. With this in mind, this report intends to link various plant defense peptides with common scaffolds (defensins, cyclotides and 2S albumins), and multiple activities with the processes of promiscuity generation and protein evolvability. This link seems to create an efficient system of plant defense against insect pests and pathogens, and is thus essential to plant survival and evolution. This review also identifies future possibilities for the use of peptide promiscuity in designing novel drugs and synthetic biotechnological products.

  8. Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species.

    PubMed

    2012-07-05

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation. We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation.

  9. Molecular annotation of ketol-acid reductoisomerases from Streptomyces reveals a novel amino acid biosynthesis interlock mediated by enzyme promiscuity

    PubMed Central

    Verdel-Aranda, Karina; López-Cortina, Susana T; Hodgson, David A; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase superfamily oxidize and reduce a wide range of substrates, making their functional annotation challenging. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), encoded by the ilvC gene in branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis, is a promiscuous reductase enzyme within this superfamily. Here, we obtain steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters for 10 IlvC homologues from the genera Streptomyces and Corynebacterium, upon eight selected chemically diverse substrates, including some not normally recognized by enzymes of this superfamily. This biochemical data suggested a Streptomyces biosynthetic interlock between proline and the branched-chain amino acids, mediated by enzyme substrate promiscuity, which was confirmed via mutagenesis and complementation analyses of the proC, ilvC1 and ilvC2 genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, both ilvC orthologues and paralogues were analysed, such that the relationship between gene duplication and functional diversification could be explored. The KARI paralogues present in S. coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, despite their conserved high sequence identity (97%), were shown to be more promiscuous, suggesting a recent functional diversification. In contrast, the KARI paralogue from Streptomyces viridifaciens showed selectivity towards the synthesis of valine precursors, explaining its recruitment within the biosynthetic gene cluster of valanimycin. These results allowed us to assess substrate promiscuity indices as a tool to annotate new molecular functions with metabolic implications. PMID:25296650

  10. AIDS-protective HLA-B*27/B*57 and chimpanzee MHC class I molecules target analogous conserved areas of HIV-1/SIVcpz.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Natasja G; Heijmans, Corrine M C; Zoet, Yvonne M; de Ru, Arnoud H; Verreck, Frank A; van Veelen, Peter A; Drijfhout, Jan W; Doxiadis, Gaby G M; Remarque, Edmond J; Doxiadis, Ilias I N; van Rood, Jon J; Koning, Frits; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2010-08-24

    In the absence of treatment, most HIV-1-infected humans develop AIDS. However, a minority are long-term nonprogressors, and resistance is associated with the presence of particular HLA-B*27/B*57 molecules. In contrast, most HIV-1-infected chimpanzees do not contract AIDS. In comparison with humans, chimpanzees experienced an ancient selective sweep affecting the MHC class I repertoire. We have determined the peptide-binding properties of frequent chimpanzee MHC class I molecules, and show that, like HLA-B*27/B*57, they target similar conserved areas of HIV-1/SIV(cpz). In addition, many animals appear to possess multiple molecules targeting various conserved areas of the HIV-1/SIV(cpz) Gag protein, a quantitative aspect of the immune response that may further minimize the chance of viral escape. The functional characteristics of the contemporary chimpanzee MHC repertoire suggest that the selective sweep was caused by a lentiviral pandemic.

  11. Functional conservation and coherence of HIV-1 subtype A Vpu alleles

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Bizhan; Kavyanifard, Amirarsalan; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Functional studies of HIV-1 proteins are normally conducted using lab adapted strains of HIV-1. The extent of those functions in clinical strains is sometimes unknown. In this study, we amplified and sequenced HIV-1 Vpu from 10 Iranian patients infected with HIV-1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Vpu alleles were closely related to the CRF35_AD from Iran and subtype A Vpu. We addressed some of the well-established functions of the HIV-1 Vpu, as well as some of its recently reported functions. Ability of the clinical strains of subtype A Vpu alleles for downregulation of CD4 was similar to that of the lab adapted NL4.3 Vpu. Majority of the subtype A Vpu alleles performed stronger than NL4.3 Vpu for downregulation of SNAT1. The Vpu alleles differentially induced downregulation of HLA-C, ranging from no effect to 88% downregulation of surface HLA-C. Downregulation of tetherin and enhancement of virus release was similar for the subtype A Vpu alleles and NL4.3. Subtype A Vpu alleles were more potent when compared with NL4.3 for inhibition of NF-κB activation. Our study shows that subtype A Vpu alleles exert the classical functions of HIV-1 Vpu. PMID:28317943

  12. Functional conservation and coherence of HIV-1 subtype A Vpu alleles.

    PubMed

    Romani, Bizhan; Kavyanifard, Amirarsalan; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2017-12-01

    Functional studies of HIV-1 proteins are normally conducted using lab adapted strains of HIV-1. The extent of those functions in clinical strains is sometimes unknown. In this study, we amplified and sequenced HIV-1 Vpu from 10 Iranian patients infected with HIV-1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Vpu alleles were closely related to the CRF35_AD from Iran and subtype A Vpu. We addressed some of the well-established functions of the HIV-1 Vpu, as well as some of its recently reported functions. Ability of the clinical strains of subtype A Vpu alleles for downregulation of CD4 was similar to that of the lab adapted NL4.3 Vpu. Majority of the subtype A Vpu alleles performed stronger than NL4.3 Vpu for downregulation of SNAT1. The Vpu alleles differentially induced downregulation of HLA-C, ranging from no effect to 88% downregulation of surface HLA-C. Downregulation of tetherin and enhancement of virus release was similar for the subtype A Vpu alleles and NL4.3. Subtype A Vpu alleles were more potent when compared with NL4.3 for inhibition of NF-κB activation. Our study shows that subtype A Vpu alleles exert the classical functions of HIV-1 Vpu.

  13. Stabilizing Exposure of Conserved Epitopes by Structure Guided Insertion of Disulfide Bond in HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Pampi; Labranche, Celia; Go, Eden P.; Clark, Daniel F.; Sun, Yide; Nandi, Avishek; Hartog, Karin; Desaire, Heather; Montefiori, David; Carfi, Andrea; Srivastava, Indresh K.; Barnett, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to cellular receptors and subsequent conformational changes that culminates in fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Recent structural information has revealed that these conformational transitions are regulated by three conserved but potentially flexible layers stacked between the receptor-binding domain (gp120) and the fusion arm (gp41) of Env. We hypothesized that artificial insertion of a covalent bond will ‘snap’ Env into a conformation that is less mobile and stably expose conserved sites. Therefore, we analyzed the interface between these gp120 layers (layers 1, 2 and 3) and identified residues that may form disulfide bonds when substituted with cysteines. We subsequently probed the structures of the resultant mutant gp120 proteins by assaying their binding to a variety of ligands using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) assay. We found that a single disulfide bond strategically inserted between the highly conserved layers 1 and 2 (C65-C115) is able to ‘lock’ gp120 in a CD4 receptor bound conformation (in the absence of CD4), as indicated by the lower dissociation constant (Kd) for the CD4-induced (CD4i) epitope binding 17b antibody. When disulfide-stabilized monomeric (gp120) and trimeric (gp140) Envs were used to immunize rabbits, they were found to elicit a higher proportion of antibodies directed against both CD4i and CD4 binding site epitopes than the wild-type proteins. These results demonstrate that structure-guided stabilization of inter-layer interactions within HIV-1 Env can be used to expose conserved epitopes and potentially overcome the sequence diversity of these molecules. PMID:24146829

  14. A Highly Conserved Residue of the HIV-1 gp120 Inner Domain Is Important for Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Responses Mediated by Anti-cluster A Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shilei; Veillette, Maxime; Coutu, Mathieu; Prévost, Jérémie; Scharf, Louise; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ferrari, Guido; Robinson, James E.; Stürzel, Christina; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank; Lewis, George K.; Pazgier, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sera from HIV-1-infected individuals contain antibodies able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). These antibodies preferentially recognize envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitopes induced upon CD4 binding. Here, we show that a highly conserved tryptophan at position 69 of the gp120 inner domain is important for ADCC mediated by anti-cluster A antibodies and sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:26637462

  15. Spotting and designing promiscuous ligands for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P; Röthlisberger, M; Reker, D; Schneider, G

    2016-01-21

    The promiscuous binding behavior of bioactive compounds forms a mechanistic basis for understanding polypharmacological drug action. We present the development and prospective application of a computational tool for identifying potential promiscuous drug-like ligands. In combination with computational target prediction methods, the approach provides a working concept for rationally designing such molecular structures. We could confirm the multi-target binding of a de novo generated compound in a proof-of-concept study relying on the new method.

  16. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) – a drug’s ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand flexibility to have a

  17. Control of HIV-1 replication in vitro by vaccine-induced human CD8(+) T cells through conserved subdominant Pol epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tina; Borthwick, Nicola J; Gilmour, Jill; Hayes, Peter; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2016-02-24

    The specificity of CD8(+) T cells is critical for early control of founder/transmitted and reactivated HIV-1. To tackle HIV-1 variability and escape, we designed vaccine immunogen HIVconsv assembled from 14 highly conserved regions of mainly Gag and Pol proteins. When administered to HIV-1-negative human volunteers in trial HIV-CORE 002, HIVconsv vaccines elicited CD8(+) effector T cells which inhibited replication of up to 8 HIV-1 isolates in autologous CD4(+) cells. This inhibition correlated with interferon-γ production in response to Gag and Pol peptide pools, but direct evidence of the inhibitory specificity was missing. Here, we aimed to define through recognition of which epitopes these effectors inhibit HIV-1 replication. CD8(+) T-cells from the 3 broadest HIV-1 inhibitors out of 23 vaccine recipients were expanded in culture by Gag or Pol peptide restimulation and tested in viral inhibition assay (VIA) using HIV-1 clade B and A isolates. Frozen PBMCs were expanded first using peptide pools from Gag or Pol conserved regions and tested on HIV-1-infected cells in VIA or by individual peptides for their effector functions. Single peptide specificities responsible for inhibition of HIV-1 replication were then confirmed by single-peptide expanded effectors tested on HIV-1-infected cells. We formally demonstrated that the vaccine-elicited inhibitory human CD8(+) T cells recognized conserved epitopes of both Pol and Gag proteins. We defined 7 minimum epitopes, of which 3 were novel, presumably naturally subdominant. The effectors were oligofunctional producing several cytokines and chemokines and killing peptide-pulsed target cells. These results implicate the use of functionally conserved regions of Pol in addition to the widely used Gag for T-cell vaccine design. Proportion of volunteers developing these effectors and their frequency in circulating PBMC are separate issues, which can be addressed, if needed, by more efficient vector and regimen delivery of

  18. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: Ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction, and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, and especially the use of condoms. PMID:21834733

  19. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, especially the use of condoms.

  20. Efficient, crosswise catalytic promiscuity among enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mark F; Hollfelder, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The observation that one enzyme can accelerate several chemically distinct reactions was at one time surprising because the enormous efficiency of catalysis was often seen as inextricably linked to specialization for one reaction. Originally underreported, and considered a quirk rather than a fundamental property, enzyme promiscuity is now understood to be important as a springboard for adaptive evolution. Owing to the large number of promiscuous enzymes that have been identified over the last decade, and the increased appreciation for promiscuity's evolutionary importance, the focus of research has shifted to developing a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for promiscuity and the origins of tolerant or restrictive specificity. We review the evidence for widespread crosswise promiscuity amongst enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer, including several members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, where large rate accelerations between 10(6) and 10(17) are observed for both native and multiple promiscuous reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chemistry and mechanism of phosphatases, diesterases and triesterases.

  1. Sexual promiscuity: knowledge of dangers in institutions of higher learning.

    PubMed

    Ebong, R D

    1994-06-01

    Knowledge of dangers of sexual promiscuity was assessed in 2 institutions of higher learning. The objectives were to find out the knowledge of medical and social consequences as well as the factors responsible for sexual promiscuity among Nigerian youths. The study also assessed the discrepancies in societal concept of sex norms for males and females. The result was used as an index to determine the need for sex education for Nigerian youths. A total of 200 students (100 from each school) was assessed by random selection and use of a questionnaire. The result showed that students had a fair knowledge of sexual promiscuity, although in terms of medical consequences the knowledge was low for both groups. On social consequences, the knowledge was fair for both groups. Students agreed that lack of financial support and of supervision from parents and teachers were among the causes of sexual promiscuity. Recommendations were made for Health Education in these areas in institutions of higher learning. Also, recommendations were made for parental education on how to bring up, and care for, their adolescents to reduce the problems of sexual promiscuity. It was also recommended that a compulsory course on sexual promiscuity should be included in the syllabus in institutions of higher learning.

  2. Promiscuity in the Enzymatic Catalysis of Phosphate and Sulfate Transfer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The enzymes that facilitate phosphate and sulfate hydrolysis are among the most proficient natural catalysts known to date. Interestingly, a large number of these enzymes are promiscuous catalysts that exhibit both phosphatase and sulfatase activities in the same active site and, on top of that, have also been demonstrated to efficiently catalyze the hydrolysis of other additional substrates with varying degrees of efficiency. Understanding the factors that underlie such multifunctionality is crucial both for understanding functional evolution in enzyme superfamilies and for the development of artificial enzymes. In this Current Topic, we have primarily focused on the structural and mechanistic basis for catalytic promiscuity among enzymes that facilitate both phosphoryl and sulfuryl transfer in the same active site, while comparing this to how catalytic promiscuity manifests in other promiscuous phosphatases. We have also drawn on the large number of experimental and computational studies of selected model systems in the literature to explore the different features driving the catalytic promiscuity of such enzymes. Finally, on the basis of this comparative analysis, we probe the plausible origins and determinants of catalytic promiscuity in enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl and sulfuryl transfer. PMID:27187273

  3. Proteomic Analyses Reveal Common Promiscuous Patterns of Cell Surface Proteins on Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Sperms

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Bin; Zhang, Jiarong; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Xinzong; Tan, Zhou; Lin, Yuanji; Huang, Xiao; Chen, Liangbiao; Yao, Kangshou; Zhang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Background It has long been proposed that early embryos and reproductive organs exhibit similar gene expression profiles. However, whether this similarity is propagated to the protein level remains largely unknown. We have previously characterised the promiscuous expression pattern of cell surface proteins on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. As cell surface proteins also play critical functions in human embryonic stem (hES) cells and germ cells, it is important to reveal whether a promiscuous pattern of cell surface proteins also exists for these cells. Methods and Principal Findings Surface proteins of hES cells and human mature sperms (hSperms) were purified by biotin labelling and subjected to proteomic analyses. More than 1000 transmembrane or secreted cell surface proteins were identified on the two cell types, respectively. Proteins from both cell types covered a large variety of functional categories including signal transduction, adhesion and transporting. Moreover, both cell types promiscuously expressed a wide variety of tissue specific surface proteins, and some surface proteins were heterogeneously expressed. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that the promiscuous expression of functional and tissue specific cell surface proteins may be a common pattern in embryonic stem cells and germ cells. The conservation of gene expression patterns between early embryonic cells and reproductive cells is propagated to the protein level. These results have deep implications for the cell surface signature characterisation of pluripotent stem cells and germ cells and may lead the way to a new area of study, i.e., the functional significance of promiscuous gene expression in pluripotent and germ cells. PMID:21559292

  4. Targeting of Conserved Gag-Epitopes in Early HIV Infection Is Associated with Lower Plasma Viral Load and Slower CD4+ T Cell Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Carina L.; Milush, Jeffrey M.; Buggert, Marcus; Eriksson, Emily M.; Larsen, Mette V.; Liegler, Teri; Hartogensis, Wendy; Bacchetti, Peter; Lund, Ole; Hecht, Frederick M.; Nixon, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to investigate whether the character of the immunodominant HIV-Gag peptide (variable or conserved) targeted by CD8+ T cells in early HIV infection would influence the quality and quantity of T cell responses, and whether this would affect the rate of disease progression. Treatment-naive HIV-infected study subjects within the OPTIONS cohort at the University of California, San Francisco, were monitored from an estimated 44 days postinfection for up to 6 years. CD8+ T cells responses targeting HLA-matched HIV-Gag-epitopes were identified and characterized by multicolor flow cytometry. The autologous HIV gag sequences were obtained. We demonstrate that patients targeting a conserved HIV-Gag-epitope in early infection maintained their epitope-specific CD8+ T cell response throughout the study period. Patients targeting a variable epitope showed decreased immune responses over time, although there was no limitation of the functional profile, and they were likely to target additional variable epitopes. Maintained immune responses to conserved epitopes were associated with no or limited sequence evolution within the targeted epitope. Patients with immune responses targeting conserved epitopes had a significantly lower median viral load over time compared to patients with responses targeting a variable epitope (0.63 log10 difference). Furthermore, the rate of CD4+ T cell decline was slower for subjects targeting a conserved epitope (0.85% per month) compared to subjects targeting a variable epitope (1.85% per month). Previous studies have shown that targeting of antigens based on specific HLA types is associated with a better disease course. In this study we show that categorizing epitopes based on their variability is associated with clinical outcome. PMID:23140171

  5. Galactokinase promiscuity: a question of flexibility?

    PubMed

    McAuley, Megan; Kristiansson, Helena; Huang, Meilan; Pey, Angel L; Timson, David J

    2016-02-01

    Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of the Leloir pathway, i.e. the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of α-D-galactose at C1-OH. Reduced galactokinase activity results in the inherited metabolic disease type II galactosaemia. However, inhibition of galactokinase is considered a viable approach to treating more severe forms of galactosaemia (types I and III). Considerable progress has been made in the identification of high affinity, selective inhibitors. Although the structure of galactokinase from a variety of species is known, its catalytic mechanism remains uncertain. Although the bulk of evidence suggests that the reaction proceeds via an active site base mechanism, some experimental and theoretical studies contradict this. The enzyme has potential as a biocatalyst in the production of sugar 1-phosphates. This potential is limited by its high specificity. A variety of approaches have been taken to identify galactokinase variants which are more promiscuous. These have broadened galactokinase's specificity to include a wide range of D- and L-sugars. Initial studies suggest that some of these alterations result in increased flexibility at the active site. It is suggested that modulation of protein flexibility is at least as important as structural modifications in determining the success or failure of enzyme engineering.

  6. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L-) domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX), is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF) reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA) and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively affects CA maturation and

  7. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Robert J; Lévesque, Michel V; Boudrias-Dalle, Etienne; Chute, Ian C; Daniels, Sylvanne M; Ouellette, Rodney J; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Gatignol, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies. PMID:25072692

  8. Crystal structure of human antibody 2909 reveals conserved features of quaternary structure-specific antibodies that potently neutralize HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Changela, Anita; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhu, Jiang; Nardone, Glenn A; O'Dell, Sijy; Pancera, Marie; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Phogat, Sanjay; Robinson, James E; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D

    2011-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody 2909 belongs to a class of potently neutralizing antibodies that recognize quaternary epitopes on HIV-1. Some members of this class, such as 2909, are strain specific, while others, such as antibody PG16, are broadly neutralizing; all, however, recognize a region on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein that includes two loops (V2 and V3) and forms appropriately only in the oligomeric HIV-1 spike (gp120(3)/gp41(3)). Here we present the crystal structure of 2909 and report structure-function analysis with antibody chimeras composed of 2909 and other members of this antibody class. The 2909 structure was dominated by a heavy-chain third-complementarity-determining region (CDR H3) of 21 residues, which comprised 36% of the combining surface and formed a β-hairpin club extending ∼20 Å beyond the rest of the antibody. Sequence analysis and mass spectrometry identified sites of tyrosine sulfation at the middle and top of CDR H3; substitutions with phenylalanine either ablated (middle substitution) or substantially diminished (top substitution) neutralization. Chimeric antibodies composed of heavy and light chains, exchanged between 2909 and other members of the class, indicated a substantial lack of complementation. Comparison of 2909 to PG16 (which is tyrosine sulfated and the only other member of the class for which a structure has previously been reported) showed that both utilize protruding, anionic CDR H3s for recognition. Thus, despite some diversity, members of this class share structural and functional similarities, with conserved features of the CDR H3 subdomain likely reflecting prevalent solutions by the human immune system for recognition of a quaternary site of HIV-1 vulnerability.

  9. HIV competition dynamics over sexual networks: first comer advantage conserves founder effects.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandy, Bence; Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás; Müller, Viktor

    2015-02-01

    Outside Africa, the global phylogeography of HIV is characterized by compartmentalized local epidemics that are typically dominated by a single subtype, which indicates strong founder effects. We hypothesized that the competition of viral strains at the epidemic level may involve an advantage of the resident strain that was the first to colonize a population. Such an effect would slow down the invasion of new strains, and thus also the diversification of the epidemic. We developed a stochastic modelling framework to simulate HIV epidemics over dynamic contact networks. We simulated epidemics in which the second strain was introduced into a population where the first strain had established a steady-state epidemic, and assessed whether, and on what time scale, the second strain was able to spread in the population. Simulations were parameterized based on empirical data; we tested scenarios with varying levels of overall prevalence. The spread of the second strain occurred on a much slower time scale compared with the initial expansion of the first strain. With strains of equal transmission efficiency, the second strain was unable to invade on a time scale relevant for the history of the HIV pandemic. To become dominant over a time scale of decades, the second strain needed considerable (>25%) advantage in transmission efficiency over the resident strain. The inhibition effect was weaker if the second strain was introduced while the first strain was still in its growth phase. We also tested how possible mechanisms of interference (inhibition of superinfection, depletion of highly connected hubs in the network, one-time acute peak of infectiousness) contribute to the inhibition effect. Our simulations confirmed a strong first comer advantage in the competition dynamics of HIV at the population level, which may explain the global phylogeography of the virus and may influence the future evolution of the pandemic.

  10. Structure-Related Roles for the Conservation of the HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Sequence Revealed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Soraya; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Andreu, David; Nieva, José L; Jiménez, María Angeles

    2017-09-29

    Despite extensive characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hydrophobic fusion peptide (FP), the structure-function relationships underlying its extraordinary degree of conservation remain poorly understood. Specifically, the fact that the tandem repeat of the FLGFLG tripeptide is absolutely conserved suggests that high hydrophobicity may not suffice to unleash FP function. Here, we have compared the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures adopted in nonpolar media by two FP surrogates, wtFP-tag and scrFP-tag, which had equal hydrophobicity but contained wild-type and scrambled core sequences LFLGFLG and FGLLGFL, respectively. In addition, these peptides were tagged at their C-termini with an epitope sequence that folded independently, thereby allowing Western blot detection without interfering with FP structure. We observed similar α-helical FP conformations for both specimens dissolved in the low-polarity medium 25% (v/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), but important differences in contact with micelles of the membrane mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). Thus, whereas wtFP-tag preserved a helix displaying a Gly-rich ridge, the scrambled sequence lost in great part the helical structure upon being solubilized in DPC. Western blot analyses further revealed the capacity of wtFP-tag to assemble trimers in membranes, whereas membrane oligomers were not observed in the case of the scrFP-tag sequence. We conclude that, beyond hydrophobicity, preserving sequence order is an important feature for defining the secondary structures and oligomeric states adopted by the HIV FP in membranes.

  11. Conserved sequences in the current strains of HIV-1 subtype A in Russia are effectively targeted by artificial RNAi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Fedoseeva, Daria M; Gashnikova, Natalya M; Sosin, Dmitri V; Gorbacheva, Maria A; Alembekov, Ildar R; Chechetkin, Vladimir R; Kravatsky, Yuri V; Kretova, Olga V

    2016-05-25

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. However, many of the antiretroviral drugs are toxic with long-term use, and all currently used anti-HIV agents generate drug-resistant mutants. Therefore, there is a great need for new approaches to AIDS therapy. RNAi is a powerful means of inhibiting HIV-1 production in human cells. We propose to use RNAi for gene therapy of HIV/AIDS. Previously we identified a number of new biologically active siRNAs targeting several moderately conserved regions in HIV-1 transcripts. Here we analyze the heterogeneity of nucleotide sequences in three RNAi targets in sequences encoding the reverse transcriptase and integrase domains of current isolates of HIV-1 subtype A in Russia. These data were used to generate genetic constructs expressing short hairpin RNAs 28-30-bp in length that could be processed in cells into siRNAs. After transfection of the constructs we observed siRNAs that efficiently attacked the selected targets. We expect that targeting several viral genes important for HIV-1 reproduction will help overcome the problem of viral adaptation and will prevent the appearance of RNAi escape mutants in current virus strains, an important feature of gene therapy of HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reporting sodium channel activity using calcium flux: pharmacological promiscuity of cardiac Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Li, Min

    2015-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are essential for membrane excitability and represent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. Recent reports suggest that these channels, e.g., Nav1.3 and Nav1.5, are inhibited by multiple structurally distinctive small molecule drugs. These studies give reason to wonder whether these drugs collectively target a single site or multiple sites in manifesting such pharmacological promiscuity. We thus investigate the pharmacological profile of Nav1.5 through systemic analysis of its sensitivity to diverse compound collections. Here, we report a dual-color fluorescent method that exploits a customized Nav1.5 [calcium permeable Nav channel, subtype 5 (SoCal5)] with engineered-enhanced calcium permeability. SoCal5 retains wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 pharmacological profiles. WT SoCal5 and SoCal5 with the local anesthetics binding site mutated (F1760A) could be expressed in separate cells, each with a different-colored genetically encoded calcium sensor, which allows a simultaneous report of compound activity and site dependence. The pharmacological profile of SoCal5 reveals a hit rate (>50% inhibition) of around 13% at 10 μM, comparable to that of hERG. The channel activity is susceptible to blockage by known drugs and structurally diverse compounds. The broad inhibition profile is highly dependent on the F1760 residue in the inner cavity, which is a residue conserved among all nine subtypes of Nav channels. Both promiscuity and dependence on F1760 seen in Nav1.5 were replicated in Nav1.4. Our evidence of a broad inhibition profile of Nav channels suggests a need to consider off-target effects on Nav channels. The site-dependent promiscuity forms a foundation to better understand Nav channels and compound interactions.

  13. The Immunosuppressive Properties of the HIV Vpr Protein Are Linked to a Single Highly Conserved Residue, R90

    PubMed Central

    Tcherepanova, Irina; Starr, Aijing; Lackford, Brad; Adams, Melissa D.; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Boulassel, Mohamed Rachid; Calderhead, David; Healey, Don; Nicolette, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background A hallmark of AIDS progression is a switch of cytokines from Th1 to Th2 in the plasma of patients. IL-12, a critical Th1 cytokine secreted by antigen presenting cells (APCs) is suppressed by Vpr, implicating it as an important virulence factor. We hypothesize that Vpr protein packaged in the virion may be required for disabling APCs of the first infected mucosal tissues. Consistent with this idea are reports that defects in the C-terminus of Vpr are associated with long-term non-progression. Principal Findings Vpr RNA amplified from various sources was electroporated into monocyte-derived DC and IL-12 levels in supernatants were analyzed. The analysis of previously reported C-terminal Vpr mutations demonstrate that they do not alleviate the block of IL-12 secretion. However, a novel single conservative amino acid substitution, R90K, reverses the IL-12 suppression. Analysis of 1226 Vpr protein sequences demonstrated arginine (R) present at position 90 in 98.8%, with other substitutions at low frequency. Furthermore, none of sequences report lysine (K) in position 90. Vpr clones harboring the reported substitutions in position 90 were studied for their ability to suppress IL-12. Our data demonstrates that none of tested substitutions other than K relieve IL-12 suppression. This suggests a natural selection for sequences which suppress IL-12 secretion by DC and against mutations which relieve such suppression. Further analyses demonstrated that the R90K, as well as deletion of the C-terminus, directs the Vpr protein for rapid degradation. Conclusion This study supports Vpr as an HIV virulence factor during HIV infection and for the first time provides a link between evolutionary conservation of Vpr and its ability to suppress IL-12 secretion by DC. DC activated in the presence of Vpr would be defective in the production of IL-12, thus contributing to the prevailing Th2 cytokine profile associated with progressive HIV disease. These findings should be

  14. A promiscuous split intein with expanded protein engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Adam J; Sekar, Giridhar; Shah, Neel H; Mostafavi, Anahita Z; Cowburn, David; Muir, Tom W

    2017-08-08

    The protein trans-splicing (PTS) activity of naturally split inteins has found widespread use in chemical biology and biotechnology. However, currently used naturally split inteins suffer from an "extein dependence," whereby residues surrounding the splice junction strongly affect splicing efficiency, limiting the general applicability of many PTS-based methods. To address this, we describe a mechanism-guided protein engineering approach that imbues ultrafast DnaE split inteins with minimal extein dependence. The resulting "promiscuous" inteins are shown to be superior reagents for protein cyclization and protein semisynthesis, with the latter illustrated through the modification of native cellular chromatin. The promiscuous inteins reported here thus improve the applicability of existing PTS methods and should enable future efforts to engineer promiscuity into other naturally split inteins.

  15. Why Polyphenols have Promiscuous Actions? An Investigation by Chemical Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guang-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Despite their diverse pharmacological effects, polyphenols are poor for use as drugs, which have been traditionally ascribed to their low bioavailability. However, Baell and co-workers recently proposed that the redox potential of polyphenols also plays an important role in this, because redox reactions bring promiscuous actions on various protein targets and thus produce non-specific pharmacological effects. To investigate whether the redox reactivity behaves as a critical factor in polyphenol promiscuity, we performed a chemical bioinformatics analysis on the structure-activity relationships of twenty polyphenols. It was found that the gene expression profiles of human cell lines induced by polyphenols were not correlated with the presence or not of redox moieties in the polyphenols, but significantly correlated with their molecular structures. Therefore, it is concluded that the promiscuous actions of polyphenols are likely to result from their inherent structural features rather than their redox potential.

  16. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  17. Extensive HLA class I allele promiscuity among viral CTL epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, Nicole; Yusim, Karina; Suscovich, Todd J.; Adams, Sharon; Sidney, John; Hraber, Peter; Hewitt, Hannah S.; Linde, Caitlyn H.; Kavanagh, Daniel G.; Woodberry, Tonia; Henry, Leah M.; Faircloth, Kellie; Listgarten, Jennifer; Kadie, Carl; Jojic, Nebojsa; Sango, Kaori; Brown, Nancy V.; Pae, Eunice; Zaman, M. Tauheed; Bihl, Florian; Khatri, Ashok; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Marincola, Francesco M.; Walker, Bruce D.; Sette, Alessandro; Heckerman, David; Korber, Bette T.; Brander, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Summary Promiscuous binding of T helper epitopes to MHC class II molecules has been well established, but few examples of promiscuous class I restricted epitopes exist. To address the extent of promiscuity of HLA class I peptides, responses to 242 well-defined viral epitopes were tested in 100 subjects regardless of the individuals’ HLA type. Surprisingly, half of all detected responses were seen in the absence of the originally reported restricting HLA class I allele, and only 3% of epitopes were recognized exclusively in the presence of their original allele. Functional assays confirmed the frequent recognition of HLA class I-restricted T cell epitopes on several alternative alleles across HLA class I supertypes and encoded on different class I loci. These data have significant implications for the understanding of MHC class I restricted antigen presentation and vaccine development. PMID:17705138

  18. Unique functional properties of conserved arginine residues in the lentivirus lytic peptide domains of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Anne-Sophie; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Sturgeon, Timothy J; Craigo, Jodi K; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2014-03-14

    A previous study from our laboratory reported a preferential conservation of arginine relative to lysine in the C-terminal tail (CTT) of HIV-1 envelope (Env). Despite substantial overall sequence variation in the CTT, specific arginines are highly conserved in the lentivirus lytic peptide (LLP) motifs and are scarcely substituted by lysines, in contrast to gp120 and the ectodomain of gp41. However, to date, no explanation has been provided to explain the selective incorporation and conservation of arginines over lysines in these motifs. Herein, we address the functions in virus replication of the most conserved arginines by performing conservative mutations of arginine to lysine in the LLP1 and LLP2 motifs. The presence of lysine in place of arginine in the LLP1 motif resulted in significant impairment of Env expression and consequently virus replication kinetics, Env fusogenicity, and incorporation. By contrast, lysine exchanges in LLP2 only affected the level of Env incorporation and fusogenicity. Our findings demonstrate that the conservative lysine substitutions significantly affect Env functional properties indicating a unique functional role for the highly conserved arginines in the LLP motifs. These results provide for the first time a functional explanation to the preferred incorporation of arginine, relative to lysine, in the CTT of HIV-1 Env. We propose that these arginines may provide unique functions for Env interaction with viral or cellular cofactors that then influence overall Env functional properties.

  19. Promiscuity, sexual selection, and genetic diversity: a reply to Spurgin.

    PubMed

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Gohli, Jostein; Johnsen, Arild

    2013-10-01

    We recently reported a positive association between female promiscuity and genetic diversity across passerine birds, and launched the hypothesis that female promiscuity acts as a balancing selection, pressure maintaining genetic diversity in populations (Gohli et al.2013). Spurgin (2013) questions both our analyses and interpretations. While we agree that the hypothesis needs more comprehensive empirical testing, we find his specific points of criticism unjustified. In a more general perspective, we call for a more explicit recognition of female mating preferences as mechanisms of selection in population genetics theory.

  20. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies have been developed that enable the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and nonribosomal peptide analogues. PMID:26527577

  1. Synthetic peptides from a conserved region of gp120 induce broadly reactive anti-HIV responses.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, W J; Williams, W M; Whalley, A S; Ryskamp, T; Newman, R; Kang, C Y; Chamat, S; Köhler, H; Kieber-Emmons, T

    1992-01-01

    In our efforts to identify products that might be used for active immunotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we have studied synthetic peptides derived from the CD4 attachment site of gp120. Two peptides have emerged with particularly interesting properties. The first (B138) is linear and spans the envelope residues 421-438; the second (1005/45) encompasses amino acids 418-445 and is cyclized by way of a disulphide bond joining its terminal cysteines. Both species have been shown to inhibit syncytial formation in a conventional bioassay, B138 being the most efficient. Both peptides elicit high titres of anti-peptide antibodies in immunized mice, rabbits and goats, with titres exceeding 1:10(5) in many cases. A substantial portion of this response is directed against gp120 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by flow cytometry has demonstrated that the antisera are broadly reactive with multiple diverse strains of HIV. The anti-gp120 activity of the anti-peptide antiserum was further confirmed by radioimmuno-precipitation (RIP) assays. Furthermore, RIP analysis and inhibition experiments in a GD4-gp120 binding assay have revealed that anti-peptide sera contain antibodies directed against the CD4 attachment site on gp120 and interfere with this receptor-ligand interaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:1592430

  2. Synthetic peptides from a conserved region of gp120 induce broadly reactive anti-HIV responses.

    PubMed

    Morrow, W J; Williams, W M; Whalley, A S; Ryskamp, T; Newman, R; Kang, C Y; Chamat, S; Köhler, H; Kieber-Emmons, T

    1992-04-01

    In our efforts to identify products that might be used for active immunotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we have studied synthetic peptides derived from the CD4 attachment site of gp120. Two peptides have emerged with particularly interesting properties. The first (B138) is linear and spans the envelope residues 421-438; the second (1005/45) encompasses amino acids 418-445 and is cyclized by way of a disulphide bond joining its terminal cysteines. Both species have been shown to inhibit syncytial formation in a conventional bioassay, B138 being the most efficient. Both peptides elicit high titres of anti-peptide antibodies in immunized mice, rabbits and goats, with titres exceeding 1:10(5) in many cases. A substantial portion of this response is directed against gp120 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by flow cytometry has demonstrated that the antisera are broadly reactive with multiple diverse strains of HIV. The anti-gp120 activity of the anti-peptide antiserum was further confirmed by radioimmuno-precipitation (RIP) assays. Furthermore, RIP analysis and inhibition experiments in a GD4-gp120 binding assay have revealed that anti-peptide sera contain antibodies directed against the CD4 attachment site on gp120 and interfere with this receptor-ligand interaction.

  3. How Can You Teach Middle Grades Students about HIV/AIDS in a Conservative Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrand, Shirley; Wattenbarger, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program for educating middle school students about the AIDS epidemic and disease prevention while keeping with the values expressed by a conservative community. Considers the use of science, social studies, math, and language arts in the education process, and the cooperation of parents and the community. (JPB)

  4. Novel, in-natural-infection subdominant HIV-1 CD8+ T-cell epitopes revealed in human recipients of conserved-region T-cell vaccines.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Nicola; Lin, Zhansong; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Llano, Anuska; Silva-Arrieta, Sandra; Ahmed, Tina; Dorrell, Lucy; Brander, Christian; Murakoshi, Hayato; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Hanke, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Fine definition of targeted CD8+ T-cell epitopes and their human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I restriction informs iterative improvements of HIV-1 T-cell vaccine designs and may predict early vaccine success or failure. Here, lymphocytes from volunteers, who had received candidate HIVconsv vaccines expressing conserved sub-protein regions of HIV-1, were used to define the optimum-length target epitopes and their HLA restriction. In HIV-1-positive patients, CD8+ T-cell responses predominantly recognize immunodominant, but hypervariable and therefore less protective epitopes. The less variable, more protective epitopes in conserved regions are typically subdominant. Therefore, induction of strong responses to conserved regions by vaccination provides an opportunity to discover novel important epitopes. Cryopreserved lymphocytes from vaccine recipients were expanded by stimulation with 15-mer responder peptides for 10 days to establish short term-cell-line (STCL) effector cells. These were subjected to intracellular cytokine staining using serially truncated peptides and peptide-pulsed 721.221 cells expressing individual HLA class I alleles to define minimal epitope length and HLA restriction by stimulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α production and surface expression of CD107a. Using lymphocyte samples of 12 vaccine recipients, we defined 14 previously unreported optimal CD8+ T-cell HIV-1 epitopes and their four-digit HLA allele restriction (6 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 1 HLA-C alleles). Further 13 novel targets with incomplete information were revealed. The high rate of discovery of novel CD8+ T-cell effector epitopes warrants further epitope mining in recipients of the conserved-region vaccines in other populations and informs development of HIV-1/AIDS vaccines. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01151319.

  5. The Thai Phase III HIV Type 1 Vaccine Trial (RV144) Regimen Induces Antibodies That Target Conserved Regions Within the V2 Loop of gp120

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Williams, Constance; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; Madnote, Sirinan; Arworn, Duangnapa; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Jiang, Mike; Magaret, Craig; Andrews, Charla; Gottardo, Raphael; Gilbert, Peter; Cardozo, Timothy J.; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Paris, Robert; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Gurunathan, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Sinangil, Faruk; Korber, Bette T.; Montefiori, David C.; Mascola, John R.; Robb, Merlin L.; Haynes, Barton F.; Ngauy, Viseth; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; de Souza, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Thai Phase III clinical trial (RV144) showed modest efficacy in preventing HIV-1 acquisition. Plasma collected from HIV-1-uninfected trial participants completing all injections with ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) prime and AIDSVAX B/E boost were tested for antibody responses against HIV-1 gp120 envelope (Env). Peptide microarray analysis from six HIV-1 subtypes and group M consensus showed that vaccination induced antibody responses to the second variable (V2) loop of gp120 of multiple subtypes. We further evaluated V2 responses by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance using cyclic (Cyc) and linear V2 loop peptides. Thirty-one of 32 vaccine recipients tested (97%) had antibody responses against Cyc V2 at 2 weeks postimmunization with a reciprocal geometric mean titer (GMT) of 1100 (range: 200–3200). The frequency of detecting plasma V2 antibodies declined to 19% at 28 weeks post-last injection (GMT: 110, range: 100–200). Antibody responses targeted the mid-region of the V2 loop that contains conserved epitopes and has the amino acid sequence KQKVHALFYKLDIVPI (HXB2 Numbering sequence 169–184). Valine at position 172 was critical for antibody binding. The frequency of V3 responses at 2 weeks postimmunization was modest (18/32, 56%) with a GMT of 185 (range: 100–800). In contrast, naturally infected HIV-1 individuals had a lower frequency of antibody responses to V2 (10/20, 50%; p=0.003) and a higher frequency of responses to V3 (19/20, 95%), with GMTs of 400 (range: 100–3200) and 3570 (range: 200–12,800), respectively. RV144 vaccination induced antibodies that targeted a region of the V2 loop that contains conserved epitopes. Early HIV-1 transmission events involve V2 loop interactions, raising the possibility that anti-V2 antibodies in RV144 may have contributed to viral inhibition. PMID:23035746

  6. Mutations of Conserved Residues in the Major Homology Region Arrest Assembling HIV-1 Gag as a Membrane-Targeted Intermediate Containing Genomic RNA and Cellular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Motoko; Robinson, Bridget A.; Chutiraka, Kasana; Geary, Clair D.; Reed, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major homology region (MHR) is a highly conserved motif that is found within the Gag protein of all orthoretroviruses and some retrotransposons. While it is widely accepted that the MHR is critical for assembly of HIV-1 and other retroviruses, how the MHR functions and why it is so highly conserved are not understood. Moreover, consensus is lacking on when HIV-1 MHR residues function during assembly. Here, we first addressed previous conflicting reports by confirming that MHR deletion, like conserved MHR residue substitution, leads to a dramatic reduction in particle production in human and nonhuman primate cells expressing HIV-1 proviruses. Next, we used biochemical analyses and immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that conserved residues in the MHR are required after assembling Gag has associated with genomic RNA, recruited critical host factors involved in assembly, and targeted to the plasma membrane. The exact point of inhibition at the plasma membrane differed depending on the specific mutation, with one MHR mutant arrested as a membrane-associated intermediate that is stable upon high-salt treatment and other MHR mutants arrested as labile, membrane-associated intermediates. Finally, we observed the same assembly-defective phenotypes when the MHR deletion or conserved MHR residue substitutions were engineered into Gag from a subtype B, lab-adapted provirus or Gag from a subtype C primary isolate that was codon optimized. Together, our data support a model in which MHR residues act just after membrane targeting, with some MHR residues promoting stability and another promoting multimerization of the membrane-targeted assembling Gag oligomer. IMPORTANCE The retroviral Gag protein exhibits extensive amino acid sequence variation overall; however, one region of Gag, termed the major homology region, is conserved among all retroviruses and even some yeast retrotransposons, although the reason for this conservation remains poorly understood. Highly

  7. Mutations of Conserved Residues in the Major Homology Region Arrest Assembling HIV-1 Gag as a Membrane-Targeted Intermediate Containing Genomic RNA and Cellular Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motoko; Robinson, Bridget A; Chutiraka, Kasana; Geary, Clair D; Reed, Jonathan C; Lingappa, Jaisri R

    2015-12-09

    The major homology region (MHR) is a highly conserved motif that is found within the Gag protein of all orthoretroviruses and some retrotransposons. While it is widely accepted that the MHR is critical for assembly of HIV-1 and other retroviruses, how the MHR functions and why it is so highly conserved are not understood. Moreover, consensus is lacking on when HIV-1 MHR residues function during assembly. Here, we first addressed previous conflicting reports by confirming that MHR deletion, like conserved MHR residue substitution, leads to a dramatic reduction in particle production in human and nonhuman primate cells expressing HIV-1 proviruses. Next, we used biochemical analyses and immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that conserved residues in the MHR are required after assembling Gag has associated with genomic RNA, recruited critical host factors involved in assembly, and targeted to the plasma membrane. The exact point of inhibition at the plasma membrane differed depending on the specific mutation, with one MHR mutant arrested as a membrane-associated intermediate that is stable upon high-salt treatment and other MHR mutants arrested as labile, membrane-associated intermediates. Finally, we observed the same assembly-defective phenotypes when the MHR deletion or conserved MHR residue substitutions were engineered into Gag from a subtype B, lab-adapted provirus or Gag from a subtype C primary isolate that was codon optimized. Together, our data support a model in which MHR residues act just after membrane targeting, with some MHR residues promoting stability and another promoting multimerization of the membrane-targeted assembling Gag oligomer. The retroviral Gag protein exhibits extensive amino acid sequence variation overall; however, one region of Gag, termed the major homology region, is conserved among all retroviruses and even some yeast retrotransposons, although the reason for this conservation remains poorly understood. Highly conserved residues

  8. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Mattias N E; Dey, Barna; Mörner, Andreas; Svehla, Krisha; O'dell, Sijy; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Voss, Gerald; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Shaw, George M; Mascola, John R; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2008-10-03

    The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3). Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4) rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT) rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity) primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  9. Much More than Power: The Pedagogy of Promiscuous Black Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores promiscuous black feminism by juxtaposing black feminism, Foucualt's poststructuralism, and my grandmother. The tensions created by these juxtapositions illuminate the ways black feminism and poststructuralism are resources and challenges to each other, and how both offer understandings of the relations at play that shape…

  10. Origins of Specificity and Promiscuity in Metabolic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Pablo; Lecointre, Guillaume; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2011-01-01

    How enzymes have evolved to their present form is linked to the question of how pathways emerged and evolved into extant metabolic networks. To investigate this mechanism, we have explored the chemical diversity present in a largely unbiased data set of catalytic reactions processed by modern enzymes across the tree of life. In order to get a quantitative estimate of enzyme chemical diversity, we measure enzyme multispecificity or promiscuity using the reaction molecular signatures. Our main finding is that reactions that are catalyzed by a highly specific enzyme are shared by poorly divergent species, suggesting a later emergence of this function during evolution. In contrast, reactions that are catalyzed by highly promiscuous enzymes are more likely to appear uniformly distributed across species in the tree of life. From a functional point of view, promiscuous enzymes are mainly involved in amino acid and lipid metabolisms, which might be associated with the earliest form of biochemical reactions. In this way, results presented in this paper might assist us with the identification of primeval promiscuous catalytic functions contributing to life's minimal metabolism. PMID:22052908

  11. Promiscuity in mice is associated with increased vaginal bacterial diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmanes, Matthew David

    2011-11-01

    Differences in the number of sexual partners (i.e., mating system) have the potential to exert a strong influence on the bacterial communities present in reproductive structures like the vagina. Because this structure serves as a conduit for gametes, bacteria present there may have a pronounced, direct effect on host reproductive success. As a first step towards the identification of the relationship between sexual behavior and potentially pathogenic bacterial communities inhabiting vital reproductive structures, as well as their potential effects on fitness, I sought to quantify differences in bacterial diversity in a promiscuous and monogamous mammal species. To accomplish this, I used two sympatric species of Peromyscus rodents— Peromyscus californicus and Peromyscus maniculatus that differ with regard to the number of sexual partners per individual to test the hypothesis that bacterial diversity should be greater in the promiscuous P. maniculatus relative to the monogamous P. californicus. As predicted, phylogenetically controlled and operational taxonomic unit-based indices of bacterial diversity indicated that diversity is greater in the promiscuous species. These results provide important new insights into the effects of mating system on bacterial diversity in free-living vertebrates, and may suggest a potential cost of promiscuity.

  12. Promiscuity in Mice is Associated with Increased Vaginal Bacterial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    MacManes, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the number of sexual partners (i.e., mating system) have the potential to exert a strong influence on the bacterial communities present in reproductive structures like the vagina. Because this structure serves as a conduit for gametes, bacteria present there may have a pronounced, direct effect on host reproductive success. As a first step towards the identification of the relationship between sexual behavior and potentially pathogenic bacterial communities inhabiting vital reproductive structures—as well as their potential effects on fitness, I sought to quantify differences in bacterial diversity in a promiscuous and monogamous mammal species. To accomplish this, I used 2 sympatric species of Peromyscus rodents—P. californicus and P. maniculatus that differ with regard to numbers of sexual partners per individual to test the hypothesis that bacterial diversity should be greater in the promiscuous P. maniculatus relative to the monogamous P. californicus. As predicted, phylogenetically controlled and operational taxonomic unit-based indices of bacterial diversity indicated that diversity is greater in the promiscuous species. These results provide important new insights into the effects of mating system on bacterial diversity in free-living vertebrates, and may suggest a potential cost of promiscuity. PMID:21964973

  13. Much More than Power: The Pedagogy of Promiscuous Black Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores promiscuous black feminism by juxtaposing black feminism, Foucualt's poststructuralism, and my grandmother. The tensions created by these juxtapositions illuminate the ways black feminism and poststructuralism are resources and challenges to each other, and how both offer understandings of the relations at play that shape…

  14. V1/V2 Neutralizing Epitope is Conserved in Divergent Non-M Groups of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Morgand, Marion; Bouvin-Pley, Mélanie; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Moreau, Alain; Alessandri, Elodie; Simon, François; Pace, Craig S.; Pancera, Marie; Ho, David D.; Poignard, Pascal; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Mouquet, Hugo; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Kwong, Peter D.; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Braibant, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Highly potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) have been obtained from individuals infected by HIV-1 group M variants. We analyzed the cross-group neutralization potency of these bNAbs toward non-M primary isolates (PI). Material and Methods: The sensitivity to neutralization was analyzed in a neutralization assay using TZM-bl cells. Twenty-three bNAbs were used, including reagents targeting the CD4-binding site, the N160 glycan-V1/V2 site, the N332 glycan-V3 site, the membrane proximal external region of gp41, and complex epitopes spanning both env subunits. Two bispecific antibodies that combine the inhibitory activity of an anti-CD4 with that of PG9 or PG16 bNAbs were included in the study (PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab). Results: Cross-group neutralization was observed only with the bNAbs targeting the N160 glycan-V1/V2 site. Four group O PIs, 1 group N PI, and the group P PI were neutralized by PG9 and/or PG16 or PGT145 at low concentrations (0.04–9.39 μg/mL). None of the non-M PIs was neutralized by the bNAbs targeting other regions at the highest concentration tested, except 10E8 that neutralized weakly 2 group N PIs and 35O22 that neutralized 1 group O PI. The bispecific bNAbs neutralized very efficiently all the non-M PIs with IC50 below 1 μg/mL, except 2 group O strains. Conclusion: The N160 glycan-V1/V2 site is the most conserved neutralizing site within the 4 groups of HIV-1. This makes it an interesting target for the development of HIV vaccine immunogens. The corresponding bNAbs may be useful for immunotherapeutic strategies in patients infected by non-M variants. PMID:26413851

  15. Distinct Metal Isoforms Underlie Promiscuous Activity Profiles of Metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Baier, Florian; Chen, John; Solomonson, Matthew; Strynadka, Natalie C J; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko

    2015-07-17

    Within a superfamily, functionally diverged metalloenzymes often favor different metals as cofactors for catalysis. One hypothesis is that incorporation of alternative metals expands the catalytic repertoire of metalloenzymes and provides evolutionary springboards toward new catalytic functions. However, there is little experimental evidence that incorporation of alternative metals changes the activity profile of metalloenzymes. Here, we systematically investigate how metals alter the activity profiles of five functionally diverged enzymes of the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Each enzyme was reconstituted in vitro with six different metals, Cd(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+), and assayed against eight catalytically distinct hydrolytic reactions (representing native functions of MBL enzymes). We reveal that each enzyme metal isoform has a significantly different activity level for native and promiscuous reactions. Moreover, metal preferences for native versus promiscuous activities are not correlated and, in some cases, are mutually exclusive; only particular metal isoforms disclose cryptic promiscuous activities but often at the expense of the native activity. For example, the L1 B3 β-lactamase displays a 1000-fold catalytic preference for Zn(2+) over Ni(2+) for its native activity but exhibits promiscuous thioester, phosphodiester, phosphotriester, and lactonase activity only with Ni(2+). Furthermore, we find that the five MBL enzymes exist as an ensemble of various metal isoforms in vivo, and this heterogeneity results in an expanded activity profile compared to a single metal isoform. Our study suggests that promiscuous activities of metalloenzymes can stem from an ensemble of metal isoforms in the cell, which could facilitate the functional divergence of metalloenzymes.

  16. Molecular and Genetic Characterization of HIV-1 Tat Exon-1 Gene from Cameroon Shows Conserved Tat HLA-Binding Epitopes: Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Teto, Georges; Fonsah, Julius Y.; Tagny, Claude T.; Mbanya, Dora; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Leopoldine; Fokam, Joseph; Njamnshi, Dora M.; Kouanfack, Charles; Njamnshi, Alfred K.; Kanmogne, Georgette D.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat plays a critical role in viral transactivation. Subtype-B Tat has potential use as a therapeutic vaccine. However, viral genetic diversity and population genetics would significantly impact the efficacy of such a vaccine. Over 70% of the 37-million HIV-infected individuals are in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and harbor non-subtype-B HIV-1. Using specimens from 100 HIV-infected Cameroonians, we analyzed the sequences of HIV-1 Tat exon-1, its functional domains, post-translational modifications (PTMs), and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-binding epitopes. Molecular phylogeny revealed a high genetic diversity with nine subtypes, CRF22_01A1/CRF01_AE, and negative selection in all subtypes. Amino acid mutations in Tat functional domains included N24K (44%), N29K (58%), and N40K (30%) in CRF02_AG, and N24K in all G subtypes. Motifs and phosphorylation analyses showed conserved amidation, N-myristoylation, casein kinase-2 (CK2), serine and threonine phosphorylation sites. Analysis of HLA allelic frequencies showed that epitopes for HLAs A*0205, B*5301, Cw*0401, Cw*0602, and Cw*0702 were conserved in 58%–100% of samples, with B*5301 epitopes having binding affinity scores > 100 in all subtypes. This is the first report of N-myristoylation, amidation, and CK2 sites in Tat; these PTMs and mutations could affect Tat function. HLA epitopes identified could be useful for designing Tat-based vaccines for highly diverse HIV-1 populations, as in SSA. PMID:27438849

  17. Generation of robust CD8+ T cell responses against subdominant epitopes in conserved regions of HIV-1 by repertoire mining with mimotopes

    PubMed Central

    Schaubert, Keri L.; Price, David A.; Salkowitz, Janelle R.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Sidney, John; Asher, Tedi E.; Blondelle, Sylvie E.; Adams, Sharon; Marincola, Francesco M.; Joseph, Aviva; Sette, Alessandro; Douek, Daniel C.; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Storkus, Walter; Leung, Ming-Ying; Ng, Hwee L.; Yang, Otto O.; Goldstein, Harris; Wilson, Darcy B.; Kan-Mitchell, June

    2011-01-01

    Summary HLA-A*0201-restricted virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) do not appear to control HIV effectively in vivo. To enhance the immunogenicity of a highly conserved subdominant epitope, TV9 (TLNAWVKVV, p24 Gag19–27), mimotopes were designed by screening a large combinatorial nonapeptide library with TV9-specific CTLs primed in vitro from healthy donors. A mimic peptide with a low binding affinity to HLA-A*0201, TV9p6 (KINAWIKVV), was studied further. Parallel cultures of in vitro-primed CTLs showed that TV9p6 consistently activated crossreactive and equally functional CTLs as measured by cytotoxicity, cytokine production and suppression of HIV replication in vitro. Comparison of TCRB gene usage between CTLs primed from the same donors with TV9 or TV9p6 revealed a degree of clonal overlap in some cases and an example of a conserved TCRB sequence encoded distinctly at the nucleotide level between individuals (a “public” TCR); however, in the main, distinct clonotypes were recruited by each peptide antigen. These findings indicate that mimotopes can mobilize functional crossreactive clonotypes that are less readily recruited from the naïve T cell pool by the corresponding wildtype epitope. Mimotope-induced repertoire diversification could potentially override subdominance under certain circumstances and enhance vaccine-induced responses to conserved but poorly immunogenic determinants within the HIV proteome. PMID:20432235

  18. Structural Plasticity Underpins Promiscuous Binding of the Prosurvival Protein A1

    SciTech Connect

    Smits,C.; Czabotar, P.; Hinds, M.; Day, C.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptotic pathways are regulated by protein-protein interactions. Interaction of the BH3 domains of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins with the hydrophobic groove of prosurvival proteins is critical. Whereas some BH3 domains bind in a promiscuous manner, others exhibit considerable selectivity and the sequence characteristics that distinguish these activities are unclear. In this study, crystal structures of complexes between the prosurvival protein A1 and the BH3 domains from Puma, Bmf, Bak, and Bid have been solved. The structure of A1 is similar to that of other prosurvival proteins, although features, such as an acidic patch in the binding groove, may allow specific therapeutic modulation of apoptosis. Significant conformational plasticity was observed in the intermolecular interactions and these differences explain some of the variation in affinity. This study, in combination with published data, suggests that interactions between conserved residues demarcate optimal binding.

  19. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin.

    PubMed

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels.

  20. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H.; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-02-08

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels.

  1. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H.; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels. PMID:26858288

  2. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H.; Yogiswara, Sasha; ...

    2016-02-08

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity tomore » acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels.« less

  3. Unattractive, promiscuous and heavy drinkers: perceptions of women with tattoos.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-12-01

    This study examined social and physical perceptions of blonde and brunette women with different degrees of tattooing. Eighty-four female and 76 male undergraduates rated a series of 16 female line drawings that varied in 2 levels of hair colour and 8 levels of tattooing. Ratings were made for physical attractiveness and sexual promiscuity, as well as estimates of the number of alcohol units consumed on a typical night out. Results showed that tattooed women were rated as less physically attractive, more sexually promiscuous and heavier drinkers than untattooed women, with more negative ratings with increasing number of tattoos. There were also weak interactions between body art and hair colour, with blonde women in general rated more negatively than brunettes. Results are discussed in terms of stereotypes about women who have tattoos and the effects of such stereotypes on well-being.

  4. Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Singla, Deepak; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains the most devastating disease with worst prognosis. There is a pressing need to accelerate the drug discovery process to identify new effective drug candidates against pancreatic cancer. We have developed QSAR models for predicting promiscuous inhibitors using the pharmacological data. Our models achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86, when evaluated on 10-fold cross-validation. Our models have also successfully validated the drug-to-oncogene relationship and further we used these models to screen FDA approved drugs and tested them in vitro. We have integrated these models in a webserver named as DiPCell, which will be useful for screening and designing novel promiscuous drug molecules. We have also identified the most and least effective drugs for pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the other side, we have identified resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines, which need investigative scanner on them to put light on resistant mechanism in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Modeling catalytic promiscuity in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fernanda; Amrein, Beat Anton; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2013-07-21

    In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that promiscuity plays a key role in the evolution of new enzyme function. This finding has helped to elucidate fundamental aspects of molecular evolution. While there has been extensive experimental work on enzyme promiscuity, computational modeling of the chemical details of such promiscuity has traditionally fallen behind the advances in experimental studies, not least due to the nearly prohibitive computational cost involved in examining multiple substrates with multiple potential mechanisms and binding modes in atomic detail with a reasonable degree of accuracy. However, recent advances in both computational methodologies and power have allowed us to reach a stage in the field where we can start to overcome this problem, and molecular simulations can now provide accurate and efficient descriptions of complex biological systems with substantially less computational cost. This has led to significant advances in our understanding of enzyme function and evolution in a broader sense. Here, we will discuss currently available computational approaches that can allow us to probe the underlying molecular basis for enzyme specificity and selectivity, discussing the inherent strengths and weaknesses of each approach. As a case study, we will discuss recent computational work on different members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily (AP) using a range of different approaches, showing the complementary insights they have provided. We have selected this particular superfamily, as it poses a number of significant challenges for theory, ranging from the complexity of the actual reaction mechanisms involved to the reliable modeling of the catalytic metal centers, as well as the very large system sizes. We will demonstrate that, through current advances in methodologies, computational tools can provide significant insight into the molecular basis for catalytic promiscuity, and, therefore, in turn, the mechanisms of protein

  6. Modeling catalytic promiscuity in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Fernanda; Amrein, Beat Anton

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that promiscuity plays a key role in the evolution of new enzyme function. This finding has helped to elucidate fundamental aspects of molecular evolution. While there has been extensive experimental work on enzyme promiscuity, computational modeling of the chemical details of such promiscuity has traditionally fallen behind the advances in experimental studies, not least due to the nearly prohibitive computational cost involved in examining multiple substrates with multiple potential mechanisms and binding modes in atomic detail with a reasonable degree of accuracy. However, recent advances in both computational methodologies and power have allowed us to reach a stage in the field where we can start to overcome this problem, and molecular simulations can now provide accurate and efficient descriptions of complex biological systems with substantially less computational cost. This has led to significant advances in our understanding of enzyme function and evolution in a broader sense. Here, we will discuss currently available computational approaches that can allow us to probe the underlying molecular basis for enzyme specificity and selectivity, discussing the inherent strengths and weaknesses of each approach. As a case study, we will discuss recent computational work on different members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily (AP) using a range of different approaches, showing the complementary insights they have provided. We have selected this particular superfamily, as it poses a number of significant challenges for theory, ranging from the complexity of the actual reaction mechanisms involved to the reliable modeling of the catalytic metal centers, as well as the very large system sizes. We will demonstrate that, through current advances in methodologies, computational tools can provide significant insight into the molecular basis for catalytic promiscuity, and, therefore, in turn, the mechanisms of protein

  7. Female promiscuity and maternally dependent offspring growth rates in mammals.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C; Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    Conflicts between family members are expected to influence the duration and intensity of parental care. In mammals, the majority of this care occurs as resource transfer from mothers to offspring during gestation and lactation. Mating systems can have a strong influence on the severity of familial conflict--where female promiscuity is prevalent, conflict is expected to be higher between family members, causing offspring to demand more resources. If offspring are capable of manipulating their mothers and receive resources in proportion to their demands, resource transfer should increase with elevated promiscuity. We tested this prediction, unexplored across mammals, using a comparative approach. The total durations of gestation and lactation were not related to testes mass, a reliable proxy of female promiscuity across taxa. Offspring growth during gestation, however, and weaning mass, were positively correlated with testes mass, suggesting that offspring gain resources from their mothers at faster rates when familial conflict is greater. During gestation, the relationship between offspring growth and testes mass was also related to placenta morphology, with a stronger relationship between testes mass and growth observed in species with a less invasive placenta. Familial conflict could have a pervasive influence on patterns of parental care in mammals.

  8. Promiscuous primates engage in same-sex genital interactions.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Geoff R; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Same-sex genital interactions (SSGIs) occur across the order primates, yet explaining their maintenance in evolutionary terms appears problematic; as such interactions seem to counteract reproductive goals. We hypothesised that in more promiscuous species, where sexual motivation, mating effort, and non-conceptive heterosexual behaviour are greater, SSGIs may also occur at greater frequencies without necessarily impeding reproduction. We found that the expression of both male and female SSGIs were greater in multimale systems than in unimale ones. Both male and female SSGIs were positively correlated with the degree of promiscuity (relative testes mass). As mating system confers biases in the sex ratio that may influence the expression of SSGIs, we controlled for availability of members of the same-sex. When employing this control, results were largely congruent. For males, SSGIs were expressed more frequently in multimale systems. For both sexes, SSGIs were expressed more frequently with greater relative testes mass. We suggest SSGIs in primates may be a neutral by-product of selection for increases in promiscuous sexual activity, and that in certain instances these interactions may be co-opted to facilitate adaptive social functions.

  9. Biological messiness vs. biological genius: Mechanistic aspects and roles of protein promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Atkins, William M

    2015-07-01

    In contrast to the traditional biological paradigms focused on 'specificity', recent research and theoretical efforts have focused on functional 'promiscuity' exhibited by proteins and enzymes in many biological settings, including enzymatic detoxication, steroid biochemistry, signal transduction and immune responses. In addition, divergent evolutionary processes are apparently facilitated by random mutations that yield promiscuous enzyme intermediates. The intermediates, in turn, provide opportunities for further evolution to optimize new functions from existing protein scaffolds. In some cases, promiscuity may simply represent the inherent plasticity of proteins resulting from their polymeric nature with distributed conformational ensembles. Enzymes or proteins that bind or metabolize noncognate substrates create 'messiness' or noise in the systems they contribute to. With our increasing awareness of the frequency of these promiscuous behaviors it becomes interesting and important to understand the molecular bases for promiscuous behavior and to distinguish between evolutionarily selected promiscuity and evolutionarily tolerated messiness. This review provides an overview of current understanding of these aspects of protein biochemistry and enzymology.

  10. Antibody Light-Chain-Restricted Recognition of the Site of Immune Pressure in the RV144 HIV-1 Vaccine Trial Is Phylogenetically Conserved

    DOE PAGES

    Wiehe, Kevin; Easterhoff, David; Luo, Kan; ...

    2014-11-29

    In HIV-1, the ability to mount antibody responses to conserved, neutralizing epitopes is critical for protection. Here we have studied the light chain usage of human and rhesus macaque antibodies targeted to a dominant region of the HIV-1 envelope second variable (V2) region involving lysine (K) 169, the site of immune pressure in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. We found that humans and rhesus macaques used orthologous lambda variable gene segments encoding a glutamic acid-aspartic acid (ED) motif for K169 recognition. Structure determination of an unmutated ancestor antibody demonstrated that the V2 binding site was preconfigured for ED motif-mediated recognitionmore » prior to maturation. Thus, light chain usage for recognition of the site of immune pressure in the RV144 trial is highly conserved across species. In conclusion, these data indicate that the HIV-1 K169-recognizing ED motif has persisted over the diversification between rhesus macaques and humans, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of this antibody recognition mode.« less

  11. Antibody light chain-restricted recognition of the site of immune pressure in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial is phylogenetically conserved

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Kevin; Easterhoff, David; Luo, Kan; Nicely, Nathan I.; Bradley, Todd; Jaeger, Frederick H.; Dennison, S. Moses; Zhang, Ruijun; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Stolarchuk, Christina; Parks, Robert; Sutherland, Laura L.; Scearce, Richard M.; Morris, Lynn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Sinangil, Faruk; Phogat, Sanjay; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Kelsoe, Garnett; Montefiori, David C.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Bonsignori, Mattia; Santra, Sampa; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alam, S. Munir; Moody, M. Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In HIV-1, the ability to mount antibody responses to conserved, neutralizing epitopes is critical for protection. Here we have studied the light chain usage of human and rhesus macaque antibodies targeted to a dominant region of the HIV-1 envelope second variable (V2) region involving lysine (K)169, the site of immune pressure in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. We found that humans and rhesus macaques used orthologous lambda variable gene segments encoding a glutamic acid-aspartic acid (ED) motif for K169 recognition. Structure determination of an unmutated ancestor antibody demonstrated that the V2 binding site was pre-configured for ED motif-mediated recognition prior to maturation. Thus, light chain usage for recognition of the site of immune pressure in the RV144 trial is highly conserved across species. These data indicate the HIV-1 K169-recognizing ED motif has persisted over the diversification between rhesus macaques and humans, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of this antibody recognition mode. PMID:25526306

  12. A Highly Conserved Residue in the C-Terminal Helix of HIV-1 Matrix Is Required for Envelope Incorporation into Virus Particles

    PubMed Central

    Brandano, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of viral envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles is an essential step in the production of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This process has been shown to require interactions between Env and the matrix (MA) domain of the Gag polyprotein. Previous studies indicate that several residues in the N-terminal region of MA are required for Env incorporation. However, the precise mechanism by which Env proteins are acquired during virus assembly has yet to be fully defined. Here, we examine whether a highly conserved glutamate at position 99 in the C-terminal helix is required for MA function and HIV-1 replication. We analyze a panel of mutant viruses that contain different amino acid substitutions at this position using viral infectivity studies, virus-cell fusion assays, and immunoblotting. We find that E99V mutant viruses are defective for fusion with cell membranes and thus are noninfectious. We show that E99V mutant particles of HIV-1 strains LAI and NL4.3 lack wild-type levels of Env proteins. We identify a compensatory substitution in MA residue 84 and show that it can reverse the E99V-associated defects. Taken together, these results indicate that the C-terminal hydrophobic pocket of MA, which encompasses both residues 84 and 99, has a previously unsuspected and key role in HIV-1 Env incorporation. PMID:22156517

  13. Tracing the Repertoire of Promiscuous Enzymes along the Metabolic Pathways in Archaeal Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic pathways that carry out the biochemical transformations sustaining life depend on the efficiency of their associated enzymes. In recent years, it has become clear that promiscuous enzymes have played an important role in the function and evolution of metabolism. In this work we analyze the repertoire of promiscuous enzymes in 89 non-redundant genomes of the Archaea cellular domain. Promiscuous enzymes are defined as those proteins with two or more different Enzyme Commission (E.C.) numbers, according the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. From this analysis, it was found that the fraction of promiscuous enzymes is lower in Archaea than in Bacteria. A greater diversity of superfamily domains is associated with promiscuous enzymes compared to specialized enzymes, both in Archaea and Bacteria, and there is an enrichment of substrate promiscuity rather than catalytic promiscuity in the archaeal enzymes. Finally, the presence of promiscuous enzymes in the metabolic pathways was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the domain level and in the phyla that make up the Archaea. These analyses increase our understanding of promiscuous enzymes and provide additional clues to the evolution of metabolism in Archaea. PMID:28703743

  14. Enzyme promiscuity in the hormone-sensitive lipase family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Manco; Luigia, Merone; Elena, Porzio; Yan, Feng; Luigi, Mandrich

    2012-02-01

    The number of enzymes endowed with the capacity to catalyse other reactions than the main, physiological one, a feature that has been called promiscuity, is increasing at a fast pace. Promiscuity is a highly pervasive phenomenon that is present at each level of life complexity. For enzymes, promiscuity encompasses interesting aspects related to their physiological role, evolution and biotechnological applications. Herein, at first we will describe some general aspects of enzyme promiscuity and then we will report some examples from the α/β hydrolase superfamily of proteins, with particular emphasis to the hormone-sensitive lipase family.

  15. Tracing the Repertoire of Promiscuous Enzymes along the Metabolic Pathways in Archaeal Organisms.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Rodríguez-Escamilla, Zuemy; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2017-07-13

    The metabolic pathways that carry out the biochemical transformations sustaining life depend on the efficiency of their associated enzymes. In recent years, it has become clear that promiscuous enzymes have played an important role in the function and evolution of metabolism. In this work we analyze the repertoire of promiscuous enzymes in 89 non-redundant genomes of the Archaea cellular domain. Promiscuous enzymes are defined as those proteins with two or more different Enzyme Commission (E.C.) numbers, according the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. From this analysis, it was found that the fraction of promiscuous enzymes is lower in Archaea than in Bacteria. A greater diversity of superfamily domains is associated with promiscuous enzymes compared to specialized enzymes, both in Archaea and Bacteria, and there is an enrichment of substrate promiscuity rather than catalytic promiscuity in the archaeal enzymes. Finally, the presence of promiscuous enzymes in the metabolic pathways was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the domain level and in the phyla that make up the Archaea. These analyses increase our understanding of promiscuous enzymes and provide additional clues to the evolution of metabolism in Archaea.

  16. Promiscuous drugs compared to selective drugs (promiscuity can be a virtue)

    PubMed Central

    Mencher, Simon K; Wang, Long G

    2005-01-01

    is based not on the inhibition of a single target, but rather on the rebalancing of the several proteins or events, that contribute to the etiology, pathogeneses, and progression of diseases, i.e., in effect a promiscuous drug. Ideally, if this could be done at minimum drug concentration, side effects could be minimized. Corollaries to this argument are that the growing fervor for researching truly selective drugs may be imprudent when considering the totality of responses; and that the expensive screening techniques used to discover these, may be both medically and financially inefficient. PMID:15854222

  17. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sara R.; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G.; López-Marqués, Rosa L.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn181 and Asn231. Whereas mutation of Asn231 seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn181 disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys86 and Cys107 compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys158 and Cys172 has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  18. F(ab')2 fragment of a gp41 NHR-trimer-induced IgM monoclonal antibody neutralizes HIV-1 infection and blocks viral fusion by targeting the conserved gp41 pocket.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Wei, Meili; Chen, Yanxia; Xiong, Weiliang; Yu, Fei; Qi, Zhi; Jiang, Shibo; Pan, Chungen

    2013-11-01

    Using a recombinant protein N46FdFc that mimics the HIV-1 gp41 N-helix trimer to immunize mice, we identified the first IgM monoclonal antibody 18D3 that specifically bound to the conserved gp41 pocket. Its F(ab')2 fragment potently inhibited HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and neutralized infection by laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates with different subtypes and tropism, including the T20-resistant variants. This F(ab')2 fragment can be used to develop a bispecific broad neutralizing monoclonal antibody or HIV-1 inactivator as a novel immunotherapeutic for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

  19. A highly conserved sequence associated with the HIV gp41 loop region is an immunomodulator of antigen-specific T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Avraham; Faingold, Omri; Kaushansky, Nathali; Ben-Nun, Avraham; Shai, Yechiel

    2013-03-21

    Modulation of T-cell responses by HIV occurs via distinct mechanisms, 1 of which involves inactivation of T cells already at the stage of virus-cell fusion. Hydrophobic portions of the gp41 protein of the viral envelope that contributes to membrane fusion may modulate T-cell responsiveness. Here we found a highly conserved sequence (termed "ISLAD") that is associated with the membranotropic gp41 loop region. We showed that ISLAD has the ability to bind the T-cell membrane and to interact with the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex. Furthermore, ISLAD inhibited T-cell proliferation and interferon-γ secretion that resulted from TCR engagement through antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, administering ISLAD (10 µg per mouse) to an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis reduced the severity of the disease. This was related to the inhibition of pathogenic T-cell proliferation and to reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the lymph nodes of ISLAD-treated EAE mice. The data suggest that T-cell inactivation by HIV during membrane fusion may lie in part in this conserved sequence associated with the gp41 loop region.

  20. Vaccination With Heterologous HIV-1 Envelope Sequences and Heterologous Adenovirus Vectors Increases T-Cell Responses to Conserved Regions: HVTN 083

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Stephen R.; Moodie, Zoe; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew J.; Morgan, Cecilia; Wilck, Marissa B.; Hammer, Scott M.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Keefer, Michael C.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Swann, Edith M.; Grant, Shannon; Ahmed, Hasan; Li, Fusheng; Hertz, Tomer; Self, Steven G.; Friedrich, David; Frahm, Nicole; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hural, John; Graham, Barney S.; Jin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increasing the breadth of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine-elicited immune responses or targeting conserved regions may improve coverage of circulating strains. HIV Vaccine Trials Network 083 tested whether cellular immune responses with these features are induced by prime-boost strategies, using heterologous vectors, heterologous inserts, or a combination of both. Methods. A total of 180 participants were randomly assigned to receive combinations of adenovirus vectors (Ad5 or Ad35) and HIV-1 envelope (Env) gene inserts (clade A or B) in a prime-boost regimen. Results. T-cell responses to heterologous and homologous insert regimens targeted a similar number of epitopes (ratio of means, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], .6–1.6; P = .91), but heterologous insert regimens induced significantly more epitopes that were shared between EnvA and EnvB than homologous insert regimens (ratio of means, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7; P = .01). Participants in the heterologous versus homologous insert groups had T-cell responses that targeted epitopes with greater evolutionary conservation (mean entropy [±SD], 0.32 ± 0.1 bits; P = .003), and epitopes recognized by responders provided higher coverage (49%; P = .035). Heterologous vector regimens had higher numbers of total, EnvA, and EnvB epitopes than homologous vector regimens (P = .02, .044, and .045, respectively). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that vaccination with heterologous insert prime boosting increased T-cell responses to shared epitopes, while heterologous vector prime boosting increased the number of T-cell epitopes recognized. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01095224. PMID:26475930

  1. Comparing Measures of Promiscuity and Exploring Their Relationship to Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyun; Greene, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    Recent research has focused on algorithms to derive numerical measures of selectivity based on panels of in vitro pharmacology assays so that one molecule's activity profile may be compared easily with that of another. However, the questions concerning which method or algorithm is best to use, the optimal number of assays required to give an accurate measure of selectivity and the correlation of these measures to in vivo toxicity have remained largely unexplored. In this manuscript we describe a systematic approach to compare and contrast different calculation methods for promiscuity and determine the optimal number and constitution of a panel of assays to measure the selectivity/promiscuity of compounds across all targets. We then go on to examine their relationship to toxicity using a Pfizer proprietary compound set that has both selectivity profiles and exploratory toxicology study results. From this study we conclude that all five methods studied are useful in estimating compound selectivity; that a small panel of between 15 to 30 binding assays can be used as a surrogate for a broader panel enabling higher throughput with lower costs and this panel will most likely have the highest prediction power when correlating this measure to in vivo effects.

  2. Catalytic mechanism of the arylsulfatase promiscuous enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Marino, Tiziana; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa

    2013-02-04

    To elucidate the working mechanism of the "broad substrate specificity" by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa aryl sulfatase (PAS) enzyme, we present here a full quantum chemical study performed at the density functional level. This enzyme is able to catalyze the hydrolysis of the original p-nitrophenyl-sulfate (PNPS) substrate and the promiscuous p-nitrophenyl-phosphate (PNPP) one with comparable reaction kinetics. Based on the obtained results, a multistep mechanism including activation of the nucleophile, the nucleophilic attack, and the cleavage of the S-O (P-O) bond is proposed. Regarding the phosphate monoester, the results indicate that only some steps of the promiscuous reaction are identical to those in the native process. Differences concern mainly the last step in which the His115 residue acts as a general base to accept the proton by the O atom of the FGly51 in the PNPS, whereas in PNPP, the Asp317 protonated residue works as a general acid to deliver a proton by a water molecule to the oxygen atom of the C-O bond. The shapes of the relative potential-energy surface (PES) are similar in the two examined cases but the rate-determining step is different (nucleophile attack vs. nucleophile activation). The influence of the dispersion contributions on the investigated reactions was also taken into account.

  3. Tailoring Agility: Promiscuous Pair Story Authoring and Value Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendon, Steve

    This chapter describes how a multi-national software organization created a business plan involving business units from eight countries that followed an agile way, after two previously failed attempts with traditional approaches. The case is told by the consultant who initiated implementation of agility into requirements gathering, estimation and planning processes in an international setting. The agile approach was inspired by XP, but then tailored to meet the peculiar requirements. Two innovations were critical. The first innovation was promiscuous pair story authoring, where user stories were written by two people (similarly to pair programming), and the pairing changed very often (as frequently as every 15-20 minutes) to achieve promiscuity and cater for diverse point of views. The second innovation was an economic value evaluation (and not the cost) which was attributed to stories. Continuous recalculation of the financial value of the stories allowed to assess the projects financial return. In this case implementation of agility in the international context allowed the involved team members to reach consensus and unanimity of decisions, vision and purpose.

  4. Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Iossa, Graziella; Gage, Matthew J G; Eady, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the risk of infertility through sperm limitation in species that mate infrequently; (ii) decreasing micropyle number reduces the risk of pathological polyspermy in species that mate more frequently; and (iii) increasing micropyle number allows females to exert greater control over fertilization within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection, which will be more intense in promiscuous species. Micropyle number was positively related to the degree of female promiscuity as measured by spermatophore count, regardless of phylogenetic signal, supporting the hypothesis that micropyle number is shaped by post-copulatory sexual selection. We discuss this finding in the context of cryptic female choice, sperm limitation and physiological polyspermy.

  5. Molecular mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition by spermidine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Sae; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Niiyama, Mayumi; Hirose, Mika; Miyazaki, Yuma; Higashi, Kyohei; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Escherichia coli, which catalyses the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to spermidine, is a key enzyme in controlling polyamine levels in prokaryotic cells. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of SAT in complex with spermidine (SPD) and CoA at 2.5Å resolution. SAT is a dodecamer organized as a hexamer of dimers. The secondary structural element and folding topology of the SAT dimer resemble those of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), suggesting an evolutionary link between SAT and SSAT. However, the polyamine specificity of SAT is distinct from that of SSAT and is promiscuous. The SPD molecule is also located at the inter-dimer interface. The distance between SPD and CoA molecules is 13Å. A deep, highly acidic, water-filled cavity encompasses the SPD and CoA binding sites. Structure-based mutagenesis and in-vitro assays identified SPD-bound residues, and the acidic residues lining the walls of the cavity are mostly essential for enzymatic activities. Based on mutagenesis and structural data, we propose an acetylation mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition for SAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A parasitic selfish gene that affects host promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Goddard, Matthew R

    2013-11-07

    Selfish genes demonstrate transmission bias and invade sexual populations despite conferring no benefit to their hosts. While the molecular genetics and evolutionary dynamics of selfish genes are reasonably well characterized, their effects on hosts are not. Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are one well-studied family of selfish genes that are assumed to be benign. However, we show that carrying HEGs is costly for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating that these genetic elements are not necessarily benign but maybe parasitic. We estimate a selective load of approximately 1-2% in 'natural' niches. The second aspect we examine is the ability of HEGs to affect hosts' sexual behaviour. As all selfish genes critically rely on sex for spread, then any selfish gene correlated with increased host sexuality will enjoy a transmission advantage. While classic parasites are known to manipulate host behaviour, we are not aware of any evidence showing a selfish gene is capable of affecting host promiscuity. The data presented here show a selfish element may increase the propensity of its eukaryote host to undergo sex and along with increased rates of non-Mendelian inheritance, this may counterbalance mitotic selective load and promote spread. Demonstration that selfish genes are correlated with increased promiscuity in eukaryotes connects with ideas suggesting that selfish genes promoted the evolution of sex initially.

  7. Cross-group neutralization of HIV-1 and evidence for conservation of the PG9/PG16 epitopes within divergent groups.

    PubMed

    Braibant, Martine; Gong, Eun-Yeung; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Moreau, Thierry; Alessandri, Elodie; Simon, François; Barin, Francis

    2013-05-15

    HIV-1 has been classified into four groups: M, N, O and P. The aim of this study was to revisit the cross-group neutralization using a highly diverse panel of primary isolates. The panel of viruses included nine HIV-1 group O primary isolates, one recombinant M/O primary isolate, one group N primary isolates, one group P primary isolate, two group M (subtype B) primary isolates and the HIV-1 group M adapted strain MN. All the viruses were tested for neutralization in TZM-bl cells, using sera issued from patients infected by viruses of group M (n = 11), O (n = 12) and P (n = 1), and a panel of nine human monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (HuMo bNAbs). Although the primary isolates displayed a wide spectrum of sensitivity to neutralization by the human sera, cross-group neutralization was clearly observed. In contrast, the bNAbs did not show any cross-group neutralization, except PG9 and PG16. Interestingly, the group N prototype strain YBF30 was highly sensitive to neutralization by PG9 (IC50: 0.28 μg/ml) and PG16 (IC50: < 0.12 μg/ml). The interaction between PG9 and key residues of YBF30 was confirmed by molecular modeling. The conservation of the PG9 and PG16 epitopes within groups M and N provides an argument for their relevance as components of a potentially efficient HIV vaccine immunogen.

  8. Changes in Structure and Antigenicity of HIV-1 Env Trimers Resulting from Removal of a Conserved CD4 Binding Site-Proximal Glycan

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu; Guttman, Miklos; Williams, James A.; Verkerke, Hans; Alvarado, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the major target for HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One of the mechanisms that HIV has evolved to escape the host's immune response is to mask conserved epitopes on Env with dense glycosylation. Previous studies have shown that the removal of a particular conserved glycan at N197 increases the neutralization sensitivity of the virus to antibodies targeting the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), making it a site of significant interest from the perspective of vaccine design. At present, the structural consequences that result from the removal of the N197 glycan have not been characterized. Using native-like SOSIP trimers, we examine the effects on antigenicity and local structural dynamics resulting from the removal of this glycan. A large increase in the binding of CD4bs and V3-targeting antibodies is observed for the N197Q mutant in trimeric Env, while no changes are observed with monomeric gp120. While the overall structure and thermostability are not altered, a subtle increase in the flexibility of the variable loops at the trimeric interface of adjacent protomers is evident in the N197Q mutant by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Structural modeling of the glycan chains suggests that the spatial occupancy of the N197 glycan leads to steric clashes with CD4bs antibodies in the Env trimer but not monomeric gp120. Our results indicate that the removal of the N197 glycan enhances the exposure of relevant bNAb epitopes on Env with a minimal impact on the overall trimeric structure. These findings present a simple modification for enhancing trimeric Env immunogens in vaccines. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein presents a dense patchwork of host cell-derived N-linked glycans. This so-called glycan shield is considered to be a major protective mechanism against immune recognition. While the positions of many N-linked glycans are isolate specific, some are highly conserved and are believed to play key

  9. ENDOCRINE TRAINEES EXHIBIT SENSITIVE BUT CONSERVATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE CONDITIONS IN HIV PATIENTS IN SINGAPORE.

    PubMed

    Jye, Seow Cherng; Weiliang, Chen Abel; Han, Hoi Wai; Dalan, Rinkoo

    2017-09-01

    With advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, the life expectancy of people with HIV (PWH) is fast approaching that of the general population. Endocrine and metabolic disorders occur more frequently in PWH than in the general population. This study assessed the knowledge, practice patterns, and confidence levels among endocrinology trainees in Singapore in managing endocrine disorders in PWH. An anonymous, 31-item survey was administered to 23 endocrinology trainees. Four domains were assessed: (1) previous exposure to endocrine disorders in PWH; (2) attitudes towards treating PWH, (3) case studies in endocrinology designed to assess for differences in treatment philosophy between a PWH and a noninfected counterpart, and (4) confidence in managing endocrine disorders in PWH. The participation rate was 73.9%, with the majority of trainees (88.2%) having managed fewer than 5 PWH with endocrine disorders. A total of 94.1% of the trainees had little or no hesitation in treating PWH, but more than half (58.8%) felt inadequate in confidently managing them. A total of 82.4% deemed HIV endocrinology as an emerging field and were open to the idea of pursuing it as a subspecialty in the future. Re-assuringly, most trainees would not compromise medical treatment for a PWH if it were indicated. More than half were ambivalent about prescribing cross-hormonal therapy to transgender individuals. Endocrinology trainees feel that while HIV endocrinology is an emerging field, they lack exposure, training, and confidence in the management of these patients. Although they would treat medical conditions well, they lacked knowledge in hormonal treatment of transgender individuals. HIV = human immunodeficiency virus PWH = people with HIV.

  10. Expansion of the E138A mutation in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, Francisco; Gilarranz, Raúl; Tosco, Tomás; Carrillo, Deyanira; Holguín, África; Santana, Évora; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luís; Hernández, Michele; Francés, Adela; Cárdenes, Miguel Ángel; Zarzalejos, Jose María; Pena-López, María José

    2016-09-01

    Molecular epidemiology allows us to know local HIV transmission and to design strategies of prevention. We studied 25 HIV newly diagnosed patients with the E138A mutation since the year 2010. Most transmission networks involved young and promiscuous men who have sex with men. Recent infection was only documented in patients grouped into the smaller clusters.

  11. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: promiscuous drug, wanton effects.

    PubMed

    Geil, Chelsea R; Hayes, Dayna M; McClain, Justin A; Liput, Daniel J; Marshall, S Alex; Chen, Kevin Y; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-10-03

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche.

  12. Promiscuous RNA binding by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Davidovich, Chen; Zheng, Leon; Goodrich, Karen J.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) is a histone methyltransferase required for epigenetic silencing during development and cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) recruit PRC2 to chromatin, but the general role of RNA in maintaining repressed chromatin is unknown. Here we measure the binding constant of human PRC2 to various RNAs and find comparable affinity for human lncRNAs targeted by PRC2 and irrelevant transcripts from ciliates and bacteria. PRC2 binding is size-dependent, with lower affinity for shorter RNAs. In vivo, PRC2 predominantly occupies repressed genes; PRC2 is also associated with active genes, but most of these are not regulated by PRC2. These findings support a model in which promiscuous binding of PRC2 to RNA transcripts allows it to scan for target genes that have escaped repression, leading to maintenance of the repressed state. Such RNAs may also provide a decoy for PRC2. PMID:24077223

  13. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Promiscuous drug, wanton effects

    PubMed Central

    Geil, Chelsea R.; Hayes, Dayna M.; McClain, Justin A.; Liput, Daniel J.; Marshall, S. Alex; Chen, Kevin Y.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche. PMID:24842804

  14. Challenges of docking in large, flexible and promiscuous binding sites.

    PubMed

    Kotev, Martin; Soliva, Robert; Orozco, Modesto

    2016-10-15

    After decades of work, the correct determination of the binding mode of a small molecule into a target protein is still a challenging problem, whose difficulty depends on: (i) the sizes of the binding site and the ligand; (ii) the flexibility of both interacting partners, and (iii) the differential solvation of bound and unbound partners. We have evaluated the performance of standard rigid(receptor)/flexible(ligand) docking approaches with respect to last-generation fully flexible docking methods to obtain reasonable poses in a very challenging case: soluble Epoxide Hydrolase (sEH), a flexible protein showing different binding sites. We found that full description of the flexibility of both protein and ligand and accurate description of solvation leads to significant improvement in the ability of docking to reproduce well known binding modes, and at the same time capture the intrinsic binding promiscuity of the protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalytic Promiscuity of the Radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine Enzyme NosL

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wei; Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic promiscuity plays a key role in enzyme evolution and the acquisition of novel biological functions. Because of the high reactivity of radical species, in our view enzymes involving radical-mediated mechanisms could intrinsically be more prone to catalytic promiscuity. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in the study of NosL, a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent L-tryptophan (L-Trp) lyase. We demonstrate here the interesting chemistry and remarkable catalytic promiscuity of NosL, and attempt to highlight the high evolvability of radical SAM enzymes and the potential to engineer these enzymes for novel and improved activities. PMID:27446906

  16. Analyzing compound activity records and promiscuity degrees in light of publication statistics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    For the generation of contemporary databases of bioactive compounds, activity information is usually extracted from the scientific literature. However, when activity data are analyzed, source publications are typically no longer taken into consideration. Therefore, compound activity data selected from ChEMBL were traced back to thousands of original publications, activity records including compound, assay, and target information were systematically generated, and their distributions across the literature were determined. In addition, publications were categorized on the basis of activity records. Furthermore, compound promiscuity, defined as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple target proteins, was analyzed in light of publication statistics, thus adding another layer of information to promiscuity assessment. It was shown that the degree of compound promiscuity was not influenced by increasing numbers of source publications. Rather, most non-promiscuous as well as promiscuous compounds, regardless of their degree of promiscuity, originated from single publications, which emerged as a characteristic feature of the medicinal chemistry literature. PMID:27347396

  17. Enzyme promiscuity in earthworm serine protease: substrate versatility and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mahendra Kumar; Pulicherla, K K

    2016-04-01

    Enzymes are the most versatile molecules in the biological world. These amazing molecules play an integral role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways and physiology subsequently. Promiscuity of an enzyme is the capacity to catalyze additional biochemical reactions besides their native one. Catalytic promiscuity has shown great impact in enzyme engineering for commercial enzyme and therapeutics with natural or engineered catalytic promiscuity. The earthworm serine protease (ESP) is a classic example of enzyme promiscuity and studied for its therapeutic potential over the last few decades. The ESP was reported for several therapeutic properties and fibrinolytic activity has been much explored. ESP, a complex enzyme exists as several isoforms of molecular weight ranging from 14 to 33 kDa. The fibrinolytic capacity of the enzyme has been studied in different species of earthworm and molecular mechanism is quite different from conventional thrombolytics. Cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities of ESP were evaluated using several cancer cell lines. Enzyme had shown tremendous scope in fighting against plant viruses and microbes. ESP is also reported for anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidant property. Apart from these, recently, ESP is reported for DNase activity. The daunting challenge for researchers is to understand the molecular mechanism for such diverse properties and possibility of enzyme promiscuity. This review emphasizes molecular mechanism of ESP governing various biochemical reactions. Further, the concept of enzyme promiscuity in ESP towards development of novel enzyme based drugs has been reviewed in this study.

  18. Female promiscuity is positively associated with neutral and selected genetic diversity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Gohli, Jostein; Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Johnsen, Arild; Kleven, Oddmund; Borge, Thomas; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2013-05-01

    Passerine birds show large interspecific variation in extrapair paternity rates. There is accumulating evidence that such promiscuous behavior is driven by indirect, genetic benefits to females. Sexual selection theory distinguishes between two types of genetic benefits, additive and nonadditive effects, mediated by preferences for good and compatible genes, respectively. Good genes preferences should imply directional selection and mating skew among males, and thus reduced genetic diversity in the population. In contrast, compatible genes preferences should give balancing selection that retains genetic diversity. Here, we test how well these predictions fit with patterns of variation in genetic diversity and promiscuity levels among passerine birds. We found that more promiscuous species had higher nucleotide diversity at autosomal introns, but not at Z-chromosome introns. We also found that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIB alleles had higher sequence diversity, and therefore should recognize a broader spectrum of pathogens, in more promiscuous species. Our results suggest that female promiscuity targets a multitude of autosomal genes for their nonadditive, compatibility benefits. Also, as immunity genes seem to be of particular importance, we hypothesize that interspecific variation in female promiscuity among passerine birds has arisen in response to the strength of pathogen-mediated selection. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kap; Ho, Joseph X.; Keeling, Kim; Gilliland, Gary L.; Ji, Xinhua; Rueker, Florian; Carter, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  20. Synthetic long peptide booster immunization in rhesus macaques primed with replication-competent NYVAC-C-KC induces a balanced CD4/CD8 T-cell and antibody response against the conserved regions of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Nieuwenhuis, Ivonne G; Beenhakker, Niels; Koestler, Josef; Bogers, Willy M J M; Wagner, Ralf; Esteban, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Heeney, Jonathan L; Jacobs, Bertram L; Melief, Cornelis J M

    2015-06-01

    The Thai trial (RV144) indicates that a prime-boost vaccine combination that induces both T-cell and antibody responses may be desirable for an effective HIV vaccine. We have previously shown that immunization with synthetic long peptides (SLP), covering the conserved parts of SIV, induced strong CD4 T-cell and antibody responses, but only modest CD8 T-cell responses. To generate a more balanced CD4/CD8 T-cell and antibody response, this study evaluated a pox-vector prime/SLP boost strategy in rhesus macaques. Priming with a replication-competent NYVAC, encoding HIV-1 clade C gag, pol and nef, induced modest IFNγ T-cell immune responses, predominantly directed against HIV-1 Gag. Booster immunization with SLP, covering the conserved parts of HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Env, resulted in a more than 10-fold increase in IFNγ ELISpot responses in four of six animals, which were predominantly HIV-1 Pol-specific. The animals showed a balanced polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T-cell response and high Ab titres. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Lira, Mario A.; Nascimento, Luciana R. S.; Fracetto, Giselle G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein), climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior), and urbanization (and thus heavy metals). This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous, and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge. PMID:26441880

  2. Beyond promiscuity: mate-choice commitments in social breeding

    PubMed Central

    Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Obligate eusociality with distinct caste phenotypes has evolved from strictly monogamous sub-social ancestors in ants, some bees, some wasps and some termites. This implies that no lineage reached the most advanced form of social breeding, unless helpers at the nest gained indirect fitness values via siblings that were identical to direct fitness via offspring. The complete lack of re-mating promiscuity equalizes sex-specific variances in reproductive success. Later, evolutionary developments towards multiple queen-mating retained lifetime commitment between sexual partners, but reduced male variance in reproductive success relative to female's, similar to the most advanced vertebrate cooperative breeders. Here, I (i) discuss some of the unique and highly peculiar mating system adaptations of eusocial insects; (ii) address ambiguities that remained after earlier reviews and extend the monogamy logic to the evolution of soldier castes; (iii) evaluate the evidence for indirect fitness benefits driving the dynamics of (in)vertebrate cooperative breeding, while emphasizing the fundamental differences between obligate eusociality and cooperative breeding; (iv) infer that lifetime commitment is a major driver towards higher levels of organization in bodies, colonies and mutualisms. I argue that evolutionary informative definitions of social systems that separate direct and indirect fitness benefits facilitate transparency when testing inclusive fitness theory. PMID:23339241

  3. MTH1 Substrate Recognition--An Example of Specific Promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Nissink, J Willem M; Bista, Michal; Breed, Jason; Carter, Nikki; Embrey, Kevin; Read, Jonathan; Winter-Holt, Jon J

    2016-01-01

    MTH1 (NUDT1) is an oncologic target involved in the prevention of DNA damage. We investigate the way MTH1 recognises its substrates and present substrate-bound structures of MTH1 for 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-rATP as examples of novel strong and weak binding substrate motifs. Investigation of a small set of purine-like fragments using 2D NMR resulted in identification of a fragment with weak potency. The protein-ligand X-Ray structure of this fragment provides insight into the role of water molecules in substrate selectivity. Wider fragment screening by NMR resulted in three new protein structures exhibiting alternative binding configurations to the key Asp-Asp recognition element of the protein. These inhibitor binding modes demonstrate that MTH1 employs an intricate yet promiscuous mechanism of substrate anchoring through its Asp-Asp pharmacophore. The structures suggest that water-mediated interactions convey selectivity towards oxidized substrates over their non-oxidised counterparts, in particular by stabilization of a water molecule in a hydrophobic environment through hydrogen bonding. These findings may be useful in the design of inhibitors of MTH1.

  4. The energetic cost of mating in a promiscuous cephalopod.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Amanda Michelle; Squires, Zoe Elizabeth; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2012-10-23

    Costs that individuals incur through mating can play an important role in understanding the evolution of life histories and senescence, particularly in promiscuous species. Copulation costs, ranging from energy expenditure to reduced longevity, are widely studied in insects but have received substantially less attention in other taxa. One cost of mating, the energetic cost, is poorly studied across all taxa despite its potential importance for the many species where copulation is physically demanding and/or frequent. Here, we investigated the energetic cost of mating in both male and female dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica). In this species, copulation can last up to 3 h and requires that the male physically restrains the female. We report that the act of copulation halves the swimming endurance of both sexes, and that they take up to 30 min to recover. Such a reduction in post-copulatory performance may have important implications for predator avoidance, foraging ability and energy allocation. Therefore, quantifying this cost is essential to understand the evolution of reproductive strategies and behaviours such as female receptivity and male and female mating frequency.

  5. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Lira, Mario A; Nascimento, Luciana R S; Fracetto, Giselle G M

    2015-01-01

    Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein), climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior), and urbanization (and thus heavy metals). This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous, and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge.

  6. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding. PMID:24901212

  7. MTH1 Substrate Recognition—An Example of Specific Promiscuity

    PubMed Central

    Nissink, J. Willem M.; Bista, Michal; Breed, Jason; Carter, Nikki; Embrey, Kevin; Read, Jonathan; Winter-Holt, Jon J.

    2016-01-01

    MTH1 (NUDT1) is an oncologic target involved in the prevention of DNA damage. We investigate the way MTH1 recognises its substrates and present substrate-bound structures of MTH1 for 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-rATP as examples of novel strong and weak binding substrate motifs. Investigation of a small set of purine-like fragments using 2D NMR resulted in identification of a fragment with weak potency. The protein-ligand X-Ray structure of this fragment provides insight into the role of water molecules in substrate selectivity. Wider fragment screening by NMR resulted in three new protein structures exhibiting alternative binding configurations to the key Asp-Asp recognition element of the protein. These inhibitor binding modes demonstrate that MTH1 employs an intricate yet promiscuous mechanism of substrate anchoring through its Asp-Asp pharmacophore. The structures suggest that water-mediated interactions convey selectivity towards oxidized substrates over their non-oxidised counterparts, in particular by stabilization of a water molecule in a hydrophobic environment through hydrogen bonding. These findings may be useful in the design of inhibitors of MTH1. PMID:26999531

  8. Preferential Targeting of Conserved Gag Regions after Vaccination with a Heterologous DNA Prime-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Boost HIV-1 Vaccine Regimen.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Asli; Podola, Lilli; Mann, Philipp; Missanga, Marco; Haule, Antelmo; Sudi, Lwitiho; Nilsson, Charlotta; Kaluwa, Bahati; Lueer, Cornelia; Mwakatima, Maria; Munseri, Patricia J; Maboko, Leonard; Robb, Merlin L; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Kijak, Gustavo; Marovich, Mary; McCormack, Sheena; Joseph, Sarah; Lyamuya, Eligius; Wahren, Britta; Sandström, Eric; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Hoelscher, Michael; Bakari, Muhammad; Kroidl, Arne; Geldmacher, Christof

    2017-09-15

    Prime-boost vaccination strategies against HIV-1 often include multiple variants for a given immunogen for better coverage of the extensive viral diversity. To study the immunologic effects of this approach, we characterized breadth, phenotype, function, and specificity of Gag-specific T cells induced by a DNA-prime modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccination strategy, which uses mismatched Gag immunogens in the TamoVac 01 phase IIa trial. Healthy Tanzanian volunteers received three injections of the DNA-SMI vaccine encoding a subtype B and AB-recombinant Gagp37 and two vaccinations with MVA-CMDR encoding subtype A Gagp55 Gag-specific T-cell responses were studied in 42 vaccinees using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After the first MVA-CMDR boost, vaccine-induced gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ(+)) Gag-specific T-cell responses were dominated by CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.001 compared to CD8(+) T cells) that coexpressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) (66.4%) and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (63.7%). A median of 3 antigenic regions were targeted with a higher-magnitude median response to Gagp24 regions, more conserved between prime and boost, compared to those of regions within Gagp15 (not primed) and Gagp17 (less conserved; P < 0.0001 for both). Four regions within Gagp24 each were targeted by 45% to 74% of vaccinees upon restimulation with DNA-SMI-Gag matched peptides. The response rate to individual antigenic regions correlated with the sequence homology between the MVA- and DNA Gag-encoded immunogens (P = 0.04, r(2) = 0.47). In summary, after the first MVA-CMDR boost, the sequence-mismatched DNA-prime MVA-boost vaccine strategy induced a Gag-specific T-cell response that was dominated by polyfunctional CD4(+) T cells and that targeted multiple antigenic regions within the conserved Gagp24 protein.IMPORTANCE Genetic diversity is a major challenge for the design of vaccines against variable viruses. While including multiple variants for a given

  9. Ligand-binding specificity and promiscuity of the main lignocellulolytic enzyme families as revealed by active-site architecture analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Liu, Shijia; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Lushan

    2016-01-01

    Biomass can be converted into sugars by a series of lignocellulolytic enzymes, which belong to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families summarized in CAZy databases. Here, using a structural bioinformatics method, we analyzed the active site architecture of the main lignocellulolytic enzyme families. The aromatic amino acids Trp/Tyr and polar amino acids Glu/Asp/Asn/Gln/Arg occurred at higher frequencies in the active site architecture than in the whole enzyme structure. And the number of potential subsites was significantly different among different families. In the cellulase and xylanase families, the conserved amino acids in the active site architecture were mostly found at the −2 to +1 subsites, while in β-glucosidase they were mainly concentrated at the −1 subsite. Families with more conserved binding amino acid residues displayed strong selectivity for their ligands, while those with fewer conserved binding amino acid residues often exhibited promiscuity when recognizing ligands. Enzymes with different activities also tended to bind different hydroxyl oxygen atoms on the ligand. These results may help us to better understand the common and unique structural bases of enzyme-ligand recognition from different families and provide a theoretical basis for the functional evolution and rational design of major lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:27009476

  10. Mutational robustness and resilience of a replicative cis-element of RNA virus: Promiscuity, limitations, relevance

    PubMed Central

    Prostova, Maria A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Bakhmutov, Denis V; Shishova, Anna A; Khitrina, Elena V; Kolesnikova, Marina S; Serebryakova, Marina V; Isaeva, Olga V; Agol, Vadim I

    2015-01-01

    Since replication of RNA-viruses is generally a low-fidelity process, it would be advantageous, if specific interactions of their genomic cis-elements with dedicated ligands are relatively tolerant to mutations. The specificity/promiscuity trade-off of such interactions was addressed here by investigating structural requirements of the oriL (also known as the clover leaf-like element), of poliovirus RNA, a replicative cis-element containing a conserved essential tetraloop functionally interacting with the viral protein 3CD. The sequence of this tetraloop and 2 adjacent base-pairs was randomized in the viral genome, and viable viruses were selected in susceptible cells. Strikingly, each position of this octanucleotide in 62 investigated viable viruses could be occupied by any nucleotide (with the exception of one position, which lacked U), though with certain sequence preferences, confirmed by engineering mutant viral genomes whose phenotypic properties were found to correlate with the strength of the cis-element/ligand interaction. The results were compatible with a hypothesis that functional recognition by 3CD requires that this tetraloop should stably or temporarily adopt a YNMG-like (Y=U/C, N=any nucleotide, M=A/C) fold. The fitness of “weak” viruses could be increased by compensatory mutations “improving” the tetraloops. Otherwise, the recognition of “bad” tetraloops might be facilitated by alterations in the 3CD protein. The virus appeared to tolerate mutations in its cis-element relaying on either robustness (spatial structure degeneracy) or resilience (a combination of dynamic RNA folding, low-fidelity replication modifying the cis-element or its ligand, and negative selection). These mechanisms (especially resilience involving metastable low-fit intermediates) can also contribute to the viral evolvability. PMID:26488412

  11. Novel Immunity Proteins Associated with Colicin M-like Bacteriocins Exhibit Promiscuous Protection in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Ghequire, Maarten G. K.; Kemland, Lieselore; De Mot, René

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriocins related to colicin M, acting via cleavage of the cell wall precursor lipid II, have been characterized in γ- and β-proteobacteria. Depending on the species, immunity is provided by either an inner membrane-anchored periplasmic protein or by an integral membrane protein. In Pseudomonas however, the immunity partner of colicin M-like bacteriocins remains unknown. Based on an in silico analysis in pseudomonad genomes, we here identify a gene encoding a putative immunity partner that represents a novel type of integral membrane protein (PmiA, Pseudomonas colicin M-like immunity type A). By heterologous expression of pmiA genes in susceptible strains, we show that immunity to colicin M-like bacteriocins is indeed provided by the cognate PmiA. Sequence homology among PmiA proteins is essentially absent, except for a short motif with a conserved periplasm-exposed aspartate residue. However, PmiA's protective function is not abolished by changing this acidic residue to the uncharged alanine. Immunity by PmiAs appears promiscuous to the extent that PmiA homologs from a clade sharing <40% pairwise amino acid identity, equally provide protection against the bacteriocin linked to the original PmiA. This study shows that multiple immunity factors have evolved independently to silence lipid II-targeting enzymatic bacteriocins. Their relaxed bacteriocin immunization capacity contrasts to the strict specificity of immunity proteins shielding the enzymatic domain of nuclease bacteriocins. The nature of associated immune functions needs consideration when using such natural protein antibiotics or designing novel variants. PMID:28194143

  12. Selective induction of cell-mediated immunity and protection of rhesus macaques from chronic SHIV{sub KU2} infection by prophylactic vaccination with a conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Hill, Lori; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Feng Lei; Simmons, Johnny; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2008-01-05

    Infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques by the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is considered to be a suitable preclinical model for directly testing efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the HIV-1 envelope. We used this model for prophylactic vaccination with a peptide-cocktail comprised of highly conserved HIV-1 envelope sequences immunogenic/antigenic in macaques and humans. Separate groups of macaques were immunized with the peptide-cocktail by intravenous and subcutaneous routes using autologous dendritic cells (DC) and Freund's adjuvant, respectively. The vaccine elicited antigen specific IFN-{gamma}-producing cells and T-cell proliferation, but not HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The vaccinated animals also exhibited efficient cross-clade cytolytic activity against target cells expressing envelope proteins corresponding to HIV-1 strains representative of multiple clades that increased after intravenous challenge with pathogenic SHIV{sub KU2}. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were either undetectable or present only transiently at low levels in the control as well as vaccinated monkeys after infection. Significant control of plasma viremia leading to undetectable levels was achieved in majority of vaccinated monkeys compared to mock-vaccinated controls. Monkeys vaccinated with the peptide-cocktail using autologous DC, compared to Freund's adjuvant, and the mock-vaccinated animals, showed significantly higher IFN-{gamma} production, higher levels of vaccine-specific IFN-{gamma} producing CD4{sup +} cells and significant control of plasma viremia. These results support DC-based vaccine delivery and the utility of the conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail, capable of priming strong cell-mediated immunity, for potential inclusion in HIV vaccination strategies.

  13. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  14. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  15. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Rüker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed. PMID:7538846

  16. The lifestyle of prokaryotic organisms influences the repertoire of promiscuous enzymes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    The metabolism of microbial organisms and its diversity are partly the result of an adaptation process to the characteristics of the environments that they inhabit. In this work, we analyze the influence of lifestyle on the content of promiscuous enzymes in 761 nonredundant bacterial and archaeal genomes. Promiscuous enzymes were defined as those proteins whose catalytic activities are defined by two or more different Enzyme Commission (E.C.) numbers. The genomes analyzed were categorized into four lifestyles for their exhaustive comparisons: free-living, extremophiles, pathogens, and intracellular. From these analyses we found that free-living organisms have larger genomes and an enrichment of promiscuous enzymes. In contrast, intracellular organisms showed smaller genomes and the lesser proportion of promiscuous enzymes. On the basis of our data, we show that the proportion of promiscuous enzymes in an organism is mainly influenced by the lifestyle, where fluctuating environments promote its emergence. Finally, we evidenced that duplication processes occur preferentially in metabolism of free-living and extremophiles species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Experimental evolution under hyper-promiscuity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Joag, Richa; Hosken, David J; Wedell, Nina; Radwan, Jacek; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-16

    The number of partners that individuals mate with over their lifetime is a defining feature of mating systems, and variation in mate number is thought to be a major driver of sexual evolution. Although previous research has investigated the evolutionary consequences of reductions in the number of mates, we know little about the costs and benefits of increased numbers of mates. Here, we use a genetic manipulation of mating frequency in Drosophila melanogaster to create a novel, highly promiscuous mating system. We generated D. melanogaster populations in which flies were deficient for the sex peptide receptor (SPR) gene - resulting in SPR- females that mated more frequently - and genetically-matched control populations, and allowed them to evolve for 55 generations. At several time-points during this experimental evolution, we assayed behavioural, morphological and transcriptional reproductive phenotypes expected to evolve in response to increased population mating frequencies. We found that males from the high mating frequency SPR- populations evolved decreased ability to inhibit the receptivity of their mates and decreased copulation duration, in line with predictions of decreased per-mating investment with increased sperm competition. Unexpectedly, SPR- population males also evolved weakly increased sex peptide (SP) gene expression. Males from SPR- populations initially (i.e., before experimental evolution) exhibited more frequent courtship and faster time until mating relative to controls, but over evolutionary time these differences diminished or reversed. In response to experimentally increased mating frequency, SPR- males evolved behavioural responses consistent with decreased male post-copulatory investment at each mating and decreased overall pre-copulatory performance. The trend towards increased SP gene expression might plausibly relate to functional differences in the two domains of the SP protein. Our study highlights the utility of genetic

  18. Structural Basis for Substrate Promiscuity of dCK

    SciTech Connect

    Sabini, Elisabetti; Hazra, Saugata; Ort, Stephen; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-06-06

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is an essential nucleoside kinase critical for the production of nucleotide precursors for DNA synthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the initial conversion of the nucleosides deoxyadenosine (dA), deoxyguanosine (dG), and deoxycytidine (dC) into their monophosphate forms, with subsequent phosphorylation to the triphosphate forms performed by additional enzymes. Several nucleoside analog prodrugs are dependent on dCK for their pharmacological activation, and even nucleosides of the non-physiological L-chirality are phosphorylated by dCK. In addition to accepting dC and purine nucleosides (and their analogs) as phosphoryl acceptors, dCK can utilize either ATP or UTP as phosphoryl donors. To unravel the structural basis for substrate promiscuity of dCK at both the nucleoside acceptor and nucleotide donor sites, we solved the crystal structures of the enzyme as ternary complexes with the two enantiomeric forms of dA (D-dA, or L-dA), with either UDP or ADP bound to the donor site. The complexes with UDP revealed an open state of dCK in which the nucleoside, either D-dA or L-dA, is surprisingly bound in a manner not consistent with catalysis. In contrast, the complexes with ADP, with either D-dA or L-dA, adopted a closed and catalytically competent conformation. The differential states adopted by dCK in response to the nature of the nucleotide were also detected by tryptophan fluorescence experiments. Thus, we are in the unique position to observe differential effects at the acceptor site due to the nature of the nucleotide at the donor site, allowing us to rationalize the different kinetic properties observed with UTP to those with ATP.

  19. Chemical cross-linking of HIV-1 Env for direct TLR7/8 ligand conjugation compromises recognition of conserved antigenic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Forsell, Mattias N. E.; Flynn, Barbara; Adams, William; Loré, Karin; Seder, Robert; Wyatt, Richard T.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.

    2013-01-01

    Covalent conjugation of immune-stimulatory compounds to protein antigens is a potential means to self-adjuvant non-replicating subunit vaccines. Previously, it was demonstrated that covalent coupling of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand to the exterior HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, enhanced its immunogenicity. However, the consequences of chemical conjugation to gp120 on broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) epitopes were so far not examined. Here, we conjugated a TLR7/8 ligand to lysine residues on gp120 using NHS-PEO8-maleimide linkers and investigated if this affected Ab recognition of the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), a highly conserved target for bNAbs. We demonstrate that the recognition of the CD4bs was reduced following coupling, especially at a higher coupling ratio. These results have implications for the coupling of ligands to vaccine antigens where elicitation of humoral immune responses to specific neutralizing determinants is desired. PMID:24074567

  20. Conserved stem-loop structures in the HIV-1 RNA region containing the A3 3' splice site and its cis-regulatory element: possible involvement in RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Jacquenet, S; Ropers, D; Bilodeau, P S; Damier, L; Mougin, A; Stoltzfus, C M; Branlant, C

    2001-01-15

    The HIV-1 transcript is alternatively spliced to over 30 different mRNAs. Whether RNA secondary structure can influence HIV-1 RNA alternative splicing has not previously been examined. Here we have determined the secondary structure of the HIV-1/BRU RNA segment, containing the alternative A3, A4a, A4b, A4c and A5 3' splice sites. Site A3, required for tat mRNA production, is contained in the terminal loop of a stem-loop structure (SLS2), which is highly conserved in HIV-1 and related SIVcpz strains. The exon splicing silencer (ESS2) acting on site A3 is located in a long irregular stem-loop structure (SLS3). Two SLS3 domains were protected by nuclear components under splicing condition assays. One contains the A4c branch points and a putative SR protein binding site. The other one is adjacent to ESS2. Unexpectedly, only the 3' A residue of ESS2 was protected. The suboptimal A3 polypyrimidine tract (PPT) is base paired. Using site-directed mutagenesis and transfection of a mini-HIV-1 cDNA into HeLa cells, we found that, in a wild-type PPT context, a mutation of the A3 downstream sequence that reinforced SLS2 stability decreased site A3 utilization. This was not the case with an optimized PPT. Hence, sequence and secondary structure of the PPT may cooperate in limiting site A3 utilization.

  1. Filtering promiscuous compounds in early drug discovery: is it a good idea?

    PubMed

    Senger, Mario R; Fraga, Carlos A M; Dantas, Rafael F; Silva, Floriano P

    2016-06-01

    The use of computational filters for excluding supposedly nonspecific and promiscuous compounds from chemical libraries is a controversial issue, because many drugs used in clinics today would never reach the market if these filters were applied. In part, this conflict could be caused by the paradigm: one-drug-one-target, even though it is widely agreed that drug action is a result of a complex network of biomolecular interactions. Therefore, the so-called pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) or promiscuous compounds could be in fact assay artifacts, false positives or, simply, bright chemical matter (BCM) composed of privileged scaffolds, as we propose here. Despite apparent promiscuity, BCM can be tailored into new and safe drugs after overcoming selectivity criteria.

  2. Extreme promiscuity of a bacterial and a plant diterpene synthase enables combinatorial biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Meirong; Potter, Kevin C.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Diterpenes are widely distributed across many biological kingdoms, where they serve a diverse range of physiological functions, and some have significant industrial utility. Their biosynthesis involves class I diterpene synthases (DTSs), whose activity can be preceded by that of class II diterpene cyclases (DTCs). Here, a modular metabolic engineering system was used to examine the promiscuity of DTSs. Strikingly, both a bacterial and plant DTS were found to exhibit extreme promiscuity, reacting with all available precursors with orthogonal activity, producing an olefin or hydroxyl group, respectively. Such DTS promiscuity enables combinatorial biosynthesis, with remarkably high yields for these unoptimized non-native enzymatic combinations (up to 15 mg/L). Indeed, it was possible to readily characterize the 13 unknown products. Notably, 16 of the observed diterpenes were previously inaccessible, and these results provide biosynthetic routes that are further expected to enable assembly of more extended pathways to produce additionally elaborated ‘non-natural’ diterpenoids. PMID:27060773

  3. Promiscuous antibodies characterised by their physico-chemical properties: From sequence to structure and back.

    PubMed

    Laffy, Julie M J; Dodev, Tihomir; Macpherson, Jamie A; Townsend, Catherine; Lu, Hui Chun; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Fraternali, Franca

    2017-09-01

    Human B cells produce antibodies, which bind to their cognate antigen based on distinct molecular properties of the antibody CDR loop. We have analysed a set of 10 antibodies showing a clear difference in their binding properties to a panel of antigens, resulting in two subsets of antibodies with a distinct binding phenotype. We call the observed binding multiplicity 'promiscuous' and selected physico-chemical CDRH3 characteristics and conformational preferences may characterise these promiscuous antibodies. To classify CDRH3 physico-chemical properties playing a role in their binding properties, we used statistical analyses of the sequences annotated by Kidera factors. To characterise structure-function requirements for antigen binding multiplicity we employed Molecular Modelling and Monte Carlo based coarse-grained simulations. The ability to predict the molecular causes of promiscuous, multi-binding behaviour would greatly improve the efficiency of the therapeutic antibody discovery process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ligand promiscuity through the eyes of the aminoglycoside N3 acetyltransferase IIa

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Adrianne L; Serpersu, Engin H

    2013-01-01

    Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AGMEs) are expressed in many pathogenic bacteria and cause resistance to aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics. Remarkably, the substrate promiscuity of AGMEs is quite variable. The molecular basis for such ligand promiscuity is largely unknown as there is not an obvious link between amino acid sequence or structure and the antibiotic profiles of AGMEs. To address this issue, this article presents the first kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of one of the least promiscuous AGMEs, the AG N3 acetyltransferase-IIa (AAC-IIa) and its comparison to two highly promiscuous AGMEs, the AG N3-acetyltransferase-IIIb (AAC-IIIb) and the AG phosphotransferase(3′)-IIIa (APH). Despite having similar antibiotic selectivities, AAC-IIIb and APH catalyze different reactions and share no homology to one another. AAC-IIa and AAC-IIIb catalyze the same reaction and are very similar in both amino acid sequence and structure. However, they demonstrate strong differences in their substrate profiles and kinetic and thermodynamic properties. AAC-IIa and APH are also polar opposites in terms of ligand promiscuity but share no sequence or apparent structural homology. However, they both are highly dynamic and may even contain disordered segments and both adopt well-defined conformations when AGs are bound. Contrary to this AAC-IIIb maintains a well-defined structure even in apo form. Data presented herein suggest that the antibiotic promiscuity of AGMEs may be determined neither by the flexibility of the protein nor the size of the active site cavity alone but strongly modulated or controlled by the effects of the cosubstrate on the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the enzyme. PMID:23640799

  5. In Silico Prediction of Inhibition of Promiscuous Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi-Lung; Shih, Yu-Hsuan; Tsai, Fu-Yuan; Leong, Max K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer resistant protein has an essential role in active transport of endogenous substances and xenobiotics across extracellular and intracellular membranes along with P-glycoprotein. It also plays a major role in multiple drug resistance and permeation of blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it is of great importance to derive theoretical models to predict the inhibition of both transporters in the process of drug discovery and development. Hitherto, very limited BCRP inhibition predictive models have been proposed as compared with its P-gp counterpart. Methodology/Principal Findings An in silico BCRP inhibition model was developed in this study using the pharmacophore ensemble/support vector machine scheme to take into account the promiscuous nature of BCRP. The predictions by the PhE/SVM model were found to be in good agreement with the observed values for those molecules in the training set (n = 22, r2 = 0.82,  = 0.73, RMSE  =  0.40, s = 0.24), test set (n = 97, q2 = 0.75–0.89, RMSE  = 0.31, s = 0.21), and outlier set (n = 16, q2 = 0.72–0.91, RMSE  =  0.29, s = 0.17). When subjected to a variety of statistical validations, the developed PhE/SVM model consistently met the most stringent criteria. A mock test by HIV protease inhibitors also asserted its predictivity. Conclusions/Significance It was found that this accurate, fast, and robust PhE/SVM model can be employed to predict the BCRP inhibition of structurally diverse molecules that otherwise cannot be carried out by any other methods in a high-throughput fashion to design therapeutic agents with insignificant drug toxicity and unfavorable drug–drug interactions mediated by BCRP to enhance clinical efficacy and/or circumvent drug resistance. PMID:24614353

  6. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Charles D; Azadnia, Parisa; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Honda, Andrew; Giang, Erick; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Cheng, Yushao; Lin, Xiaohe; Mann, Colin J; Tang, Jeffrey; Sok, Devin; Burton, Dennis R; Law, Mansun; Ward, Andrew B; He, Linling; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-02-28

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc) regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively. Trimeric scaffolds were also identified to stabilize the MPER-containing BG505 gp140.681 trimer in a native-like conformation. Following structural and antigenic evaluation, a subset of scaffold and trimer antigens was selected for immunization in BALB/c mice. Serum binding revealed distinct patterns of antibody responses to these two bNAb targets presented in different structural contexts. For example, the N332 nanoparticles elicited glycan epitope-specific antibody responses that could also recognize the native trimer, while a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer generated a stronger and more rapid antibody response to the trimer apex than its parent gp140.664 trimer. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mouse splenic B cells revealed expansion of antibody lineages with long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) loops upon activation by MPER scaffolds, in contrast to the steady repertoires primed by N332 nanoparticles and a soluble gp140.664 trimer. These findings will facilitate the future development of a coherent vaccination strategy that combines both epitope-focused and trimer-based approaches.IMPORTANCE Both epitope-focused and trimer-based strategies are currently being explored in HIV-1 vaccine development, which aims to elicit broadly neutralizing

  7. A Conserved HIV-1-Derived Peptide Presented by HLA-E Renders Infected T-cells Highly Susceptible to Attack by NKG2A/CD94-Bearing Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Zachary B.; Cogswell, Andrew; Scott, Hamish; Mertsching, Amanda; Boucau, Julie; Wambua, Daniel; Le Gall, Sylvie; Planelles, Vicente; Campbell, Kerry S.; Barker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I)-specific inhibitory receptors on natural killer (NK) cells (iNKRs) tolerize mature NK cell responses toward normal cells. NK cells generate cytolytic responses to virus-infected or malignant target cells with altered or decreased MHC-I surface expression due to the loss of tolerizing ligands. The NKG2A/CD94 iNKR suppresses NK cell responses through recognition of the non-classical MHC-I, HLA-E. We used HIV-infected primary T-cells as targets in an in vitro cytolytic assay with autologous NK cells from healthy donors. In these experiments, primary NKG2A/CD94+ NK cells surprisingly generated the most efficient responses toward HIV-infected T-cells, despite high HLA-E expression on the infected targets. Since certain MHC-I-presented peptides can alter recognition by iNKRs, we hypothesized that HIV-1-derived peptides presented by HLA-E on infected cells may block engagement with NKG2A/CD94, thereby engendering susceptibility to NKG2A/CD94+ NK cells. We demonstrate that HLA-E is capable of presenting a highly conserved peptide from HIV-1 capsid (AISPRTLNA) that is not recognized by NKG2A/CD94. We further confirmed that HLA-C expressed on HIV-infected cells restricts attack by KIR2DL+ CD56dim NK cells, in contrast to the efficient responses by CD56bright NK cells, which express predominantly NKG2A/CD94 and lack KIR2DLs. These findings are important since the use of NK cells was recently proposed to treat latently HIV-1-infected patients in combination with latency reversing agents. Our results provide a mechanistic basis to guide these future clinical studies, suggesting that ex vivo-expanded NKG2A/CD94+ KIR2DL- NK cells may be uniquely beneficial. PMID:26828202

  8. Human anti-V3 HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies encoded by the VH5-51/VL lambda genes define a conserved antigenic structure.

    PubMed

    Gorny, Miroslaw K; Sampson, Jared; Li, Huiguang; Jiang, Xunqing; Totrov, Maxim; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Williams, Constance; O'Neal, Timothy; Volsky, Barbara; Li, Liuzhe; Cardozo, Timothy; Nyambi, Phillipe; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Preferential usage of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that encode antibodies (Abs) against various pathogens is rarely observed and the nature of their dominance is unclear in the context of stochastic recombination of Ig genes. The hypothesis that restricted usage of Ig genes predetermines the antibody specificity was tested in this study of 18 human anti-V3 monoclonal Abs (mAbs) generated from unrelated individuals infected with various subtypes of HIV-1, all of which preferentially used pairing of the VH5-51 and VL lambda genes. Crystallographic analysis of five VH5-51/VL lambda-encoded Fabs complexed with various V3 peptides revealed a common three dimensional (3D) shape of the antigen-binding sites primarily determined by the four complementarity determining regions (CDR) for the heavy (H) and light (L) chains: specifically, the H1, H2, L1 and L2 domains. The CDR H3 domain did not contribute to the shape of the binding pocket, as it had different lengths, sequences and conformations for each mAb. The same shape of the binding site was further confirmed by the identical backbone conformation exhibited by V3 peptides in complex with Fabs which fully adapted to the binding pocket and the same key contact residues, mainly germline-encoded in the heavy and light chains of five Fabs. Finally, the VH5-51 anti-V3 mAbs recognized an epitope with an identical 3D structure which is mimicked by a single mimotope recognized by the majority of VH5-51-derived mAbs but not by other V3 mAbs. These data suggest that the identification of preferentially used Ig genes by neutralizing mAbs may define conserved epitopes in the diverse virus envelopes. This will be useful information for designing vaccine immunogen inducing cross-neutralizing Abs.

  9. The challenges of dealing with promiscuous drug-metabolizing enzymes, receptors and transporters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang; Lu, Anthony Y H

    2008-06-01

    Unlike classical enzymes, drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), such as the liver microsomal cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, epoxide hydrolase, and flavin-containing monooxygenase, all exhibit broad substrate specificities, low turnover rates, atypical kinetics, and other unusual properties. Receptors (the pregnane X receptor, NR1I2; the constitutive androstane receptor, NR1I3; and the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor) responsible for the induction of DMEs and transporters (P-glycoprotein) responsible for drug transport also have broad substrate specificities. These promiscuous proteins are all intimately involved in drug disposition. Promiscuous proteins, by definition, are known for diversity, but not specificity, in their interaction with drugs. In this review, we analyzed recent advances on the three dimensional structures and kinetic properties of DMD proteins from crystallography, mutational, and kinetic studies to gain insights into the structural and biochemical basis for the promiscuous ligand-protein interactions of the proteins. Large substrate-binding cavities (SBCs), binding of more than one substrate/effector and binding of substrates in alternative orientations and locations within the SBCs, rotation of a substrate at the active site, and substantial substrate-induced conformational changes of the SBCs are common features of the promiscuous DMEs, receptors, and transporters, and therefore, are important parameters to be considered in dealing with drug metabolism issues and safety evaluation of drugs and environmental chemicals.

  10. Evolution of a new chlorophyll metabolic pathway driven by the dynamic changes in enzyme promiscuous activity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2014-03-01

    Organisms generate an enormous number of metabolites; however, the mechanisms by which a new metabolic pathway is acquired are unknown. To elucidate the importance of promiscuous enzyme activity for pathway evolution, the catalytic and substrate specificities of Chl biosynthetic enzymes were examined. In green plants, Chl a and Chl b are interconverted by the Chl cycle: Chl a is hydroxylated to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a followed by the conversion to Chl b, and both reactions are catalyzed by chlorophyllide a oxygenase. Chl b is reduced to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a by Chl b reductase and then converted to Chl a by 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase (HCAR). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that HCAR evolved from cyanobacterial 3,8-divinyl chlorophyllide reductase (DVR), which is responsible for the reduction of an 8-vinyl group in the Chl biosynthetic pathway. In addition to vinyl reductase activity, cyanobacterial DVR also has Chl b reductase and HCAR activities; consequently, three of the four reactions of the Chl cycle already existed in cyanobacteria, the progenitor of the chloroplast. During the evolution of cyanobacterial DVR to HCAR, the HCAR activity, a promiscuous reaction of cyanobacterial DVR, became the primary reaction. Moreover, the primary reaction (vinyl reductase activity) and some disadvantageous reactions were lost, but the neutral promiscuous reaction (NADH dehydrogenase) was retained in both DVR and HCAR. We also show that a portion of the Chl c biosynthetic pathway already existed in cyanobacteria. We discuss the importance of dynamic changes in promiscuous activity and of the latent pathways for metabolic evolution.

  11. Monogamous and promiscuous rodent species exhibit discrete variation in the size of the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, Marcy A; Gleason, Erin D; Ophir, Alexander G; Phelps, Steven M; Young, Larry J; Marler, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Limbic-associated cortical areas, such as the medial prefrontal and retrosplenial cortex (mPFC and RS, respectively), are involved in the processing of emotion, motivation, and various aspects of working memory and have been implicated in mating behavior. To determine whether the independent evolution of mating systems is associated with a convergence in cortical mechanisms, we compared the size of mPFC and RS between the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) and the promiscuous meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and between the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) and the promiscuous white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). For both promiscuous mice and voles, the mPFC occupied a significantly larger percentage of total cortex than in the monogamous species. No significant differences were observed for the RS or overall cortex size with respect to mating system, supporting the convergent evolution of mPFC size, specifically. Individual differences in the mating behavior of male prairie voles (wandering versus pair-bonding), presumably facultative tactics, were not reflected in the relative size of the mPFC, which is likely a heritable trait. Given the importance of the mPFC for complex working memory, particularly object-place and temporal order memory, we hypothesize that the relatively greater size of the mPFC in promiscuous species reflects a greater need to remember multiple individuals and the times and locations in which they have been encountered in the home range.

  12. Structure-Promiscuity Relationship Puzzles-Extensively Assayed Analogs with Large Differences in Target Annotations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Gilberg, Erik; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-03-06

    Publicly available screening data were systematically searched for extensively assayed structural analogs with large differences in the number of targets they were active against. Screening compounds with potential chemical liabilities that may give rise to assay artifacts were identified and excluded from the analysis. "Promiscuity cliffs" were frequently identified, defined here as pairs of structural analogs with a difference of at least 20 target annotations across all assays they were tested in. New assay indices were introduced to prioritize cliffs formed by screening compounds that were extensively tested in comparably large numbers of assays including many shared assays. In these cases, large differences in promiscuity degrees were not attributable to differences in assay frequency and/or lack of assay overlap. Such analog pairs have high priority for further exploring molecular origins of multi-target activities. Therefore, these promiscuity cliffs and associated target annotations are made freely available. The corresponding analogs often represent equally puzzling and interesting examples of structure-promiscuity relationships.

  13. Promiscuous Speciation with Gene Flow in Silverside Fish Genus Odontesthes (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae) from South Western Atlantic Ocean Basins

    PubMed Central

    García, Graciela; Ríos, Néstor; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Varela, Jorge Guerra; Bouza Fernández, Carmen; Pardo, Belén Gómez; Portela, Paulino Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The present paper integrates phylogenetic and population genetics analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers in silversides, genus Odontesthes, from a non-sampled area in the SW Atlantic Ocean to address species discrimination and to define Managements Units for sustainable conservation. All phylogenetic analyses based on the COI mitochondrial gene were consistent to support the monophyly of the genus Odontesthes and to include O. argentinensis, O. perugiae-humensis and some O. bonariensis haplotypes in a basal polytomy conforming a major derivative clade. Microsatellites data revealed somewhat higher genetic variability values in the O. argentinensis-perugia populations than in O. bonariensis and O. perugia-humensis taxa. Contrasting population genetics structuring emerged from mitochondrial and microsatellites analyses in these taxa. Whereas mitochondrial data supported two major groups (O. argentinensis-perugia-humensis vs. O. bonariensis-perugiae-humensis populations), microsatellite data detected three major genetic entities represented by O. bonariensis, O. perugiae-humensis and an admixture of populations belonging to O. argentinensis-perugiae respectively. Therefore, the star COI polytomy in the tree topology involving these taxa could be interpreted by several hypothetic scenarios such as the existence of shared ancestral polymorphisms, incomplete lineage sorting in a radiating speciation process and/or reticulation events. Present findings support that promiscuous and recent contact between incipient species sharing asymmetric gene flow exchanges, blurs taxa boundaries yielding complicated taxonomy and Management Units delimitation in silverside genus Odontesthes from SW Atlantic Ocean basins. PMID:25126842

  14. Promiscuous speciation with gene flow in silverside fish genus Odontesthes (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae) from south western Atlantic Ocean basins.

    PubMed

    García, Graciela; Ríos, Néstor; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Varela, Jorge Guerra; Bouza Fernández, Carmen; Pardo, Belén Gómez; Portela, Paulino Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The present paper integrates phylogenetic and population genetics analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers in silversides, genus Odontesthes, from a non-sampled area in the SW Atlantic Ocean to address species discrimination and to define Managements Units for sustainable conservation. All phylogenetic analyses based on the COI mitochondrial gene were consistent to support the monophyly of the genus Odontesthes and to include O. argentinensis, O. perugiae-humensis and some O. bonariensis haplotypes in a basal polytomy conforming a major derivative clade. Microsatellites data revealed somewhat higher genetic variability values in the O. argentinensis-perugia populations than in O. bonariensis and O. perugia-humensis taxa. Contrasting population genetics structuring emerged from mitochondrial and microsatellites analyses in these taxa. Whereas mitochondrial data supported two major groups (O. argentinensis-perugia-humensis vs. O. bonariensis-perugiae-humensis populations), microsatellite data detected three major genetic entities represented by O. bonariensis, O. perugiae-humensis and an admixture of populations belonging to O. argentinensis-perugiae respectively. Therefore, the star COI polytomy in the tree topology involving these taxa could be interpreted by several hypothetic scenarios such as the existence of shared ancestral polymorphisms, incomplete lineage sorting in a radiating speciation process and/or reticulation events. Present findings support that promiscuous and recent contact between incipient species sharing asymmetric gene flow exchanges, blurs taxa boundaries yielding complicated taxonomy and Management Units delimitation in silverside genus Odontesthes from SW Atlantic Ocean basins.

  15. Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ϵ, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for this notion is limited. Exploiting assays available for duck HBV (DHBV) but not the HBV P protein, we assessed the functional consequences of numerous mutations in box E, which forms the DNA primer grip in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT. This substructure coordinates primer 3′-end positioning and RT subdomain movements during the polymerization cycle and is a prime target for nonnucleosidic RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) of HIV-1 RT. Box E was indeed critical for DHBV replication, with the mutations affecting the folding, ϵ RNA interactions, and polymerase activity of the P protein in a position- and amino acid side chain-dependent fashion similar to that of HIV-1 RT. Structural similarity to HIV-1 RT was underlined by molecular modeling and was confirmed by the replication activity of chimeric P proteins carrying box E, or even box C to box E, from HIV-1 RT. Hence, box E in the DHBV P protein and likely the HBV P protein forms a primer grip-like structure that may provide a new target for anti-HBV NNRTIs. PMID:22514339

  16. Comment on Gohli et al. (2013): "Does promiscuity explain differences in levels of genetic diversity across passerine birds?".

    PubMed

    Spurgin, Lewis G

    2013-10-01

    Gohli et al. (2013) report a positive relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity across passerine birds, and suggest that female promiscuity acts as a form of balancing selection, maintaining differences in genetic variation across species. This is an interesting hypothesis, but the enormous variation in genetic diversity present within species is not taken into account in their analyses. This, combined with a small sample size at several levels, makes the relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity very difficult to interpret. Demonstrating that species-level differences in genetic diversity (if they occur at all) are affected by promiscuity would require a far more comprehensive study than is presently possible. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Early Life Circumstances as Contributors to HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. To illuminate how this may occur, we present a set of five representative cases of HIV-infected females from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16–24) enrolled in a study about the adaptive challenges people their age faced living with the disease. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and supportive ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with HIV. Study participants completed a battery of standardizes measures, using ACASI, and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Using the qualitative interview data, we illustrate how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting (e.g., low parental supervision), sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed these young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  18. Ultrahigh-throughput discovery of promiscuous enzymes by picodroplet functional metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Pierre-Yves; Kintses, Balint; Gielen, Fabrice; Miton, Charlotte M.; Fischer, Gerhard; Mohamed, Mark F.; Hyvönen, Marko; Morgavi, Diego P.; Janssen, Dick B; Hollfelder, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Unculturable bacterial communities provide a rich source of biocatalysts, but their experimental discovery by functional metagenomics is difficult, because the odds are stacked against the experimentor. Here we demonstrate functional screening of a million-membered metagenomic library in microfluidic picolitre droplet compartments. Using bait substrates, new hydrolases for sulfate monoesters and phosphotriesters were identified, mostly based on promiscuous activities presumed not to be under selection pressure. Spanning three protein superfamilies, these break new ground in sequence space: promiscuity now connects enzymes with only distantly related sequences. Most hits could not have been predicted by sequence analysis, because the desired activities have never been ascribed to similar sequences, showing how this approach complements bioinformatic harvesting of metagenomic sequencing data. Functional screening of a library of unprecedented size with excellent assay sensitivity has been instrumental in identifying rare genes constituting catalytically versatile hubs in sequence space as potential starting points for the acquisition of new functions. PMID:26639611

  19. Estimation of Maximum Recommended Therapeutic Dose Using Predicted Promiscuity and Potency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T; Oprea, T; Ursu, O; Hasselgren, C

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple model that predicts the maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) of small molecule drugs based on an assessment of likely protein–drug interactions. Previously, we reported methods for computational estimation of drug promiscuity and potency. We used these concepts to build a linear model derived from 238 small molecular drugs to predict MRTD. We applied this model successfully to predict MRTDs for 16 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 14 antiretroviral drugs. Of note, based on the estimated promiscuity of low‐dose drugs (and active chemicals), we identified 83 proteins as “high‐risk off‐targets” (HROTs) that are often associated with low doses; the evaluation of interactions with HROTs may be useful during early phases of drug discovery. Our model helps explain the MRTD for drugs with severe adverse reactions caused by interactions with HROTs. PMID:27736015

  20. Duplication of a promiscuous transcription factor drives the emergence of a new regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    Pougach, Ksenia; Voet, Arnout; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Voordeckers, Karin; Christiaens, Joaquin F.; Baying, Bianka; Benes, Vladimir; Sakai, Ryo; Aerts, Jan; Zhu, Bo; Van Dijck, Patrick; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new genes throughout evolution requires rewiring and extension of regulatory networks. However, the molecular details of how the transcriptional regulation of new gene copies evolves remain largely unexplored. Here we show how duplication of a transcription factor gene allowed the emergence of two independent regulatory circuits. Interestingly, the ancestral transcription factor was promiscuous and could bind different motifs in its target promoters. After duplication, one paralogue evolved increased binding specificity so that it only binds one type of motif, whereas the other copy evolved a decreased activity so that it only activates promoters that contain multiple binding sites. Interestingly, only a few mutations in both the DNA-binding domains and in the promoter binding sites were required to gradually disentangle the two networks. These results reveal how duplication of a promiscuous transcription factor followed by concerted cis and trans mutations allows expansion of a regulatory network. PMID:25204769

  1. Ultrahigh-throughput discovery of promiscuous enzymes by picodroplet functional metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Colin, Pierre-Yves; Kintses, Balint; Gielen, Fabrice; Miton, Charlotte M; Fischer, Gerhard; Mohamed, Mark F; Hyvönen, Marko; Morgavi, Diego P; Janssen, Dick B; Hollfelder, Florian

    2015-12-07

    Unculturable bacterial communities provide a rich source of biocatalysts, but their experimental discovery by functional metagenomics is difficult, because the odds are stacked against the experimentor. Here we demonstrate functional screening of a million-membered metagenomic library in microfluidic picolitre droplet compartments. Using bait substrates, new hydrolases for sulfate monoesters and phosphotriesters were identified, mostly based on promiscuous activities presumed not to be under selection pressure. Spanning three protein superfamilies, these break new ground in sequence space: promiscuity now connects enzymes with only distantly related sequences. Most hits could not have been predicted by sequence analysis, because the desired activities have never been ascribed to similar sequences, showing how this approach complements bioinformatic harvesting of metagenomic sequencing data. Functional screening of a library of unprecedented size with excellent assay sensitivity has been instrumental in identifying rare genes constituting catalytically versatile hubs in sequence space as potential starting points for the acquisition of new functions.

  2. Entering the ‘big data’ era in medicinal chemistry: molecular promiscuity analysis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The ‘big data’ concept plays an increasingly important role in many scientific fields. Big data involves more than unprecedentedly large volumes of data that become available. Different criteria characterizing big data must be carefully considered in computational data mining, as we discuss herein focusing on medicinal chemistry. This is a scientific discipline where big data is beginning to emerge and provide new opportunities. For example, the ability of many drugs to specifically interact with multiple targets, termed promiscuity, forms the molecular basis of polypharmacology, a hot topic in drug discovery. Compound promiscuity analysis is an area that is much influenced by big data phenomena. Different results are obtained depending on chosen data selection and confidence criteria, as we also demonstrate. PMID:28670471

  3. Entering the 'big data' era in medicinal chemistry: molecular promiscuity analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    The 'big data' concept plays an increasingly important role in many scientific fields. Big data involves more than unprecedentedly large volumes of data that become available. Different criteria characterizing big data must be carefully considered in computational data mining, as we discuss herein focusing on medicinal chemistry. This is a scientific discipline where big data is beginning to emerge and provide new opportunities. For example, the ability of many drugs to specifically interact with multiple targets, termed promiscuity, forms the molecular basis of polypharmacology, a hot topic in drug discovery. Compound promiscuity analysis is an area that is much influenced by big data phenomena. Different results are obtained depending on chosen data selection and confidence criteria, as we also demonstrate.

  4. Mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 gag protein to Phe causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch, enhances membrane association, and polyubiquitination of Gag.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Age; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-10-02

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag.

  5. Mutation of the Highly Conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 Gag Protein to Phe Causes the Formation of a Hydrophobic Patch, Enhances Membrane Association, and Polyubiquitination of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Åge; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag. PMID:25279819

  6. Plasmodium vivax Promiscuous T-Helper Epitopes Defined and Evaluated as Linear Peptide Chimera Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Aguilar, Ivette; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio; Guzmán, Fanny; De la Vega, Patricia; Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel; Galinski, Mary R.; Moreno, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trials of malaria vaccines have confirmed that parasite-derived T-cell epitopes are required to elicit consistent and long-lasting immune responses. We report here the identification and functional characterization of six T-cell epitopes that are present in the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1) and bind promiscuously to four different HLA-DRB1∗ alleles. Each of these peptides induced lymphoproliferative responses in cells from individuals with previous P. vivax infections. Furthermore, linear-peptide chimeras containing the promiscuous PvMSP-1 T-cell epitopes, synthesized in tandem with the Plasmodium falciparum immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP) B-cell epitope, induced high specific antibody titers, cytokine production, long-lasting immune responses, and immunoglobulin G isotype class switching in BALB/c mice. A linear-peptide chimera containing an allele-restricted P. falciparum T-cell epitope with the CSP B-cell epitope was not effective. Two out of the six promiscuous T-cell epitopes exhibiting the highest anti-peptide response also contain B-cell epitopes. Antisera generated against these B-cell epitopes recognize P. vivax merozoites in immunofluorescence assays. Importantly, the anti-peptide antibodies generated to the CSP B-cell epitope inhibited the invasion of P. falciparum sporozoites into human hepatocytes. These data and the simplicity of design of the chimeric constructs highlight the potential of multimeric, multistage, and multispecies linear-peptide chimeras containing parasite promiscuous T-cell epitopes for malaria vaccine development. PMID:12065487

  7. Differential plant invasiveness is not always driven by host promiscuity with bacterial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Klock, Metha M.; Barrett, Luke G.; Thrall, Peter H.; Harms, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of mechanisms that allow some species to outcompete others is a fundamental goal in ecology and invasive species management. One useful approach is to examine congeners varying in invasiveness in a comparative framework across native and invaded ranges. Acacia species have been widely introduced outside their native range of Australia, and a subset of these species have become invasive in multiple parts of the world. Within specific regions, the invasive status of these species varies. Our study examined whether a key mechanism in the life history of Acacia species, the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, influences acacia invasiveness on a regional scale. To assess the extent to which species varying in invasiveness correspondingly differ with regard to the diversity of rhizobia they associate with, we grew seven Acacia species ranging in invasiveness in California in multiple soils from both their native (Australia) and introduced (California) ranges. In particular, the aim was to determine whether more invasive species formed symbioses with a wider diversity of rhizobial strains (i.e. are more promiscuous hosts). We measured and compared plant performance, including aboveground biomass, survival, and nodulation response, as well as rhizobial community composition and richness. Host promiscuity did not differ among invasiveness categories. Acacia species that varied in invasiveness differed in aboveground biomass for only one soil and did not differ in survival or nodulation within individual soils. In addition, acacias did not differ in rhizobial richness among invasiveness categories. However, nodulation differed between regions and was generally higher in the native than introduced range. Our results suggest that all Acacia species introduced to California are promiscuous hosts and that host promiscuity per se does not explain the observed differences in invasiveness within this region. Our study also highlights the utility of assessing potential

  8. Determination of a HLA II promiscuous peptide cocktail as potential vaccine against EBV latency II malignancies.

    PubMed

    Depil, Stéphane; Moralès, Olivier; Castelli, Florence A; Delhem, Nadira; François, Violaine; Georges, Bertrand; Dufossé, Françoise; Morschhauser, Franck; Hammer, Juergen; Maillère, Bernard; Auriault, Claude; Pancré, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignant diseases, which can be distinguished by their patterns of viral latent gene expression. The latency II program is limited to the expression of the nonimmunodominant antigens EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2 and is seen in EBV-positive Hodgkin disease, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas. CD4 T cells may play a crucial role in controlling these EBV latency II malignancies. In this study, we used the prediction software TEPITOPE to predict promiscuous major histocompatibility complex class II epitopes derived from the latency II antigens EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2. The predicted peptides were then submitted to peptide-binding assays on HLA II purified molecules, which allowed the selection of 6 peptides (EBNA1: 3; LMP1: 1; and LMP2: 2) with a highly promiscuous capability of binding. This peptide cocktail was immunogenic in a model of HLA-DR1 transgenic mice, leading to a specific cellular and humoral TH1 response. The peptides were also recognized by human CD4 T cells from individuals expressing various HLA II genotypes. This promiscuous peptide cocktail could be immunogenic in the majority of the population and may be used as a peptide-based vaccine in EBV latency II malignancies.

  9. Variation in promiscuity and sexual selection drives avian rate of Faster-Z evolution.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Zimmer, Fabian; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

    2015-03-01

    Higher rates of coding sequence evolution have been observed on the Z chromosome relative to the autosomes across a wide range of species. However, despite a considerable body of theory, we lack empirical evidence explaining variation in the strength of the Faster-Z Effect. To assess the magnitude and drivers of Faster-Z Evolution, we assembled six de novo transcriptomes, spanning 90 million years of avian evolution. Our analysis combines expression, sequence and polymorphism data with measures of sperm competition and promiscuity. In doing so, we present the first empirical evidence demonstrating the positive relationship between Faster-Z Effect and measures of promiscuity, and therefore variance in male mating success. Our results from multiple lines of evidence indicate that selection is less effective on the Z chromosome, particularly in promiscuous species, and that Faster-Z Evolution in birds is due primarily to genetic drift. Our results reveal the power of mating system and sexual selection in shaping broad patterns in genome evolution.

  10. Extreme promiscuity of a bacterial and a plant diterpene synthase enables combinatorial biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Meirong; Potter, Kevin C; Peters, Reuben J

    2016-09-01

    Diterpenes are widely distributed across many biological kingdoms, where they serve a diverse range of physiological functions, and some have significant industrial utility. Their biosynthesis involves class I diterpene synthases (DTSs), whose activity can be preceded by that of class II diterpene cyclases (DTCs). Here, a modular metabolic engineering system was used to examine the promiscuity of DTSs. Strikingly, both a bacterial and plant DTS were found to exhibit extreme promiscuity, reacting with all available precursors with orthogonal activity, producing an olefin or hydroxyl group, respectively. Such DTS promiscuity enables combinatorial biosynthesis, with remarkably high yields for these unoptimized non-native enzymatic combinations (up to 15mg/L). Indeed, it was possible to readily characterize the 13 unknown products. Notably, 16 of the observed diterpenes were previously inaccessible, and these results provide biosynthetic routes that are further expected to enable assembly of more extended pathways to produce additionally elaborated 'non-natural' diterpenoids. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Active Site Loop Conformation Regulates Promiscuous Activity in a Lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a “hot spot” in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity. PMID:25706379

  12. Hyperstability and substrate promiscuity in laboratory resurrections of Precambrian β-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Risso, Valeria A; Gavira, Jose A; Mejia-Carmona, Diego F; Gaucher, Eric A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2013-02-27

    We report a sequence reconstruction analysis targeting several Precambrian nodes in the evolution of class-A β-lactamases and the preparation and experimental characterization of their encoded proteins. Despite extensive sequence differences with the modern enzymes (~100 amino acid differences), the proteins resurrected in the laboratory properly fold into the canonical lactamase structure. The encoded proteins from 2-3 billion years (Gyr)-old β-lactamase sequences undergo cooperative two-state thermal denaturation and display very large denaturation temperature enhancements (~35 °C) relative to modern β-lactamases. They degrade different antibiotics in vitro with catalytic efficiencies comparable to that of an average modern enzyme. This enhanced substrate promiscuity is not accompanied by significant changes in the active-site region as seen in static X-ray structures, suggesting a plausible role for dynamics in the evolution of function in these proteins. Laboratory resurrections of 2-3 Gyr-old β-lactamases also endowed modern microorganisms with significant levels of resistance toward a variety of antibiotics, opening up the possibility of performing laboratory replays of the molecular tape of lactamase evolution. Overall, these results support the notions that Precambrian life was thermophilic and that proteins can evolve from substrate-promiscuous generalists into specialists during the course of natural evolution. They also highlight the biotechnological potential of laboratory resurrection of Precambrian proteins, as both high stability and enhanced promiscuity (likely contributors to high evolvability) are advantageous features in protein scaffolds for molecular design and laboratory evolution.

  13. Soay rams target reproductive activity towards promiscuous females' optimal insemination period.

    PubMed

    Preston, B T; Stevenson, I R; Wilson, K

    2003-10-07

    Female promiscuity is thought to have resulted in the evolution of male behaviours that confer advantages in the sperm competition that ensues. In mammalian species, males can gain a post-copulatory advantage in this sperm 'raffle' by inseminating females at the optimal time relative to ovulation, leading to the prediction that males should preferentially associate and copulate with females at these times. To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first high-resolution test of this prediction using feral Soay sheep, which have a mating system characterized by male competition for access to highly promiscuous females. We find that competitive males time their mate guarding (and hence copulations) to occur close to the optimal insemination period (OIP), when females are also increasingly likely to 'cooperate' with copulation attempts. Subordinate males practice an alternative mating tactic, where they break the integrity of the consort pair and force copulations on females. The timing of these forced copulations is also targeted towards the OIP. We thus provide quantitative evidence that female promiscuity has resulted in the evolution of reproductive strategies in which males 'load' the sperm raffle by targeting their mating activity towards female OIPs, when the probability of sperm-competition success is at its greatest.

  14. Genetic monogamy despite social promiscuity in the pot-bellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis).

    PubMed

    Wilson, A B; Martin-Smith, K M

    2007-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts a positive correlation between relative parental investment and mate choice. In syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish), males brood offspring in specialized brooding structures. While female-female mating competition has been demonstrated in some pipefishes, all seahorses (genus Hippocampus) studied to date have been found to have conventional sex roles with greater male-male competition for access to mates despite possessing the most complex brood structures in the family. Although multiple mating is common in pipefish, seahorses are again exceptional, exhibiting strict genetic monogamy. Both demographic and behavioural explanations have been offered to explain the lack of multiple mating in seahorse species, but these hypotheses have not yet been explicitly addressed. We investigated mating systems and brood parentage of the pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis, a temperate-water species that is socially promiscuous with conventional sex roles in laboratory populations. We observed promiscuous courtship behaviour and sex-role reversal in high density, female-biased field populations of H. abdominalis. We hypothesize that sex roles are plastic in H. abdominalis, depending on local population density and sex ratio. Despite promiscuous courtship behaviour, all assayed male seahorses were genetically monogamous in both laboratory and wild populations. Physiological limitations associated with embryo incubation may explain the absence of multiple mating in seahorses and may have played an important role in the development of the unique reproductive behaviour typical in these species.

  15. VS-APPLE: A Virtual Screening Algorithm Using Promiscuous Protein-Ligand Complexes.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Tatsuya; Kato, Koya; Terada, Tomoki P; Sasai, Masaki; Chikenji, George

    2015-06-22

    As the number of structurally resolved protein-ligand complexes increases, the ligand-binding pockets of many proteins have been found to accommodate multiple different compounds. Effective use of these structural data is important for developing virtual screening (VS) methods that identify bioactive compounds. Here, we introduce a VS method, VS-APPLE (Virtual Screening Algorithm using Promiscuous Protein-Ligand complExes), based on promiscuous protein-ligand binding structures. In VS-APPLE, multiple ligands bound to a pocket are combined into a query template for screening. Both the structural match between a test compound and the multiple-ligand template and the possible collisions between the test compound and the target protein are evaluated by an efficient geometric hashing method. The performance of VS-APPLE was examined on a filtered, clustered version of the Directory of Useful Decoys data set. In Area Under the Curve analyses of this data set, VS-APPLE outperformed several popular screening programs. Judging from the performance of VS-APPLE, the structural data of promiscuous protein-ligand bindings could be further analyzed and exploited for developing VS methods.

  16. Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates By Human Carboxylesterase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bencharit, S.; Edwards, C.C.; Morton, C.L.; Howard-Williams, E.L.; Kuhn, P.; Potter, P.M.; Redinbo, M.R.; /North Carolina U. /St. Jude Children's Hosp., Memphis /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-16

    Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a drug and endobiotic-processing serine hydrolase that exhibits relatively broad substrate specificity. It has been implicated in a variety of endogenous cholesterol metabolism pathways including the following apparently disparate reactions: cholesterol ester hydrolysis (CEH), fatty acyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis (FACoAH), acyl-Coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransfer (ACAT), and fatty acyl ethyl ester synthesis (FAEES). The structural basis for the ability of hCE1 to perform these catalytic actions involving large substrates and products has remained unclear. Here we present four crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complexes with the following endogenous substrates or substrate analogues: Coenzyme A, the fatty acid palmitate, and the bile acids cholate and taurocholate. While the active site of hCE1 was known to be promiscuous and capable of interacting with a variety of chemically distinct ligands, these structures reveal that the enzyme contains two additional ligand-binding sites and that each site also exhibits relatively non-specific ligand-binding properties. Using this multisite promiscuity, hCE1 appears structurally capable of assembling several catalytic events depending, apparently, on the physiological state of the cellular environment. These results expand our understanding of enzyme promiscuity and indicate that, in the case of hCE1, multiple non-specific sites are employed to perform distinct catalytic actions.

  17. Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates by Human Carboxylesterase 1

    PubMed Central

    Bencharit, Sompop; Edwards, Carol C.; Morton, Christopher L.; Howard-Williams, Escher L.; Kuhn, Peter; Potter, Philip M.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a drug- and endobiotic-processing serine hydrolase that exhibits relatively broad substrate specificity. It has been implicated in a variety of endogenous cholesterol metabolism pathways including the following apparently disparate reactions: cholesterol ester hydrolysis (CEH), fatty acyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis (FACoAH), acyl-CoenzymeA:cholesterol acyltransfer (ACAT), and fatty acyl ethyl ester synthesis (FAEES). The structural basis for the ability of hCE1 to perform these catalytic actions involving large substrates and products has remained unclear. Here we present four crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in various complexes with endogenous substrates or substrate analogues: Coenzyme A, the fatty acid palmitate, and the bile acids cholate and taurocholate. While the active site of hCE1 was known to be promiscuous and capable of interacting with a variety of chemically-distinct ligands, these structures reveal that the enzyme contains two additional ligand binding sites and that each site also exhibits relatively non-specific ligand binding properties. Using this multisite promiscuity, hCE1 appears structurally capable of assembling several catalytic events depending, apparently, on the physiological state of the cellular environment. These results expand our understanding of enzyme promiscuity and indicate that, in the case of hCE1, multiple non-specific sites are employed to perform distinct catalytic actions. PMID:16962139

  18. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  19. Sulfatases and sulfatase modifying factors: an exclusive and promiscuous relationship.

    PubMed

    Sardiello, M; Annunziata, I; Roma, G; Ballabio, A

    2005-11-01

    Sulfatases catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds from a wide variety of substrates. Several human inherited diseases are caused by the deficiency of individual sulfatases, while in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency mutations in the Sulfatase Modifying Factor 1 (SUMF1) gene cause a defect in the post-translational modification of a cysteine residue into C(alpha)-formylglycine (FGly) at the active site of all sulfatases. This unique modification mechanism, which is required for catalytic activity, has been highly conserved during evolution. Here, we used a genomic approach to investigate the relationship between sulfatases and their modifying factors in humans and several model systems. First, we determined the complete catalog of human sulfatases, which comprises 17 members (versus 14 in rodents) including four novel ones (ARSH, ARSI, ARSJ and ARSK). Secondly, we showed that the active site, which is the target of the post-translational modification, is the most evolutionarily constrained region of sulfatases and shows intraspecies sequence convergence. Exhaustive sequence analyses of available proteomes indicate that sulfatases are the only likely targets of their modifying factors. Thirdly, we showed that sulfatases and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatases share significant homology at their active sites, suggesting a common evolutionary origin as well as similar catalytic mechanisms. Most importantly, gene association studies performed on prokaryotes suggested the presence of at least two additional mechanisms of cysteine-to-FGly conversion, which do not require SUMF1. These results may have important implications in the study of diseases caused by sulfatase deficiencies and in the development of therapeutic strategies.

  20. Interaction of structure-specific and promiscuous G-protein-coupled receptors mediates small-molecule signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Park, Donha; O'Doherty, Inish; Somvanshi, Rishi K; Bethke, Axel; Schroeder, Frank C; Kumar, Ujendra; Riddle, Donald L

    2012-06-19

    A chemically diverse family of small-molecule signals, the ascarosides, control developmental diapause (dauer), olfactory learning, and social behaviors of the nematode model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. The ascarosides act upstream of conserved signaling pathways, including the insulin, TGF-β, serotonin, and guanylyl cyclase pathways; however, the sensory processes underlying ascaroside function are poorly understood. Because ascarosides often are multifunctional and show strongly synergistic effects, characterization of their receptors will be essential for understanding ascaroside biology and may provide insight into molecular mechanisms that produce synergistic outcomes in small-molecule sensing. Based on DAF-8 immunoprecipitation, we here identify two G-protein-coupled receptors, DAF-37 and DAF-38, which cooperatively mediate ascaroside perception. daf-37 mutants are defective in all responses to ascr#2, one of the most potent dauer-inducing ascarosides, although this mutant responds normally to other ascarosides. In contrast, daf-38 mutants are partially defective in responses to several different ascarosides. Through cell-specific overexpression, we show that DAF-37 regulates dauer when expressed in ASI neurons and adult behavior when expressed in ASK neurons. Using a photoaffinity-labeled ascr#2 probe and amplified luminescence assays (AlphaScreen), we demonstrate that ascr#2 binds to DAF-37. Photobleaching fluorescent energy transfer assays revealed that DAF-37 and DAF-38 form heterodimers, and we show that heterodimerization strongly increases cAMP inhibition in response to ascr#2. These results suggest that that the ascarosides' intricate signaling properties result in part from the interaction of highly structure-specific G-protein-coupled receptors such as DAF-37 with more promiscuous G-protein-coupled receptors such as DAF-38.

  1. Interaction of structure-specific and promiscuous G-protein–coupled receptors mediates small-molecule signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donha; O'Doherty, Inish; Somvanshi, Rishi K.; Bethke, Axel; Schroeder, Frank C.; Kumar, Ujendra; Riddle, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A chemically diverse family of small-molecule signals, the ascarosides, control developmental diapause (dauer), olfactory learning, and social behaviors of the nematode model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. The ascarosides act upstream of conserved signaling pathways, including the insulin, TGF-β, serotonin, and guanylyl cyclase pathways; however, the sensory processes underlying ascaroside function are poorly understood. Because ascarosides often are multifunctional and show strongly synergistic effects, characterization of their receptors will be essential for understanding ascaroside biology and may provide insight into molecular mechanisms that produce synergistic outcomes in small-molecule sensing. Based on DAF-8 immunoprecipitation, we here identify two G-protein–coupled receptors, DAF-37 and DAF-38, which cooperatively mediate ascaroside perception. daf-37 mutants are defective in all responses to ascr#2, one of the most potent dauer-inducing ascarosides, although this mutant responds normally to other ascarosides. In contrast, daf-38 mutants are partially defective in responses to several different ascarosides. Through cell-specific overexpression, we show that DAF-37 regulates dauer when expressed in ASI neurons and adult behavior when expressed in ASK neurons. Using a photoaffinity-labeled ascr#2 probe and amplified luminescence assays (AlphaScreen), we demonstrate that ascr#2 binds to DAF-37. Photobleaching fluorescent energy transfer assays revealed that DAF-37 and DAF-38 form heterodimers, and we show that heterodimerization strongly increases cAMP inhibition in response to ascr#2. These results suggest that that the ascarosides' intricate signaling properties result in part from the interaction of highly structure-specific G-protein–coupled receptors such as DAF-37 with more promiscuous G-protein–coupled receptors such as DAF-38. PMID:22665789

  2. New tricks for "old" domains: how novel architectures and promiscuous hubs contributed to the organization and evolution of the ECM.

    PubMed

    Cromar, Graham; Wong, Ka-Chun; Loughran, Noeleen; On, Tuan; Song, Hongyan; Xiong, Xuejian; Zhang, Zhaolei; Parkinson, John

    2014-10-15

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a defining characteristic of metazoans and consists of a meshwork of self-assembling, fibrous proteins, and their functionally related neighbours. Previous studies, focusing on a limited number of gene families, suggest that vertebrate complexity predominantly arose through the duplication and subsequent modification of retained, preexisting ECM genes. These genes provided the structural underpinnings to support a variety of specialized tissues, as well as a platform for the organization of spatio-temporal signaling and cell migration. However, the relative contributions of ancient versus novel domains to ECM evolution have not been quantified across the full range of ECM proteins. Here, utilizing a high quality list comprising 324 ECM genes, we reveal general and clade-specific domain combinations, identifying domains of eukaryotic and metazoan origin recruited into new roles in approximately two-third of the ECM proteins in humans representing novel vertebrate proteins. We show that, rather than acquiring new domains, sampling of new domain combinations has been key to the innovation of paralogous ECM genes during vertebrate evolution. Applying a novel framework for identifying potentially important, noncontiguous, conserved arrangements of domains, we find that the distinct biological characteristics of the ECM have arisen through unique evolutionary processes. These include the preferential recruitment of novel domains to existing architectures and the utilization of high promiscuity domains in organizing the ECM network around a connected array of structural hubs. Our focus on ECM proteins reveals that distinct types of proteins and/or the biological systems in which they operate have influenced the types of evolutionary forces that drive protein innovation. This emphasizes the need for rigorously defined systems to address questions of evolution that focus on specific systems of interacting proteins. © The Author(s) 2014

  3. Peptide Triazole Inactivators of HIV-1 Utilize a Conserved Two-Cavity Binding Site at the Junction of the Inner and Outer Domains of Env gp120

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Rachna; Rashad, Adel A.; Li, Huiyuan; Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat Kalyana; Duffy, Caitlin; Bailey, Lauren D.; Chaiken, Irwin

    2015-01-01

    We used coordinated mutagenesis, synthetic design, and flexible docking to investigate the structural mechanism of Env gp120 encounter by peptide triazole (PT) inactivators of HIV-1. Prior results demonstrated that the PT class of inhibitors suppresses binding at both CD4 and coreceptor sites on Env and triggers gp120 shedding, leading to cell-independent irreversible virus inactivation. Despite these enticing anti-HIV-1 phenotypes, structural understanding of the PT–gp120 binding mechanism has been incomplete. Here we found that PT engages two inhibitor ring moieties at the junction between the inner and outer domains of the gp120 protein. The results demonstrate how combined occupancy of two gp120 cavities can coordinately suppress both receptor and coreceptor binding and conformationally entrap the protein in a destabilized state. The two-cavity model has common features with small molecule gp120 inhibitor binding sites and provides a guide for further design of peptidomimetic HIV-1 inactivators based on the PT pharmacophore. PMID:25860784

  4. Straightforward selection of broadly neutralizing single-domain antibodies targeting the conserved CD4 and coreceptor binding sites of HIV-1 gp120.

    PubMed

    Matz, Julie; Kessler, Pascal; Bouchet, Jérôme; Combes, Olivier; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Barin, Francis; Baty, Daniel; Martin, Loïc; Benichou, Serge; Chames, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Few broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting determinants of the HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120) involved in sequential binding to host CD4 and chemokine receptors have been characterized. While these epitopes show low diversity among various isolates, HIV-1 employs many strategies to evade humoral immune response toward these sensitive sites, including a carbohydrate shield, low accessibility to these buried cavities, and conformational masking. Using trimeric gp140, free or bound to a CD4 mimic, as immunogens in llamas, we selected a panel of broadly neutralizing single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) that bind to either the CD4 or the coreceptor binding site (CD4BS and CoRBS, respectively). When analyzed as monomers or as homo- or heteromultimers, the best sdAb candidates could not only neutralize viruses carrying subtype B envelopes, corresponding to the Env molecule used for immunization and selection, but were also efficient in neutralizing a broad panel of envelopes from subtypes A, C, G, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG, including tier 3 viruses. Interestingly, sdAb multimers exhibited a broader neutralizing activity spectrum than the parental sdAb monomers. The extreme stability and high recombinant production yield combined with their broad neutralization capacity make these sdAbs new potential microbicide candidates for HIV-1 transmission prevention.

  5. Steroid signaling: ligand-binding promiscuity, molecular symmetry, and the need for gating.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard; Kotelevtsev, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Steroid/sterol-binding receptors and enzymes are remarkably promiscuous in the range of ligands they can bind to and, in the case of enzymes, modify - raising the question of how specific receptor activation is achieved in vivo. Estrogen receptors (ER) are modulated by 27-hydroxycholesterol and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol (Adiol), in addition to estradiol (E2), and respond to diverse small molecules such as bisphenol A. Steroid-modifying enzymes are also highly promiscuous in ligand binding and metabolism. The specificity problem is compounded by the fact that the steroid core (hydrogenated cyclopentophenanthrene ring system) has several planes of symmetry. Ligand binding can be in symmetrical East-West (rotation) and North-South (inversion) orientations. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) can modify symmetrical 7 and 11, also 3 and 17/20, positions, exemplified here by yeast 3α,20β-HSD and mammalian 11β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymes. Faced with promiscuity and symmetry, other strategies are clearly necessary to promote signaling selectivity in vivo. Gating regulates hormone access via enzymes that preferentially inactivate (or activate) a subclass of ligands, thereby governing which ligands gain receptor access - exemplified by 11β-HSD gating cortisol access to the mineralocorticoid receptor, and P450 CYP7B1 gating Adiol access to ER. Counter-intuitively, the specificity of steroid/sterol action is achieved not by intrinsic binding selectivity but by the combination of local metabolism and binding affinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biophysical Basis of the Promiscuous Binding of Bcl2 Apoptotic Repressor to BH3 Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Vikas; Olenick, Max B.; Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Bcl2 apoptotic repressor carries out its function by virtue of its ability to bind to BH3 domains of various pro-apoptotic regulators in a highly promiscuous manner. Herein, we investigate the biophysical basis of such promiscuity of Bcl2 toward its cognate BH3 ligands. Our data show that while the BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif bind to Bcl2 with submicromolar affinity, those with the LXXX[G/S]D motif afford weak interactions. This implies that the replacement of alanine at the fourth position (A+4)—relative to the N-terminal leucine (L0) within the LXXXAD motif—to glycine/serine results in the loss of free energy of binding. Consistent with this notion, the A+4 residue within the BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif engages in key intermolecular van der Waals contacts with A149 lining the ligand binding groove within Bcl2, while A+4G/S substitution results in the disruption of such favorable binding interactions. Of particular interest is the observation that while increasing ionic strength has little or negligible effect on the binding of high-affinity BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif, the binding of those with the LXXX[G/S]D motif in general experiences a varying degree of enhancement. This salient observation is indicative of the fact that hydrophobic forces not only play a dominant but also a universal role in driving the Bcl2-BH3 interactions. Taken together, our study sheds light on the molecular basis of the factors governing the promiscuous binding of Bcl2 to pro-apoptotic regulators and thus bears important consequences on the development of rational therapeutic approaches. PMID:23996493

  7. Predicting the multi-modal binding propensity of small molecules: towards an understanding of drug promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Park, Keunwan; Lee, Soyoung; Ahn, Hee-Sung; Kim, Dongsup

    2009-08-01

    Drug promiscuity is one of the key issues in current drug development. Many famous drugs have turned out to behave unexpectedly due to their propensity to bind to multiple targets. One of the primary reasons for this promiscuity is that drugs bind to multiple distinctive target environments, a feature that we call multi-modal binding. Accordingly, investigations into whether multi-modal binding propensities can be predicted, and if so, whether the features determining this behavior can be found, would be an important advance. In this study, we have developed a structure-based classifier that predicts whether small molecules will bind to multiple distinct binding sites. The binding sites for all ligands in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) were clustered by binding site similarity, and the ligands that bind to many dissimilar binding sites were identified as multi-modal binding ligands. The mono-binding ligands were also collected, and the classifiers were built using various machine-learning algorithms. A 10-fold cross-validation procedure showed 70-85% accuracy depending on the choice of machine-learning algorithm, and the different definitions used to identify multi-modal binding ligands. In addition, a quantified importance measurement for global and local descriptors was also provided, which suggests that the local features are more likely to have an effect on multi-modal binding than the global ones. The interpretable global and local descriptors were also ranked by their importance. To test the classifier on real examples, several test sets including well-known promiscuous drugs were collected by a literature and database search. Despite the difficulty in constructing appropriate testable sets, the classifier showed reasonable results that were consistent with existing information on drug behavior. Finally, a test on natural enzyme substrates and artificial drugs suggests that the natural compounds tend to exhibit a broader range of multi-modal binding than the

  8. Mechanistic and Evolutionary Insights from the Reciprocal Promiscuity of Two Pyridoxal Phosphate-dependent Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Valerie W. C.; Yosaatmadja, Yuliana; Squire, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes that utilize the cofactor pyridoxal 5′-phosphate play essential roles in amino acid metabolism in all organisms. The cofactor is used by proteins that adopt at least five different folds, which raises questions about the evolutionary processes that might explain the observed distribution of functions among folds. In this study, we show that a representative of fold type III, the Escherichia coli alanine racemase (ALR), is a promiscuous cystathionine β-lyase (CBL). Furthermore, E. coli CBL (fold type I) is a promiscuous alanine racemase. A single round of error-prone PCR and selection yielded variant ALR(Y274F), which catalyzes cystathionine β-elimination with a near-native Michaelis constant (Km = 3.3 mm) but a poor turnover number (kcat ≈10 h−1). In contrast, directed evolution also yielded CBL(P113S), which catalyzes l-alanine racemization with a poor Km (58 mm) but a high kcat (22 s−1). The structures of both variants were solved in the presence and absence of the l-alanine analogue, (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid. As expected, the ALR active site was enlarged by the Y274F substitution, allowing better access for cystathionine. More surprisingly, the favorable kinetic parameters of CBL(P113S) appear to result from optimizing the pKa of Tyr-111, which acts as the catalytic acid during l-alanine racemization. Our data emphasize the short mutational routes between the functions of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes, regardless of whether or not they share the same fold. Thus, they confound the prevailing model of enzyme evolution, which predicts that overlapping patterns of promiscuity result from sharing a common multifunctional ancestor. PMID:27474741

  9. Daphnia HR96 is a Promiscuous Xenobiotic and Endobiotic Nuclear Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Karimullina, Elina; Li, Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam; Baldwin, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics. PMID:22466357

  10. Achieving Peptide Binding Specificity and Promiscuity by Loops: Case of the Forkhead-Associated Domain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-ming M.; Chang, Chia-en A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of a series of cellular events requires specific protein–protein interactions, which are usually mediated by modular domains to precisely select a particular sequence from diverse partners. However, most signaling domains can bind to more than one peptide sequence. How do proteins create promiscuity from precision? Moreover, these complex interactions typically occur at the interface of a well-defined secondary structure, α helix and β sheet. However, the molecular recognition primarily controlled by loop architecture is not fully understood. To gain a deep understanding of binding selectivity and promiscuity by the conformation of loops, we chose the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain as our model system. The domain can bind to diverse peptides via various loops but only interact with sequences containing phosphothreonine (pThr). We applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for multiple free and bound FHA domains to study the changes in conformations and dynamics. Generally, FHA domains share a similar folding structure whereby the backbone holds the overall geometry and the variety of sidechain atoms of multiple loops creates a binding surface to target a specific partner. FHA domains determine the specificity of pThr by well-organized binding loops, which are rigid to define a phospho recognition site. The broad range of peptide recognition can be attributed to different arrangements of the loop interaction network. The moderate flexibility of the loop conformation can help access or exclude binding partners. Our work provides insights into molecular recognition in terms of binding specificity and promiscuity and helpful clues for further peptide design. PMID:24870410

  11. A Conserved Glycan in the C2 Domain of HIV-1 Envelope Acts as a Molecular Switch to Control X4 Utilization by Clonal Variants with Identical V3 Loops

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Thomas; Sobrera, Edwin R.; Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all persons newly infected with HIV-1 harbor exclusively CCR5-using virus. CXCR4-using variants eventually arise in up to 50% of patients infected with subtypes B or D. This transition to efficient CXCR4 utilization is often co-incident with progression to AIDS. The basis for HIV-1’s initial dependence on CCR5, the selective force(s) that drive CXCR4-utilization, and the evolutionary pathways by which it occurs are incompletely understood. Greater knowledge of these processes will inform interventions at all stages, from vaccination to cure. The determinants of co-receptor use map primarily, though not exclusively, to the V3 loop of gp120. In this study, we describe five clonal variants with identical V3 loops but divergent CXCR4 use. Mutagenesis revealed two residues controlling this phenotypic switch: a rare polymorphism in C1 and a highly conserved N-glycan in C2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of co-receptor usage regulated by the N-glycan at position 262. PMID:26083631

  12. Watching one's P's and Q's: promiscuity, plasticity, and quasiequivalence in a T = 1 virus.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, M S

    1998-01-01

    Although quasiequivalence is not needed to explain the assembly of the T = 1 canine parvovirus capsid, the interactions of the 60-fold symmetrical capsid protein with less symmetrical viral components illustrate the elements of plasticity and promiscuity of interactions that are embodied in quasiequivalence. The current analysis is based on interactions of fivefold related proteins with a single peptide running along the fivefold axis, and on interactions of the capsid protein with various fragments of the genomic DNA, each having a different sequence and exposing the protein to interactions with different types of nucleotide base. PMID:9449365

  13. Exploring the catalytic promiscuity of a new glycosyltransferase from Carthamus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kebo; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Dawei; Dou, Xiaoxiang; Dai, Jungui

    2014-09-19

    The catalytic promiscuity of a new glycosyltransferase (UGT73AE1) from Carthamus tinctorius was explored. UGT73AE1 showed the capability to glucosylate a total of 19 structurally diverse types of acceptors and to generate O-, S-, and N-glycosides, making it the first reported trifunctional plant glycosyltransferase. The catalytic reversibility and regioselectivity were observed and modeled in a one-pot reaction transferring a glucose moiety from icariin to emodin. These findings demonstrate the potential versatility of UGT73AE1 in the glycosylation of bioactive natural products.

  14. Mutations, kataegis, and translocations in B lymphocytes: towards a mechanistic understanding of AID promiscuous activity

    PubMed Central

    Casellas, Rafael; Basu, Uttiya; Yewdell, William T.; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Robbiani, Davide F.; Di Noia, Javier M.

    2016-01-01

    As B cells engage in the immune response they express the deaminase AID to initiate the hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, which are crucial processes for the efficient recognition and disposal of pathogens, However, AID must be tightly controlled in B cells to minimize off-targeting mutations, which can drive chromosomal translocations and the development of B cell malignancies, such as lymphomas. Recent genomic and biochemical analyses have begun to unravel the crucial question of how AID-mediated deamination is targeted outside immunoglobulin genes. Here, we discuss the transcriptional and topological features that are emerging as key drivers of AID promiscuous activity. PMID:26898111

  15. HIV and gynaecological infections.

    PubMed

    Sebitloane, Mothshedisi H

    2005-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the co-existence of gynaecological infections is not surprising, given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Most gynaecological infections are themselves sexually acquired, and have the potential to increase the risk both of acquiring and transmitting the HI virus. As most sexually transmitted infections are asymptomatic, there is a need to improve methods of diagnosis and algorithms for early detection of sexually transmitted infections. HIV infection, however, particularly advanced disease, may alter the clinical presentation, course and response to conservative treatment for some of the sexually transmitted infections.

  16. ADS-J1 inhibits HIV-1 infection and membrane fusion by targeting the highly conserved pocket in the gp41 NHR-trimer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Liu, Qi; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Lili; He, Elaine; Zou, Peng; Du, Lanying; Sanders, Rogier W; Liu, Shuwen; Jiang, Shibo

    2014-05-01

    We previously identified a potent small-molecule human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion inhibitor, termed ADS-J1, and hypothesized that it mainly targeted the hydrophobic pocket in the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) trimer. However, this hypothesis has been challenged by the fact that ADS-J1 cannot induce drug-resistance mutation in the gp41 pocket region. Therefore, we show herein that HIV-1 mutants resistant to T2635, a peptide derived from the gp41 C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region with pocket-binding domain (PBD), were also resistant to ADS-J1. We also show that pseudoviruses with mutations at positions 64 and 67 in the gp41 pocket region were highly resistant to ADS-J1 and C34, another CHR-peptide with PBD, but relatively sensitive to T20, a CHR-peptide without PBD. ADS-J1 could effectively bind to N36Fd, a mimic of the gp41 NHR-trimer with pocket exposed, and block binding of C34 to N36Fd trimer to form six-helix bundle (6-HB). However, ADS-J1 was less effective in binding to N36Fd trimer with mutations in the gp41 pocket region, such as N36(Q64A)Fd, N36(Q64L)Fd, N36(A67G)Fd, N36(A67S)Fd, and N36(Q66R)Fd, as well as less effective in blocking 6-HB formation between C34 and these mutant N36Fd trimers. These results confirm that ADS-J1 mainly targets the pocket region in the HIV-1 gp41 NHR trimer and suggest that it could be used as a lead for developing small-molecule HIV fusion inhibitors and as a molecule probe for studying the mechanisms of gp41-mediated membrane fusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequence-conserved and antibody-accessible sites in the V1V2 domain of HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Grigoryan, Arsen; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Abagyan, Ruben; Cardozo, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    The immune-correlates analysis of the RV144 trial suggested that epitopes targeted by protective antibodies (Abs) reside in the V1V2 domain of gp120. We mapped V1V2 positional sequence variation onto the conserved V1V2 structural fold and showed that while most of the solvent-accessible V1V2 amino acids vary between strains, there are two accessible molecular surface regions that are conserved and also naturally antigenic. These sites may contain epitopes targeted by broadly cross-reactive anti-V1V2 antibodies.

  18. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Enhanced DNA Binding by a Promiscuous Mutant EcoRI Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Sapienza, Paul J.; Rosenberg, John M.; Jen-Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Promiscuous mutant EcoRI endonucleases bind to the canonical site GAATTC more tightly than does the wild-type endonuclease, yet cleave variant (EcoRI*) sites more rapidly than does wild-type. The crystal structure of the A138T promiscuous mutant homodimer in complex with a GAATTC site is nearly identical to that of the wild-type complex, except that the Thr138 side chains make novel packing interactions with bases in the 5′-flanking regions outside the recognition hexanucleotide, while excluding two bound water molecules seen in the wild-type complex. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm exclusion of these waters. The structure and simulations suggest multiple possible reasons why binding of A138T protein to the GAATTC site has ΔS° more favorable and ΔH° less favorable than for wild-type endonuclease binding. The novel interactions of Thr138 with flanking bases may permit A138T, unlike wild-type enzyme, to form complexes with EcoRI* sites that structurally resemble the specific wild-type complex with GAATTC. PMID:17997963

  19. Associations between Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Variation with Both Infidelity and Sexual Promiscuity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Justin R.; MacKillop, James; Aller, Edward L.; Merriwether, Ann M.; Wilson, David Sloan; Lum, J. Koji

    2010-01-01

    Background Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection), little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity. Methodology/Principal Findings We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+) report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a “one-night stand”) and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity. Conclusions/Significance DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism. PMID:21152404

  20. Associations between dopamine D4 receptor gene variation with both infidelity and sexual promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Justin R; MacKillop, James; Aller, Edward L; Merriwether, Ann M; Wilson, David Sloan; Lum, J Koji

    2010-11-30

    Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection), little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity. We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+) report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a "one-night stand") and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity. DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism.

  1. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Cunningham, Mark A.; Mire, Joseph; Tesar, Christine; Sacchettini, James; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The specter of a return to an era in which infectious disease looms as a significant threat to human health is not just hyperbole; there are serious concerns about the widespread overuse and misuse of antibiotics contributing to increased antibiotic resistance in pathogens. The recent discovery of a new enzyme, first identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a patient from New Delhi and denoted as NDM-1, represents an example of extreme promiscuity: It hydrolyzes and inactivates nearly all known β-lactam-based antibiotics with startling efficiency. NDM-1 can utilize different metal cofactors and seems to exploit an alternative mechanism based on the reaction conditions. Here we report the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study that examines the substrate, metal binding, and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. We utilize structures obtained through X-ray crystallography, biochemical assays, and numerical simulation to construct a model of the enzyme catalytic pathway. The NDM-1 enzyme interacts with the substrate solely through zinc, or other metals, bound in the active site, explaining the observed lack of specificity against a broad range of β-lactam antibiotic agents. The zinc ions also serve to activate a water molecule that hydrolyzes the β-lactam ring through a proton shuttle.—Kim, Y., Cunningham, M. A.; Mire, J., Tesar, C., Sacchettini, J., Joachimiak, A. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism. PMID:23363572

  2. Ligand Promiscuity of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists and Antagonists Revealed by Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Soshilov, Anatoly A.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by structurally diverse chemicals. To examine the mechanisms responsible for the promiscuity in AhR ligand binding, we determined the effects of mutations within the AhR ligand-binding domain (LBD) on the activity of diverse AhR ligands. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Ile319 of the mouse AhR and, to a lesser extent, Phe318 as residues involved in ligand-selective modulation of AhR transformation using a panel of 12 AhR ligands. These ligands could be categorized into four distinct structurally related groups based on their ability to activate AhR mutants at position 319 in vitro. The mutation I319K was selectively activated by FICZ and not by other examined ligands in vitro and in cell culture. F318L and F318A mutations resulted in the conversion of AhR agonists β-naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene, respectively, into partial agonists/antagonists. Hsp90 binding to the AhR was decreased with several mutations and was inversely correlated with AhR ligand-binding promiscuity. Together, these data define overlapping amino acid residues within the AhR LBD involved in the selectivity of ligand binding, the agonist or antagonist mode of ligand binding, and hsp90 binding and provide insights into the ligand diversity of AhR activators. PMID:24591650

  3. The effect of the promiscuity stereotype on opposition to gay rights

    PubMed Central

    Haselton, Martie G.

    2017-01-01

    Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one’s own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype. We found that the manipulation interacted with short-term mating orientation (STMO) to predict opposition to gay rights, such that low-STMO individuals (i.e. more averse to casual sex) exhibited more support for gay rights when assigned to read the stereotype-refuting article compared to the stereotype-confirming article, whereas high-STMO individuals (i.e. less averse to casual sex) were not significantly influenced by the manipulation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of antigay attitudes, as well as for recent societal changes in acceptance of homosexuality. PMID:28704375

  4. The promiscuous larvae: flexibility in the establishment of symbiosis in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbo, V. R.; Baird, A. H.; van Oppen, M. J. H.

    2013-03-01

    Coral reefs thrive in part because of the symbiotic partnership between corals and Symbiodinium. While this partnership is one of the keys to the success of coral reef ecosystems, surprisingly little is known about many aspects of coral symbiosis, in particular the establishment and development of symbiosis in host species that acquire symbionts anew in each generation. More specifically, the point at which symbiosis is established (i.e., larva vs. juvenile) remains uncertain, as does the source of free-living Symbiodinium in the environment. In addition, the capacity of host and symbiont to form novel combinations is unknown. To explore patterns of initial association between host and symbiont, larvae of two species of Acropora were exposed to sediment collected from three locations on the Great Barrier Reef. A high proportion of larvae established symbiosis shortly after contact with sediments, and Acropora larvae were promiscuous, taking up multiple types of Symbiodinium. The Symbiodinium types acquired from the sediments reflected the symbiont assemblage within a wide range of cnidarian hosts at each of the three sites, suggesting potential regional differences in the free-living Symbiodinium assemblage. Coral larvae clearly have the capacity to take up Symbiodinium prior to settlement, and sediment is a likely source. Promiscuous larvae allow species to associate with Symbiodinium appropriate for potentially novel environments that may be experienced following dispersal.

  5. Specificity and promiscuity among naturally processed peptides bound to HLA-DR alleles

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Naturally processed peptides were acid extracted from immunoaffinity- purified HLA-DR2, DR3, DR4, DR7, and DR8. Using the complementary techniques of mass spectrometry and Edman microsequencing, > 200 unique peptide masses were identified from each allele, ranging from 1,200 to 4,000 daltons (10-34 residues in length), and a total of 201 peptide sequences were obtained. These peptides were derived from 66 different source proteins and represented sets nested at both the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends with an average length of 15-18 amino acids. Strikingly, most of the peptides (> 85%) were derived from endogenous proteins that intersect the endocytic/class II pathway, even though class II molecules are thought to function mainly in the presentation of exogenous foreign peptide antigens. The predominant endogenous peptides were derived from major histocompatibility complex-related molecules. A few peptides derived from exogenous bovine serum proteins were also bound to every allele. Four prominent promiscuous self- peptide sets (capable of binding to multiple HLA-DR alleles) as well as 84 allele-specific peptide sets were identified. Binding experiments confirmed that the promiscuous peptides have high affinity for the binding groove of all HLA-DR alleles examined. A potential physiologic role for these endogenous self-peptides as immunomodulators of the cellular immune response is discussed. PMID:8315383

  6. Testing whether metazoan tyrosine loss was driven by selection against promiscuous phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Siddharth; Struck, Travis J; Mannakee, Brian K; Paniscus, Mary; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory modification in metazoans, and the corresponding kinase enzymes have diversified dramatically. This diversification is correlated with a genome-wide reduction in protein tyrosine content, and it was recently suggested that this reduction was driven by selection to avoid promiscuous phosphorylation that might be deleterious. We tested three predictions of this intriguing hypothesis. 1) Selection should be stronger on residues that are more likely to be phosphorylated due to local solvent accessibility or structural disorder. 2) Selection should be stronger on proteins that are more likely to be promiscuously phosphorylated because they are abundant. We tested these predictions by comparing distributions of tyrosine within and among human and yeast orthologous proteins. 3) Selection should be stronger against mutations that create tyrosine versus remove tyrosine. We tested this prediction using human population genomic variation data. We found that all three predicted effects are modest for tyrosine when compared with the other amino acids, suggesting that selection against deleterious phosphorylation was not dominant in driving metazoan tyrosine loss.

  7. Substrate promiscuity in DNA methyltransferase M.PvuII. A mechanistic insight.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan; Roca, Maite; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2012-07-28

    M.PvuII is a DNA methyltransferase from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris that catalyzes methylation of cytosine at the N4 position. This enzyme also displays promiscuous activity catalyzing methylation of adenine at the N6 position. In this work we use QM/MM methods to investigate the reaction mechanism of this promiscuous activity. We found that N6 methylation in M.PvuII takes place by means of a stepwise mechanism in which deprotonation of the exocyclic amino group is followed by the methyl transfer. Deprotonation involves two residues of the active site, Ser53 and Asp96, while methylation takes place directly from the AdoMet cofactor to the target nitrogen atom. The same reaction mechanism was described for cytosine methylation in the same enzyme, while the reversal timing, that is methylation followed by deprotonation, has been described in M.TaqI, an enzyme that catalyzes the N6-adenine DNA methylation from Thermus aquaticus. These mechanistic findings can be useful to understand the evolutionary paths followed by N-methyltransferases.

  8. Promiscuous activity of ER glucosidase II discovered through donor specificity analysis of UGGT

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Atsushi; Totani, Kiichiro; Matsuo, Ichiro; Ito, Yukishige

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} UGGT has a narrow donor specificity. {yields} UGGT gave several non-natural high-mannose-type glycans. {yields} G-II has a promiscuous activity as broad specificity hexosidase. -- Abstract: In glycoprotein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), UGGT (UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase) and glucosidase II (G-II) play key roles. UGGT serves as a glycoprotein folding sensor by virtue of its unique specificity to glucosylate glycoproteins at incompletely folded stage. By using various UDP-Glc analogues, we first analyzed donor specificity of UGGT, which was proven to be rather narrow. However, marginal activity was observed with UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronic acid as well as with 3-, 4- and 6-deoxy glucose analogues to give corresponding transfer products. Intriguingly, G-II smoothly converted all of them back to Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}, providing an indication that G-II has a promiscuous activity as a broad specificity hexosidase.

  9. Identification and regulation of the catalytic promiscuity of (-)-γ-lactamase from Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Jianjun; Zhu, Junge; Wu, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Mhg, a previously reported (-)-γ-lactamase from Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans, was identified to have perhydrolase activity by combining structure similarity search with activity assays. Kinetic studies illustrated that perhydrolysis was the native activity owing to lower K m and higher k cat/K m values. Experimental evidence showed that both hydrolysis and perhydrolysis reactions took place at the same active center. Engineering of the putative substrate-binding pocket revealed that Leu233 site played a vital role in the aspects of selective catalysis, soluble protein expression level and optimum temperature shift, etc. The mutants L233A, L233P, and L233T retained (-)-γ-lactamase activity but lost perhydrolase activity, while L233M only kept perhydrolase activity. Substitutions of Leu233 could dramatically influence the state of expressed protein. Computational analysis explicitly explained the relationships between mutations and γ-lactamase activity changes. Our investigations demonstrated that it was an efficient method to identify the enzyme catalytic promiscuity by combining 3D structure alignment with activity validations, and engineering of substrate-binding pocket could serve as a promising way to regulate activities of promiscuous enzymes.

  10. From promiscuity to the lipid divide: on the evolution of distinct membranes in Archaea and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yosuke

    2014-04-01

    The structural and biosynthetic features of archaeal phospholipids provide clues to the membrane lipid composition in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) membranes. The evident similarity of the phospholipid biosynthetic pathways in Archaea and Bacteria suggests that one set of these biosynthetic enzymes would have worked on a wide range of lipids composed of enantiomeric glycerophosphate backbones linked with a variety of hydrocarbon chains. This notion was supported by the discovery of a wide range reactivity of enzymes belonging to the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase family. It is hypothesized that lipid promiscuity is generated from the prebiotic surface metabolism on pyrite proposed by Wächtershäuser. The significance of the phosphate groups on the intermediates of phospholipid biosynthesis and the extra anionic groups of a polar head group suggested the likely involvement of surface metabolism. Anionic groups are essential for surface metabolism. Since the early chemical evolution reactions are presumed to be non-specific, every combination of the available lipid component parts would be expected to be formed. The mixed lipid membranes present in LUCA were segregated and this led to the differentiation of Archaea and Bacteria, as described previously. The proper arrangement of membrane lipids was generated by the physicochemical drive arising from the promiscuity of the primordial membrane lipids.

  11. The effect of the promiscuity stereotype on opposition to gay rights.

    PubMed

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie G

    2017-01-01

    Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype. We found that the manipulation interacted with short-term mating orientation (STMO) to predict opposition to gay rights, such that low-STMO individuals (i.e. more averse to casual sex) exhibited more support for gay rights when assigned to read the stereotype-refuting article compared to the stereotype-confirming article, whereas high-STMO individuals (i.e. less averse to casual sex) were not significantly influenced by the manipulation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of antigay attitudes, as well as for recent societal changes in acceptance of homosexuality.

  12. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  13. Duplication and familial promiscuity within the proteasome lid and COP9 signalosome kin complexes.

    PubMed

    Serino, Giovanna; Pick, Elah

    2013-04-01

    Two paralogous complexes, the proteasome lid and the COP9 signalosome (CSN), have diverged from a common ancestor; yet fulfill distinctive roles within the ubiquitin-proteasome sphere. The CSN regulates the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, called CRLs (Cullin-RING ubiquitin Ligases), while the lid is a subcomplex of the 26S proteasome, a proteolytic machinery responsible for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Remarkably, in many organisms, several subunits of both complexes are duplicated, a circumstance that can hypothetically increase the number of different complexes that can be formed. Duplication, however, is not the only complexity trait within the lid and the CSN, because many of their subunits are not fully committed only to one of the two complexes, but they are able to associate with both. Indeed, their corresponding mutants have features that can be due to the absence of more than one complex. This could be simply explained by the subunits being able to carry an identical function within more than one paralogous complex or by the subunits having a certain level of promiscuity, i.e. being able to carry more than one function, depending on the complex they are associating with. Recent data show that both options are possible and, although their functional relevance still needs to be fully uncovered, evidence is accumulating, which indicates a promiscuous trading of paralogous subunits, and suggests that this may occur transiently, and/or in response to particular environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood victimization and subsequent risk for promiscuity, prostitution, and teenage pregnancy: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Widom, C S; Kuhns, J B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extent to which being abused and/or neglected in childhood increases a person's risk for promiscuity, prostitution, and teenage pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohorts design was used to match, on the basis of age, race, sex, and social class, cases of abused and/or neglected children from 1967 to 1971 with nonabused and nonneglected children; subjects were followed into young adulthood. From 1989 to 1995 1196 subjects (676 abused and/or neglected and 520 control subjects were located and interviewed. RESULTS: Early childhood abuse and/or neglect was a significant predictor of prostitution for females (odds ratio [OR] = 2.96). For females, sexual abuse (OR = 2.54) and neglect (OR = 2.58) were associated with prostitution, whereas physical abuse was only marginally associated. Childhood abuse and neglect were not associated with increased risk for promiscuity or teenage pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly support a relationship between childhood victimization and subsequent prostitution. The presumed causal sequence between childhood victimization and teenage pregnancy may need to be reevaluated. PMID:8916528

  15. Cytochrome P450 promiscuity leads to a bifurcating biosynthetic pathway for tanshinones.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan; Ma, Xiaohui; Cai, Yuan; Ma, Ying; Zhan, Zhilai; Zhou, Yongjin J; Liu, Wujun; Guan, Mengxin; Yang, Jian; Cui, Guanghong; Kang, Liping; Yang, Lei; Shen, Ye; Tang, Jinfu; Lin, Huixin; Ma, Xiaojing; Jin, Baolong; Liu, Zhenming; Peters, Reuben J; Zhao, Zongbao K; Huang, Luqi

    2016-04-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play a key role in generating the structural diversity of terpenoids, the largest group of plant natural products. However, functional characterization of CYPs has been challenging because of the expansive families found in plant genomes, diverse reactivity and inaccessibility of their substrates and products. Here we present the characterization of two CYPs, CYP76AH3 and CYP76AK1, which act sequentially to form a bifurcating pathway for the biosynthesis of tanshinones, the oxygenated diterpenoids from the Chinese medicinal plant Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These CYPs had similar transcription profiles to that of the known gene responsible for tanshinone production in elicited Danshen hairy roots. Biochemical and RNA interference studies demonstrated that both CYPs are promiscuous. CYP76AH3 oxidizes ferruginol at two different carbon centers, and CYP76AK1 hydroxylates C-20 of two of the resulting intermediates. Together, these convert ferruginol into 11,20-dihydroxy ferruginol and 11,20-dihydroxy sugiol en route to tanshinones. Moreover, we demonstrated the utility of these CYPs by engineering yeast for heterologous production of six oxygenated diterpenoids, which in turn enabled structural characterization of three novel compounds produced by CYP-mediated oxidation. Our results highlight the incorporation of multiple CYPs into diterpenoid metabolic engineering, and a continuing trend of CYP promiscuity generating complex networks in terpenoid biosynthesis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Cytochrome P450 promiscuity leads to a bifurcating biosynthetic pathway for tanshinones

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juan; Ma, Xiaohui; Cai, Yuan; Ma, Ying; Zhan, Zhilai; Zhou, Yongjin J; Liu, Wujun; Guan, Mengxin; Yang, Jian; Cui, Guanghong; Kang, Liping; Yang, Lei; Shen, Ye; Tang, Jinfu; Lin, Huixin; Ma, Xiaojing; Jin, Baolong; Liu, Zhenming; Peters, Reuben J.; Zhao, Zongbao K.; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play key role in generating the structural diversity of terpenoids, the largest group of plant natural products. However, functional characterization of CYPs has been challenging because of the expansive families found in plant genomes, diverse reactivity and inaccessibility of their substrates and products.Here we present the characterization of two CYPs, CYP76AH3 and CYP76AK1, that act sequentially to form a bifurcating pathway for the biosynthesis of tanshinones, the oxygenated diterpenoids from the Chinese medicinal plant Danshen.These CYPs had similar transcription profiles to that of the known gene responsible for tanshinone production in elicited Danshen hairy roots. Biochemical and RNA interference studies demonstrated that both CYPs are promiscuous. CYP76AH3 oxidizes ferruginol at two different carbon centers, and CYP76AK1 hydroxylates C-20 of two of the resulting intermediates. Together, these convert ferruginol into 11,20-dihydroxy ferruginol and 11,20-dihydroxy sugiol en route to tanshinones. Moreover, we demonstrate the utility of these CYPs by engineering yeast for heterologous production of six oxygenated diterpenoids, which in turn enabled structural characterization of three novel compounds produced by CYP-mediated oxidation.Our results highlight the incorporation of multiple CYPs in diterpenoids metabolic engineering, and a continuing trend of CYPs promiscuity generating complex networks in terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26682704

  17. Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Furanics: Exploitation of Hemoglobin Catalytic Promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hao-Yu; Zong, Min-Hua; Yu, Hui-Lei; Li, Ning

    2017-09-22

    The catalytic promiscuity of hemoglobin (Hb) was explored for regenerating oxidized nicotinamide cofactors [NAD(P)(+) ]. With H2 O2 as oxidant, Hb efficiently oxidized NAD(P)H into NAD(P)(+) within 30 min. The new NAD(P)(+) regeneration system was coupled with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) for the oxidation of bio-based furanics such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The target acids (e.g., 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, FDCA) were prepared with moderate-to-good yields. The enzymatic regeneration method was applied in l-glutamic dehydrogenase (DH)-mediated oxidative deamination of lglutamate and for l-lactic-DH-mediated oxidation of l-lactate, which furnished α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate in yields of 97 % and 81 %, respectively. A total turnover number (TTON) of up to approximately 5000 for cofactor and an E factor of less than 110 were obtained in the bi-enzymatic cascade synthesis of α-ketoglutarate. Overall, a proof-of-concept based on catalytic promiscuity of Hb was provided for in situ regeneration of NAD(P)(+) in DH-catalyzed oxidation reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Polypharmacology directed compound data mining: identification of promiscuous chemotypes with different activity profiles and comparison to approved drugs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2010-12-27

    Increasing evidence that many pharmaceutically relevant compounds elicit their effects through binding to multiple targets, so-called polypharmacology, is beginning to change conventional drug discovery and design strategies. In light of this paradigm shift, we have mined publicly available compound and bioactivity data for promiscuous chemotypes. For this purpose, a hierarchy of active compounds, atomic property based scaffolds, and unique molecular topologies were generated, and activity annotations were analyzed using this framework. Starting from ∼35 000 compounds active against human targets with at least 1 μM potency, 33 chemotypes with distinct topology were identified that represented molecules active against at least 3 different target families. Network representations were utilized to study scaffold-target family relationships and activity profiles of scaffolds corresponding to promiscuous chemotypes. A subset of promiscuous chemotypes displayed a significant enrichment in drugs over bioactive compounds. A total of 190 drugs were identified that had on average only 2 known target annotations but belonged to the 7 most promiscuous chemotypes that were active against 8-15 target families. These drugs should be attractive candidates for polypharmacological profiling.

  19. Functional Trade-Offs in Promiscuous Enzymes Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Mutational Robustness of the Native Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenbach, Miriam; Emond, Stephane; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which an emerging new function trades off with the original function is a key characteristic of the dynamics of enzyme evolution. Various cases of laboratory evolution have unveiled a characteristic trend; a large increase in a new, promiscuous activity is often accompanied by only a mild reduction of the native, original activity. A model that associates weak trade-offs with “evolvability” was put forward, which proposed that enzymes possess mutational robustness in the native activity and plasticity in promiscuous activities. This would enable the acquisition of a new function without compromising the original one, reducing the benefit of early gene duplication and therefore the selection pressure thereon. Yet, to date, no experimental study has examined this hypothesis directly. Here, we investigate the causes of weak trade-offs by systematically characterizing adaptive mutations that occurred in two cases of evolutionary transitions in enzyme function: (1) from phosphotriesterase to arylesterase, and (2) from atrazine chlorohydrolase to melamine deaminase. Mutational analyses in various genetic backgrounds revealed that, in contrast to the prevailing model, the native activity is less robust to mutations than the promiscuous activity. For example, in phosphotriesterase, the deleterious effect of individual mutations on the native phosphotriesterase activity is much larger than their positive effect on the promiscuous arylesterase activity. Our observations suggest a revision of the established model: weak trade-offs are not caused by an intrinsic robustness of the native activity and plasticity of the promiscuous activity. We propose that upon strong adaptive pressure for the new activity without selection against the original one, selected mutations will lead to the largest possible increases in the new function, but whether and to what extent they decrease the old function is irrelevant, creating a bias towards initially weak trade-offs and

  20. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  1. Male-killing bacteria trigger a cycle of increasing male fatigue and female promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Charlat, Sylvain; Reuter, Max; Dyson, Emily A; Hornett, Emily A; Duplouy, Anne; Davies, Neil; Roderick, George K; Wedell, Nina; Hurst, Gregory D D

    2007-02-06

    Sex-ratio distorters are found in numerous species and can reach high frequencies within populations. Here, we address the compelling, but poorly tested, hypothesis that the sex ratio bias caused by such elements profoundly alters their host's mating system. We compare aspects of female and male reproductive biology between island populations of the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina that show varying degrees of female bias, because of a male-killing Wolbachia infection. Contrary to expectation, female bias leads to an increase in female mating frequency, up to a point where male mating capacity becomes limiting. We show that increased female mating frequency can be explained as a facultative response to the depleted male mating resources in female biased populations. In other words, this system is one where male-killing bacteria trigger a vicious circle of increasing male fatigue and female promiscuity.

  2. Structural basis of heroin and cocaine metabolism by a promiscuous human drug-processing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bencharit, Sompop; Morton, Christopher L; Xue, Yu; Potter, Philip M; Redinbo, Matthew R

    2003-05-01

    We present the first crystal structures of a human protein bound to analogs of cocaine and heroin. Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a broad-spectrum bioscavenger that catalyzes the hydrolysis of heroin and cocaine, and the detoxification of organophosphate chemical weapons, such as sarin, soman and tabun. Crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complex with the cocaine analog homatropine and the heroin analog naloxone provide explicit details about narcotic metabolism in humans. The hCE1 active site contains both specific and promiscuous compartments, which enable the enzyme to act on structurally distinct chemicals. A selective surface ligand-binding site regulates the trimer-hexamer equilibrium of hCE1 and allows each hCE1 monomer to bind two narcotic molecules simultaneously. The bioscavenger properties of hCE1 can likely be used to treat both narcotic overdose and chemical weapon exposure.

  3. Fidelity and Promiscuity in an Ant-Plant Mutualism: A Case Study of Triplaris and Pseudomyrmex.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The association between the myrmecophyte Triplaris and ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex is an often-reported example of mutualism but no molecular studies have examined this association to date. In this study, the interspecific relationships of Triplaris were reconstructed using five molecular markers (two chloroplast and three nuclear), and the relationships of the associated Pseudomyrmex using two molecular regions (one mitochondrial and one nuclear). A data set including all known collections of plant hosts and resident ants was also compiled. The pattern of distribution of both organisms reveals that there are varying degrees of host specificity; most ants show broader host usage (promiscuous) but one species (P. dendroicus) is faithful to a single species of Triplaris. In most ant-plant interactions, host usage is not specific at the species level and preferences may result from geographical or ecological sorting. The specificity of P. dendroicus could be based on chemical recognition of the host they were raised on.

  4. Implications of promiscuous Pim-1 kinase fragment inhibitor hydrophobic interactions for fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Good, Andrew C; Liu, Jinyu; Hirth, Bradford; Asmussen, Gary; Xiang, Yibin; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Bishop, Kimberly A; Fremgen, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Maria; Gladysheva, Tatiana; Jain, Annuradha; Jancsics, Katherine; Metz, Markus; Papoulis, Andrew; Skerlj, Renato; Stepp, J David; Wei, Ronnie R

    2012-03-22

    We have studied the subtleties of fragment docking and binding using data generated in a Pim-1 kinase inhibitor program. Crystallographic and docking data analyses have been undertaken using inhibitor complexes derived from an in-house surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fragment screen, a virtual needle screen, and a de novo designed fragment inhibitor hybrid. These investigations highlight that fragments that do not fill their binding pocket can exhibit promiscuous hydrophobic interactions due to the lack of steric constraints imposed on them by the boundaries of said pocket. As a result, docking modes that disagree with an observed crystal structure but maintain key crystallographically observed hydrogen bonds still have potential value in ligand design and optimization. This observation runs counter to the lore in fragment-based drug design that all fragment elaboration must be based on the parent crystal structure alone.

  5. HUMAN PARAOXONASE-1 (PON1): GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION, PROMISCUOUS ACTIVITIES AND MULTIPLE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES

    PubMed Central

    Mackness, Mike; Mackness, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Human PON1 is a HDL-associated lipolactonase capable of preventing LDL and cell membrane oxidation and is therefore considered to be atheroprotective. PON1 contributes to the antioxidative function of HDL and reductions in HDL-PON1 activity, prevalent in a wide variety of diseases with an inflammatory component, is believed to lead to dysfunctional HDL which can promote inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, PON1 is multifunctional and may contribute to other HDL functions such as in innate immunity, preventing infection by quorum sensing gram negative bacteria by destroying acyl lactone mediators of quorum sensing, and putative new roles in cancer development and the promotion of healthy ageing. In this review we explore the physiological roles of PON1 in disease development, as well as PON1 gene and protein structure, promiscuous activities and the roles of SNPs and ethnicity in determining PON1 activity. PMID:25965560

  6. Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Martin N; Kahlenberg, Sonya M; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Wrangham, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    For reasons that are not yet clear, male aggression against females occurs frequently among primates with promiscuous mating systems. Here, we test the sexual coercion hypothesis that male aggression functions to constrain female mate choice. We use 10 years of behavioural and endocrine data from a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to show that sexual coercion is the probable primary function of male aggression against females. Specifically, we show that male aggression is targeted towards the most fecund females, is associated with high male mating success and is costly for the victims. Such aggression can be viewed as a counter-strategy to female attempts at paternity confusion, and a cost of multi-male mating. PMID:17264062

  7. In situ imaging and proteome profiling indicate andrographolide is a highly promiscuous compound

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Wijaya, Hadhi; Samanta, Sanjay; Lam, Yulin; Yao, Shao Q.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products represent an enormous source of pharmacologically useful compounds, and are often used as the starting point in modern drug discovery. Many biologically interesting natural products are however not being pursued as potential drug candidates, partly due to a lack of well-defined mechanism-of-action. Traditional in vitro methods for target identification of natural products based on affinity protein enrichment from crude cellular lysates cannot faithfully recapitulate protein-drug interactions in living cells. Reported herein are dual-purpose probes inspired by the natural product andrographolide, capable of both reaction-based, real-time bioimaging and in situ proteome profiling/target identification in live mammalian cells. Our results confirm that andrographolide is a highly promiscuous compound and engaged in covalent interactions with numerous previously unknown cellular targets in cell type-specific manner. We caution its potential therapeutic effects should be further investigated in detail. PMID:26105662

  8. Catalytic Promiscuity of Transaminases: Preparation of Enantioenriched β-Fluoroamines by Formal Tandem Hydrodefluorination/Deamination.

    PubMed

    Cuetos, Aníbal; García-Ramos, Marina; Fischereder, Eva-Maria; Díaz-Rodríguez, Alba; Grogan, Gideon; Gotor, Vicente; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Lavandera, Iván

    2016-02-24

    Transaminases are valuable enzymes for industrial biocatalysis and enable the preparation of optically pure amines. For these transformations they require either an amine donor (amination of ketones) or an amine acceptor (deamination of racemic amines). Herein transaminases are shown to react with aromatic β-fluoroamines, thus leading to simultaneous enantioselective dehalogenation and deamination to form the corresponding acetophenone derivatives in the absence of an amine acceptor. A series of racemic β-fluoroamines was resolved in a kinetic resolution by tandem hydrodefluorination/deamination, thus giving the corresponding amines with up to greater than 99 % ee. This protocol is the first example of exploiting the catalytic promiscuity of transaminases as a tool for novel transformations.

  9. Probing the Catalytic Promiscuity of a Regio- and Stereospecific C-Glycosyltransferase from Mangifera indica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Chen, Ridao; Wang, Ruishan; Li, Jianhua; Xie, Kebo; Bian, Chuancai; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Jimei; Yang, Lin; Ye, Fei; Yu, Xiaoming; Dai, Jungui

    2015-10-19

    The catalytic promiscuity of the novel benzophenone C-glycosyltransferase, MiCGT, which is involved in the biosynthesis of mangiferin from Mangifera indica, was explored. MiCGT exhibited a robust capability to regio- and stereospecific C-glycosylation of 35 structurally diverse druglike scaffolds and simple phenolics with UDP-glucose, and also formed O- and N-glycosides. Moreover, MiCGT was able to generate C-xylosides with UDP-xylose. The OGT-reversibility of MiCGT was also exploited to generate C-glucosides with simple sugar donor. Three aryl-C-glycosides exhibited potent SGLT2 inhibitory activities with IC50  values of 2.6×, 7.6×, and 7.6×10(-7)  M, respectively. These findings demonstrate for the first time the significant potential of an enzymatic approach to diversification through C-glycosidation of bioactive natural and unnatural products in drug discovery.

  10. Human paraoxonase-1 (PON1): Gene structure and expression, promiscuous activities and multiple physiological roles.

    PubMed

    Mackness, Mike; Mackness, Bharti

    2015-08-01

    Human PON1 is a HDL-associated lipolactonase capable of preventing LDL and cell membrane oxidation and is therefore considered to be atheroprotective. PON1 contributes to the antioxidative function of HDL and reductions in HDL-PON1 activity, prevalent in a wide variety of diseases with an inflammatory component, are believed to lead to dysfunctional HDL which can promote inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, PON1 is multifunctional and may contribute to other HDL functions such as in innate immunity, preventing infection by quorum sensing gram negative bacteria by destroying acyl lactone mediators of quorum sensing, and putative new roles in cancer development and the promotion of healthy ageing. In this review we explore the physiological roles of PON1 in disease development, as well as PON1 gene and protein structure, promiscuous activities and the roles of SNPs and ethnicity in determining PON1 activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salmonella Infection Drives Promiscuous B Cell Activation Followed by Extrafollicular Affinity Maturation.

    PubMed

    Di Niro, Roberto; Lee, Seung-Joo; Vander Heiden, Jason A; Elsner, Rebecca A; Trivedi, Nikita; Bannock, Jason M; Gupta, Namita T; Kleinstein, Steven H; Vigneault, Francois; Gilbert, Tamara J; Meffre, Eric; McSorley, Stephen J; Shlomchik, Mark J

    2015-07-21

    The B cell response to Salmonella typhimurium (STm) occurs massively at extrafollicular sites, without notable germinal centers (GCs). Little is known in terms of its specificity. To expand the knowledge of antigen targets, we screened plasmablast (PB)-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for Salmonella specificity, using ELISA, flow cytometry, and antigen microarray. Only a small fraction (0.5%-2%) of the response appeared to be Salmonella-specific. Yet, infection of mice with limited B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires impaired the response, suggesting that BCR specificity was important. We showed, using laser microdissection, that somatic hypermutation (SHM) occurred efficiently at extrafollicular sites leading to affinity maturation that in turn led to detectable STm Ag-binding. These results suggest a revised vision of how clonal selection and affinity maturation operate in response to Salmonella. Clonal selection initially is promiscuous, activating cells with virtually undetectable affinity, yet SHM and selection occur during the extrafollicular response yielding higher affinity, detectable antibodies.

  12. Promiscuous Mutations Activate the Non-Canonical NF-kB Pathway in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Keats, Jonathan J.; Fonseca, Rafael; Chesi, Marta; Schop, Roelandt; Baker, Angela; Chng, Wee-Joo; Van Wier, Scott; Tiedemann, Rodger; Shi, Chang-Xin; Sebag, Michael; Braggio, Esteban; Henry, Travis; Zhu, Yuan-Xiao; Fogle, Homer; Price-Troska, Tammy; Ahmann, Gregory; Mancini, Catherine; Brents, Leslie A.; Kumar, Shaji; Greipp, Philip; Dispenzieri, Angela; Bryant, Barb; Mulligan, George; Bruhn, Laurakay; Barrett, Michael; Valdez, Riccardo; Trent, Jeff; Stewart, A. Keith; Carpten, John; Bergsagel, P. Leif

    2007-01-01

    Summary Activation of NF-kB has been noted in many tumor types, however only rarely has this been linked to an underlying genetic mutation. An integrated analysis of high-density oligonucleotide array CGH and gene expression profiling data from 155 multiple myeloma samples identified a promiscuous array of abnormalities contributing to the dysregulation of NF-kB in approximately 20% of patients. We report mutations in ten genes causing the inactivation of TRAF2, TRAF3, CYLD, cIAP1/cIAP2, and activation of NFKB1, NFKB2, CD40, LTBR, TACI, and NIK that result primarily in constitutive activation of the non-canonical NF-kB pathway, with the single most common abnormality being inactivation of TRAF3. These results highlight the critical importance of the NF-kB pathway in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. PMID:17692805

  13. Promiscuous Substrate Recognition in Folding and Assembly Activities of the Trigger Factor Chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Hackert, E.; Hendrickson, W

    2009-01-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is a molecular chaperone that binds to bacterial ribosomes where it contacts emerging nascent chains, but TF is also abundant free in the cytosol where its activity is less well characterized. In vitro studies show that TF promotes protein refolding. We find here that ribosome-free TF stably associates with and rescues from misfolding a large repertoire of full-length proteins. We identify over 170 members of this cytosolic Escherichia coli TF substrate proteome, including ribosomal protein S7. We analyzed the biochemical properties of a TF:S7 complex from Thermotoga maritima and determined its crystal structure. Thereby, we obtained an atomic-level picture of a promiscuous chaperone in complex with a physiological substrate protein. The structure of the complex reveals the molecular basis of substrate recognition by TF, indicates how TF could accelerate protein folding, and suggests a role for TF in the biogenesis of protein complexes.

  14. Fidelity and Promiscuity in an Ant-Plant Mutualism: A Case Study of Triplaris and Pseudomyrmex

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The association between the myrmecophyte Triplaris and ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex is an often-reported example of mutualism but no molecular studies have examined this association to date. In this study, the interspecific relationships of Triplaris were reconstructed using five molecular markers (two chloroplast and three nuclear), and the relationships of the associated Pseudomyrmex using two molecular regions (one mitochondrial and one nuclear). A data set including all known collections of plant hosts and resident ants was also compiled. The pattern of distribution of both organisms reveals that there are varying degrees of host specificity; most ants show broader host usage (promiscuous) but one species (P. dendroicus) is faithful to a single species of Triplaris. In most ant-plant interactions, host usage is not specific at the species level and preferences may result from geographical or ecological sorting. The specificity of P. dendroicus could be based on chemical recognition of the host they were raised on. PMID:26630384

  15. The food colorant erythrosine is a promiscuous protein-protein interaction inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Lakshmi; Margolles-Clark, Emilio; Song, Yun; Buchwald, Peter

    2011-03-15

    Following our observation that erythrosine B (FD&C Red No. 3) is a relatively potent inhibitor of the TNF-R-TNFα and CD40-CD154 protein-protein interactions, we investigated whether this inhibitory activity extends to any other protein-protein interactions (PPI) as well as whether any other approved food colors possess such inhibitory activity. We found erythrosine, a poly-iodinated xanthene dye, to be a non-specific promiscuous inhibitor of a number of PPIs within the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNF-R-TNFα, CD40-CD154, BAFF-R-BAFF, RANK-RANKL, OX40-OX40L, 4-1BB-4-1BBL) as well as outside of it (EGF-R-EGF) with a remarkably consistent median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) in the 2-20 μM (approximately 2-20mg/L) range. In agreement with this, erythrosine also showed cellular effects including clear cytotoxic effects around this concentration range (IC₅₀≈50 μM). Among the seven FDA-approved food colorants, only erythrosine showed consistent PPI inhibitory activity in the sub-100 μM range, which might also explain (at least partially) why it also has the lowest approved acceptable daily intake (ADI) (0.1 mg/kg body weight/day). Among a number of xanthene structural analogs of erythrosine tested for activity, rose Bengal, a food colorant approved in Japan, showed similar, maybe even more pronounced, promiscuous inhibitory activity, whereas fluorescein was inactive and gallein, phloxine, and eosin were somewhat active in some of the assays.

  16. Target promiscuity and heterogeneous effects of tarantula venom peptides affecting Na+ and K+ ion channels.

    PubMed

    Redaelli, Elisa; Cassulini, Rita Restano; Silva, Deyanira Fuentes; Clement, Herlinda; Schiavon, Emanuele; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Odell, George; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Clare, Jeffrey J; Alagón, Alejandro; de la Vega, Ricardo C Rodríguez; Possani, Lourival D; Wanke, Enzo

    2010-02-05

    Venom-derived peptide modulators of ion channel gating are regarded as essential tools for understanding the molecular motions that occur during the opening and closing of ion channels. In this study, we present the characterization of five spider toxins on 12 human voltage-gated ion channels, following observations about the target promiscuity of some spider toxins and the ongoing revision of their "canonical" gating-modifying mode of action. The peptides were purified de novo from the venom of Grammostola rosea tarantulas, and their sequences were confirmed by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis. Their effects on seven tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channels, the three human ether-à-go-go (hERG)-related K(+) channels, and two human Shaker-related K(+) channels were extensively characterized by electrophysiological techniques. All the peptides inhibited ion conduction through all the Na(+) channels tested, although with distinctive patterns. The peptides also affected the three pharmaceutically relevant hERG isoforms differently. At higher concentrations, all peptides also modified the gating of the Na(+) channels by shifting the activation to more positive potentials, whereas more complex effects were recorded on hERG channels. No effects were evident on the two Shaker-related K(+) channels at concentrations well above the IC(50) value for the affected channels. Given the sequence diversity of the tested peptides, we propose that tarantula toxins should be considered both as multimode and target-promiscuous ion channel modulators; both features should not be ignored when extracting mechanistic interpretations about ion channel gating. Our observations could also aid in future structure-function studies and might help the development of novel ion channel-specific drugs.

  17. Rhizobial Diversity and Nodulation Characteristics of the Extremely Promiscuous Legume Sophora flavescens.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yin Shan; Liu, Yuan Hui; Yan, Hui; Wang, En Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Feng

    2015-12-01

    In present study, we report our extensive survey on the diversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with Sophora flavescens, a sophocarpidine (matrine)-containing medicinal legume. We additionally investigated the cross nodulation, infection pattern, light and electron microscopies of root nodule sections of S. flavescens infected by various rhizobia. Seventeen genospecies of rhizobia belonging to five genera with seven types of symbiotic nodC genes were found to nodulate S. flavescens in natural soils. In the cross-nodulation tests, most representative rhizobia in class α-Proteobacteria, whose host plants belong to different cross-nodulation groups, form effective indeterminate nodules, while representative rhizobia in class β-Proteobacteria form ineffective nodules on S. flavescens. Highly host-specific biovars of Rhizobium leguminosarum (bv. trifolii and bv. viciae) and Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli could establish symbioses with S. flavescens, providing further evidence that S. flavescens is an extremely promiscuous legume and it does not have strict selectivity on either the symbiotic genes or the species-determining housekeeping genes of rhizobia. Root-hair infection is found as the pattern that rhizobia have gained entry into the curled root hairs. Electron microscopies of ultra-thin sections of S. flavescens root nodules formed by different rhizobia show that the bacteroids are regular or irregular rod shape and nonswollen types. Some bacteroids contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), while others do not, indicating the synthesis of PHB in bacteroids is rhizobia-dependent. The extremely promiscuous symbiosis between S. flavescens and different rhizobia provide us a basis for future studies aimed at understanding the molecular interactions of rhizobia and legumes.

  18. Target Promiscuity and Heterogeneous Effects of Tarantula Venom Peptides Affecting Na+ and K+ Ion Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Redaelli, Elisa; Cassulini, Rita Restano; Silva, Deyanira Fuentes; Clement, Herlinda; Schiavon, Emanuele; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Odell, George; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Alagón, Alejandro; de la Vega, Ricardo C. Rodríguez; Possani, Lourival D.; Wanke, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    Venom-derived peptide modulators of ion channel gating are regarded as essential tools for understanding the molecular motions that occur during the opening and closing of ion channels. In this study, we present the characterization of five spider toxins on 12 human voltage-gated ion channels, following observations about the target promiscuity of some spider toxins and the ongoing revision of their “canonical” gating-modifying mode of action. The peptides were purified de novo from the venom of Grammostola rosea tarantulas, and their sequences were confirmed by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis. Their effects on seven tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, the three human ether-à-go-go (hERG)-related K+ channels, and two human Shaker-related K+ channels were extensively characterized by electrophysiological techniques. All the peptides inhibited ion conduction through all the Na+ channels tested, although with distinctive patterns. The peptides also affected the three pharmaceutically relevant hERG isoforms differently. At higher concentrations, all peptides also modified the gating of the Na+ channels by shifting the activation to more positive potentials, whereas more complex effects were recorded on hERG channels. No effects were evident on the two Shaker-related K+ channels at concentrations well above the IC50 value for the affected channels. Given the sequence diversity of the tested peptides, we propose that tarantula toxins should be considered both as multimode and target-promiscuous ion channel modulators; both features should not be ignored when extracting mechanistic interpretations about ion channel gating. Our observations could also aid in future structure-function studies and might help the development of novel ion channel-specific drugs. PMID:19955179

  19. Males and Females Gain Differentially from Sociality in a Promiscuous Fruit Bat Cynopterus sphinx

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kritika M.; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Swami Doss, D. P.; Kumar, A. K. Vinoth; Kandula, Sripathi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Sociality emerges when the benefits of group living outweigh its costs. While both males and females are capable of strong social ties, the evolutionary drivers for sociality and the benefits accrued maybe different for each sex. In this study, we investigate the differential reproductive success benefits of group membership that males and females might obtain in the promiscuous fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Individuals of this species live in flexible social groups called colonies. These colonies are labile and there is high turnover of individuals. However, colony males sire more offspring within the colony suggesting that being part of a colony may result in reproductive benefits for males. This also raises the possibility that long-term loyalty towards the colony may confer additional advantage in terms of higher reproductive success. We used ten seasons of genetic parentage data to estimate reproductive success and relatedness of individuals in the colony. We used recapture data to identify long and short-term residents in the colony as well as to obtain rates of recapture for males and females. Our results reveal that males have a significantly higher chance of becoming long-term residents (than females), and these long-term resident males gain twice the reproductive success compared to short-term resident males. We also observed that long-term resident females are related to each other and also achieve higher reproductive success than short-term resident females. In contrast, long-term resident males do not differ from short-term resident males in their levels of relatedness. Our results re-iterate the benefits of sociality even in species that are promiscuous and socially labile and possible benefits of maintaining a colony. PMID:25794185

  20. MHC allele-specific binding of a malaria peptide makes it become promiscuous on fitting a glycine residue into pocket 6.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Luis Eduardo; Parra, Carlos Alberto; Salazar, Luz Mary; Guzmán, Fanny; Pinto, Martha; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2003-07-18

    Peptide 1585 (EVLYLKPLAGVYRSLKKQLE) has a highly conserved amino-acid sequence located in the Plasmodium falciparum main merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) C-terminal region, required for merozoite entry into human erythrocytes and therefore represents a vaccine candidate for P. falciparum malaria. Original sequence-specific binding to five HLA DRB1* alleles (0101, 0102, 0401, 0701, and 1101) revealed this peptide's specific HLA DRB1*0102 allele binding. This peptide's allele-specific binding to HLA DRB1*0102 took on broader specificity for the DRB1*0101, -0401, and -1101 alleles when lysine was replaced by glycine in position 17 (peptide 5198: EVLYLKPLAGVYRSLKG(17)QLE). Binding of the identified G(10)VYRSLKGQLE(20) C-terminal register to these alleles suggests that peptide promiscuous binding relied on fitting Y(12), L(15), and G(17) into P-1, P-4, and P-6, respectively. The implications of the findings and the future of this synthetic vaccine candidate are discussed.

  1. Human immunoglobulin repertoires against tetanus toxoid contain a large and diverse fraction of high-affinity promiscuous V(H) genes.

    PubMed

    de Kruif, John; Kramer, Arjen; Visser, Therèse; Clements, Carina; Nijhuis, Roy; Cox, Freek; van der Zande, Vanessa; Smit, Renate; Pinto, Daniel; Throsby, Mark; Logtenberg, Ton

    2009-04-03

    To study the contribution of antibody light (L) chains to the diversity and binding properties of immune repertoires, a phage display repertoire was constructed from a single human antibody L chain and a large collection of antibody heavy (H) chains harvested from the blood of two human donors immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine. After selection for binding to TT, 129 unique antibodies representing 53 variable immunoglobulin H chain (V(H)) gene rearrangements were isolated. This panel of anti-TT antibodies restricted to a single variable immunoglobulin L chain (V(L)) could be organized into 17 groups binding non-competing epitopes on the TT molecule. Comparison of the V(H) regions in this V(L)-restricted panel with a previously published repertoire of anti-TT V(H) regions with cognate V(H)-V(L) pairing showed a very similar distribution of V(H), D(H) and J(H) gene segment utilization and length of the complementarity-determining region 3 of the H chain. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the single-V(L) anti-TT repertoire unveiled a range of affinities, with a median monovalent affinity of 2 nM. When the single-V(L) anti-TT V(H) repertoire was combined with a collection of naïve V(L) regions and again selected for binding to TT, many of the V(H) genes were recovered in combination with a diversity of V(L) regions. The affinities of a panel of antibodies consisting of a single promiscuous anti-TT V(H) combined with 15 diverse V(L) chains were determined and found to be identical to each other and to the original isolate restricted to a single-V(L) chain. Based on previous estimates of the clonal size of the human anti-TT repertoire, we conclude that up to 25% of human anti-TT-encoding V(H) regions from an immunized repertoire have promiscuous features. These V(H) regions readily combine with a single antibody L chain to result in a large panel of anti-TT antibodies that conserve the expected epitope diversity, V(H) region diversity and affinity of a

  2. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Charles D.; Azadnia, Parisa; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Honda, Andrew; Giang, Erick; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Cheng, Yushao; Lin, Xiaohe; Mann, Colin J.; Tang, Jeffrey; Sok, Devin; Burton, Dennis R.; Law, Mansun; Ward, Andrew B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc) regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively. Trimeric scaffolds were also identified to stabilize the MPER-containing BG505 gp140.681 trimer in a native-like conformation. Following structural and antigenic evaluation, a subset of scaffold and trimer antigens was selected for immunization in BALB/c mice. Serum binding revealed distinct patterns of antibody responses to these two bNAb targets presented in different structural contexts. For example, the N332 nanoparticles elicited glycan epitope-specific antibody responses that could also recognize the native trimer, while a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer generated a stronger and more rapid antibody response to the trimer apex than its parent gp140.664 trimer. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mouse splenic B cells revealed expansion of antibody lineages with long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) loops upon activation by MPER scaffolds, in contrast to the steady repertoires primed by N332 nanoparticles and a soluble gp140.664 trimer. These findings will facilitate the future development of a coherent vaccination strategy that combines both epitope-focused and trimer-based approaches. PMID:28246356

  3. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  4. PAINS in the Assay: Chemical Mechanisms of Assay Interference and Promiscuous Enzymatic Inhibition Observed during a Sulfhydryl-Scavenging HTS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Significant resources in early drug discovery are spent unknowingly pursuing artifacts and promiscuous bioactive compounds, while understanding the chemical basis for these adverse behaviors often goes unexplored in pursuit of lead compounds. Nearly all the hits from our recent sulfhydryl-scavenging high-throughput screen (HTS) targeting the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 were such compounds. Herein, we characterize the chemical basis for assay interference and promiscuous enzymatic inhibition for several prominent chemotypes identified by this HTS, including some pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS). Protein mass spectrometry and ALARM NMR confirmed these compounds react covalently with cysteines on multiple proteins. Unfortunately, compounds containing these chemotypes have been published as screening actives in reputable journals and even touted as chemical probes or preclinical candidates. Our detailed characterization and identification of such thiol-reactive chemotypes should accelerate triage of nuisance compounds, guide screening library design, and prevent follow-up on undesirable chemical matter. PMID:25634295

  5. Testing the promiscuity of commercial kinase inhibitors against the AGC kinase group using a split-luciferase screen.

    PubMed

    Jester, Benjamin W; Gaj, Alicia; Shomin, Carolyn D; Cox, Kurt J; Ghosh, Indraneel

    2012-02-23

    Using a newly developed competitive binding assay dependent upon the reassembly of a split reporter protein, we have tested the promiscuity of a panel of reported kinase inhibitors against the AGC group. Many non-AGC targeted kinase inhibitors target multiple members of the AGC group. In general, structurally similar inhibitors consistently exhibited activity toward the same target as well as toward closely related kinases. The inhibition data was analyzed to test the predictive value of either using identity scores derived from residues within 6 Å of the active site or identity scores derived from the entire kinase domain. The results suggest that the active site identity in certain cases may be a stronger predictor of inhibitor promiscuity. The overall results provide general guidelines for establishing inhibitor selectivity as well as for the future design of inhibitors that either target or avoid AGC kinases.

  6. Enzymological and Structural Studies of the Mechanism of Promiscuous Substrate Recognition by the Oxidative DNA Repair Enzyme AlkB

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, B.; Hunt, J

    2009-01-01

    Promiscuous substrate recognition, the ability to catalyze transformations of chemically diverse compounds, is an evolutionarily advantageous, but poorly understood phenomenon. The promiscuity of DNA repair enzymes is particularly important, because it enables diverse kinds of damage to different nucleotide bases to be repaired in a metabolically parsimonious manner. We present enzymological and crystallographic studies of the mechanisms underlying promiscuous substrate recognition by Escherichia coli AlkB, a DNA repair enzyme that removes methyl adducts and some larger alkylation lesions from endocyclic positions on purine and pyrimidine bases. In vitro Michaelis-Menten analyses on a series of alkylated bases show high activity in repairing N1-methyladenine (m1A) and N3-methylcytosine (m3C), comparatively low activity in repairing 1,N6-ethenoadenine, and no detectable activity in repairing N1-methylguanine or N3-methylthymine. AlkB has a substantially higher kcat and Km for m3C compared with m1A. Therefore, the enzyme maintains similar net activity on the chemically distinct substrates by increasing the turnover rate of the substrate with nominally lower affinity. Cocrystal structures provide insight into the structural basis of this 'kcat/Km compensation,' which makes a significant contribution to promiscuous substrate recognition by AlkB. In analyzing a large ensemble of crystal structures solved in the course of these studies, we observed 2 discrete global conformations of AlkB differing in the accessibility of a tunnel hypothesized to control diffusion of the O2 substrate into the active site. Steric interactions between a series of protein loops control this conformational transition and present a plausible mechanism for preventing O2 binding before nucleotide substrate binding.

  7. Enzymological and structural studies of the mechanism of promiscuous substrate recognition by the oxidative DNA repair enzyme AlkB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bomina; Hunt, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Promiscuous substrate recognition, the ability to catalyze transformations of chemically diverse compounds, is an evolutionarily advantageous, but poorly understood phenomenon. The promiscuity of DNA repair enzymes is particularly important, because it enables diverse kinds of damage to different nucleotide bases to be repaired in a metabolically parsimonious manner. We present enzymological and crystallographic studies of the mechanisms underlying promiscuous substrate recognition by Escherichia coli AlkB, a DNA repair enzyme that removes methyl adducts and some larger alkylation lesions from endocyclic positions on purine and pyrimidine bases. In vitro Michaelis–Menten analyses on a series of alkylated bases show high activity in repairing N1-methyladenine (m1A) and N3-methylcytosine (m3C), comparatively low activity in repairing 1,N6-ethenoadenine, and no detectable activity in repairing N1-methylguanine or N3-methylthymine. AlkB has a substantially higher kcat and Km for m3C compared with m1A. Therefore, the enzyme maintains similar net activity on the chemically distinct substrates by increasing the turnover rate of the substrate with nominally lower affinity. Cocrystal structures provide insight into the structural basis of this “kcat/Km compensation,” which makes a significant contribution to promiscuous substrate recognition by AlkB. In analyzing a large ensemble of crystal structures solved in the course of these studies, we observed 2 discrete global conformations of AlkB differing in the accessibility of a tunnel hypothesized to control diffusion of the O2 substrate into the active site. Steric interactions between a series of protein loops control this conformational transition and present a plausible mechanism for preventing O2 binding before nucleotide substrate binding. PMID:19706517

  8. Integrated computational prediction and experimental validation identifies promiscuous T cell epitopes in the proteome of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Damien; Jones, Gareth; Pirson, Christopher; Malone, Kerri; Rue-Albrecht, Kevin; Chubb, Anthony J.; Vordermeier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of novel antigens is an essential requirement in devising new diagnostics or vaccines for use in control programmes against human tuberculosis (TB) and bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Identification of potential epitopes recognised by CD4+ T cells requires prediction of peptide binding to MHC class-II, an obligatory prerequisite for T cell recognition. To comprehensively prioritise potential MHC-II-binding epitopes from Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bTB and zoonotic TB in humans, we integrated three binding prediction methods with the M. bovisproteome using a subset of human HLA alleles to approximate the binding of epitope-containing peptides to the bovine MHC class II molecule BoLA-DRB3. Two parallel strategies were then applied to filter the resulting set of binders: identification of the top-scoring binders or clusters of binders. Our approach was tested experimentally by assessing the capacity of predicted promiscuous peptides to drive interferon-γ secretion from T cells of M. bovis infected cattle. Thus, 376 20-mer peptides, were synthesised (270 predicted epitopes, 94 random peptides with low predictive scores and 12 positive controls of known epitopes). The results of this validation demonstrated significant enrichment (>24 %) of promiscuously recognised peptides predicted in our selection strategies, compared with randomly selected peptides with low prediction scores. Our strategy offers a general approach to the identification of promiscuous epitopes tailored to target populations where there is limited knowledge of MHC allelic diversity. PMID:28348866

  9. Coexistence of unlimited bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: Promiscuous quantum correlations arising from discrete to continuous-variable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-08-15

    Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N{>=}4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states.

  10. Catechol-rhodanine derivatives: Specific and promiscuous inhibitors of Escherichia coli deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR).

    PubMed

    Zinglé, Catherine; Tritsch, Denis; Grosdemange-Billiard, Catherine; Rohmer, Michel

    2014-07-15

    To develop more effective inhibitors than fosmidomycin, a natural compound which inhibits the deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), the second enzyme of the MEP pathway, we designed molecules possessing on the one hand a catechol that is able to chelate the magnesium dication and on the other hand a group able to occupy the NADPH recognition site. Catechol-rhodanine derivatives (1-6) were synthesized and their potential inhibition was tested on the DXR of Escherichia coli. For the inhibitors 1 and 2, the presence of detergent in the enzymatic assays led to a dramatic decrease of the inhibition suggesting, that these compounds are rather promiscuous inhibitors. The compounds 4 and 5 kept their inhibition capacity in the presence of Triton X100 and could be considered as specific inhibitors of DXR. Compound 4 showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The only partial protection of NADPH against the inhibition suggested that the catechol-rhodanine derivatives did not settle in the coenzyme binding site. This paper points out the necessity to include a detergent in the DXR enzymatic assays to avoid false positive when putative hydrophobic inhibitors are tested and especially when the IC50, are in the micromolar range.

  11. Protein interaction evolution from promiscuity to specificity with reduced flexibility in an increasingly complex network

    PubMed Central

    Alhindi, T.; Zhang, Z.; Ruelens, P.; Coenen, H.; Degroote, H.; Iraci, N.; Geuten, K.

    2017-01-01

    A key question regarding protein evolution is how proteins adapt to the dynamic environment in which they function and how in turn their evolution shapes the protein interaction network. We used extant and resurrected ancestral plant MADS-domain transcription factors to understand how SEPALLATA3, a protein with hub and glue properties, evolved and takes part in network organization. Although the density of dimeric interactions was saturated in the network, many new interactions became mediated by SEPALLATA3 after a whole genome triplication event. By swapping SEPALLATA3 and its ancestors between dimeric networks of different ages, we found that the protein lost the capacity of promiscuous interaction and acquired specificity in evolution. This was accompanied with constraints on conformations through proline residue accumulation, which made the protein less flexible. SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE on the other hand (non-hub) was able to gain protein-protein interactions due to a C-terminal domain insertion, allowing for a larger interaction interface. These findings illustrate that protein interaction evolution occurs at the level of conformational dynamics, when the binding mechanism concerns an induced fit or conformational selection. Proteins can evolve towards increased specificity with reduced flexibility when the complexity of the protein interaction network requires specificity. PMID:28337996

  12. Natural Diversity of Frankia Strains in Actinorhizal Root Nodules from Promiscuous Hosts in the Family Myricaceae

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, Michael L.; Benson, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Actinorhizal plants invade nitrogen-poor soils because of their ability to form root nodule symbioses with N2-fixing actinomycetes known as Frankia. Frankia strains are difficult to isolate, so the diversity of strains inhabiting nodules in nature is not known. To address this problem, we have used the variability in bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from root nodules as a means to estimate molecular diversity. Nodules were collected from 96 sites primarily in northeastern North America; each site contained one of three species of the family Myricaceae. Plants in this family are considered to be promiscuous hosts because several species are effectively nodulated by most isolated strains of Frankia in the greenhouse. We found that strain evenness varies greatly between the plant species so that estimating total strain richness of Frankia within myricaceous nodules with the sample size used was problematical. Nevertheless, Myrica pensylvanica, the common bayberry, was found to have sufficient diversity to serve as a reservoir host for Frankia strains that infect plants from other actinorhizal families. Myrica gale, sweet gale, yielded a few dominant sequences, indicating either symbiont specialization or niche selection of particular ecotypes. Strains in Comptonia peregrina nodules had an intermediate level of diversity and were all from a single major group of Frankia. PMID:10508084

  13. Disorder, Promiscuous Interactions, and Stochasticity Regulate State Switching in the Unstable Prostate.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Prakash; Getzenberg, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    A causal link between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer has long been suspected but not widely accepted. A new model is proposed that supports such a connection. In contrast to the prevailing wisdom, our model, that draws on dynamical systems theory, suggests that in response to stress, epithelial cells in the unstable gland can give rise to both types of diseases via a phenotypic switching mechanism. The central idea is that phenotypic switching is a stochastic process which exploits the plasticity of the epithelial cell. It is driven by 'noise' contributed by the conformational dynamics of proteins that are intrinsically disordered. In a system that is noisy when stressed, disorder promotes promiscuity, unmasks latent information, and rewires the network to cause phenotypic switching. Cells with newly acquired phenotypes can transcend the traditional zonal boundaries to give rise to BPH or prostate cancer depending on the microenvironment. Establishing causality between the two diseases may provide us with an opportunity to better understand their etiology and guide prevention and treatment strategies. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2235-2240, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A promiscuous liaison between IL-15 receptor and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in cell death control

    PubMed Central

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Thon, Lutz; Mamat, Uwe; Bellosta, Paola; Basilico, Claudio; Adam, Dieter; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Discrimination between cytokine receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways is a central paradigm in signal transduction research. Here, we report a ‘promiscuous liaison' between both receptors that enables interleukin (IL)-15 to transactivate the signaling pathway of a tyrosine kinase. IL-15 protects murine L929 fibroblasts from tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced cell death, but fails to rescue them upon targeted depletion of the RTK, Axl; however, Axl-overexpressing fibroblasts are TNFα-resistant. IL-15Rα and Axl colocalize on the cell membrane and co-immunoprecipitate even in the absence of IL-15, whereby the extracellular part of Axl proved to be essential for Axl/IL-15Rα interaction. Most strikingly, IL-15 treatment mimics stimulation by the Axl ligand, Gas6, resulting in a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of both Axl and IL-15Rα, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This is also seen in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type but not Axl−/− or IL-15Rα−/− mice. Thus, IL-15-induced protection from TNFα-mediated cell death involves a hitherto unknown IL-15 receptor complex, consisting of IL-15Rα and Axl RTK, and requires their reciprocal activation initiated by ligand-induced IL-15Rα. PMID:16308569

  15. Towards a Consensus on the Binding Specificity and Promiscuity of PRC2 for RNA

    PubMed Central

    Davidovich, Chen; Wang, Xueyin; Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Goodrich, Karen J.; Gooding, Anne R.; Lee, Jeannie T.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) is a histone methyltransferase required for epigenetic silencing during development and cancer. Early works suggested binding specificity of PRC2 to certain long non-coding RNAs for recruitment to chromatin. More recent studies provided evidence both in favor and against this idea. Here, we bridge the two existing models of PRC2-RNA interaction. RepA RNA is a good binding partner for PRC2, while multiple non-relevant RNAs, including bacterial mRNAs, also bind PRC2; with Kd's depend to some extent on the experimental conditions. Human and mouse PRC2 have broadly similar RNA-binding properties in vitro. Examination of evidence supporting an existing model for site-specific recruitment of PRC2 by a well-defined RNA motif in cells reveals that results are PRC2-independent. We conclude that promiscuous and specific RNA-binding activities of PRC2 in vitro are not mutually exclusive, and that binding specificity in vivo remains to be demonstrated. PMID:25601759

  16. Using mutability landscapes of a promiscuous tautomerase to guide the engineering of enantioselective Michaelases

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Poddar, Harshwardhan; Baas, Bert-Jan; Miao, Yufeng; Rahimi, Mehran; Kunzendorf, Andreas; van Merkerk, Ronald; Tepper, Pieter G.; Geertsema, Edzard M.; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.; Quax, Wim J.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.

    2016-01-01

    The Michael-type addition reaction is widely used in organic synthesis for carbon–carbon bond formation. However, biocatalytic methodologies for this type of reaction are scarce, which is related to the fact that enzymes naturally catalysing carbon–carbon bond-forming Michael-type additions are rare. A promising template to develop new biocatalysts for carbon–carbon bond formation is the enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, which exhibits promiscuous Michael-type addition activity. Here we present mutability landscapes for the expression, tautomerase and Michael-type addition activities, and enantioselectivity of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. These maps of neutral, beneficial and detrimental amino acids for each residue position and enzyme property provide detailed insight into sequence–function relationships. This offers exciting opportunities for enzyme engineering, which is illustrated by the redesign of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase into two enantiocomplementary ‘Michaelases'. These ‘Michaelases' catalyse the asymmetric addition of acetaldehyde to various nitroolefins, providing access to both enantiomers of γ-nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ-aminobutyric acid derivatives. PMID:26952338

  17. Compatibility counts: MHC-associated mate choice in a wild promiscuous primate

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina; Eberle, Manfred; Sommer, Simone

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms and temporal aspects of mate choice according to genetic constitution are still puzzling. Recent studies indicate that fitness is positively related to diversity in immune genes (MHC). Both sexes should therefore choose mates of high genetic quality and/or compatibility. However, studies addressing the role of MHC diversity in pre- and post-copulatory mate choice decisions in wild-living animals are few. We investigated the impact of MHC constitution and of neutral microsatellite variability on pre- and post-copulatory mate choice in both sexes in a wild population of a promiscuous primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). There was no support for pre-copulatory male or female mate choice, but our data indicate post-copulatory mate choice that is associated with genetic constitution. Fathers had a higher number of MHC supertypes different from those of the mother than randomly assigned males. Fathers also had a higher amino acid distance to the females' MHC as well as a higher total number of MHC supertypes and a higher degree of microsatellite heterozygosity than randomly assigned males. Female cryptic choice may be the underlying mechanism that operates towards an optimization of the genetic constitution of offspring. This is the first study that provides support for the importance of the MHC constitution in post-copulatory mate choice in non-human primates. PMID:18089539

  18. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate

    PubMed Central

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I.; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas ‘convenience polyandry’ might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of ‘adaptive polyandry’: females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal. PMID:21976684

  19. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.

    PubMed

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M

    2012-04-07

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal.

  20. Promiscuous Gene Expression in the Thymus: The Root of Central Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Danielle A. R.; Silveira, Eduardo L. V.; Junta, Cristina M.; Sandrin-Garcia, Paula; Fachin, Ana Lucia; Donadi, Eduardo A.; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T.; Passos, Geraldo A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The thymus is a complex organ with an epithelium formed by two main cell types, the cortical thymic epithelial (cTECs) and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), referred to as stroma. Immature thymocytes arising from the bone marrow, macrophages and dendritic cells also populate the thymus. Thymocytes evolve to mature T cells featuring cell differentiation antigens (CDs), which characterize the phenotypically distinct stages, defined as double-negative (DN), double positive (DP) and single positive (SP), based on expression of the coreceptors CD4 and CD8. The thymus is therefore implicated in T cell differentiation and during development into T cells thymocytes are in close association with the stroma. Recent evidence showed that mTECs express a diverse set of genes coding for parenchymal organ specific proteins. This phenomenon has been termed promiscuous gene expression (PGE) and has led to the reconsideration of the role of the thymus in central T cell tolerance to self-antigens, which prevents autoimmunity. The evidence of PGE is causing a reanalysis in the scope of central tolerance understanding. We summarize the evidence of PGE in the thymus, focusing particularly the use of cDNA microarray technology for the broad characterization of gene expression and demarcation of PGE emergence during thymus ontogeny. PMID:17162352

  1. Promiscuous interactions and protein disaggregases determine the material state of stress-inducible RNP granules.

    PubMed

    Kroschwald, Sonja; Maharana, Shovamayee; Mateju, Daniel; Malinovska, Liliana; Nüske, Elisabeth; Poser, Ina; Richter, Doris; Alberti, Simon

    2015-08-04

    RNA-protein (RNP) granules have been proposed to assemble by forming solid RNA/protein aggregates or through phase separation into a liquid RNA/protein phase. Which model describes RNP granules in living cells is still unclear. In this study, we analyze P bodies in budding yeast and find that they have liquid-like properties. Surprisingly, yeast stress granules adopt a different material state, which is reminiscent of solid protein aggregates and controlled by protein disaggregases. By using an assay to ectopically nucleate RNP granules, we further establish that RNP granule formation does not depend on amyloid-like aggregation but rather involves many promiscuous interactions. Finally, we show that stress granules have different properties in mammalian cells, where they show liquid-like behavior. Thus, we propose that the material state of RNP granules is flexible and that the solid state of yeast stress granules is an adaptation to extreme environments, made possible by the presence of a powerful disaggregation machine.

  2. Promiscuous interactions and protein disaggregases determine the material state of stress-inducible RNP granules

    PubMed Central

    Kroschwald, Sonja; Maharana, Shovamayee; Mateju, Daniel; Malinovska, Liliana; Nüske, Elisabeth; Poser, Ina; Richter, Doris; Alberti, Simon

    2015-01-01

    RNA-protein (RNP) granules have been proposed to assemble by forming solid RNA/protein aggregates or through phase separation into a liquid RNA/protein phase. Which model describes RNP granules in living cells is still unclear. In this study, we analyze P bodies in budding yeast and find that they have liquid-like properties. Surprisingly, yeast stress granules adopt a different material state, which is reminiscent of solid protein aggregates and controlled by protein disaggregases. By using an assay to ectopically nucleate RNP granules, we further establish that RNP granule formation does not depend on amyloid-like aggregation but rather involves many promiscuous interactions. Finally, we show that stress granules have different properties in mammalian cells, where they show liquid-like behavior. Thus, we propose that the material state of RNP granules is flexible and that the solid state of yeast stress granules is an adaptation to extreme environments, made possible by the presence of a powerful disaggregation machine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06807.001 PMID:26238190

  3. Promiscuous sulfatase activity and thio-effects in a phosphodiesterase of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Jonathan K; Herschlag, Daniel

    2008-12-02

    The nucleotide phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase from Xanthomonas axonopodis (NPP) is a structural and evolutionary relative of alkaline phosphatase that preferentially hydrolyzes phosphate diesters. With the goal of understanding how these two enzymes with nearly identical Zn(2+) bimetallo sites achieve high selectivity for hydrolysis of either phosphate monoesters or diesters, we have measured a promiscuous sulfatase activity in NPP. Sulfate esters are nearly isosteric with phosphate esters but carry less charge, offering a probe of electrostatic contributions to selectivity. NPP exhibits sulfatase activity with k(cat)/K(M) value of 2 x 10(-5) M(-1) s(-1), similar to the R166S mutant of alkaline phosphatase. We further report the effects of thio-substitution on phosphate monoester and diester reactions. Reactivities with these noncognate substrates illustrate a reduced dependence of NPP reactivity on the charge of the nonbridging oxygen situated between the Zn(2+) ions relative to that in alkaline phosphatase. This reduced charge dependence can explain about 10(2) of the 10(7)-fold differential catalytic proficiency for the most similar monoester and diester substrates in the two enzymes. The results further suggest that active site contacts to substrate oxygen atoms that do not contact the Zn(2+) ions may play an important role in defining the selectivity of the enzymes.

  4. Understanding the different activities of highly promiscuous MbtI by computational methods.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Silvia; Martí, Sergio; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki; Bertrán, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Salicylate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MbtI, is a highly promiscuous Mg(2+) dependent enzyme with up to four distinct activities detected in vitro: isochorismate synthase (IS), isochorismate pyruvate lyase (IPL), salicylate synthase (SS) and chorismate mutase (CM). In this paper, Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations employing hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potentials have been carried out to get a detailed knowledge of the IS and the IPL activities at the molecular level. According to our simulations, the architecture of the MbtI active site allows catalyzing the two reactions: the isochorismate formation, by means of a stepwise mechanism, and the salicylate production from isochorismate, that appears to be pericyclic in nature. Findings also explain the role of the magnesium cation and the pH dependence activity experimentally observed in MbtI. Mg(2+) would be polarizing and pre-organizing the substrate and active site, as well as shifting the pK(a) values of key active site residues.

  5. Force Dependent Biotinylation of Myosin IIA by α-Catenin Tagged with a Promiscuous Biotin Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shuji; Blee, Alexandra M.; Macway, Katherine G.; Renner, Derrick J.; Yamada, Soichiro

    2015-01-01

    Tissues and organs undergo constant physical perturbations and individual cells must respond to mechanical forces to maintain tissue integrity. However, molecular interactions underlying mechano-transduction are not fully defined at cell-cell junctions. This is in part due to weak and transient interactions that are likely prevalent in force-induced protein complexes. Using in situ proximal biotinylation by the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA tagged to α-catenin and a substrate stretch cell chamber, we sought to identify force-dependent molecular interactions surrounding α-catenin, an actin regulator at the sites of cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion. While E-cadherin, β-catenin, vinculin and actin localize with α-catenin at cell-cell contacts in immuno-fluorescent staining, only β-catenin and plakoglobin were biotinylated, suggesting that this proximal biotinylation is limited to the molecules that are in the immediate vicinity of α-catenin. In mechanically stretched samples, increased biotinylation of non-muscle myosin IIA, but not myosin IIB, suggests close spatial proximity between α-catenin and myosin IIA during substrate stretching. This force-induced biotinylation diminished as myosin II activity was inhibited by blebbistatin. Taken together, this promising technique enables us to identify force sensitive complexes that may be essential for mechano-responses in force bearing cell adhesion. PMID:25806963

  6. Using Bioluminescent Kinase Profiling Strips to Identify Kinase Inhibitor Selectivity and Promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Zegzouti, Hicham; Hennek, Jacquelyn; Goueli, Said A

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of a kinase inhibitor throughout drug discovery and development is predicated upon its selectivity towards the target of interest. Thus, profiling the compound against a broad panel of kinases is important for providing a better understanding of its activity and for obviating any off-target activities that can result in undesirable consequences. To assess the selectivity and potency of an inhibitor against multiple kinases, it is desirable to use a universal assay that can monitor the activity of all classes of kinases regardless of the nature of their substrates. The luminescent ADP-Glo kinase assay is a universal platform that measures kinase activity by quantifying the amount of the common kinase reaction product ADP. Here we present a method using standardized kinase profiling systems for inhibitor profiling studies based on ADP detection by luminescence. The kinase profiling systems are sets of kinases organized by family, presented in multi-tube strips containing eight enzymes, each with corresponding substrate strips, and standardized for optimal kinase activity. We show that using the kinase profiling strips we could quickly and easily generate multiple selectivity profiles using small or large kinase panels, and identify compound promiscuity within the kinome.

  7. Probing cleavage promiscuity of heparinase III towards chemoenzymatically synthetic heparan sulfate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guixin; Shao, Meng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Fengshan; Liu, Chunhui

    2017-10-01

    An insightful investigation into specificity of bacterial heparinase III has been intriguingly difficult due to heterogeneity of polymeric substrates. Herein, we chemoenzymatically synthesized a tailored library of HS oligosaccharides as substrates. A ∼15-fold reactivity difference to heparinase III was found between trisaccharides bearing different primary cleavage sites. Variable glucosamine modification decreased reactivity of trisaccharides by >20-fold compared with their counterpart primary substrates, while iduronate-containing secondary linkage showed slightly less sensitivity. The 2-sulfated iduronate residue extremely reduced reactivity to its adjacent primary site at reducing end of oligosaccharides, but showed marginal influence on the non-reducing site. Moreover, oligosaccharide susceptibility to digestion was size-dependent and had an obvious preference for the internal linkages over those near to non-reducing/reducing ends. Surface plasmon resonance revealed cleavage promiscuity attributed to different affinities or incorrect binding of substrates to the enzyme. The attractive information on heparinase III will be valuable in characterizing heparin and HS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The first murine zygotic transcription is promiscuous and uncoupled from splicing and 3′ processing

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Ken-ichiro; Yamamoto, Ryoma; Franke, Vedran; Cao, Minjun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masataka G; Vlahovicek, Kristian; Svoboda, Petr; Schultz, Richard M; Aoki, Fugaku

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of zygotic transcription in mammals is poorly understood. In mice, zygotic transcription is first detected shortly after pronucleus formation in 1-cell embryos, but the identity of the transcribed loci and mechanisms regulating their expression are not known. Using total RNA-Seq, we have found that transcription in 1-cell embryos is highly promiscuous, such that intergenic regions are extensively expressed and thousands of genes are transcribed at comparably low levels. Striking is that transcription can occur in the absence of defined core-promoter elements. Furthermore, accumulation of translatable zygotic mRNAs is minimal in 1-cell embryos because of inefficient splicing and 3′ processing of nascent transcripts. These findings provide novel insights into regulation of gene expression in 1-cell mouse embryos that may confer a protective mechanism against precocious gene expression that is the product of a relaxed chromatin structure present in 1-cell embryos. The results also suggest that the first zygotic transcription itself is an active component of chromatin remodeling in 1-cell embryos. PMID:25896510

  9. Compatibility counts: MHC-associated mate choice in a wild promiscuous primate.

    PubMed

    Schwensow, Nina; Eberle, Manfred; Sommer, Simone

    2008-03-07

    The mechanisms and temporal aspects of mate choice according to genetic constitution are still puzzling. Recent studies indicate that fitness is positively related to diversity in immune genes (MHC). Both sexes should therefore choose mates of high genetic quality and/or compatibility. However, studies addressing the role of MHC diversity in pre- and post-copulatory mate choice decisions in wild-living animals are few. We investigated the impact of MHC constitution and of neutral microsatellite variability on pre- and post-copulatory mate choice in both sexes in a wild population of a promiscuous primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). There was no support for pre-copulatory male or female mate choice, but our data indicate post-copulatory mate choice that is associated with genetic constitution. Fathers had a higher number of MHC supertypes different from those of the mother than randomly assigned males. Fathers also had a higher amino acid distance to the females' MHC as well as a higher total number of MHC supertypes and a higher degree of microsatellite heterozygosity than randomly assigned males. Female cryptic choice may be the underlying mechanism that operates towards an optimization of the genetic constitution of offspring. This is the first study that provides support for the importance of the MHC constitution in post-copulatory mate choice in non-human primates.

  10. Toll-like receptor 2 promiscuity is responsible for the immunostimulatory activity of nucleic acid nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Pizzuto, Malvina; Gangloff, Monique; Scherman, Daniel; Gay, Nicholas J; Escriou, Virginie; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Lonez, Caroline

    2017-02-10

    Lipopolyamines (LPAs) are cationic lipids; they interact spontaneously with nucleic acids to form lipoplexes used for gene delivery. The main hurdle to using lipoplexes in gene therapy lies in their immunostimulatory properties, so far attributed to the nucleic acid cargo, while cationic lipids were considered as inert to the immune system. Here we demonstrate for the first time that di-C18 LPAs trigger pro-inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, and this whether they are bound to nucleic acids or not. Molecular docking experiments suggest potential TLR2 binding modes reminiscent of bacterial lipopeptide sensing. The di-C18 LPAs share the ability of burying their lipid chains in the hydrophobic cavity of TLR2 and, in some cases, TLR1, at the vicinity of the dimerization interface; the cationic headgroups form multiple hydrogen bonds, thus crosslinking TLRs into functional complexes. Unravelling the molecular basis of TLR1 and TLR6-driven heterodimerization upon LPA binding underlines the highly collaborative and promiscuous ligand binding mechanism. The prevalence of non-specific main chain-mediated interactions demonstrates that potentially any saturated LPA currently used or proposed as transfection agent is likely to activate TLR2 during transfection. Hence our study emphasizes the urgent need to test the inflammatory properties of transfection agents and proposes the use of docking analysis as a preliminary screening tool for the synthesis of new non-immunostimulatory nanocarriers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Under-Appreciated Promiscuity of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sean P.; Hastings, Jordan F.; Han, Jeremy Z. R.; Croucher, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Each member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays a key role in normal development, homeostasis, and a variety of pathophysiological conditions, most notably in cancer. According to the prevailing dogma, these four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs; EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, and ERBB4) function exclusively through the formation of homodimers and heterodimers within the EGFR family. These combinatorial receptor interactions are known to generate increased interactome diversity and therefore influence signaling output, subcellular localization and function of the heterodimer. This molecular plasticity is also thought to play a role in the development of resistance toward targeted cancer therapies aimed at these known oncogenes. Interestingly, many studies now challenge this dogma and suggest that the potential for EGFR family receptors to interact with more distantly related RTKs is much greater than currently appreciated. Here we discuss how the promiscuity of these oncogenic receptors may lead to the formation of many unexpected receptor pairings and the significant implications for the efficiency of many targeted cancer therapies. PMID:27597943

  12. A promiscuous biotin ligase fusion protein identifies proximal and interacting proteins in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae In; Raida, Manfred; Burke, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new technique for proximity-dependent labeling of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Named BioID for proximity-dependent biotin identification, this approach is based on fusion of a promiscuous Escherichia coli biotin protein ligase to a targeting protein. BioID features proximity-dependent biotinylation of proteins that are near-neighbors of the fusion protein. Biotinylated proteins may be isolated by affinity capture and identified by mass spectrometry. We apply BioID to lamin-A (LaA), a well-characterized intermediate filament protein that is a constituent of the nuclear lamina, an important structural element of the nuclear envelope (NE). We identify multiple proteins that associate with and/or are proximate to LaA in vivo. The most abundant of these include known interactors of LaA that are localized to the NE, as well as a new NE-associated protein named SLAP75. Our results suggest BioID is a useful and generally applicable method to screen for both interacting and neighboring proteins in their native cellular environment. PMID:22412018

  13. A Disease-Causing Variant in PCNA Disrupts a Promiscuous Protein Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Caroline M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Kelch, Brian A

    2016-03-27

    The eukaryotic DNA polymerase sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen or PCNA, is a ring-shaped protein complex that surrounds DNA to act as a sliding platform for increasing processivity of cellular replicases and for coordinating various cellular pathways with DNA replication. A single point mutation, Ser228Ile, in the human PCNA gene was recently identified to cause a disease whose symptoms resemble those of DNA damage and repair disorders. The mutation lies near the binding site for most PCNA-interacting proteins. However, the structural consequences of the S228I mutation are unknown. Here, we describe the structure of the disease-causing variant, which reveals a large conformational change that dramatically transforms the binding pocket for PCNA client proteins. We show that the mutation markedly alters the binding energetics for some client proteins, while another, p21(CIP1), is only mildly affected. Structures of the disease variant bound to peptides derived from two PCNA partner proteins reveal that the binding pocket can adjust conformation to accommodate some ligands, indicating that the binding site is dynamic and pliable. Our work has implications for the plasticity of the binding site in PCNA and reveals how a disease mutation selectively alters interactions to a promiscuous binding site that is critical for DNA metabolism.

  14. A promiscuous liaison between IL-15 receptor and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in cell death control.

    PubMed

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Thon, Lutz; Mamat, Uwe; Bellosta, Paola; Basilico, Claudio; Adam, Dieter; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-12-21

    Discrimination between cytokine receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways is a central paradigm in signal transduction research. Here, we report a 'promiscuous liaison' between both receptors that enables interleukin (IL)-15 to transactivate the signaling pathway of a tyrosine kinase. IL-15 protects murine L929 fibroblasts from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced cell death, but fails to rescue them upon targeted depletion of the RTK, Axl; however, Axl-overexpressing fibroblasts are TNFalpha-resistant. IL-15Ralpha and Axl colocalize on the cell membrane and co-immunoprecipitate even in the absence of IL-15, whereby the extracellular part of Axl proved to be essential for Axl/IL-15Ralpha interaction. Most strikingly, IL-15 treatment mimics stimulation by the Axl ligand, Gas6, resulting in a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of both Axl and IL-15Ralpha, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This is also seen in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type but not Axl-/- or IL-15Ralpha-/- mice. Thus, IL-15-induced protection from TNFalpha-mediated cell death involves a hitherto unknown IL-15 receptor complex, consisting of IL-15Ralpha and Axl RTK, and requires their reciprocal activation initiated by ligand-induced IL-15Ralpha.

  15. Probing the promiscuity of ent-kaurene oxidases via combinatorial biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mafu, Sibongile; Jia, Meirong; Zi, Jiachen; Morrone, Dana; Wu, Yisheng; Xu, Meimei; Hillwig, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    The substrate specificity of enzymes from natural products’ metabolism is a topic of considerable interest, with potential biotechnological use implicit in the discovery of promiscuous enzymes. However, such studies are often limited by the availability of substrates and authentic standards for identification of the resulting products. Here, a modular metabolic engineering system is used in a combinatorial biosynthetic approach toward alleviating this restriction. In particular, for studies of the multiply reactive cytochrome P450, ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), which is involved in production of the diterpenoid plant hormone gibberellin. Many, but not all, plants make a variety of related diterpenes, whose structural similarity to ent-kaurene makes them potential substrates for KO. Use of combinatorial biosynthesis enabled analysis of more than 20 such potential substrates, as well as structural characterization of 12 resulting unknown products, providing some insight into the underlying structure–function relationships. These results highlight the utility of this approach for investigating the substrate specificity of enzymes from complex natural products’ biosynthesis. PMID:26884192

  16. Probing the promiscuity of ent-kaurene oxidases via combinatorial biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mafu, Sibongile; Jia, Meirong; Zi, Jiachen; Morrone, Dana; Wu, Yisheng; Xu, Meimei; Hillwig, Matthew L; Peters, Reuben J

    2016-03-01

    The substrate specificity of enzymes from natural products' metabolism is a topic of considerable interest, with potential biotechnological use implicit in the discovery of promiscuous enzymes. However, such studies are often limited by the availability of substrates and authentic standards for identification of the resulting products. Here, a modular metabolic engineering system is used in a combinatorial biosynthetic approach toward alleviating this restriction. In particular, for studies of the multiply reactive cytochrome P450, ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), which is involved in production of the diterpenoid plant hormone gibberellin. Many, but not all, plants make a variety of related diterpenes, whose structural similarity to ent-kaurene makes them potential substrates for KO. Use of combinatorial biosynthesis enabled analysis of more than 20 such potential substrates, as well as structural characterization of 12 resulting unknown products, providing some insight into the underlying structure-function relationships. These results highlight the utility of this approach for investigating the substrate specificity of enzymes from complex natural products' biosynthesis.

  17. The protein kinase promiscuities in the cancer-preventive mechanisms of NSAIDs

    PubMed Central

    Norvaisas, Povilas; Chan, Diana; Yokoi, Kenji; Dave, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    NSAIDs have been observed to have cancer-preventive properties, but the actual mechanism is elusive. We hypothesize that NSAIDs might have an effect through common pathways and targets of anticancer drugs by exploiting promiscuities of anticancer drug targets. Here, we have explored NSAIDs by their structural and pharmacophoric similarities with small anticancer molecules. In-silico analyses have shown a strong similarity between NSAIDs and protein kinase (PK) inhibitors. The calculated affinities of NSAIDs were found to be lower than the affinities of anticancer drugs, but higher than the affinities of compounds that are not specific to PKs. The competitive inhibition model suggests that PK might be inhibited by around 10%, which was confirmed by biochemical screening of some NSAIDs against PKs. NSAIDs did not affect all PKs universally, but had specificities for certain sets of PKs, which differed according to the NSAID. The study revealed potentially new features and mechanisms of NSAIDs that are useful in explaining their role in cancer prevention, which might lead to clinically significant breakthroughs in the future. PMID:25714784

  18. Structural basis for promiscuity and specificity during Candida glabrata invasion of host epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Diderrich, Rike; Veelders, Maik Stefan; Eulenburg, Georg; Kalugin, Vitali; Brückner, Stefan; Keller, Petra; Rupp, Steffen; Mösch, Hans-Ulrich; Essen, Lars-Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The human pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata harbors more than 20 surface-exposed, epithelial adhesins (Epas) for host cell adhesion. The Epa family recognizes host glycans and discriminates between target tissues by their adhesin (A) domains, but a detailed structural basis for ligand-binding specificity of Epa proteins has been lacking so far. In this study, we provide high-resolution crystal structures of the Epa1A domain in complex with different carbohydrate ligands that reveal how host cell mucin-type O-glycans are recognized and allow a structure-guided classification of the Epa family into specific subtypes. Further detailed structural and functional characterization of subtype-switched Epa1 variants shows that specificity is governed by two inner loops, CBL1 and CBL2, involved in calcium binding as well as by three outer loops, L1, L2, and L3. In summary, our study provides the structural basis for promiscuity and specificity of Epa adhesins, which might further contribute to developing anti-adhesive antimycotics and combating Candida colonization. PMID:23035251

  19. Promiscuous activity of the LXR antagonist GSK2033 in a mouse model of fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Griffett, Kristine; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The liver X receptor (LXR) functions as a receptor for oxysterols and plays a critical role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. We recently described a synthetic LXR inverse agonist that displayed efficacy in treatment of hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This compound, SR9238, was designed to display liver specificity so as to avoid potential detrimental effects on reverse cholesterol transport in peripheral tissues. Here, we examined the effects of a LXR antagonist/inverse agonist, GSK2033, which displays systemic exposure. Although GSK2033 performed as expected in cell-based models as a LXR inverse agonist, it displayed unexpected activity in the mouse NAFLD model. The expression of lipogenic enzyme genes such as fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory binding protein 1c were induced rather than suppressed and no effect on hepatic steatosis was found. Further characterization of the specificity of GSK2033 revealed that it displayed a significant degree of promiscuity, targeting a number of other nuclear receptors that could clearly alter hepatic gene expression. PMID:27680310

  20. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Stages of HIV Infection How Does HIV Progress in Your Body? Without treatment, HIV advances ... are the three stages of HIV infection: Acute HIV Infection Stage Within 2-4 weeks after HIV ...

  1. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  2. Treatment for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  3. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  4. Systems-Wide Prediction of Enzyme Promiscuity Reveals a New Underground Alternative Route for Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate Production in E. coli

    DOE PAGES

    Oberhardt, Matthew A.; Zarecki, Raphy; Reshef, Leah; ...

    2016-01-28

    Recent insights suggest that non-specific and/or promiscuous enzymes are common and active across life. Understanding the role of such enzymes is an important open question in biology. Here we develop a genome-wide method, PROPER, that uses a permissive PSI-BLAST approach to predict promiscuous activities of metabolic genes. Enzyme promiscuity is typically studied experimentally using multicopy suppression, in which over-expression of a promiscuous ‘replacer’ gene rescues lethality caused by inactivation of a ‘target’ gene. We use PROPER to predict multicopy suppression in Escherichia coli, achieving highly significant overlap with published cases (hypergeometric p = 4.4e-13). We then validate three novel predictedmore » target-replacer gene pairs in new multicopy suppression experiments. We next go beyond PROPER and develop a network-based approach, GEM-PROPER, that integrates PROPER with genome-scale metabolic modeling to predict promiscuous replacements via alternative metabolic pathways. GEM-PROPER predicts a new indirect replacer (thiG) for an essential enzyme (pdxB) in production of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (the active form of Vitamin B6), which we validate experimentally via multicopy suppression. Here, we perform a structural analysis of thiG to determine its potential promiscuous active site, which we validate experimentally by inactivating the pertaining residues and showing a loss of replacer activity. Thus, this study is a successful example where a computational investigation leads to a network-based identification of an indirect promiscuous replacement of a key metabolic enzyme, which would have been extremely difficult to identify directly.« less

  5. Systems-Wide Prediction of Enzyme Promiscuity Reveals a New Underground Alternative Route for Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate Production in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, Leah; Xia, Fangfang; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; Schreiber, Rachel; Henry, Christopher S.; Ben-Tal, Nir; Dwyer, Daniel J.; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Recent insights suggest that non-specific and/or promiscuous enzymes are common and active across life. Understanding the role of such enzymes is an important open question in biology. Here we develop a genome-wide method, PROPER, that uses a permissive PSI-BLAST approach to predict promiscuous activities of metabolic genes. Enzyme promiscuity is typically studied experimentally using multicopy suppression, in which over-expression of a promiscuous ‘replacer’ gene rescues lethality caused by inactivation of a ‘target’ gene. We use PROPER to predict multicopy suppression in Escherichia coli, achieving highly significant overlap with published cases (hypergeometric p = 4.4e-13). We then validate three novel predicted target-replacer gene pairs in new multicopy suppression experiments. We next go beyond PROPER and develop a network-based approach, GEM-PROPER, that integrates PROPER with genome-scale metabolic modeling to predict promiscuous replacements via alternative metabolic pathways. GEM-PROPER predicts a new indirect replacer (thiG) for an essential enzyme (pdxB) in production of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (the active form of Vitamin B6), which we validate experimentally via multicopy suppression. We perform a structural analysis of thiG to determine its potential promiscuous active site, which we validate experimentally by inactivating the pertaining residues and showing a loss of replacer activity. Thus, this study is a successful example where a computational investigation leads to a network-based identification of an indirect promiscuous replacement of a key metabolic enzyme, which would have been extremely difficult to identify directly. PMID:26821166

  6. Systems-Wide Prediction of Enzyme Promiscuity Reveals a New Underground Alternative Route for Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate Production in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Oberhardt, Matthew A.; Zarecki, Raphy; Reshef, Leah; Xia, Fangfang; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; Schreiber, Rachel; Henry, Christopher S.; Ben-Tal, Nir; Dwyer, Daniel J.; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-01-28

    Recent insights suggest that non-specific and/or promiscuous enzymes are common and active across life. Understanding the role of such enzymes is an important open question in biology. Here we develop a genome-wide method, PROPER, that uses a permissive PSI-BLAST approach to predict promiscuous activities of metabolic genes. Enzyme promiscuity is typically studied experimentally using multicopy suppression, in which over-expression of a promiscuous ‘replacer’ gene rescues lethality caused by inactivation of a ‘target’ gene. We use PROPER to predict multicopy suppression in Escherichia coli, achieving highly significant overlap with published cases (hypergeometric p = 4.4e-13). We then validate three novel predicted target-replacer gene pairs in new multicopy suppression experiments. We next go beyond PROPER and develop a network-based approach, GEM-PROPER, that integrates PROPER with genome-scale metabolic modeling to predict promiscuous replacements via alternative metabolic pathways. GEM-PROPER predicts a new indirect replacer (thiG) for an essential enzyme (pdxB) in production of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (the active form of Vitamin B6), which we validate experimentally via multicopy suppression. Here, we perform a structural analysis of thiG to determine its potential promiscuous active site, which we validate experimentally by inactivating the pertaining residues and showing a loss of replacer activity. Thus, this study is a successful example where a computational investigation leads to a network-based identification of an indirect promiscuous replacement of a key metabolic enzyme, which would have been extremely difficult to identify directly.

  7. Gender and HIV / AIDS: transforming prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G R

    1995-11-01

    The Women and AIDS Research Program (International Center for Research on Women) has identified a series of obstacles to preventing HIV infection among women, including social norms that mandate female ignorance about sexual matters, women's economic dependence on men, widespread acceptance of male promiscuity, and violence against women. Most AIDS prevention programs fail to challenge these contextual determinants and continue to focus on the promotion of condom use among men. Recommendations to empower women and improve their status are dismissed as long-term measures outside the domain of AIDS prevention. Feasible, however, is the modification of existing AIDS prevention programs to ensure they are gender-sensitive. This would mean measures such as providing services at times that are convenient to women and integrating services to reduce waiting and travelling times. To address the contextual issues at the root of women's vulnerability to HIV, AIDS prevention programs can link up with economic interventions such as credit programs, agricultural extension services, and women's cooperatives. Moreover, AIDS programs can provide HIV-infected women with social support through group educational sessions or counseling. Finally, because improvements in women's socioeconomic status are essential for the success of all AIDS prevention, program managers should be in the forefront of broader struggles to enact policy changes to eliminate gender-based discrimination and inequality.

  8. Conservation Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Maurice R.; Daniel, Tommy C.; Schweizer, Edward E.; Allmaras, Raymond R.

    1985-11-01

    Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more.

  9. New Tricks for “Old” Domains: How Novel Architectures and Promiscuous Hubs Contributed to the Organization and Evolution of the ECM

    PubMed Central

    Cromar, Graham; Wong, Ka-Chun; Loughran, Noeleen; On, Tuan; Song, Hongyan; Xiong, Xuejian; Zhang, Zhaolei; Parkinson, John

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a defining characteristic of metazoans and consists of a meshwork of self-assembling, fibrous proteins, and their functionally related neighbours. Previous studies, focusing on a limited number of gene families, suggest that vertebrate complexity predominantly arose through the duplication and subsequent modification of retained, preexisting ECM genes. These genes provided the structural underpinnings to support a variety of specialized tissues, as well as a platform for the organization of spatio-temporal signaling and cell migration. However, the relative contributions of ancient versus novel domains to ECM evolution have not been quantified across the full range of ECM proteins. Here, utilizing a high quality list comprising 324 ECM genes, we reveal general and clade-specific domain combinations, identifying domains of eukaryotic and metazoan origin recruited into new roles in approximately two-third of the ECM proteins in humans representing novel vertebrate proteins. We show that, rather than acquiring new domains, sampling of new domain combinations has been key to the innovation of paralogous ECM genes during vertebrate evolution. Applying a novel framework for identifying potentially important, noncontiguous, conserved arrangements of domains, we find that the distinct biological characteristics of the ECM have arisen through unique evolutionary processes. These include the preferential recruitment of novel domains to existing architectures and the utilization of high promiscuity domains in organizing the ECM network around a connected array of structural hubs. Our focus on ECM proteins reveals that distinct types of proteins and/or the biological systems in which they operate have influenced the types of evolutionary forces that drive protein innovation. This emphasizes the need for rigorously defined systems to address questions of evolution that focus on specific systems of interacting proteins. PMID:25323955

  10. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibody tests, combination or fourth-generation tests, and nucleic acid tests (NAT). HIV tests may be performed on ... retested 3 months after your possible exposure. A nucleic acid test (NAT) looks for HIV in the blood. ...

  11. HIV-1 vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  12. The promiscuous phosphomonoestearase activity of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a thermophilic Cu+ transport ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bredeston, Luis M; González Flecha, F Luis

    2016-07-01

    Membrane transport P-type ATPases display two characteristic enzymatic activities: a principal ATPase activity provides the driving force for ion transport across biological membranes, whereas a promiscuous secondary activity catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. This last activity is usually denoted as the phosphatase activity of P-ATPases. In the present study, we characterize the phosphatase activity of the Cu(+)-transport ATPase from Archaeglobus fulgidus (Af-CopA) and compare it with the principal ATPase activity. Our results show that the phosphatase turnover number was 20 times higher than that corresponding to the ATPase activity, but it is compensated by a high value of Km, producing a less efficient catalysis for pNPP. This secondary activity is enhanced by Mg(2+) (essential activator) and phospholipids (non-essential activator), and inhibited by salts and Cu(+). Transition state analysis of the catalyzed and noncatalyzed hydrolysis of pNPP indicates that Af-CopA enhances the reaction rates by a factor of 10(5) (ΔΔG(‡)=38 kJ/mol) mainly by reducing the enthalpy of activation (ΔΔH(‡)=30 kJ/mol), whereas the entropy of activation is less negative on the enzyme than in solution. For the ATPase activity, the decrease in the enthalpic component of the barrier is higher (ΔΔH(‡)=39 kJ/mol) and the entropic component is small on both the enzyme and in solution. These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the transference of the phosphoryl group of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and ATP.

  13. Structural basis for promiscuous PAM recognition in type I-E Cascade from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert P; Xiao, Yibei; Ding, Fran; van Erp, Paul B G; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Bailey, Scott; Wiedenheft, Blake; Ke, Ailong

    2016-02-25

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the cas (CRISPR-associated) operon form an RNA-based adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements in prokaryotes. Type I accounts for 95% of CRISPR systems, and has been used to control gene expression and cell fate. During CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided interference, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defence) facilitates the crRNA-guided invasion of double-stranded DNA for complementary base-pairing with the target DNA strand while displacing the non-target strand, forming an R-loop. Cas3, which has nuclease and helicase activities, is subsequently recruited to degrade two DNA strands. A protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence flanking target DNA is crucial for self versus foreign discrimination. Here we present the 2.45 Å crystal structure of Escherichia coli Cascade bound to a foreign double-stranded DNA target. The 5'-ATG PAM is recognized in duplex form, from the minor groove side, by three structural features in the Cascade Cse1 subunit. The promiscuity inherent to minor groove DNA recognition rationalizes the observation that a single Cascade complex can respond to several distinct PAM sequences. Optimal PAM recognition coincides with wedge insertion, initiating directional target DNA strand unwinding to allow segmented base-pairing with crRNA. The non-target strand is guided along a parallel path 25 Å apart, and the R-loop structure is further stabilized by locking this strand behind the Cse2 dimer. These observations provide the structural basis for understanding the PAM-dependent directional R-loop formation process.

  14. Promiscuous stimulation of ParF protein polymerization by heterogeneous centromere binding factors.

    PubMed

    Machón, Cristina; Fothergill, Timothy J G; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2007-11-16

    The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate segregation of bacterial plasmids. The segrosome of plasmid TP228 comprises ParF and ParG proteins that assemble on the parH centromere. ParF, which exemplifies one clade of the ubiquitous ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, polymerizes extensively in response to ATP binding. Polymerization is modulated by the ParG centromere binding factor (CBF). The segrosomes of plasmids pTAR, pVT745 and pB171 include ParA homologues of the ParF subgroup, as well as diverse homodimeric CBFs with no primary sequence similarity to ParG, or each other. Centromere binding by these analogues is largely specific. Here, we establish that the ParF homologues of pTAR and pB171 filament modestly with ATP, and that nucleotide hydrolysis is not required for this polymerization, which is more prodigious when the cognate CBF is also present. By contrast, the ParF homologue of plasmid pVT745 did not respond appreciably to ATP alone, but polymerized extensively in the presence of both its cognate CBF and ATP. The co-factors also stimulated nucleotide-independent polymerization of cognate ParF proteins. Moreover, apart from the CBF of pTAR, the disparate ParG analogues promoted polymerization of non-cognate ParF proteins suggesting that filamentation of the ParF proteins is enhanced by a common mechanism. Like ParG, the co-factors may be modular, possessing a centromere-specific interaction domain linked to a flexible region containing determinants that promiscuously stimulate ParF polymerization. The CBFs appear to function as bacterial analogues of formins, microtubule-associated proteins or related ancillary factors that regulate eucaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics.

  15. Revised molecular basis of the promiscuous carboxylic acid perhydrolase activity in serine hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2012-06-25

    Several serine hydrolases catalyze a promiscuous reaction: perhydrolysis of carboxylic acids to form peroxycarboxylic acids. The working hypothesis is that perhydrolases are more selective than esterases for hydrogen peroxide over water. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, and focused on L29P-PFE (Pseudomonas fluorescens esterase), which catalyzes perhydrolysis of acetic acid 43-fold faster than wild-type PFE. This hypothesis predicts that L29P-PFE should be approximately 43-fold more selective for hydrogen peroxide than wild-type PFE, but experiments show that L29P-PFE is less selective. The ratio of hydrolysis to perhydrolysis of methyl acetate at different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide fit a kinetic model for nucleophile selectivity. L29P-PFE (β(0)=170  M(-1)) is approximately half as selective for hydrogen peroxide over water than wild-type PFE (β(0)=330  M(-1)), which contradicts the working hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis is that carboxylic acid perhydrolases increase perhydrolysis by forming the acyl-enzyme intermediate faster. Consistent with this hypothesis, the rate of acetyl-enzyme formation, measured by (18)O-water exchange into acetic acid, was 25-fold faster with L29P-PFE than with wild-type PFE, which is similar to the 43-fold faster perhydrolysis with L29P-PFE. Molecular modeling of the first tetrahedral intermediate (T(d)1) suggests that a closer carbonyl group found in perhydrolases accepts a hydrogen bond from the leaving group water. This revised understanding can help design more efficient enzymes for perhydrolysis and shows how subtle changes can create new, unnatural functions in enzymes.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    advances in the discovery and evaluation of the promiscuous nuclear receptors that bind many different chemical ligands should prove to help explain some of the biological effects of soy isoflavones and other phytochemicals.

  17. Shifts in Host Range of a Promiscuous Plasmid through Parallel Evolution of its Replication Initiation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sota, Masahiro; Yano, Hirokazu; Hughes, Julie; Daughdrill, Gary W.; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Top, Eva M.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of bacterial plasmids to adapt to novel hosts and thereby shift their host range is key to their long-term persistence in bacterial communities. Promiscuous plasmids of the IncP-1 group can colonize a wide range of hosts, but it is not known if and how they can contract, shift or further expand their host range. To understand the evolutionary mechanisms of host range shifts of IncP-1 plasmids, an IncP-1β mini-replicon was experimentally evolved in four hosts wherein it was initially unstable. After 1000 generations in serial batch cultures under antibiotic selection for plasmid maintenance (kanamycin resistance), the stability of the mini-plasmid had dramatically improved in all coevolved hosts. However, only plasmids evolved in Shewanella oneidensis showed improved stability in the ancestor, indicating that adaptive mutations had occurred in the plasmid itself. Complete genome sequence analysis of nine independently evolved plasmids showed seven unique plasmid genotypes that had various kinds of single mutations at one locus, namely the N-terminal region of the replication initiation protein TrfA. Such parallel evolution indicates that this region was under strong selection. In five of the seven evolved plasmids these trfA mutations resulted in a significantly higher plasmid copy number. Evolved plasmids were found to be stable in four other naïve hosts, but could no longer replicate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study demonstrates that plasmids can specialize to a novel host through trade-offs between improved stability in the new host and the ability to replicate in a previously permissive host. PMID:20520653

  18. Shifting to structures in physics and biology: a prophylactic for promiscuous realism.

    PubMed

    French, Steven

    2011-06-01

    Within the philosophy of science, the realism debate has been revitalised by the development of forms of structural realism. These urge a shift in focus from the object oriented ontologies that come and go through the history of science to the structures that remain through theory change. Such views have typically been elaborated in the context of theories of physics and are motivated by, first of all, the presence within such theories of mathematical equations that allow straightforward representation of the relevant structures; and secondly, the implications of such theories for the individuality and identity of putative objects. My aim in this paper is to explore the possibility of extending such views to biological theories. An obvious concern is that within the context of the latter it is typically insisted that we cannot find the kinds of highly mathematised structures that structural realism can point to in physics. I shall indicate how the model-theoretic approach to theories might help allay such concerns. Furthermore, issues of identity and individuality also arise within biology. Thus Dupré has recently noted that there exists a 'General Problem of Biological Individuality' which relates to the issue of how one divides 'massively integrated and interconnected' systems into discrete components. In response Dupré advocates a form of 'Promiscuous Realism' that holds, for example, that there is no unique way of dividing the phylogenetic tree into kinds. Instead I shall urge serious consideration of those aspects of the work of Dupré and others that lean towards a structuralist interpretation. By doing so I hope to suggest possible ways in which a structuralist stance might be extended to biology.

  19. Artificial gene amplification reveals an abundance of promiscuous resistance determinants in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Valerie W. C.; Hanson-Manful, Paulina; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Duplicated genes provide an important raw material for adaptive evolution. However, the relationship between gene duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated, and it has been difficult to quantify the likelihood of evolving novelty in any systematic manner. Here, we describe a comprehensive search for artificially amplified genes that are able to impart new phenotypes on Escherichia coli, provided their expression is up-regulated. We used a high-throughput, library-on-library strategy to screen for resistance to antibiotics and toxins. Cells containing a complete E. coli ORF library were exposed to 237 toxin-containing environments. From 86 of these environments, we identified a total of 115 cases where overexpressed ORFs imparted improved growth. Of the overexpressed ORFs that we tested, most conferred small but reproducible increases in minimum inhibitory concentration (≤16-fold) for their corresponding antibiotics. In many cases, proteins were acting promiscuously to impart resistance. In the absence of toxins, most strains bore no fitness cost associated with ORF overexpression. Our results show that even the genome of a nonpathogenic bacterium harbors a substantial reservoir of resistance genes, which can be readily accessed through overexpression mutations. During the growth of a population under selection, these mutations are most likely to be gene amplifications. Therefore, our work provides validation and biochemical insight into the innovation, amplification, and divergence model of gene evolution under continuous selection [Bergthorsson U, Andersson DI, Roth JR (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:17004–17009], and also illustrates the high frequency at which novel traits can evolve in bacterial populations. PMID:21173244

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin Y Is a Promiscuous Cyclase That Increases Endothelial Tau Phosphorylation and Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Cristhiaan D.; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Pastukh, Viktoriya; Balczon, Ron; Stevens, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Exotoxin Y (ExoY) is a type III secretion system effector found in ∼ 90% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Although it is known that ExoY causes inter-endothelial gaps and vascular leak, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. Using both a bacteria-delivered and a codon-optimized conditionally expressed ExoY, we report that this toxin is a dual soluble adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase that results in intracellular cAMP and cGMP accumulation. The enzymatic activity of ExoY caused phosphorylation of endothelial Tau serine 214, accumulation of insoluble Tau, inter-endothelial cell gap formation, and increased macromolecular permeability. To discern whether the cAMP or cGMP signal was responsible for Tau phosphorylation and barrier disruption, pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were engineered for the conditional expression of either wild-type guanylyl cyclase, which synthesizes cGMP, or a mutated guanylyl cyclase, which synthesizes cAMP. Sodium nitroprusside stimulation of the cGMP-generating cyclase resulted in transient Tau serine 214 phosphorylation and gap formation, whereas stimulation of the cAMP-generating cyclase induced a robust increase in Tau serine 214 phosphorylation, gap formation, and macromolecular permeability. These results indicate that the cAMP signal is the dominant stimulus for Tau phosphorylation. Hence, ExoY is a promiscuous cyclase and edema factor that uses cAMP and, to some extent, cGMP to induce the hyperphosphorylation and insolubility of endothelial Tau. Because hyperphosphorylated and insoluble Tau are hallmarks in neurodegenerative tauopathies such as Alzheimer disease, acute Pseudomonas infections cause a pathophysiological sequela in endothelium previously recognized only in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22637478

  1. Ig-like domains on bacteriophages: a tale of promiscuity and deceit.

    PubMed

    Fraser, James S; Yu, Zhou; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2006-06-02

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) fold is one of the most important structures in biology, playing essential roles in the vertebrate immune response, cell adhesion, and many other processes. Through bioinformatic analysis, we have discovered that Ig-like domains are often found in the constituent proteins of tailed double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage particles, and are likely displayed on the surface of these viruses. These phage Ig-like domains fall into three distinct sequence families, which are similar to the classic immunoglobulin domain (I-Set), the fibronectin type 3 repeat (FN3), and the bacterial Ig-like domain (Big2). The phage Ig-like domains are very promiscuous. They are attached to more than ten different functional classes of proteins, and found in all three morphogenetic classes of tailed dsDNA phages. In addition, they reside in phages that infect a diverse set of gram negative and gram positive bacteria. These domains are deceptive because many are added to larger proteins through programmed ribosomal frameshifting, so that they are not always detected by standard protein sequence searching procedures. In addition, the presence of unrecognized Ig-like domains in a variety of phage proteins with different functions has led to gene misannotation. Our results demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer involving Ig-like domain encoding DNA has occurred commonly between diverse classes of both lytic and temperate phages, which otherwise display very limited sequence similarities to one another. We suggest that phage may have been an important vector in the spread of Ig-like domains through diverse species of bacteria. While the function of the phage Ig-like domains is unknown, several lines of evidence suggest that they may play an accessory role in phage infection by weakly interacting with carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface.

  2. Promiscuous and Adaptable Enzymes Fill “Holes” in the Tetrahydrofolate Pathway in Chlamydia Species

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nancy E.; Thiaville, Jennifer J.; Proestos, James; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L.; McCoy, Andrea J.; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Folates are tripartite molecules comprising pterin, para-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate moieties, which are essential cofactors involved in DNA and amino acid synthesis. The obligately intracellular Chlamydia species have lost several biosynthetic pathways for essential nutrients which they can obtain from their host but have retained the capacity to synthesize folate. In most bacteria, synthesis of the pterin moiety of folate requires the FolEQBK enzymes, while synthesis of the PABA moiety is carried out by the PabABC enzymes. Bioinformatic analyses reveal that while members of Chlamydia are missing the genes for FolE (GTP cyclohydrolase) and FolQ, which catalyze the initial steps in de novo synthesis of the pterin moiety, they have genes for the rest of the pterin pathway. We screened a chlamydial genomic library in deletion mutants of Escherichia coli to identify the “missing genes” and identified a novel enzyme, TrpFCtL2, which has broad substrate specificity. TrpFCtL2, in combination with GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA), the first enzyme of riboflavin synthesis, provides a bypass of the first two canonical steps in folate synthesis catalyzed by FolE and FolQ. Notably, TrpFCtL2 retains the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of the original annotation. Additionally, we independently confirmed the recent discovery of a novel enzyme, CT610, which uses an unknown precursor to synthesize PABA and complements E. coli mutants with deletions of pabA, pabB, or pabC. Thus, Chlamydia species have evolved a variant folate synthesis pathway that employs a patchwork of promiscuous and adaptable enzymes recruited from other biosynthetic pathways. PMID:25006229

  3. Human and Rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H Demonstrate a Conserved Capacity To Restrict Vif-Deficient HIV-1 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hultquist, Judd F.; Lengyel, Joy A.; Refsland, Eric W.; LaRue, Rebecca S.; Lackey, Lela; Brown, William L.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2011-01-01

    Successful intracellular pathogens must evade or neutralize the innate immune defenses of their host cells and render the cellular environment permissive for replication. For example, to replicate efficiently in CD4+ T lymphocytes, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a protein called viral infectivity factor (Vif) that promotes pathogenesis by triggering the degradation of the retrovirus restriction factor APOBEC3G. Other APOBEC3 proteins have been implicated in HIV-1 restriction, but the relevant repertoire remains ambiguous. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the complete, seven-member human and rhesus APOBEC3 families in HIV-1 restriction. In addition to APOBEC3G, we find that three other human APOBEC3 proteins, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H, are all potent HIV-1 restriction factors. These four proteins are expressed in CD4+ T lymphocytes, are packaged into and restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1 when stably expressed in T cells, mutate proviral DNA, and are counteracted by HIV-1 Vif. Furthermore, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H of the rhesus macaque also are packaged into and restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1 when stably expressed in T cells, and they are all neutralized by the simian immunodeficiency virus Vif protein. On the other hand, neither human nor rhesus APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, nor APOBEC3C had a significant impact on HIV-1 replication. These data strongly implicate a combination of four APOBEC3 proteins—APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H—in HIV-1 restriction. PMID:21835787

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis maps interactions that enhance cognate and limit promiscuous catalysis by an alkaline phosphatase superfamily phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Wiersma-Koch, Helen; Sunden, Fanny; Herschlag, Daniel

    2013-12-23

    Catalytic promiscuity, an evolutionary concept, also provides a powerful tool for gaining mechanistic insights into enzymatic reactions. Members of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily are highly amenable to such investigation, with several members having been shown to exhibit promiscuous activity for the cognate reactions of other superfamily members. Previous work has shown that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) exhibits a >10⁶-fold preference for the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters over phosphate monoesters, and that the reaction specificity is reduced 10³-fold when the size of the substituent on the transferred phosphoryl group of phosphate diester substrates is reduced to a methyl group. Here we show additional specificity contributions from the binding pocket for this substituent (herein termed the R' substituent) that account for an additional ~250-fold differential specificity with the minimal methyl substituent. Removal of four hydrophobic side chains suggested on the basis of structural inspection to interact favorably with R' substituents decreases phosphate diester reactivity 10⁴-fold with an optimal diester substrate (R' = 5'-deoxythymidine) and 50-fold with a minimal diester substrate (R' = CH₃). These mutations also enhance the enzyme's promiscuous phosphate monoesterase activity by nearly an order of magnitude, an effect that is traced by mutation to the reduction of unfavorable interactions with the two residues closest to the nonbridging phosphoryl oxygen atoms. The quadruple R' pocket mutant exhibits the same activity toward phosphate diester and phosphate monoester substrates that have identical leaving groups, with substantial rate enhancements of ~10¹¹-fold. This observation suggests that the Zn²⁺ bimetallo core of AP superfamily enzymes, which is equipotent in phosphate monoester and diester catalysis, has the potential to become specialized for the hydrolysis of each class of phosphate esters via addition

  5. Catalytic and substrate promiscuity: distinct multiple chemistries catalysed by the phosphatase domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Marks, Hanna; Mitra, Sreyoshi; Smalley, David M; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2016-07-15

    The presence of latent activities in enzymes is posited to underlie the natural evolution of new catalytic functions. However, the prevalence and extent of such substrate and catalytic ambiguity in evolved enzymes is difficult to address experimentally given the order-of-magnitude difference in the activities for native and, sometimes, promiscuous substrate/s. Further, such latent functions are of special interest when the activities concerned do not fall into the domain of substrate promiscuity. In the present study, we show a special case of such latent enzyme activity by demonstrating the presence of two mechanistically distinct reactions catalysed by the catalytic domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase isoform δ (PTPRδ). The primary catalytic activity involves the hydrolysis of a phosphomonoester bond (C─O─P) with high catalytic efficiency, whereas the secondary activity is the hydrolysis of a glycosidic bond (C─O─C) with poorer catalytic efficiency. This enzyme also displays substrate promiscuity by hydrolysing diester bonds while being highly discriminative for its monoester substrates. To confirm these activities, we also demonstrated their presence on the catalytic domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase Ω (PTPRΩ), a homologue of PTPRδ. Studies on the rate, metal-ion dependence, pH dependence and inhibition of the respective activities showed that they are markedly different. This is the first study that demonstrates a novel sugar hydrolase and diesterase activity for the phosphatase domain (PD) of PTPRδ and PTPRΩ. This work has significant implications for both understanding the evolution of enzymatic activity and the possible physiological role of this new chemistry. Our findings suggest that the genome might harbour a wealth of such alternative latent enzyme activities in the same protein domain that renders our knowledge of metabolic networks incomplete. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the

  6. Catalytic and substrate promiscuity: Distinct multiple chemistries catalyzed by the phosphatase domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Marks, Hanna; Mitra, Sreyoshi; Smalley, David M.; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The presence of latent activities in enzymes is posited to underlie the natural evolution of new catalytic functions. However, the prevalence and extent of such substrate and catalytic ambiguity in evolved enzymes is difficult to address experimentally given the order-of-magnitude difference in the activities for native and, sometimes, promiscuous substrate/s. Further, such latent functions are of special interest when the activities concerned do not fall into the domain of substrate promiscuity. Here, we show a special case of such latent enzyme activity by demonstrating the presence of two mechanistically distinct reactions catalyzed by the catalytic domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase isoform delta (PTPRδ). The primary catalytic activity involves the hydrolysis of a phosphomonoester bond (C-O-P) with high catalytic efficiency, while the secondary activity is the hydrolysis of a glycosidic bond (C-O-C) with poorer catalytic efficiency. This enzyme also displays substrate promiscuity by hydrolyzing diester bonds while being highly discriminative for its monoester substrates. To confirm these activities, we also demonstrated their presence on the catalytic domain of PTPRΩ, a homologue of PTPRδ. Studies on the rate, metal-ion dependence, pH dependence and inhibition of the respective activities showed that they are markedly different. This is the first study that demonstrates a novel sugar hydrolase and diesterase activity for the phosphatase domain of PTPRδ and PTPRΩ. This work has significant implications for both understanding the evolution of enzymatic activity and the possible physiological role of this new chemistry. Our findings suggest that the genome might harbor a wealth of such alternative latent enzyme activities in the same protein domain that renders our knowledge of metabolic networks incomplete. PMID:27208174

  7. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  8. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  9. Promiscuous Girls, Good Wives, and Cheating Husbands: Gender Inequality, Transitions to Marriage, and Infidelity in Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from premarital sexual relationships and courtship to marriage and parenthood in southeastern Nigeria involves particularly dramatic adjustments for young women who have absorbed changing ideas about sexuality, marriage, and gender equality, and who have had active premarital sexual lives. In the eyes of society, these women must transform from being promiscuous girls to good wives. This paper examines these adjustments and, specifically, how young married women’s lives are affected by the reality of male infidelity and a persistent gendered double standard regarding the acceptability of extramarital sex. PMID:24259752

  10. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; ...

    2015-08-05

    Although one of an enzyme’s hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. We know that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. We report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Finally, our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involvingmore » the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.« less

  11. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Feng; Yang, Xiaohan; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Although one of an enzyme's hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. It is known that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. Here we report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involving the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.

  12. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Feng; Yang, Xiaohan; Guo, Hong

    2015-08-05

    Although one of an enzyme’s hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. We know that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. We report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Finally, our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involving the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.

  13. High GUD Incidence in the Early 20th Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV Strains

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, João Dinis; Müller, Viktor; Lemey, Philippe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2010-01-01

    The processes that permitted a few SIV strains to emerge epidemically as HIV groups remain elusive. Paradigmatic theories propose factors that may have facilitated adaptation to the human host (e.g., unsafe injections), none of which provide a coherent explanation for the timing, geographical origin, and scarcity of epidemic HIV strains. Our updated molecular clock analyses established relatively narrow time intervals (roughly 1880–1940) for major SIV transfers to humans. Factors that could favor HIV emergence in this time frame may have been genital ulcer disease (GUD), resulting in high HIV-1 transmissibility (4–43%), largely exceeding parenteral transmissibility; lack of male circumcision increasing male HIV infection risk; and gender-skewed city growth increasing sexual promiscuity. We surveyed colonial medical literature reporting incidences of GUD for the relevant regions, concentrating on cities, suffering less reporting biases than rural areas. Coinciding in time with the origin of the major HIV groups, colonial cities showed intense GUD outbreaks with incidences 1.5–2.5 orders of magnitude higher than in mid 20th century. We surveyed ethnographic literature, and concluded that male circumcision frequencies were lower in early 20th century than nowadays, with low rates correlating spatially with the emergence of HIV groups. We developed computer simulations to model the early spread of HIV-1 group M in Kinshasa before, during and after the estimated origin of the virus, using parameters derived from the colonial literature. These confirmed that the early 20th century was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission. The strongest potential facilitating factor was high GUD levels. Remarkably, the direct effects of city population size and circumcision frequency seemed relatively small. Our results suggest that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV emergence. Low circumcision rates

  14. High GUD incidence in the early 20 century created a particularly permissive time window for the origin and initial spread of epidemic HIV strains.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, João Dinis; Müller, Viktor; Lemey, Philippe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2010-04-01

    The processes that permitted a few SIV strains to emerge epidemically as HIV groups remain elusive. Paradigmatic theories propose factors that may have facilitated adaptation to the human host (e.g., unsafe injections), none of which provide a coherent explanation for the timing, geographical origin, and scarcity of epidemic HIV strains. Our updated molecular clock analyses established relatively narrow time intervals (roughly 1880-1940) for major SIV transfers to humans. Factors that could favor HIV emergence in this time frame may have been genital ulcer disease (GUD), resulting in high HIV-1 transmissibility (4-43%), largely exceeding parenteral transmissibility; lack of male circumcision increasing male HIV infection risk; and gender-skewed city growth increasing sexual promiscuity. We surveyed colonial medical literature reporting incidences of GUD for the relevant regions, concentrating on cities, suffering less reporting biases than rural areas. Coinciding in time with the origin of the major HIV groups, colonial cities showed intense GUD outbreaks with incidences 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than in mid 20(th) century. We surveyed ethnographic literature, and concluded that male circumcision frequencies were lower in early 20(th) century than nowadays, with low rates correlating spatially with the emergence of HIV groups. We developed computer simulations to model the early spread of HIV-1 group M in Kinshasa before, during and after the estimated origin of the virus, using parameters derived from the colonial literature. These confirmed that the early 20(th) century was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission. The strongest potential facilitating factor was high GUD levels. Remarkably, the direct effects of city population size and circumcision frequency seemed relatively small. Our results suggest that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV emergence. Low circumcision rates

  15. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  16. Promiscuous and adaptable enzymes fill "holes" in the tetrahydrofolate pathway in Chlamydia species.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Proestos, James; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L; McCoy, Andrea J; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2014-07-08

    Folates are tripartite molecules comprising pterin, para-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate moieties, which are essential cofactors involved in DNA and amino acid synthesis. The obligately intracellular Chlamydia species have lost several biosynthetic pathways for essential nutrients which they can obtain from their host but have retained the capacity to synthesize folate. In most bacteria, synthesis of the pterin moiety of folate requires the FolEQBK enzymes, while synthesis of the PABA moiety is carried out by the PabABC enzymes. Bioinformatic analyses reveal that while members of Chlamydia are missing the genes for FolE (GTP cyclohydrolase) and FolQ, which catalyze the initial steps in de novo synthesis of the pterin moiety, they have genes for the rest of the pterin pathway. We screened a chlamydial genomic library in deletion mutants of Escherichia coli to identify the "missing genes" and identified a novel enzyme, TrpFCtL2, which has broad substrate specificity. TrpFCtL2, in combination with GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA), the first enzyme of riboflavin synthesis, provides a bypass of the first two canonical steps in folate synthesis catalyzed by FolE and FolQ. Notably, TrpFCtL2 retains the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of the original annotation. Additionally, we independently confirmed the recent discovery of a novel enzyme, CT610, which uses an unknown precursor to synthesize PABA and complements E. coli mutants with deletions of pabA, pabB, or pabC. Thus, Chlamydia species have evolved a variant folate synthesis pathway that employs a patchwork of promiscuous and adaptable enzymes recruited from other biosynthetic pathways. Importance: Collectively, the involvement of TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway completes our understanding of folate biosynthesis in Chlamydia. Moreover, the novel roles for TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway are sophisticated examples of how enzyme evolution plays a vital role in the

  17. Extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor is a promiscuous divalent cation sensor that responds to lead.

    PubMed

    Handlogten, M E; Shiraishi, N; Awata, H; Huang, C; Miller, R T

    2000-12-01

    The extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) responds to polycations, including Ca(2+) and neomycin. This receptor is a physiological regulator of systemic Ca(2+) metabolism and may also mediate the toxic effects of hypercalcemia. A number of divalent cations, including Pb(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), and Fe(2+), are toxic to the kidney, brain, and other tissues where the CaR is expressed. To determine which divalent cations can activate the CaR, we expressed the human CaR in HEK-293 cells and measured activation of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase p42ERK in response to potential agonists for the receptor. HEK-293 cells expressing the nonfunctional mutant CaR R796W served as controls. Extracellular Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Gd(3+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and neomycin activated the CaR, but Hg(2+) and Fe(3+) did not. We analyzed the kinetics of activation of p42ERK and PLA(2) by the CaR in response to Ca(2+), Co(2+), and Pb(2+). The EC(50) values ranged from approximately 0.1 mM for Pb(2+) to approximately 4.0 mM for Ca(2+). The Hill coefficients were >3, indicating multiple cooperative ligand binding sites or subunits. Submaximal concentrations of Ca(2+) and Pb(2+) were additive for activation of the CaR. The EC(50) for Ca(2+) or Pb(2+) was reduced four- to fivefold by the presence of the other ion. These divalent cations also activated PLA(2) via the CaR in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells that stably express the CaR. We conclude that many divalent cations activate the CaR and that their effects are additive. The facts that the CaR is a promiscuous polycation sensor and that the effects of these ions are additive to activate it suggest that the CaR may contribute to the toxicity of some heavy metals such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), and Fe(2+) for the kidney and other tissues where it is expressed.

  18. Structural basis of a histidine-DNA nicking/joining mechanism for gene transfer and promiscuous spread of antibiotic resistance

    DOE PAGES

    Pluta, Radoslaw; Boer, D. Roeland; Lorenzo-Diaz, Fabian; ...

    2017-07-24

    Relaxases are metal-dependent nucleases that break and join DNA for the initiation and completion of conjugative bacterial gene transfer. Conjugation is the main process through which antibiotic resistance spreads among bacteria, with multidrug-resistant staphylococci and streptococci infections posing major threats to human health. The MOBV family of relaxases accounts for approximately 85% of all relaxases found in Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Here, we present six structures of the MOBV relaxase MobM from the promiscuous plasmid pMV158 in complex with several origin of transfer DNA fragments. A combined structural, biochemical, and computational approach reveals that MobM follows a previously uncharacterized histidine/metal-dependent DNAmore » processing mechanism, which involves the formation of a covalent phosphoramidate histidine-DNA adduct for cell-to-cell transfer. In conclusion, we discuss how the chemical features of the high-energy phosphorus-nitrogen bond shape the dominant position of MOBV histidine relaxases among small promiscuous plasmids and their preference toward Gram-positive bacteria.« less

  19. Dual modulation of inward rectifier potassium currents in olfactory neuronal cells by promiscuous G protein coupling of the oxytocin receptor.

    PubMed

    Gravati, Marta; Busnelli, Marta; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Reversi, Alessandra; Spaiardi, Paolo; Parenti, Marco; Toselli, Mauro; Chini, Bice

    2010-09-01

    Oxytocin receptor is a seven transmembrane receptor widely expressed in the CNS that triggers G(i) or G(q) protein-mediated signaling cascades leading to the regulation of a variety of neuroendocrine and cognitive functions. We decided to investigate whether and how the promiscuous receptor/G protein coupling affects neuronal excitability. As an experimental model, we used the immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone-positive GN11 cell line displaying the features of immature, migrating olfactory neurons. Using RT-PCR analysis, we detected the presence of oxytocin receptors whose stimulation by oxytocin led to the accumulation of inositol phosphates and to the inhibition of cell proliferation, and the expression of several inward rectifier (IR) K+ channel subtypes. Moreover, electrophysiological and pharmacological inspections using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings evidenced that in GN11 cells, IR channel subtypes are responsive to oxytocin. In particular, we found that: (i) peptide activation of receptor either inhibited or stimulated IR conductances, and (ii) IR current inhibition was mediated by a pertussis toxin-resistant G protein presumably of the G(q/11) subtype, and by phospholipase C, whereas IR current activation was achieved via receptor coupling to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i/o) protein. The findings suggest that neuronal excitability might be tuned by a single peptide receptor that mediates opposing effects on distinct K+ channels through the promiscuous coupling to different G proteins.

  20. Molecular Dissection of an Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Reveals Intergenus KPC Carbapenemase Transmission through a Promiscuous Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, Amy J.; Cox, Heather L.; Kitchel, Brandon; Bonatti, Hugo; Brassinga, Ann Karen C.; Carroll, Joanne; Scheld, W. Michael; Hazen, Kevin C.; Sifri, Costi D.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as major causes of health care-associated infections worldwide. This diverse collection of organisms with various resistance mechanisms is associated with increased lengths of hospitalization, costs of care, morbidity, and mortality. The global spread of CRE has largely been attributed to dissemination of a dominant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing a serine β-lactamase, termed K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Here we report an outbreak of KPC-producing CRE infections in which the degree of horizontal transmission between strains and species of a promiscuous plasmid is unprecedented. Sixteen isolates, comprising 11 unique strains, 6 species, and 4 genera of bacteria, were obtained from 14 patients over the first 8 months of the outbreak. Of the 11 unique strains, 9 harbored the same highly promiscuous plasmid carrying the KPC gene blaKPC. The remaining strains harbored distinct blaKPC plasmids, one of which was carried in a strain of Klebsiella oxytoca coisolated from the index patient and the other generated from transposition of the blaKPC element Tn4401. All isolates could be genetically traced to the index patient. Molecular epidemiological investigation of the outbreak was aided by the adaptation of nested arbitrary PCR (ARB-PCR) for rapid plasmid identification. This detailed molecular genetic analysis, combined with traditional epidemiological investigation, provides insights into the highly fluid dynamics of drug resistance transmission during the outbreak. PMID:22045989

  1. Versatility or promiscuity: the estrogen receptors, control of ligand selectivity and an update on subtype selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hui Wen; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2014-08-26

    The estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of versatile receptors. They regulate an enormity of processes starting in early life and continuing through sexual reproduction, development, and end of life. This review provides a background and structural perspective for the ERs as part of the nuclear receptor superfamily and discusses the ER versatility and promiscuity. The wide repertoire of ER actions is mediated mostly through ligand-activated transcription factors and many DNA response elements in most tissues and organs. Their versatility, however, comes with the drawback of promiscuous interactions with structurally diverse exogenous chemicals with potential for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Even when interacting with endogenous hormones, ER actions can have adverse effects in disease progression. Finally, how nature controls ER specificity and how the subtle differences in receptor subtypes are exploited in pharmaceutical design to achieve binding specificity and subtype selectivity for desired biological response are discussed. The intent of this review is to complement the large body of literature with emphasis on most recent developments in selective ER ligands.

  2. Differential Features of AIRE-Induced and AIRE-Independent Promiscuous Gene Expression in Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Charles; Trofimov, Assya; Brochu, Sylvie; Lemieux, Sébastien; Perreault, Claude

    2015-07-15

    Establishment of self-tolerance in the thymus depends on promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted Ags (TRA) by thymic epithelial cells (TEC). This promiscuous gene expression (pGE) is regulated in part by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE). To evaluate the commonalities and discrepancies between AIRE-dependent and -independent pGE, we analyzed the transcriptome of the three main TEC subsets in wild-type and Aire knockout mice. We found that the impact of AIRE-dependent pGE is not limited to generation of TRA. AIRE decreases, via non-cell autonomous mechanisms, the expression of genes coding for positive regulators of cell proliferation, and it thereby reduces the number of cortical TEC. In mature medullary TEC, AIRE-driven pGE upregulates non-TRA coding genes that enhance cell-cell interactions (e.g., claudins, integrins, and selectins) and are probably of prime relevance to tolerance induction. We also found that AIRE-dependent and -independent TRA present several distinctive features. In particular, relative to AIRE-induced TRA, AIRE-independent TRA are more numerous and show greater splicing complexity. Furthermore, we report that AIRE-dependent versus -independent TRA project nonredundant representations of peripheral tissues in the thymus. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Conservation endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  4. An examination of risky sexual behavior and HIV in victims of child abuse and neglect: a 30-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2008-03-01

    This article examined links between childhood maltreatment and risky sexual behavior (early sexual contact, promiscuity, prostitution) and HIV in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, physically and sexually abused and neglected children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into adulthood. Early sexual contact, promiscuity, and prostitution were assessed through in-person interviews and official records (prostitution) at approximate age 29 (N=1196). HIV tests were conducted at approximate age 41 (N=631). Child maltreatment was associated with prostitution (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.35-4.50) and early sexual contact (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.24-2.40). Prevalence of HIV in the abuse/neglect group was twice that in controls (OR=2.35, 95% CI=.64-8.62), although this difference did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. SEM provided significant support for a model linking child abuse and neglect to prostitution through early sexual contact and a marginal link to HIV through prostitution. These findings provide prospective evidence that maltreated children are more likely to report sexual contact before age 15, engage in prostitution by young adulthood, and test positive for HIV in middle adulthood. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  6. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  7. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  8. Lighting Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Frank D.

    1975-01-01

    With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

  9. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Amy A.

    This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

  10. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  11. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  12. HIV sequence compendium 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Freed, Eric; Hahn, Beatrice; Marx, Preston; McCutchan, Francine; Mellors, John; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2002-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Traditionally, we present the sequence data themselves in the form of alignments: Section II, an alignment of a selection of HIV-1/SIVcpz full-length genomes (a lot of LAI-like sequences, for example, have been omitted because they are so similar that they bias the alignment); Section III, a combined HIV-1/HIV-2/SIV whole genome alignment; Sections IV–VI, amino acid alignments for HIV-1/SIV-cpz, HIV-2/SIV, and SIVagm. The HIV-2/SIV and SIVagm amino acid alignments are separate because the genetic distances between these groups are so great that presenting them in one alignment would make it very elongated because of the large number of gaps that have to be inserted. As always, tables with extensive background information gathered from the literature accompany the whole genome alignments. The collection of whole-gene sequences in the database is now large enough that we have abundant representation of most subtypes. For many subtypes, and especially for subtype B, a large number of sequences that span entire genes were not included in the printed alignments to conserve space. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/ALIGN_CURRENT/ALIGN-INDEX.html. Importantly, all these alignments have been edited to include only one sequence per person, based on phylogenetic trees that were created for all of them, as well as on the literature. Because of the number of sequences available, we have decided to use a different selection principle this year, based on the epidemiological importance of the subtypes. Subtypes A–D and CRFs 01 and 02 are by far the most widespread variants, and for these (when available) we have included 8–10 representatives in the alignments. The other

  13. HIV chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Douglas D.

    2001-04-01

    The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.

  14. Conserved positive selection signals in gp41 across multiple subtypes and difference in selection signals detectable in gp41 sequences sampled during acute and chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection

    PubMed Central

    Bandawe, Gama P; Martin, Darren P; Treurnicht, Florette; Mlisana, Koleka; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Williamson, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Background The high diversity of HIV variants driving the global AIDS epidemic has caused many to doubt whether an effective vaccine against the virus is possible. However, by identifying the selective forces that are driving the ongoing diversification of HIV and characterising their genetic consequences, it may be possible to design vaccines that pre-empt some of the virus' more common evasion tactics. One component of such vaccines might be the envelope protein, gp41. Besides being targeted by both the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system this protein mediates fusion between viral and target cell membranes and is likely to be a primary determinant of HIV transmissibility. Results Using recombination aware analysis tools we compared site specific signals of selection in gp41 sequences from different HIV-1 M subtypes and circulating recombinant forms and identified twelve sites evolving under positive selection across multiple major HIV-1 lineages. To identify evidence of selection operating during transmission our analysis included two matched datasets sampled from patients with acute or chronic subtype C infections. We identified six gp41 sites apparently evolving under different selection pressures during acute and chronic HIV-1 infections. These sites mostly fell within functional gp41 domains, with one site located within the epitope recognised by the broadly neutralizing antibody, 4E10. Conclusion Whereas these six sites are potentially determinants of fitness and are therefore good candidate targets for subtype-C specific vaccines, the twelve sites evolving under diversifying selection across multiple subtypes might make good candidate targets for broadly protective vaccines. PMID:19025632

  15. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  16. Perspectives for biocatalytic lignin utilization: cleaving 4-O-5 and Cα-Cβ bonds in dimeric lignin model compounds catalyzed by a promiscuous activity of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoungseon; Yum, Taewoo; Kim, Jiye; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Sang, Byoung-In; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan; Um, Youngsoon

    2017-01-01

    In the biorefinery utilizing lignocellulosic biomasses, lignin decomposition to value-added phenolic derivatives is a key issue, and recently biocatalytic delignification is emerging owing to its superior selectivity, low energy consumption, and unparalleled sustainability. However, besides heme-containing peroxidases and laccases, information about lignolytic biocatalysts is still limited till date. Herein, we report a promiscuous activity of tyrosinase which is closely associated with delignification requiring high redox potentials (>1.4 V vs. normal hydrogen electrode [NHE]). The promiscuous activity of tyrosinase not only oxidizes veratryl alcohol, a commonly used nonphenolic substrate for assaying ligninolytic activity, to veratraldehyde but also cleaves the 4-O-5 and Cα-Cβ bonds in 4-phenoxyphenol and guaiacyl glycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (GGE) that are dimeric lignin model compounds. Cyclic voltammograms additionally verified that the promiscuous activity oxidizes lignin-related high redox potential substrates. These results might be applicable for extending the versatility of tyrosinase toward biocatalytic delignification as well as suggesting a new perspective for sustainable lignin utilization. Furthermore, the results provide insight for exploring the previously unknown promiscuous activities of biocatalysts much more diverse than ever thought before, thereby innovatively expanding the applicable area of biocatalysis.

  17. Ephedrine-based diselenide: a promiscuous catalyst suitable to mimic the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and to promote enantioselective C-C coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Letiére C; Alberto, Eduardo E; Schwab, Ricardo S; Taube, Paulo S; Nascimento, Vanessa; Rodrigues, Oscar E D; Braga, Antonio L

    2012-08-28

    The ephedrine-based diselenide appears as a new promiscuous catalyst, able to generate optically active alcohols by addition of organozinc to aldehydes (up to 97% ee), and shows powerful GPx like activity, reducing H(2)O(2) to water in only 16.33 min (eleven times faster than PhSeSePh).

  18. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Noel, Joseph

    2016-07-12

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  19. Parents' Divorce Is More Strongly Related to the Self-Perceived Promiscuity and Drinking Behavior of Male than of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfellow, Erica L.; McAndrew, Francis T.

    2010-01-01

    A study of 357 students (112 males, 245 females) responding to an online survey at a Midwestern liberal arts college revealed that males and children from divorced families perceived themselves as more promiscuous and drank more than did students from intact families. However, a significant interaction between the gender of the students and the…

  20. Energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    Under the Warner Amendment, oil overcharge funds are designated for states' use in certain authorized energy conservation and assistance programs. During FY 1982-87 Warner funds accounted for $200 million of the $3.3 billion states received from the oil overcharge escrow account. The $3.3 billion was in addition to the $13.3 billion that the Congress appropriated for the conservation and assistance programs. More than 4 years after their distribution, states had not used all the Warner funds. This report provides the status of all oil overcharge funds; the use of Warner funds and the time it is taking to spend the funds in Arizona, California, and Illinois.

  1. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  2. Advertising HIV.

    PubMed

    Mougenez, Stephane; Chad, N'Djamena; Howe, John

    1995-04-05

    Think of advertising and what comes to mind, soap powders, motor cars, baked beans? All of these, of course, are heavily advertised, but what about HIV? Among the most durable of the government's advertisement campaigns have been the ones concerning HIV. Tens of millions of pounds have been spent telling the public of the presence and dangers of the virus.

  3. When HIV treatment goals conflict with guideline-based opioid prescribing: A qualitative study of HIV providers

    PubMed Central

    Starrels, Joanna L.; Peyser, Deena; Haughton, Lorlette; Fox, Aaron; Merlin, Jessica S.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients have high prevalence of chronic pain and opioid use, making HIV care a critical setting for improving the safety of opioid prescribing. Little is known about HIV treatment providers’ perspectives about opioid prescribing to patients with chronic pain. Methods We administered a questionnaire and conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 18 HIV treatment providers (infectious disease specialists, general internists, family practitioners, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) in Bronx, NY. Open-ended interview questions focused on providers’ experiences, beliefs, and attitudes about opioid prescribing and about use of guideline-based opioid prescribing practices (conservative prescribing, and monitoring for and responding to misuse). Transcripts were thematically analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results Eighteen HIV treatment providers included 13 physicians, 4 nurse practitioners, and 3 physician assistants. They were 62% female, 56% white, and practiced as HIV providers for a mean of 14.6 years. Most reported always or almost always using opioid treatment agreements (56%) and urine drug testing (61%) with their patients on long-term opioid therapy. HIV treatment providers tended to view opioid prescribing for chronic pain within the “HIV paradigm,” a set of priorities and principles defined by three key themes: 1) primacy of HIV goals, 2) familiarity with substance use, and 3) the clinician as ally. The HIV paradigm sometimes supported, and sometimes conflicted with guideline-based opioid prescribing practices. For HIV treatment providers, perceived alignment with the HIV paradigm determined whether and how guideline-based opioid prescribing practices were adopted. For example, the primacy of HIV goals superseded conservative opioid prescribing when providers prescribed opioids with the goal of retaining patients in HIV care. Conclusion Our findings highlight unique factors in HIV care

  4. The Search for Elusive Structure: A Promiscuous Realist Case for Researching Specific Psychotic Experiences Such as Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Bentall, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Problems in psychiatric classification have impeded research into psychopathology for more than a century. Here, I briefly review several new approaches to solving this problem, including the internalizing-externalizing-psychosis spectra, the 5-factor model of psychotic symptoms, and the more recent network approach. Researchers and clinicians should probably adopt an attitude of promiscuous realism and assume that a single classification system is unlikely to be effective for all purposes, and that different systems will need to be chosen for research into etiology, public mental health research, and clinical activities. Progress in understanding the risk factors and mechanisms that lead to psychopathology is most likely to be achieved by focusing on specific types of experience or symptoms such as hallucinations. PMID:24936080

  5. A Novel Semi-biosynthetic Route for Artemisinin Production Using Engineered Substrate-Promiscuous P450BM3

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Jeffrey; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Fisher, Karl; Woolard, Frank; Ockey, Denise; McPhee, Derek; Renninger, Neil; Chang, Michelle; Baker, David; Keasling, Jay

    2009-11-30

    Production of fine heterologus pathways in microbial hosts is frequently hindered by insufficient knowledge of the native metabolic pathway and its cognate enzymes; often the pathway is unresolved and enzymes lack detailed characterization. An alternative paradigm to using native pathways is de novo pathway design using well-characterized, substrate-promiscuous enzymes. We demonstrate this concept using P450BM3 from Bacillus megaterium. Using a computer model, we illustrate how key P450BM3 activ site mutations enable binding of non-native substrate amorphadiene, incorporating these mutations into P450BM3 enabled the selective oxidation of amorphadiene arteminsinic-11s,12-epoxide, at titers of 250 mg L"1 in E. coli. We also demonstrate high-yeilding, selective transformations to dihydroartemisinic acid, the immediate precursor to the high value anti-malarial drug artemisinin.

  6. Evidence-based approach to HIV/AIDS policy and research prioritization in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Feizzadeh, A; Nedjat, S; Asghari, S; Keshtkar, A; Heshmat, R; Setayesh, H; Majdzadeh, R

    2010-03-01

    In formulating the second national strategic plan for prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Islamic Republic of Iran a more evidence-based approach was needed. This paper reports on a systematic review of the local evidence about the determinants of HIV/AIDS transmission in 3 categories: poor knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV transmission; injection drug use; and sexual promiscuity. Of 93 reports reviewed, 53 met the inclusion criteria. Information about the prevalence and magnitude of effect for the 3 risk determinants at the national and regional level was scarce. Heterogeneity between studies, even in the same sub-population, was significant. An improved research base and better sharing of information are needed within countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  7. 3D Organotypic Co-culture Model Supporting Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Promiscuous Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sheena; Stark, Hans-Jürgen; Martin, Iris; Boukamp, Petra; Kyewski, Bruno

    2015-07-30

    Intra-thymic T cell development requires an intricate three-dimensional meshwork composed of various stromal cells, i.e., non-T cells. Thymocytes traverse this scaffold in a highly coordinated temporal and spatial order while sequentially passing obligatory check points, i.e., T cell lineage commitment, followed by T cell receptor repertoire generation and selection prior to their export into the periphery. The two major resident cell types forming this scaffold are cortical (cTECs) and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). A key feature of mTECs is the so-called promiscuous expression of numerous tissue-restricted antigens. These tissue-restricted antigens are presented to immature thymocytes directly or indirectly by mTECs or thymic dendritic cells, respectively resulting in self-tolerance. Suitable in vitro models emulating the developmental pathways and functions of cTECs and mTECs are currently lacking. This lack of adequate experimental models has for instance hampered the analysis of promiscuous gene expression, which is still poorly understood at the cellular and molecular level. We adapted a 3D organotypic co-culture model to culture ex vivo isolated mTECs. This model was originally devised to cultivate keratinocytes in such a way as to generate a skin equivalent in vitro. The 3D model preserved key functional features of mTEC biology: (i) proliferation and terminal differentiation of CD80(lo), Aire-negative into CD80(hi), Aire-positive mTECs, (ii) responsiveness to RANKL, and (iii) sustained expression of FoxN1, Aire and tissue-restricted genes in CD80(hi) mTECs.

  8. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mouparna; Ghosh, Anindya S.; Oda, Masataka; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Goñi, Félix M.

    2015-01-01

    The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237) and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff) with known structures using serine protease (SPASE) motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of pathways that

  9. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni; Dutta, Mouparna; Ghosh, Anindya S; Oda, Masataka; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-01-01

    The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237) and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff) with known structures using serine protease (SPASE) motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of pathways that

  10. Promiscuous binding of invariant chain-derived CLIP peptide to distinct HLA-I molecules revealed in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    van Luijn, Marvin M; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Lampen, Margit H; van Veelen, Peter A; Zevenbergen, Adri; Kester, Michel G D; de Ru, Arnoud H; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; van Hall, Thorbald; van Ham, S Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Antigen presentation by HLA class I (HLA-I) and HLA class II (HLA-II) complexes is achieved by proteins that are specific for their respective processing pathway. The invariant chain (Ii)-derived peptide CLIP is required for HLA-II-mediated antigen presentation by stabilizing HLA-II molecules before antigen loading through transient and promiscuous binding to different HLA-II peptide grooves. Here, we demonstrate alternative binding of CLIP to surface HLA-I molecules on leukemic cells. In HLA-II-negative AML cells, we found plasma membrane display of the CLIP peptide. Silencing Ii in AML cells resulted in reduced HLA-I cell surface display, which indicated a direct role of CLIP in the HLA-I antigen presentation pathway. In HLA-I-specific peptide eluates from B-LCLs, five Ii-derived peptides were identified, of which two were from the CLIP region. In vitro peptide binding assays strikingly revealed that the eluted CLIP peptide RMATPLLMQALPM efficiently bound to four distinct HLA-I supertypes (-A2, -B7, -A3, -B40). Furthermore, shorter length variants of this CLIP peptide also bound to these four supertypes, although in silico algorithms only predicted binding to HLA-A2 or -B7. Immunization of HLA-A2 transgenic mice with these peptides did not induce CTL responses. Together these data show a remarkable promiscuity of CLIP for binding to a wide variety of HLA-I molecules. The found participation of CLIP in the HLA-I antigen presentation pathway could reflect an aberrant mechanism in leukemic cells, but might also lead to elucidation of novel processing pathways or immune escape mechanisms.

  11. Thermodynamics of an aminoglycoside modifying enzyme with low substrate promiscuity: The aminoglycoside N3 acetyltransferase-VIa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashasti; Serpersu, Engin H

    2017-07-01

    Kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of the aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferase-VIa (AAC-VIa) are determined. Among the aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferases, AAC-VIa has one of the most limited substrate profiles. Kinetic studies showed that only five aminoglycosides are substrates for this enzyme with a range of fourfold difference in kcat values. Larger differences in KM (∼40-fold) resulted in ∼30-fold variation in kcat /KM . Binding of aminoglycosides to AAC-VIa was enthalpically favored and entropically disfavored with a net result of favorable Gibbs energy (ΔG < 0). A net deprotonation of the enzyme, ligand, or both accompanied the formation of binary and ternary complexes. This is opposite of what was observed with several other aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferases, where ligand binding causes more protonation. The change in heat capacity (ΔCp) was different in H2 O and D2 O for the binary enzyme-sisomicin complex but remained the same in both solvents for the ternary enzyme-CoASH-sisomicin complex. Unlike, most other aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, the values of ΔCp were within the expected range of protein-carbohydrate interactions. Solution behavior of AAC-VIa was also different from the more promiscuous aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferases and showed a monomer-dimer equilibrium as detected by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Binding of ligands shifted the enzyme to monomeric state. Data also showed that polar interactions were the most dominant factor in dimer formation. Overall, thermodynamics of ligand-protein interactions and differences in protein behavior in solution provide few clues on the limited substrate profile of this enzyme despite its >55% sequence similarity to the highly promiscuous aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferase. Proteins 2017; 85:1258-1265. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Promiscuous Presentation and Recognition of Nucleosomal Autoepitopes in Lupus: Role of Autoimmune T Cell Receptor α Chain

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Lu, Liangjun; Southwood, Scott; Sette, Alessandro; Michaels, Marissa A.; Datta, Syamal K.

    1998-01-01

    T cells specific for nucleosomal autoepitopes are selectively expanded in lupus mice and these Th cells drive autoimmune B cells to produce pathogenic antinuclear antibodies. We transfected the TCR-α and -β chain genes of a representative, pathogenic autoantibody-inducing Th clone specific for the nucleosomal core histone peptide H471–94 into TCR-negative recipient cells. Although the autoimmune TCRs were originally derived from SNF1 (I-Ad/q) mice, the transfectants could recognize the nucleosomal autoepitope presented by APC-bearing I-A molecules of all haplotypes tested, as well as human DR molecules. Competition assays indicated that the autoepitopes bound to the MHC class II groove. Most remarkably, MHC-unrestricted recognition of the nucleosomal peptide epitope was conferred by the lupus TCR-α chain even when it paired with a TCR-β chain of irrelevant specificity. Several other disease-relevant Th clones and splenic T cells of lupus mice had similar properties. The TCR-α chains of these murine lupus Th clones shared related motifs and charged residues in their CDRs, and similar motifs were apparent even in TCR-α chains of human lupus Th clones. The lupus TCR-α chains probably contact the nucleosomal peptide complexed with MHC with relatively high affinity/avidity to sustain TCR signaling, because CD4 coreceptor was not required for promiscuous recognition. Indeed, pathogenic autoantibody-inducing, CD4-negative, TCR-αβ+ Th cells are expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus. These results have implications regarding thymic selection and peripheral expansion of nucleosome-specific T cells in lupus. They also suggest that universally tolerogenic epitopes could be designed for therapy of lupus patients with diverse HLA alleles. We propose to designate nucleosomes and other antigens bearing universal epitopes “Pantigens” (for promiscuous antigens). PMID:9449717

  13. Promiscuous Binding of Karyopherinβ1 Modulates FG Nucleoporin Barrier Function and Expedites NTF2 Transport Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Raphael S.; Kapinos, Larisa E.; Marshall, Neil J.; Stewart, Murray; Lim, Roderick Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    The transport channel of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) contains a high density of intrinsically disordered proteins that are rich in phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat motifs (FG Nups). The FG Nups interact promiscuously with various nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), such as karyopherins (Kaps), that mediate the trafficking of nucleocytoplasmic cargoes while also generating a selectively permeable barrier against other macromolecules. Although the binding of NTRs to FG Nups increases molecular crowding in the NPC transport channel, it is unclear how this impacts FG Nup barrier function or the movement of other molecules, such as the Ran importer NTF2. Here, we use surface plasmon resonance to evaluate FG Nup conformation, binding equilibria, and interaction kinetics associated with the multivalent binding of NTF2 and karyopherinβ1 (Kapβ1) to Nsp1p molecular brushes. NTF2 and Kapβ1 show different long- and short-lived binding characteristics that emerge from varying degrees of molecular retention and FG repeat binding avidity within the Nsp1p brush. Physiological concentrations of NTF2 produce a collapse of Nsp1p brushes, whereas Kapβ1 binding generates brush extension. However, the presence of prebound Kapβ1 inhibits Nsp1p brush collapse during NTF2 binding, which is dominated by weak, short-lived interactions that derive from steric hindrance and diminished avidity with Nsp1p. This suggests that binding promiscuity confers kinetic advantages to NTF2 by expediting its facilitated diffusion and reinforces the proposal that Kapβ1 contributes to the integral barrier function of the NPC. PMID:25692596

  14. Promiscuous binding of Karyopherinβ1 modulates FG nucleoporin barrier function and expedites NTF2 transport kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Raphael S; Kapinos, Larisa E; Marshall, Neil J; Stewart, Murray; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2015-02-17

    The transport channel of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) contains a high density of intrinsically disordered proteins that are rich in phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat motifs (FG Nups). The FG Nups interact promiscuously with various nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), such as karyopherins (Kaps), that mediate the trafficking of nucleocytoplasmic cargoes while also generating a selectively permeable barrier against other macromolecules. Although the binding of NTRs to FG Nups increases molecular crowding in the NPC transport channel, it is unclear how this impacts FG Nup barrier function or the movement of other molecules, such as the Ran importer NTF2. Here, we use surface plasmon resonance to evaluate FG Nup conformation, binding equilibria, and interaction kinetics associated with the multivalent binding of NTF2 and karyopherinβ1 (Kapβ1) to Nsp1p molecular brushes. NTF2 and Kapβ1 show different long- and short-lived binding characteristics that emerge from varying degrees of molecular retention and FG repeat binding avidity within the Nsp1p brush. Physiological concentrations of NTF2 produce a collapse of Nsp1p brushes, whereas Kapβ1 binding generates brush extension. However, the presence of prebound Kapβ1 inhibits Nsp1p brush collapse during NTF2 binding, which is dominated by weak, short-lived interactions that derive from steric hindrance and diminished avidity with Nsp1p. This suggests that binding promiscuity confers kinetic advantages to NTF2 by expediting its facilitated diffusion and reinforces the proposal that Kapβ1 contributes to the integral barrier function of the NPC. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The selectivity and promiscuity of brain-neuroregenerative inhibitors between ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms: An integration of SB-QSSR modelling, QM/MM analysis and in vitro kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Yang, Y; Lu, X

    2016-01-01

    The Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) have long been recognized as an attractive therapeutic target for various neurological diseases; selective inhibition of ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms would result in distinct biological effects on neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and neuroregeneration after brain surgery and traumatic brain injury. However, the discovery and design of isoform-selective inhibitors remain a great challenge due to the high conservation and similarity between the kinase domains of ROCK1 and ROCK2. Here, a structure-based quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (SB-QSSR) approach was used to correlate experimentally measured selectivity with the difference in inhibitor binding to the two kinase isoforms. The resulting regression models were examined rigorously through both internal cross-validation and external blind validation; a nonlinear predictor was found to have high fitting stability and strong generalization ability, which was then employed to perform virtual screening against a structurally diverse, drug-like compound library. Consequently, five and seven hits were identified as promising candidates of 1-o-2 and 2-o-1 selective inhibitors, respectively, from which seven purchasable compounds were tested in vitro using a standard kinase assay protocol to determine their inhibitory activity against and selectivity between ROCK1 and ROCK2. The structural basis, energetic property and biological implication underlying inhibitor selectivity and promiscuity were also investigated systematically using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) scheme.

  16. HIV/AIDS: perceptions of the Grenadian faith-based community.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Alexis-Thomas, C

    2010-07-01

    This exploratory study conducted in 2008 aimed at gathering the views and opinions of leaders of the faith-based community (FBC) in Grenada about the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean region including their beliefs and attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV/AIDS). The study followed a cross-sectional design and used a qualitative approach. Telephone surveys were conducted with all faith-based organizations and semi-structured interviews done with key leaders representing the faith-based community in Grenada. Findings showed that perceptions of HIV/AIDS are embedded in a socio-political-cultural context where many risk behaviours and factors intertwine in complex ways. Religious beliefs are based on love, compassion and acceptance. The most prominent risk behaviours associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS identified by leaders are homosexuality, prostitution, promiscuity and substance abuse which are in direct contradiction to their beliefs and teachings. Leaders felt that these risk behaviours were exacerbated by changes in family structure and the absence of a common moral discourse shared by all sectors of society. The faith-based community has a significant presence across Grenada and it can be an effective partner in helping communities understand and prevent HIV/AIDS and overcome the stigma and discrimination associated with this disease. Training and effective strategies are needed to engage them in the national response to HIV/AIDS without threatening their ideologies and practices.

  17. Lack of Mutational Hot Spots during Decitabine-Mediated HIV-1 Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Jonathan M. O.; Landman, Sean R.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Bonnac, Laurent; Patterson, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Decitabine has previously been shown to induce lethal mutagenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the factors that determine the susceptibilities of individual sequence positions in HIV-1 to decitabine have not yet been defined. To investigate this, we performed Illumina high-throughput sequencing of multiple amplicons prepared from proviral DNA that was recovered from decitabine-treated cells infected with HIV-1. We found that decitabine induced an ≈4.1-fold increase in the total mutation frequency of HIV-1, primarily due to a striking ≈155-fold increase in the G-to-C transversion frequency. Intriguingly, decitabine also led to an ≈29-fold increase in the C-to-G transversion frequency. G-to-C frequencies varied substantially (up to ≈80-fold) depending upon sequence position, but surprisingly, mutational hot spots (defined as upper outliers within the mutation frequency distribution) were not observed. We further found that every single guanine position examined was significantly susceptible to the mutagenic effects of decitabine. Taken together, these observations demonstrate for the first time that decitabine-mediated HIV-1 mutagenesis is promiscuous and occurs in the absence of a clear bias for mutational hot spots. These data imply that decitabine-mediated G-to-C mutagenesis is a highly effective antiviral mechanism for extinguishing HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:26282416

  18. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  19. HIV Viral Load

    MedlinePlus

    ... Count ; HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) ; HIV Drug Resistance ( Genotypic and Phenotypic ) All content on Lab Tests ... have their therapy changed. They should undergo HIV drug resistance testing to help in the selection of an ...

  20. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Find HIV Treatment Services HIV and Mental Health HIV and Nutrition and Food Safety Print This ... from the following sources: From the Department of Health and Human Services: ... of Veterans Affairs: Treatment Decisions for HIV From the National ...

  1. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  2. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... 03-13T18:29:11+00:00 PH and HIV Print PH and HIV Brochure (PDF) Order Copies ... to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and HIV are two separate ...

  3. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  4. HIV and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  5. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: March 2, 2017 Key ...

  6. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  7. Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, P.

    1995-06-01

    There are two fundamental reasons or motivations for energy conservation: (1) economics; and (2) consideration of energy - its sources and availability. Economics speaks for itself and needs little explanation: a project is undertaken, the cost is recovered in a given period of time (we hope) and our company realizes cost savings thereafter. We study and propose a project; we estimate the payback. If approved, we implement the project. Then, we eagerly watch for its effectiveness - for the proposed payback. The second consideration in regard to energy conservation might - in the foreseeable future - become by far the most important - that of availability. Very knowledgeable persons have stated that this - in reality - is the most serious problem facing our nation today. Readily available, reasonably priced energy has given to the US the high form of living experienced today. An interruption in this flow could catapult our nation in an awesome catastrophe. The energy shortage of the late 70`s might be a forerunner of such an experience.

  8. Myoinhibiting Peptides are the Ancestral Ligands of the Promiscuous Drosophila Sex Peptide Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Accepted: 27 April 2010 Springer Basel AG 2010 Abstract Male insects change behaviors of female part- ners by co-transferring accessory gland proteins...nervous system and genital tract. While most Acps show a fast rate of evolution, SPRs are highly conserved in insects . We report activation of SPRs by...constraints on the MIP/SPR class. Keywords Allatostatin GPCR Insect Myoinhibiting peptide Post-mating response Sex peptide receptor Abbreviations

  9. Living with HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  10. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  11. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Transgender People Format: Select One PDF [227K] ...

  12. Knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS in Chinese registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Yinglan; Zeng, Kai; Wu, Ying

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the current knowledge and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHAs) in Chinese registered nurses (RNs) and describe the relationships between the nurses' HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes towards PWHAs. A cohort of 1350 RNs from 51 comprehensive hospitals in Hunan, China were studied over a 4-month period. A 3-stage random sampling method was used. The total correct rate in AIDS Knowledge Scale was 63.2%. Most nurses were good at conceptions of routes of AIDS infection and some basic characteristics, with more than 80% of the correct responses rate of relevant items. Their weakness was in the knowledge of some activities which would not transfer AIDS, such as "eating in a restaurant where the cook has AIDS may infect HIV", with less than 50% of the correct response rate of relevant items. As for attitudes, 94% of the nurses sympathized with HIV patients. About 82.7% of the nurses showed little sympathy to patients getting HIV by sexual promiscuity. Among all the AIDS related knowledge, nurses' conception of non-infectious activities was significantly related to their attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Chinese nurses waster well about HIV/AIDS basic characteristics and the routes of infection, and most nurses sympathize with PWHAs. Their weakness is in the knowledge of non-HIV-infectious activities and they hold different attitudes to those patients getting HIV/AIDS in different ways. There are some barriers for Chinese nurses to take care of all patients equally. Professional development programs are urgently needed to remedy this situation including clarifying the nurses' misconceptions on AIDS related knowledge, developing non-judgmental professional attitudes, and using universal prevention measures when they take care of all patients.

  13. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase in Plant Signaling: Tale of a Promiscuous Little Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Islas-Flores, Tania; Rahman, Ahasanur; Ullah, Hemayet; Villanueva, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades after the first report of the plant homolog of the Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) in cultured tobacco BY2 cells, a significant advancement has been made in the elucidation of its cellular and molecular role. The protein is now implicated in many biological functions including protein translation, multiple hormonal responses, developmental processes, pathogen infection resistance, environmental stress responses, and miRNA production. Such multiple functional roles are consistent with the scaffolding nature of the plant RACK1 protein. A significant advance was achieved when the β-propeller structure of the Arabidopsis RACK1A isoform was elucidated, thus revealing that its conserved seven WD repeats also assembled into this typical topology. From its crystal structure, it became apparent that it shares the structural platform for the interaction with ligands identified in other systems such as mammals. Although RACK1 proteins maintain conserved Protein Kinase C binding sites, the lack of a bona fide PKC adds complexity and enigma to the nature of the ligand partners with which RACK1 interacts in plants. Nevertheless, ligands recently identified using the split-ubiquitin based and conventional yeast two-hybrid assays, have revealed that plant RACK1 is involved in several processes that include defense response, drought and salt stress, ribosomal function, cell wall biogenesis, and photosynthesis. The information acquired indicates that, in spite of the high degree of conservation of its structure, the functions of the plant RACK1 homolog appear to be distinct and diverse from those in yeast, mammals, insects, etc. In this review, we take a critical look at the novel information regarding the many functions in which plant RACK1 has been reported to participate, with a special emphasis on the information on its currently identified and missing ligand partners. PMID:26697044

  14. Genome-wide conserved consensus transcription factor binding motifs are hyper-methylated

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA methylation can regulate gene expression by modulating the interaction between DNA and proteins or protein complexes. Conserved consensus motifs exist across the human genome ("predicted transcription factor binding sites": "predicted TFBS") but the large majority of these are proven by chromatin immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) not to be biological transcription factor binding sites ("empirical TFBS"). We hypothesize that DNA methylation at conserved consensus motifs prevents promiscuous or disorderly transcription factor binding. Results Using genome-wide methylation maps of the human heart and sperm, we found that all conserved consensus motifs as well as the subset of those that reside outside CpG islands have an aggregate profile of hyper-methylation. In contrast, empirical TFBS with conserved consensus motifs have a profile of hypo-methylation. 40% of empirical TFBS with conserved consensus motifs resided in CpG islands whereas only 7% of all conserved consensus motifs were in CpG islands. Finally we further identified a minority subset of TF whose profiles are either hypo-methylated or neutral at their respective conserved consensus motifs implicating that these TF may be responsible for establishing or maintaining an un-methylated DNA state, or whose binding is not regulated by DNA methylation. Conclusions Our analysis supports the hypothesis that at least for a subset of TF, empirical binding to conserved consensus motifs genome-wide may be controlled by DNA methylation. PMID:20875111

  15. Comparing the acceptor promiscuity of a Rosa hybrida glucosyltransferase RhGT1 and an engineered microbial glucosyltransferase OleD(PSA) toward a small flavonoid library.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Han, Weiqing; Xie, Chenying; Hou, Jingli; Fang, Qinghong; Gu, Jianchun; Wang, Peng George; Cheng, Jiansong

    2013-03-07

    Glycosylation is a widespread modification of plant secondary metabolites, and catalyzed by a superfamily of enzymes called UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). UGTs are often involved in late biosynthetic steps and show broad substrate specificity or regioselectivity. In this study, the acceptor promiscuity of a Rosa hybrid UGT RhGT1 and an evolved microbial UGT OleD(PSA) toward a small flavonoid library was probed and compared. Interestingly, RhGT1 showed comparable acceptor promiscuity in comparison with OleD(PSA), though the acceptor binding pocket of the latter is much more open and large. This clearly indicates that stabilization of the acceptor position by suitable hydrophobic interactions is important for the specificity or regioselectivity determination as well as overall fit of the acceptor into a 'big enough' binding pocket. This also poses a challenge for structure-based UGT engineering to alter the glucosylation pattern of flavonoids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystallographic Definition of the Epitope Promiscuity of the Broadly Neutralizing Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody 2F5: Vaccine Design Implications▿

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Steve; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Hynes, Rosemary C.; Pai, Emil F.

    2009-01-01

    The quest to create a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies against Env has been challenging. Among other problems, one difficulty in creating a potent immunogen resides in the substantial overall sequence variability of the HIV envelope protein. The membrane-proximal region (MPER) of gp41 is a particularly conserved tryptophan-rich region spanning residues 659 to 683, which is recognized by three broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs), 2F5, Z13, and 4E10. In this study, we first describe the variability of residues in the gp41 MPER and report on the invariant nature of 15 out of 25 amino acids comprising this region. Subsequently, we evaluate the ability of the bnMAb 2F5 to recognize 31 varying sequences of the gp41 MPER at a molecular level. In 19 cases, resulting crystal structures show the various MPER peptides bound to the 2F5 Fab′. A variety of amino acid substitutions outside the 664DKW666 core epitope are tolerated. However, changes at the 664DKW666 motif itself are restricted to those residues that preserve the aspartate's negative charge, the hydrophobic alkyl-π stacking arrangement between the β-turn lysine and tryptophan, and the positive charge of the former. We also characterize a possible molecular mechanism of 2F5 escape by sequence variability at position 667, which is often observed in HIV-1 clade C isolates. Based on our results, we propose a somewhat more flexible molecular model of epitope recognition by bnMAb 2F5, which could guide future attempts at designing small-molecule MPER-like vaccines capable of eliciting 2F5-like antibodies. PMID:19740978

  17. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  18. Poverty, sexual experience and HIV vulnerability risks: evidence from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sori, Assefa Tolera

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and vulnerability to HIV infection in Ethiopia using primary (quantitative and qualitative) and secondary data from two sub-cities of Addis Ababa. The data show that sexual experience is influenced by diverse factors such as age, gender, economic status and education level. Household economic status and migration explain the nature of sexual experience and level of vulnerability to HIV infection. Poor uneducated women in poor neighbourhoods are more likely to engage in risky sexual encounters despite awareness about the risk of HIV infection as they operate in an environment that provides the 'path of least resistance' (Lindegger & Wood, 1995, p. 7). This article argues that poverty provides a situation where early sexual initiation, 'transactional sex' and an inability to negotiate for safer sex are associated with low income, lack of education and increased vulnerability to HIV infection. This vulnerability is simultaneously contested and accepted as a commitment to even sacrifice one's life for the sake of one's loved ones. As a modest contribution to the 'structural violence' approach, which emphasizes social inequalities based on gender, class, ethnicity and race and inequalities in terms of exposure to risk and access to health care (Massé, 2007), this article challenges the 'African promiscuity' discourse, which 'does not permit policymakers to think beyond sex' (Stillwaggon, 2006, p. 156), and encourages researchers and policymakers to ask the right questions to understand the complexity of HIV/AIDS and seek solutions to the pandemic.

  19. Can the Catholic Church agree to condom use by HIV-discordant couples?

    PubMed

    Bovens, L

    2009-12-01

    Does the position of the Roman Catholic Church on contraception also imply that the usage of condoms by HIV-discordant couples is illicit? A standard argument is to appeal to the doctrine of double effect to condone such usage, but this meets with the objection that there exists an alternative action that brings about the good effect-namely, abstinence. I argue against this objection, because an HIV-discordant couple does not bring about any bad outcome through condom usage-there is no disrespect displayed for the generative function of sex. One might retort that the badness of condom usage consists in thwarting the unitive function of sex. I argue that also this objection cannot be upheld. In conclusion, if there are no in-principle objections against condom usage for HIV-discordant couples, then policies that deny access to condoms to such couples are indefensible. HIV-discordant couples have a right to continue consummating their marriage in a manner that is minimally risky and this right cannot be trumped by utilitarian concerns that the distribution of condoms might increase promiscuity and along with it the HIV infection rate.

  20. Novel Method for Probing the Specificity Binding Profile of Ligands: Applications to HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Woody; Tidor, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    A detailed understanding of factors influencing the binding specificity of a ligand to a set of desirable targets and undesirable decoys is a key step in the design of potent and selective therapeutics. We have developed a general method for optimizing binding specificity in ligand–receptor complexes based on the theory of electrostatic charge optimization. This methodology can be used to tune the binding of a ligand to a panel of potential targets and decoys, along the continuum from narrow binding to only one partner to broad binding to the entire panel. Using HIV-1 protease as a model system, we probe specificity in three distinct ways. First, we probe interactions that could make the promiscuous protease inhibitor pepstatin more selective toward HIV-1 protease. Next, we study clinically approved HIV-1 protease inhibitors and probe ways to broaden the binding profiles toward both wild-type HIV-1 protease and drug-resistant mutants. Finally, we study a conformational ensemble of wild-type HIV-1 protease to “design in” broad specificity to known drugs before resistance mutations arise. The results from this conformational ensemble were similar to those from the drug-resistant ensemble, suggesting the use of a conformational wild-type ensemble as a tool to develop escape-mutant resistant inhibitors. PMID:18384529

  1. Changing HIV trends are now showing up in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Biddle, D

    1998-01-01

    HIV trends in Arkansas mirror those in the rest of the country. There is a decrease in the disease among white males, largely attributed to educational and marketing campaigns increasing awareness of safe sex. HIV infection among injection drug users remains stable, and controversy exists over whether needle exchange programs fight the disease or increase illegal drug use. The largest HIV infection increase has been among heterosexuals, and closely follows Arkansas' high teen pregnancy rates. The rural and conservative nature of the State has prevented aggressive anti-HIV campaigns; most have been geared toward promoting abstinence.

  2. A global approach to HIV-1 vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2013-01-01

    Summary A global human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccine will have to elicit immune responses capable of providing protection against a tremendous diversity of HIV-1 variants. In this review, we first describe the current state of the HIV-1 vaccine field, outlining the immune responses that are desired in a global HIV-1 vaccine. In particular, we emphasize the likely importance of Env-specific neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies for protection against HIV-1 acquisition and the likely importance of effector Gag-specific T lymphocytes for virologic control. We then highlight four strategies for developing a global HIV-1 vaccine. The first approach is to design specific vaccines for each geographic region that include antigens tailor-made to match local circulating HIV-1 strains. The second approach is to design a vaccine that will elicit Env-specific antibodies capable of broadly neutralizing all HIV-1 subtypes. The third approach is to design a vaccine that will elicit cellular immune responses that are focused on highly conserved HIV-1 sequences. The fourth approach is to design a vaccine to elicit highly diverse HIV-1-specific responses. Finally, we emphasize the importance of conducting clinical efficacy trials as the only way to determine which strategies will provide optimal protection against HIV-1 in humans. PMID:23772627

  3. HIV protein sequence hotspots for crosstalk with host hub proteins.

    PubMed

    Sarmady, Mahdi; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    HIV proteins target host hub proteins for transient binding interactions. The presence of viral proteins in the infected cell results in out-competition of host proteins in their interaction with hub proteins, drastically affecting cell physiology. Functional genomics and interactome datasets can be used to quantify the sequence hotspots on the HIV proteome mediating interactions with host hub proteins. In this study, we used the HIV and human interactome databases to identify HIV targeted host hub proteins and their host binding partners (H2). We developed a high throughput computational procedure utilizing motif discovery algorithms on sets of protein sequences, including sequences of HIV and H2 proteins. We identified as HIV sequence hotspots those linear motifs that are highly conserved on HIV sequences and at the same time have a statistically enriched presence on the sequences of H2 proteins. The HIV protein motifs discovered in this study are expressed by subsets of H2 host proteins potentially outcompeted by HIV proteins. A large subset of these motifs is involved in cleavage, nuclear localization, phosphorylation, and transcription factor binding events. Many such motifs are clustered on an HIV sequence in the form of hotspots. The sequential positions of these hotspots are consistent with the curated literature on phenotype altering residue mutations, as well as with existing binding site data. The hotspot map produced in this study is the first global portrayal of HIV motifs involved in altering the host protein network at highly connected hub nodes.

  4. Evaluating the promiscuous nature of tyrosine kinase inhibitors assessed in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells by both chemical- and phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Piero; Preisinger, Christian; Huber, Kilian V M; Gridling, Manuela; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Bennett, Keiryn L; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-07-18

    Deregulation of protein tyrosine kinase signaling has been linked to many diseases, most notably cancer. As a consequence, small molecule inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases may provide powerful strategies for treatment. Following the successful introduction of imatinib in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, such drugs are also now evaluated for other types of cancer. However, many developed kinase inhibitors are not very target-specific and therefore may induce side effects. The importance of such side effects is certainly cell-proteome dependent. Understanding the all-inclusive action of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor on each individual cell-type entails the identification of potential targets, combined with monitoring the downstream effects revealing the signaling networks involved. Here, we explored a multilevel quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy to identify the direct targets and downstream signaling effect of four tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and nilotinib) in epidermoid carcinoma cells, as a model system for skin-cancer. More than 25 tyrosine kinases showed affinity to the drugs, with imatinib and nilotinib displaying a high specificity, especially when compared to dasatinib and bosutinib. Consequently, the latter two drugs showed a larger effect on downstream phosphotyrosine signaling. Many of the proteins affected are key regulators in cell adhesion and invasion. Our data represents a multiplexed view on the promiscuous action of certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors that needs to be taking into consideration prior to the application of these drugs in the treatment of different forms of cancer.

  5. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  6. Triesterase and promiscuous diesterase activities of a di-Co(II)-containing organophosphate degrading enzyme reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Marta E; Pinto, Gaspar; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa

    2015-02-23

    The reaction mechanism for the hydrolysis of trimethyl phosphate and of the obtained phosphodiester by the di-Co(II) derivative of organophosphate degrading enzyme from Agrobacterium radiobacter P230(OpdA), have been investigated at density functional level of theory in the framework of the cluster model approach. Both mechanisms proceed by a multistep sequence and each catalytic cycle begins with the nucleophilic attack by a metal-bound hydroxide on the phosphorus atom of the substrate, leading to the cleavage of the phosphate-ester bond. Four exchange-correlation functionals were used to derive the potential energy profiles in protein environments. Although the enzyme is confirmed to work better as triesterase, as revealed by the barrier heights in the rate-limiting steps of the catalytic processes, its promiscuous ability to hydrolyze also the product of the reaction has been confirmed. The important role played by water molecules and some residues in the outer coordination sphere has been elucidated, while the binuclear Co(II) center accomplishes both structural and catalytic functions. To correctly describe the electronic configuration of the d shell of the metal ions, high- and low-spin arrangement jointly with the occurrence of antiferromagnetic coupling, have been herein considered.

  7. Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Norihiko

    2011-01-01

    Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C40-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase (4(4′)-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2′)-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2′)-hydroxylated carotenoids). PMID:21673887

  8. Promiscuous CTL recognition of viral epitopes on multiple human leukocyte antigens: biological validation of the proposed HLA A24 supertype.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Scott R; Elkington, Rebecca A; Miles, John J; Green, Katherine J; Walker, Susan; Haryana, Sofia M; Moss, Denis J; Dunckley, Heather; Burrows, Jacqueline M; Khanna, Rajiv

    2003-08-01

    Multiple HLA class I alleles can bind peptides with common sequence motifs due to structural similarities in the peptide binding cleft, and these groups of alleles have been classified into supertypes. Nine major HLA supertypes have been proposed, including an A24 supertype that includes A*2301, A*2402, and A*3001. Evidence for this A24 supertype is limited to HLA sequence homology and/or similarity in peptide binding motifs for the alleles. To investigate the immunological relevance of this proposed supertype, we have examined two viral epitopes (from EBV and CMV) initially defined as HLA-A*2301-binding peptides. The data clearly demonstrate that each peptide could be recognized by CTL clones in the context of A*2301 or A*2402; thus validating the inclusion of these three alleles within an A24 supertype. Furthermore, CTL responses to the EBV epitope were detectable in both A*2301(+) and A*2402(+) individuals who had been previously exposed to this virus. These data substantiate the biological relevance of the A24 supertype, and the identification of viral epitopes with the capacity to bind promiscuously across this supertype could aid efforts to develop CTL-based vaccines or immunotherapy. The degeneracy in HLA restriction displayed by some T cells in this study also suggests that the dogma of self-MHC restriction needs some refinement to accommodate foreign peptide recognition in the context of multiple supertype alleles.

  9. Piwi interacts with chromatin at nuclear pores and promiscuously binds nuclear transcripts in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ilyin, Artem A.; Doronin, Semen A.; Olenkina, Oxana M.; Mikhaleva, Elena A.; Yakushev, Evgeny Y.; Abramov, Yuri A.; Belyakin, Stepan N.; Ivankin, Anton V.; Pindyurin, Alexey V.; Gvozdev, Vladimir A.; Klenov, Mikhail S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Piwi in a complex with Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) triggers transcriptional silencing of transposable elements (TEs) in Drosophila ovaries, thus ensuring genome stability. To do this, Piwi must scan the nascent transcripts of genes and TEs for complementarity to piRNAs. The mechanism of this scanning is currently unknown. Here we report the DamID-seq mapping of multiple Piwi-interacting chromosomal domains in somatic cells of Drosophila ovaries. These domains significantly overlap with genomic regions tethered to Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs). Accordingly, Piwi was coimmunoprecipitated with the component of NPCs Elys and with the Xmas-2 subunit of RNA transcription and export complex, known to interact with NPCs. However, only a small Piwi fraction has transient access to DNA at nuclear pores. Importantly, although 36% of the protein-coding genes overlap with Piwi-interacting domains and RNA-immunoprecipitation results demonstrate promiscuous Piwi binding to numerous genic and TE nuclear transcripts, according to available data Piwi does not silence these genes, likely due to the absence of perfect base-pairing between piRNAs and their transcripts. PMID:28472469

  10. Substrate promiscuity: AglB, the archaeal oligosaccharyltransferase, can process a variety of lipid-linked glycans.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Rosenzweig, Chen; Guan, Ziqiang; Shaanan, Boaz; Eichler, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Across evolution, N-glycosylation involves oligosaccharyltransferases that transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected Asn residues of target proteins. While these enzymes catalyze similar reactions in each domain, differences exist in terms of the chemical composition, length and degree of phosphorylation of the lipid glycan carrier, the sugar linking the glycan to the lipid carrier, and the composition and structure of the transferred glycan. To gain insight into how oligosaccharyltransferases cope with such substrate diversity, the present study analyzed the archaeal oligosaccharyltransferase AglB from four haloarchaeal species. Accordingly, it was shown that despite processing distinct lipid-linked glycans in their native hosts, AglB from Haloarcula marismortui, Halobacterium salinarum, and Haloferax mediterranei could readily replace their counterpart from Haloferax volcanii when introduced into Hfx. volcanii cells deleted of aglB. As the four enzymes show significant sequence and apparently structural homology, it appears that the functional similarity of the four AglB proteins reflects the relaxed substrate specificity of these enzymes. Such demonstration of AglB substrate promiscuity is important not only for better understanding of N-glycosylation in Archaea and elsewhere but also for efforts aimed at transforming Hfx. volcanii into a glycoengineering platform.

  11. Anaerobic metabolism of catechol by the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica--a result of promiscuous enzymes and regulators?

    PubMed

    Ding, Bin; Schmeling, Sirko; Fuchs, Georg

    2008-03-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) was studied in the betaproteobacterium Thauera aromatica that was grown with CO2 as a cosubstrate and nitrate as an electron acceptor. Based on different lines of evidence and on our knowledge of enzymes and genes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of other aromatic substrates, the following pathway is proposed. Catechol is converted to catechylphosphate by phenylphosphate synthase, which is followed by carboxylation by phenylphosphate carboxylase at the para position to the phosphorylated phenolic hydroxyl group. The product, protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate), is converted to its coenzyme A (CoA) thioester by 3-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase. Protocatechuyl-CoA is reductively dehydroxylated to 3-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA, possibly by 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase. 3-Hydroxybenzoyl-CoA is further metabolized by reduction of the aromatic ring catalyzed by an ATP-driven benzoyl-CoA reductase. Hence, the promiscuity of several enzymes and regulatory proteins may be sufficient to create the catechol pathway that is made up of elements of phenol, 3-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate metabolism.

  12. Promiscuous survivin peptide induces robust CD4+ T-cell responses in the majority of vaccinated cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Widenmeyer, Melanie; Griesemann, Heinrich; Stevanović, Stefan; Feyerabend, Susan; Klein, Reinhild; Attig, Sebastian; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Wernet, Dorothee; Kuprash, Dmitri V; Sazykin, Alexei Y; Pascolo, Steve; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2012-07-01

    CD4(+) T cells have been shown to be crucial for the induction and maintenance of cytotoxic T cell responses and to be also capable of mediating direct tumor rejection. Therefore, the anticancer therapeutic efficacy of peptide-based vaccines may be improved by addition of HLA class II epitopes to stimulate T helper cells. Survivin is an apoptosis inhibiting protein frequently overexpressed in tumors. Here we describe the first immunological evaluation of a survivin-derived CD4(+) T cell epitope in a multipeptide immunotherapy trial for prostate carcinoma patients. The survivin peptide is promiscuously presented by several human HLA-DRB1 molecules and, most importantly, is naturally processed by dendritic cells. In vaccinated patients, it was able to induce frequent, robust and multifunctional CD4(+) T cell responses, as monitored by IFN-γ ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining. Thus, this HLA-DR restricted epitope is broadly immunogenic and should be valuable for stimulating T helper cells in patients suffering from a wide range of tumors. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  13. Conformational plasticity of RepB, the replication initiator protein of promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, D. Roeland; Ruiz-Masó, José Angel; Rueda, Manuel; Petoukhov, Maxim V.; Machón, Cristina; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Orozco, Modesto; Del Solar, Gloria; Coll, Miquel

    2016-02-01

    DNA replication initiation is a vital and tightly regulated step in all replicons and requires an initiator factor that specifically recognizes the DNA replication origin and starts replication. RepB from the promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158 is a hexameric ring protein evolutionary related to viral initiators. Here we explore the conformational plasticity of the RepB hexamer by i) SAXS, ii) sedimentation experiments, iii) molecular simulations and iv) X-ray crystallography. Combining these techniques, we derive an estimate of the conformational ensemble in solution showing that the C-terminal oligomerisation domains of the protein form a rigid cylindrical scaffold to which the N-terminal DNA-binding/catalytic domains are attached as highly flexible appendages, featuring multiple orientations. In addition, we show that the hinge region connecting both domains plays a pivotal role in the observed plasticity. Sequence comparisons and a literature survey show that this hinge region could exists in other initiators, suggesting that it is a common, crucial structural element for DNA binding and manipulation.

  14. Exploring the transferase activity of Ffase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis, a β-fructofuranosidase showing high fructosyl-acceptor promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Piedrabuena, David; Míguez, Noa; Poveda, Ana; Plou, Francisco J; Fernández-Lobato, María

    2016-10-01

    The β-fructofuranosidase from the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis (Ffase) produces the prebiotic sugars 6-kestose and 1-kestose by transfructosylation of sucrose, which makes it of biotechnological interest. In this study, the hydrolase and transferase activity of this enzyme was kinetically characterized and its potential to synthesize new fructosylated products explored. A total of 40 hydroxylated compounds were used as potential fructosyl-acceptor alternatives to sucrose. Only 17 of them, including some monosaccharides, disaccharides, and oligosaccharides as well as alditols and glycosides were fructosylated. The best alternative acceptors were the alditols. The major transfer product of the reaction including mannitol was purified and characterized as 1-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol, whose maximum concentration reached 44 g/L, representing about 7.3 % of total compounds in the mixture and 89 % of all products generated by transfructosylation. The reactions including erythritol produced 35 g/L of an isomer mixture comprising 1- and 4-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-D-erythritol. In addition, Ffase produced 24 g/L of the disaccharide blastose by direct fructosylation of glucose, which makes it the first enzyme characterized from yeast showing this ability. Thus, novel fructosylated compounds with potential applications in food and pharmaceutical industries can be obtained due to the Ffase fructosyl-acceptor promiscuity.

  15. Promiscuous targeting of bromodomains by bromosporine identifies BET proteins as master regulators of primary transcription response in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Leonards, Katharina; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Dovey, Oliver; Wells, Christopher; Fedorov, Oleg; Monteiro, Octovia; Fujisawa, Takao; Wang, Chen-Yi; Lingard, Hannah; Tallant, Cynthia; Nikbin, Nikzad; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Ingham, Richard; Ley, Steven V.; Brennan, Paul; Muller, Susanne; Samsonova, Anastasia; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Schwaller, Juerg; Vassiliou, George; Knapp, Stefan; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2016-01-01

    Bromodomains (BRDs) have emerged as compelling targets for cancer therapy. The development of selective and potent BET (bromo and extra-terminal) inhibitors and their significant activity in diverse tumor models have rapidly translated into clinical studies and have motivated drug development efforts targeting non-BET BRDs. However, the complex multidomain/subunit architecture of BRD protein complexes complicates predictions of the consequences of their pharmacological targeting. To address this issue, we developed a promiscuous BRD inhibitor [bromosporine (BSP)] that broadly targets BRDs (including BETs) with nanomolar affinity, creating a tool for the identification of cellular processes and diseases where BRDs have a regulatory function. As a proof of principle, we studied the effects of BSP on leukemic cell lines known to be sensitive to BET inhibition and found, as expected, strong antiproliferative activity. Comparison of the modulation of transcriptional profiles by BSP after a short exposure to the inhibitor resulted in a BET inhibitor signature but no significant additional changes in transcription that could account for inhibition of other BRDs. Thus, nonselective targeting of BRDs identified BETs, but not other BRDs, as master regulators of context-dependent primary transcription response. PMID:27757418

  16. Rate of molecular evolution of the seminal protein gene SEMG2 correlates with levels of female promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Dorus, Steve; Evans, Patrick D; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Choi, Sun Shim; Lahn, Bruce T

    2004-12-01

    Postcopulatory sperm competition is a key aspect of sexual selection and is believed to drive the rapid evolution of both reproductive physiology and reproduction-related genes. It is well-established that mating behavior determines the intensity of sperm competition, with polyandry (i.e., female promiscuity) leading to fiercer sperm competition than monandry. Studies in mammals, particularly primates, showed that, owing to greater sperm competition, polyandrous taxa generally have physiological traits that make them better adapted for fertilization than monandrous species, including bigger testes, larger seminal vesicles, higher sperm counts, richer mitochondrial loading in sperm and more prominent semen coagulation. Here, we show that the degree of polyandry can also impact the dynamics of molecular evolution. Specifically, we show that the evolution of SEMG2, the gene encoding semenogelin II, a main structural component of semen coagulum, is accelerated in polyandrous primates relative to monandrous primates. Our study showcases the intimate relationship between sexual selection and the molecular evolution of reproductive genes.

  17. Conformational plasticity of RepB, the replication initiator protein of promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158

    PubMed Central

    Boer, D. Roeland; Ruiz-Masó, José Angel; Rueda, Manuel; Petoukhov, Maxim V.; Machón, Cristina; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Orozco, Modesto; del Solar, Gloria; Coll, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication initiation is a vital and tightly regulated step in all replicons and requires an initiator factor that specifically recognizes the DNA replication origin and starts replication. RepB from the promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158 is a hexameric ring protein evolutionary related to viral initiators. Here we explore the conformational plasticity of the RepB hexamer by i) SAXS, ii) sedimentation experiments, iii) molecular simulations and iv) X-ray crystallography. Combining these techniques, we derive an estimate of the conformational ensemble in solution showing that the C-terminal oligomerisation domains of the protein form a rigid cylindrical scaffold to which the N-terminal DNA-binding/catalytic domains are attached as highly flexible appendages, featuring multiple orientations. In addition, we show that the hinge region connecting both domains plays a pivotal role in the observed plasticity. Sequence comparisons and a literature survey show that this hinge region could exists in other initiators, suggesting that it is a common, crucial structural element for DNA binding and manipulation. PMID:26875695

  18. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  19. 'Why did you not tell me?': perspectives of caregivers and children on the social environment surrounding child HIV disclosure in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Rachel C; Scanlon, Michael L; Inui, Thomas S; McAteer, Carole I; Fischer, Lydia J; McHenry, Megan S; Marete, Irene; Nyandiko, Winstone M

    2015-06-01

    We sought to better understand how social factors shape HIV disclosure to children from the perspective of caregivers and HIV-infected children in Kenya. We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) to gain perspectives of caregivers and children on the social environment for HIV disclosure to children in western Kenya. FGDs were held with caregivers who had disclosed the HIV status to their child and those who had not, and with HIV-infected children who knew their HIV status. FGD transcripts were translated into English, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparison, progressive coding, and triangulation to arrive at a contextualized understanding of social factors influencing HIV disclosure. Sixty-one caregivers of HIV-infected children participated in eight FGDs, and 23 HIV-infected children participated in three FGDs. Decisions around disclosure were shaped by a complex social environment that included the caregiver-child dyad, family members, neighbors, friends, schools, churches, and media. Whether social actors demonstrated support or espoused negative beliefs influenced caregiver decisions to disclose. Caregivers reported that HIV-related stigma was prominent across these domains, including stereotypes associating HIV with sexual promiscuity, immorality, and death, which were tied to caregiver fears about disclosure. Children also recognized stigma as a barrier to disclosure, but were less specific about the social and cultural stereotypes cited by the caregivers. In this setting, caregivers and children described multiple actors who influenced disclosure, mostly due to stigmatizing beliefs about HIV. Better understanding the social factors impacting disclosure may improve the design of support services for children and caregivers.

  20. Expression levels of MHC class I molecules are inversely correlated with promiscuity of peptide binding

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Paul E; Meziane, El Kahina; Harrison, Michael; Magiera, Łukasz; Hermann, Clemens; Mears, Laura; Wrobel, Antoni G; Durant, Charlotte; Nielsen, Lise Lotte; Buus, Søren; Ternette, Nicola; Mwangi, William; Butter, Colin; Nair, Venugopal; Ahyee, Trudy; Duggleby, Richard; Madrigal, Alejandro; Roversi, Pietro; Lea, Susan M; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are at the heart of adaptive immune responses, playing crucial roles in many kinds of disease and in vaccination. We report that breadth of peptide presentation and level of cell surface expression of class I molecules are inversely correlated in both chickens and humans. This relationship correlates with protective responses against infectious pathogens including Marek's disease virus leading to lethal tumours in chickens and human immunodeficiency virus infection progressing to AIDS in humans. We propose that differences in peptide binding repertoire define two groups of MHC class I molecules strategically evolved as generalists and specialists for different modes of pathogen resistance. We suggest that differences in cell surface expression level ensure the development of optimal peripheral T cell responses. The inverse relationship of peptide repertoire and expression is evidently a fundamental property of MHC molecules, with ramifications extending beyond immunology and medicine to evolutionary biology and conservation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05345.001 PMID:25860507

  1. HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Freed, E O

    2001-11-01

    surface (SU) Env glycoprotein gp120 and the transmembrane (TM) glycoprotein gp41. gp120 contains the determinants that interact with receptor and coreceptor, while gp41 not only anchors the gp120/gp41 complex in the membrane (Fig. 2), but also contains domains that are critical for catalyzing the membrane fusion reaction between viral and host lipid bilayers during virus entry. Comparison of env sequences from a large number of virus isolates revealed that gp120 is organized into five conserved regions (C1-C5) and five highly variable domains (V1-V5). The variable regions tend to be located in disulfide-linked loops. gp41 is composed of three major domains: the ectodomain (which contains determinants essential for membrane fusion), the transmembrane anchor sequence, and the cytoplasmic tail. In addition to the gag, pol, and env genes, HIV-1 also encodes a number of regulatory and accessory proteins. Tat is critical for transcription from the HIV-1 LTR and Rev plays a major [figure: see text] role in the transport of viral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Vpu, Vif, Vpr and Nef have been termed "accessory" or "auxiliary" proteins to reflect the fact that they are not uniformly required for virus replication. The functions of these very interesting proteins will be discussed in more detail at the end of this chapter. HIV replication proceeds in a series of events that can be divided into two overall phases: "early" and "late" (Fig. 3). Although some events occur in a concerted or simultaneous fashion, the replication cycle can be viewed most simply as proceeding in an ordered, step-wise manner. In this chapter, each step in virus replication will be considered; additional information can be obtained from the more detailed reviews and primary references that are cited.

  2. Evolutionary conserved gene co-expression drives generation of self-antigen diversity in medullary thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rattay, Kristin; Meyer, Hannah Verena; Herrmann, Carl; Brors, Benedikt; Kyewski, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Promiscuous expression of a plethora of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is essential for central tolerance. This promiscuous gene expression (pGE) is characterized by inclusion of a broad range of TRAs and by its mosaic expression patterns, i.e. each antigen is only expressed in 1-3% of mTECs. It is currently unclear to which extent random and/or deterministic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of pGE. In order to address this issue, we deconstructed the transcriptional heterogeneity in mTEC to minor subsets expressing a particular TRA. We identified six delineable co-expression groups in mouse mTECs. These co-expression groups displayed a variable degree of mutual overlap and mapped to different stages of mTEC development. Co-expressed genes showed chromosomal preference and clustered within delimited genomic regions. Moreover, co-expression groups in mice and humans selected by a pair of orthologous genes preferentially co-expressed sets of orthologous genes attesting to the species conservation of pGE between mouse and human. Furthermore, co-expressed genes were enriched for specific transcription factor binding motifs concomitant with up-regulation of the corresponding transcription factors, implicating additional factors in the regulation of pGE besides the Autoimmune Regulator (Aire). Thus promiscuous transcription of self-antigens in mTECs entails a highly coordinated process, which is evolutionary strictly conserved between species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge about AIDS/HIV infection among female college students.

    PubMed

    Farid, Rakshanda; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil

    2003-03-01

    To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDS infection among female college students of Lahore. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in three different girls colleges of Lahore (Pakistan). PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 600 students were interviewed with the help of anonymous semi-structured questionnaire from September, 1999 to November 1999. Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/ AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7% students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high risk groups. Only 33.2% of students perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths

  4. The Streptomyces-produced antibiotic fosfomycin is a promiscuous substrate for Archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mabanglo, Mark F.; Serohijos, Adrian W. R.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of isopentenyl phosphate to form the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in the archaeal mevalonate pathway. This enzyme is highly homologous to fosfomycin kinase (FomA), an antibiotic resistance enzyme found in a few strains of Streptomyces and Pseudomonas whose mode of action is inactivation by phosphorylation. Superposition of Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA) IPK and FomA structures aligns their respective substrates and catalytic residues, including H50 and K14 in THA IPK, and H58 and K18 in S. wedmorensis FomA. These residues are conserved only in the IPK and FomA members of the phosphate subdivision of the amino acid kinase superfamily. We measured the fosfomycin kinase activity of THA IPK, Km = 15.1 ± 1.0 mM and kcat = (4.0 ± 0.1) × 10−2 s−1, resulting in a catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km = 2.6 M−1s−1, that is five orders of magnitude less than the native reaction. Fosfomycin is a competitive inhibitor of IPK, Ki = 3.6 ± 0.2 mM. Molecular dynamics simulation of the IPK•fosfomycin•MgATP complex identified two binding poses for fosfomycin in the IP binding site, one of which results in a complex analogous to the native IPK•IP•ATP complex that it engages H50 and the lysine triangle formed by K5, K14, and K205. The other binding pose leads to a dead-end complex that engages K204 near the IP binding site to bind fosfomycin. Our findings suggest a mechanism for acquisition of FomA-based antibiotic resistance in fosfomycin producing organisms. PMID:22148590

  5. HIV and Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Vaccines protect people from ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  6. HIV Among Asians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partnerships for Care THRIVE Serostatus Approach Policy and Law Affordable Care Act Expanded Testing Initiative High-Impact ... of High-Impact Prevention Bibliography HIV and the Law State HIV Laws HIV-Specific Criminal Laws Laboratory ...

  7. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  8. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  9. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated November 2016 Key facts HIV ... and 2015, new HIV infections fell by 35%, AIDS-related deaths fell by 28% with some 8 ...

  10. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS A A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...

  11. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  12. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... AGENT HIV, a single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus in the genus Lentivirus. TRANSMISSION HIV can ... be diagnosed is approximately 9 days, when HIV RNA becomes detectable in blood; however, tests needed to ...

  13. TM0416, a Hyperthermophilic Promiscuous Nonphosphorylated Sugar Isomerase, Catalyzes Various C5 and C6 Epimerization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Mi; Cao, Thinh-Phat; Choi, Jin Myung; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2017-05-15

    There is currently little information on nonphosphorylated sugar epimerases, which are of potential interest for producing rare sugars. We found a gene (the TM0416 gene) encoding a putative d-tagatose-3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima We overexpressed the TM0416 gene in Escherichia coli and purified the resulting recombinant protein for detailed characterization. Amino acid sequence alignment and a structural similarity search revealed that TM0416 is a putative nonphosphorylated sugar epimerase. The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal C-3 epimerization of l-ribulose to l-xylulose at ∼80°C and pH 7 in the presence of 1 mM Mn(2+) In addition, this enzyme showed unusually high activity for the epimerization of d-tagatose to d-sorbose, with a conversion yield of 20% after 6 h at 80°C. Remarkably, the enzyme catalyzed the isomerization of d-erythrose or d-threose to d-erythrulose significantly, with conversion yields of 71% and 54.5%, respectively, after 6 h at 80°C at pH 7. To further investigate the substrate specificity of TM0416, we determined its crystal structures in complex with divalent metal ions and l-erythrulose at resolutions of 1.5 and 1.6 Å. Detailed inspection of the structural features and biochemical data clearly demonstrated that this metalloenzyme, with a freely accessible substrate-binding site and neighboring hydrophobic residues, exhibits different and promiscuous substrate preferences, compared with its mesophilic counterparts. Therefore, this study suggests that TM0416 can be functionally classified as a novel type of l-ribulose 3-epimerase (R3E) with d-erythrose isomerase activity.IMPORTANCE Rare sugars, which occur naturally in small amounts, have attracted considerable attention in the food and drug industries. However, there is little information on nonphosphorylated sugar epimerases, which might potentially be applied for the production of rare sugars. This study describes the

  14. Antibodies elicited by yeast glycoproteins recognize HIV-1 virions and potently neutralize virions with high mannose N-glycans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Fu, Hu; Luallen, Robert J.; Liu, Bingfen; Lee, Fang-Hua; Doms, Robert W.; Geng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The glycan shield on the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein has drawn attention as a target for HIV-1 vaccine design given that an increasing number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes entirely or partially comprised of high mannose type N-linked glycans. In an attempt to generate immunogens that target the glycan shield of HIV-1, we previously engineered a triple mutant (TM) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that results in exclusive presentation of high mannose type N-glycans, and identified five TM yeast glycoproteins that support strong binding of 2G12, a bNAb that targets a cluster of high mannose glycans on the gp120 subunit of Env. Here, we further analyzed the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these proteins in inducing anti-HIV responses. Our study demonstrated that the 2G12-reactive TM yeast glycoproteins efficiently bound to recently identified bNAbs including PGT125–130 and PGT135 that recognize high mannose glycan-dependent epitopes. Immunization of rabbits with a single TM yeast glycoprotein (Gp38 or Pst1), when conjugated to a promiscuous T-cell epitope peptide and coadministered with a Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, induced glycan-specific HIV-1 Env cross-reactive antibodies. The immune sera bound to both synthetic mannose oligosaccharides and gp120 proteins from a broad range of HIV-1 strains. The purified antibodies recognized and captured virions that contain both complex- and high mannose-type of N-glycans, and potently neutralized virions from different HIV-1 clades but only when the virions were enforced to retain high mannose N-glycans. This study provides insights into the elicitation of anti-carbohydrate, HIV-1 Env-cross reactive antibodies with a heterologous glycoprotein and may have applications in the design and administration of immunogens that target the viral glycan shield for development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:26277072

  15. Hybrid promiscuous (Hypr) GGDEF enzymes produce cyclic AMP-GMP (3′, 3′-cGAMP)

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Zachary F.; Wang, Xin C.; Wright, Todd A.; Nan, Beiyan; Ad, Omer; Yeo, Jongchan; Hammond, Ming C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 years ago, GGDEF domain-containing enzymes were shown to be diguanylate cyclases that produce cyclic di-GMP (cdiG), a second messenger that modulates the key bacterial lifestyle transition from a motile to sessile biofilm-forming state. Since then, the ubiquity of genes encoding GGDEF proteins in bacterial genomes has established the dominance of cdiG signaling in bacteria. However, the observation that proteobacteria encode a large number of GGDEF proteins, nearing 1% of coding sequences in some cases, raises the question of why bacteria need so many GGDEF enzymes. In this study, we reveal that a subfamily of GGDEF enzymes synthesizes the asymmetric signaling molecule cyclic AMP-GMP (cAG or 3′, 3′-cGAMP). This discovery is unexpected because GGDEF enzymes function as symmetric homodimers, with each monomer binding to one substrate NTP. Detailed analysis of the enzyme from Geobacter sulfurreducens showed it is a dinucleotide cyclase capable of switching the major cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) produced based on ATP-to-GTP ratios. We then establish through bioinformatics and activity assays that hybrid CDN-producing and promiscuous substrate-binding (Hypr) GGDEF enzymes are found in other deltaproteobacteria. Finally, we validated the predictive power of our analysis by showing that cAG is present in surface-grown Myxococcus xanthus. This study reveals that GGDEF enzymes make alternative cyclic dinucleotides to cdiG and expands the role of this widely distributed enzyme family to include regulation of cAG signaling. PMID:26839412

  16. Sesquiterpene synthases Cop4 and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus: catalytic promiscuity and cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate geometric isomers.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Agger, Sean A; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Distefano, Mark D; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2010-05-17

    Sesquiterpene synthases catalyze with different catalytic fidelity the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into hundreds of known compounds with diverse structures and stereochemistries. Two sesquiterpene synthases, Cop4 and Cop6, were previously isolated from Coprinus cinereus as part of a fungal genome survey. This study investigates the reaction mechanism and catalytic fidelity of the two enzymes. Cyclization of all-trans-FPP ((E,E)-FPP) was compared to the cyclization of the cis-trans isomer of FPP ((Z,E)-FPP) as a surrogate for the secondary cisoid neryl cation intermediate generated by sesquiterpene synthases, which are capable of isomerizing the C2--C3 pi bond of all-trans-FPP. Cop6 is a "high-fidelity" alpha-cuprenene synthase that retains its fidelity under various conditions tested. Cop4 is a catalytically promiscuous enzyme that cyclizes (E,E)-FPP into multiple products, including (-)-germacrene D and cubebol. Changing the pH of the reaction drastically alters the fidelity of Cop4 and makes it a highly selective enzyme. Cyclization of (Z,E)-FPP by Cop4 and Cop6 yields products that are very different from those obtained with (E,E)-FPP. Conversion of (E,E)-FPP proceeds via a (6R)-beta-bisabolyl carbocation in the case of Cop6 and an (E,E)-germacradienyl carbocation in the case of Cop4. However, (Z,E)-FPP is cyclized via a (6S)-beta-bisabolene carbocation by both enzymes. Structural modeling suggests that differences in the active site and the loop that covers the active site of the two enzymes might explain their different catalytic fidelities.

  17. Molecular promiscuity of plant polyphenols in the management of age-related diseases: far beyond their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Herranz-López, María; Joven, Jorge; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Menéndez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The use of plant-derived polyphenols for the management of diseases has been under debate in the last decades. Most studies have focused on the specific effects of polyphenols on particular targets, while ignoring their pleiotropic character. The multitargeted character of polyphenols, a plausible consequence of their molecular promiscuity, may suppose an opportunity to fight multifactorial diseases. Therefore, a wider perspective is urgently needed to elucidate whether their rational use as bioactive food components may be valid for the management of diseases. In this chapter, we discuss the most likely targets of polyphenols that may account for their salutary effects from a global perspective. Among these targets, the modulation of signalling and energy-sensitive pathways, oxidative stress and inflammation-related processes, mitochondrial functionality, epigenetic machinery, histone acetylation and membrane-dependent processes play central roles in polyphenols' mechanisms of action.Sufficient evidence on polyphenols has accumulated for them to be considered a serious option for the management of non-communicable diseases, such as cancer and obesity, as well as infectious diseases. The remaining unresolved issues that must be seriously addressed are their bioavailability, metabolite detection, specific molecular targets, interactions and toxicity. The Xenohormesis hypothesis, which postulates that polyphenols are the product of plant evolutive adaptation to stress and conferee their resistance to mammals, offers a reasonable explanation to justify the beneficial and non-toxic effects of plant mixtures, but do not fully meet expectations. Hence, future research must be supported by the use of complex polypharmacology approaches and synergic studies focused on the understanding of the pleiotropic effects of polyphenols. Revisiting polyphenol mechanisms of action with the help of these techniques may allow for the improvement of human health and wellness by using

  18. Characterizing the Promiscuity of LigAB, a Lignin Catabolite Degrading Extradiol Dioxygenase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Kevin P.; Taylor, Erika A.

    2014-01-01

    LigAB from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 is the only structurally characterized dioxygenase of the largely uncharacterized superfamily of Type II extradiol dioxygenases (EDO). This enzyme catalyzes the oxidative ring-opening of protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid or PCA) in a pathway allowing the degradation of lignin derived aromatic compounds (LDACs). LigAB has also been shown to utilize two other LDACs from the same metabolic pathway as substrates, gallate, and 3-O-methyl gallate; however, kcat/KM had not been reported for any of these compounds. In order to assess the catalytic efficiency and get insights into the observed promiscuity of this enzyme, steady-state kinetic analyses were performed for LigAB with these and a library of related compounds. The dioxygenation of PCA by LigAB was highly efficient, with a kcat of 51 s−1 and a kcat/KM of 4.26 × 106 M−1s−1. LigAB demonstrated the ability to use a variety of catecholic molecules as substrates beyond the previously identified gallate and 3-O-methyl gallate, including 3,4-dihydroxybenzamide, homoprotocatechuate, catechol, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile. Interestingly, 3,4-dihydroxybenzamide (DHBAm) behaves in a manner similar to that of the preferred benzoic acid substrates, with a kcat/Km value only ~4-fold lower than that for gallate and ~10-fold higher than that for 3-O-methyl gallate. All of these most active substrates demonstrate mechanistic inactivation of LigAB. Additionally, DHBAm exhibits potent product inhibition that leads to an inactive enzyme, being more highly deactivating at lower substrate concentration, a phenomena that, to our knowledge, has not been reported for another dioxygenase substrate/product pair. These results provide valuable catalytic insight into the reactions catalyzed by LigAB and make it the first Type II EDO that is fully characterized both structurally and kinetically. PMID:23977959

  19. Atypical cohesin-dockerin complex responsible for cell surface attachment of cellulosomal components: binding fidelity, promiscuity, and structural buttresses.

    PubMed

    Salama-Alber, Orly; Jobby, Maroor K; Chitayat, Seth; Smith, Steven P; White, Bryan A; Shimon, Linda J W; Lamed, Raphael; Frolow, Felix; Bayer, Edward A

    2013-06-07

    The rumen bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens produces a highly organized multienzyme cellulosome complex that plays a key role in the degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides, notably cellulose. The R. flavefaciens cellulosomal system is anchored to the bacterial cell wall through a relatively small ScaE scaffoldin subunit, which bears a single type IIIe cohesin responsible for the attachment of two major dockerin-containing scaffoldin proteins, ScaB and the cellulose-binding protein CttA. Although ScaB recruits the catalytic machinery onto the complex, CttA mediates attachment of the bacterial substrate via its two putative carbohydrate-binding modules. In an effort to understand the structural basis for assembly and cell surface attachment of the cellulosome in R. flavefaciens, we determined the crystal structure of the high affinity complex (Kd = 20.83 nM) between the cohesin module of ScaE (CohE) and its cognate X-dockerin (XDoc) modular dyad from CttA at 1.97-Å resolution. The structure reveals an atypical calcium-binding loop containing a 13-residue insert. The results further pinpoint two charged specificity-related residues on the surface of the cohesin module that are responsible for specific versus promiscuous cross-strain binding of the dockerin module. In addition, a combined functional role for the three enigmatic dockerin inserts was established whereby these extraneous segments serve as structural buttresses that reinforce the stalklike conformation of the X-module, thus segregating its tethered complement of cellulosomal components from the cell surface. The novel structure of the RfCohE-XDoc complex sheds light on divergent dockerin structure and function and provides insight into the specificity features of the type IIIe cohesin-dockerin interaction.

  20. Plasticity in Interactions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF1) N Terminus with FGF Receptors Underlies Promiscuity of FGF1*

    PubMed Central

    Beenken, Andrew; Eliseenkova, Anna V.; Ibrahimi, Omar A.; Olsen, Shaun K.; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2012-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing in the second half of Ig-like domain 3 (D3) of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1–3 (FGFR1 to -3) generates epithelial FGFR1b-FGFR3b and mesenchymal FGFR1c-FGFR3c splice isoforms. This splicing event establishes a selectivity filter to restrict the ligand binding specificity of FGFRb and FGFRc isoforms to mesenchymally and epithelially derived fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), respectively. FGF1 is termed the “universal FGFR ligand” because it overrides this specificity barrier. To elucidate the molecular basis for FGF1 cross-reactivity with the “b” and “c” splice isoforms of FGFRs, we determined the first crystal structure of FGF1 in complex with an FGFRb isoform, FGFR2b, at 2.1 Å resolution. Comparison of the FGF1-FGFR2b structure with the three previously published FGF1-FGFRc structures reveals that plasticity in the interactions of the N-terminal region of FGF1 with FGFR D3 is the main determinant of FGF1 cross-reactivity with both isoforms of FGFRs. In support of our structural data, we demonstrate that substitution of three N-terminal residues (Gly-19, His-25, and Phe-26) of FGF2 (a ligand that does not bind FGFR2b) for the corresponding residues of FGF1 (Phe-16, Asn-22, and Tyr-23) enables the FGF2 triple mutant to bind and activate FGFR2b. These findings taken together with our previous structural data on receptor binding specificity of FGF2, FGF8, and FGF10 conclusively show that sequence divergence at the N termini of FGFs is the primary regulator of the receptor binding specificity and promiscuity of FGFs. PMID:22057274

  1. Investigating substrate promiscuity in cyclooxygenase-2: the role of Arg-120 and residues lining the hydrophobic groove.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Alex J; Orlando, Benjamin J; Nandagiri, Ritwik; Malkowski, Michael G

    2012-07-13

    The cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) generate prostaglandin H(2) from arachidonic acid (AA). In its catalytically productive conformation, AA binds within the cyclooxygenase channel with its carboxylate near Arg-120 and Tyr-355 and ω-end located within a hydrophobic groove above Ser-530. Although AA is the preferred substrate for both isoforms, COX-2 can oxygenate a broad spectrum of substrates. Mutational analyses have established that an interaction of the carboxylate of AA with Arg-120 is required for high affinity binding by COX-1 but not COX-2, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between the ω-end of substrates and cyclooxygenase channel residues play a significant role in COX-2-mediated oxygenation. We used structure-function analyses to investigate the role that Arg-120 and residues lining the hydrophobic groove play in the binding and oxygenation of substrates by murine (mu) COX-2. Mutations to individual amino acids within the hydrophobic groove exhibited decreased rates of oxygenation toward AA with little effect on binding. R120A muCOX-2 oxygenated 18-carbon ω-6 and ω-3 substrates albeit at reduced rates, indicating that an interaction with Arg-120 is not required for catalysis. Structural determinations of Co(3+)-protoporphyrin IX-reconstituted muCOX-2 with α-linolenic acid and G533V muCOX-2 with AA indicate that proper bisallylic carbon alignment is the major determinant for efficient substrate oxygenation by COX-2. Overall, these findings implicate Arg-120 and hydrophobic groove residues as determinants that govern proper alignment of the bisallylic carbon below Tyr-385 for catalysis in COX-2 and confirm nuances between COX isoforms that explain substrate promiscuity.

  2. Sesquiterpene synthases Cop4 and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus: Catalytic promiscuity and cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate geometrical isomers

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Agger, Sean A.; Pella, Daniel A.; Distefano, Mark D.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene synthases catalyze with different catalytic fidelity the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into hundreds of known compounds with diverse structures and stereochemistries. Two sesquiterpene synthases, Cop4 and Cop6, were previously isolated from Coprinus cinereus as part of a fungal genome survey. This study investigates the reaction mechanism and catalytic fidelity of the two enzymes. Cyclization of all-trans-FPP ((E,E)-FPP) was compared to the cyclization of the cis-trans isomer of FPP ((Z,E)-FPP) as a surrogate for the secondary cisoid neryl cation intermediate generated by sesquiterpene synthases capable of isomerizing the C2-C3 π bond of all-trans-FPP. Cop6 is a “high-fidelity” α-cuprenene synthase that retains its fidelity under various conditions tested. Cop4 is a catalytically promiscuous enzyme that cyclizes (E,E)-FPP into multiple products, including (−)-germacrene D and cubebol. Changing the pH of the reaction drastically alters the fidelity of Cop4 and makes it a highly selective enzyme. Cyclization of (Z,E)-FPP by Cop4 and Cop6 yields products that are very different from those obtained with (E,E)-FPP. Conversion of (E,E)-FPP proceeds via a (6R)-β-bisabolyl carbocation in the case of Cop6 and an (E,E)-germacradienyl carbocation in the case of Cop4. However, (Z,E)-FPP is cyclized via a (6S)-β-bisabolene carbocation by both enzymes. Structural modeling suggests that differences in the active site and the loop that covers the active site of the two enzymes may explain their different catalytic fidelities. PMID:20419721

  3. Probing the origin of the compromised catalysis of E. coli alkaline phosphatase in its promiscuous sulfatase reaction.

    PubMed

    Catrina, Irina; O'Brien, Patrick J; Purcell, Jamie; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Zalatan, Jesse G; Hengge, Alvan C; Herschlag, Daniel

    2007-05-02

    The catalytic promiscuity of E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) and many other enzymes provides a unique opportunity to dissect the origin of enzymatic rate enhancements via a comparative approach. Here, we use kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) to explore the origin of the 109-fold greater catalytic proficiency by AP for phosphate monoester hydrolysis relative to sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The primary 18O KIEs for the leaving group oxygen atoms in the AP-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and p-nitrophenylsulfate (pNPS) decrease relative to the values observed for nonenzymatic hydrolysis reactions. Prior linear free energy relationship results suggest that the transition states for AP-catalyzed reactions of phosphate and sulfate esters are "loose" and indistinguishable from that in solution, suggesting that the decreased primary KIEs do not reflect a change in the nature of the transition state but rather a strong interaction of the leaving group oxygen atom with an active site Zn2+ ion. Furthermore, the primary KIEs for the two reactions are identical within error, suggesting that the differential catalysis of these reactions cannot be attributed to differential stabilization of the leaving group. In contrast, AP perturbs the KIE for the nonbridging oxygen atoms in the reaction of pNPP but not pNPS, suggesting a differential interaction with the transferred group in the transition state. These and prior results are consistent with a strong electrostatic interaction between the active site bimetallo Zn2+ cluster and one of the nonbridging oxygen atoms on the transferred group. We suggest that the lower charge density of this oxygen atom on a transferred sulfuryl group accounts for a large fraction of the decreased stabilization of the transition state for its reaction relative to phosphoryl transfer.

  4. Changing pattern of HIV infection in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ray, Krishna

    2004-11-01

    HIV seroprevalence was carried out in 42,738 individuals attending the STD Centre of a New Delhi hospital from September 1990 to December 2001. The different epidemiological parameters of the patients in Group 1 (asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals) and Group 2 (AIDS cases), were compared in four spans A, B, C, D. Significant rise in seroprevalence from 0.4% to 4.4% was observed with time. The patients in Group 1 were mainly 15-19 years followed by 30-44 years age group. Overall, the Male:Female ratio in Groups 1 and 2 were 3:1 and 6:1, respectively. The transmission was predominantly heterosexual in both the groups. The patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) emerged as the most prominent category in Group 1, showing a steady rising trend till 1999 and stabilizing thereafter. Ulcerative STIs, mainly syphilis, showed maximum association. In most of the cases, the infection was acquired by promiscuous males from female commercial sex workers or casual acquaintances and further transmitted to their spouses. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection. However, patients presented with fever, loss of weight and diarrhoea in increasing number during time D. The present study reiterates the importance of early management of STI patients and counselling of high risk groups, early partner notification and routine antenatal HIV check-up in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS infection in third world countries like India.

  5. The Human Immune Response to HIV and its Impact in the Potential Development of an Inactivated HIV Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rios, Adan; Pottet, Ethan C; Siwak, Edward B; Anderson, Dallas W; Yao, Qizhi C

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the transmission and acute phase of HIV infection triggers an immune response capable of controlling HIV subverted by the process of virus integration, essential to the replicative cycle of retroviruses. We review here two aspects that deserve consideration in light of recent developments concerning HIV transmission and vaccine development: vaccines directed against transmitted/founder viruses, and a reconsideration of inactivation as a viable means to obtain a preventive HIV vaccine. Since 80% of sexually transmitted HIV infections are caused by a single transmitted/founder variant, it is appropriate to target transmitted/founder viruses for vaccine development. Transmitted/founder virus transmission is subject to strong natural selection based on conserved signatures present in all forms of transmitted/founder HIV viruses. This provides an opportunity to pursue inactivation methods of vaccine development that allow antigenic preservation of HIV transmitted/founder viruses. The presentation to the immune system of an inactivated but antigenically preserved transmitted/founder virus should allow the development of an effective immune response against transmitted/founder viruses. This could be the base for an inactivated transmitted/founder virus HIV vaccine. We have devised a method of inactivation of HIV reverse transcriptase through the use of a novel photo-labeling procedure based on the use of photo-labeled analogs of antiretroviral compounds with specific affinity for HIV reverse transcriptase. We believe this method fulfills the required conditions for an effective preventive vaccine development: inactivation and antigenic preservation.

  6. Mating promiscuity and reproductive tactics in female black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) inhabiting an island on the Parana river, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Martin M; Garber, Paul A

    2010-08-01

    In several primate species, females mate promiscuously and several adult males peacefully co-reside in the same social group. We investigated female mating behavior in two neighboring multimale-multifemale groups of Alouatta caraya in northern Argentina (27 degrees 20'S-58 degrees 40'W). All adult individuals in each group were marked with identification anklets and ear tags, and followed for five consecutive full days per month during 20 consecutive months. We recorded 219 copulations for eight resident females in these two groups. Thirty-two percent of matings involved extra-group copulations and 68% were with resident males. During periods when females were likely to conceive and during periods when females were nonfertile (pregnancy and lactation), there were no significant differences in the average number of resident and nonresident males with which they copulated (G-test: G(adj)=0.1, df=3, P>0.05). In both of our study groups, adult males were tolerant of the mating activities between resident males and resident females, but acted aggressively and collectively (howling, border vigilance, and fighting) when extragroup males attempted to enter the group and mate with resident females. Given the frequency of extragroup matings, we examined the distance females traveled to engage in these copulations, time engaged in pre- and postcopulatory behavior, and the risk of injury during extragroup copulations. These costs were found to be relatively small. We suggest that female promiscuity is the prime driver or constraint on male reproductive opportunities in this species. Female promiscuity in A. caraya appears to represent a mixed mating strategy that may serve to increase opportunities for genetic diversity between a female's successive offspring as well as minimize the risk of infanticide by spreading paternity estimates across a larger number of adult males.

  7. Damaging the Integrated HIV Proviral DNA with TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Christy L.; Guerra, Horacio P.; Mathew, Kiran R.; Roy, Nervik; Simpson, Lacy R.; Schiller, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 integrates its proviral DNA genome into the host genome, presenting barriers for virus eradication. Several new gene-editing technologies have emerged that could potentially be used to damage integrated proviral DNA. In this study, we use transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to target a highly conserved sequence in the transactivation response element (TAR) of the HIV-1 proviral DNA. We demonstrated that TALENs cleave a DNA template with the HIV-1 proviral target site in vitro. A GFP reporter, under control of HIV-1 TAR, was efficiently inactivated by mutations introduced by transfection of TALEN plasmids. When infected cells containing the full-length integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA were transfected with TALENs, the TAR region accumulated indels. When one of these mutants was tested, the mutated HIV-1 proviral DNA was incapable of producing detectable Gag expression. TALEN variants engineered for degenerate recognition of select nucleotide positions also cleaved proviral DNA in vitro and the full-length integrated proviral DNA genome in living cells. These results suggest a possible design strategy for the therapeutic considerations of incomplete target sequence conservation and acquired resistance mutations. We have established a new strategy for damaging integrated HIV proviral DNA that may have future potential for HIV-1 proviral DNA eradication. PMID:25946221

  8. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  9. Gender and class differences in young people's sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2004-05-01

    This study examines gender and class differences in young people's beliefs about sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand. Sixty young people aged 15-19, divided equally by gender and socioeconomic background, participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews. Four topics were explored: the differences between 'good' and 'bad' girls/boys; young people's perceptions of sexuality; social class variations in young people's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perceptions of risk; and the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. Results showed that young people screened potential sexual partners utilizing an image of 'good girls/boys' as potential HIV/AIDS-free partners; young people defined sexuality in terms of love/sexual relationships, premarital sex, promiscuity, and virginity; and HIV/AIDS awareness varied according to class. Young people of all classes failed to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of how they can contract AIDS. They neither viewed themselves as being in an at-risk group, nor considered their sexual behaviours to be at-risk behaviours. Finally, family, friends, and mass media were reported to be among the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. In the struggle against HIV/AIDS, these institutions together with health education not only protect but also can empower young people in Thailand.

  10. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A What's in this article? ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  11. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  12. [HIV seropositivity in promiscuous heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men and patients voluntarily reporting for screening in Hungary between 1 January 1986 and 31 December 1989].

    PubMed

    Horváth, A; Jobbágy, A; Kiss, Z; Várkonyi, V; Takácsy, T; Duray, E; Balázs, E

    1991-05-26

    The cumulative seroprevalence was 5.21% among the homo/bisexual men in the four years. As well as in Budapest, we experienced the increase of seroprevalence in the country, too, after a decrease in 1988. The cumulative seroprevalence was 0.44% with men and 0.04% with women in the group of the voluntary reporters in the mentioned period. The same indexes were 0.07% for men and 0.019% for women in the group of the STD patients. Seroprevalence with men increased significantly in the last year. Hungary belongs to the low-incidence area among the European countries, even though the group of homosexuals can be considered moderately infected, seroprevalence is increasing in Budapest as well as in the country and heterosexuals are also affected.

  13. Conservation Education Today & Tomorrow: Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Conservation, Springfield.

    This kit was developed by the Illinois Department of Conservation's Education Program with assistance from the State Board of Education, as a teaching tool which can be used to promote conservation awareness of young people. It is designed to enable educators to help students in grades 7-10 learn about Illinois' renewable natural resources through…

  14. Inhibition of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Lescar, J.; Brynda, J.; Rezacova, P.; Stouracova, R.; Riottot, M. M.; Chitarra, V.; Fabry, M.; Horejsi, M.; Sedlacek, J.; Bentley, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody 1696, directed against the HIV-1 protease, displays strong inhibitory effects toward the catalytic activity of the enzyme of both the HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates. This antibody cross-reacts with peptides that include the N-terminus of the enzyme, a region that is well conserved in sequence among different viral strains and which, furthermore, is crucial for homodimerization to the active enzymatic form. This observation, as well as antigen-binding studies in the presence of an active site inhibitor, suggest that 1696 inhibits the HIV protease by destabilizing its active homodimeric form. To characterize further how the antibody 1696 inhibits the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, we have solved the crystal structure of its Fab fragment by molecular replacement and refined it at 3.0 A resolution. The antigen binding site has a deep cavity at its center, which is lined mainly by acidic and hydrophobic residues, and is large enough to accommodate several antigen residues. The structure of the Fab 1696 could form a starting basis for the design of alternative HIV protease-inhibiting molecules of broad specificity. PMID:10631984

  15. Sociocultural Influences on the Transmission of HIV From Husbands to Wives in Cambodia: The Male Point of View.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youngran; Thai, Sopheak

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore, within cultural and societal contexts, the factors of spousal HIV transmission as described by the experiences of HIV-positive Cambodian men. Using qualitative research methods, the researchers collected data from in-depth interviews with 15 HIV-positive Cambodian men of seroconcordant couples recruited from an HIV/AIDS clinic in Phnom Penh. Using a model of HIV transmission from husbands to wives, the questions were designed to elicit the men's perspectives on the topics of promiscuity, masculinity, condom use in marriage, the image of the ideal Cambodian woman, and attitudes toward sex and marriage. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. The main results were as follows: (a) men involved with sex workers perceived this as a natural behavior and a necessary part of being an approved member in a male peer group, (b) married men never used condoms during sex with their wives prior to their HIV diagnosis, (c) men perceived a good wife as one who is diligent and loyal to her husband, and (4) men's attitudes toward sex and marriage (e.g., sex perceived as a part of life pleasure) differed from those of their wives. Promoting honest spousal communication about sexuality, maintaining men's marital fidelity, and increasing women's comfort in the use of sexual techniques are suggested as strategies for reducing HIV transmission within marriage in Cambodia. Future interventions should focus on reshaping men's behaviors and changing cultural norms to protect them and their spouses