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Sample records for conserved small rna

  1. Conservation of small RNA pathways in platypus.

    PubMed

    Murchison, Elizabeth P; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J

    2008-06-01

    Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pathways of monotremes by deep sequencing of six platypus and echidna tissues. We find that highly conserved microRNA species display their signature tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, we find a large rapidly evolving cluster of microRNAs on platypus chromosome X1, which is unique to monotremes. Platypus and echidna testes contain a robust Piwi-interacting (piRNA) system, which appears to be participating in ongoing transposon defense.

  2. Conservation of small RNA pathways in platypus

    PubMed Central

    Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pathways of monotremes by deep sequencing of six platypus and echidna tissues. We find that highly conserved microRNA species display their signature tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, we find a large rapidly evolving cluster of microRNAs on platypus chromosome X1, which is unique to monotremes. Platypus and echidna testes contain a robust Piwi-interacting (piRNA) system, which appears to be participating in ongoing transposon defense. PMID:18463306

  3. Conserved themes in small-RNA-mediated transposon control

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Angélique; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes are engaged in a constant struggle against transposable elements, which have invaded and profoundly shaped their genomes. Over the past decade, a growing body of evidence has pointed to a role for small RNAs in transposon defense. Although the strategies used in different organisms vary in their details, they have strikingly similar general properties. Basically, all mechanisms consist of three components. First, transposon detection prompts the production of small RNAs, which are Piwi-interacting RNAs in some organisms and small interfering RNAs in others. Second, the population of small RNAs targeting active transposons is amplified through an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-based or Slicer-based mechanism. Third, small RNAs are incorporated into Argonaute- or Piwi-containing effector complexes, which target transposon transcripts for post-transcriptional silencing and/or target transposon DNA for repressive chromatin modification and DNA methylation. These properties produce robust systems that limit the catastrophic consequences of transposon mobilization, which can result in the accumulation of deleterious mutations, changes in gene expression patterns, and conditions such as gonadal hypotrophy and sterility. PMID:18282709

  4. Deep small RNA sequencing from the nematode Ascaris reveals conservation, functional diversification, and novel developmental profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbin; Czech, Benjamin; Crunk, Amanda; Wallace, Adam; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hannon, Gregory J; Davis, Richard E

    2011-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells express several classes of small RNAs that regulate gene expression and ensure genome maintenance. Endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) mainly control gene and transposon expression in the germline, while microRNAs (miRNAs) generally function in post-transcriptional gene silencing in both somatic and germline cells. To provide an evolutionary and developmental perspective on small RNA pathways in nematodes, we identified and characterized known and novel small RNA classes through gametogenesis and embryo development in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and compared them with known small RNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. piRNAs, Piwi-clade Argonautes, and other proteins associated with the piRNA pathway have been lost in Ascaris. miRNAs are synthesized immediately after fertilization in utero, before pronuclear fusion, and before the first cleavage of the zygote. This is the earliest expression of small RNAs ever described at a developmental stage long thought to be transcriptionally quiescent. A comparison of the two classes of Ascaris endo-siRNAs, 22G-RNAs and 26G-RNAs, to those in C. elegans, suggests great diversification and plasticity in the use of small RNA pathways during spermatogenesis in different nematodes. Our data reveal conserved characteristics of nematode small RNAs as well as features unique to Ascaris that illustrate significant flexibility in the use of small RNAs pathways, some of which are likely an adaptation to Ascaris' life cycle and parasitism. The transcriptome assembly has been submitted to NCBI Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/TSA.html) under accession numbers JI163767–JI182837 and JI210738–JI257410.

  5. Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in Aquilaria sinensis based on small RNA sequencing and transcriptome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Hui; Wei, Jian-He; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Huan-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Ting

    2012-08-15

    Agarwood is in great demand for its high value in medicine, incense, and perfume across Asia, Middle East, and Europe. As agarwood is formed only when the Aquilaria trees are wounded or infected by some microbes, overharvesting and habitat loss are threatening some populations of agarwood-producing species. Aquilaria sinensis is such a significant economic tree species. To promote the production efficiency and protect the resource of A. sinensis, it would be critical to reveal the regulation mechanisms of stress-induced agarwood formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a key gene expression regulator involved in various plant stress response and metabolic processes, might function in agarwood formation, but no report concerning miRNAs in Aquilaria is available. In this study, the small RNA high-throughput sequencing and 454 transcriptome data were adopted to identify both conserved and novel miRNAs in A. sinensis. Deep sequencing showed that the small RNA (sRNA) population of A. sinensis was complex and the length of sRNAs varied. By in silico analysis of the small RNA deep sequencing data and transcriptome data, we discovered 27 novel miRNAs in A. sinensis. Based on the mature miRNA sequence conservation, we identified 74 putative conserved miRNAs from A. sinensis and 10 of them were confirmed with hairpin forming precursor. Interestingly, a novel miRNA sequence was determined to be the miRNA of asi-miR408, but with accumulation much higher than asi-miR408. The expression levels of ten stress-responsive miRNAs were examined during the time-course after wound treatment. Eight were shown to be wound-responsive. This not only shows the existence of miRNAs in this Asian economically significant tree species but also indicated its critical role in stress-induced agarwood formation. The highly accumulated miRNA of asi-miR408 implied miRNAs would be functional as well as miRNAs in plants.

  6. Orthologs of the small RPB8 subunit of the eukaryotic RNA polymerases are conserved in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and "Korarchaeota".

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Makarova, Kira S; Elkins, James G

    2007-12-14

    Although most of the key components of the transcription apparatus, and in particular, RNA polymerase (RNAP) subunits, are conserved between archaea and eukaryotes, no archaeal homologs of the small RPB8 subunit of eukaryotic RNAP have been detected. We report that orthologs of RPB8 are encoded in all sequenced genomes of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and a recently sequenced "korarchaeal" genome, but not in Euryarchaeota or the mesophilic crenarchaeon Cenarchaeum symbiosum. These findings suggest that all 12 core subunits of eukaryotic RNAPs were already present in the last common ancestor of the extant archaea.

  7. A conserved RpoS-dependent small RNA controls the synthesis of major porin OmpD

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Kathrin S.; Papenfort, Kai; Berger, Allison A.; Vogel, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable feature of many small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) of Escherichia coli and Salmonella is their accumulation in the stationary phase of bacterial growth. Several stress response regulators and sigma factors have been reported to direct the transcription of stationary phase-specific sRNAs, but a widely conserved sRNA gene that is controlled by the major stationary phase and stress sigma factor, σS (RpoS), has remained elusive. We have studied in Salmonella the conserved SdsR sRNA, previously known as RyeB, one of the most abundant stationary phase-specific sRNAs in E. coli. Alignments of the sdsR promoter region and genetic analysis strongly suggest that this sRNA gene is selectively transcribed by σS. We show that SdsR down-regulates the synthesis of the major Salmonella porin OmpD by Hfq-dependent base pairing; SdsR thus represents the fourth sRNA to regulate this major outer membrane porin. Similar to the InvR, MicC and RybB sRNAs, SdsR recognizes the ompD mRNA in the coding sequence, suggesting that this mRNA may be primarily targeted downstream of the start codon. The SdsR-binding site in ompD was localized by 3′-RACE, an experimental approach that promises to be of use in predicting other sRNA–target interactions in bacteria. PMID:22180532

  8. Genome-wide analyses in bacteria show small-RNA enrichment for long and conserved intergenic regions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chen-Hsun; Liao, Rick; Chou, Brendan; Palumbo, Michael; Contreras, Lydia M

    2015-01-01

    Interest in finding small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria has significantly increased in recent years due to their regulatory functions. Development of high-throughput methods and more sophisticated computational algorithms has allowed rapid identification of sRNA candidates in different species. However, given their various sizes (50 to 500 nucleotides [nt]) and their potential genomic locations in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions as well as in intergenic regions, identification and validation of true sRNAs have been challenging. In addition, the evolution of bacterial sRNAs across different species continues to be puzzling, given that they can exert similar functions with various sequences and structures. In this study, we analyzed the enrichment patterns of sRNAs in 13 well-annotated bacterial species using existing transcriptome and experimental data. All intergenic regions were analyzed by WU-BLAST to examine conservation levels relative to species within or outside their genus. In total, more than 900 validated bacterial sRNAs and 23,000 intergenic regions were analyzed. The results indicate that sRNAs are enriched in intergenic regions, which are longer and more conserved than the average intergenic regions in the corresponding bacterial genome. We also found that sRNA-coding regions have different conservation levels relative to their flanking regions. This work provides a way to analyze how noncoding RNAs are distributed in bacterial genomes and also shows conserved features of intergenic regions that encode sRNAs. These results also provide insight into the functions of regions surrounding sRNAs and into optimization of RNA search algorithms.

  9. Genome-Wide Analyses in Bacteria Show Small-RNA Enrichment for Long and Conserved Intergenic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-Hsun; Liao, Rick; Chou, Brendan; Palumbo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Interest in finding small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria has significantly increased in recent years due to their regulatory functions. Development of high-throughput methods and more sophisticated computational algorithms has allowed rapid identification of sRNA candidates in different species. However, given their various sizes (50 to 500 nucleotides [nt]) and their potential genomic locations in the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions as well as in intergenic regions, identification and validation of true sRNAs have been challenging. In addition, the evolution of bacterial sRNAs across different species continues to be puzzling, given that they can exert similar functions with various sequences and structures. In this study, we analyzed the enrichment patterns of sRNAs in 13 well-annotated bacterial species using existing transcriptome and experimental data. All intergenic regions were analyzed by WU-BLAST to examine conservation levels relative to species within or outside their genus. In total, more than 900 validated bacterial sRNAs and 23,000 intergenic regions were analyzed. The results indicate that sRNAs are enriched in intergenic regions, which are longer and more conserved than the average intergenic regions in the corresponding bacterial genome. We also found that sRNA-coding regions have different conservation levels relative to their flanking regions. This work provides a way to analyze how noncoding RNAs are distributed in bacterial genomes and also shows conserved features of intergenic regions that encode sRNAs. These results also provide insight into the functions of regions surrounding sRNAs and into optimization of RNA search algorithms. PMID:25313390

  10. Comprehensive Annotation of Physcomitrella patens Small RNA Loci Reveals That the Heterochromatic Short Interfering RNA Pathway Is Largely Conserved in Land Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Coruh, Ceyda; Cho, Sung Hyun; Shahid, Saima; Liu, Qikun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Axtell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant small RNAs are sequence-specific negative regulators of target mRNAs and/or chromatin. In angiosperms, the two most abundant endogenous small RNA populations are usually 21-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide heterochromatic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heterochromatic siRNAs are derived from repetitive regions and reinforce DNA methylation at targeted loci. The existence and extent of heterochromatic siRNAs in other land plant lineages has been unclear. Using small RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the moss Physcomitrella patens, we identified 1090 loci that produce mostly 23- to 24-nucleotide siRNAs. These loci are mostly in intergenic regions with dense DNA methylation. Accumulation of siRNAs from these loci depends upon P. patens homologs of DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2, and the largest subunit of DNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IV, with the largest subunit of a Pol V homolog contributing to expression at a smaller subset of the loci. A MINIMAL DICER-LIKE (mDCL) gene, which lacks the N-terminal helicase domain typical of DCL proteins, is specifically required for 23-nucleotide siRNA accumulation. We conclude that heterochromatic siRNAs, and their biogenesis pathways, are largely identical between angiosperms and P. patens, with the notable exception of the P. patens-specific use of mDCL to produce 23-nucleotide siRNAs. PMID:26209555

  11. The conserved FRNK box in HC-Pro, a plant viral suppressor of gene silencing, is required for small RNA binding and mediates symptom development.

    PubMed

    Shiboleth, Yoel Moshe; Haronsky, Elina; Leibman, Diana; Arazi, Tzahi; Wassenegger, Michael; Whitham, Steven A; Gaba, Victor; Gal-On, Amit

    2007-12-01

    The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) protein of potyviruses is a suppressor of gene silencing and has been shown to elicit plant developmental-defect-like symptoms. In Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), a mutation in the highly conserved FR180NK box of HC-Pro to FI180NK causes attenuation of these symptoms. At 5 days postinoculation and before symptoms appear, virus accumulation, HC-Pro protein levels, and viral short interfering RNA (siRNA) levels are similar for the severe (FRNK) and attenuated (FINK) strains. At this stage, ZYMV(FRNK) caused greater accumulation of most microRNAs (miRNAs), and especially of their complementary miRNA "passenger" strands (miRNA*s), in systemically infected leaves than the attenuated ZYMV(FINK) did. HC-Pro(FRNK) specifically bound artificial siRNA and miRNA/miRNA* duplexes with a much higher affinity than the mutated HC-Pro(FINK). Further analysis of the mutant and wild-type HC-Pro proteins revealed that suppressor activity of the ZYMV HC(FINK) mutant was not diminished. However, the FINK mutation caused a loss of HC-Pro suppressor function in other potyviruses. Replacement of the second positively charged amino acid in the ZYMV FRNK box to result in FRNA also caused symptom attenuation and reduced small RNA duplex-binding affinity without loss of suppressor activity. Our data suggest that the highly conserved FRNK box in the HC-Pro of potyviruses is a probable point of contact with siRNA and miRNA duplexes. The interaction of the FRNK box with populations of miRNAs directly influences their accumulation levels and regulatory functions, resulting in symptom development.

  12. A novel method for the identification of conserved structural patterns in RNA: From small scale to high-throughput applications

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosanto, Marco; Mattei, Eugenio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ferrè, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Functional RNA regions are often related to recurrent secondary structure patterns (or motifs), which can exert their role in several different ways, particularly in dictating the interaction with RNA-binding proteins, and acting in the regulation of a large number of cellular processes. Among the available motif-finding tools, the majority focuses on sequence patterns, sometimes including secondary structure as additional constraints to improve their performance. Nonetheless, secondary structures motifs may be concurrent to their sequence counterparts or even encode a stronger functional signal. Current methods for searching structural motifs generally require long pipelines and/or high computational efforts or previously aligned sequences. Here, we present BEAM (BEAr Motif finder), a novel method for structural motif discovery from a set of unaligned RNAs, taking advantage of a recently developed encoding for RNA secondary structure named BEAR (Brand nEw Alphabet for RNAs) and of evolutionary substitution rates of secondary structure elements. Tested in a varied set of scenarios, from small- to large-scale, BEAM is successful in retrieving structural motifs even in highly noisy data sets, such as those that can arise in CLIP-Seq or other high-throughput experiments. PMID:27580722

  13. Nematode endogenous small RNA pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Volkers, Rita JM; Sterken, Mark G; Kammenga, Jan E; Snoek, L Basten

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of small RNA silencing pathways has greatly extended our knowledge of gene regulation. Small RNAs have been presumed to play a role in every field of biology because they affect many biological processes via regulation of gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Most well-known examples of affected processes are development, fertility, and maintenance of genome stability. Here we review the role of the three main endogenous small RNA silencing pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans: microRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs. After providing an entry-level overview on how these pathways function, we discuss research on other nematode species providing insight into the evolution of these small RNA pathways. In understanding the differences between the endogenous small RNA pathways and their evolution, a more comprehensive picture is formed of the functions and effects of small RNAs. PMID:25340013

  14. Sequence Fingerprints of MicroRNA Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Wei; Wang, Juan

    2012-01-01

    It is known that the conservation of protein-coding genes is associated with their sequences both various species, such as animals and plants. However, the association between microRNA (miRNA) conservation and their sequences in various species remains unexplored. Here we report the association of miRNA conservation with its sequence features, such as base content and cleavage sites, suggesting that miRNA sequences contain the fingerprints for miRNA conservation. More interestingly, different species show different and even opposite patterns between miRNA conservation and sequence features. For example, mammalian miRNAs show a positive/negative correlation between conservation and AU/GC content, whereas plant miRNAs show a negative/positive correlation between conservation and AU/GC content. Further analysis puts forward the hypothesis that the introns of protein-coding genes may be a main driving force for the origin and evolution of mammalian miRNAs. At the 5′ end, conserved miRNAs have a preference for base U, while less-conserved miRNAs have a preference for a non-U base in mammals. This difference does not exist in insects and plants, in which both conserved miRNAs and less-conserved miRNAs have a preference for base U at the 5′ end. We further revealed that the non-U preference at the 5′ end of less-conserved mammalian miRNAs is associated with miRNA function diversity, which may have evolved from the pressure of a highly sophisticated environmental stimulus the mammals encountered during evolution. These results indicated that miRNA sequences contain the fingerprints for conservation, and these fingerprints vary according to species. More importantly, the results suggest that although species share common mechanisms by which miRNAs originate and evolve, mammals may develop a novel mechanism for miRNA origin and evolution. In addition, the fingerprint found in this study can be predictor of miRNA conservation, and the findings are helpful in achieving a

  15. In silico genome wide mining of conserved and novel miRNAs in the brain and pineal gland of Danio rerio using small RNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Suyash; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to the mRNA of the target genes and regulate the expression of the gene at the post-transcriptional level. Zebrafish is an economically important freshwater fish species globally considered as a good predictive model for studying human diseases and development. The present study focused on uncovering known as well as novel miRNAs, target prediction of the novel miRNAs and the differential expression of the known miRNA using the small RNA sequencing data of the brain and pineal gland (dark and light treatments) obtained from NCBI SRA. A total of 165, 151 and 145 known zebrafish miRNAs were found in the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Chromosomes 4 and 5 of zebrafish reference assembly GRCz10 were found to contain maximum number of miR genes. The miR-181a and miR-182 were found to be highly expressed in terms of number of reads in the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Other ncRNAs, such as tRNA, rRNA and snoRNA, were curated against Rfam. Using GRCz10 as reference, the subsequent bioinformatic analyses identified 25, 19 and 9 novel miRNAs from the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Targets of the novel miRNAs were identified, based on sequence complementarity between miRNAs and mRNA, by searching for antisense hits in the 3'-UTR of reference RNA sequences of the zebrafish. The discovery of novel miRNAs and their targets in the zebrafish genome can be a valuable scientific resource for further functional studies not only in zebrafish but also in other economically important fishes.

  16. How conserved are the conserved 16S-rRNA regions?

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz Suarez, Luis Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene has been used as master key for studying prokaryotic diversity in almost every environment. Despite the claim of several researchers to have the best universal primers, the reality is that no primer has been demonstrated to be truly universal. This suggests that conserved regions of the gene may not be as conserved as expected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conservation degree of the so-called conserved regions flanking the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Data contained in SILVA database (release 123) were used for the study. Primers reported as matches of each conserved region were assembled to form contigs; sequences sizing 12 nucleotides (12-mers) were extracted from these contigs and searched into the entire set of SILVA sequences. Frequency analysis shown that extreme regions, 1 and 10, registered the lowest frequencies. 12-mer frequencies revealed segments of contigs that were not as conserved as expected (≤90%). Fragments corresponding to the primer contigs 3, 4, 5b and 6a were recovered from all sequences in SILVA database. Nucleotide frequency analysis in each consensus demonstrated that only a small fraction of these so-called conserved regions is truly conserved in non-redundant sequences. It could be concluded that conserved regions of the 16S rRNA gene exhibit considerable variation that has to be considered when using this gene as biomarker. PMID:28265511

  17. Conserved RNA secondary structures promote alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Peter J; Hertel, Klemens J

    2008-08-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is carried out by the spliceosome, which identifies exons and removes intervening introns. Alternative splicing in higher eukaryotes results in the generation of multiple protein isoforms from gene transcripts. The extensive alternative splicing observed implies a flexibility of the spliceosome to identify exons within a given pre-mRNA. To reach this flexibility, splice-site selection in higher eukaryotes has evolved to depend on multiple parameters such as splice-site strength, splicing regulators, the exon/intron architecture, and the process of pre-mRNA synthesis itself. RNA secondary structures have also been proposed to influence alternative splicing as stable RNA secondary structures that mask splice sites are expected to interfere with splice-site recognition. Using structural and functional conservation, we identified RNA structure elements within the human genome that associate with alternative splice-site selection. Their frequent involvement with alternative splicing demonstrates that RNA structure formation is an important mechanism regulating gene expression and disease.

  18. Conserved Region of Mammalian Retrovirus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kominami, R.; Hatanaka, M.

    1979-01-01

    The viral RNAs of various mammalian retroviruses contain highly conserved sequences close to their 3′ ends. This was demonstrated by interviral molecular hybridization between fractionated viral complementary DNA (cDNA) and RNA. cDNA near the 3′ end (cDNA3′) from a rat virus (RPL strain) was fractionated by size and mixed with mouse virus RNA (Rauscher leukemia virus). No hybridization occurred with total cDNA (cDNAtotal), in agreement with previous results, but a cross-reacting sequence was found with the fractionated cDNA3′. The sequences between 50 to 400 nucleotides from the 3′ terminus of heteropolymeric RNA were most hybridizable. The rat viral cDNA3′ hybridized with mouse virus RNA more extensively than with RNA of remotely related retroviruses. The related viral sequence of the rodent viruses (mouse and rat) showed as much divergence in heteroduplex thermal denaturation profiles as did the unique sequence DNA of these two rodents. This suggests that over a period of time, rodent viruses have preserved a sequence with changes correlated to phylogenetic distance of hosts. The cross-reacting sequence of replication-competent retroviruses was conserved even in the genome of the replication-defective sarcoma virus and was also located in these genomes near the 3′ end of 30S RNA. A fraction of RD114 cDNA3′, corresponding to the conserved region, cross-hybridized extensively with RNA of a baboon endogenous virus (M7). Fractions of similar size prepared from cDNA3′ of MPMV, a primate type D virus, hybridized with M7 RNA to a lesser extent. Hybridization was not observed between Mason-Pfizer monkey virus and M7 if total cDNA's were incubated with viral RNAs. The degree of cross-reaction of the shared sequence appeared to be influenced by viral ancestral relatedness and host cell phylogenetic relationships. Thus, the strikingly high extent of cross-reaction at the conserved region between rodent viruses and simian sarcoma virus and between baboon

  19. Energy Conservation in Small Schools. Small Schools Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardener, Clark

    Information concerning methods and available materials for conserving energy is needed by small, rural schools to offset continued increasing energy costs and lack of financial support and technical assistance. The first step in developing an energy conservation policy is to obtain school board commitment and to establish an energy saving policy.…

  20. Computational analysis of small RNA cloning data.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Philipp; Gaidatzis, Dimos; van Nimwegen, Erik; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Cloning and sequencing is the method of choice for small regulatory RNA identification. Using deep sequencing technologies one can now obtain up to a billion nucleotides--and tens of millions of small RNAs--from a single library. Careful computational analyses of such libraries enabled the discovery of miRNAs, rasiRNAs, piRNAs, and 21U RNAs. Given the large number of sequences that can be obtained from each individual sample, deep sequencing may soon become an alternative to oligonucleotide microarray technology for mRNA expression profiling. In this report we present the methods that we developed for the annotation and expression profiling of small RNAs obtained through large-scale sequencing. These include a fast algorithm for finding nearly perfect matches of small RNAs in sequence databases, a web-accessible software system for the annotation of small RNA libraries, and a Bayesian method for comparing small RNA expression across samples.

  1. A tri-component conservation strategy reveals highly confident microRNA-mRNA interactions and evolution of microRNA regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Ching; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that can regulate expressions of their target genes at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we propose a tri-component strategy that combines the conservation of microRNAs, homology of mRNA coding regions, and conserved microRNA binding sites in the 3' untranslated regions to discover conserved microRNA-mRNA interactions. To validate the performance of our conservation strategy, we collected the experimentally validated microRNA-mRNA interactions from three databases as the golden standard. We found that the proposed strategy can improve the performance of existing target prediction algorithms by approximately 2-4 fold. In addition, we demonstrated that the proposed strategy could efficiently retain highly confident interactions from the intersection results of the existing algorithms and filter out the possible false positive predictions in the union one. Furthermore, this strategy can facilitate our ability to trace the homologues in different species that are targeted by the same miRNA family because it combines these three features to identify the conserved miRNA-mRNA interactions during evolution. Through an extensive application of the proposed conservation strategy to a study of the miR-1/206 regulatory network, we demonstrate that the target mRNA recruiting process could be associated with expansion of miRNA family during its evolution. We also uncovered the functional evolution of the miR-1/206 regulatory network. In this network, the early targeted genes tend to participate in more general and development-related functions. In summary, the conservation strategy is capable of helping to highlight the highly confident miRNA-mRNA interactions and can be further applied to reveal the evolutionary features of miRNA regulatory network and functions.

  2. Studying RNA homology and conservation with Infernal: from single sequences to RNA families

    PubMed Central

    Barquist, Lars; Burge, Sarah W.; Gardner, Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging high-throughput technologies have led to a deluge of putative non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences identified in a wide variety of organisms. Systematic characterization of these transcripts will be a tremendous challenge. Homology detection is critical to making maximal use of functional information gathered about ncRNAs: identifying homologous sequence allows us to transfer information gathered in one organism to another quickly and with a high degree of confidence. ncRNA presents a challenge for homology detection, as the primary sequence is often poorly conserved and de novo secondary structure prediction and search remains difficult. This protocol introduces methods developed by the Rfam database for identifying “families” of homologous ncRNAs starting from single “seed” sequences using manually curated sequence alignments to build powerful statistical models of sequence and structure conservation known as covariance models (CMs), implemented in the Infernal software package. We provide a step-by-step iterative protocol for identifying ncRNA homologs, then constructing an alignment and corresponding CM. We also work through an example for the bacterial small RNA MicA, discovering a previously unreported family of divergent MicA homologs in genus Xenorhabdus in the process. PMID:27322404

  3. Studying RNA Homology and Conservation with Infernal: From Single Sequences to RNA Families.

    PubMed

    Barquist, Lars; Burge, Sarah W; Gardner, Paul P

    2016-06-20

    Emerging high-throughput technologies have led to a deluge of putative non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences identified in a wide variety of organisms. Systematic characterization of these transcripts will be a tremendous challenge. Homology detection is critical to making maximal use of functional information gathered about ncRNAs: identifying homologous sequence allows us to transfer information gathered in one organism to another quickly and with a high degree of confidence. ncRNA presents a challenge for homology detection, as the primary sequence is often poorly conserved and de novo secondary structure prediction and search remain difficult. This unit introduces methods developed by the Rfam database for identifying "families" of homologous ncRNAs starting from single "seed" sequences, using manually curated sequence alignments to build powerful statistical models of sequence and structure conservation known as covariance models (CMs), implemented in the Infernal software package. We provide a step-by-step iterative protocol for identifying ncRNA homologs and then constructing an alignment and corresponding CM. We also work through an example for the bacterial small RNA MicA, discovering a previously unreported family of divergent MicA homologs in genus Xenorhabdus in the process. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Conserved and variable domains of RNase MRP RNA.

    PubMed

    Dávila López, Marcela; Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Samuelsson, Tore

    2009-01-01

    Ribonuclease MRP is a eukaryotic ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of one RNA molecule and 7-10 protein subunits. One important function of MRP is to catalyze an endonucleolytic cleavage during processing of rRNA precursors. RNase MRP is evolutionary related to RNase P which is critical for tRNA processing. A large number of MRP RNA sequences that now are available have been used to identify conserved primary and secondary structure features of the molecule. MRP RNA has structural features in common with P RNA such as a conserved catalytic core, but it also has unique features and is characterized by a domain highly variable between species. Information regarding primary and secondary structure features is of interest not only in basic studies of the function of MRP RNA, but also because mutations in the RNA give rise to human genetic diseases such as cartilage-hair hypoplasia.

  5. Small RNA combination therapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen; Dahlman, James E; Tammela, Tuomas; Khan, Omar F; Sood, Sabina; Dave, Apeksha; Cai, Wenxin; Chirino, Leilani M; Yang, Gillian R; Bronson, Roderick; Crowley, Denise G; Sahay, Gaurav; Schroeder, Avi; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-08-26

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs have enormous potential as cancer therapeutics, but their effective delivery to most solid tumors has been difficult. Here, we show that a new lung-targeting nanoparticle is capable of delivering miRNA mimics and siRNAs to lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and to tumors in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer based on activation of oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) and loss of p53 function. Therapeutic delivery of miR-34a, a p53-regulated tumor suppressor miRNA, restored miR-34a levels in lung tumors, specifically down-regulated miR-34a target genes, and slowed tumor growth. The delivery of siRNAs targeting Kras reduced Kras gene expression and MAPK signaling, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth. The combination of miR-34a and siRNA targeting Kras improved therapeutic responses over those observed with either small RNA alone, leading to tumor regression. Furthermore, nanoparticle-mediated small RNA delivery plus conventional, cisplatin-based chemotherapy prolonged survival in this model compared with chemotherapy alone. These findings demonstrate that RNA combination therapy is possible in an autochthonous model of lung cancer and provide preclinical support for the use of small RNA therapies in patients who have cancer.

  6. RNA-seq SSRs and small RNA-seq SSRs: new approaches in cancer biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Alisoltani, Arghavan; Fallahi, Hossein; Shiran, Behrouz; Alisoltani, Anousheh; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-04-10

    The recent exponential increase in the number of next generation sequencing studies provides a new source of data for the discovery of functional genomics based markers. The RNA-seq and small RNA-seq provide a new source for the discovery of differentially expressed SSRs (simple sequence repeats) as biomarkers in various diseases. In the present study, for the first time, we applied RNA-seq SSR to find new biomarkers for pancreatic cancer (PC) diagnosis. Analysis of RNA-seq data revealed a significant alternation in the frequency of SSR motifs during cancer progression. In particular, RNA-seq SSR showed an increase in the frequencies of GCC/GGC and GCG/CGC motifs in PC samples compared to healthy pancreas. These findings were further confirmed using meta-analysis of EST-SSR data in 11 different cancers. Interestingly, the genes containing GCC/GGC and GCG/CGC motifs in their sequences were involved in many cancer-related biological processes, particularly regulation processes. The small RNA-seq data were also mined for the conserved patterns in SSR frequencies (sRNA-seq SSR) during cancer progression. Based on the results, we suggest the potential use of GCC/GGC and GCG/CGC motifs as biomarkers in PC. Based on the findings of this study, it seems that RNA-seq SSR and sRNA-seq SSR could open a new paradigm in the diagnostic and even therapeutic strategies for PC along the other types of cancers.

  7. Covalent small-molecule-RNA complex formation enables cellular profiling of small-molecule-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2013-09-16

    Won't let you go! A strategy is described to design small molecules that react with their cellular RNA targets. This approach not only improves the activity of compounds targeting RNA in cell culture by a factor of about 2500 but also enables cell-wide profiling of its RNA targets.

  8. A superfamily of DNA transposons targeting multicopy small RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Target-specific integration of transposable elements for multicopy genes, such as ribosomal RNA and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, is of great interest because of the relatively harmless nature, stable inheritance and possible application for targeted gene delivery of target-specific transposable elements. To date, such strict target specificity has been observed only among non-LTR retrotransposons. We here report a new superfamily of sequence-specific DNA transposons, designated Dada. Dada encodes a DDE-type transposase that shows a distant similarity to transposases encoded by eukaryotic MuDR, hAT, P and Kolobok transposons, as well as the prokaryotic IS256 insertion element. Dada generates 6-7 bp target site duplications upon insertion. One family of Dada DNA transposons targets a specific site inside the U6 snRNA genes and are found in various fish species, water flea, oyster and polycheate worm. Other target sequences of the Dada transposons are U1 snRNA genes and different tRNA genes. The targets are well conserved in multicopy genes, indicating that copy number and sequence conservation are the primary constraints on the target choice of Dada transposons. Dada also opens a new frontier for target-specific gene delivery application.

  9. Small RNA transcriptomes of mangroves evolve adaptively in extreme environments

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Lin, Xingqin; Xie, Munan; Wang, Yushuai; Shen, Xu; Liufu, Zhongqi; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua; Tang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key players in plant stress responses. Here, we present the sRNA transcriptomes of mangroves Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel. Comparative computational analyses and target predictions revealed that mangroves exhibit distinct sRNA regulatory networks that differ from those of glycophytes. A total of 32 known and three novel miRNA families were identified. Conserved and mangrove-specific miRNA targets were predicted; the latter were widely involved in stress responses. The known miRNAs showed differential expression between the mangroves and glycophytes, reminiscent of the adaptive stress-responsive changes in Arabidopsis. B. gymnorrhiza possessed highly abundant but less conserved TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) in addition to tasiR-ARFs, with expanded potential targets. Our results indicate that the evolutionary alteration of sRNA expression levels and the rewiring of sRNA-regulatory networks are important mechanisms underlying stress adaptation. We also identified sRNAs that are involved in salt and/or drought tolerance and nutrient homeostasis as possible contributors to mangrove success in stressful environments. PMID:27278626

  10. Small RNA transcriptomes of mangroves evolve adaptively in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Lin, Xingqin; Xie, Munan; Wang, Yushuai; Shen, Xu; Liufu, Zhongqi; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua; Tang, Tian

    2016-06-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key players in plant stress responses. Here, we present the sRNA transcriptomes of mangroves Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel. Comparative computational analyses and target predictions revealed that mangroves exhibit distinct sRNA regulatory networks that differ from those of glycophytes. A total of 32 known and three novel miRNA families were identified. Conserved and mangrove-specific miRNA targets were predicted; the latter were widely involved in stress responses. The known miRNAs showed differential expression between the mangroves and glycophytes, reminiscent of the adaptive stress-responsive changes in Arabidopsis. B. gymnorrhiza possessed highly abundant but less conserved TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) in addition to tasiR-ARFs, with expanded potential targets. Our results indicate that the evolutionary alteration of sRNA expression levels and the rewiring of sRNA-regulatory networks are important mechanisms underlying stress adaptation. We also identified sRNAs that are involved in salt and/or drought tolerance and nutrient homeostasis as possible contributors to mangrove success in stressful environments.

  11. Small Luggage for a Long Journey: Transfer of Vesicle-Enclosed Small RNA in Interspecies Communication.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Fabio A; Lécuyer, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In the evolutionary arms race, symbionts have evolved means to modulate each other's physiology, oftentimes through the dissemination of biological signals. Beyond small molecules and proteins, recent evidence shows that small RNA molecules are transferred between organisms and transmit functional RNA interference signals across biological species. However, the mechanisms through which specific RNAs involved in cross-species communication are sorted for secretion and protected from degradation in the environment remain largely enigmatic. Over the last decade, extracellular vesicles have emerged as prominent vehicles of biological signals. They can stabilize specific RNA transcripts in biological fluids and selectively deliver them to recipient cells. Here, we review examples of small RNA transfers between plants and bacterial, fungal, and animal symbionts. We also discuss the transmission of RNA interference signals from intestinal cells to populations of the gut microbiota, along with its roles in intestinal homeostasis. We suggest that extracellular vesicles may contribute to inter-species crosstalk mediated by small RNA. We review the mechanisms of RNA sorting to extracellular vesicles and evaluate their relevance in cross-species communication by discussing conservation, stability, stoichiometry, and co-occurrence of vesicles with alternative communication vehicles.

  12. Small Luggage for a Long Journey: Transfer of Vesicle-Enclosed Small RNA in Interspecies Communication

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Fabio A.; Lécuyer, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In the evolutionary arms race, symbionts have evolved means to modulate each other's physiology, oftentimes through the dissemination of biological signals. Beyond small molecules and proteins, recent evidence shows that small RNA molecules are transferred between organisms and transmit functional RNA interference signals across biological species. However, the mechanisms through which specific RNAs involved in cross-species communication are sorted for secretion and protected from degradation in the environment remain largely enigmatic. Over the last decade, extracellular vesicles have emerged as prominent vehicles of biological signals. They can stabilize specific RNA transcripts in biological fluids and selectively deliver them to recipient cells. Here, we review examples of small RNA transfers between plants and bacterial, fungal, and animal symbionts. We also discuss the transmission of RNA interference signals from intestinal cells to populations of the gut microbiota, along with its roles in intestinal homeostasis. We suggest that extracellular vesicles may contribute to inter-species crosstalk mediated by small RNA. We review the mechanisms of RNA sorting to extracellular vesicles and evaluate their relevance in cross-species communication by discussing conservation, stability, stoichiometry, and co-occurrence of vesicles with alternative communication vehicles. PMID:28360889

  13. Composition and Expression of Conserved MicroRNA Genes in Diploid Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Kakrana, Atul; Arikit, Siwaret; Meyers, Blake C.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are ubiquitous in plant genomes but vary greatly in their abundance within and conservation among plant lineages. To gain insight into the evolutionary birth/death dynamics of microRNA families, we sequenced small RNA and 5′-end PARE libraries generated from two closely related species of Gossypium. Here, we demonstrate that 33 microRNA families, with similar copy numbers and average evolutionary rates, are conserved in the two congeneric cottons. Analysis of the presence/absence of these microRNA families in other land plants sheds light on their depth of phylogenetic origin and lineage-specific loss/gain. Conserved microRNA families in Gossypium exhibit a striking interspecific asymmetry in expression, potentially connected to relative proximity to neighboring transposable elements. A complex correlated expression pattern of microRNA target genes with their controlling microRNAs indicates that possible functional divergence of conserved microRNA families can also exist even within a single plant genus. PMID:24281048

  14. Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

  15. Physiological roles of small RNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Michaux, Charlotte; Verneuil, Nicolas; Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Unlike proteins, RNA molecules have emerged lately as key players in regulation in bacteria. Most reviews hitherto focused on the experimental and/or in silico methods used to identify genes encoding small RNAs (sRNAs) or on the diverse mechanisms of these RNA regulators to modulate expression of their targets. However, less is known about their biological functions and their implications in various physiological responses. This review aims to compile what is known presently about the diverse roles of sRNA transcripts in the regulation of metabolic processes, in different growth conditions, in adaptation to stress and in microbial pathogenesis. Several recent studies revealed that sRNA molecules are implicated in carbon metabolism and transport, amino acid metabolism or metal sensing. Moreover, regulatory RNAs participate in cellular adaptation to environmental changes, e.g. through quorum sensing systems or development of biofilms, and analyses of several sRNAs under various physiological stresses and culture conditions have already been performed. In addition, recent experiments performed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens showed that regulatory RNAs play important roles in microbial virulence and during infection. The combined results show the diversity of regulation mechanisms and physiological processes in which sRNA molecules are key actors.

  16. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is adopting energy conservation standards for small electric motors. DOE has determined that these standards will result in significant conservation of energy, and are technologically feasible and economically...

  17. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges

    PubMed Central

    Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins. PMID:24213538

  18. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges.

    PubMed

    Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

    2013-12-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins.

  19. Oncogenic effects of evolutionarily conserved noncoding RNA ECONEXIN on gliomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, S; Katsushima, K; Hatanaka, A; Shinjo, K; Ohka, F; Wakabayashi, T; Zong, H; Natsume, A; Kondo, Y

    2017-04-03

    Accumulating studies have demonstrated the importance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during oncogenic transformation. However, because most lncRNAs are currently uncharacterized, the identification of novel oncogenic lncRNAs is difficult. Given that intergenic lncRNA have substantially less sequence conservation patterns than protein-coding genes across species, evolutionary conserved intergenic lncRNAs are likely to be functional. The current study identified a novel intergenic lncRNA, LINC00461 (ECONEXIN) using a combined approach consisting of searching lncRNAs by evolutionary conservation and validating their expression in a glioma mouse model. ECONEXIN was the most highly conserved intergenic lncRNA containing 83.0% homology with the mouse ortholog (C130071C03Rik) for a region over 2500 bp in length within its exon 3. Expressions of ECONEXIN and C130071C03Rik were significantly upregulated in both human and mouse glioma tissues. Moreover, the expression of C130071C03Rik was upregulated even in precancerous conditions and markedly increased during glioma progression. Functional analysis of ECONEXIN in glioma cell lines, U87 and U251, showed it was dominantly located in the cytoplasm and interacted with miR-411-5p via two binding sites within ECONEXIN. Inhibition of ECONEXIN upregulated miR-411-5p together with the downregulation of its target, Topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A), in glioma cell lines, resulting in decreased cell proliferation. Our data demonstrated that ECONEXIN is a potential oncogene that regulates TOP2A by sponging miR-411-5p in glioma. In addition, our investigative approaches to identify conserved lncRNA and their molecular characterization by validation in mouse tumor models may be useful to functionally annotate novel lncRNAs, especially cancer-associated lncRNAs.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.88.

  20. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  1. Small RNA-Mediated Epigenetic Myostatin Silencing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas C; Andaloussi, Samir El; Morris, Kevin V; McClorey, Graham; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2012-05-15

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor that negatively regulates muscle mass and is therefore a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here we describe a novel Mstn blockade approach in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) complementary to a promoter-associated transcript induce transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in two differentiated mouse muscle cell lines. Silencing is sensitive to treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, and the silent state chromatin mark H3K9me2 is enriched at the Mstn promoter following siRNA transfection, suggesting epigenetic remodeling underlies the silencing effect. These observations suggest that long-term epigenetic silencing may be feasible for Mstn and that TGS is a promising novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders.

  2. RNA Interference against Animal Viruses: How Morbilliviruses Generate Extended Diversity To Escape Small Interfering RNA Control

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Carine L.; Albina, Emmanuel; Minet, Cécile; Lancelot, Renaud; Kwiatek, Olivier; Libeau, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are serious threats to human and animal health. Vaccines can prevent viral diseases, but few antiviral treatments are available to control evolving infections. Among new antiviral therapies, RNA interference (RNAi) has been the focus of intensive research. However, along with the development of efficient RNAi-based therapeutics comes the risk of emergence of resistant viruses. In this study, we challenged the in vitro propensity of a morbillivirus (peste des petits ruminants virus), a stable RNA virus, to escape the inhibition conferred by single or multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against conserved regions of the N gene. Except with the combination of three different siRNAs, the virus systematically escaped RNAi after 3 to 20 consecutive passages. The genetic modifications involved consisted of single or multiple point nucleotide mutations and a deletion of a stretch of six nucleotides, illustrating that this virus has an unusual genomic malleability. PMID:22072768

  3. Conservation defines functional motifs in the squint/nodal-related 1 RNA dorsal localization element

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Patrick C.; Kumari, Pooja; Lim, Shimin; Cheong, Albert; Chang, Alex; Sampath, Karuna

    2011-01-01

    RNA localization is emerging as a general principle of sub-cellular protein localization and cellular organization. However, the sequence and structural requirements in many RNA localization elements remain poorly understood. Whereas transcription factor-binding sites in DNA can be recognized as short degenerate motifs, and consensus binding sites readily inferred, protein-binding sites in RNA often contain structural features, and can be difficult to infer. We previously showed that zebrafish squint/nodal-related 1 (sqt/ndr1) RNA localizes to the future dorsal side of the embryo. Interestingly, mammalian nodal RNA can also localize to dorsal when injected into zebrafish embryos, suggesting that the sequence motif(s) may be conserved, even though the fish and mammal UTRs cannot be aligned. To define potential sequence and structural features, we obtained ndr1 3′-UTR sequences from approximately 50 fishes that are closely, or distantly, related to zebrafish, for high-resolution phylogenetic footprinting. We identify conserved sequence and structural motifs within the zebrafish/carp family and catfish. We find that two novel motifs, a single-stranded AGCAC motif and a small stem-loop, are required for efficient sqt RNA localization. These findings show that comparative sequencing in the zebrafish/carp family is an efficient approach for identifying weak consensus binding sites for RNA regulatory proteins. PMID:21149265

  4. Conserved functions of the trigger loop and Gre factors in RNA cleavage by bacterial RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Miropolskaya, Nataliya; Esyunina, Daria; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2017-02-27

    RNA cleavage by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central step in co-transcriptional RNA proofreading. Bacterial RNAPs were proposed to rely on the same mobile element of the active site, the trigger loop (TL), for both nucleotide addition and RNA cleavage. RNA cleavage can also be stimulated by universal Gre factors, which should replace the TL to get access to the RNAP active site. The contributions of the TL and Gre factors to RNA cleavage reportedly vary between RNAPs from different bacterial species and, probably, different types of transcription complexes. Here, by comparing RNAPs from Escherichia coli (Eco), Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra) and Thermus aquaticus (Taq) we show that the functions of the TL and Gre factors in RNA cleavage are conserved in various species, with important variations which may be related to extremophilic adaptation. Deletions of the TL strongly impair intrinsic RNA cleavage by all three RNAPs and eliminate the inter-species differences in the reaction rates. GreA factors activate RNA cleavage by wild-type RNAPs to similar levels. The rates of GreA-dependent cleavage are lower for ΔTL RNAP variants, suggesting that the TL contributes to the Gre function. Finally, neither the TL nor GreA can efficiently activate RNA cleavage in certain types of backtracked transcription complexes suggesting that these complexes adopt a catalytically inactive conformation probably important for transcription regulation.

  5. Recent advances in developing small molecules targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-01-20

    RNAs are underexploited targets for small molecule drugs or chemical probes of function. This may be due, in part, to a fundamental lack of understanding of the types of small molecules that bind RNA specifically and the types of RNA motifs that specifically bind small molecules. In this review, we describe recent advances in the development and design of small molecules that bind to RNA and modulate function that aim to fill this void.

  6. Conservation and evolution of miRNA regulatory programs in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Willmann, Matthew R.; Poethig, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Over the past two years, microarray technologies, large-scale small RNA and whole genome sequencing projects, and data mining have provided a wealth of information about the spectrum of miRNAs and miRNA targets present in different plant species and the alga Chlamydomonas. Such studies have shown that a number of key miRNA regulatory modules for plant development are conserved throughout the plant kingdom, suggesting that these programs were critical to the colonization of land. New genetic and biochemical studies of miRNA pathways in Arabidopsis, the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several conserved miRNAs and their targets, and the characterization of mutations in Arabidopsis and maize have begun to reveal the functions of these ancient miRNA-regulated developmental programs. In addition to these conserved miRNAs, there are many clade and species-specific miRNAs, which have evolved more recently and whose functions are currently unknown. PMID:17709279

  7. Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item…

  8. The 3; 21 translocation in myelodysplasia results in a fusion transcript between the AML1 gene and the gene for EAP, a highly conserved protein associated with the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nucifora, G.; Begy, C.R.; Rowley, J.D. ); Erickson, P.; Drabkin, H.A. )

    1993-08-15

    In the 8;21 translocation, the AML1 gene, located at chromosome band 21q22, is translocated to chromosome 8 (q22), where it is fused to the ETO gene and transcribed as a chimeric gene. AML1 is the human homolog of the recently cloned mouse gene pebp2[alpha]B, homologous to the DNA binding [alpha] subunit of the polyoma enhancer factor pebp2. AML1 is also involved in a translocation with chromosome 3 that is seen in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome and in chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. The authors have isolated a fusion cDNA clone from a t(3;21) library derived from a patient with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome; this clone contains sequences from AML1 and from EAP, which have now been localized to ban 3q26. EAP has previously been characterized as a highly expressed small nuclear protein of 128 residues (EBER 1) associated with Epstein-Barr virus small RNA. The fusion clone contains the DNA binding 5[prime] part of AML1 that is fused to ETO in the t(8;21) and, in addition, at least one other exon. The translocation replaces the last nine codons of AML1 with the last 96 codons of EAP. The fusion does not maintain the correct reading frame of EAP and may not lead to a functional chimeric protein. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Identification of novel and conserved Populus tomentosa microRNA as components of a response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yiyun; Kang, Xiangyang; Zhang, Zhiyi; Wang, Yanwei

    2012-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play important downregulation roles in plants growth, development, and stress responses. To better identify Populus tomentosa miRNAs and understand the functions of miRNAs in response to water stress (drought and flooding), 152 conserved miRNAs belonging to 36 miRNA families, 8 known but non-conserved miRNAs and 64 candidate novel miRNAs belonging to 54 miRNA families were identified and analyzed from three small RNA (sRNA) libraries (drought treatment, flooding treatment, and control) by high-throughput sequencing combined with qRT-PCR. Significant changes in the expression of 17 conserved miRNA families and nine novel miRNAs were observed in response to drought stress, and in seven conserved miRNA families and five novel miRNAs in response to flooding stress. Both miRNA and miRNA*s were involved in the regulation of plant stress responses. The annotation of the potential targets of miRNAs with differential expression indicate that many types of genes encoding transcription factors, enzymes, and signal transduction components are implicated in the abiotic stress response..

  10. Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application

    SciTech Connect

    Monforte, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the paperclip'' and hammerhead'' RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a hammerhead,'' to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 12{plus minus}1 nucleotides are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.

  11. Small Molecule Chemical Probes of MicroRNA Function

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Vummidi, Balayeshwanth R.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that control protein expression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been linked to various human diseases, and thus miRNAs have been explored as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Although it is challenging to target RNA with small molecules in general, there have been successful campaigns that have identified small molecule modulators of miRNA function by targeting various pathways. For example, small molecules that modulate transcription and target nuclease processing sites in miRNA precursors have been identified. Herein, we describe challenges in developing chemical probes that target miRNAs and highlight aspects of miRNA cellular biology elucidated by using small molecule chemical probes. We expect that this area will expand dramatically in the near future as strides are made to understand small molecule recognition of RNA from a fundamental perspective. PMID:25500006

  12. Small molecule chemical probes of microRNA function.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Vummidi, Balayeshwanth R; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that control protein expression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been linked to various human diseases, and thus miRNAs have been explored as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Although it is challenging to target RNA with small molecules in general, there have been successful campaigns that have identified small molecule modulators of miRNA function by targeting various pathways. For example, small molecules that modulate transcription and target nuclease processing sites in miRNA precursors have been identified. Herein, we describe challenges in developing chemical probes that target miRNAs and highlight aspects of miRNA cellular biology elucidated by using small molecule chemical probes. We expect that this area will expand dramatically in the near future as progress is made in understanding small molecule recognition of RNA.

  13. Binding of tobamovirus replication protein with small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yukio; Inaba, Naoko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Takeda, Atsushi; Tagami, Yuko; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2007-08-01

    The sequence profiles of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in Arabidopsis infected with the crucifer tobamovirus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-Cg were determined by using a small RNA cloning technique. The majority of TMV-derived siRNAs were 21 nt in length. The size of the most abundant endogenous small RNAs in TMV-infected plants was 21 nt, whilst in mock-inoculated plants, it was 24 nt. Northern blot analysis revealed that some microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulated more in TMV-infected plants than in mock-inoculated plants. The question of whether the TMV-Cg-encoded 126K replication protein, an RNA-silencing suppressor, caused small RNA enrichment was examined. Transient expression of the replication protein did not change the pattern of miRNA processing. However, miRNA, miRNA* (the opposite strand of the miRNA duplex) and hairpin-derived siRNA all co-immunoprecipitated with the replication protein. Gel mobility-shift assays indicated that the replication protein binds small RNA duplexes. These results suggest that the tobamovirus replication protein functions as a silencing suppressor by binding small RNA duplexes, changing the small RNA profile in infected plants.

  14. A conserved CCCH-type zinc finger protein regulates mRNA nuclear adenylation and export.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Jessica A; Obar, Robert A; Zhai, Bo; Farny, Natalie G; Gygi, Steven P; Silver, Pamela A

    2009-04-20

    Coupling of messenger RNA (mRNA) nuclear export with prior processing steps aids in the fidelity and efficiency of mRNA transport to the cytoplasm. In this study, we show that the processes of export and polyadenylation are coupled via the Drosophila melanogaster CCCH-type zinc finger protein CG6694/dZC3H3 through both physical and functional interactions. We show that depletion of dZC3H3 from S2R+ cells results in transcript hyperadenylation. Using targeted coimmunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (MS)/MS techniques, we characterize interactions of known components of the mRNA nuclear export and polyadenylation machineries with dZC3H3. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional conservation of this factor, as depletion of its human homologue ZC3H3 by small interfering RNA results in an mRNA export defect in human cells as well. Nuclear polyadenylated (poly(A)) RNA in ZC3H3-depleted cells is sequestered in foci removed from SC35-containing speckles, indicating a shift from the normal subnuclear distribution of poly(A) RNA. Our data suggest a model wherein ZC3H3 interfaces between the polyadenylation machinery, newly poly(A) mRNAs, and factors for transcript export.

  15. Structural insights into mechanisms of the small RNA methyltransferase HEN1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Ying; Ji, Lijuan; Huang, Qichen; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Jin-Biao

    2010-02-22

    RNA silencing is a conserved regulatory mechanism in fungi, plants and animals that regulates gene expression and defence against viruses and transgenes. Small silencing RNAs of {approx}20-30 nucleotides and their associated effector proteins, the Argonaute family proteins, are the central components in RNA silencing. A subset of small RNAs, such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants, Piwi-interacting RNAs in animals and siRNAs in Drosophila, requires an additional crucial step for their maturation; that is, 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal nucleotide. A conserved S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent RNA methyltransferase, HUA ENHANCER 1 (HEN1), and its homologues are responsible for this specific modification. Here we report the 3.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of full-length HEN1 from Arabidopsis in complex with a 22-nucleotide small RNA duplex and cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Highly cooperative recognition of the small RNA substrate by multiple RNA binding domains and the methyltransferase domain in HEN1 measures the length of the RNA duplex and determines the substrate specificity. Metal ion coordination by both 2' and 3' hydroxyls on the 3'-terminal nucleotide and four invariant residues in the active site of the methyltransferase domain suggests a novel Mg{sup 2+}-dependent 2'-O-methylation mechanism.

  16. A Mammalian microRNA Expression Atlas Based on Small RNA Library Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Pablo; Rusu, Mirabela; Sheridan, Robert; Sewer, Alain; Iovino, Nicola; Aravin, Alexei; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Rice, Amanda; Kamphorst, Alice O.; Landthaler, Markus; Lin, Carolina; Socci, Nicholas D.; Hermida, Leandro; Fulci, Valerio; Chiaretti, Sabina; Foà, Robin; Schliwka, Julia; Fuchs, Uta; Novosel, Astrid; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Schermer, Bernhard; Bissels, Ute; Inman, Jason; Phan, Quang; Chien, Minchen; Weir, David B.; Choksi, Ruchi; De Vita, Gabriella; Frezzetti, Daniela; Trompeter, Hans-Ingo; Hornung, Veit; Teng, Grace; Hartmann, Gunther; Palkovits, Miklos; Di Lauro, Roberto; Wernet, Peter; Macino, Giuseppe; Rogler, Charles E.; Nagle, James W.; Ju, Jingyue; Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Benzing, Thomas; Lichter, Peter; Tam, Wayne; Brownstein, Michael J.; Bosio, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Russo, James J.; Sander, Chris; Zavolan, Mihaela; Tuschl, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Summary MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. In order to identify miRNAs and to assess their expression patterns, we sequenced over 250 small RNA libraries from 26 different organ systems and cell types of human and rodents, enriched in neuronal as well as normal and malignant hematopoietic cells and tissues. We present expression profiles derived from clone count data and provide novel computational tools for their analysis. Unexpectedly, a relatively small set of miRNAs, many of which are ubiquitously expressed, account for most of the difference in miRNA profiles between cell lineages and tissues. This broad survey also provides detailed and accurate information about mature sequences, precursors, genome locations, maturation processes, inferred transcriptional units and conservation patterns. We also propose a subclassification scheme for miRNAs for assisting future experimental and computational functional analyses. PMID:17604727

  17. Contribution of small RNA pathway components in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Wu, Jianguo; Lii, Yifan; Li, Yi; Jin, Hailing

    2013-06-01

    Small RNAs regulate a multitude of cellular processes, including development, stress responses, metabolism, and maintenance of genome integrity, in a sequence-specific manner. Accumulating evidence reveals that host endogenous small RNAs and small RNA pathway components play important roles in plant immune responses against various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and viruses. Small-RNA-mediated defense responses are regulated through diverse pathways and the components of these pathways, including Dicer-like proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, Argonaute proteins, and RNA polymerase IV and V, exhibit functional specificities as well as redundancy. In this review, we summarize the recent insights revealed mainly through the examination of two model plants, Arabidopsis and rice, with a primary focus on our emerging understanding of how these small RNA pathway components contribute to plant immunity.

  18. Contribution of Small RNA Pathway Components in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Wu, Jianguo; Lii, Yifan; Li, Yi; Jin, Hailing

    2013-01-01

    Small RNAs regulate a multitude of cellular processes, including development, stress responses, metabolism, and maintenance of genome integrity, in a sequence-specific manner. Accumulating evidence reveals that host endogenous small RNAs and small RNA pathway components play important roles in plant immune responses against various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and viruses. Small-RNA-mediated defense responses are regulated through diverse pathways and the components of these pathways, including Dicer-like proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, Argonaute proteins, and RNA polymerase IV and V, exhibit functional specificities as well as redundancy. In this review, we summarize the recent insights revealed mainly through the examination of two model plants, Arabidopsis and rice, with a primary focus on our emerging understanding of how these small RNA pathway components contribute to plant immunity. PMID:23489060

  19. Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application

    SciTech Connect

    Monforte, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the ``paperclip`` and ``hammerhead`` RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a ``hammerhead,`` to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 12{plus_minus}1 nucleotides are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus_minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.

  20. RNA sequencing reveals small RNAs differentially expressed between incipient Japanese threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-coding small RNAs, ranging from 20 to 30 nucleotides in length, mediate the regulation of gene expression and play important roles in many biological processes. One class of small RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), are highly conserved across taxa and mediate the regulation of the chromatin state and the post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA). Another class of small RNAs is the Piwi-interacting RNAs, which play important roles in the silencing of transposons and other functional genes. Although the biological functions of the different small RNAs have been elucidated in several laboratory animals, little is known regarding naturally occurring variation in small RNA transcriptomes among closely related species. Results We employed next-generation sequencing technology to compare the expression profiles of brain small RNAs between sympatric species of the Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We identified several small RNAs that were differentially expressed between sympatric Pacific Ocean and Japan Sea sticklebacks. Potential targets of several small RNAs were identified as repetitive sequences. Female-biased miRNA expression from the old X chromosome was also observed, and it was attributed to the degeneration of the Y chromosome. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression patterns of small RNA can differ between incipient species and may be a potential mechanism underlying differential mRNA expression and transposon activity. PMID:23547919

  1. Characterization and comparative profiling of the small RNA transcriptomes in two phases of locust

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Pengcheng; Ma, Zongyuan; Kang, Le

    2009-01-01

    Background All the reports on insect small RNAs come from holometabolous insects whose genome sequence data are available. Therefore, study of hemimetabolous insect small RNAs could provide more insights into evolution and function of small RNAs in insects. The locust is an important, economically harmful hemimetabolous insect. Its phase changes, as a phenotypic plasticity, result from differential gene expression potentially regulated at both the post-transcriptional level, mediated by small RNAs, and the transcriptional level. Results Here, using high-throughput sequencing, we characterize the small RNA transcriptome in the locust. We identified 50 conserved microRNA families by similarity searching against miRBase, and a maximum of 185 potential locust-specific microRNA family candidates were identified using our newly developed method independent of locust genome sequence. We also demonstrate conservation of microRNA*, and evolutionary analysis of locust microRNAs indicates that the generation of miRNAs in locusts is concentrated along three phylogenetic tree branches: bilaterians, coelomates, and insects. Our study identified thousands of endogenous small interfering RNAs, some of which were of transposon origin, and also detected many Piwi-interacting RNA-like small RNAs. Comparison of small RNA expression patterns of the two phases showed that longer small RNAs were expressed more abundantly in the solitary phase and that each category of small RNAs exhibited different expression profiles between the two phases. Conclusions The abundance of small RNAs in the locust might indicate a long evolutionary history of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, and differential expression of small RNAs between the two phases might further disclose the molecular mechanism of phase changes. PMID:19146710

  2. Genome assembly of bell pepper endornavirus from small RNA.

    PubMed

    Sela, Noa; Luria, Neta; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2012-07-01

    The family Endornaviridae infects diverse hosts, including plants, fungi, and oomycetes. Here we report for the first time the assembly of bell pepper endornavirus by next-generation sequencing of viral small RNA. Such a population of small RNA indicates the activation of the viral immunity silencing machinery by this cryptic virus, which probably encodes a novel silencing suppressor.

  3. Evolutionary Conservation and Diversification of Puf RNA Binding Proteins and Their mRNA Targets.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Gregory J; Brown, Patrick O; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of a gene's expression pattern by acquisition and loss of sequences recognized by specific regulatory RNA binding proteins may be a major mechanism in the evolution of biological regulatory programs. We identified that RNA targets of Puf3 orthologs have been conserved over 100-500 million years of evolution in five eukaryotic lineages. Focusing on Puf proteins and their targets across 80 fungi, we constructed a parsimonious model for their evolutionary history. This model entails extensive and coordinated changes in the Puf targets as well as changes in the number of Puf genes and alterations of RNA binding specificity including that: 1) Binding of Puf3 to more than 200 RNAs whose protein products are predominantly involved in the production and organization of mitochondrial complexes predates the origin of budding yeasts and filamentous fungi and was maintained for 500 million years, throughout the evolution of budding yeast. 2) In filamentous fungi, remarkably, more than 150 of the ancestral Puf3 targets were gained by Puf4, with one lineage maintaining both Puf3 and Puf4 as regulators and a sister lineage losing Puf3 as a regulator of these RNAs. The decrease in gene expression of these mRNAs upon deletion of Puf4 in filamentous fungi (N. crassa) in contrast to the increase upon Puf3 deletion in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) suggests that the output of the RNA regulatory network is different with Puf4 in filamentous fungi than with Puf3 in budding yeast. 3) The coregulated Puf4 target set in filamentous fungi expanded to include mitochondrial genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and other nuclear-encoded RNAs with mitochondrial function not bound by Puf3 in budding yeast, observations that provide additional evidence for substantial rewiring of post-transcriptional regulation. 4) Puf3 also expanded and diversified its targets in filamentous fungi, gaining interactions with the mRNAs encoding the mitochondrial electron transport

  4. Evolutionary Conservation and Diversification of Puf RNA Binding Proteins and Their mRNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Gregory J.; Brown, Patrick O.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of a gene’s expression pattern by acquisition and loss of sequences recognized by specific regulatory RNA binding proteins may be a major mechanism in the evolution of biological regulatory programs. We identified that RNA targets of Puf3 orthologs have been conserved over 100–500 million years of evolution in five eukaryotic lineages. Focusing on Puf proteins and their targets across 80 fungi, we constructed a parsimonious model for their evolutionary history. This model entails extensive and coordinated changes in the Puf targets as well as changes in the number of Puf genes and alterations of RNA binding specificity including that: 1) Binding of Puf3 to more than 200 RNAs whose protein products are predominantly involved in the production and organization of mitochondrial complexes predates the origin of budding yeasts and filamentous fungi and was maintained for 500 million years, throughout the evolution of budding yeast. 2) In filamentous fungi, remarkably, more than 150 of the ancestral Puf3 targets were gained by Puf4, with one lineage maintaining both Puf3 and Puf4 as regulators and a sister lineage losing Puf3 as a regulator of these RNAs. The decrease in gene expression of these mRNAs upon deletion of Puf4 in filamentous fungi (N. crassa) in contrast to the increase upon Puf3 deletion in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) suggests that the output of the RNA regulatory network is different with Puf4 in filamentous fungi than with Puf3 in budding yeast. 3) The coregulated Puf4 target set in filamentous fungi expanded to include mitochondrial genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and other nuclear-encoded RNAs with mitochondrial function not bound by Puf3 in budding yeast, observations that provide additional evidence for substantial rewiring of post-transcriptional regulation. 4) Puf3 also expanded and diversified its targets in filamentous fungi, gaining interactions with the mRNAs encoding the mitochondrial electron transport

  5. Deep sequencing of RNA from immune cell-derived vesicles uncovers the selective incorporation of small non-coding RNA biotypes with potential regulatory functions

    PubMed Central

    Nolte-’t Hoen, Esther N. M.; Buermans, Henk P. J.; Waasdorp, Maaike; Stoorvogel, Willem; Wauben, Marca H. M.; ’t Hoen, Peter A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Cells release RNA-carrying vesicles and membrane-free RNA/protein complexes into the extracellular milieu. Horizontal vesicle-mediated transfer of such shuttle RNA between cells allows dissemination of genetically encoded messages, which may modify the function of target cells. Other studies used array analysis to establish the presence of microRNAs and mRNA in cell-derived vesicles from many sources. Here, we used an unbiased approach by deep sequencing of small RNA released by immune cells. We found a large variety of small non-coding RNA species representing pervasive transcripts or RNA cleavage products overlapping with protein coding regions, repeat sequences or structural RNAs. Many of these RNAs were enriched relative to cellular RNA, indicating that cells destine specific RNAs for extracellular release. Among the most abundant small RNAs in shuttle RNA were sequences derived from vault RNA, Y-RNA and specific tRNAs. Many of the highly abundant small non-coding transcripts in shuttle RNA are evolutionary well-conserved and have previously been associated to gene regulatory functions. These findings allude to a wider range of biological effects that could be mediated by shuttle RNA than previously expected. Moreover, the data present leads for unraveling how cells modify the function of other cells via transfer of specific non-coding RNA species. PMID:22821563

  6. A small RNA targets pokeweed antiviral protein transcript.

    PubMed

    Klenov, Alexander; Neller, Kira C M; Burns, Lydia A; Krivdova, Gabriela; Hudak, Katalin A

    2016-03-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a class of plant defense proteins with N-glycosidase activity (EC 3.2.2.22). Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a Type I RIP isolated from the pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, thought to confer broad-spectrum virus resistance in this plant. Through a combination of standard molecular techniques and RNA sequencing analysis, we report here that a small RNA binds and cleaves the open reading frame of PAP mRNA. Additionally, sRNA targeting of PAP is dependent on jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone important for defense against pathogen infection and herbivory. Levels of small RNA increased with JA treatment, as did levels of PAP mRNA and protein, suggesting that the small RNA functions to moderate the expression of PAP in response to this hormone. The association between JA and PAP expression, mediated by sRNA299, situates PAP within a signaling pathway initiated by biotic stress. The consensus sequence of sRNA299 was obtained through bioinformatic analysis of pokeweed small RNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first account of a sRNA targeting a RIP gene.

  7. Extent, Causes, and Consequences of Small RNA Expression Variation in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Andrew J.; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; van de Bunt, Martijn; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Bartonicek, Nenad; van Dongen, Stijn; Mägi, Reedik; Nisbet, James; Barrett, Amy; Rantalainen, Mattias; Nica, Alexandra C.; Quail, Michael A.; Small, Kerrin S.; Glass, Daniel; Enright, Anton J.; Winn, John; Deloukas, Panos; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Spector, Timothy D.; Durbin, Richard; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs are functional molecules that modulate mRNA transcripts and have been implicated in the aetiology of several common diseases. However, little is known about the extent of their variability within the human population. Here, we characterise the extent, causes, and effects of naturally occurring variation in expression and sequence of small RNAs from adipose tissue in relation to genotype, gene expression, and metabolic traits in the MuTHER reference cohort. We profiled the expression of 15 to 30 base pair RNA molecules in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 131 individuals using high-throughput sequencing, and quantified levels of 591 microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. We identified three genetic variants and three RNA editing events. Highly expressed small RNAs are more conserved within mammals than average, as are those with highly variable expression. We identified 14 genetic loci significantly associated with nearby small RNA expression levels, seven of which also regulate an mRNA transcript level in the same region. In addition, these loci are enriched for variants significant in genome-wide association studies for body mass index. Contrary to expectation, we found no evidence for negative correlation between expression level of a microRNA and its target mRNAs. Trunk fat mass, body mass index, and fasting insulin were associated with more than twenty small RNA expression levels each, while fasting glucose had no significant associations. This study highlights the similar genetic complexity and shared genetic control of small RNA and mRNA transcripts, and gives a quantitative picture of small RNA expression variation in the human population. PMID:22589741

  8. Single-cell sequencing of the small-RNA transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Faridani, Omid R; Abdullayev, Ilgar; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael; Schell, John P; Lanner, Fredrik; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the heterogeneity of small-RNA expression as small-RNA profiling has so far required large numbers of cells. Here we present a single-cell method for small-RNA sequencing and apply it to naive and primed human embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Analysis of microRNAs and fragments of tRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) reveals the potential of microRNAs as markers for different cell types and states.

  9. Identification and expression profiling of Vigna mungo microRNAs from leaf small RNA transcriptome by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sujay; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been characterized to date, predominantly from the plant species whose genome is well characterized. However, information on the variability of these regulatory RNAs in economically important but genetically less characterized crop species are limited. Vigna mungo is an important grain legume, which is grown primarily for its protein-rich edible seeds. miRNAs from this species have not been identified to date due to lack of genome sequence information. To identify miRNAs from V. mungo, a small RNA library was constructed from young leaves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic analysis of the small RNA reads led to the identification of 66 miRNA loci represented by 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 19 families and eight non-conserved miRNAs belonging to seven families. Besides, 13 novel miRNA candidates in V. mungo were also identified. Expression patterns of selected conserved, non-conserved, and novel miRNA candidates have been demonstrated in leaf, stem, and root tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and potential target genes were predicted for most of the conserved miRNAs. This information offers genomic resources for better understanding of miRNA mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation.

  10. Energy conservation in small meat, poultry and dairy processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hausen, C.L.; Fields, E.L.; Huff, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    Energy audits were performed in twenty-three small (generally under 50 employees) meat, poultry and dairy processing plants. Energy conservation opportunities with the greatest potential for net gain in a plant are listed and discussed. Relationships between product throughput and energy consumption are reported.

  11. Small Molecule-Mediated Cleavage of RNA in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lirui

    2013-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) control gene expression by triggering the degradation of a mRNA via recruitment of RNase H or the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), respectively.[1] These approaches are hampered, however, by the poor cellular permeability of oligonucleotides. A small molecule approach to cleave RNA targets could obviate uptake issues. Several compounds can induce RNA cleavage in vitro,[2] however, to the best of our knowledge no small molecules have been previously described to cleave RNA in living cells. Herein, we describe the development of a potentially general approach to design small molecules that specifically cleave an RNA in a living cell, affecting biological function. Specifically, a designed, modularly assembled small molecule that binds the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1)[3] was appended with a moiety that generates hydroxyl radicals upon irradiation. Cleavage of the transcript improves DM1-associated defects in cell culture, and compounds are non-toxic at an efficacious dose as determined by a MTT viability assay. This approach may allow for the site-specific cleavage and inactivation of other cellular RNAs.[4] Compounds that bind to and cleave RNA have the potential to serve as chemical genetics probes of function or lead therapeutics with spatial and temporal control. PMID:23280953

  12. The Paf1 complex represses small RNA-mediated epigenetic gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Flury, Valentin; Stadler, Michael Beda; Batki, Julia; Bühler, Marc

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the ability of exogenously introduced double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to silence expression of homologous sequences. Silencing is initiated when the enzyme Dicer processes the dsRNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Small RNA molecules are incorporated into Argonaute protein-containing effector complexes, which they guide to complementary targets to mediate different types of gene silencing, specifically post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and chromatin-dependent gene silencing1. Although endogenous small RNAs play critical roles in chromatin-mediated processes across kingdoms, efforts to initiate chromatin modifications in trans by using siRNAs have been inherently difficult to achieve in all eukaryotic cells. Using fission yeast, we show that RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation is negatively controlled by the highly conserved RNA polymerase-associated factor 1 complex (Paf1C). Temporary expression of a synthetic hairpin RNA in Paf1C mutants triggers stable heterochromatin formation at homologous loci, effectively silencing genes in trans. This repressed state is propagated across generations by continual production of secondary siRNAs, independently of the synthetic hairpin RNA. Our data support a model where Paf1C prevents targeting of nascent transcripts by the siRNA-containing RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex and thereby epigenetic gene silencing, by promoting efficient transcription termination and rapid release of the RNA from the site of transcription. We show that although compromised transcription termination is sufficient to initiate the formation of bi-stable heterochromatin by trans-acting siRNAs, impairment of both transcription termination and nascent transcript release is imperative to confer stability to the repressed state. Our work uncovers a novel mechanism for small RNA- mediated epigenome regulation and highlights fundamental roles for Paf1C and the RNAi machinery in building

  13. RNA-binding proteins in eye development and disease: implication of conserved RNA granule components.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D; Barnum, Carrie E; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lachke, Salil A

    2016-07-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Update of ASRP: the Arabidopsis Small RNA Project database

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Tyler W. H.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Cumbie, Jason S.; Miller, Zachary A.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Fahlgren, Noah; Givan, Scott A.; Carrington, James C.; Kasschau, Kristin D.

    2008-01-01

    Development of the Arabidopsis Small RNA Project (ASRP) Database, which provides information and tools for the analysis of microRNA, endogenous siRNA and other small RNA-related features, has been driven by the introduction of high-throughput sequencing technology. To accommodate the demands of increased data, numerous improvements and updates have been made to ASRP, including new ways to access data, more efficient algorithms for handling data, and increased integration with community-wide resources. New search and visualization tools have also been developed to improve access to small RNA classes and their targets. ASRP is publicly available through a web interface at http://asrp.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/db/ PMID:17999994

  15. Novel miRNA-mRNA interactions conserved in essential cancer pathways

    PubMed Central

    Andrés-León, Eduardo; Cases, Ildefonso; Alonso, Sergio; Rojas, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease in which unrestrained cell proliferation results in tumour development. Extensive research into the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis has led to the characterization of oncogenes and tumour suppressors that are key elements in cancer growth and progression, as well as that of other important elements like microRNAs. These genes and miRNAs appear to be constitutively deregulated in cancer. To identify signatures of miRNA-mRNA interactions potentially conserved in essential cancer pathways, we have conducted an integrative analysis of transcriptomic data, also taking into account methylation and copy number alterations. We analysed 18,605 raw transcriptome samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas covering 15 of the most common types of human tumours. From this global transcriptome study, we recovered known cancer-associated miRNA-targets and importantly, we identified new potential targets from miRNA families, also analysing the phenotypic outcomes of these genes/mRNAs in terms of survival. Further analyses could lead to novel approaches in cancer therapy. PMID:28387377

  16. Evolutionarily divergent spliceosomal snRNAs and a conserved non-coding RNA processing motif in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Andrew J; Moore, Ashley N; Elniski, David; Joseph, Joella; Yee, Janet; Russell, Anthony G

    2012-11-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have diverse essential biological functions in all organisms, and in eukaryotes, two such classes of ncRNAs are the small nucleolar (sno) and small nuclear (sn) RNAs. In this study, we have identified and characterized a collection of sno and snRNAs in Giardia lamblia, by exploiting our discovery of a conserved 12 nt RNA processing sequence motif found in the 3' end regions of a large number of G. lamblia ncRNA genes. RNA end mapping and other experiments indicate the motif serves to mediate ncRNA 3' end formation from mono- and di-cistronic RNA precursor transcripts. Remarkably, we find the motif is also utilized in the processing pathway of all four previously identified trans-spliced G. lamblia introns, revealing a common RNA processing pathway for ncRNAs and trans-spliced introns in this organism. Motif sequence conservation then allowed for the bioinformatic and experimental identification of additional G. lamblia ncRNAs, including new U1 and U6 spliceosomal snRNA candidates. The U6 snRNA candidate was then used as a tool to identity novel U2 and U4 snRNAs, based on predicted phylogenetically conserved snRNA-snRNA base-pairing interactions, from a set of previously identified G. lamblia ncRNAs without assigned function. The Giardia snRNAs retain the core features of spliceosomal snRNAs but are sufficiently evolutionarily divergent to explain the difficulties in their identification. Most intriguingly, all of these snRNAs show structural features diagnostic of U2-dependent/major and U12-dependent/minor spliceosomal snRNAs.

  17. Conifers have a unique small RNA silencing signature

    PubMed Central

    Dolgosheina, Elena V.; Morin, Ryan D.; Aksay, Gozde; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Mattsson, Jim; Unrau, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants produce small RNAs to negatively regulate genes, viral nucleic acids, and repetitive elements at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level in a process that is referred to as RNA silencing. While RNA silencing has been extensively studied across the different phyla of the animal kingdom (e.g., mouse, fly, worm), similar studies in the plant kingdom have focused primarily on angiosperms, thus limiting evolutionary studies of RNA silencing in plants. Here we report on an unexpected phylogenetic difference in the size distribution of small RNAs among the vascular plants. By extracting total RNA from freshly growing shoot tissue, we conducted a survey of small RNAs in 24 vascular plant species. We find that conifers, which radiated from the other seed-bearing plants ∼260 million years ago, fail to produce significant amounts of 24-nucleotide (nt) RNAs that are known to guide DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation in angiosperms. Instead, they synthesize a diverse population of small RNAs that are exactly 21-nt long. This finding was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA sequences from a conifer, Pinus contorta. A conifer EST search revealed the presence of a novel Dicer-like (DCL) family, which may be responsible for the observed change in small RNA expression. No evidence for DCL3, an enzyme that matures 24-nt RNAs in angiosperms, was found. We hypothesize that the diverse class of 21-nt RNAs found in conifers may help to maintain organization of their unusually large genomes. PMID:18566193

  18. A genome-wide survey of small interfering RNA and microRNA pathway genes in a galling insect.

    PubMed

    Shreve, Jacob T; Shukle, Richard H; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Johnson, Alisha J; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Williams, Christie E; Stuart, Jeffrey J

    2013-03-01

    Deployment of resistance (R) genes is the most effective control for Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say); however, deployment of R genes results in an increased frequency of pest genotypes that display virulence to them. RNA interference (RNAi) is a useful reverse genetics tool for studying such insect virulence pathways, but requires a systemic phenotype, which is not found in all species. In an effort to correlate our observed weak RNAi phenotype in M. destructor with a genetic basis, we have aggregated and compared RNAi related genes across M. destructor, three other insect species, and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We report here the annotation of the core genes in the small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways in M. destructor. While most of the miRNA pathway genes were highly conserved across the species studied, the siRNA pathway genes showed increased relative variability in comparison to the miRNA pathway. In particular, the Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille (PAZ) domain of Dicer-2 (DCR-2) had the least amount of sequence similarity of any domain among species surveyed, with a trend of increased conservation in those species with amenable systemic RNAi. A homolog of the systemic interference defective-1 (Sid-1) gene of C. elegans was also not annotated in the M. destructor genome. Indeed, it is of interest that a Sid-1 homolog has not been detected in any dipteran species to date. We hypothesize the sequence architecture of the PAZ domain in the M. destructor DCR-2 protein is related to reduced efficacy of this enzyme and this taken together with the lack of a Sid-1 homolog may account for the weak RNAi response observed to date in this species as well as other dipteran species.

  19. A small RNA response at DNA ends in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Katharina M; Böttcher, Romy; Förstemann, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    Small RNAs have been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including effects on chromatin structure and the repression of transposons. We describe the generation of a small RNA response at DNA ends in Drosophila that is analogous to the recently reported double-strand break (DSB)-induced RNAs or Dicer- and Drosha-dependent small RNAs in Arabidopsis and vertebrates. Active transcription in the vicinity of the break amplifies this small RNA response, demonstrating that the normal messenger RNA contributes to the endogenous small interfering RNAs precursor. The double-stranded RNA precursor forms with an antisense transcript that initiates at the DNA break. Breaks are thus sites of transcription initiation, a novel aspect of the cellular DSB response. This response is specific to a double-strand break since nicked DNA structures do not trigger small RNA production. The small RNAs are generated independently of the exact end structure (blunt, 3'- or 5'-overhang), can repress homologous sequences in trans and may therefore--in addition to putative roles in repair--exert a quality control function by clearing potentially truncated messages from genes in the vicinity of the break.

  20. Initiation of RNA Polymerization and Polymerase Encapsidation by a Small dsRNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yusong R.; Toh, Yukimatsu; Poranen, Minna M.; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2016-01-01

    During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. In this study, we have determined a 2.4 Å resolution structure of an RdRP from the human picobirnavirus (hPBV). In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. In vitro RNA polymerization assays and site-directed mutagenesis showed that: (1) the hPBV RdRP is fully active using both ssRNA and dsRNA templates; (2) the insertion loop likely functions as an assembly platform for the priming nucleotide to allow de novo initiation; (3) RNA transcription by the hPBV RdRP proceeds in a semi-conservative manner; and (4) the preference of virus-specific RNA during transcription is dictated by the lower melting temperature associated with the terminal sequences. Co-expression of the hPBV RdRP and the capsid protein (CP) indicated that, under the conditions used, the RdRP could not be incorporated into the recombinant capsids in the absence of the viral genome. Additionally, the hPBV RdRP exhibited higher affinity towards the conserved 5’-terminal sequence of the viral RNA, suggesting that the RdRP molecules may be encapsidated through their specific binding to the viral RNAs during assembly. PMID:27078841

  1. The conserved protein Seb1 drives transcription termination by binding RNA polymerase II and nascent RNA.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Sina; Renner, Max; Watts, Beth R; Adams, Oliver; Huseyin, Miles; Baejen, Carlo; El Omari, Kamel; Kilchert, Cornelia; Heo, Dong-Hyuk; Kecman, Tea; Cramer, Patrick; Grimes, Jonathan M; Vasiljeva, Lidia

    2017-04-03

    Termination of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription is an important step in the transcription cycle, which involves the dislodgement of polymerase from DNA, leading to release of a functional transcript. Recent studies have identified the key players required for this process and showed that a common feature of these proteins is a conserved domain that interacts with the phosphorylated C-terminus of Pol II (CTD-interacting domain, CID). However, the mechanism by which transcription termination is achieved is not understood. Using genome-wide methods, here we show that the fission yeast CID-protein Seb1 is essential for termination of protein-coding and non-coding genes through interaction with S2-phosphorylated Pol II and nascent RNA. Furthermore, we present the crystal structures of the Seb1 CTD- and RNA-binding modules. Unexpectedly, the latter reveals an intertwined two-domain arrangement of a canonical RRM and second domain. These results provide important insights into the mechanism underlying eukaryotic transcription termination.

  2. Noise and correlations in genes silenced by small RNA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwa, Terence; Levine, Erel

    2006-03-01

    Many small regulatory RNAs have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in recent years. In many cases, RNA regulation is found in critical pathways. These include stress response and quorum sensing pathways in bacteria, and cell differentiation and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. In many cases, regulation by small RNA is used in switching off a response program as long as it is not required, allowing for a fast switching on when necessary. Clearly, accidental execution of such a program may bare grave consequences on the cell, and should be avoided. Here we analyze a stochastic model for gene regulation by the most abundant class of small RNA in bacteria. This class of small RNAs acts by base pairing with target mRNAs, silencing its translation and actively promoting its degradation. Importantly, the small RNA molecule is not recycled. Our model suggests that genes silenced by sRNA exhibits smooth noise, as opposed to the bursty noise characteristic to genes repressed at the level of transcription, with coupling between intrinsic noise and global, extrinsic fluctuations. In addition, we investigate how noise propagates through the indirect coupling between different targets of the same sRNA. These features are discussed in the context of circuits exhibiting multi-stability, where protein bursts have strong implications on spontaneous switching.

  3. The small RNA profile in latex from Hevea brasiliensis trees is affected by tapping panel dryness.

    PubMed

    Gébelin, Virginie; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Argout, Xavier; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Hu, Songnian; Tang, Chaorong; Sarah, Gautier; Yang, Meng; Montoro, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Natural rubber is harvested by tapping Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg. Harvesting stress can lead to tapping panel dryness (TPD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are induced by abiotic stress and regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs. This study set out to sequence miRNAs expressed in latex cells and to identify TPD-related putative targets. Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on latex from trees affected by TPD using Solexa technology. The most abundant small RNA class size was 21 nucleotides for TPD trees compared with 24 nucleotides in healthy trees. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant MicroRNA database and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 19 additional conserved and four putative species-specific miRNA families not found in previous studies on rubber. The relative transcript abundance of the Hbpre-MIR159b gene increased with TPD. This study revealed a small RNA-specific signature of TPD-affected trees. Both RNA degradation and a shift in miRNA biogenesis are suggested to explain the general decline in small RNAs and, particularly, in miRNAs.

  4. Functionalization of an Antisense Small RNA.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Prakash, Satya; Cordero, Teresa; Kushwaha, Manish; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-02-27

    In order to explore the possibility of adding new functions to preexisting genes, we considered a framework of riboregulation. We created a new riboregulator consisting of the reverse complement of a known riboregulator. Using computational design, we engineered a cis-repressing 5' untranslated region that can be activated by this new riboregulator. As a result, both RNAs can orthogonally trans-activate translation of their cognate, independent targets. The two riboregulators can also repress each other by antisense interaction, although not symmetrically. Our work highlights that antisense small RNAs can work as regulatory agents beyond the antisense paradigm and that, hence, they could be interfaced with other circuits used in synthetic biology.

  5. Functional Nanostructures for Effective Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheol Am; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA. PMID:25285170

  6. Functional nanostructures for effective delivery of small interfering RNA therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cheol Am; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA.

  7. On the role of four small hairpins in the HIV-1 RNA genome

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfel, Stefanie A.; Berkhout, Ben

    2013-01-01

    An RNA secondary structure model for the complete HIV-1 genome has recently been published based on SHAPE technology. Several well-known RNA motifs such as TAR and RRE were confirmed and numerous new structured motifs were described that may play important roles in virus replication. The 9 kb viral RNA genome is densely packed with many RNA hairpin motifs and the collective fold may play an important role in HIV-1 biology. We initially focused on 16 RNA hairpin motifs scattered along the viral genome. We considered conservation of these structures, despite sequence variation among virus isolates, as a first indication for a significant function. Four relatively small hairpins exhibited considerable structural conservation and were selected for experimental validation in virus replication assays. Mutations were introduced into the HIV-1 RNA genome to destabilize individual RNA structures without affecting the protein-coding properties (silent codon changes). No major virus replication defects were scored, suggesting that these four hairpin structures do not play essential roles in HIV-1 replication. PMID:23535706

  8. On the role of four small hairpins in the HIV-1 RNA genome.

    PubMed

    Knoepfel, Stefanie A; Berkhout, Ben

    2013-04-01

    An RNA secondary structure model for the complete HIV-1 genome has recently been published based on SHAPE technology. Several well-known RNA motifs such as TAR and RRE were confirmed and numerous new structured motifs were described that may play important roles in virus replication. The 9 kb viral RNA genome is densely packed with many RNA hairpin motifs and the collective fold may play an important role in HIV-1 biology. We initially focused on 16 RNA hairpin motifs scattered along the viral genome. We considered conservation of these structures, despite sequence variation among virus isolates, as a first indication for a significant function. Four relatively small hairpins exhibited considerable structural conservation and were selected for experimental validation in virus replication assays. Mutations were introduced into the HIV-1 RNA genome to destabilize individual RNA structures without affecting the protein-coding properties (silent codon changes). No major virus replication defects were scored, suggesting that these four hairpin structures do not play essential roles in HIV-1 replication.

  9. Peptides Used in the Delivery of Small Noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous process in which small noncoding RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions. In general, siRNA and miRNA/miRNA mimics are similar in nature and activity except their origin and specificity. Although both siRNAs and miRNAs have been extensively studied as novel therapeutics for a wide range of diseases, the large molecular weight, anionic surface charges, instability in blood circulation, and intracellular trafficking to the RISC after cellular uptake have hindered the translation of these RNAs from bench to clinic. As a result, a great variety of delivery systems have been investigated for safe and effective delivery of small noncoding RNAs. Among these systems, peptides, especially cationic peptides, have emerged as a promising type of carrier due to their inherent ability to condense negatively charged RNAs, ease of synthesis, controllable size, and tunable structure. In this review, we will focus on three major types of cationic peptides, including poly(l-lysine) (PLL), protamine, and cell penetrating peptides (CPP), as well as peptide targeting ligands that have been extensively used in RNA delivery. The delivery strategies, applications, and limitations of these cationic peptides in siRNA/miRNA delivery will be discussed. PMID:25157701

  10. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D.; Haga, Christopher L.; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R.; Phinney, Donald G.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif–small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm. PMID:27170187

  11. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D; Haga, Christopher L; Rosenberg, Laura H; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R; Phinney, Donald G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-05-24

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif-small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm.

  12. A small molecule enhances RNA interference and promotes microRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Ge; Li, Yujing; Zhang, Junliang; Li, Wendi; Szulwach, Keith E; Duan, Ranhui; Faghihi, Mohammad A; Khalil, Ahmad M; Lu, Lianghua; Paroo, Zain; Chan, Anthony W S; Shi, Zhangjie; Liu, Qinghua; Wahlestedt, Claes; He, Chuan; Jin, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are sequence-specific post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Although major components of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway have been identified, regulatory mechanisms for this pathway remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the RNAi pathway can be modulated intracellularly by small molecules. We have developed a cell-based assay to monitor the activity of the RNAi pathway and find that the small-molecule enoxacin (Penetrex) enhances siRNA-mediated mRNA degradation and promotes the biogenesis of endogenous miRNAs. We show that this RNAi-enhancing activity depends on the trans-activation-responsive region RNA-binding protein. Our results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that small molecules can be used to modulate the activity of the RNAi pathway. RNAi enhancers may be useful in the development of research tools and therapeutics. PMID:18641635

  13. The small 6C RNA of Corynebacterium glutamicum is involved in the SOS response.

    PubMed

    Pahlke, Jennifer; Dostálová, Hana; Holátko, Jiří; Degner, Ursula; Bott, Michael; Pátek, Miroslav; Polen, Tino

    2016-09-01

    The 6C RNA family is a class of small RNAs highly conserved in Actinobacteria, including the genera Mycobacterium, Streptomyces and Corynebacterium whose physiological function has not yet been elucidated. We found that strong transcription of the cgb_03605 gene, which encodes 6C RNA in C. glutamicum, was driven by the SigA- and SigB-dependent promoter Pcgb_03605. 6C RNA was detected at high level during exponential growth phase (180 to 240 molcules per cell) which even increased at the entry of the stationary phase. 6C RNA level did not decrease within 240 min after transcription had been stopped with rifampicin, which suggests high 6C RNA stability. The expression of cgb_03605 further increased approximately twofold in the presence of DNA-damaging mitomycin C (MMC) and nearly threefold in the absence of LexA. Deletion of the 6C RNA gene cgb_03605 resulted in a higher sensitivity of C. glutamicum toward MMC and UV radiation. These results indicate that 6C RNA is involved in the DNA damage response. Both 6C RNA level-dependent pausing of cell growth and branched cell morphology in response to MMC suggest that 6C RNA may also be involved in a control of cell division.

  14. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    PubMed Central

    Urbanek, Martyna O.; Nawrocka, Anna U.; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs), and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH). In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH), and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics. PMID:26068454

  15. Genes for Xenopus laevis U3 small nuclear RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Savino, R; Hitti, Y; Gerbi, S A

    1992-01-01

    Genomic Southern blots showed there are only 14 to 20 copies of U3 snRNA genes per somatic genome in Xenopus laevis, unlike the highly repetitive, tandem arrangement of other snRNA genes in this organism. Sequencing of two U3 snRNA genes from lambda clones of a genomic library revealed striking similarity upstream, but much more divergence downstream. Consensus motifs common to other U snRNA genes were also found: a distal sequence element (DSE, octamer motif at -222 to -215), a proximal sequence element (PSE, at -62 to -52) and a 3' Box (15 or 16 bp downstream of the U3 genes). The DSE of mammals also has an inverted CCAAT motif specific for U3 snRNA genes, and we find this is conserved in the amphibian U3 snRNA genes. The Xenopus inverted CCAAT motif is exactly one helical turn further upstream of the octamer motif than its mammalian counterpart, suggesting interaction of putative transcription factors bound to these motifs. Mutation of the inverted CCAAT motif and part of an adjacent Sp1 site greatly depresses transcription of the mutant U3 snRNA gene in Xenopus oocytes, implying a role in transcriptional efficiency. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays implicate transcription factor binding to this region. Images PMID:1437561

  16. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    PubMed

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  17. Conservation of a packaging signal and the viral genome RNA packaging mechanism in alphavirus evolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal Young; Firth, Andrew E; Atasheva, Svetlana; Frolova, Elena I; Frolov, Ilya

    2011-08-01

    Alphaviruses are a group of small, enveloped viruses which are widely distributed on all continents. In infected cells, alphaviruses display remarkable specificity in RNA packaging by encapsidating only their genomic RNA while avoiding packaging of the more abundant viral subgenomic (SG), cellular messenger and transfer RNAs into released virions. In this work, we demonstrate that in spite of evolution in geographically isolated areas and accumulation of considerable diversity in the nonstructural and structural genes, many alphaviruses belonging to different serocomplexes harbor RNA packaging signals (PSs) which contain the same structural and functional elements. Their characteristic features are as follows. (i) Sindbis, eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis and most likely many other alphaviruses, except those belonging to the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) clade, have PSs which can be recognized by the capsid proteins of heterologous alphaviruses. (ii) The PS consists of 4 to 6 stem-loop RNA structures bearing conserved GGG sequences located at the base of the loop. These short motifs are integral elements of the PS and can function even in the artificially designed PS. (iii) Mutagenesis of the entire PS or simply the GGG sequences has strong negative effects on viral genome packaging and leads to release of viral particles containing mostly SG RNAs. (iv) Packaging of RNA appears to be determined to some extent by the number of GGG-containing stem-loops, and more than one stem-loop is required for efficient RNA encapsidation. (v) Viruses of the SFV clade are the exception to the general rule. They contain PSs in the nsP2 gene, but their capsid protein retains the ability to use the nsP1-specific PS of other alphaviruses. These new discoveries regarding alphavirus PS structure and function provide an opportunity for the development of virus variants, which are irreversibly attenuated in terms of production of infectious virus but release high levels

  18. Predicting RNA-binding residues from evolutionary information and sequence conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in post-transcriptional control of RNA. RBPs are designed to efficiently recognize specific RNA sequences after it is derived from the DNA sequence. To satisfy diverse functional requirements, RNA binding proteins are composed of multiple blocks of RNA-binding domains (RBDs) presented in various structural arrangements to provide versatile functions. The ability to computationally predict RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein can help biologists reveal important site-directed mutagenesis in wet-lab experiments. Results The proposed prediction framework named “ProteRNA” combines a SVM-based classifier with conserved residue discovery by WildSpan to identify the residues that interact with RNA in a RNA-binding protein. Although these conserved residues can be either functionally conserved residues or structurally conserved residues, they provide clues on the important residues in a protein sequence. In the independent testing dataset, ProteRNA has been able to deliver overall accuracy of 89.78%, MCC of 0.2628, F-score of 0.3075, and F0.5-score of 0.3546. Conclusions This article presents the design of a sequence-based predictor aiming to identify the RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein by combining machine learning and pattern mining approaches. RNA-binding proteins have diverse functions while interacting with different categories of RNAs because these proteins are composed of multiple copies of RNA-binding domains presented in various structural arrangements to expand the functional repertoire of RNA-binding proteins. Furthermore, predicting RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein can help biologists reveal important site-directed mutagenesis in wet-lab experiments. PMID:21143803

  19. Small RNA zippers lock miRNA molecules and block miRNA function in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingyu; Liu, Cuicui; Lü, Jinhui; Zhao, Qian; Deng, Shengqiong; Wang, Guangxue; Qiao, Jing; Zhang, Chuyi; Zhen, Lixiao; Lu, Ying; Li, Wenshu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Pestell, Richard G.; Fan, Huiming; Chen, Yi-Han; Liu, Zhongmin; Yu, Zuoren

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) loss-of-function phenotypes are mainly induced by chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides. Here we develop an alternative inhibitor for miRNAs, termed ‘small RNA zipper'. It is designed to connect miRNA molecules end to end, forming a DNA–RNA duplex through a complementary interaction with high affinity, high specificity and high stability. Two miRNAs, miR-221 and miR-17, are tested in human breast cancer cell lines, demonstrating the 70∼90% knockdown of miRNA levels by 30–50 nM small RNA zippers. The miR-221 zipper shows capability in rescuing the expression of target genes of miR-221 and reversing the oncogenic function of miR-221 in breast cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrate that the miR-221 zipper attenuates doxorubicin resistance with higher efficiency than anti-miR-221 in human breast cancer cells. Taken together, small RNA zippers are a miRNA inhibitor, which can be used to induce miRNA loss-of-function phenotypes and validate miRNA target genes. PMID:28045030

  20. [Acute small bowel obstruction: conservative or surgical treatment?].

    PubMed

    Schwenter, F; Dominguez, S; Meier, R; Oulhaci-de Saussure, W; Platon, A; Gervaz, P; Morel, P

    2011-06-22

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common clinical syndrome caused mainly by postoperative adhesions. In complement to clinical and biological evaluations, CT scan has emerged as a valuable imaging modality and may provide reliable information. The early recognition of signs suggesting bowel ischemia is essential for urgent operation. However appropriate management of SBO remains a common clinical challenge. Although a conservative approach can be successful in a substantial percentage of selected patients, regular and close re-assessement is mandatory. Any persistance or progression of the critical symptoms and signs should indeed lead to surgical exploration. Here we review the principles of adhesive SBO management and suggest a decision procedure for conservative versus surgical treatment.

  1. Small non-coding RNA deregulation in endometrial carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ravo, Maria; Cordella, Angela; Rinaldi, Antonio; Bruno, Giuseppina; Alexandrova, Elena; Saggese, Pasquale; Nassa, Giovanni; Giurato, Giorgio; Tarallo, Roberta; Marchese, Giovanna; Rizzo, Francesca; Stellato, Claudia; Biancardi, Rossella; Troisi, Jacopo; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Zullo, Fulvio; Weisz, Alessandro; Guida, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) represent a heterogeneous group of <200nt-long transcripts comprising microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and small-nucleolar-RNAs (snoRNAs) involved in physiological and pathological processes such as carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Aberrant sncRNA expression in cancer has been associated with specific clinical phenotypes, grading, staging, metastases development and resistance to therapy. Aim of the present work is to study the role of sncRNAs in endometrial carcinogenesis. Changes in sncRNA expression were identified by high-throughput genomic analysis of paired normal, hyperplastic and cancerous endometrial tissues obtained by endometrial biopsies (n = 10). Using smallRNA sequencing and microarrays we identified significant differences in sncRNA expression pattern between normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium. This led to the definition of a sncRNA signature (129 microRNAs, 2 of which not previously described, 10 piRNAs and 3 snoRNAs) of neoplastic transformation. Functional bioinformatics analysis identified as downstream targets multiple signaling pathways potentially involved in the hyperplastic and neoplastic tissue responses, including Wnt/β-catenin, and ERK/MAPK and TGF-β-Signaling. Considering the regulatory role of sncRNAs, this newly identified sncRNA signature is likely to reflect the events leading to endometrial cancer, which can be exploited to dissect the carcinogenic process including novel biomarkers for early and non-invasive diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:25686835

  2. MicroRNA-Like Small RNAs Prediction in the Development of Antrodia cinnamomea

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan-Liang; Ma, Li-Ting; Lee, Yi-Ru; Lin, Shih-Shun; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a precious, host-specific brown-rot fungus that has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for centuries is known to have diverse bioactive compounds with potent pharmaceutical activity. In this study, different fermentation states of A. cinnamomea (wild-type fruiting bodies and liquid cultured mycelium) were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique. A 45.58 Mb genome encoding 6,522 predicted genes was obtained. High quality reads were assembled into a total of 13,109 unigenes. Using a previously constructed pipeline to search for microRNAs (miRNAs), we then identified 4 predicted conserved miRNA and 63 novel predicted miRNA-like small RNA (milRNA) candidates. Target prediction revealed several interesting proteins involved in tri-terpenoid synthesis, mating type recognition, chemical or physical sensory protein and transporters predicted to be regulated by the miRNAs and milRNAs. PMID:25860872

  3. Identification of microRNAs by small RNA deep sequencing for synthetic microRNA mimics to control Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Liang; Huang, Qi Xing; Yin, Guo Hua; Lee, Samantha; Jia, Rui Zong; Liu, Zhi Xin; Yu, Nai Tong; Pennerman, Kayla K; Chen, Xin; Guo, An Ping

    2015-02-25

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a major pest of cotton around the world. With the increase of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in transgenic cotton plants, there is a need to develop an alternative control approach that can be used in combination with Bt transgenic crops as part of resistance management strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a non-coding small RNA family (18-25 nt), play crucial roles in various biological processes and over-expression of miRNAs has been shown to interfere with the normal development of insects. In this study, we identified 127 conserved miRNAs in S. exigua by using small RNA deep sequencing technology. From this, we tested the effects of 11 miRNAs on larval development. We found three miRNAs, Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9, to be differentially expressed during larval stages of S. exigua. Oral feeding experiments using synthetic miRNA mimics of Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9 resulted in suppressed growth of S. exigua and mortality. Over-expression of Sex-miR-4924 caused a significant reduction in the expression level of chitinase 1 and caused abortive molting in the insects. Therefore, we demonstrated a novel approach of using miRNA mimics to control S. exigua development.

  4. Artificial small RNA for sequence specific cleavage of target RNA through RNase III endonuclease Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yali; Liu, Li; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Lin, Junhao; Chen, Mingwei; Li, Jianfa; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 system uses a guide RNA which functions in conjunction with Cas9 proteins to target a DNA and cleaves double-strand DNA. This phenomenon raises a question whether an artificial small RNA (asRNA), composed of a Dicer–binding RNA element and an antisense RNA, could also be used to induce Dicer to process and degrade a specific RNA. If so, we could develop a new method which is named DICERi for gene silencing or RNA editing. To prove the feasibility of asRNA, we selected MALAT-1 as target and used Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells as experimental models. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the introduction of asRNA decreased the relative expression level of target gene significantly. Next, we analyzed cell proliferation using CCK-8 and EdU staining assays, and then cell migration using wound scratch and Transwell invasion assays. We found that cell proliferation and cell migration were both suppressed remarkably after asRNA was expressed in Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell apoptosis was also detected through Hoechst staining and ELISA assays and the data indicated that he numbers of apoptotic cell in experimental groups significantly increased compared with negative controls. In order to prove that the gene silencing effects were caused by Dicer, we co-transfected shRNA silencing Dicer and asRNA. The relative expression levels of Dicer and MALAT-1 were both detected and the results indicated that when the cleavage role of Dicer was silenced, the relative expression level of MALAT-1 was not affected after the introduction of asRNA. All the above results demonstrated that these devices directed by Dicer effectively excised target RNA and repressed the target genes, thus causing phenotypic changes. Our works adds a new dimension to gene regulating technologies and may have broad applications in construction of gene circuits. PMID:27231846

  5. Genome-wide analyses of Epstein-Barr virus reveal conserved RNA structures and a novel stable intronic sequence RNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus implicated in cancer and autoimmune disorders. Little is known concerning the roles of RNA structure in this important human pathogen. This study provides the first comprehensive genome-wide survey of RNA and RNA structure in EBV. Results Novel EBV RNAs and RNA structures were identified by computational modeling and RNA-Seq analyses of EBV. Scans of the genomic sequences of four EBV strains (EBV-1, EBV-2, GD1, and GD2) and of the closely related Macacine herpesvirus 4 using the RNAz program discovered 265 regions with high probability of forming conserved RNA structures. Secondary structure models are proposed for these regions based on a combination of free energy minimization and comparative sequence analysis. The analysis of RNA-Seq data uncovered the first observation of a stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA) in EBV. The abundance of this sisRNA rivals that of the well-known and highly expressed EBV-encoded non-coding RNAs (EBERs). Conclusion This work identifies regions of the EBV genome likely to generate functional RNAs and RNA structures, provides structural models for these regions, and discusses potential functions suggested by the modeled structures. Enhanced understanding of the EBV transcriptome will guide future experimental analyses of the discovered RNAs and RNA structures. PMID:23937650

  6. Crystal structure and RNA-binding properties of an Hfq homolog from the deep-branching Aquificae: conservation of the lateral RNA-binding mode.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Kimberly A; Patterson-West, Jennifer; Randolph, Peter S; Mura, Cameron

    2017-04-01

    The host factor Hfq, as the bacterial branch of the Sm family, is an RNA-binding protein involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA expression and turnover. Hfq facilitates pairing between small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and their corresponding mRNA targets by binding both RNAs and bringing them into close proximity. Hfq homologs self-assemble into homo-hexameric rings with at least two distinct surfaces that bind RNA. Recently, another binding site, dubbed the `lateral rim', has been implicated in sRNA·mRNA annealing; the RNA-binding properties of this site appear to be rather subtle, and its degree of evolutionary conservation is unknown. An Hfq homolog has been identified in the phylogenetically deep-branching thermophile Aquifex aeolicus (Aae), but little is known about the structure and function of Hfq from basal bacterial lineages such as the Aquificae. Therefore, Aae Hfq was cloned, overexpressed, purified, crystallized and biochemically characterized. Structures of Aae Hfq were determined in space groups P1 and P6, both to 1.5 Å resolution, and nanomolar-scale binding affinities for uridine- and adenosine-rich RNAs were discovered. Co-crystallization with U6 RNA reveals that the outer rim of the Aae Hfq hexamer features a well defined binding pocket that is selective for uracil. This Aae Hfq structure, combined with biochemical and biophysical characterization of the homolog, reveals deep evolutionary conservation of the lateral RNA-binding mode, and lays a foundation for further studies of Hfq-associated RNA biology in ancient bacterial phyla.

  7. High-Throughput Sequencing of RNA Silencing-Associated Small RNAs in Olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Donaire, Livia; Pedrola, Laia; de la Rosa, Raúl; Llave, César

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive. PMID:22140484

  8. [In vivo imaging of liposomal small interfering RNA (siRNA) trafficking by positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Ando, Hidenori; Yonenaga, Norihito; Asai, Tomohiro; Hatanaka, Kentaro; Koide, Hiroyuki; Tsuzuku, Takuma; Harada, Norihiro; Tsukada, Hideo; Oku, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    In the development of nucleic acid medicines such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) drugs, one problem is how to study the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, since the precise in vivo behavior of siRNA is hard to detect. In this research, to establish a highly sensitive detection system of siRNA biodistribution in the whole body, the technology of positron imaging was applied. First, a one-step synthetic method in which double-stranded siRNA was directly labeled by a positron emitter, (18)F, was developed. By using [(18)F]-labeled siRNA ([(18)F]-siRNA), the complex of siRNA and polycation liposomes (PCL) containing dicetylphosphate tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA-PCL) was prepared. Then, the biodistribution of the siRNA after intravenous administration to mice was analyzed by planar positron imaging system (PPIS). As a result, whereas naked [(18)F]-siRNA was immediately excreted in mouse bladder after administration, the complex with cationic liposome (CL) was trapped in the lungs. Furthermore, [(18)F]-siRNA carried with PEGylated CL (PL) was distributed throughout the body, suggesting that it circulated in the bloodstream for an extended period of time. Additionally, PET imaging revealed more detailed biodistribution of the siRNA than in vivo imaging system (IVIS) because PET imaging is not affected by the depth variation of target tissues. On the other hand, to induce high accumulation of siRNAs against c-myc, MDM2, and VEGF in tumor tissue, a tumor-targeting probe, RGD peptide, was grafted at the top of PEG chain in PEGylated TEPA-PCL and the effect of the complex on experimental lung metastasis of B16 melanoma was examined. The complex suppressed the progression of tumor. We believe that the positron imaging data would support the development of siRNA agent for clinical use.

  9. Colored petri net modeling of small interfering RNA-mediated messenger RNA degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nickaeen, Niloofar; Moein, Shiva; Heidary, Zarifeh; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mathematical modeling of biological systems is an attractive way for studying complex biological systems and their behaviors. Petri Nets, due to their ability to model systems with various levels of qualitative information, have been wildly used in modeling biological systems in which enough qualitative data may not be at disposal. These nets have been used to answer questions regarding the dynamics of different cell behaviors including the translation process. In one stage of the translation process, the RNA sequence may be degraded. In the process of degradation of RNA sequence, small-noncoding RNA molecules known as small interfering RNA (siRNA) match the target RNA sequence. As a result of this matching, the target RNA sequence is destroyed. Materials and Methods: In this context, the process of matching and destruction is modeled using Colored Petri Nets (CPNs). The model is constructed using CPNs which allow tokens to have a value or type on them. Thus, CPN is a suitable tool to model string structures in which each element of the string has a different type. Using CPNs, long RNA, and siRNA strings are modeled with a finite set of colors. The model is simulated via CPN Tools. Results: A CPN model of the matching between RNA and siRNA strings is constructed in CPN Tools environment. Conclusion: In previous studies, a network of stoichiometric equations was modeled. However, in this particular study, we modeled the mechanism behind the silencing process. Modeling this kind of mechanisms provides us with a tool to examine the effects of different factors such as mutation or drugs on the process. PMID:27376039

  10. An unexpected, conserved element of the U3 snoRNA is required for Mpp10p association.

    PubMed Central

    Wormsley, S; Samarsky, D A; Fournier, M J; Baserga, S J

    2001-01-01

    The U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) is composed of a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and at least 10 proteins. The U3 snoRNA base pairs with the pre-rRNA to carry out the A0, A1, and A2 processing reactions that lead to the release of the 18S rRNA from the nascent pre-rRNA transcript. The yeast U3 snoRNA can be divided into a short 5' domain (nt 1-39) and a larger 3' domain (73 to the 3' end) separated by a stretch of nucleotides called the hinge region (nt 40-72). The sequences required for pre-rRNA base pairing are found in the 5' domain and hinge region whereas the 3' domain is largely covered with proteins. Mpp10p, one of the protein components unique to the U3 snoRNP, plays a role in processing at the A1 and A2 sites. Because of its critical role in U3 snoRNP function, we determined which sequences in the U3 snoRNA are required for Mpp10p association. Unlike fibrillarin and all the previous U3 snoRNP components studied in this manner, sequences in the 3' domain are not sufficient for Mpp10p association. Instead, a conserved sequence element in the U3 snoRNA hinge region is required, placing Mpp10p near the 5' domain that carries out the pre-rRNA base-pairing interactions in the functional center of the U3 snoRNP. PMID:11421365

  11. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  12. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  14. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates....

  15. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. (a)...

  16. Phytophthora effector targets a novel component of small RNA pathway in plants to promote infection

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yongli; Shi, Jinxia; Zhai, Yi; Hou, Yingnan; Ma, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    A broad range of parasites rely on the functions of effector proteins to subvert host immune response and facilitate disease development. The notorious Phytophthora pathogens evolved effectors with RNA silencing suppression activity to promote infection in plant hosts. Here we report that the Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 1 (PSR1) can bind to an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein containing the aspartate–glutamate–alanine–histidine-box RNA helicase domain in plants. This protein, designated PSR1-Interacting Protein 1 (PINP1), regulates the accumulation of both microRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis. A null mutation of PINP1 causes embryonic lethality, and silencing of PINP1 leads to developmental defects and hypersusceptibility to Phytophthora infection. These phenotypes are reminiscent of transgenic plants expressing PSR1, supporting PINP1 as a direct virulence target of PSR1. We further demonstrate that the localization of the Dicer-like 1 protein complex is impaired in the nucleus of PINP1-silenced or PSR1-expressing cells, indicating that PINP1 may facilitate small RNA processing by affecting the assembly of dicing complexes. A similar function of PINP1 homologous genes in development and immunity was also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana. These findings highlight PINP1 as a previously unidentified component of RNA silencing that regulates distinct classes of small RNAs in plants. Importantly, Phytophthora has evolved effectors to target PINP1 in order to promote infection. PMID:25902521

  17. Plant small nuclear RNAs. II. U6 RNA and a 4.5SI-like RNA are present in plant nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, T; Antal, M; Solymosy, F

    1987-01-01

    Two small nuclear RNA species (U6 RNA and a 4.5SI-like RNA) not described so far for plants were detected in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) nuclei. U6 RNA is 98 nucleotides long, contains psi and methylated nucleotides and shows a surprisingly high degree of sequence homology (80%) with its rat counterpart, particularly in the middle part (a 57 nucleotide-long stretch) of the molecule, where it amounts to 98%. The 4.5SI-like RNA, similar in its structure to 4.5SI RNA detected so far only in rodent nuclei, is 94 nucleotides long, contains psi and an unidentified nucleotide and exhibits 52% overall sequence homology with rat 4.5SI RNA. A block of 20 consecutive nucleotides at the 5' end of the molecule is conserved between broad bean 4.5SI-like RNA and rat 4.5SI RNA. The presence of the two RNA polymerase III internal promoter consensus sequences in 4.5SI-like RNA suggests that it is an RNA polymerase III transcript. Images PMID:2434924

  18. Small RNA profiles from virus-infected fresh market vegetables.

    PubMed

    Frizzi, Alessandra; Zhang, Yuanji; Kao, John; Hagen, Charles; Huang, Shihshieh

    2014-12-10

    Functional small RNAs, such as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), exist in freshly consumed fruits and vegetables. These siRNAs can be derived either from endogenous sequences or from viruses that infect them. Symptomatic tomatoes, watermelons, zucchini, and onions were purchased from grocery stores and investigated by small RNA sequencing. By aligning the obtained small RNA sequences to sequences of known viruses, four different viruses were identified as infecting these fruits and vegetables. Many of these virally derived small RNAs along with endogenous small RNAs were found to be highly complementary to human genes. However, the established history of safe consumption of these vegetables suggests that this sequence homology has little biological relevance. By extension, these results provide evidence for the safe use by humans and animals of genetically engineered crops using RNA-based suppression technologies, especially vegetable crops with virus resistance conferred by expression of siRNAs or miRNAs derived from viral sequences.

  19. pY RNA1-s2: A Highly Retina-Enriched Small RNA That Selectively Binds to Matrin 3 (Matr3)

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Kim, Hyun Hee; Lau, Pierre; Hwang, Christopher K.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Klein, David; Clokie, Samuel J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge of small RNAs, which are known to function within protein complexes to modulate the transcriptional output of the cell. Here we describe two previously unrecognized, small RNAs, termed pY RNA1-s1 and pY RNA1-s2 (processed Y RNA1-stem −1 and −2), thereby expanding the list of known small RNAs. pY RNA1-s1 and pY RNA1-s2 were discovered by RNA sequencing and found to be 20-fold more abundant in the retina than in 14 other rat tissues. Retinal expression of pY RNAs is highly conserved, including expression in the human retina, and occurs in all retinal cell layers. Mass spectrometric analysis of pY RNA1-S2 binding proteins in retina indicates that pY RNA1-s2 selectively binds the nuclear matrix protein Matrin 3 (Matr3) and to a lesser degree to hnrpul1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like protein). In contrast, pY RNA1-s1 does not bind these proteins. Accordingly, the molecular mechanism of action of pY RNA1-s2 is likely be through an action involving Matr3; this 95 kDa protein has two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and is implicated in transcription and RNA-editing. The high affinity binding of pY RNA1-s2 to Matr3 is strongly dependent on the sequence of the RNA and both RRMs of Matr3. Related studies also indicate that elements outside of the RRM region contribute to binding specificity and that phosphorylation enhances pY RNA-s2/Matr3 binding. These observations are of significance because they reveal that a previously unrecognized small RNA, pY RNA1-s2, binds selectively to Matr3. Hypothetically, pY RNA1-S2 might act to modulate cellular function through this molecular mechanism. The retinal enrichment of pY RNA1-s2 provides reason to suspect that the pY RNA1-s2/Matr3 interaction could play a role in vision. PMID:24558381

  20. Ageing and the Small, Non-Coding RNA World

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaomi; Slack, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs, a class of small, non-coding RNAs, are now widely known for their importance in many aspects of biology. These small regulatory RNAs have critical functions in diverse biological events, including development and disease. Recent findings show that microRNAs are essential for lifespan determination in the model organisms, C. elegans and Drosophila, suggesting that microRNAs are also involved in the complex process of ageing. Further, short RNA fragments derived from longer parental RNAs, such as transfer RNA cleavage fragments, have now emerged as a novel class of regulatory RNAs that inhibit translation in response to stress. In addition, the RNA editing pathway is likely to act in the double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing machinery to suppress unfavorable RNA interference activity in the ageing process. These multiple, redundant layers in gene regulatory networks may make it possible to both stably and flexibly regulate genetic pathways in ensuring robustness of developmental and ageing processes. PMID:22504407

  1. Box C/D Small Nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) U60 Regulates Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Brandis, Katrina A.; Gale, Sarah; Jinn, Sarah; Langmade, Stephen J.; Dudley-Rucker, Nicole; Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Ren, Aileen; Goldberg, Anna; Schaffer, Jean E.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The mechanisms regulating this retrograde, intermembrane cholesterol transfer are not well understood. Because mutant cells with defects in PM to endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol trafficking can be isolated on the basis of resistance to amphotericin B, we conducted an amphotericin B loss-of-function screen in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that regulate this trafficking mechanism. Mutant line A1 displayed reduced cholesteryl ester formation from PM-derived cholesterol and increased de novo cholesterol synthesis, indicating a deficiency in retrograde cholesterol transport. Genotypic analysis revealed that the A1 cell line contained one disrupted allele of the U60 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) host gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the box C/D snoRNA U60. Complementation and mutational studies revealed the U60 snoRNA to be the essential feature from this locus that affects cholesterol trafficking. Lack of alteration in predicted U60-mediated site-directed methylation of 28 S rRNA in the A1 mutant suggests that the U60 snoRNA modulates cholesterol trafficking by a mechanism that is independent of this canonical function. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence for participation of small noncoding RNAs in cholesterol homeostasis and is the first to implicate a snoRNA in this cellular function. PMID:24174535

  2. Box C/D small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) U60 regulates intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

    PubMed

    Brandis, Katrina A; Gale, Sarah; Jinn, Sarah; Langmade, Stephen J; Dudley-Rucker, Nicole; Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Ren, Aileen; Goldberg, Anna; Schaffer, Jean E; Ory, Daniel S

    2013-12-13

    Mobilization of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The mechanisms regulating this retrograde, intermembrane cholesterol transfer are not well understood. Because mutant cells with defects in PM to endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol trafficking can be isolated on the basis of resistance to amphotericin B, we conducted an amphotericin B loss-of-function screen in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that regulate this trafficking mechanism. Mutant line A1 displayed reduced cholesteryl ester formation from PM-derived cholesterol and increased de novo cholesterol synthesis, indicating a deficiency in retrograde cholesterol transport. Genotypic analysis revealed that the A1 cell line contained one disrupted allele of the U60 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) host gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the box C/D snoRNA U60. Complementation and mutational studies revealed the U60 snoRNA to be the essential feature from this locus that affects cholesterol trafficking. Lack of alteration in predicted U60-mediated site-directed methylation of 28 S rRNA in the A1 mutant suggests that the U60 snoRNA modulates cholesterol trafficking by a mechanism that is independent of this canonical function. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence for participation of small noncoding RNAs in cholesterol homeostasis and is the first to implicate a snoRNA in this cellular function.

  3. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  4. Silencing of natural transformation by an RNA chaperone and a multitarget small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Boughammoura, Aïda; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Allatif, Omran; Peillard-Fiorente, Flora; Edwards, Ross A.; Omar, Ayat R.; MacMillan, Andrew M.; Glover, Mark; Charpentier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    A highly conserved DNA uptake system allows many bacteria to actively import and integrate exogenous DNA. This process, called natural transformation, represents a major mechanism of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involved in the acquisition of virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants. Despite evidence of HGT and the high level of conservation of the genes coding the DNA uptake system, most bacterial species appear non-transformable under laboratory conditions. In naturally transformable species, the DNA uptake system is only expressed when bacteria enter a physiological state called competence, which develops under specific conditions. Here, we investigated the mechanism that controls expression of the DNA uptake system in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. We found that a repressor of this system displays a conserved ProQ/FinO domain and interacts with a newly characterized trans-acting sRNA, RocR. Together, they target mRNAs of the genes coding the DNA uptake system to control natural transformation. This RNA-based silencing represents a previously unknown regulatory means to control this major mechanism of HGT. Importantly, these findings also show that chromosome-encoded ProQ/FinO domain-containing proteins can assist trans-acting sRNAs and that this class of RNA chaperones could play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation throughout bacterial species. PMID:27432973

  5. Using Small RNA Deep Sequencing Data to Detect Human Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Ruan, Jishou; Chen, Rui; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chengjie; Kreuze, Jan F.; Fei, ZhangJun; Zhu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) can be used to detect viruses in infected hosts without the necessity to have any prior knowledge or specialized sample preparation. The sRNA-seq method was initially used for viral detection and identification in plants and then in invertebrates and fungi. However, it is still controversial to use sRNA-seq in the detection of mammalian or human viruses. In this study, we used 931 sRNA-seq runs of data from the NCBI SRA database to detect and identify viruses in human cells or tissues, particularly from some clinical samples. Six viruses including HPV-18, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, SMRV, and EBV were detected from 36 runs of data. Four viruses were consistent with the annotations from the previous studies. HIV-1 was found in clinical samples without the HIV-positive reports, and SMRV was found in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma cells for the first time. In conclusion, these results suggest the sRNA-seq can be used to detect viruses in mammals and humans. PMID:27066498

  6. Small interfering RNA delivery through positively charged polymer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Luca; Ferrari, Raffaele; Lupi, Monica; Cesana, Alberto; Falcetta, Francesca; Ubezio, Paolo; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Morbidelli, Massimo; Moscatelli, Davide

    2016-03-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is receiving increasing attention with regard to the treatment of many genetic diseases, both acquired and hereditary, such as cancer and diabetes. Being a high molecular weight (MW) polyanion, siRNA is not able to cross a cell membrane, and in addition it is unstable in physiological conditions. Accordingly, a biocompatible nanocarrier able to deliver siRNA into cells is needed. In this work, we synthesized biocompatible positively charged nanoparticles (NPs) following a two-step process that involves ring opening polymerization (ROP) and emulsion free radical polymerization (EFRP). Firstly, we proved the possibility of fine tuning the NPs’ characteristics (e.g. size and surface charge) by changing the synthetic process parameters. Then the capability in loading and delivering undamaged siRNA into a cancer cell cytoplasm has been shown. This latter process occurs through the biodegradation of the polymer constituting the NPs, whose kinetics can be tuned by adjusting the polymer’s MW. Finally, the ability of NPs to carry siRNA inside the cells in order to inhibit their target gene has been demonstrated using green flourescent protein positive cells.

  7. Equilibrium self-assembly of small RNA viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, R. F.; Comas-Garcia, M.; Garmann, R. F.; Grosberg, A. Y.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a description for the quasiequilibrium self-assembly of small, single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses whose capsid proteins (CPs) have flexible, positively charged, disordered tails that associate with the negatively charged RNA genome molecules. We describe the assembly of such viruses as the interplay between two coupled phase-transition-like events: the formation of the protein shell (the capsid) by CPs and the condensation of a large ss viral RNA molecule. Electrostatic repulsion between the CPs competes with attractive hydrophobic interactions and attractive interaction between neutralized RNA segments mediated by the tail groups. An assembly diagram is derived in terms of the strength of attractive interactions between CPs and between CPs and the RNA molecules. It is compared with the results of recent studies of viral assembly. We demonstrate that the conventional theory of self-assembly, which does describe the assembly of empty capsids, is in general not applicable to the self-assembly of RNA-encapsidating virions.

  8. Using Small RNA Deep Sequencing Data to Detect Human Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Ruan, Jishou; Chen, Rui; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chengjie; Kreuze, Jan F; Fei, ZhangJun; Zhu, Xiao; Gao, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) can be used to detect viruses in infected hosts without the necessity to have any prior knowledge or specialized sample preparation. The sRNA-seq method was initially used for viral detection and identification in plants and then in invertebrates and fungi. However, it is still controversial to use sRNA-seq in the detection of mammalian or human viruses. In this study, we used 931 sRNA-seq runs of data from the NCBI SRA database to detect and identify viruses in human cells or tissues, particularly from some clinical samples. Six viruses including HPV-18, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, SMRV, and EBV were detected from 36 runs of data. Four viruses were consistent with the annotations from the previous studies. HIV-1 was found in clinical samples without the HIV-positive reports, and SMRV was found in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma cells for the first time. In conclusion, these results suggest the sRNA-seq can be used to detect viruses in mammals and humans.

  9. DSAP: deep-sequencing small RNA analysis pipeline.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung; Liu, Yi-Chung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Lin, Wei-Chen; Gan, Richie Ruei-Chi; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Tang, Petrus

    2010-07-01

    DSAP is an automated multiple-task web service designed to provide a total solution to analyzing deep-sequencing small RNA datasets generated by next-generation sequencing technology. DSAP uses a tab-delimited file as an input format, which holds the unique sequence reads (tags) and their corresponding number of copies generated by the Solexa sequencing platform. The input data will go through four analysis steps in DSAP: (i) cleanup: removal of adaptors and poly-A/T/C/G/N nucleotides; (ii) clustering: grouping of cleaned sequence tags into unique sequence clusters; (iii) non-coding RNA (ncRNA) matching: sequence homology mapping against a transcribed sequence library from the ncRNA database Rfam (http://rfam.sanger.ac.uk/); and (iv) known miRNA matching: detection of known miRNAs in miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org/) based on sequence homology. The expression levels corresponding to matched ncRNAs and miRNAs are summarized in multi-color clickable bar charts linked to external databases. DSAP is also capable of displaying miRNA expression levels from different jobs using a log(2)-scaled color matrix. Furthermore, a cross-species comparative function is also provided to show the distribution of identified miRNAs in different species as deposited in miRBase. DSAP is available at http://dsap.cgu.edu.tw.

  10. Small interfering RNA-based molecular therapy of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Wangbing; Yu, Wendan; Huang, Wenlin; Deng, Wuguo

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become a gold standard for validating gene function in basic life science research and provides a promising therapeutic modality for cancer and other diseases. This mini-review focuses on the potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in anticancer treatment, including the establishment and screening of cancer-associated siRNA libraries and their applications in anticancer drug target discovery and cancer therapy. This article also describes the current delivery approaches of siRNAs using lipids, polymers, and, in particular, gold nanoparticles to induce significant gene silencing and tumor growth regression. PMID:23327796

  11. Conserved piRNA Expression from a Distinct Set of piRNA Cluster Loci in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Mei; Gerlach, Daniel; Yu, Michael; Berger, Bonnie; Naramura, Mayumi; Kile, Benjamin T.; Lau, Nelson C.

    2015-01-01

    The Piwi pathway is deeply conserved amongst animals because one of its essential functions is to repress transposons. However, many Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) do not base-pair to transposons and remain mysterious in their targeting function. The sheer number of piRNA cluster (piC) loci in animal genomes and infrequent piRNA sequence conservation also present challenges in determining which piC loci are most important for development. To address this question, we determined the piRNA expression patterns of piC loci across a wide phylogenetic spectrum of animals, and reveal that most genic and intergenic piC loci evolve rapidly in their capacity to generate piRNAs, regardless of known transposon silencing function. Surprisingly, we also uncovered a distinct set of piC loci with piRNA expression conserved deeply in Eutherian mammals. We name these loci Eutherian-Conserved piRNA cluster (ECpiC) loci. Supporting the hypothesis that conservation of piRNA expression across ~100 million years of Eutherian evolution implies function, we determined that one ECpiC locus generates abundant piRNAs antisense to the STOX1 transcript, a gene clinically associated with preeclampsia. Furthermore, we confirmed reduced piRNAs in existing mouse mutations at ECpiC-Asb1 and -Cbl, which also display spermatogenic defects. The Asb1 mutant testes with strongly reduced Asb1 piRNAs also exhibit up-regulated gene expression profiles. These data indicate ECpiC loci may be specially adapted to support Eutherian reproduction. PMID:26588211

  12. Conserved piRNA Expression from a Distinct Set of piRNA Cluster Loci in Eutherian Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chirn, Gung-Wei; Rahman, Reazur; Sytnikova, Yuliya A; Matts, Jessica A; Zeng, Mei; Gerlach, Daniel; Yu, Michael; Berger, Bonnie; Naramura, Mayumi; Kile, Benjamin T; Lau, Nelson C

    2015-11-01

    The Piwi pathway is deeply conserved amongst animals because one of its essential functions is to repress transposons. However, many Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) do not base-pair to transposons and remain mysterious in their targeting function. The sheer number of piRNA cluster (piC) loci in animal genomes and infrequent piRNA sequence conservation also present challenges in determining which piC loci are most important for development. To address this question, we determined the piRNA expression patterns of piC loci across a wide phylogenetic spectrum of animals, and reveal that most genic and intergenic piC loci evolve rapidly in their capacity to generate piRNAs, regardless of known transposon silencing function. Surprisingly, we also uncovered a distinct set of piC loci with piRNA expression conserved deeply in Eutherian mammals. We name these loci Eutherian-Conserved piRNA cluster (ECpiC) loci. Supporting the hypothesis that conservation of piRNA expression across ~100 million years of Eutherian evolution implies function, we determined that one ECpiC locus generates abundant piRNAs antisense to the STOX1 transcript, a gene clinically associated with preeclampsia. Furthermore, we confirmed reduced piRNAs in existing mouse mutations at ECpiC-Asb1 and -Cbl, which also display spermatogenic defects. The Asb1 mutant testes with strongly reduced Asb1 piRNAs also exhibit up-regulated gene expression profiles. These data indicate ECpiC loci may be specially adapted to support Eutherian reproduction.

  13. Viral Suppressors of RNA Silencing Hinder Exogenous and Endogenous Small RNA Pathways in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Bassam; Deddouche, Safia; Kirschner, Doris; Imler, Jean-Luc; Antoniewski, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Background In plants and insects, RNA interference (RNAi) is the main responder against viruses and shapes the basis of antiviral immunity. Viruses counter this defense by expressing viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs). While VSRs in Drosophila melanogaster were shown to inhibit RNAi through different modes of action, whether they act on other silencing pathways remained unexplored. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that expression of various plant and insect VSRs in transgenic flies does not perturb the Drosophila microRNA (miRNA) pathway; but in contrast, inhibits antiviral RNAi and the RNA silencing response triggered by inverted repeat transcripts, and injection of dsRNA or siRNA. Strikingly, these VSRs also suppressed transposon silencing by endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). Conclusions/Significance Our findings identify VSRs as tools to unravel small RNA pathways in insects and suggest a cosuppression of antiviral RNAi and endo-siRNA silencing by viruses during fly infections. PMID:19516905

  14. Silent no more: Endogenous small RNA pathways promote gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wedeles, Christopher J; Wu, Monica Z; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous small RNA pathways related to RNA interference (RNAi) play a well-documented role in protecting host genomes from the invasion of foreign nucleic acids. In C. elegans, the PIWI type Argonaute, PRG-1, through an association with 21U-RNAs, mediates a genome surveillance process by constantly scanning the genome for potentially deleterious invading elements. Upon recognition of foreign nucleic acids, PRG-1 initiates a cascade of cytoplasmic and nuclear events that results in heritable epigenetic silencing of these transcripts and their coding genomic loci. If the PRG-1/21U-RNA genome surveillance pathway has the capacity to target most of the C. elegans transcriptome, what mechanisms exist to protect endogenous transcripts from being silenced by this pathway? In this commentary, we discuss three recent publications that implicate the CSR-1 small RNA pathway in the heritable activation of germline transcripts, propose a model as to why not all epialleles behave similarly, and touch on the practical implications of these findings.

  15. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The

  16. A Stress-Induced Small RNA Modulates Alpha-Rhizobial Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Marta; Frage, Benjamin; Wright, Patrick R.; Becker, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms adjusting replication initiation and cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions are crucial for microbial survival. Functional characterization of the trans-encoded small non-coding RNA (trans-sRNA) EcpR1 in the plant-symbiotic alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti revealed a role of this class of riboregulators in modulation of cell cycle regulation. EcpR1 is broadly conserved in at least five families of the Rhizobiales and is predicted to form a stable structure with two defined stem-loop domains. In S. meliloti, this trans-sRNA is encoded downstream of the divK-pleD operon. ecpR1 belongs to the stringent response regulon, and its expression was induced by various stress factors and in stationary phase. Induced EcpR1 overproduction led to cell elongation and increased DNA content, while deletion of ecpR1 resulted in reduced competitiveness. Computationally predicted EcpR1 targets were enriched with cell cycle-related mRNAs. Post-transcriptional repression of the cell cycle key regulatory genes gcrA and dnaA mediated by mRNA base-pairing with the strongly conserved loop 1 of EcpR1 was experimentally confirmed by two-plasmid differential gene expression assays and compensatory changes in sRNA and mRNA. Evidence is presented for EcpR1 promoting RNase E-dependent degradation of the dnaA mRNA. We propose that EcpR1 contributes to modulation of cell cycle regulation under detrimental conditions. PMID:25923724

  17. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Caers, A; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    About 8600 complete or nearly complete sequences are now available from the Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA. All these sequences are aligned with one another on the basis of the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The database can be consulted via the World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ PMID:9399829

  18. Small interfering RNA pathway modulates persistent infection of a plant virus in its insect vector.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hanhong; Wang, Haitao; Chen, Qian; Chen, Hongyan; Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Wei, Taiyun

    2016-02-11

    Plant reoviruses, rhabdoviruses, tospoviruses, and tenuiviruses are transmitted by insect vectors in a persistent-propagative manner. How such persistent infection of plant viruses in insect vectors is established and maintained remains poorly understood. In this study, we used rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), a plant reovirus, and its main vector leafhopper Recilia dorsalis as a virus-insect system to determine how the small interference (siRNA) pathway modulates persistent infection of a plant virus in its insect vector. We showed that a conserved siRNA antiviral response was triggered by the persistent replication of RGDV in cultured leafhopper cells and in intact insects, by appearance of virus-specific siRNAs, primarily 21-nt long, and the increased expression of siRNA pathway core components Dicer-2 and Argonaute-2. Silencing of Dicer-2 using RNA interference strongly suppressed production of virus-specific siRNAs, promoted viral accumulation, and caused cytopathological changes in vitro and in vivo. When the viral accumulation level rose above a certain threshold of viral genome copy (1.32 × 10(14) copies/μg insect RNA), the infection of the leafhopper by RGDV was lethal rather than persistent. Taken together, our results revealed a new finding that the siRNA pathway in insect vector can modulate persistent infection of plant viruses.

  19. Conservation of the primary structure at the 3' end of 18S rRNA from eucaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Hagenbüchle, O; Santer, M; Steitz, J A; Mans, R J

    1978-03-01

    DNA sequencing methods have been used to determine a sequence of about 20 nucleotides at the 3' termini of various 18S (small ribosomal subunit) RNA molecules. Polyadenylated rRNA was first synthesized using the enzyme ATP:polynucleotidyl transferase from mainze. Then in the presence of an oligonucleotide primer uniquely complementary to the end of each adenylated rRNA, a cDNA copy was produced using AMV reverse transcriptase. In every case, the cDNA transcript was of finite size, which we ascribe to the appearance of an oligonucleotide containing m62A near the 3' end of the 18S rRNAs. Sequences at the 3' termini of 18S rRNA molecules from the four eucaryotic species examined here (mouse, silk worm, wheat embryo and slime mold) are highly conserved. They also exhibit strong homology to the 3' end of E. coli 16S rRNA. Two important differences, however, are apparent. First, the 16S sequence CCUCC, implicated in mRNA binding by E. coli ribosomes, is absent from each eucaryotic rRNA sequence. Second, a purine-rich region which exhibits extensive complementarity to the 5' noncoding regions of many eucaryotic mRNAs appears consistently.

  20. Examining small molecule: HIV RNA interactions using arrayed imaging reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaimayo, Wanaruk; Miller, Benjamin L.

    2014-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been the subject of intense research for more than three decades as it causes an uncurable disease: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS. In the pursuit of a medical treatment, RNAtargeted small molecules are emerging as promising targets. In order to understand the binding kinetics of small molecules and HIV RNA, association (ka) and dissociation (kd) kinetic constants must be obtained, ideally for a large number of sequences to assess selectivity. We have developed Aqueous Array Imaged Reflectometry (Aq-AIR) to address this challenge. Using a simple light interference phenomenon, Aq-AIR provides real-time high-throughput multiplex capabilities to detect binding of targets to surface-immobilized probes in a label-free microarray format. The second generation of Aq-AIR consisting of high-sensitivity CCD camera and 12-μL flow cell was fabricated. The system performance was assessed by real-time detection of MBNL1-(CUG)10 and neomycin B - HIV RNA bindings. The results establish this second-generation Aq-AIR to be able to examine small molecules binding to RNA sequences specific to HIV.

  1. A conserved abundant cytoplasmic long noncoding RNA modulates repression by Pumilio proteins in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Tichon, Ailone; Gil, Noa; Lubelsky, Yoav; Havkin Solomon, Tal; Lemze, Doron; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Ulitsky, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes are encoded in the human genome, and hundreds of them are evolutionarily conserved, but their functions and modes of action remain largely obscure. Particularly enigmatic lncRNAs are those that are exported to the cytoplasm, including NORAD—an abundant and highly conserved cytoplasmic lncRNA. Here we show that most of the sequence of NORAD is comprised of repetitive units that together contain at least 17 functional binding sites for the two mammalian Pumilio homologues. Through binding to PUM1 and PUM2, NORAD modulates the mRNA levels of their targets, which are enriched for genes involved in chromosome segregation during cell division. Our results suggest that some cytoplasmic lncRNAs function by modulating the activities of RNA-binding proteins, an activity which positions them at key junctions of cellular signalling pathways. PMID:27406171

  2. Methylation of ribosomal RNA by NSUN5 is a conserved mechanism modulating organismal lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Schosserer, Markus; Minois, Nadege; Angerer, Tina B.; Amring, Manuela; Dellago, Hanna; Harreither, Eva; Calle-Perez, Alfonso; Pircher, Andreas; Gerstl, Matthias Peter; Pfeifenberger, Sigrid; Brandl, Clemens; Sonntagbauer, Markus; Kriegner, Albert; Linder, Angela; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Mohr, Thomas; Steiger, Matthias; Mattanovich, Diethard; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Karl, Thomas; Sharma, Sunny; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Kos, Martin; Breitenbach, Michael; Wilson, Iain B.H.; Polacek, Norbert; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Breitenbach-Koller, Lore; Grillari, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Several pathways modulating longevity and stress resistance converge on translation by targeting ribosomal proteins or initiation factors, but whether this involves modifications of ribosomal RNA is unclear. Here, we show that reduced levels of the conserved RNA methyltransferase NSUN5 increase the lifespan and stress resistance in yeast, worms and flies. Rcm1, the yeast homologue of NSUN5, methylates C2278 within a conserved region of 25S rRNA. Loss of Rcm1 alters the structural conformation of the ribosome in close proximity to C2278, as well as translational fidelity, and favours recruitment of a distinct subset of oxidative stress-responsive mRNAs into polysomes. Thus, rather than merely being a static molecular machine executing translation, the ribosome exhibits functional diversity by modification of just a single rRNA nucleotide, resulting in an alteration of organismal physiological behaviour, and linking rRNA-mediated translational regulation to modulation of lifespan, and differential stress response. PMID:25635753

  3. The target spectrum of SdsR small RNA in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Kathrin S.; Haneke, Katharina; Papenfort, Kai; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Model enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica express hundreds of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), targets for most of which are yet unknown. Some sRNAs are remarkably well conserved, indicating that they serve cellular functions that go beyond the necessities of a single species. One of these ‘core sRNAs’ of largely unknown function is the abundant ∼100-nucleotide SdsR sRNA which is transcribed by the general stress σ-factor, σS and accumulates in stationary phase. In Salmonella, SdsR was known to inhibit the synthesis of the species-specific porin, OmpD. However, sdsR genes are present in almost all enterobacterial genomes, suggesting that additional, conserved targets of this sRNA must exist. Here, we have combined SdsR pulse-expression with whole genome transcriptomics to discover 20 previously unknown candidate targets of SdsR which include mRNAs coding for physiologically important regulators such as the carbon utilization regulator, CRP, the nucleoid-associated chaperone, StpA and the antibiotic resistance transporter, TolC. Processing of SdsR by RNase E results in two cellular SdsR variants with distinct target spectra. While the overall physiological role of this orphan core sRNA remains to be fully understood, the new SdsR targets present valuable leads to determine sRNA functions in resting bacteria. PMID:27407104

  4. Solution structure of the 5'-terminal hairpin of the 7SK small nuclear RNA.

    PubMed

    Bourbigot, Sarah; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Eberling, Pascal; Coutant, Jérôme; Kieffer, Bruno; Lebars, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    The small nuclear 7SK RNA regulates RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) transcription, by sequestering and inhibiting the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). P-TEFb is stored in the 7SK ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that contains the three nuclear proteins Hexim1, LaRP7, and MePCE. P-TEFb interacts with the protein Hexim1 and the 7SK RNA. Once P-TEFb is released from the 7SK RNP, it activates transcription by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II. P-TEFb also plays a crucial role in the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1, through its recruitment by the viral transactivator Tat. Previous work demonstrated that the protein Tat promotes the release of P-TEFb from the 7SK RNP through direct binding to the 7SK RNA. Hexim1 and Tat proteins both comprise conserved and similar arginine-rich motifs that were identified to bind the 7SK RNA at a repeated GAUC site located at the top of the 5'-terminal hairpin (HPI). Here, we report the solution structure of this region as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, to identify HPI structural features recognized by Hexim1 and Tat. The HPI solution structure displays an elongated shape featuring four helical segments interrupted by one internal loop and three bulges with distinct folds. In particular, the repeated GAUC motif adopts a pre-organized geometry. Our results suggest that the binding of Hexim1 and Tat to the 7SK RNA could originate from a conformational selection of this motif, highlighting how RNA local structure could lead to an adaptive recognition of their partners.

  5. Cross talk between ABC transporter mRNAs via a target mRNA-derived sponge of the GcvB small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Miyakoshi, Masatoshi; Chao, Yanjie; Vogel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is an expanding list of examples by which one mRNA can posttranscriptionally influence the expression of others. This can involve RNA sponges that sequester regulatory RNAs of mRNAs in the same regulon, but the underlying molecular mechanism of such mRNA cross talk remains little understood. Here, we report sponge-mediated mRNA cross talk in the posttranscriptional network of GcvB, a conserved Hfq-dependent small RNA with one of the largest regulons known in bacteria. We show that mRNA decay from the gltIJKL locus encoding an amino acid ABC transporter generates a stable fragment (SroC) that base-pairs with GcvB. This interaction triggers the degradation of GcvB by RNase E, alleviating the GcvB-mediated mRNA repression of other amino acid-related transport and metabolic genes. Intriguingly, since the gltIJKL mRNA itself is a target of GcvB, the SroC sponge seems to enable both an internal feed-forward loop to activate its parental mRNA in cis and activation of many trans-encoded mRNAs in the same pathway. Disabling this mRNA cross talk affects bacterial growth when peptides are the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:25630703

  6. Adenylylation of small RNA sequencing adapters using the TS2126 RNA ligase I.

    PubMed

    Lama, Lodoe; Ryan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Many high-throughput small RNA next-generation sequencing protocols use 5' preadenylylated DNA oligonucleotide adapters during cDNA library preparation. Preadenylylation of the DNA adapter's 5' end frees from ATP-dependence the ligation of the adapter to RNA collections, thereby avoiding ATP-dependent side reactions. However, preadenylylation of the DNA adapters can be costly and difficult. The currently available method for chemical adenylylation of DNA adapters is inefficient and uses techniques not typically practiced in laboratories profiling cellular RNA expression. An alternative enzymatic method using a commercial RNA ligase was recently introduced, but this enzyme works best as a stoichiometric adenylylating reagent rather than a catalyst and can therefore prove costly when several variant adapters are needed or during scale-up or high-throughput adenylylation procedures. Here, we describe a simple, scalable, and highly efficient method for the 5' adenylylation of DNA oligonucleotides using the thermostable RNA ligase 1 from bacteriophage TS2126. Adapters with 3' blocking groups are adenylylated at >95% yield at catalytic enzyme-to-adapter ratios and need not be gel purified before ligation to RNA acceptors. Experimental conditions are also reported that enable DNA adapters with free 3' ends to be 5' adenylylated at >90% efficiency.

  7. Small RNA-induced differential degradation of the polycistronic mRNA iscRSUA

    PubMed Central

    Desnoyers, Guillaume; Morissette, Audrey; Prévost, Karine; Massé, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Most polycistronic genes are expressed in a single transcript, in which each cistron produces a fixed amount of protein. In this report, we show the first example of differential degradation of a polycistronic gene induced by a small regulatory RNA (sRNA). Our data show that the iron-responsive sRNA, RyhB, binds to the second cistron of the polycistronic mRNA, iscRSUA, which encodes the necessary machinery for biosynthesis of Fe–S clusters, and promotes the cleavage of the downstream iscSUA transcript. This cleavage gives rise to the remaining 5′-section of the transcript encoding IscR, a transcriptional regulator responsible for activation and repression of several genes depending on the cellular Fe–S level. Our data indicate that the iscR transcript is stable and that translation is active. The stability of the iscR transcript depends on a 111-nucleotide long non-translated RNA section located between iscR and iscS, which forms a strong repetitive extragenic palindromic secondary structure and may protect against ribonucleases degradation. This novel regulation shows how sRNAs and mRNA structures can work together to modulate the transcriptional response to a specific stress. PMID:19407815

  8. Translocation of Small Interfering RNA and Cholesterol Molecules in Biomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalia, Rajiv

    2013-03-01

    This presentation will focus on all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of (1) structural and mechanical barriers to translocation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) across a phospholipid bilayer, and (2) flip-flop dynamics of cholesterol (CHOL) molecules across a phospholipid bilayer. In the first case, we find that the siRNA induces a liquid-to-gel phase transformation. In the gel phase we find large compressive lateral stresses in the hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA passage across the bilayer. In the second case, we study spontaneous CHOL inter-leaflet transport (flip-flop), the effect of this process on mechanical stresses across the bilayer, and the role of CHOL in inducing molecular order in bilayer leaflets. The simulation was run for 15 microseconds and we found 24 CHOL flip-flop events over that duration. On average, a CHOL molecule migrates across the lipid bilayer in about 73 ns after a flip-flop event is triggered. We have calculated diffusion maps and determined free energy surfaces and flip-flop mechanisms for CHOL molecules. Work supported by NSF-OCI-0749360 and NSF-IOS-125317.

  9. Bacterial Small RNA Regulators: Versatile Roles and Rapidly Evolving Variations

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, Susan; Storz, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Small RNA regulators (sRNAs) have been identified in a wide range of bacteria and found to play critical regulatory roles in many processes. The major families of sRNAs include true antisense RNAs, synthesized from the strand complementary to the mRNA they regulate, sRNAs that also act by pairing but have limited complementarity with their targets, and sRNAs that regulate proteins by binding to and affecting protein activity. The sRNAs with limited complementarity are akin to eukaryotic microRNAs in their ability to modulate the activity and stability of multiple mRNAs. In many bacterial species, the RNA chaperone Hfq is required to promote pairing between these sRNAs and their target mRNAs. Understanding the evolution of regulatory sRNAs remains a challenge; sRNA genes show evidence of duplication and horizontal transfer but also could be evolved from tRNAs, mRNAs or random transcription. PMID:20980440

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae U1 small nuclear RNA secondary structure contains both universal and yeast-specific domains.

    PubMed Central

    Kretzner, L; Krol, A; Rosbash, M

    1990-01-01

    The five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) involved in mammalian pre-mRNA splicing (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) are well conserved in length, sequence, and especially secondary structure. These five snRNAs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae show notable size and sequence differences from their metazoan counterparts. This is most striking for the large S. cerevisiae U1 and U2 snRNAs, for which no secondary structure models currently exist. Because of the importance of U1 snRNA in the early steps of "spliceosome" assembly, we wanted to compare the highly conserved secondary structure of metazoan U1 snRNA (approximately 165 nucleotides) with that of S. cerevisiae U1 snRNA (568 nucleotides). To this end, we have cloned and sequenced the U1 gene from two other yeast species possessing large U1 RNAs. Using computer-derived structure predictions, phylogenetic comparisons, and structure probing, we have arrived at a secondary structure model for S. cerevisiae U1 snRNA. The results show that most elements of higher eukaryotic U1 snRNA secondary structure are conserved in S. cerevisiae. The hundreds of "extra" nucleotides of yeast U1 RNA, also highly structured, suggest that large insertions and/or deletions have occurred during the evolution of the U1 gene. Images PMID:2405391

  11. Complex intra-operonic dynamics mediated by a small RNA in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Hindra; Moody, Matthew J; Jones, Stephanie E; Elliot, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces are predominantly soil-dwelling bacteria that are best known for their multicellular life cycle and their prodigious metabolic capabilities. They are also renowned for their regulatory capacity and flexibility, with each species encoding >60 sigma factors, a multitude of transcription factors, and an increasing number of small regulatory RNAs. Here, we describe our characterization of a conserved small RNA (sRNA), scr4677. In the model species Streptomyces coelicolor, this sRNA is located in the intergenic region separating SCO4677 (an anti-sigma factor-encoding gene) and SCO4676 (a putative regulatory protein-encoding gene), close to the SCO4676 translation start site in an antisense orientation. There appears to be considerable genetic interplay between these different gene products, with wild type expression of scr4677 requiring function of the anti-sigma factor SCO4677, and scr4677 in turn influencing the abundance of SCO4676-associated transcripts. The scr4677-mediated effects were independent of RNase III (a double stranded RNA-specific nuclease), with RNase III having an unexpectedly positive influence on the level of SCO4676-associated transcripts. We have shown that both SCO4676 and SCO4677 affect the production of the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin under specific growth conditions, and that this activity appears to be independent of scr4677.

  12. Argonaute-bound small RNAs from promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Jesse R; Kelly, Timothy J; Sharp, Phillip A

    2014-02-27

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins mediate posttranscriptional gene repression by binding guide miRNAs to regulate targeted RNAs. To confidently assess Ago-bound small RNAs, we adapted a mouse embryonic stem cell system to express a single epitope-tagged Ago protein family member in an inducible manner. Here, we report the small RNA profile of Ago-deficient cells and show that Ago-dependent stability is a common feature of mammalian miRNAs. Using this criteria and immunopurification, we identified an Ago-dependent class of noncanonical miRNAs derived from protein-coding gene promoters, which we name transcriptional start site miRNAs (TSS-miRNAs). A subset of promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) complexes produces hairpin RNAs that are processed in a DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (Dgcr8)/Drosha-independent but Dicer-dependent manner. TSS-miRNA activity is detectable from endogenous levels and following overexpression of mRNA constructs. Finally, we present evidence of differential expression and conservation in humans, suggesting important roles in gene regulation.

  13. Conserved RNA-binding proteins required for dendrite morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Antonacci, Simona; Forand, Daniel; Wolf, Margaret; Tyus, Courtney; Barney, Julia; Kellogg, Leah; Simon, Margo A; Kerr, Genevieve; Wells, Kristen L; Younes, Serena; Mortimer, Nathan T; Olesnicky, Eugenia C; Killian, Darrell J

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of dendritic branching is critical for sensory reception, cell-cell communication within the nervous system, learning, memory, and behavior. Defects in dendrite morphology are associated with several neurologic disorders; thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern dendrite morphogenesis is important. Recent investigations of dendrite morphogenesis have highlighted the importance of gene regulation at the posttranscriptional level. Because RNA-binding proteins mediate many posttranscriptional mechanisms, we decided to investigate the extent to which conserved RNA-binding proteins contribute to dendrite morphogenesis across phyla. Here we identify a core set of RNA-binding proteins that are important for dendrite morphogenesis in the PVD multidendritic sensory neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans. Homologs of each of these genes were previously identified as important in the Drosophila melanogaster dendritic arborization sensory neurons. Our results suggest that RNA processing, mRNA localization, mRNA stability, and translational control are all important mechanisms that contribute to dendrite morphogenesis, and we present a conserved set of RNA-binding proteins that regulate these processes in diverse animal species. Furthermore, homologs of these genes are expressed in the human brain, suggesting that these RNA-binding proteins are candidate regulators of dendrite development in humans.

  14. Identification of Conserved and Potentially Regulatory Small RNAs in Heterocystous Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Álvarez, Manuel; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Vioque, Agustín; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are a growing class of non-protein-coding transcripts that participate in the regulation of virtually every aspect of bacterial physiology. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic organisms that exhibit multicellular behavior and developmental alternatives involving specific transcriptomes exclusive of a given physiological condition or even a cell type. In the context of our ongoing effort to understand developmental decisions in these organisms we have undertaken an approach to the global identification of sRNAs. Using differential RNA-Seq we have previously identified transcriptional start sites for the model heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Here we combine this dataset with a prediction of Rho-independent transcriptional terminators and an analysis of phylogenetic conservation of potential sRNAs among 89 available cyanobacterial genomes. In contrast to predictive genome-wide approaches, the use of an experimental dataset comprising all active transcriptional start sites (differential RNA-Seq) facilitates the identification of bona fide sRNAs. The output of our approach is a dataset of predicted potential sRNAs in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, with different degrees of phylogenetic conservation across the 89 cyanobacterial genomes analyzed. Previously described sRNAs appear among the predicted sRNAs, demonstrating the performance of the algorithm. In addition, new predicted sRNAs are now identified that can be involved in regulation of different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology, including adaptation to nitrogen stress, the condition that triggers differentiation of heterocysts (specialized nitrogen-fixing cells). Transcription of several predicted sRNAs that appear exclusively in the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria is experimentally verified by Northern blot. Cell-specific transcription of one of these sRNAs, NsiR8 (nitrogen stress-induced RNA 8), in developing heterocysts is also demonstrated.

  15. Identification of Conserved and Potentially Regulatory Small RNAs in Heterocystous Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Álvarez, Manuel; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Vioque, Agustín; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are a growing class of non-protein-coding transcripts that participate in the regulation of virtually every aspect of bacterial physiology. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic organisms that exhibit multicellular behavior and developmental alternatives involving specific transcriptomes exclusive of a given physiological condition or even a cell type. In the context of our ongoing effort to understand developmental decisions in these organisms we have undertaken an approach to the global identification of sRNAs. Using differential RNA-Seq we have previously identified transcriptional start sites for the model heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Here we combine this dataset with a prediction of Rho-independent transcriptional terminators and an analysis of phylogenetic conservation of potential sRNAs among 89 available cyanobacterial genomes. In contrast to predictive genome-wide approaches, the use of an experimental dataset comprising all active transcriptional start sites (differential RNA-Seq) facilitates the identification of bona fide sRNAs. The output of our approach is a dataset of predicted potential sRNAs in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, with different degrees of phylogenetic conservation across the 89 cyanobacterial genomes analyzed. Previously described sRNAs appear among the predicted sRNAs, demonstrating the performance of the algorithm. In addition, new predicted sRNAs are now identified that can be involved in regulation of different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology, including adaptation to nitrogen stress, the condition that triggers differentiation of heterocysts (specialized nitrogen-fixing cells). Transcription of several predicted sRNAs that appear exclusively in the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria is experimentally verified by Northern blot. Cell-specific transcription of one of these sRNAs, NsiR8 (nitrogen stress-induced RNA 8), in developing heterocysts is also demonstrated. PMID

  16. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Nicolaï, S; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA offers over 4300 nucleotide sequences (August 1995). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp and World Wide Web(WWW). PMID:8594609

  17. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Van den Broeck, I; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contains (June 1994) 2824 nucleotide sequences. All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp on our server in Antwerp. A special effort was made to improve electronic retrieval and a program is supplied that allows to create different file formats. The database can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library. PMID:7524022

  18. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Jansen, J; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA now offers more than 6000 nucleotide sequences (August 1996). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. For ease of use, the complete database is made available to the scientific community via World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ . PMID:9016516

  19. Epigenetic reprogramming and small RNA silencing of transposable elements in pollen

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, R. Keith; Vaughn, Matthew; Tanurdžic, Miloš; Borges, Filipe; Becker, Jörg D.; Feijó, José A.; Martienssen, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The mutagenic activity of transposable elements (TEs) is suppressed by epigenetic silencing and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), especially in gametes that would transmit transposed elements to the next generation. In pollen from the model plant Arabidopsis, we show that TEs are unexpectedly reactivated and transpose, but only in the pollen vegetative nucleus, which accompanies the sperm cells but does not provide DNA to the fertilized zygote. TE expression coincides with down-regulation of the heterochromatin remodeler DECREASE IN DNA METHYLATION 1 and of most TE siRNAs. However, 21 nucleotide siRNA from Athila retrotransposons is generated in pollen and accumulates in sperm, indicating that siRNA from TEs activated in the vegetative nucleus can target silencing in gametes. We propose a conserved role for reprogramming in germline companion cells, such as nurse cells in insects and vegetative nuclei in plants, to reveal intact TEs in the genome and regulate their activity in gametes. PMID:19203581

  20. Identification and profiling of novel microRNAs in the Brassica rapa genome based on small RNA deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the functional non-coding small RNAs involved in the epigenetic control of the plant genome. Although plants contain both evolutionary conserved miRNAs and species-specific miRNAs within their genomes, computational methods often only identify evolutionary conserved miRNAs. The recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enables us to identify miRNAs and their putative target genes. In this study, we sought to provide a more comprehensive prediction of B. rapa miRNAs based on high throughput small RNA deep sequencing. Results We sequenced small RNAs from five types of tissue: seedlings, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers. By analyzing 2.75 million unique reads that mapped to the B. rapa genome, we identified 216 novel and 196 conserved miRNAs that were predicted to target approximately 20% of the genome’s protein coding genes. Quantitative analysis of miRNAs from the five types of tissue revealed that novel miRNAs were expressed in diverse tissues but their expression levels were lower than those of the conserved miRNAs. Comparative analysis of the miRNAs between the B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes demonstrated that redundant copies of conserved miRNAs in the B. rapa genome may have been deleted after whole genome triplication. Novel miRNA members seemed to have spontaneously arisen from the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes, suggesting the species-specific expansion of miRNAs. We have made this data publicly available in a miRNA database of B. rapa called BraMRs. The database allows the user to retrieve miRNA sequences, their expression profiles, and a description of their target genes from the five tissue types investigated here. Conclusions This is the first report to identify novel miRNAs from Brassica crops using genome-wide high throughput techniques. The combination of computational methods and small RNA deep sequencing provides robust predictions of miRNAs in the genome. The finding of numerous novel mi

  1. Small RNA-mediated regulation of host–pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer F; Micheva-Viteva, Sofiya; Li, Nan; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The rise in antimicrobial drug resistance, alongside the failure of conventional research to discover new antibiotics, will inevitably lead to a public health crisis that can drastically curtail our ability to combat infectious disease. Thus, there is a great global health need for development of antimicrobial countermeasures that target novel cell molecules or processes. RNA represents a largely unexploited category of potential targets for antimicrobial design. For decades, control of cellular behavior was thought to be the exclusive purview of protein-based regulators. The recent discovery of small RNAs (sRNAs) as a universal class of powerful RNA-based regulatory biomolecules has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of gene regulation in practically all biological functions. In general, sRNAs regulate gene expression by base-pairing with multiple downstream target mRNAs to prevent translation of mRNA into protein. In this review, we will discuss recent studies that document discovery of bacterial, viral, and human sRNAs and their molecular mechanisms in regulation of pathogen virulence and host immunity. Illuminating the functional roles of sRNAs in virulence and host immunity can provide the fundamental knowledge for development of next-generation antibiotics using sRNAs as novel targets. PMID:23958954

  2. Optimal use of conservation and accessibility filters in microRNA target prediction.

    PubMed

    Marín, Ray M; Vaníček, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that filtering microRNA (miRNA) target predictions by conservation or by accessibility can reduce the false discovery rate. However, these two strategies are usually not exploited in a combined and flexible manner. Here, we introduce PACCMIT, a flexible method that filters miRNA binding sites by their conservation, accessibility, or both. The improvement in performance obtained with each of these three filters is demonstrated on the prediction of targets for both i) highly and ii) weakly conserved miRNAs, i.e., in two scenarios in which the miRNA-target interactions are subjected to different evolutionary pressures. We show that in the first scenario conservation is a better filter than accessibility (as both sensitivity and precision are higher among the top predictions) and that the combined filter improves performance of PACCMIT even further. In the second scenario, on the other hand, the accessibility filter performs better than both the conservation and combined filters, suggesting that the site conservation is not equally effective in rejecting false positive predictions for all miRNAs. Regarding the quality of the ranking criterion proposed by Robins and Press and used in PACCMIT, it is shown that top ranking interactions correspond to more downregulated proteins than do the lower ranking interactions. Comparison with several other target prediction algorithms shows that the ranking of predictions provided by PACCMIT is at least as good as the ranking generated by other conservation-based methods and considerably better than the energy-based ranking used in other accessibility-based methods.

  3. Conservation of the RNA Transport Machineries and Their Coupling to Translation Control across Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Pianzola, Paula; Suter, Beat

    2012-01-01

    Restriction of proteins to discrete subcellular regions is a common mechanism to establish cellular asymmetries and depends on a coordinated program of mRNA localization and translation control. Many processes from the budding of a yeast to the establishment of metazoan embryonic axes and the migration of human neurons, depend on this type of cell polarization. How factors controlling transport and translation assemble to regulate at the same time the movement and translation of transported mRNAs, and whether these mechanisms are conserved across kingdoms is not yet entirely understood. In this review we will focus on some of the best characterized examples of mRNA transport machineries, the “yeast locasome” as an example of RNA transport and translation control in unicellular eukaryotes, and on the Drosophila Bic-D/Egl/Dyn RNA localization machinery as an example of RNA transport in higher eukaryotes. This focus is motivated by the relatively advanced knowledge about the proteins that connect the localizing mRNAs to the transport motors and the many well studied proteins involved in translational control of specific transcripts that are moved by these machineries. We will also discuss whether the core of these RNA transport machineries and factors regulating mRNA localization and translation are conserved across eukaryotes. PMID:22666086

  4. Detection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by mass spectrometry procedures in doping controls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Delahaut, Philippe; Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering manipulation of athletic performance via small interfering (si)RNA is an emerging field in sports drug testing. Due to the potential to principally knock down every target gene in the organism by means of the RNA interference pathway, this facet of gene doping has become a realistic scenario. In the present study, two distinct model siRNAs comprising 21 nucleotides were designed as double strands which were perfect counterparts to a sequence of the respective messenger RNA coding the muscle regulator myostatin of Rattus norvegicus. Several modified nucleotides were introduced in both the sense and the antisense strand comprising phosphothioates, 2'-O-methylation, 2'-fluoro-nucleotides, locked nucleic acids and a cholesterol tag at the 3'-end. The model siRNAs were applied to rats at 1 mg/kg (i.v.) and blood as well as urine samples were collected. After isolation of the RNA by means of a RNA purification kit, the target analytes were detected by liquid chromatography - high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Analytes were detected as modified nucleotides after alkaline hydrolysis, as intact oligonucleotide strands (top-down) and by means of denaturing SDS-PAGE analysis. The gel-separated siRNA was further subjected to in-gel hydrolysis with different RNases and subsequent identification of the fragments by untargeted LC-HRMS analysis (bottom-up, 'experimental RNomics'). Combining the results of all approaches, the identification of several 3'-truncated urinary metabolites was accomplished and target analytes were detected up to 24 h after a single administration. Simultaneously collected blood samples yielded no promising results. The methods were validated and found fit-for-purpose for doping controls.

  5. Elongator function in tRNA wobble uridine modification is conserved between yeast and plants

    PubMed Central

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Jablonowski, Daniel; Wrackmeyer, Uta; Tschitschmann, Susan; Sondermann, David; Jäger, Gunilla; Gong, Zhizhong; Byström, Anders S; Schaffrath, Raffael; Breunig, Karin D

    2010-01-01

    Based on studies in yeast and mammalian cells the Elongator complex has been implicated in functions as diverse as histone acetylation, polarized protein trafficking and tRNA modification. Here we show that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the Elongator subunit AtELP3/ELO3 have a defect in tRNA wobble uridine modification. Moreover, we demonstrate that yeast elp3 and elp1 mutants expressing the respective Arabidopsis Elongator homologues AtELP3/ELO3 and AtELP1/ELO2 assemble integer Elongator complexes indicating a high degree of structural conservation. Surprisingly, in vivo complementation studies based on Elongator-dependent tRNA nonsense suppression and zymocin tRNase toxin assays indicated that while AtELP1 rescued defects of a yeast elp1 mutant, the most conserved Elongator gene AtELP3, failed to complement an elp3 mutant. This lack of complementation is due to incompatibility with yeast ELP1 as coexpression of both plant genes in an elp1 elp3 yeast mutant restored Elongator's tRNA modification function in vivo. Similarly, AtELP1, not ScELP1 also supported partial complementation by yeast–plant Elp3 hybrids suggesting that AtElp1 has less stringent sequence requirements for Elp3 than ScElp1. We conclude that yeast and plant Elongator share tRNA modification roles and propose that this function might be conserved in Elongator from all eukaryotic kingdoms of life. PMID:20398216

  6. Multilign: an algorithm to predict secondary structures conserved in multiple RNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenjiang; Mathews, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: With recent advances in sequencing, structural and functional studies of RNA lag behind the discovery of sequences. Computational analysis of RNA is increasingly important to reveal structure–function relationships with low cost and speed. The purpose of this study is to use multiple homologous sequences to infer a conserved RNA structure. Results: A new algorithm, called Multilign, is presented to find the lowest free energy RNA secondary structure common to multiple sequences. Multilign is based on Dynalign, which is a program that simultaneously aligns and folds two sequences to find the lowest free energy conserved structure. For Multilign, Dynalign is used to progressively construct a conserved structure from multiple pairwise calculations, with one sequence used in all pairwise calculations. A base pair is predicted only if it is contained in the set of low free energy structures predicted by all Dynalign calculations. In this way, Multilign improves prediction accuracy by keeping the genuine base pairs and excluding competing false base pairs. Multilign has computational complexity that scales linearly in the number of sequences. Multilign was tested on extensive datasets of sequences with known structure and its prediction accuracy is among the best of available algorithms. Multilign can run on long sequences (> 1500 nt) and an arbitrarily large number of sequences. Availability: The algorithm is implemented in ANSI C++ and can be downloaded as part of the RNAstructure package at: http://rna.urmc.rochester.edu Contact: david_mathews@urmc.rochester.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21193521

  7. Distinct Effects of p19 RNA Silencing Suppressor on Small RNA Mediated Pathways in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kontra, Levente; Tavazza, Mario; Lucioli, Alessandra; Tavazza, Raffaela; Moxon, Simon; Medzihradszky, Anna; Burgyán, József

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is one of the main defense mechanisms employed by plants to fight viruses. In change, viruses have evolved silencing suppressor proteins to neutralize antiviral silencing. Since the endogenous and antiviral functions of RNA silencing pathway rely on common components, it was suggested that viral suppressors interfere with endogenous silencing pathway contributing to viral symptom development. In this work, we aimed to understand the effects of the tombusviral p19 suppressor on endogenous and antiviral silencing during genuine virus infection. We showed that ectopically expressed p19 sequesters endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) in the absence, but not in the presence of virus infection. Our presented data question the generalized model in which the sequestration of endogenous sRNAs by the viral suppressor contributes to the viral symptom development. We further showed that p19 preferentially binds the perfectly paired ds-viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) but does not select based on their sequence or the type of the 5’ nucleotide. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation of sRNAs with AGO1 or AGO2 from virus-infected plants revealed that p19 specifically impairs vsiRNA loading into AGO1 but not AGO2. Our findings, coupled with the fact that p19-expressing wild type Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV) overcomes the Nicotiana benthamiana silencing based defense killing the host, suggest that AGO1 is the main effector of antiviral silencing in this host-virus combination. PMID:27711201

  8. Identification and characterization of conserved miRNAs with its targets mRNA in Trichinella Spiralis

    PubMed Central

    Padmashree, Dyavegowda; Ramachandraswamy, Narayanaswamy

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (Small regulatory non-coding RNAs) have an important role in gene regulation and evolutionarily conserved molecules. Trichinella spiralis infect majority of species. Therefore, it is of interest to identify conserved miRNAs and their targets using sequences from EST, GSS and full length nucleotides obtained from NCBI against previously reported worm miRNAs. We identify 11 novel miRNAs in T. spiralis by using bioinformatics-homology based search. In addition, we predicted target mRNA genes form complementary base pair in seed region of miRNAs. Further, gene annotation using Uniprot shows that these target genes of miRNAs are involved in various metabolism, enzymatic activity and constituents of membrane components. PMID:28246461

  9. Exceptionally high and diverse mutation rates in insects small rRNA.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y X; Krupp, G; Gross, J H

    1985-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of 5S rRNA from the posterior silk gland of the silk worm Philosamia cynthia ricini has been determined. The comparison with other insect 5S rRNAs revealed an exceptionally conserved secondary structure, in spite of an extremely high mutation rate: Thirteen nucleotides are different in Philosamia and Drosophila 5S rRNA, but all substitutions are either compensatory or occur in loops or introduce G:U base pairs. The rates of base substitution per site per year of several insect species (diptera and lepidoptera) 5S and 5.8S rRNAs are compared with those occurring in vertebrate rRNAs. In the latter cases the rates are remarkably constant, whereas their value is not only about twofold higher in insect rRNAs, but is found to be extremely large in the 5S rRNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori. These data demonstrate that phylogenetic conclusions derived from small rRNA sequence comparisons are only of limited value.

  10. Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Mihaly; Zsolyomi, Fruzsina; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their functionality through a quantitative description of the evolutionary conservation of disordered segments involved in binding, and investigated the structural implications of flexibility in terms of conformational stability and interface formation. We conclude that the functional role of intrinsically disordered protein segments in RNA-binding is two-fold: first, these regions establish extended, conserved electrostatic interfaces with RNAs via induced fit. Second, conformational flexibility enables them to target different RNA partners, providing multi-functionality, while also ensuring specificity. These findings emphasize the functional importance of intrinsically disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26439842

  11. A conserved heptamer motif for ribosomal RNA transcription termination in animal mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, J R; Marco, R; Garesse, R

    1994-01-01

    A search of sequence data bases for a tridecamer transcription termination signal, previously described in human mtDNA as being responsible for the accumulation of mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in excess over the rest of mitochondrial genes, has revealed that this termination signal occurs in equivalent positions in a wide variety of organisms from protozoa to mammals. Due to the compact organization of the mtDNA, the tridecamer motif usually appears as part of the 3' adjacent gene sequence. Because in phylogenetically widely separated organisms the mitochondrial genome has experienced many rearrangements, it is interesting that its occurrence near the 3' end of the large rRNA is independent of the adjacent gene. The tridecamer sequence has diverged in phylogenetically widely separated organisms. Nevertheless, a well-conserved heptamer--TGGCAGA, the mitochondrial rRNA termination box--can be defined. Although extending the experimental evidence of its role as a transcription termination signal in humans will be of great interest, its evolutionary conservation strongly suggests that mitochondrial rRNA transcription termination could be a widely conserved mechanism in animals. Furthermore, the conservation of a homologous tridecamer motif in one of the last 3' secondary loops of nonmitochondrial 23S-like rRNAs suggests that the role of the sequence has changed during mitochondrial evolution. PMID:7515499

  12. A Conserved Structural Chassis for Mounting Versatile CRISPR RNA-Guided Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ryan N; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-06-04

    Bacteria and archaea rely on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNA-guided adaptive immune systems for targeted elimination of foreign nucleic acids. These immune systems have been divided into three main types, and the first atomic-resolution structure of a type III RNA-guided immune complex provides new insights into the mechanisms of nucleic acid degradation. Here we compare the crystal structure of a type III complex to recently determined structures of DNA-targeting type I CRISPR complexes. Structural comparisons support previous assertions that type I and type III systems share a common ancestor and reveal how a conserved structural chassis is used to support RNA-, DNA-, or both RNA- and DNA-targeting mechanisms.

  13. High-quality RNA extraction from small cardamom tissues rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Nadiya, Fasiludeen; Anjali, Narayanannair; Gangaprasad, Appukuttannair; Sabu, Kalluvettankuzhy Krishnannair

    2015-09-15

    Due to the presence of a diverse array of metabolites, no standard method of RNA isolation is available for plants. We noted that polysaccharide and polyphenol contents of cardamom tissues critically hinder the RNA extraction procedure. Hence, we attempted several methods for obtaining intact mRNA and small RNA from various cardamom tissues. It was found that protocols involving a combination of commercial kits and conventional CTAB (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide) methods yielded RNA with good purity, higher yield, and good integrity. The total RNA isolated through this approach was found to be amenable for transcriptome and small RNA analysis through next-generation sequencing platforms.

  14. 78 FR 7296 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Very Large Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... energy conservation standards for certain commercial air-conditioning and heating equipment. This notice... Industrial Equipment, which includes provisions covering the commercial heating and...

  15. Regulatory mechanisms of exoribonuclease PNPase and regulatory small RNA on T3SS of dickeya dadantii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence factor for many bacterial pathogens. Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is one of the major exoribonucleases in bacteria and plays important roles in mRNA degradation, tRNA processing, and small RNA (sRNA) turnover. In this study, we ...

  16. Evolutionarily conserved roles of the dicer helicase domain in regulating RNA interference processing.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mary Anne; Chan, Jessica M; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-10-10

    The enzyme Dicer generates 21-25 nucleotide RNAs that target specific mRNAs for silencing during RNA interference and related pathways. Although their active sites and RNA binding regions are functionally conserved, the helicase domains have distinct activities in the context of different Dicer enzymes. To examine the evolutionary origins of Dicer helicase functions, we investigated two related Dicer enzymes from the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile. RNA cleavage assays showed that S. thermophile Dicer-1 (StDicer-1) can process hairpin precursor microRNAs, whereas StDicer-2 can only cleave linear double-stranded RNAs. Furthermore, only StDicer-2 possesses robust ATP hydrolytic activity in the presence of double-stranded RNA. Deletion of the StDicer-2 helicase domain increases both StDicer-2 cleavage activity and affinity for hairpin RNA. Notably, both StDicer-1 and StDicer-2 could complement the distantly related yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacking its endogenous Dicer gene but only in their full-length forms, underscoring the importance of the helicase domain. These results suggest an in vivo regulatory function for the helicase domain that may be conserved from fungi to humans.

  17. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yani; Holmgren, Benjamin T; Hinas, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Small RNA pathways, including RNA interference (RNAi), play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. Initially considered to be cytoplasmic, these processes have later been demonstrated to associate with membranes. For example, maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is required for efficient RNAi, whereas fusion of MVBs to lysosomes appears to reduce silencing efficiency. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate membrane fusion and are thus at the core of membrane trafficking. In spite of this, no SNARE has previously been reported to affect RNAi. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the conserved SNARE SEC-22 results in enhanced RNAi upon ingestion of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, SEC-22 overexpression inhibits RNAi in wild-type animals. We find that overexpression of SEC-22 in the target tissue (body wall muscle) strongly suppresses the sec-22(-) enhanced RNAi phenotype, supporting a primary role for SEC-22 in import of RNAi silencing signals or cell autonomous RNAi. A functional mCherry::SEC-22 protein localizes primarily to late endosomes/MVBs and these compartments are enlarged in animals lacking sec-22 SEC-22 interacts with late endosome-associated RNA transport protein SID-5 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and functions in a sid-5-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that SEC-22 reduces RNAi efficiency by affecting late endosome/MVB function, for example, by promoting fusion between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SNARE with a function in small RNA-mediated gene silencing.

  18. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yani; Holmgren, Benjamin T.

    2017-01-01

    Small RNA pathways, including RNA interference (RNAi), play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. Initially considered to be cytoplasmic, these processes have later been demonstrated to associate with membranes. For example, maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is required for efficient RNAi, whereas fusion of MVBs to lysosomes appears to reduce silencing efficiency. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate membrane fusion and are thus at the core of membrane trafficking. In spite of this, no SNARE has previously been reported to affect RNAi. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the conserved SNARE SEC-22 results in enhanced RNAi upon ingestion of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, SEC-22 overexpression inhibits RNAi in wild-type animals. We find that overexpression of SEC-22 in the target tissue (body wall muscle) strongly suppresses the sec-22(−) enhanced RNAi phenotype, supporting a primary role for SEC-22 in import of RNAi silencing signals or cell autonomous RNAi. A functional mCherry::SEC-22 protein localizes primarily to late endosomes/MVBs and these compartments are enlarged in animals lacking sec-22. SEC-22 interacts with late endosome-associated RNA transport protein SID-5 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and functions in a sid-5-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that SEC-22 reduces RNAi efficiency by affecting late endosome/MVB function, for example, by promoting fusion between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SNARE with a function in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. PMID:27974622

  19. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based functional micro- and nanostructures for efficient and selective gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Nam, Yoon Sung; Mok, Hyejung

    2012-07-17

    Because of RNA's ability to encode structure and functional information, researchers have fabricated diverse geometric structures from this polymer at the micro- and nanoscale. With their tunable structures, rigidity, and biocompatibility, novel two-dimensional and three-dimensional RNA structures can serve as a fundamental platform for biomedical applications, including engineered tissues, biosensors, and drug delivery vehicles. The discovery of the potential of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has underscored the applications of RNA-based micro- and nanostructures in medicine. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA), synthetic double-stranded RNA consisting of approximately 21 base pairs, suppresses problematic target genes in a sequence-specific manner via inherent RNA interference (RNAi) processing. As a result, siRNA offers a potential strategy for treatment of many human diseases. However, due to inefficient delivery to cells and off-target effects, the clinical application of therapeutic siRNA has been very challenging. To address these issues, researchers have studied a variety of nanocarrier systems for siRNA delivery. In this Account, we describe several strategies for efficient siRNA delivery and selective gene silencing. We took advantage of facile chemical conjugation and complementary hybridization to design novel siRNA-based micro- and nanostructures. Using chemical crosslinkers and hydrophobic/hydrophilic polymers at the end of siRNA, we produced various RNA-based structures, including siRNA block copolymers, micelles, linear siRNA homopolymers, and microhydrogels. Because of their increased charge density and flexibility compared with conventional siRNA, these micro- and nanostructures can form polyelectrolyte complexes with poorly charged and biocompatible cationic carriers that are both more condensed and more homogenous than the complexes formed in other carrier systems. In addition, the fabricated siRNA-based structures are linked by cleavable disulfide

  20. Depletion of tRNA-halves enables effective small RNA sequencing of low-input murine serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Van Goethem, Alan; Yigit, Nurten; Everaert, Celine; Moreno-Smith, Myrthala; Mus, Liselot M.; Barbieri, Eveline; Speleman, Frank; Mestdagh, Pieter; Shohet, Jason; Van Maerken, Tom; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing ascent of sequencing technologies has enabled researchers to gain unprecedented insights into the RNA content of biological samples. MiRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression. The discovery that miRNAs are stably present in circulation has spiked interest in their potential use as minimally-invasive biomarkers. However, sequencing of blood-derived samples (serum, plasma) is challenging due to the often low RNA concentration, poor RNA quality and the presence of highly abundant RNAs that dominate sequencing libraries. In murine serum for example, the high abundance of tRNA-derived small RNAs called 5′ tRNA halves hampers the detection of other small RNAs, like miRNAs. We therefore evaluated two complementary approaches for targeted depletion of 5′ tRNA halves in murine serum samples. Using a protocol based on biotinylated DNA probes and streptavidin coated magnetic beads we were able to selectively deplete 95% of the targeted 5′ tRNA half molecules. This allowed an unbiased enrichment of the miRNA fraction resulting in a 6-fold increase of mapped miRNA reads and 60% more unique miRNAs detected. Moreover, when comparing miRNA levels in tumor-carrying versus tumor-free mice, we observed a three-fold increase in differentially expressed miRNAs. PMID:27901112

  1. Tat-dependent production of an HIV-1 TAR-encoded miRNA-like small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Harwig, Alex; Jongejan, Aldo; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that retroviruses can produce microRNAs (miRNAs). To prevent cleavage of their RNA genome, retroviruses have to use an alternative RNA source as miRNA precursor. The transacting responsive (TAR) hairpin structure in HIV-1 RNA has been suggested as source for miRNAs, but how these small RNAs are produced without impeding virus replication remained unclear. We used deep sequencing analysis of AGO2-bound HIV-1 RNAs to demonstrate that the 3′ side of the TAR hairpin is processed into a miRNA-like small RNA. This ∼21 nt RNA product is able to repress the expression of mRNAs bearing a complementary target sequence. Analysis of the small RNAs produced by wild-type and mutant HIV-1 variants revealed that non-processive transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter results in the production of short TAR RNAs that serve as precursor. These TAR RNAs are cleaved by Dicer and processing is stimulated by the viral Tat protein. This biogenesis pathway differs from the canonical miRNA pathway and allows HIV-1 to produce the TAR-encoded miRNA-like molecule without cleavage of the RNA genome. PMID:26984525

  2. Conserved motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic polypeptide release factors: tRNA-protein mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Ebihara, K; Uno, M; Nakamura, Y

    1996-01-01

    Translation termination requires two codon-specific polypeptide release factors in prokaryotes and one omnipotent factor in eukaryotes. Sequences of 17 different polypeptide release factors from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were compared. The prokaryotic release factors share residues split into seven motifs. Conservation of many discrete, perhaps critical, amino acids is observed in eukaryotic release factors, as well as in the C-terminal portion of elongation factor (EF) G. Given that the C-terminal domains of EF-G interacts with ribosomes by mimicry of a tRNA structure, the pattern of conservation of residues in release factors may reflect requirements for a tRNA-mimicry for binding to the A site of the ribosome. This mimicry would explain why release factors recognize stop codons and suggests that all prokaryotic and eukaryotic release factors evolved from the progenitor of EF-G. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643594

  3. miRge - A Multiplexed Method of Processing Small RNA-Seq Data to Determine MicroRNA Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason R.; Gupta, Simone; Weng, Lien-Chun; Ashton, John M.; Cornish, Toby C.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Halushka, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA RNA-seq for microRNAs (miRNAs) is a rapidly developing field where opportunities still exist to create better bioinformatics tools to process these large datasets and generate new, useful analyses. We built miRge to be a fast, smart small RNA-seq solution to process samples in a highly multiplexed fashion. miRge employs a Bayesian alignment approach, whereby reads are sequentially aligned against customized mature miRNA, hairpin miRNA, noncoding RNA and mRNA sequence libraries. miRNAs are summarized at the level of raw reads in addition to reads per million (RPM). Reads for all other RNA species (tRNA, rRNA, snoRNA, mRNA) are provided, which is useful for identifying potential contaminants and optimizing small RNA purification strategies. miRge was designed to optimally identify miRNA isomiRs and employs an entropy based statistical measurement to identify differential production of isomiRs. This allowed us to identify decreasing entropy in isomiRs as stem cells mature into retinal pigment epithelial cells. Conversely, we show that pancreatic tumor miRNAs have similar entropy to matched normal pancreatic tissues. In a head-to-head comparison with other miRNA analysis tools (miRExpress 2.0, sRNAbench, omiRAs, miRDeep2, Chimira, UEA small RNA Workbench), miRge was faster (4 to 32-fold) and was among the top-two methods in maximally aligning miRNAs reads per sample. Moreover, miRge has no inherent limits to its multiplexing. miRge was capable of simultaneously analyzing 100 small RNA-Seq samples in 52 minutes, providing an integrated analysis of miRNA expression across all samples. As miRge was designed for analysis of single as well as multiple samples, miRge is an ideal tool for high and low-throughput users. miRge is freely available at http://atlas.pathology.jhu.edu/baras/miRge.html. PMID:26571139

  4. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain

    PubMed Central

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe S.; Seemann, Stefan E.; Jensen, Mads Krogh; Hansen, Mathias; Gorodkin, Jan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A distance constrained secondary structural model of the ≈10 kb RNA genome of the HIV-1 has been predicted but higher-order structures, involving long distance interactions, are currently unknown. We present the first global RNA secondary structure model for the HIV-1 genome, which integrates both comparative structure analysis and information from experimental data in a full-length prediction without distance constraints. Besides recovering known structural elements, we predict several novel structural elements that are conserved in HIV-1 evolution. Our results also indicate that the structure of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping protein-coding regions the COS is supported by a particular high frequency of compensatory base changes, suggesting functional importance for this element. This new structural element potentially organizes the whole genome into three major domains protruding from a conserved core structure with potential roles in replication and evolution for the virus. PMID:26476446

  5. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain.

    PubMed

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe S; Seemann, Stefan E; Jensen, Mads Krogh; Hansen, Mathias; Gorodkin, Jan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-12-02

    A distance constrained secondary structural model of the ≈10 kb RNA genome of the HIV-1 has been predicted but higher-order structures, involving long distance interactions, are currently unknown. We present the first global RNA secondary structure model for the HIV-1 genome, which integrates both comparative structure analysis and information from experimental data in a full-length prediction without distance constraints. Besides recovering known structural elements, we predict several novel structural elements that are conserved in HIV-1 evolution. Our results also indicate that the structure of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping protein-coding regions the COS is supported by a particular high frequency of compensatory base changes, suggesting functional importance for this element. This new structural element potentially organizes the whole genome into three major domains protruding from a conserved core structure with potential roles in replication and evolution for the virus.

  6. Genome-scale mRNA and small RNA transcriptomic insights into initiation of citrus apomixis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jian-Mei; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Fang, Yan-Ni; Jia, Hui-Hui; Xie, Zong-Zhou; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Nucellar embryony (NE) is an adventitious form of apomixis common in citrus, wherein asexual embryos initiate directly from nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac. NE enables the fixation of desirable agronomic traits and the production of clonal offspring of virus-free rootstock, but impedes progress in hybrid breeding. In spite of the great importance of NE in citrus breeding and commercial production, little is understood about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, the stages of nucellar embryo initiation (NEI) were determined for two polyembryonic citrus cultivars via histological observation. To explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in NEI, we performed mRNA-seq and sRNA-seq analyses of ovules immediately prior to and at stages during NEI in the two pairs of cultivars. A total of 305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the poly- and monoembryonic ovules. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that several processes are significantly enriched based on DEGs. In particular, response to stress, and especially response to oxidative stress, was over-represented in polyembryonic ovules. Nearly 150 miRNAs, comprising ~90 conserved and ~60 novel miRNAs, were identified in the ovules of either cultivar pair. Only two differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified, of which the novel miRN23-5p was repressed whereas the targets accumulated in the polyembryonic ovules. This integrated study on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory profiles between poly- and monoembryonic citrus ovules provides new insights into the mechanism of NE, which should contribute to revealing the regulatory mechanisms of plant apomixis. PMID:27619233

  7. Genome-scale mRNA and small RNA transcriptomic insights into initiation of citrus apomixis.

    PubMed

    Long, Jian-Mei; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Fang, Yan-Ni; Jia, Hui-Hui; Xie, Zong-Zhou; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2016-10-01

    Nucellar embryony (NE) is an adventitious form of apomixis common in citrus, wherein asexual embryos initiate directly from nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac. NE enables the fixation of desirable agronomic traits and the production of clonal offspring of virus-free rootstock, but impedes progress in hybrid breeding. In spite of the great importance of NE in citrus breeding and commercial production, little is understood about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, the stages of nucellar embryo initiation (NEI) were determined for two polyembryonic citrus cultivars via histological observation. To explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in NEI, we performed mRNA-seq and sRNA-seq analyses of ovules immediately prior to and at stages during NEI in the two pairs of cultivars. A total of 305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the poly- and monoembryonic ovules. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that several processes are significantly enriched based on DEGs. In particular, response to stress, and especially response to oxidative stress, was over-represented in polyembryonic ovules. Nearly 150 miRNAs, comprising ~90 conserved and ~60 novel miRNAs, were identified in the ovules of either cultivar pair. Only two differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified, of which the novel miRN23-5p was repressed whereas the targets accumulated in the polyembryonic ovules. This integrated study on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory profiles between poly- and monoembryonic citrus ovules provides new insights into the mechanism of NE, which should contribute to revealing the regulatory mechanisms of plant apomixis.

  8. A conserved loop in polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) essential for both RNA and ADP/phosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Mazzantini, Elisa; Nardini, Marco; Regonesi, Maria Elena; Greco, Claudio; Briani, Federica; De Gioia, Luca; Dehò, Gianni; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) reversibly catalyzes RNA phosphorolysis and polymerization of nucleoside diphosphates. Its homotrimeric structure forms a central channel where RNA is accommodated. Each protomer core is formed by two paralogous RNase PH domains: PNPase1, whose function is largely unknown, hosts a conserved FFRR loop interacting with RNA, whereas PNPase2 bears the putative catalytic site, ∼20 Å away from the FFRR loop. To date, little is known regarding PNPase catalytic mechanism. We analyzed the kinetic properties of two Escherichia coli PNPase mutants in the FFRR loop (R79A and R80A), which exhibited a dramatic increase in Km for ADP/Pi binding, but not for poly(A), suggesting that the two residues may be essential for binding ADP and Pi. However, both mutants were severely impaired in shifting RNA electrophoretic mobility, implying that the two arginines contribute also to RNA binding. Additional interactions between RNA and other PNPase domains (such as KH and S1) may preserve the enzymatic activity in R79A and R80A mutants. Inspection of enzyme structure showed that PNPase has evolved a long-range acting hydrogen bonding network that connects the FFRR loop with the catalytic site via the F380 residue. This hypothesis was supported by mutation analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of PNPase domains and RNase PH suggests that such network is a unique feature of PNPase1 domain, which coevolved with the paralogous PNPase2 domain.

  9. Small RNAs, big impact: small RNA pathways in transposon control and their effect on the host stress response.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Bayly S

    2013-12-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are a major constituent of most genomes. Organisms regulate transposable element expression, transposition, and insertion site preference, mitigating the genome instability caused by uncontrolled transposition. A recent burst of research has demonstrated the critical role of small non-coding RNAs in regulating transposition in fungi, plants, and animals. While mechanistically distinct, these pathways work through a conserved paradigm. The presence of a transposon is communicated by the presence of its RNA or by its integration into specific genomic loci. These signals are then translated into small non-coding RNAs that guide epigenetic modifications and gene silencing back to the transposon. In addition to being regulated by the host, transposable elements are themselves capable of influencing host gene expression. Transposon expression is responsive to environmental signals, and many transposons are activated by various cellular stresses. TEs can confer local gene regulation by acting as enhancers and can also confer global gene regulation through their non-coding RNAs. Thus, transposable elements can act as stress-responsive regulators that control host gene expression in cis and trans.

  10. The lncRNA SLNCR1 mediates melanoma invasion through a conserved SRA1-like region

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karyn; Joyce, Cailin E.; Buquicchio, Frank; Brown, Adam; Ritz, Justin; Distel, Robert J.; Yoon, Charles H.; Novina, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in numerous physiological processes and diseases, most notably cancers. However, little is known about the mechanism of many functional lncRNAs. We identified an abundantly-expressed lncRNA associated with decreased melanoma patient survival. Increased expression of this lncRNA, SLNCR1, mediates melanoma invasion through a highly-conserved sequence similar to the lncRNA SRA1. Using a sensitive technique we term RATA (RNA-associated transcription factor array), we show that the brain-specific homeobox protein 3a (Brn3a) and the androgen receptor (AR) bind within and adjacent to SLNCR1’s conserved region, respectively. SLNCR1, AR, and Brn3a are specifically required for transcriptional activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and increased melanoma invasion. Our observations directly link AR to melanoma invasion, possibly explaining why males experience more melanoma metastases and have an overall lower survival as compared to females. PMID:27210747

  11. Role of Escherichia coli YbeY, a highly conserved protein, in rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Bryan W.; Köhrer, Caroline; Jacob, Asha I.; Simmons, Lyle A.; Zhu, Jianyu; Aleman, Lourdes M.; RajBhandary, Uttam L.; Walker, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    The UPF0054 protein family is highly conserved with homologs present in nearly every sequenced bacterium. In some bacteria, the respective gene is essential, while in others its loss results in a highly pleiotropic phenotype. Despite detailed structural studies, a cellular role for this protein family has remained unknown. We report here that deletion of the Escherichia coli homolog, YbeY, causes striking defects that affect ribosome activity, translational fidelity and ribosome assembly. Mapping of 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA termini reveals that YbeY influences the maturation of all three rRNAs, with a particularly strong effect on maturation at both the 5′- and 3′-ends of 16S rRNA as well as maturation of the 5′-termini of 23S and 5S rRNAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate strong genetic interactions between ybeY and rnc (encoding RNase III), ybeY and rnr (encoding RNase R), and ybeY and pnp (encoding PNPase), further suggesting a role for YbeY in rRNA maturation. Mutation of highly conserved amino acids in YbeY, allowed the identification of two residues (H114, R59) that were found to have a significant effect in vivo. We discuss the implications of these findings for rRNA maturation and ribosome assembly in bacteria. PMID:20807199

  12. Global analysis of asymmetric RNA enrichment in oocytes reveals low conservation between closely related Xenopus species

    PubMed Central

    Claußen, Maike; Lingner, Thomas; Pommerenke, Claudia; Opitz, Lennart; Salinas, Gabriela; Pieler, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    RNAs that localize to the vegetal cortex during Xenopus laevis oogenesis have been reported to function in germ layer patterning, axis determination, and development of the primordial germ cells. Here we report on the genome-wide, comparative analysis of differentially localizing RNAs in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis oocytes, revealing a surprisingly weak degree of conservation in respect to the identity of animally as well as vegetally enriched transcripts in these closely related species. Heterologous RNA injections and protein binding studies indicate that the different RNA localization patterns in these two species are due to gain/loss of cis-acting localization signals rather than to differences in the RNA-localizing machinery. PMID:26337391

  13. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3'-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3'-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation.

  14. Massive microRNA sequence conservation and prevalence in human and chimpanzee introns.

    PubMed

    Hill, Aubrey E; Sorscher, Eric J

    2013-06-01

    Human and chimpanzee introns contain numerous sequences strongly related to known microRNA hairpin structures. The relative frequency is precisely maintained across all chromosomes, suggesting the possible co-evolution of gene networks dependent upon microRNA regulation and with origins corresponding to the advent of primate transposable elements (TEs). While the motifs are known to be derived from transposable elements, the most common are far more numerous than expected from the number of TEs and their paralogous sequences, and exhibit striking conservation in comparison to the surrounding TE sequence context. Several of these motifs also exhibit structural complimentarity to each other, suggesting a pairing function at the level of DNA or RNA. These "pseudomicroRNAs," in semblance to pseudogenes, include hundreds of thousands of vestigial paralogs of primate microRNAs, many of which may have functioned historically or remain active today.

  15. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    PubMed Central

    Da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3′-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3′-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation. PMID:27091704

  16. Small RNA Library Cloning Procedure for Deep Sequencing of Specific Endogenous siRNA Classes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ow, Maria C.; Lau, Nelson C.; Hall, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, distinct classes of small RNAs ranging in size from ~21 to 26 nucleotides have been discovered and shown to play important roles in a wide array of cellular functions. Because of the abundance of these small RNAs, library preparation from an RNA sample followed by deep sequencing provides the identity and quantity of a particular class of small RNAs. In this chapter we describe a detailed protocol for preparing small RNA libraries for deep sequencing on the Illumina platform from the nematode C. elegans. PMID:24920360

  17. Application of small RNA technology for improved control of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Marks, Neil D; Gu, Henry; McNeilly, Tom N; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target mRNA sequences, most often in the 3'UTR, to negatively regulate gene expression. In parasitic helminths, miRNAs are being increasingly studied for their potential roles in development and host-parasite interactions. The availability of genome data, combined with small RNA sequencing, has paved the way to profile miRNAs expressed at particular developmental stages for many parasitic helminths. While some miRNAs are conserved across species, others appear to be unique to specific parasites, suggesting important roles in adaptation and survival in the host environment. Some miRNAs are released from parasites, in exosomes or in protein complexes, and the potential effects of these on host immune function are being increasingly studied. In addition, release of miRNAs from schistosome and filarial parasites into host plasma can be exploited for the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of infection. Interfering with miRNA function, as well as silencing key components of the pathways they regulate, will progress our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel approach to therapeutic control. RNA interference (RNAi) by siRNAs has proven to be inconsistent in parasitic nematodes. However, the recent successes reported for schistosome and liver fluke RNAi, encourage further efforts to enhance delivery of RNA and improve in vitro culture systems and assays to monitor phenotypic effects in nematodes. These improvements are important for the establishment of reliable functional genomic platforms for novel drug and vaccine development. In this review we focus on the important roles of mi

  18. Quantification of Small Non-Coding RNAs Allows an Accurate Comparison of miRNA Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Masotti, Andrea; Caputo, Viviana; Da Sacco, Letizia; Pizzuti, Antonio; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bottazzo, Gian Franco

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved ∼22-mer RNA molecules, encoded by plants and animals that regulate the expression of genes binding to the 3′-UTR of specific target mRNAs. The amount of miRNAs in a total RNA sample depends on the recovery efficiency that may be significantly affected by the different purification methods employed. Traditional approaches may be inefficient at recovering small RNAs, and common spectrophotometric determination is not adequate to quantify selectively these low molecular weight (LMW) species from total RNA samples. Here, we describe the use of qualitative and quantitative lab-on-a-chip tools for the analysis of these LMW RNA species. Our data emphasize the close correlation of LMW RNAs with the expression levels of some miRNAs. We therefore applied our result to the comparison of some miRNA expression profiles in different tissues. Finally, the methods we used in this paper allowed us to analyze the efficiency of extraction protocols, to study the small (but significant) differences among various preparations and to allow a proper comparison of some miRNA expression profiles in various tissues. PMID:19727414

  19. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Matthew D.; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome. PMID:24357181

  20. Seeing the forest for the trees: annotating small RNA producing genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Coruh, Ceyda; Shahid, Saima; Axtell, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    A key goal in genomics is the complete annotation of the expressed regions of the genome. In plants, substantial portions of the genome make regulatory small RNAs produced by Dicer-Like (DCL) proteins and utilized by Argonaute (AGO) proteins. These include miRNAs and various types of endogenous siRNAs. Small RNA-seq, enabled by cheap and fast DNA sequencing, has produced an enormous volume of data on plant miRNA and siRNA expression in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent progress in using small RNA-seq data to produce stable and reliable annotations of miRNA and siRNA genes in plants. In addition, we highlight key goals for the future of small RNA gene annotation in plants.

  1. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Disney, Matthew D; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L

    2014-02-21

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including structure-activity relationships through sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome.

  2. Targeting Th17 Cells with Small Molecules and Small Interference RNA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Song, Pingfang; Zhao, Yi; Xue, Li-Jia; Liu, Yi; Chu, Cong-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play a central role in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases via the production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17, IL-17F, and IL-22. Anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibodies show potent efficacy in psoriasis but poor effect in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease. Alternative agents targeting Th17 cells may be a better way to inhibit the development and function of Th17 cells than antibodies of blocking a single effector cytokine. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) which acts as the master transcription factor of Th17 differentiation has been an attractive pharmacologic target for the treatment of Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. Recent progress in technology of chemical screen and engineering nucleic acid enable two new classes of therapeutics targeting RORγt. Chemical screen technology identified several small molecule specific inhibitors of RORγt from a small molecule library. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technology enabled target specific aptamers to be isolated from a random sequence oligonucleotide library. In this review, we highlight the development and therapeutic potential of small molecules inhibiting Th17 cells by targeting RORγt and aptamer mediated CD4(+) T cell specific delivery of small interference RNA against RORγt gene expression to inhibit pathogenic effector functions of Th17 lineage.

  3. Grad-seq guides the discovery of ProQ as a major small RNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Andreas; Günster, Regina; Becher, Dörte; Reinhardt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The functional annotation of transcriptomes and identification of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) classes has been greatly facilitated by the advent of next-generation RNA sequencing which, by reading the nucleotide order of transcripts, theoretically allows the rapid profiling of all transcripts in a cell. However, primary sequence per se is a poor predictor of function, as ncRNAs dramatically vary in length and structure and often lack identifiable motifs. Therefore, to visualize an informative RNA landscape of organisms with potentially new RNA biology that are emerging from microbiome and environmental studies requires the use of more functionally relevant criteria. One such criterion is the association of RNAs with functionally important cognate RNA-binding proteins. Here we analyze the full ensemble of cellular RNAs using gradient profiling by sequencing (Grad-seq) in the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica, partitioning its coding and noncoding transcripts based on their network of RNA–protein interactions. In addition to capturing established RNA classes based on their biochemical profiles, the Grad-seq approach enabled the discovery of an overlooked large collective of structured small RNAs that form stable complexes with the conserved protein ProQ. We show that ProQ is an abundant RNA-binding protein with a wide range of ligands and a global influence on Salmonella gene expression. Given its generic ability to chart a functional RNA landscape irrespective of transcript length and sequence diversity, Grad-seq promises to define functional RNA classes and major RNA-binding proteins in both model species and genetically intractable organisms. PMID:27671629

  4. Small RNA sX13: a multifaceted regulator of virulence in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, Cornelius; Abendroth, Ulrike; Brock, Juliane; Serrania, Javier; Becker, Anke; Bonas, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are ubiquitous posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Using the model plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), we investigated the highly expressed and conserved sRNA sX13 in detail. Deletion of sX13 impinged on Xcv virulence and the expression of genes encoding components and substrates of the Hrp type III secretion (T3S) system. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that sX13 promotes mRNA accumulation of HrpX, a key regulator of the T3S system, whereas the mRNA level of the master regulator HrpG was unaffected. Complementation studies suggest that sX13 acts upstream of HrpG. Microarray analyses identified 63 sX13-regulated genes, which are involved in signal transduction, motility, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation and virulence. Structure analyses of in vitro transcribed sX13 revealed a structure with three stable stems and three apical C-rich loops. A computational search for putative regulatory motifs revealed that sX13-repressed mRNAs predominantly harbor G-rich motifs in proximity of translation start sites. Mutation of sX13 loops differentially affected Xcv virulence and the mRNA abundance of putative targets. Using a GFP-based reporter system, we demonstrated that sX13-mediated repression of protein synthesis requires both the C-rich motifs in sX13 and G-rich motifs in potential target mRNAs. Although the RNA-binding protein Hfq was dispensable for sX13 activity, the hfq mRNA and Hfq::GFP abundance were negatively regulated by sX13. In addition, we found that G-rich motifs in sX13-repressed mRNAs can serve as translational enhancers and are located at the ribosome-binding site in 5% of all protein-coding Xcv genes. Our study revealed that sX13 represents a novel class of virulence regulators and provides insights into sRNA-mediated modulation of adaptive processes in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas.

  5. New perspectives on the diversification of the RNA interference system: insights from comparative genomics and small RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, Alexander Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; Aravind, L

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the pervasive involvement of small RNAs in regulating diverse biological processes has been greatly augmented by recent application of deep-sequencing technologies to small RNA across diverse eukaryotes. We review the currently-known small RNA classes and place them in context of the reconstructed evolutionary history of the RNAi protein machinery. This synthesis indicates the earliest versions of eukaryotic RNAi systems likely utilized small RNA processed from three types of precursors: 1) sense-antisense transcriptional products, 2) genome-encoded, imperfectly-complementary hairpin sequences, and 3) larger non-coding RNA precursor sequences. Structural dissection of PIWI proteins along with recent discovery of novel families (including Med13 of the Mediator complex) suggest that emergence of a distinct architecture with the N-terminal domains (also occurring separately fused to endoDNases in prokaryotes) formed via duplication of an ancestral unit was key to their recruitment as primary RNAi effectors and use of small RNAs of certain preferred lengths. Prokaryotic PIWI proteins are typically components of several RNA-directed DNA restriction or CRISPR/Cas systems. However, eukaryotic versions appear to have emerged from a subset that evolved RNA-directed RNA interference. They were recruited alongside RNaseIII domains and RdRP domains, also from prokaryotic systems, to form the core eukaryotic RNAi system. Like certain regulatory systems, RNAi diversified into two distinct but linked arms concomitant with eukaryotic nucleo-cytoplasmic compartmentalization. Subsequent elaboration of RNAi proceeded via diversification of the core protein machinery through lineage-specific expansions and recruitment of new components from prokaryotes (nucleases and small RNA-modifying enzymes), allowing for diversification of associating small RNAs. PMID:24311560

  6. Crystal structures of the Lsm complex bound to the 3' end sequence of U6 small nuclear RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lijun; Hang, Jing; Zhou, Yulin; Wan, Ruixue; Lu, Guifeng; Yin, Ping; Yan, Chuangye; Shi, Yigong

    2014-02-06

    Splicing of precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) in eukaryotic cells is carried out by the spliceosome, which consists of five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and a number of accessory factors and enzymes. Each snRNP contains a ring-shaped subcomplex of seven proteins and a specific RNA molecule. The U6 snRNP contains a unique heptameric Lsm protein complex, which specifically recognizes the U6 small nuclear RNA at its 3' end. Here we report the crystal structures of the heptameric Lsm complex, both by itself and in complex with a 3' fragment of U6 snRNA, at 2.8 Å resolution. Each of the seven Lsm proteins interacts with two neighbouring Lsm components to form a doughnut-shaped assembly, with the order Lsm3-2-8-4-7-5-6. The four uridine nucleotides at the 3' end of U6 snRNA are modularly recognized by Lsm3, Lsm2, Lsm8 and Lsm4, with the uracil base specificity conferred by a highly conserved asparagine residue. The uracil base at the extreme 3' end is sandwiched by His 36 and Arg 69 from Lsm3, through π-π and cation-π interactions, respectively. The distinctive end-recognition of U6 snRNA by the Lsm complex contrasts with RNA binding by the Sm complex in the other snRNPs. The structural features and associated biochemical analyses deepen mechanistic understanding of the U6 snRNP function in pre-mRNA splicing.

  7. Experimental RNomics in Aquifex aeolicus: identification of small non-coding RNAs and the putative 6S RNA homolog

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Dagmar K.; Minnerup, Jens; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Hartmann, Roland K.

    2005-01-01

    By an experimental RNomics approach, we have generated a cDNA library from small RNAs expressed from the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. The library included RNAs that were antisense to mRNAs and tRNAs as well as RNAs encoded in intergenic regions. Substantial steady-state levels in A.aeolicus cells were confirmed for several of the cloned RNAs by northern blot analysis. The most abundant intergenic RNA of the library was identified as the 6S RNA homolog of A.aeolicus. Although shorter in size (150 nt) than its γ-proteobacterial homologs (∼185 nt), it is predicted to have the most stable structure among known 6S RNAs. As in the γ-proteobacteria, the A.aeolicus 6S RNA gene (ssrS) is located immediately upstream of the ygfA gene encoding a widely conserved 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase. We identifed novel 6S RNA candidates within the γ-proteobacteria but were unable to identify reasonable 6S RNA candidates in other bacterial branches, utilizing mfold analyses of the region immediately upstream of ygfA combined with 6S RNA blastn searches. By RACE experiments, we mapped the major transcription initiation site of A.aeolicus 6S RNA primary transcripts, located within the pheT gene preceding ygfA, as well as three processing sites. PMID:15814812

  8. Saccharomyces SRP RNA secondary structures: a conserved S-domain and extended Alu-domain.

    PubMed

    Van Nues, Rob W; Brown, Jeremy D

    2004-01-01

    The contribution made by the RNA component of signal recognition particle (SRP) to its function in protein targeting is poorly understood. We have generated a complete secondary structure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRP RNA, scR1. The structure conforms to that of other eukaryotic SRP RNAs. It is rod-shaped with, at opposite ends, binding sites for proteins required for the SRP functions of signal sequence recognition (S-domain) and translational elongation arrest (Alu-domain). Micrococcal nuclease digestion of purified S. cerevisiae SRP separated the S-domain of the RNA from the Alu-domain as a discrete fragment. The Alu-domain resolved into several stable fragments indicating a compact structure. Comparison of scR1 with SRP RNAs of five yeast species related to S. cerevisiae revealed the S-domain to be the most conserved region of the RNA. Extending data from nuclease digestion with phylogenetic comparison, we built the secondary structure model for scR1. The Alu-domain contains large extensions, including a sequence with hallmarks of an expansion segment. Evolutionarily conserved bases are placed in the Alu- and S-domains as in other SRP RNAs, the exception being an unusual GU(4)A loop closing the helix onto which the signal sequence binding Srp54p assembles (domain IV). Surprisingly, several mutations within the predicted Srp54p binding site failed to disrupt SRP function in vivo. However, the strength of the Srp54p-scR1 and, to a lesser extent, Sec65p-scR1 interaction was decreased in these mutant particles. The availability of a secondary structure for scR1 will facilitate interpretation of data from genetic analysis of the RNA.

  9. Small interfering RNA of alkaline phosphatase inhibits matrix mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kotobuki, Noriko; Matsushima, Asako; Kato, Youichi; Kubo, Yoko; Hirose, Motohiro; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the cascade of matrix mineralization, cells expressing high and low alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were separated from human osteoblast-like (HOS) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with an ALP antibody. After these cells had been recloned from single cells and then cultured under osteogenic conditions, high-ALP-expressing HOS (H-HOS) cells showed matrix mineralization, but low-ALP-expressing HOS (L-HOS) cells did not. The interaction among osteogenic-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), collagen type I alpha1 chain (COL1A1), tissue non-specific ALP, and osteocalcin (OCN), is well known as being related to matrix mineralization. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the gene expression of ALP was higher in H-HOS cells than in L-HOS, whereas the gene expression of RUNX2, COL1A1, and OCN was lower in H-HOS cells than in L-HOS cells. When small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of these osteogenic-related genes were introduced into H-HOS cells by transfection, only ALP siRNA inhibited matrix mineralization. Furthermore, the expression of not only the ALP gene, but also the COL1A1 and RUNX2 genes was influenced by the inhibition of ALP, although the expression of OCN was not affected by the inhibition of ALP. We have been able to confirm that the ALP gene is a strong candidate as the trigger of matrix mineralization. These results indicate the usefulness of cloned osteogenic cells in investigating the molecular mechanisms of matrix mineralization, the function of which can be modulated by using a variety of siRNAs.

  10. Inference of miRNA targets using evolutionary conservation and pathway analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaidatzis, Dimos; van Nimwegen, Erik; Hausser, Jean; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2007-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulatory genes in a variety of cellular processes and, in recent years, hundreds of such genes have been discovered in animals. In contrast, functional annotations are available only for a very small fraction of these miRNAs, and even in these cases only partially. Results We developed a general Bayesian method for the inference of miRNA target sites, in which, for each miRNA, we explicitly model the evolution of orthologous target sites in a set of related species. Using this method we predict target sites for all known miRNAs in flies, worms, fish, and mammals. By comparing our predictions in fly with a reference set of experimentally tested miRNA-mRNA interactions we show that our general method performs at least as well as the most accurate methods available to date, including ones specifically tailored for target prediction in fly. An important novel feature of our model is that it explicitly infers the phylogenetic distribution of functional target sites, independently for each miRNA. This allows us to infer species-specific and clade-specific miRNA targeting. We also show that, in long human 3' UTRs, miRNA target sites occur preferentially near the start and near the end of the 3' UTR. To characterize miRNA function beyond the predicted lists of targets we further present a method to infer significant associations between the sets of targets predicted for individual miRNAs and specific biochemical pathways, in particular those of the KEGG pathway database. We show that this approach retrieves several known functional miRNA-mRNA associations, and predicts novel functions for known miRNAs in cell growth and in development. Conclusion We have presented a Bayesian target prediction algorithm without any tunable parameters, that can be applied to sequences from any clade of species. The algorithm automatically infers the phylogenetic distribution of functional sites for each miRNA, and assigns a posterior

  11. Distinct Small RNA Signatures in Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Erik; Nikolaisen, Marlen Aas; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Johansen, Steinar Daae; Perander, Maria; Seternes, Ole Morten

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and different subtypes of breast cancer show distinct cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential. Understanding the molecular features responsible for this heterogeneity is important for correct diagnosis and better treatment strategies. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their associated molecules have gained much attention as players in intercellular communication, ability to precondition specific organs for metastatic invasion, and for their potential role as circulating cancer biomarkers. EVs are released from the cells and contain proteins, DNA, and long and small RNA species. Here we show by high-throughput small RNA-sequencing that EVs from nine different breast cancer cell lines share common characteristics in terms of small RNA content that are distinct from their originating cells. Most strikingly, a highly abundant small RNA molecule derived from the nuclear 28S rRNA is vastly enriched in EVs. The miRNA profiles in EVs correlate with the cellular miRNA expression pattern, but with a few exceptions that includes miR-21. This cancer-associated miRNA is retained in breast cancer cell lines. Finally, we report that EVs from breast cancer cell lines cluster together based on their small RNA signature when compared to EVs derived from other cancer cell lines. Altogether, our data demonstrate that breast cancer cell lines manifest a specific small RNA signature in their released EVs. This opens up for further evaluation of EVs as breast cancer biomarkers. PMID:27579604

  12. Empirical insights into the stochasticity of small RNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Li-Xuan; Tuschl, Thomas; Singer, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    The choice of stochasticity distribution for modeling the noise distribution is a fundamental assumption for the analysis of sequencing data and consequently is critical for the accurate assessment of biological heterogeneity and differential expression. The stochasticity of RNA sequencing has been assumed to follow Poisson distributions. We collected microRNA sequencing data and observed that its stochasticity is better approximated by gamma distributions, likely because of the stochastic nature of exponential PCR amplification. We validated our findings with two independent datasets, one for microRNA sequencing and another for RNA sequencing. Motivated by the gamma distributed stochasticity, we provided a simple method for the analysis of RNA sequencing data and showed its superiority to three existing methods for differential expression analysis using three data examples of technical replicate data and biological replicate data.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of human small nuclear RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Jawdekar, Gauri W.; Henry, R. William

    2009-01-01

    The products of human snRNA genes have been frequently described as performing housekeeping functions and their synthesis refractory to regulation. However, recent studies have emphasized that snRNA and other related non-coding RNA molecules control multiple facets of the central dogma, and their regulated expression is critical to cellular homeostasis during normal growth and in response to stress. Human snRNA genes contain compact and yet powerful promoters that are recognized by increasingly well-characterized transcription factors, thus providing a premier model system to study gene regulation. This review summarizes many recent advances deciphering the mechanism by which the transcription of human snRNA and related genes are regulated. PMID:18442490

  14. Combined small RNA and degradome sequencing reveals complex microRNA regulation of catechin biosynthesis in tea (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lin, Yuling; Zhu, Qiufang; Lin, Jinke

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding small RNAs playing crucial regulatory roles in plants. Tea, a globally popular non-alcoholic drink, is rich in health-enhancing catechins. In this study, 69 conserved and 47 novel miRNAs targeting 644 genes were identified by high-throughout sequencing. Predicted target genes of miRNAs were mainly involved in plant growth, signal transduction, morphogenesis and defense. To further identify targets of tea miRNAs, degradome sequencing and RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5’cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) were applied. Using degradome sequencing, 26 genes mainly involved in transcription factor, resistance protein and signal transduction protein synthesis were identified as potential miRNA targets, with 5 genes subsequently verified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the expression patterns of novel-miR1, novel-miR2, csn-miR160a, csn-miR162a, csn-miR394 and csn-miR396a were negatively correlated with catechin content. The expression of six miRNAs (csn-miRNA167a, csn-miR2593e, csn-miR4380a, csn-miR3444b, csn-miR5251 and csn-miR7777-5p.1) and their target genes involved in catechin biosynthesis were also analyzed by qRT-PCR. Negative and positive correlations were found between these miRNAs and catechin contents, while positive correlations were found between their target genes and catechin content. This result suggests that these miRNAs may negatively regulate catechin biosynthesis by down-regulating their biosynthesis-related target genes. Taken together, our results indicate that miRNAs are crucial regulators in tea, with the results of 5’-RLM-RACE and expression analyses revealing the important role of miRNAs in catechin anabolism. Our findings should facilitate future research to elucidate the function of miRNAs in catechin biosynthesis. PMID:28225779

  15. Detecting pan-cancer conserved microRNA modules from microRNA expression profiles across multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaowen; Zhang, Junying; Yuan, Xiguo; Liu, Baobao; Liu, Yajun; Li, Aimin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiaohan; Tuo, Shouheng

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an indispensable role in cancer initiation and progression. Different cancers have some common hallmarks in general. Analyzing miRNAs that consistently contribute to different cancers can help us to discover the relationship between miRNAs and traits shared by cancers. Most previous works focus on analyzing single miRNA. However, dysregulation of a single miRNA is generally not sufficient to contribute to complex cancer processes. In this study, we put emphasis on analyzing cooperation of miRNAs across cancers. We assume that miRNAs can cooperatively regulate oncogenic pathways and contribute to cancer hallmarks. Such a cooperation is modeled by a miRNA module referred to as a pan-cancer conserved miRNA module. The module consists of miRNAs which simultaneously regulate cancers and are significantly intra-correlated. A novel computational workflow for the module discovery is presented. Multiple modules are discovered from miRNA expression profiles using the method. The function of top two ranked modules are analyzed using the mRNAs which correlate to all the miRNAs in a module across cancers, inferring that the two modules function in regulating the cell cycle which relates to cancer hallmarks as self sufficiency in growth signals and insensitivity to antigrowth signals. Additionally, two novel miRNAs mir-590 and mir-629 are found to cooperate with well-known onco-miRNAs in the modules to contribute to cancers. We also found that PTEN, which is a well known tumor suppressor that regulates the cell cycle, is a common target of miRNAs in the top-one module and cooperative control of PTEN can be a reason for the miRNAs' cooperation. We believe that analyzing the cooperative mechanism of the miRNAs in modules rather than focusing on only single miRNAs may help us know more about the complicated relationship between miRNAs and cancers and develop more effective treatment strategies for cancers.

  16. A Nitric Oxide Regulated Small RNA Controls Expression of Genes Involved in Redox Homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Sylvain; Braun, Frédérique; Lioliou, Efthimia; Romilly, Cédric; Helfer, Anne-Catherine; Kuhn, Laurianne; Quittot, Noé; Nicolas, Pierre; Romby, Pascale; Condon, Ciarán

    2015-01-01

    RsaE is the only known trans-acting small regulatory RNA (sRNA) besides the ubiquitous 6S RNA that is conserved between the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and the soil-dwelling Firmicute Bacillus subtilis. Although a number of RsaE targets are known in S. aureus, neither the environmental signals that lead to its expression nor its physiological role are known. Here we show that expression of the B. subtilis homolog of RsaE is regulated by the presence of nitric oxide (NO) in the cellular milieu. Control of expression by NO is dependent on the ResDE two-component system in B. subtilis and we determined that the same is true in S. aureus. Transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed that many genes with functions related to oxidative stress and oxidation-reduction reactions were up-regulated in a B. subtilis strain lacking this sRNA. We have thus renamed it RoxS. The prediction of RoxS-dependent mRNA targets also suggested a significant enrichment for mRNAs related to respiration and electron transfer. Among the potential direct mRNA targets, we have validated the ppnKB mRNA, encoding an NAD+/NADH kinase, both in vivo and in vitro. RoxS controls both translation initiation and the stability of this transcript, in the latter case via two independent pathways implicating RNase Y and RNase III. Furthermore, RNase Y intervenes at an additional level by processing the 5′ end of the RoxS sRNA removing about 20 nucleotides. Processing of RoxS allows it to interact more efficiently with a second target, the sucCD mRNA, encoding succinyl-CoA synthase, thus expanding the repertoire of targets recognized by this sRNA. PMID:25643072

  17. A nitric oxide regulated small RNA controls expression of genes involved in redox homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Durand, Sylvain; Braun, Frédérique; Lioliou, Efthimia; Romilly, Cédric; Helfer, Anne-Catherine; Kuhn, Laurianne; Quittot, Noé; Nicolas, Pierre; Romby, Pascale; Condon, Ciarán

    2015-02-01

    RsaE is the only known trans-acting small regulatory RNA (sRNA) besides the ubiquitous 6S RNA that is conserved between the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and the soil-dwelling Firmicute Bacillus subtilis. Although a number of RsaE targets are known in S. aureus, neither the environmental signals that lead to its expression nor its physiological role are known. Here we show that expression of the B. subtilis homolog of RsaE is regulated by the presence of nitric oxide (NO) in the cellular milieu. Control of expression by NO is dependent on the ResDE two-component system in B. subtilis and we determined that the same is true in S. aureus. Transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed that many genes with functions related to oxidative stress and oxidation-reduction reactions were up-regulated in a B. subtilis strain lacking this sRNA. We have thus renamed it RoxS. The prediction of RoxS-dependent mRNA targets also suggested a significant enrichment for mRNAs related to respiration and electron transfer. Among the potential direct mRNA targets, we have validated the ppnKB mRNA, encoding an NAD+/NADH kinase, both in vivo and in vitro. RoxS controls both translation initiation and the stability of this transcript, in the latter case via two independent pathways implicating RNase Y and RNase III. Furthermore, RNase Y intervenes at an additional level by processing the 5' end of the RoxS sRNA removing about 20 nucleotides. Processing of RoxS allows it to interact more efficiently with a second target, the sucCD mRNA, encoding succinyl-CoA synthase, thus expanding the repertoire of targets recognized by this sRNA.

  18. The stress-related, rhizobial small RNA RcsR1 destabilizes the autoinducer synthase encoding mRNA sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Baumgardt, Kathrin; Šmídová, Klára; Rahn, Helen; Lochnit, Günter; Robledo, Marta; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent communication system of bacteria relying on autoinducer molecules. During the analysis of the post-transcriptional regulation of quorum sensing in the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, we predicted and verified a direct interaction between the 5'-UTR of sinI mRNA encoding the autoinducer synthase and a small RNA (sRNA), which we named RcsR1. In vitro, RcsR1 prevented cleavage in the 5'-UTR of sinI by RNase E and impaired sinI translation. In line with low ribosomal occupancy and transcript destabilization upon binding of RcsR1 to sinI, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti resulted in lower level and shorter half-life of sinI mRNA, and in decreased autoinducer amount. Although RcsR1 can influence quorum sensing via sinI, its level did not vary at different cell densities, but decreased under salt stress and increased at low temperature. We found that RcsR1 and its stress-related expression pattern, but not the interaction with sinI homologs, are conserved in Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Consistently, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens inhibited growth at high salinity. We identified conserved targets of RcsR1 and showed that most conserved interactions and the effect on growth under salt stress are mediated by the first stem-loop of RcsR1, while its central part is responsible for the species-specific interaction with sinI. We conclude that RcsR1 is an ancient, stress-related riboregulator in rhizobia and propose that it links stress responses to quorum sensing in S. meliloti. PMID:26588798

  19. The stress-related, rhizobial small RNA RcsR1 destabilizes the autoinducer synthase encoding mRNA sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Baumgardt, Kathrin; Šmídová, Klára; Rahn, Helen; Lochnit, Günter; Robledo, Marta; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2016-05-03

    Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent communication system of bacteria relying on autoinducer molecules. During the analysis of the post-transcriptional regulation of quorum sensing in the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, we predicted and verified a direct interaction between the 5'-UTR of sinI mRNA encoding the autoinducer synthase and a small RNA (sRNA), which we named RcsR1. In vitro, RcsR1 prevented cleavage in the 5'-UTR of sinI by RNase E and impaired sinI translation. In line with low ribosomal occupancy and transcript destabilization upon binding of RcsR1 to sinI, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti resulted in lower level and shorter half-life of sinI mRNA, and in decreased autoinducer amount. Although RcsR1 can influence quorum sensing via sinI, its level did not vary at different cell densities, but decreased under salt stress and increased at low temperature. We found that RcsR1 and its stress-related expression pattern, but not the interaction with sinI homologs, are conserved in Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Consistently, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens inhibited growth at high salinity. We identified conserved targets of RcsR1 and showed that most conserved interactions and the effect on growth under salt stress are mediated by the first stem-loop of RcsR1, while its central part is responsible for the species-specific interaction with sinI. We conclude that RcsR1 is an ancient, stress-related riboregulator in rhizobia and propose that it links stress responses to quorum sensing in S. meliloti.

  20. Global small RNA chaperone Hfq and regulatory small RNAs are important virulence regulators in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R Ryan; Sundin, George W

    2013-04-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora.

  1. Diverse evolutionary trajectories for small RNA biogenesis genes in the oomycete genus Phytophthora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene regulation by small RNA pathways is ubiquitous among eukaryotes, but little is known about small RNA pathways in the Stramenopile kingdom. Phytophthora, a genus of filamentous oomycetes, contains many devastating plant pathogens, causing multibillion-dollar damage to crops, ornamental plants, ...

  2. Anomalous uptake and circulatory characteristics of the plant-based small RNA MIR2911

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inconsistent detection of plant-based dietary small RNAs in circulation has thwarted the use of dietary RNA therapeutics. Here we demonstrate mice consuming diets rich in vegetables displayed enhanced serum levels of the plant specific small RNA MIR2911. Differential centrifugation, size-exclusion c...

  3. Conserved RNA cis-elements regulate alternative splicing of Lepidopteran doublesex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zheng, Zeng-Zhang; Song, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Doublesex (dsx) is a downstream key regulator in insect sex determination pathway. In Drosophila, alternative splicing of Dm-dsx gene is sex-specifically regulated by transformer (tra), in which the functional TRA promotes female-specific Dm-dsx. However, the sex determination pathway in Lepidoptera is not well understood; here we focused on alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx) in two agricultural pests, Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), as well as the silkworm (Bombyx mori). More than a dozen new alternative splicing isoforms of dsx were found in the Lepidopteran females, which exist in all tested developmental stages and differentiated tissues. Alignment of mRNA and protein sequences of doublesex revealed high conservation of this gene in Lepidoptera. Strength analysis of splice sites revealed a weak 5' splice site at intron 3 in Lepidopteran dsx, which was experimentally confirmed. Furthermore, we identified highly conserved RNA sequences in the Lepidopteran dsx, including RNA elements I (14 nt), II (11 nt), III (26 nt), IV (17 nt), 3E-1 (8 nt) and 3E-2 (8 nt). The RNA elements III and IV were previously found in exon 4 of B. mori dsx and bound with Bm-PSI, which suppressed the inclusion of exons 3 & 4 into the male-specific Bm-dsx. Then we identified and analyzed the homologous genes of Bm-psi in the two Lepidopteran pests, which expressed at similar levels and exhibited a unique isoform in the males and females from each Lepidoptera. Importantly, mutagenesis of Bm-dsx mini-genes and their expression in BmN cell line demonstrated that three RNA elements are involved in the female-specific alternative splicing of Bm-dsx. Mutations in the RNA cis-elements 3E-1 and 3E-2 resulted in decreased inclusion of exon 3 into the female-specific dsx mRNA, suggesting that these two elements would be exonic splicing enhancers that facilitate the recognition of the weak 5' splice site at intron 3 of Lepidopteran dsx. We

  4. Evolutionary conservation of microRNA regulatory programs in plant flower development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Guo, Zhenhua; Li, Lu

    2013-08-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of growth and development in both plants and animals. Flowering is critical for the reproduction of angiosperms. Flower development entails the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, floral organ initiation, and the development of floral organs. These developmental processes are genetically regulated by miRNAs, which participate in complex genetic networks of flower development. A survey of the literature shows that miRNAs, their specific targets, and the regulatory programs in which they participate are conserved throughout the plant kingdom. This review summarizes the role of miRNAs and their targets in the regulation of gene expression during the floral developmental phase, which includes the floral transition stage, followed by floral patterning, and then the development of floral organs. The conservation patterns observed in each component of the miRNA regulatory system suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in the evolution of flower development.

  5. Systemic delivery of siRNA in pumpkin by a plant PHLOEM SMALL RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 1-ribonucleoprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Jia, Weitao; Leary, Julie A; Lucas, William J

    2014-11-01

    In plants, the vascular system, specifically the phloem, functions in delivery of small RNA (sRNA) to exert epigenetic control over developmental and defense-related processes. Although the importance of systemic sRNA delivery has been established, information is currently lacking concerning the nature of the protein machinery involved in this process. Here, we show that a PHLOEM SMALL-RNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PSRP1) serves as the basis for formation of an sRNA ribonucleoprotein complex (sRNPC) that delivers sRNA (primarily 24 nt) to sink organs. Assembly of this complex is facilitated through PSRP1 phosphorylation by a phloem-localized protein kinase, PSRPK1. During long-distance transport, PSRP1-sRNPC is stable against phloem phosphatase activity. Within target tissues, phosphatase activity results in disassembly of PSRP1-sRNPC, a process that is probably required for unloading cargo sRNA into surrounding cells. These findings provide an insight into the mechanism involved in delivery of sRNA associated with systemic gene silencing in plants.

  6. Conserved RNA secondary structures and long-range interactions in hepatitis C viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Markus; Dünnes, Nadia; Zayas, Margarita; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Niepmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic virus with a plus-strand RNA genome of ∼9.600 nt. Due to error-prone replication by its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) residing in nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), HCV isolates are grouped into seven genotypes with several subtypes. By using whole-genome sequences of 106 HCV isolates and secondary structure alignments of the plus-strand genome and its minus-strand replication intermediate, we established refined secondary structures of the 5′ untranslated region (UTR), the cis-acting replication element (CRE) in NS5B, and the 3′ UTR. We propose an alternative structure in the 5′ UTR, conserved secondary structures of 5B stem–loop (SL)1 and 5BSL2, and four possible structures of the X-tail at the very 3′ end of the HCV genome. We predict several previously unknown long-range interactions, most importantly a possible circularization interaction between distinct elements in the 5′ and 3′ UTR, reminiscent of the cyclization elements of the related flaviviruses. Based on analogy to these viruses, we propose that the 5′–3′ UTR base-pairing in the HCV genome might play an important role in viral RNA replication. These results may have important implications for our understanding of the nature of the cis-acting RNA elements in the HCV genome and their possible role in regulating the mutually exclusive processes of viral RNA translation and replication. PMID:25964384

  7. Small RNA profiling and characterization of piRNA clusters in the adult testes of the common marmoset, a model primate.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takamasa; Iwasaki, Yuka W; Lin, Zachary Yu-Ching; Imamura, Masanori; Seki, Naomi M; Sasaki, Erika; Saito, Kuniaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Siomi, Mikiko C; Siomi, Haruhiko

    2014-08-01

    Small RNAs mediate gene silencing by binding Argonaute/Piwi proteins to regulate target RNAs. Here, we describe small RNA profiling of the adult testes of Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset. The most abundant class of small RNAs in the adult testis was piRNAs, although 353 novel miRNAs but few endo-siRNAs were also identified. MARWI, a marmoset homolog of mouse MIWI and a very abundant PIWI in adult testes, associates with piRNAs that show characteristics of mouse pachytene piRNAs. As in other mammals, most marmoset piRNAs are derived from conserved clustered regions in the genome, which are annotated as intergenic regions. However, unlike in mice, marmoset piRNA clusters are also found on the X chromosome, suggesting escape from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation by the X-linked clusters. Some of the piRNA clusters identified contain antisense-orientated pseudogenes, suggesting the possibility that pseudogene-derived piRNAs may regulate parental functional protein-coding genes. More piRNAs map to transposable element (TE) subfamilies when they have copies in piRNA clusters. In addition, the strand bias observed for piRNAs mapped to each TE subfamily correlates with the polarity of copies inserted in clusters. These findings suggest that pachytene piRNA clusters determine the abundance and strand-bias of TE-derived piRNAs, may regulate protein-coding genes via pseudogene-derived piRNAs, and may even play roles in meiosis in the adult marmoset testis.

  8. Defining the purity of exosomes required for diagnostic profiling of small RNA suitable for biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bellingham, Shayne A.; Scicluna, Benjamin J.; Shambrook, Mitch C.; Sharples, Robyn A.; Cheng, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA), enclosed in exosomes are being utilised for biomarker discovery in disease. Two common exosome isolation methods involve differential ultracentrifugation or differential ultracentrifugation coupled with Optiprep gradient fractionation. Generally, the incorporation of an Optiprep gradient provides better separation and increased purity of exosomes. The question of whether increased purity of exosomes is required for small ncRNA profiling, particularly in diagnostic and biomarker purposes, has not been addressed and highly debated. Utilizing an established neuronal cell system, we used next-generation sequencing to comprehensively profile ncRNA in cells and exosomes isolated by these 2 isolation methods. By comparing ncRNA content in exosomes from these two methods, we found that exosomes from both isolation methods were enriched with miRNAs and contained a diverse range of rRNA, small nuclear RNA, small nucleolar RNA and piwi-interacting RNA as compared with their cellular counterparts. Additionally, tRNA fragments (30–55 nucleotides in length) were identified in exosomes and may act as potential modulators for repressing protein translation. Overall, the outcome of this study confirms that ultracentrifugation-based method as a feasible approach to identify ncRNA biomarkers in exosomes. PMID:28005467

  9. A triple helix within a pseudoknot is a conserved and essential element of telomerase RNA.

    PubMed

    Shefer, Kinneret; Brown, Yogev; Gorkovoy, Valentin; Nussbaum, Tamar; Ulyanov, Nikolai B; Tzfati, Yehuda

    2007-03-01

    Telomerase copies a short template within its integral telomerase RNA onto eukaryotic chromosome ends, compensating for incomplete replication and degradation. Telomerase action extends the proliferative potential of cells, and thus it is implicated in cancer and aging. Nontemplate regions of telomerase RNA are also crucial for telomerase function. However, they are highly divergent in sequence among species, and their roles are largely unclear. Using in silico three-dimensional modeling, constrained by mutational analysis, we propose a three-dimensional model for a pseudoknot in telomerase RNA of the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Interestingly, this structure includes a U-A.U major-groove triple helix. We confirmed the triple-helix formation in vitro using oligoribonucleotides and showed that it is essential for telomerase function in vivo. While triplex-disrupting mutations abolished telomerase function, triple compensatory mutations that formed pH-dependent G-C.C(+) triples restored the pseudoknot structure in a pH-dependent manner and partly restored telomerase function in vivo. In addition, we identified a novel type of triple helix that is formed by G-C.U triples, which also partly restored the pseudoknot structure and function. We propose that this unusual structure, so far found only in telomerase RNA, provides an essential and conserved telomerase-specific function.

  10. MicroRNA-221 promotes human non-small cell lung cancer cell H460 growth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiming; Zhong, Chongjun; Ding, Shengguang; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Zhenya

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA-221) has been reported to be a regulator of cell proliferation. Here we intended to investigate the role of miRNA-221 in regulating the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H460. H460 cells were transfected with miRNA-221 mimics/inhibitors or their respective negative controls. Real-time quantitative PCRs (qRT-PCRs) were used to confirm the effects of miRNA-221 mimics and inhibitors in H460 cells while Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay were used to access the cell viability and proliferation. P27 and P57, as putative targets of miRNA-221, were determined by qRT-PCRs in H460 cells. We found that overexpression of miRNA-221 led to increased proliferative rate and cell viability in H460 cells while down-regulation of miRNA-221 decreased those effects. P27 but not P57 was identified as a potential target gene of miRNA-221 in H460 as P27 was negatively regulated by miRNA-221 in the protein level. In conclusion, this study suggests that miRNA-221 controls human non-small cell lung cancer cell H460 growth potentially by targeting P57. Inhibition of miRNA-221 represents a novel potential treatment for human non-small cell lung cancer.

  11. United we stand: big roles for small RNA gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Felden, Brice; Paillard, Luc

    2017-02-01

    Prokaryotes and eukaryotes evolved relatively similar RNA-based molecular mechanisms to fight potentially deleterious nucleic acids coming from phages, transposons, or viruses. Short RNAs guide effector complexes toward their targets to be silenced or eliminated. These short immunity RNAs are transcribed from clustered loci. Unexpectedly and strikingly, bacterial and eukaryotic immunity RNA clusters share substantial functional and mechanistic resemblances in fighting nucleic acid intruders.

  12. Experimental design, preprocessing, normalization and differential expression analysis of small RNA sequencing experiments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the advent of new, deep sequencing methods, small RNA (sRNA) discovery was dependent on Sanger sequencing, which was time-consuming and limited knowledge to only the most abundant sRNA. The innovation of large-scale, next-generation sequencing has exponentially increased knowledge of the biology, diversity and abundance of sRNA populations. In this review, we discuss issues involved in the design of sRNA sequencing experiments, including choosing a sequencing platform, inherent biases that affect sRNA measurements and replication. We outline the steps involved in preprocessing sRNA sequencing data and review both the principles behind and the current options for normalization. Finally, we discuss differential expression analysis in the absence and presence of biological replicates. While our focus is on sRNA sequencing experiments, many of the principles discussed are applicable to the sequencing of other RNA populations. PMID:21356093

  13. Small RNA-based feedforward loop with AND-gate logic regulates extrachromosomal DNA transfer in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Papenfort, Kai; Espinosa, Elena; Casadesús, Josep; Vogel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer via plasmid conjugation is a major driving force in microbial evolution but constitutes a complex process that requires synchronization with the physiological state of the host bacteria. Although several host transcription factors are known to regulate plasmid-borne transfer genes, RNA-based regulatory circuits for host–plasmid communication remain unknown. We describe a posttranscriptional mechanism whereby the Hfq-dependent small RNA, RprA, inhibits transfer of pSLT, the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica. RprA employs two separate seed-pairing domains to activate the mRNAs of both the sigma-factor σS and the RicI protein, a previously uncharacterized membrane protein here shown to inhibit conjugation. Transcription of ricI requires σS and, together, RprA and σS orchestrate a coherent feedforward loop with AND-gate logic to tightly control the activation of RicI synthesis. RicI interacts with the conjugation apparatus protein TraV and limits plasmid transfer under membrane-damaging conditions. To our knowledge, this study reports the first small RNA-controlled feedforward loop relying on posttranscriptional activation of two independent targets and an unexpected role of the conserved RprA small RNA in controlling extrachromosomal DNA transfer. PMID:26307765

  14. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-10-08

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.

  15. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S.; Harlow, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5′ ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission. PMID:26446566

  16. Defining RNA–Small Molecule Affinity Landscapes Enables Design of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif–small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure–Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif–small molecule binding partners. These results were mined against folded RNAs in the human transcriptome and identified an avid interaction between a small molecule and the Dicer nuclease-processing site in the oncogenic microRNA (miR)-18a hairpin precursor, which is a member of the miR-17-92 cluster. Application of the small molecule, Targapremir-18a, to prostate cancer cells inhibited production of miR-18a from the cluster, de-repressed serine/threonine protein kinase 4 protein (STK4), and triggered apoptosis. Profiling the cellular targets of Targapremir-18a via Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP), a covalent small molecule–RNA cellular profiling approach, and other studies showed specific binding of the compound to the miR-18a precursor, revealing broadly applicable factors that govern small molecule drugging of noncoding RNAs. PMID:28386598

  17. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Klein, Edwin C.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14). Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9) or control RNA (n = 8) during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3) confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease. PMID:27471848

  18. Conservative treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction in children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lung-Huang; Lee, Chee-Yew; Hung, Min-Hsuan; Chen, Der-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of conservative treatment for adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) in children. Design Systematic review of studies involved children with ASBO who received initial conservative/non-operative treatment. Setting The search was performed in April 2013 using PubMed (see online supplementary file 1), current contents, and the Cochrane database. Participants Children with ASBO. Interventions Conservative treatment included nasogastric decompression, parenteral fluids and correction of electrolyte and fluid imbalance. Primary outcome Treatment success. Secondary outcomes Length of hospital stay and the time to first feeding after hospital admission. Results 7 studies (six retrospective, one prospective), involving 8–109 patients (age: 1 month to 16 years) treated conservatively, were included in the review. The nature of conservative treatment was generally consistent between studies (nasogastric decompression, parenteral fluids and correction of electrolyte and fluid imbalance), although patients in one study also received Gastrografin. The rate of conservative treatment success ranged from 16% to 75% among the five studies, but one trial showed 0% successful rate. The hospital length of stay ranged from 3 to 6.5 days for conservative treatment (vs 10.2–13 days for operative treatment). The time to first feeding ranged from 31 to 84 h for conservative treatment. Conclusions In conclusion, in the majority of cases, conservative treatment is an effective means of managing ASBO in children. PMID:25223569

  19. Studying a Drug-like, RNA-Focused Small Molecule Library Identifies Compounds That Inhibit RNA Toxicity in Myotonic Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G.; Southern, Mark R.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    There are many RNA targets in the transcriptome to which small molecule chemical probes and lead therapeutics are desired. However, identifying compounds that bind and modulate RNA function in cellulo is difficult. Although rational design approaches have been developed, they are still in their infancies and leave many RNAs “undruggable”. In an effort to develop a small molecule library that is biased for binding RNA, we computationally identified “drug-like” compounds from screening collections that have favorable properties for binding RNA and for suitability as lead drugs. As proof-of-concept, this collection was screened for binding to and modulating the cellular dysfunction of the expanded repeating RNA (r(CUG)exp) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1. Hit compounds bind the target in cellulo, as determined by the target identification approach Competitive Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-down (C-ChemCLIP), and selectively improve several disease-associated defects. The best compounds identified from our 320-member library are more potent in cellulo than compounds identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns against this RNA. Furthermore, the compound collection has a higher hit rate (9% compared to 0.01–3%), and the bioactive compounds identified are not charged; thus, RNA can be “drugged” with compounds that have favorable pharmacological properties. Finally, this RNA-focused small molecule library may serve as a useful starting point to identify lead “drug-like” chemical probes that affect the biological (dys)function of other RNA targets by direct target engagement. PMID:26414664

  20. Studying a Drug-like, RNA-Focused Small Molecule Library Identifies Compounds That Inhibit RNA Toxicity in Myotonic Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Southern, Mark R; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-12-18

    There are many RNA targets in the transcriptome to which small molecule chemical probes and lead therapeutics are desired. However, identifying compounds that bind and modulate RNA function in cellulo is difficult. Although rational design approaches have been developed, they are still in their infancies and leave many RNAs "undruggable". In an effort to develop a small molecule library that is biased for binding RNA, we computationally identified "drug-like" compounds from screening collections that have favorable properties for binding RNA and for suitability as lead drugs. As proof-of-concept, this collection was screened for binding to and modulating the cellular dysfunction of the expanded repeating RNA (r(CUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1. Hit compounds bind the target in cellulo, as determined by the target identification approach Competitive Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-down (C-ChemCLIP), and selectively improve several disease-associated defects. The best compounds identified from our 320-member library are more potent in cellulo than compounds identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns against this RNA. Furthermore, the compound collection has a higher hit rate (9% compared to 0.01-3%), and the bioactive compounds identified are not charged; thus, RNA can be "drugged" with compounds that have favorable pharmacological properties. Finally, this RNA-focused small molecule library may serve as a useful starting point to identify lead "drug-like" chemical probes that affect the biological (dys)function of other RNA targets by direct target engagement.

  1. Recent In Vivo Evidences of Particle-Based Delivery of Small-Interfering RNA (siRNA) into Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) is both a powerful tool in research and a promising therapeutic platform to modulate expression of disease-related genes. Malignant tumors are attractive disease targets for nucleic acid-based therapies. siRNA directed against oncogenes, and genes driving metastases or angiogenesis have been evaluated in animal models and in some cases, in humans. The outcomes of these studies indicate that drug delivery is a significant limiting factor. This review provides perspectives on in vivo validated nanoparticle-based siRNA delivery systems. Results of recent advances in liposomes and polymeric and inorganic formulations illustrate the need for mutually optimized attributes for performance in systemic circulation, tumor interstitial space, plasma membrane, and endosomes. Physiochemical properties conducive to efficient siRNA delivery are summarized and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25221632

  2. Archaeal DnaG contains a conserved N-terminal RNA-binding domain and enables tailing of rRNA by the exosome.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linlin; Klug, Gabriele; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2014-11-10

    The archaeal exosome is a phosphorolytic 3'-5' exoribonuclease complex. In a reverse reaction it synthesizes A-rich RNA tails. Its RNA-binding cap comprises the eukaryotic orthologs Rrp4 and Csl4, and an archaea-specific subunit annotated as DnaG. In Sulfolobus solfataricus DnaG and Rrp4 but not Csl4 show preference for poly(rA). Archaeal DnaG contains N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) of unknown function flanking a TOPRIM domain. We found that the NT and TOPRIM domains have comparable, high conservation in all archaea, while the CTD conservation correlates with the presence of exosome. We show that the NTD is a novel RNA-binding domain with poly(rA)-preference cooperating with the TOPRIM domain in binding of RNA. Consistently, a fusion protein containing full-length Csl4 and NTD of DnaG led to enhanced degradation of A-rich RNA by the exosome. We also found that DnaG strongly binds native and in vitro transcribed rRNA and enables its polynucleotidylation by the exosome. Furthermore, rRNA-derived transcripts with heteropolymeric tails were degraded faster by the exosome than their non-tailed variants. Based on our data, we propose that archaeal DnaG is an RNA-binding protein, which, in the context of the exosome, is involved in targeting of stable RNA for degradation.

  3. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Penile Cancer Revealed by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xiansheng; Kong, Rui; Xu, Lingfan; Gao, Jingjing; Zou, Duohong; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    Penile cancer (PeCa) is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeCa has not been reported before. In this present study, the miRNA profile was obtained from 10 fresh penile cancerous tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues via next-generation sequencing. As a result, a total of 751 and 806 annotated miRNAs were identified in normal and cancerous penile tissues, respectively. Among which, 56 miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between paired tissues were identified. Subsequently, several annotated miRNAs were selected randomly and validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the previous publications regarding to the altered miRNAs expression in various cancers and especially genitourinary (prostate, bladder, kidney, testis) cancers, the most majority of deregulated miRNAs showed the similar expression pattern in penile cancer. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses suggested that the putative target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs between cancerous and matched normal penile tissues were tightly associated with cell junction, proliferation, growth as well as genomic instability and so on, by modulating Wnt, MAPK, p53, PI3K-Akt, Notch and TGF-β signaling pathways, which were all well-established to participate in cancer initiation and progression. Our work presents a global view of the differentially expressed miRNAs and potentially regulatory networks of their target genes for clarifying the pathogenic transformation of normal penis to PeCa, which research resource also provides new insights

  4. Repurposed Transcriptomic Data Reveal Small Viral RNA Produced by Influenza Virus during Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koire, Amanda; Gilbert, Brian E.; Sucgang, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus, a highly infectious ssRNA virus, replicates in the nucleus of host cells. This unusual feature brings the possibility that the virus may hijack host small noncoding RNA metabolism. Influenza small viral RNA production has been examined in vitro but has not yet been studied in an in vivo setting. We assessed small RNA species from influenza virus during mouse infection by mining publicly available mouse small RNA transcriptome data. We uncovered 26 nt reads corresponding to svRNA, a small viral RNA previously detected in vitro that regulates the transition from transcription to replication during infection, and found a strong positive correlation between svRNA production and host susceptibility to influenza virus infection. We also detected significant overrepresentation of a non-coding 23 nt sequence that we speculate may behave like a miRNA and work with influenza protein NS1 to prevent the transcription and maturation of interferon-stimulated mRNAs. PMID:27788253

  5. Conserved gene clusters in bacterial genomes provide further support for the primacy of RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefert, J. L.; Martin, K. A.; Abdi, F.; Widger, W. R.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    Five complete bacterial genome sequences have been released to the scientific community. These include four (eu)Bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma genitalium, M. pneumoniae, and Synechocystis PCC 6803, as well as one Archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii. Features of organization shared by these genomes are likely to have arisen very early in the history of the bacteria and thus can be expected to provide further insight into the nature of early ancestors. Results of a genome comparison of these five organisms confirm earlier observations that gene order is remarkably unpreserved. There are, nevertheless, at least 16 clusters of two or more genes whose order remains the same among the four (eu)Bacteria and these are presumed to reflect conserved elements of coordinated gene expression that require gene proximity. Eight of these gene orders are essentially conserved in the Archaea as well. Many of these clusters are known to be regulated by RNA-level mechanisms in Escherichia coli, which supports the earlier suggestion that this type of regulation of gene expression may have arisen very early. We conclude that although the last common ancestor may have had a DNA genome, it likely was preceded by progenotes with an RNA genome.

  6. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. Results We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic

  7. A high level of transgenic viral small RNA is associated with broad potyvirus resistance in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Leibman, Diana; Wolf, Dalia; Saharan, Vinod; Zelcer, Aaron; Arazi, Tzahi; Yoel, Shiboleth; Gaba, Victor; Gal-On, Amit

    2011-10-01

    Gene-silencing has been used to develop resistance against many plant viruses but little is known about the transgenic small-interfering RNA (t-siRNA) that confers this resistance. Transgenic cucumber and melon lines harboring a hairpin construct of the Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) HC-Pro gene accumulated different levels of t-siRNA (6 to 44% of total siRNA) and exhibited resistance to systemic ZYMV infection. Resistance to Watermelon mosaic potyvirus and Papaya ring spot potyvirus-W was also observed in a cucumber line that accumulated high levels of t-siRNA (44% of total siRNA) and displayed significantly increased levels of RNA-dependent RNA (RDR)1 and Argonaute 1, as compared with the other transgenic and nontransformed plants. The majority of the t-siRNA sequences were 21 to 22 nucleotides in length and sense strand biased. The t-siRNA were not uniformly distributed throughout the transgene but concentrated in "hot spots" in a pattern resembling that of the viral siRNA peaks observed in ZYMV-infected cucumber and melon. Mutations in ZYMV at the loci associated with the siRNA peaks did not break this resistance, indicating that hot spot t-siRNA may not be essential for resistance. This study shows that resistance based on gene-silencing can be effective against related viruses and is probably correlated with t-siRNA accumulation and increased expression of RDR1.

  8. Regulation of Notch Signaling by an Evolutionary Conserved DEAD Box RNA Helicase, Maheshvara in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, Satya; Tripathi, Bipin K; Maurya, Bhawana; Bhaskar, Pradeep K; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

    2015-11-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved process that influences cell fate determination, cell proliferation, and cell death in a context-dependent manner. Notch signaling is fine-tuned at multiple levels and misregulation of Notch has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. We have characterized maheshvara (mahe), a novel gene in Drosophila melanogaster that encodes a putative DEAD box protein that is highly conserved across taxa and belongs to the largest group of RNA helicase. A dynamic pattern of mahe expression along with the maternal accumulation of its transcripts is seen during early stages of embryogenesis. In addition, a strong expression is also seen in the developing nervous system. Ectopic expression of mahe in a wide range of tissues during development results in a variety of defects, many of which resemble a typical Notch loss-of-function phenotype. We illustrate that ectopic expression of mahe in the wing imaginal discs leads to loss of Notch targets, Cut and Wingless. Interestingly, Notch protein levels are also lowered, whereas no obvious change is seen in the levels of Notch transcripts. In addition, mahe overexpression can significantly rescue ectopic Notch-mediated proliferation of eye tissue. Further, we illustrate that mahe genetically interacts with Notch and its cytoplasmic regulator deltex in trans-heterozygous combination. Coexpression of Deltex and Mahe at the dorso-ventral boundary results in a wing-nicking phenotype and a more pronounced loss of Notch target Cut. Taken together we report identification of a novel evolutionary conserved RNA helicase mahe, which plays a vital role in regulation of Notch signaling.

  9. A piRNA-like small RNA interacts with and modulates p-ERM proteins in human somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yuping; Wang, Yuyan; Kumari, Priti; Shetty, Amol Carl; Clark, David; Gable, Tyler; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Ma, Mark Z.; Weber, David J.; Yang, Austin J.; Edelman, Martin J.; Mao, Li

    2015-01-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are thought to silence transposon and gene expression during development. However, the roles of piRNAs in somatic tissues are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 555 piRNAs in human lung bronchial epithelial (HBE) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, including 295 that do not exist in databases termed as piRNA-like sncRNAs or piRNA-Ls. Distinctive piRNA/piRNA-L expression patterns are observed between HBE and NSCLC cells. piRNA-like-163 (piR-L-163), the top downregulated piRNA-L in NSCLC cells, binds directly to phosphorylated ERM proteins (p-ERM), which is dependent on the central part of UUNNUUUNNUU motif in piR-L-163 and the RRRKPDT element in ERM. The piR-L-163/p-ERM interaction is critical for p-ERM's binding capability to filamentous actin (F-actin) and ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50). Thus, piRNA/piRNA-L may play a regulatory role through direct interaction with proteins in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:26095918

  10. Molecular mechanism of mRNA repression in trans by a ProQ-dependent small RNA.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Alexandre; Wang, Chuan; Drewry, Lisa L; Vogel, Jörg

    2017-04-13

    Research into post-transcriptional control of mRNAs by small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in the model bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica has mainly focused on sRNAs that associate with the RNA chaperone Hfq. However, the recent discovery of the protein ProQ as a common binding partner that stabilizes a distinct large class of structured sRNAs suggests that additional RNA regulons exist in these organisms. The cellular functions and molecular mechanisms of these new ProQ-dependent sRNAs are largely unknown. Here, we report in Salmonella Typhimurium the mode-of-action of RaiZ, a ProQ-dependent sRNA that is made from the 3' end of the mRNA encoding ribosome-inactivating protein RaiA. We show that RaiZ is a base-pairing sRNA that represses in trans the mRNA of histone-like protein HU-α. RaiZ forms an RNA duplex with the ribosome-binding site of hupA mRNA, facilitated by ProQ, to prevent 30S ribosome loading and protein synthesis of HU-α. Similarities and differences between ProQ- and Hfq-mediated regulation will be discussed.

  11. The VP3 factor from viruses of Birnaviridae family suppresses RNA silencing by binding both long and small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Valli, Adrian; Busnadiego, Idoia; Maliogka, Varvara; Ferrero, Diego; Castón, José R; Rodríguez, José Francisco; García, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing is directly involved in antiviral defense in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, fungi, invertebrates, and presumably vertebrate animals. The study of RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defences in vertebrates is hampered by the overlap with other antiviral mechanisms; thus, heterologous systems are often used to study the interplay between RNA silencing and vertebrate-infecting viruses. In this report we show that the VP3 protein of the avian birnavirus Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) displays, in addition to its capacity to bind long double-stranded RNA, the ability to interact with double-stranded small RNA molecules. We also demonstrate that IBDV VP3 prevents the silencing mediated degradation of a reporter mRNA, and that this silencing suppression activity depends on its RNA binding ability. Furthermore, we find that the anti-silencing activity of IBDV VP3 is shared with the homologous proteins expressed by both insect- and fish-infecting birnaviruses. Finally, we show that IBDV VP3 can functionally replace the well-characterized HCPro silencing suppressor of Plum pox virus, a potyvirus that is unable to infect plants in the absence of an active silencing suppressor. Altogether, our results support the idea that VP3 protects the viral genome from host sentinels, including those of the RNA silencing machinery.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals conservation and diversification of micro RNA166 genes among diverse plant species.

    PubMed

    Barik, Suvakanta; SarkarDas, Shabari; Singh, Archita; Gautam, Vibhav; Kumar, Pramod; Majee, Manoj; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the majority of the microRNAs, mature miR166s are derived from multiple members of MIR166 genes (precursors) and regulate various aspects of plant development by negatively regulating their target genes (Class III HD-ZIP). The evolutionary conservation or functional diversification of miRNA166 family members remains elusive. Here, we show the phylogenetic relationships among MIR166 precursor and mature sequences from three diverse model plant species. Despite strong conservation, some mature miR166 sequences, such as ppt-miR166m, have undergone sequence variation. Critical sequence variation in ppt-miR166m has led to functional diversification, as it targets non-HD-ZIPIII gene transcript (s). MIR166 precursor sequences have diverged in a lineage specific manner, and both precursors and mature osa-miR166i/j are highly conserved. Interestingly, polycistronic MIR166s were present in Physcomitrella and Oryza but not in Arabidopsis. The nature of cis-regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of MIR166 genes indicates their possible contribution to the functional variation observed among miR166 species.

  13. A phylogenetically conserved sequence within viral 3' untranslated RNA pseudoknots regulates translation.

    PubMed Central

    Leathers, V; Tanguay, R; Kobayashi, M; Gallie, D R

    1993-01-01

    Both the 68-base 5' leader (omega) and the 205-base 3' untranslated region (UTR) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) promote efficient translation. A 35-base region within omega is necessary and sufficient for the regulation. Within the 3' UTR, a 52-base region, composed of two RNA pseudoknots, is required for regulation. These pseudoknots are phylogenetically conserved among seven viruses from two different viral groups and one satellite virus. The pseudoknots contained significant conservation at the secondary and tertiary levels and at several positions at the primary sequence level. Mutational analysis of the sequences determined that the primary sequence in several conserved positions, particularly within the third pseudoknot, was essential for function. The higher-order structure of the pseudoknots was also required. Both the leader and the pseudoknot region were specifically recognized by, and competed for, the same proteins in extracts made from carrot cell suspension cells and wheat germ. Binding of the proteins is much stronger to omega than the pseudoknot region. Synergism was observed between the TMV 3' UTR and the cap and to a lesser extent between omega and the 3' UTR. The functional synergism and the protein binding data suggest that the cap, TMV 5' leader, and 3' UTR interact to establish an efficient level of translation. Images PMID:8355685

  14. Small molecule modulators of pre-mRNA splicing in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Salton, Maayan; Misteli, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a fundamental process in mammalian gene expression and alternative RNA splicing plays a considerable role in generating protein diversity. RNA splicing events are key to the pathology of numerous diseases, including cancers. Some tumors are molecularly addicted to specific RNA splicing isoforms making interference with pre-mRNA processing a viable therapeutic strategy. Several RNA splicing modulators have been recently characterized showing promise in pre-clinical studies. While the targets of most splicing modulators are constitutive RNA processing components, with undesirable side effects, selectivity for individual splicing events has been observed. Given the high prevalence of splicing defects in cancer, small molecule modulators of RNA processing represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. Here, we review their reported effects, potential mechanisms, and limitations. PMID:26700537

  15. Small RNAs tackle large viruses: RNA interference-based antiviral defense against DNA viruses in insects.

    PubMed

    Bronkhorst, Alfred W; Miesen, Pascal; van Rij, Ronald P

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway processes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) that guide the recognition and cleavage of complementary viral target RNAs. In RNA virus infections, viral replication intermediates, dsRNA genomes or viral structured RNAs have been implicated as Dicer-2 substrates. In a recent publication, we demonstrated that a double-stranded DNA virus, Invertebrate iridescent virus 6, is a target of the Drosophila RNAi machinery, and we proposed that overlapping converging transcripts base pair to form the dsRNA substrates for vsiRNA biogenesis. Here, we discuss the role of RNAi in antiviral defense to DNA viruses in Drosophila and other invertebrate model systems.

  16. Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that at an early stage in the evolution of life an RNA world arose, in which RNAs both served as the genetic material and catalyzed diverse biochemical reactions. Then, proteins have gradually replaced RNAs because of their superior catalytic properties in catalysis over time. Therefore, it is important to investigate how primitive functional proteins emerged from RNA world, which can shed light on the evolutionary pathway of life from RNA world to the modern world. In this work, we proposed that the emergence of most primitive functional proteins are assisted by the early primitive nucleotide cofactors, while only a minority are induced directly by RNAs based on the analysis of RNA-protein complexes. Furthermore, the present findings have significant implication for exploring the composition of primitive RNA, i.e., adenine base as principal building blocks. PMID:21789260

  17. Conservation of the Exon-Intron Structure of Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNA Genes in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Chernikova, Diana; Managadze, David; Glazko, Galina V.; Makalowski, Wojciech; Rogozin, Igor B.

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of mammalian long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) genes is high, yet their functions remain largely unknown. One possible way to study this important question is to use large-scale comparisons of various characteristics of lincRNA with those of protein-coding genes for which a large body of functional information is available. A prominent feature of mammalian protein-coding genes is the high evolutionary conservation of the exon-intron structure. Comparative analysis of putative intron positions in lincRNA genes from various mammalian genomes suggests that some lincRNA introns have been conserved for over 100 million years, thus the primary and/or secondary structure of these molecules is likely to be functionally important. PMID:27429005

  18. Alignment between values of dryland pastoralists and conservation needs for small mammals.

    PubMed

    Addison, Jane; Pavey, Chris R

    2017-04-01

    Policies for conservation outside protected areas, such as those designed to address the decline in Australian mammals, will not result in net improvements unless they address barriers to proenvironmental behavior. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore potential value-action gaps (disconnects between values and subsequent action) for small mammal conservation behaviors among pastoralists in dryland Australia. Using semistructured surveys and open-ended interviews (n = 43), we explored values toward small mammals; uptake of a range of current and intended actions that may provide benefit to small mammals; and potential perceived barriers to their uptake. Pastoralists assigned great conservation value to small mammals; over 80% (n = 36) agreed to strongly agreed that small mammals on their property were important. These values did not translate into stated willingness to engage in voluntary cessation of wild-dog control (r(2) = 0.187, p = 0.142, n = 43). However, assigning great conservation value to small mammals was strongly related to stated voluntary willingness to engage in the proenvironmental behavior most likely to result in benefits to small mammals: cat and fox control (r(2) = 0.558, p = 0.000, n = 43). There was no significant difference between stated voluntarily and incentivized willingness to engage in cat and fox control (p = 0.862, n = 43). The high levels of willingness to engage in voluntary cat and fox control highlight a potential entry point for addressing Australia's mammal declines because the engagement of pastoralists in conservation programs targeting cat and fox control is unlikely to be prevented by attitudinal constraints. Qualitative data suggest there is likely a subpopulation of pastoralists who value small mammals but do not wish to engage in formal conservation programs due to relational barriers with potential implementers. A long-term commitment to engagement with pastoralists by implementers will thus be necessary for

  19. Evaluation of locked nucleic acid-modified small interfering RNA in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mook, Olaf R; Baas, Frank; de Wissel, Marit B; Fluiter, Kees

    2007-03-01

    RNA interference has become widely used as an experimental tool to study gene function. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) may have great potential for the treatment of diseases. Recently, it was shown that siRNA can be used to mediate gene silencing in mouse models. Locally administered siRNAs entered the first clinical trials, but strategies for successful systemic delivery of siRNA are still under development. Challenges still exist about the stability, delivery, and therapeutic efficacy of siRNA. In the present study, we compare the efficacy of two methods of systemic siRNA delivery and the effects of siRNA modifications using locked nucleic acids (LNA) in a xenograft cancer model. Low volume tail vein bolus injections and continuous s.c. delivery using osmotic minipumps yielded similar uptake levels of unmodified siRNA by tumor xenografts. Both routes of administration mediated sequence-specific inhibition of two unrelated targets inside tumor xenografts. Previous studies have shown that LNA can be incorporated into the sense strand of siRNA while the efficacy is retained. Modification of siRNA targeting green fluorescent protein with LNA results in a significant increase in serum stability and thus may be beneficial for clinical applications. We show that minimal 3' end LNA modifications of siRNA are effective in stabilization of siRNA. Multiple LNA modifications in the accompanying strand further increase the stability but negate the efficacy in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, LNA-modified siRNA reduced off-target gene regulation compared with nonmodified siRNA. End-modified siRNA targeting green fluorescent protein provides a good trade-off between stability and efficacy in vivo using the two methods of systemic delivery in the nude mouse model. Therefore, LNA-modified siRNA should be preferred over unmodified siRNA.

  20. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses as potential vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Campillo-Pedroza, Natalia; Almazán, Fernando; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

    2013-06-07

    Viral vectors have become the best option for the delivery of therapeutic genes in conventional and RNA interference-based gene therapies. The current viral vectors for the delivery of small regulatory RNAs are based on DNA viruses and retroviruses/lentiviruses. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses have been excluded as viral vectors for RNAi therapy because of the nuclear localization of the microprocessor complex and the potential degradation of the viral RNA genome during the excision of any virus-encoded pre-microRNAs. However, in the last few years, the presence of several species of small RNAs (e.g., virus-derived small interfering RNAs, virus-derived short RNAs, and unusually small RNAs) in animals and cell cultures that are infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses has suggested the existence of a non-canonical mechanism of microRNA biogenesis. Several studies have been conducted on the tick-borne encephalitis virus and on the Sindbis virus in which microRNA precursors were artificially incorporated and demonstrated the production of mature microRNAs. The ability of these viruses to recruit Drosha to the cytoplasm during infection resulted in the efficient processing of virus-encoded microRNA without the viral genome entering the nucleus. In this review, we discuss the relevance of these findings with an emphasis on the potential use of cytoplasmic RNA viruses as vehicles for the efficient delivery of therapeutic small RNAs.

  1. On-enzyme refolding permits small RNA and tRNA surveillance by the CCA-adding enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Claus-D; Wilusz, Jeremy E; Zheng, Yuxuan; Beal, Peter A; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2015-02-12

    Transcription in eukaryotes produces a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Two of these, MALAT1 and Menβ, generate a tRNA-like small RNA in addition to the mature lncRNA. The stability of these tRNA-like small RNAs and bona fide tRNAs is monitored by the CCA-adding enzyme. Whereas CCA is added to stable tRNAs and tRNA-like transcripts, a second CCA repeat is added to certain unstable transcripts to initiate their degradation. Here, we characterize how these two scenarios are distinguished. Following the first CCA addition cycle, nucleotide binding to the active site triggers a clockwise screw motion, producing torque on the RNA. This ejects stable RNAs, whereas unstable RNAs are refolded while bound to the enzyme and subjected to a second CCA catalytic cycle. Intriguingly, with the CCA-adding enzyme acting as a molecular vise, the RNAs proofread themselves through differential responses to its interrogation between stable and unstable substrates.

  2. MicroRNA: a small molecule with a big biological impact.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant achievements in biological science in the last decade is the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), a process within living cells that regulates gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Historically, this process was described by other more generic names, such as co-suppression and post transcriptional gene silencing. Only after the molecular mechanism underlying these apparently unrelated processes was fully understood did it become apparent that they all described the RNAi phenomenon. In 2006, Dr. Andrew Fire and Dr. Craig C. Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on RNAi interference. RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by two types of small RNA molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). However, the function of microRNA appears to be far beyond RNAi alone, including direct interaction with the gene promoter and epigenetic regulation of the DNA methylation and histone modification. By regulating gene expression, miRNAs are likely to be involved in diverse biological activities, such as tumorigenesis, immune response, insulin secretion, neurotransmitter synthesis, and circadian rhythm, to name a few. MicroRNAs are 21-23 nucleotide single stranded RNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells. The first miRNA, lin-4, was characterized in C. elegans in the early 1990s [1]. In the early years, the progress on microRNA research was slow and experienced substantial growing pains. The short length and uniqueness of each microRNA rendered many conventional hybridization based methods ineffective; very small RNAs are difficult to reliably amplify or label without introducing bias. In addition, hybridization-based methods for microRNA profiling relied on probes designed to detect known microRNAs or known microRNA species previously identified by sequencing or homology search. Recent evidence of

  3. Selected Resource Materials for Developing Energy Conservation Programs in the Small Business/Commercial Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is a selected listing of references for use by small business managers in the development of energy conservation programs. The references are listed under the agency through which they are available. The agency listings are alphabetized and include complete mailing addresses. There are 35 agency listings, many of which…

  4. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...This supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR) proposes to clarify certain terms and language in our regulations for certain commercial and industrial equipment, as follows: revise the definitions of certain terms related to electric motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors, update references to several industry and......

  5. YM500v3: a database for small RNA sequencing in human cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Chung, I-Fang; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Chen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Shu-Hsuan; Li, Chia-Yang; Chan, Chia-Hao; Shih, Chuan-Chi; Cheng, Wei-Chung

    2017-01-01

    We previously presented the YM500 database, which contains >8000 small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) data sets and integrated analysis results for various cancer miRNome studies. In the updated YM500v3 database (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/) presented herein, we not only focus on miRNAs but also on other functional small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). There is growing knowledge of the role of sncRNAs in gene regulation and tumorigenesis. We have also incorporated >10 000 cancer-related RNA-seq and >3000 more smRNA-seq data sets into the YM500v3 database. Furthermore, there are two main new sections, ‘Survival' and ‘Cancer', in this updated version. The ‘Survival’ section provides the survival analysis results in all cancer types or in a user-defined group of samples for a specific sncRNA. The ‘Cancer’ section provides the results of differential expression analyses, miRNA–gene interactions and cancer miRNA-related pathways. In the ‘Expression’ section, sncRNA expression profiles across cancer and sample types are newly provided. Cancer-related sncRNAs hold potential for both biotech applications and basic research. PMID:27899625

  6. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20–30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focuse...

  7. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  8. TRANSCRIPTION. Structures of the RNA polymerase-σ54 reveal new and conserved regulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Darbari, Vidya C; Zhang, Nan; Lu, Duo; Glyde, Robert; Wang, Yi-Ping; Winkelman, Jared T; Gourse, Richard L; Murakami, Katsuhiko S; Buck, Martin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-08-21

    Transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) in bacteria requires specific promoter recognition by σ factors. The major variant σ factor (σ(54)) initially forms a transcriptionally silent complex requiring specialized adenosine triphosphate-dependent activators for initiation. Our crystal structure of the 450-kilodalton RNAP-σ(54) holoenzyme at 3.8 angstroms reveals molecular details of σ(54) and its interactions with RNAP. The structure explains how σ(54) targets different regions in RNAP to exert its inhibitory function. Although σ(54) and the major σ factor, σ(70), have similar functional domains and contact similar regions of RNAP, unanticipated differences are observed in their domain arrangement and interactions with RNAP, explaining their distinct properties. Furthermore, we observe evolutionarily conserved regulatory hotspots in RNAPs that can be targeted by a diverse range of mechanisms to fine tune transcription.

  9. A new superfamily of putative NTP-binding domains encoded by genomes of small DNA and RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Gorbalenya, A E; Koonin, E V; Wolf, Y I

    1990-03-12

    Statistically significant similarity was revealed between amino acid sequences of NTP-binding pattern-containing domains which are among the most conserved protein segments in dissimilar groups of ss and dsDNA viruses (papova-, parvo-, geminiviruses and P4 bacteriophage), and RNA viruses (picorna-, como- and nepoviruses) with small genomes. Within the aligned domains of 100-120 amino acid residues, three highly conserved sequence segments have been identified, i.e. 'A' and 'B' motifs of the NTP-binding pattern, and a third, C-terminal motif 'C', not described previously. The sequence of the 'B' motif in the proteins of the new superfamily is unusually variable, with substitutions, in some of the members, of the Asp residue conserved in other NTP-binding proteins. The 'C' motif is characterized by an invariant Asn residue preceded by a stretch of hydrophobic residues. As the new superfamily included a well studied DNA and RNA helicase, T antigen of SV40, helicase function could be tentatively assigned also to the other related viral putative NTP-binding proteins. On the other hand, the possibility of different and/or multiple functions for some of these proteins is discussed.

  10. miR-21: a small multi-faceted RNA

    PubMed Central

    Krichevsky, Anna M; Gabriely, Galina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract More than 1000 microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed in human cells, some tissue or cell type specific, others considered as house-keeping molecules. Functions and direct mRNA targets for some miRNAs have been relatively well studied over the last years. Every miRNA potentially regulates the expression of numerous protein-coding genes (tens to hundreds), but it has become increasingly clear that not all miRNAs are equally important; diverse high-throughput screenings of various systems have identified a limited number of key functional miRNAs over and over again. Particular miRNAs emerge as principal regulators that control major cell functions in various physiological and pathophysiological settings. Since its identification 3 years ago as the miRNA most commonly and strongly up-regulated in human brain tumour glioblastoma [1], miR-21 has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields, such as development, oncology, stem cell biology and aging, becoming one of the most studied miRNAs, along with let-7, miR-17–92 cluster (‘oncomir-1’), miR-155 and a few others. However, an miR-21 knockout mouse has not yet been generated, and the data about miR-21 functions in normal cells are still very limited. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of miR-21 functions in human disease, with an emphasis on its regulation, oncogenic role, targets in human cancers, potential as a disease biomarker and novel therapeutic target in oncology. PMID:19175699

  11. X-ray Structures of U2 snRNA-Branchpoint Duplexes Containing Conserved Pseudouridines

    SciTech Connect

    Lin,Y.; Kielkopf, C.

    2008-01-01

    A pseudouridine-modified region of the U2 small nuclear (sn)RNA anneals with the intronic branchpoint sequence and positions a bulged adenosine to serve as the nucleophile in the first chemical step of pre-mRNA splicing. We have determined three X-ray structures of RNA oligonucleotides containing the pseudouridylated U2 snRNA and the branchpoint consensus sequences. The expected adenosine branchpoint is extrahelical in a 1.65 Angstroms resolution structure containing the mammalian consensus sequence variant and in a 2.10 Angstroms resolution structure containing a shortened Saccharomyces cerevisiae consensus sequence. The adenosine adjacent to the expected branchpoint is extrahelical in a third structure, which contains the intact yeast consensus sequence at 1.57 Angstroms resolution. The hydration and base stacking interactions mediated by the U2 snRNA pseudouridines correlate with the identity of the unpaired adenosine. The expected adenosine bulge is associated with a well-stacked pseudouridine, which is linked via an ordered water molecule to a neighboring nucleotide. In contrast, the bulge of the adjacent adenosine shifts the base stacking and disrupts the water-mediated interactions of the pseudouridine. These structural differences may contribute to the ability of the pseudouridine modification to promote the bulged conformation of the branch site adenosine and to enhance catalysis by snRNAs. Furthermore, iodide binding sites are identified adjacent to the unconventional bulged adenosine, and the structure of the mammalian consensus sequence variant provides a high-resolution view of a hydrated magnesium ion bound in a similar manner to a divalent cation binding site of the group II intron.

  12. Small RNA and RNA-IP Sequencing Identifies and Validates Novel MicroRNAs in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Han; Liao, Ko-Hsun; Shih, Chuan-Chi; Chan, Chia-Hao; Hsieh, Jui-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Fong; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Chang, Shing-Jyh

    2016-03-01

    Organ regeneration therapies using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being investigated for a variety of common complex diseases. Understanding the molecular regulation of MSC biology will benefit regenerative medicine. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as regulators in MSC stemness. There are approximately 2500 currently known human miRNAs that have been recorded in the miRBase v21 database. In the present study, we identified novel microRNAs involved in MSC stemness and differentiation by obtaining the global microRNA expression profiles (miRNomes) of MSCs from two anatomical locations bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs) and from osteogenically and adipogenically differentiated progenies of BM-MSCs. Small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) and bioinformatics analyses predicted that 49 uncharacterized miRNA candidates had high cellular expression values in MSCs. Another independent batch of Ago1/2-based RNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) sequencing datasets validated the existence of 40 unreported miRNAs in cells and their associations with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Nine of these 40 new miRNAs were universally overexpressed in both MSC types; nine others were overexpressed in differentiated cells. A novel miRNA (UNI-118-3p) was specifically expressed in BM-MSCs, as verified using RT-qPCR. Taken together, this report offers comprehensive miRNome profiles for two MSC types, as well as cells differentiated from BM-MSCs. MSC transplantation has the potential to ameliorate degenerative disorders and repair damaged tissues. Interventions involving the above 40 new microRNA members in transplanted MSCs may potentially guide future clinical applications.

  13. Improving small-angle X-ray scattering data for structural analyses of the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the shape, conformation, or assembly state of an RNA in solution often requires multiple investigative tools ranging from nucleotide analog interference mapping to X-ray crystallography. A key addition to this toolbox is small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS provides direct structural information regarding the size, shape, and flexibility of the particle in solution and has proven powerful for analyses of RNA structures with minimal requirements for sample concentration and volumes. In principle, SAXS can provide reliable data on small and large RNA molecules. In practice, SAXS investigations of RNA samples can show inconsistencies that suggest limitations in the SAXS experimental analyses or problems with the samples. Here, we show through investigations on the SAM-I riboswitch, the Group I intron P4-P6 domain, 30S ribosomal subunit from Sulfolobus solfataricus (30S), brome mosaic virus tRNA-like structure (BMV TLS), Thermotoga maritima asd lysine riboswitch, the recombinant tRNAval, and yeast tRNAphe that many problems with SAXS experiments on RNA samples derive from heterogeneity of the folded RNA. Furthermore, we propose and test a general approach to reducing these sample limitations for accurate SAXS analyses of RNA. Together our method and results show that SAXS with synchrotron radiation has great potential to provide accurate RNA shapes, conformations, and assembly states in solution that inform RNA biological functions in fundamental ways. PMID:20106957

  14. Bioconjugation of Small Molecules to RNA Impedes Its Recognition by Toll-Like Receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Isabell; Freund, Isabel; Schlöder, Janine; Seidu-Larry, Salifu; Thüring, Kathrin; Slama, Kaouthar; Langhanki, Jens; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Krumb, Matthias; Röhm, Sandra; Peneva, Kalina; Opatz, Till; Jonuleit, Helmut; Dalpke, Alexander H.; Helm, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental mechanism of the innate immune system is the recognition, via extra- and intracellular pattern-recognition receptors, of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. A prominent example is represented by foreign nucleic acids, triggering the activation of several signaling pathways. Among these, the endosomal toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is known to be activated by single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), which can be specifically influenced through elements of sequence structure and posttranscriptional modifications. Furthermore, small molecules TLR7 agonists (smTLRa) are applied as boosting adjuvants in vaccination processes. In this context, covalent conjugations between adjuvant and vaccines have been reported to exhibit synergistic effects. Here, we describe a concept to chemically combine three therapeutic functions in one RNA bioconjugate. This consists in the simultaneous TLR7 stimulation by ssRNA and smTLRa as well as the therapeutic function of the RNA itself, e.g., as a vaccinating or knockdown agent. We have hence synthesized bioconjugates of mRNA and siRNA containing covalently attached smTLRa and tested their function in TLR7 stimulation. Strikingly, the bioconjugates displayed decreased rather than synergistically increased stimulation. The decrease was distinct from the antagonistic action of an siRNA bearing a Gm motive, as observed by direct comparison of the effects in the presence of otherwise stimulatory RNA. In summary, these investigations showed that TRL7 activation can be impeded by bioconjugation of small molecules to RNA. PMID:28392787

  15. Cycling of the Sm-like protein Hfq on the DsrA small regulatory RNA.

    PubMed

    Lease, Richard A; Woodson, Sarah A

    2004-12-10

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate bacterial genes involved in environmental adaptation. This RNA regulation requires Hfq, a bacterial Sm-like protein that stabilizes sRNAs and enhances RNA-RNA interactions. To understand the mechanism of target recognition by sRNAs, we investigated the interactions between Hfq, the sRNA DsrA, and its regulatory target rpoS mRNA, which encodes the stress response sigma factor. Nuclease footprinting revealed that Hfq recognized multiple sites in rpoS mRNA without significantly perturbing secondary structure in the 5' leader that inhibits translation initiation. Base-pairing with DsrA, however, made the rpoS ribosome binding site fully accessible, as predicted by genetic data. Hfq bound DsrA four times more tightly than the DsrA.rpoS RNA complex in gel mobility-shift assays. Consequently, Hfq is displaced rapidly from its high-affinity binding site on DsrA by conformational changes in DsrA, when DsrA base-pairs with rpoS mRNA. Hfq accelerated DsrA.rpoS RNA association and stabilized the RNA complex up to twofold. Hybridization of DsrA and rpoS mRNA was optimal when Hfq occupied its primary binding site on free DsrA, but was inhibited when Hfq associated with the DsrA.rpoS RNA complex. We conclude that recognition of rpoS mRNA is stimulated by binding of Hfq to free DsrA sRNA, followed by release of Hfq from the sRNA.mRNA complex.

  16. Specific impact of tobamovirus infection on the Arabidopsis small RNA profile.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quanan; Hollunder, Jens; Niehl, Annette; Kørner, Camilla Julie; Gereige, Dalya; Windels, David; Arnold, Andreas; Kuiper, Martin; Vazquez, Franck; Pooggin, Mikhail; Heinlein, Manfred

    2011-05-10

    Tobamoviruses encode a silencing suppressor that binds small RNA (sRNA) duplexes in vitro and supposedly in vivo to counteract antiviral silencing. Here, we used sRNA deep-sequencing combined with transcriptome profiling to determine the global impact of tobamovirus infection on Arabidopsis sRNAs and their mRNA targets. We found that infection of Arabidopsis plants with Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus causes a global size-specific enrichment of miRNAs, ta-siRNAs, and other phased siRNAs. The observed patterns of sRNA enrichment suggest that in addition to a role of the viral silencing suppressor, the stabilization of sRNAs might also occur through association with unknown host effector complexes induced upon infection. Indeed, sRNA enrichment concerns primarily 21-nucleotide RNAs with a 5'-terminal guanine. Interestingly, ORMV infection also leads to accumulation of novel miRNA-like sRNAs from miRNA precursors. Thus, in addition to canonical miRNAs and miRNA*s, miRNA precursors can encode additional sRNAs that may be functional under specific conditions like pathogen infection. Virus-induced sRNA enrichment does not correlate with defects in miRNA-dependent ta-siRNA biogenesis nor with global changes in the levels of mRNA and ta-siRNA targets suggesting that the enriched sRNAs may not be able to significantly contribute to the normal activity of pre-loaded RISC complexes. We conclude that tobamovirus infection induces the stabilization of a specific sRNA pool by yet unknown effector complexes. These complexes may sequester viral and host sRNAs to engage them in yet unknown mechanisms involved in plant:virus interactions.

  17. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Robert J; Lévesque, Michel V; Boudrias-Dalle, Etienne; Chute, Ian C; Daniels, Sylvanne M; Ouellette, Rodney J; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Gatignol, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies. PMID:25072692

  18. Zika Virus Genomic RNA Possesses Conserved G-Quadruplexes Characteristic of the Flaviviridae Family

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus has emerged as a global concern because neither a vaccine nor antiviral compounds targeting it exist. A structure for the positive-sense RNA genome has not been established, leading us to look for potential G-quadruplex sequences (PQS) in the genome. The analysis identified >60 PQSs in the Zika genome. To minimize the PQS population, conserved sequences in the Flaviviridae family were found by sequence alignment, identifying seven PQSs in the prM, E, NS1, NS3, and NS5 genes. Next, alignment of 78 Zika strain genomes identified a unique PQS near the end of the 3′-UTR. Structural studies on the G-quadruplex sequences found four of the conserved Zika virus sequences to adopt stable, parallel-stranded folds that bind a G-quadruplex-specific compound, and one that was studied caused polymerase stalling when folded to a G-quadruplex. Targeting these PQSs with G-quadruplex binding molecules validated in previous clinical trials may represent a new approach for inhibiting viral replication. PMID:27737553

  19. The evolutionarily conserved RNA binding protein SMOOTH is essential for maintaining normal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Draper, Isabelle; Tabaka, Meg E; Jackson, F Rob; Salomon, Robert N; Kopin, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila smooth gene encodes an RNA binding protein that has been well conserved through evolution. To investigate the pleiotropic functions mediated by the smooth gene, we have selected and characterized two sm mutants, which are viable as adults yet display robust phenotypes (including a significant decrease in lifespan). Utilizing these mutants, we have made the novel observation that disruption of the smooth/CG9218 locus leads to age-dependent muscle degeneration, and motor dysfunction. Histological characterization of adult sm mutants revealed marked abnormalities in the major thoracic tubular muscle: the tergal depressor of the trochanter (TDT). Corresponding defects include extensive loss/disruption of striations and nuclei. These pathological changes are recapitulated in flies that express a smooth RNA interference construct (sm RNAi) in the mesoderm. In contrast, targeting sm RNAi constructs to motor neurons does not alter muscle morphology. In addition to examining the TDT phenotype, we explored whether other muscular abnormalities were evident. Utilizing physiological assays developed in the laboratory, we have found that the thoracic muscle defect is preceded by dysmotility of the gastrointestinal tract. SMOOTH thus joins a growing list of hnRNPs that have previously been linked to muscle physiology/pathophysiology. Our findings in Drosophila set the stage for investigating the role of the corresponding mammalian homolog, hnRNP L, in muscle function.

  20. The Complexity of Posttranscriptional Small RNA Regulatory Networks Revealed by In Silico Analysis of Gossypium arboreum L. Leaf, Flower and Boll Small Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongtao; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Singh, Narendra K.; Weaver, David B.; Goertzen, Leslie R.; Singh, Shree R.; Locy, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs) are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs) are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs). Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs) and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs). Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs) were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3’-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs) were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers of a

  1. Small RNAs and the competing endogenous RNA network in high grade serous ovarian cancer tumor spread

    PubMed Central

    Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Auer, Katharina; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Deycmar, Simon; Reiner, Agnes T.; Polterauer, Stephan; Dekan, Sabine; Pils, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is among the most deadly malignancies in women, frequently involving peritoneal tumor spread. Understanding molecular mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis is essential to develop urgently needed targeted therapies. We described two peritoneal tumor spread types in HGSOC apparent during surgery: miliary (numerous millet-sized implants) and non-miliary (few big, bulky implants). The former one is defined by a more epithelial-like tumor cell characteristic with less immune cell reactivity and with significant worse prognosis, even if corrected for typical clinicopathologic factors. 23 HGSOC patients were enrolled in this study. Isolated tumor cells from fresh tumor tissues of ovarian and peritoneal origin and from ascites were used for ribosomal RNA depleted RNA and small RNA sequencing. RT-qPCR was used to validate results and an independent cohort of 32 patients to validate the impact on survival. Large and small RNA sequencing data were integrated and a new gene-miRNA set analysis method was developed. Thousands of new small RNAs (miRNAs and piwi-interacting RNAs) were predicted and a 13 small RNA signature was developed to predict spread type from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Furthermore, integrative analyses of RNA sequencing and small RNA sequencing data revealed a global upregulation of the competing endogenous RNA network in tumor tissues of non-miliary compared to miliary spread, i.e. higher expression of circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs compared to coding RNAs but unchanged abundance of small RNAs. This global deregulated expression pattern could be co-responsible for the spread characteristic, miliary or non-miliary, in ovarian cancer. PMID:27172797

  2. UAP56 is a conserved crucial component of a divergent mRNA export pathway in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Serpeloni, Mariana; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Kroeber, Constanze; Andenmatten, Nicole; Lemgruber, Leandro; Mörking, Patricia; Pall, Gurman S; Meissner, Markus; Ávila, Andréa R

    2016-11-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA export is an essential post-transcriptional step to control gene expression in eukaryotic cells and is poorly understood in apicomplexan parasites. With the exception of UAP56, a component of TREX (Transcription Export) complex, other components of mRNA export machinery are not well conserved in divergent supergroups. Here, we use Toxoplasma gondii as a model system to functionally characterize TgUAP56 and its potential interaction factors. We demonstrate that TgUAP56 is crucial for mRNA export and that functional interference leads to significant accumulation of mRNA in the nucleus. It was necessary to employ bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis to identify orthologs related to mRNA export, which show a remarkable low level of conservation in T. gondii. We adapted a conditional Cas9/CRISPR system to carry out a genetic screen to verify if these factors were involved in mRNA export in T. gondii. Only the disruption of TgRRM_1330 caused accumulation of mRNA in the nucleus as found with TgUAP56. This protein is potentially a divergent partner of TgUAP56, and provides insight into a divergent mRNA export pathway in apicomplexans.

  3. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  4. Echinococcus multilocularis primary cells: improved isolation, small-scale cultivation and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Spiliotis, Markus; Mizukami, Chiaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kiss, Ferenc; Brehm, Klaus; Gottstein, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    In this study we demonstrate RNA interference mediated knock-down of target gene expression in Echinococcus multilocularis primary cells on both the transcriptional and translational level. In addition, we report on an improved method for generating E. multilocularis primary cell mini-aggregates from in vitro cultivated metacestode vesicles, and on the cultivation of small numbers of small interfering RNA-transfected cells in vitro over an extended period of time. This allows assessments on the effects of RNA interference performed on Echinococcus primary cells with regard to growth, proliferation, differentiation of the parasite and the formation of novel metacestode vesicles in vitro.

  5. Inhibition of exotoxin production by mobile genetic element SCCmec-encoded psm-mec RNA is conserved in staphylococcal species.

    PubMed

    Ikuo, Mariko; Nagano, Gentaro; Saito, Yuki; Mao, Han; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal species acquire antibiotic resistance by incorporating the mobile-genetic element SCCmec. We previously found that SCCmec-encoded psm-mec RNA suppresses exotoxin production as a regulatory RNA, and the psm-mec translation product increases biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we examined whether the regulatory role of psm-mec on host bacterial virulence properties is conserved among other staphylococcal species, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, both of which are important causes of nosocomial infections. In S. epidermidis, introduction of psm-mec decreased the production of cytolytic toxins called phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and increased biofilm formation. Introduction of psm-mec with a stop-codon mutation that did not express PSM-mec protein but did express psm-mec RNA also decreased PSM production, but did not increase biofilm formation. Thus, the psm-mec RNA inhibits PSM production, whereas the PSM-mec protein increases biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. In S. haemolyticus, introduction of psm-mec decreased PSM production, but did not affect biofilm formation. The mutated psm-mec with a stop-codon also caused the same effect. Thus, the psm-mec RNA also inhibits PSM production in S. haemolyticus. These findings suggest that the inhibitory role of psm-mec RNA on exotoxin production is conserved among staphylococcal species, although the stimulating effect of the psm-mec gene on biofilm formation is not conserved.

  6. PSRna: Prediction of small RNA secondary structures based on reverse complementary folding method.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xu, Chengzhen; Wang, Lei; Liang, Hong; Feng, Weixing; Cai, Zhongxi; Wang, Ying; Cong, Wang; Liu, Yunlong

    2016-08-01

    Prediction of RNA secondary structures is an important problem in computational biology and bioinformatics, since RNA secondary structures are fundamental for functional analysis of RNA molecules. However, small RNA secondary structures are scarce and few algorithms have been specifically designed for predicting the secondary structures of small RNAs. Here we propose an algorithm named "PSRna" for predicting small-RNA secondary structures using reverse complementary folding and characteristic hairpin loops of small RNAs. Unlike traditional algorithms that usually generate multi-branch loops and 5[Formula: see text] end self-folding, PSRna first estimated the maximum number of base pairs of RNA secondary structures based on the dynamic programming algorithm and a path matrix is constructed at the same time. Second, the backtracking paths are extracted from the path matrix based on backtracking algorithm, and each backtracking path represents a secondary structure. To improve accuracy, the predicted RNA secondary structures are filtered based on their free energy, where only the secondary structure with the minimum free energy was identified as the candidate secondary structure. Our experiments on real data show that the proposed algorithm is superior to two popular methods, RNAfold and RNAstructure, in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC).

  7. Final report for ER65039, The Role of Small RNA in Biomass Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Matthew E.

    2015-03-12

    Our objective in this project was to discover the role of sRNA in regulating both biomass biosynthesis and perenniality in the Andropogoneae feedstock grasses. Our central hypothesis was that there is a time-and space specific sRNA network playing a crucial role in regulating processes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, flowering time control, overwintering/juvenility, and nutrient sequestration in the feedstock grasses. To address this, we performed a large scale biological project consisting of the growth of material, generation of Illumina libraries, sequencing and analysis for small RNA, mRNA and Degradome / cmRNA. Our subsidiary objectives included analysis of the biology of small RNAs and the cell wall composition of Miscanthus. These objectives have all been completed, one publication is in print, one is submitted and several more are in progress.

  8. SURVEY AND SUMMARY: A survey of small RNA-encoding genes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hershberg, Ruth; Altuvia, Shoshy; Margalit, Hanah

    2003-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA) molecules have gained much interest lately, as recent genome-wide studies have shown that they are widespread in a variety of organisms. The relatively small family of 10 known sRNA-encoding genes in Escherichia coli has been significantly expanded during the past two years with the discovery of 45 novel genes. Most of these genes are still uncharacterized and their cellular roles are unknown. In this survey we examined the sequence and genomic features of the 55 currently known sRNA-encoding genes in E.coli, attempting to identify their common characteristics. Such characterization is important for both expanding our understanding of this unique gene family and for improving the methods to predict and identify sRNA-encoding genes based on genomic information. PMID:12654996

  9. Evidence for a base-pairing interaction between U6 small nuclear RNA and 5' splice site during the splicing reaction in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, H; Abelson, J

    1992-01-01

    U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is an essential factor in mRNA splicing. On the basis of the high conservation of its sequence, it has been proposed that U6 snRNA may function catalytically during the splicing reaction. If this is the case, it is likely that U6 snRNA interacts with the splice sites in the spliceosome to catalyze the reaction. We have used UV crosslinking to analyze the interactions of U6 snRNA with the splicing substrates during the yeast splicing reaction. Crosslinked products in which the central region of U6 snRNA was joined to the 5' splice site region of mRNA precursor and lariat intermediate were identified. The crosslinking sites were precisely located in one of these products. The results suggest a possible base-pairing interaction between U6 snRNA and the 5' splice site of the mRNA precursor. Images PMID:1333604

  10. Small RNA deep sequencing identifies novel and salt-stress-regulated microRNAs from roots of Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Long, Rui-Cai; Li, Ming-Na; Kang, Jun-Mei; Zhang, Tie-Jun; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qing-Chuan

    2015-05-01

    Small 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) ribonucleic acids (RNAs), notably the microRNA (miRNA), are emerging as a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism. Salt stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that cause the crop losses worldwide. In saline lands, root growth and function of plant are determined by the action of environmental salt stress through specific genes that adapt root development to the restrictive condition. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in salt stress regulation in Medicago, we used a high-throughput sequencing approach to analyze four small RNA libraries from roots of Zhongmu-1 (Medicago sativa) and Jemalong A17 (Medicago truncatula), which were treated with 300 mM NaCl for 0 and 8 h. Each library generated about 20 million short sequences and contained predominantly small RNAs of 24-nt length, followed by 21-nt and 22-nt small RNAs. Using sequence analysis, we identified 385 conserved miRNAs from 96 families, along with 68 novel candidate miRNAs. Of all the 68 predicted novel miRNAs, 15 miRNAs were identified to have miRNA*. Statistical analysis on abundance of sequencing read revealed specific miRNA showing contrasting expression patterns between M. sativa and M. truncatula roots, as well as between roots treated for 0 and 8 h. The expression of 10 conserved and novel miRNAs was also quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The miRNA precursor and target genes were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. We concluded that the salt stress related conserved and novel miRNAs may have a large variety of target mRNAs, some of which might play key roles in salt stress regulation of Medicago.

  11. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-03-17

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18-25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual's exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals.

  12. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18–25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual’s exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals. PMID:28303895

  13. The mammalian response to virus infection is independent of small RNA silencing

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Simone; Langlois, Ryan A.; Schmid, Sonja; Varble, Andrew; Shim, Jaehee V.; Sachs, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary A successful cellular response to virus infection is essential for evolutionary survival. In plants, arthropods, and nematodes, cellular antiviral defenses rely on RNA interference (RNAi). Interestingly, the mammalian response to virus is predominantly orchestrated through interferon (IFN)-mediated induction of antiviral proteins. Despite the potency of the IFN system, it remains unclear whether mammals also have the capacity to employ antiviral RNAi. Here we investigate this by disabling either IFN, small RNA function or both activities in the context of virus infection. We find that loss of small RNAs in the context of an in vivo RNA virus infection lowers titers due to reduced transcriptional repression of the host antiviral response. In contrast, enabling a virus with the capacity to inhibit the IFN system results in increased titers. Taken together, we conclude that small RNA silencing is not a physiological contributor to the IFN-mediated cellular response to virus infection. PMID:24953656

  14. The Influence of Genotype and Environment on Small RNA Profiles in Grapevine Berry

    PubMed Central

    Paim Pinto, Daniela Lopes; Brancadoro, Lucio; Dal Santo, Silvia; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Pezzotti, Mario; Meyers, Blake C.; Pè, Mario E.; Mica, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries. We also investigated the presence of known and novel miRNAs and analyzed their accumulation profile. The results showed that the distribution of small RNA-producing loci is variable between the two cultivars, and that the level of variation depends on the vineyard. Differently, the profile of miRNA accumulation mainly depends on the developmental stage. The vineyard in Riccione maximizes the differences between the varieties, promoting the production of more than 1000 specific small RNA loci and modulating their expression depending on the cultivar and the maturation stage. In total, 89 known vvi-miRNAs and 33 novel vvi-miRNA candidates were identified in our samples, many of them showing the accumulation profile modulated by at least one of the factors studied. The in silico prediction of miRNA targets suggests their involvement in berry development and in secondary metabolites accumulation such as anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:27761135

  15. Photochemically induced gene silencing using small interfering RNA molecules in combination with lipid carriers.

    PubMed

    Bøe, S; Longva, A S; Hovig, E

    2007-01-01

    Novel strategies for efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules with a potential for targeting are required for development of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics. Here, we present a strategy that is based on delivery of siRNA molecules through the endocytic pathway, in order to develop a method for site-specific gene silencing. To achieve this, we combined the use of cationic lipids and photochemical internalization (PCI). Using the human S100A4 gene as a model system, we obtained potent gene silencing in four tested human cancer cell lines following PCI induction when using the cationic lipid jetSI-ENDO. Gene silencing was shown at both the RNA and protein levels, with no observed PCI toxicity when using the jetSI reagent and an optimized PCI protocol. This novel induction method opens for in vivo site-specific delivery of siRNA molecules toward a sequence of interest.

  16. Preparation of Small RNAs Using Rolling Circle Transcription and Site-Specific RNA Disconnection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingyu; Li, Can; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    A facile and robust RNA preparation protocol was developed by combining rolling circle transcription (RCT) with RNA cleavage by RNase H. Circular DNA with a complementary sequence was used as the template for promoter-free transcription. With the aid of a 2′-O-methylated DNA, the RCT-generated tandem repeats of the desired RNA sequence were disconnected at the exact end-to-end position to harvest the desired RNA oligomers. Compared with the template DNA, more than 4 × 103 times the amount of small RNA products were obtained when modest cleavage was carried out during transcription. Large amounts of RNA oligomers could easily be obtained by simply increasing the reaction volume. PMID:25584899

  17. Evolutionary Conservation and Expression of Human RNA-Binding Proteins and Their Role in Human Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerstberger, Stefanie; Hafner, Markus; Ascano, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are effectors and regulators of posttranscriptional gene regulation (PTGR). RBPs regulate stability, maturation, and turnover of all RNAs, often binding thousands of targets at many sites. The importance of RBPs is underscored by their dysregulation or mutations causing a variety of developmental and neurological diseases. This chapter globally discusses human RBPs and provides a brief introduction to their identification and RNA targets. We review RBPs based on common structural RNA-binding domains, study their evolutionary conservation and expression, and summarize disease associations of different RBP classes. PMID:25201102

  18. Novel small RNA (sRNA) landscape of the starvation-stress response transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shivam V; Roberts, Justin T; Patterson, Dillon G; Coley, Alexander B; Allred, Jonathan A; Denner, Jason M; Johnson, Justin P; Mullen, Genevieve E; O'Neal, Trenton K; Smith, Jason T; Cardin, Sara E; Carr, Hank T; Carr, Stacie L; Cowart, Holly E; DaCosta, David H; Herring, Brendon R; King, Valeria M; Polska, Caroline J; Ward, Erin E; Wise, Alice A; McAllister, Kathleen N; Chevalier, David; Spector, Michael P; Borchert, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short (∼50-200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate cellular activities across bacteria. Salmonella enterica starved of a carbon-energy (C) source experience a host of genetic and physiological changes broadly referred to as the starvation-stress response (SSR). In an attempt to identify novel sRNAs contributing to SSR control, we grew log-phase, 5-h C-starved and 24-h C-starved cultures of the virulent Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 and comprehensively sequenced their small RNA transcriptomes. Strikingly, after employing a novel strategy for sRNA discovery based on identifying dynamic transcripts arising from "gene-empty" regions, we identify 58 wholly undescribed Salmonella sRNA genes potentially regulating SSR averaging an ∼1,000-fold change in expression between log-phase and C-starved cells. Importantly, the expressions of individual sRNA loci were confirmed by both comprehensive transcriptome analyses and northern blotting of select candidates. Of note, we find 43 candidate sRNAs share significant sequence identity to characterized sRNAs in other bacteria, and ∼70% of our sRNAs likely assume characteristic sRNA structural conformations. In addition, we find 53 of our 58 candidate sRNAs either overlap neighboring mRNA loci or share significant sequence complementarity to mRNAs transcribed elsewhere in the SL1344 genome strongly suggesting they regulate the expression of transcripts via antisense base-pairing. Finally, in addition to this work resulting in the identification of 58 entirely novel Salmonella enterica genes likely participating in the SSR, we also find evidence suggesting that sRNAs are significantly more prevalent than currently appreciated and that Salmonella sRNAs may actually number in the thousands.

  19. Novel small RNA (sRNA) landscape of the starvation-stress response transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shivam V.; Roberts, Justin T.; Patterson, Dillon G.; Coley, Alexander B.; Allred, Jonathan A.; Denner, Jason M.; Johnson, Justin P.; Mullen, Genevieve E.; O'Neal, Trenton K.; Smith, Jason T.; Cardin, Sara E.; Carr, Hank T.; Carr, Stacie L.; Cowart, Holly E.; DaCosta, David H.; Herring, Brendon R.; King, Valeria M.; Polska, Caroline J.; Ward, Erin E.; Wise, Alice A.; McAllister, Kathleen N.; Chevalier, David; Spector, Michael P.; Borchert, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short (∼50–200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate cellular activities across bacteria. Salmonella enterica starved of a carbon-energy (C) source experience a host of genetic and physiological changes broadly referred to as the starvation-stress response (SSR). In an attempt to identify novel sRNAs contributing to SSR control, we grew log-phase, 5-h C-starved and 24-h C-starved cultures of the virulent Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 and comprehensively sequenced their small RNA transcriptomes. Strikingly, after employing a novel strategy for sRNA discovery based on identifying dynamic transcripts arising from “gene-empty” regions, we identify 58 wholly undescribed Salmonella sRNA genes potentially regulating SSR averaging an ∼1,000-fold change in expression between log-phase and C-starved cells. Importantly, the expressions of individual sRNA loci were confirmed by both comprehensive transcriptome analyses and northern blotting of select candidates. Of note, we find 43 candidate sRNAs share significant sequence identity to characterized sRNAs in other bacteria, and ∼70% of our sRNAs likely assume characteristic sRNA structural conformations. In addition, we find 53 of our 58 candidate sRNAs either overlap neighboring mRNA loci or share significant sequence complementarity to mRNAs transcribed elsewhere in the SL1344 genome strongly suggesting they regulate the expression of transcripts via antisense base-pairing. Finally, in addition to this work resulting in the identification of 58 entirely novel Salmonella enterica genes likely participating in the SSR, we also find evidence suggesting that sRNAs are significantly more prevalent than currently appreciated and that Salmonella sRNAs may actually number in the thousands. PMID:26853797

  20. Detection of an abundant plant-based small RNA in consumers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms of delivery of plant small RNAs to consumers must be addressed in order to harness this technology to positively impact agbiotechnology. Two groups have used honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) feeding regimes to detect a plant-based small RNA, termed MIR2911, in sera. Meanwhile, numerous gro...

  1. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  2. Structural and functional characterization of mouse U7 small nuclear RNA active in 3' processing of histone pre-mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Soldati, D.; Schumperli, D.

    1988-04-01

    Oligonucleotides derived from the spacer element of the histone RNA 3' processing signal were used to characterize mouse U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), i.e., the snRNA component active in 3' processing of histone pre-mRNA. Under RNase H conditions, such oligonucleotides inhibited the processing reaction, indicating the formation of a DNA-RNA hybrid with a functional ribonucleoprotein component. Moreover, these oligonucleotides hybridized to a single nuclear RNA species of approximately 65 nucleotides. The sequence of this RNA was determined by primer extension experiments and was found to bear several structural similarities with sea urchin U7 snRNA. The comparison of mouse and sea urchin U7 snRNA structure yields some further insight into the mechanism of histone RNA 3' processing.

  3. In silico reconstruction of viral genomes from small RNAs improves virus-derived small interfering RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Vodovar, Nicolas; Goic, Bertsy; Blanc, Hervé; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2011-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the essential component of antiviral immunity in invertebrates and plants. One of the landmarks of the antiviral RNAi response is the production of virus-derived small interfering RNA (vsiRNA) from viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). vsiRNAs constitute a fragmented image of the viral genome sequence that results from Dicer cleavage. vsiRNA sequence profiling is used extensively as a surrogate to study the antiviral RNAi response by determining the nature of the viral dsRNA molecules exposed to and processed by the RNAi machinery. The accuracy of these profiles depends on the actual viral genome sequence used as a reference to align vsiRNA reads, and the interpretation of inaccurate profiles can be misleading. Using Flock house virus and Drosophila melanogaster as a model RNAi-competent organism, we show accurate reconstruction of full-length virus reference sequence from vsiRNAs and prediction of the structure of defective interfering particles (DIs). We developed a Perl script, named Paparazzi, that reconstitutes viral genomes through an iterative alignment/consensus call procedure using a related reference sequence as scaffold. As prevalent DI-derived reads introduce artifacts during reconstruction, Paparazzi eliminates DI-specific reads to improve the quality of the reconstructed genome. Paparazzi constitutes a promising alternative to Sanger sequencing in this context and an effective tool to study antiviral RNAi mechanisms by accurately quantifying vsiRNA along the replicating viral genome. We further discuss Paparazzi as a companion tool for virus discovery as it provides full-length genome sequences and corrects for potential artifacts of assembly.

  4. iSmaRT: a toolkit for a comprehensive analysis of small RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Panero, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Memoli, Domenico; Nassa, Giovanni; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Tarallo, Roberta; Milanesi, Luciano; Weisz, Alessandro; Giurato, Giorgio

    2017-01-05

    The interest in investigating the biological roles of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) is increasing, due to the pleiotropic effects of these molecules exert in many biological contexts. While several methods and tools are available to study microRNAs (miRNAs), only few focus on novel classes of sncRNAs, in particular PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). To overcome these limitations, we implemented iSmaRT (integrative Small RNA Tool-kit), an automated pipeline to analyze smallRNA-Seq data.

  5. Ultradeformable cationic liposomes for delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into human primary melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Geusens, B; Lambert, J; De Smedt, S C; Buyens, K; Sanders, N N; Van Gele, M

    2009-02-10

    The aim of this work was to develop a system that can deliver siRNA into cells present in the human epidermis. More specifically, we wanted to block the expression of a specific Myosin Va exon F containing isoform that is physiologically involved in melanosome transport in human melanocytes. Therefore, we prepared and investigated the capacity of ultradeformable cationic liposomes (UCLs) to deliver siRNA in hard-to-transfect human primary melanocytes. UCLs were formulated from different w:w ratios (6:1, 8:1 and 10:1) of the cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and the edge activator sodium cholate. Subsequently, UCL/siRNA complexes were prepared and their particle size, surface charge, deformability, cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency and long-term stability were tested. The best results were obtained with UCLs composed of a DOTAP/NaChol ratio of 6:1 (w:w) which are promising for future in vivo experiments.

  6. Small RNA Deep Sequencing and the Effects of microRNA408 on Root Gravitropic Bending in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying; Sun, Qiao; Chen, Yu; He, Dacheng; Liu, Min

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a non-coding small RNA composed of 20 to 24 nucleotides that influences plant root development. This study analyzed the miRNA expression in Arabidopsis root tip cells using Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR before (sample 0) and 15 min after (sample 15) a 3-D clinostat rotational treatment was administered. After stimulation was performed, the expression levels of seven miRNA genes, including Arabidopsis miR160, miR161, miR394, miR402, miR403, miR408, and miR823, were significantly upregulated. Illumina sequencing results also revealed two novel miRNAsthat have not been previously reported, The target genes of these miRNAs included pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein and diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase. An overexpression vector of Arabidopsis miR408 was constructed and transferred to Arabidopsis plant. The roots of plants over expressing miR408 exhibited a slower reorientation upon gravistimulation in comparison with those of wild-type. This result indicate that miR408 could play a role in root gravitropic response.

  7. Small nucleolar RNA host genes and long non-coding RNA responses in directly irradiated and bystander cells.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    The irradiated cells communicate with unirradiated cells and induce changes in them through a phenomenon known as the bystander effect. The nature of the bystander signal and how it impacts unirradiated cells remains to be discovered. Examination of molecular changes could lead to the identification of pathways underlying the bystander effect. Apart from microRNAs, little is known about the regulation of other non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) in irradiated or bystander cells. In this study we monitored the transcriptional changes of several small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) host genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are known to participate in a variety of cellular functions, in irradiated and bystander cells to gain insight into the molecular pathways affected in these cells. We used human lymphoblasts TK6 cells in a medium exchanged bystander effect model system to examine ncRNA expression alterations. The snoRNA host genes SNHG1 and SNHG4 were upregulated in irradiated TK6 cells but were repressed in bystander cells. The SNHG5 and SNHG11 were downregulated in irradiated and bystander cells and the expression levels of these ncRNA were significantly lower in bystander cells. The lncRNA MALAT1, MATR3, SRA1, and SOX2OT were induced in irradiated TK6 cells and their expression levels were repressed in bystander cells. The lncRNA RMST was induced in both irradiated and bystander cells. Taken together, these results indicate that expression levels of ncRNA are modulated in irradiated and bystander cells and these transcriptional changes could be associated with the bystander effect.

  8. Rapid global structure determination of large RNA and RNA complexes using NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Xing; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wang, Jinbu; Yu, Ping; Butcher, Samuel E.

    2013-01-01

    Among the greatest advances in biology today are the discoveries of various roles played by RNA in biological processes. However, despite significant advances in RNA structure determination using X-ray crystallography [1] and solution NMR [2–4], the number of bona fide RNA structures is very limited, in comparison with the growing number of known functional RNAs. This is because of great difficulty in growing crystals or/and obtaining phase information, and severe size constraints on structure determination by solution NMR spectroscopy. Clearly, there is an acute need for new methodologies for RNA structure determination. The prevailing approach for structure determination of RNA in solution is a “bottom-up” approach that was basically transplanted from the approach used for determining protein structures, despite vast differences in both structural features and chemical compositions between these two types of biomacromolecules. In this chapter, we describe a new method, which has been reported recently, for rapid global structure determination of RNAs using solution-based NMR spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. The method treats duplexes as major building blocks of RNA structures. By determining the global orientations of the duplexes and the overall shape, the global structure of an RNA can be constructed and further regularized using Xplor-NIH. The utility of the method was demonstrated in global structure determination of two RNAs, a 71-nt and 102-nt RNAs with an estimated backbone RMSD ~3.0 Å. The global structure opens door to high-resolution structure determination in solution. PMID:20554045

  9. StarScan: a web server for scanning small RNA targets from degradome sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shun; Li, Jun-Hao; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Ke-Ren; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and small interfering RNAs, play important gene regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the protein-coding and non-coding transcripts. However, computationally assigning these various sRNAs to their regulatory target genes remains technically challenging. Recently, a high-throughput degradome sequencing method was applied to identify biologically relevant sRNA cleavage sites. In this study, an integrated web-based tool, StarScan (sRNA target Scan), was developed for scanning sRNA targets using degradome sequencing data from 20 species. Given a sRNA sequence from plants or animals, our web server performs an ultrafast and exhaustive search for potential sRNA–target interactions in annotated and unannotated genomic regions. The interactions between small RNAs and target transcripts were further evaluated using a novel tool, alignScore. A novel tool, degradomeBinomTest, was developed to quantify the abundance of degradome fragments located at the 9–11th nucleotide from the sRNA 5′ end. This is the first web server for discovering potential sRNA-mediated RNA cleavage events in plants and animals, which affords mechanistic insights into the regulatory roles of sRNAs. The StarScan web server is available at http://mirlab.sysu.edu.cn/starscan/. PMID:25990732

  10. Antisense Transcription of Retrotransposons in Drosophila: An Origin of Endogenous Small Interfering RNA Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Joseph; Harrington, Andrew W.; Steiniger, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    Movement of transposons causes insertions, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements potentially leading to premature lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. To repress these elements and combat genomic instability, eukaryotes have evolved several small RNA-mediated defense mechanisms. Specifically, in Drosophila somatic cells, endogenous small interfering (esi)RNAs suppress retrotransposon mobility. EsiRNAs are produced by Dicer-2 processing of double-stranded RNA precursors, yet the origins of these precursors are unknown. We show that most transposon families are transcribed in both the sense (S) and antisense (AS) direction in Dmel-2 cells. LTR retrotransposons Dm297, mdg1, and blood, and non-LTR retrotransposons juan and jockey transcripts, are generated from intraelement transcription start sites with canonical RNA polymerase II promoters. We also determined that retrotransposon antisense transcripts are less polyadenylated than sense. RNA-seq and small RNA-seq revealed that Dicer-2 RNA interference (RNAi) depletion causes a decrease in the number of esiRNAs mapping to retrotransposons and an increase in expression of both S and AS retrotransposon transcripts. These data support a model in which double-stranded RNA precursors are derived from convergent transcription and processed by Dicer-2 into esiRNAs that silence both sense and antisense retrotransposon transcripts. Reduction of sense retrotransposon transcripts potentially lowers element-specific protein levels to prevent transposition. This mechanism preserves genomic integrity and is especially important for Drosophila fitness because mobile genetic elements are highly active. PMID:26534950

  11. Secondary structure and molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA in Agaricales (Euagarics clade, Homobasidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Barroso, Gérard; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Mouhamadou, Bello; Labarère, Jacques

    2003-10-01

    The complete sequences and secondary structures of the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNAs of both mostly cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (1930 nt) and Lentinula edodes (2164 nt) were achieved. These secondary structures and that of Schizophyllum commune (1872 nt) were compared to that previously established for Agrocybe aegerita. The four structures are near the model established for Archae, Bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria; particularly the helices 23 and 37, described as specific to bacteria, are present. Within the four Agaricales (Homobasidiomycota), the SSU-rRNA "core" is conserved in size (966 to 1009 nt) with the exception of an unusual extension of 40 nt in the H17 helix of S. commune. The four core sequences possess 76% of conserved positions and a cluster of C in their 3' end, which could constitute a signal involved in the RNA maturation process. Among the nine putative variable domains, three (V3, V5, V7) do not show significant length variations and possess similar percentages of conserved positions (69%) than the core. The other six variable domains show important length variations, due to independent large size inserted/deleted sequences, and higher rates of nucleotide substitutions than the core (only 31% of conserved positions between the four species). Interestingly, the inserted/deleted sequences are located in few preferential sites (hot spots for insertion/deletion) where they seem to arise or disappear haphazardly during evolution. These sites are located on the surface of the tertiary structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit, at the beginning of hairpin loops; the insertions lead to a lengthening of existing hairpins or to branching loops bearing up to five additional helices.

  12. Heterochromatin, small RNA and post-fertilization dysgenesis in allopolyploid and interploid hybrids of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Martienssen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In manylants, including Arabidopsis, hybrids between species and subspecies encounter postfertilization barriers in which hybrid seed fail to develop, or else give rise to infertile progeny. In Arabidopsis, some of these barriers are sensitive to ploidy and to the epigenetic status of donor and recipient genomes. Recently, a role has been proposed for heterochromatin in reprogramming events that occur in reproductive cells, as well as in the embryo and endosperm after fertilization. 21 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA) from activated transposable elements accumulate in pollen, and are translocated from companion vegetative cells into the sperm, while in the maturing seed 24 nt siRNA are primarily maternal in origin. Thus maternal and paternal genomes likely contribute differing small RNA to the zygote and to the endosperm. As heterochromatic sequences also differ radically between, and within, species, small RNA sequences will diverge in hybrids. If transposable elements in the seed are not targeted by small RNA from the pollen, or vice versa, this could lead to hybrid seed failure, in a mechanism reminiscent of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila. Heterochromatin also plays a role in apomixis and nucleolar dominance, and may utilize a similar mechanism. PMID:20409176

  13. Development of pharmacophore models for small molecules targeting RNA: Application to the RNA repeat expansion in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Angelbello, Alicia J; González, Àlex L; Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-12-01

    RNA is an important drug target, but current approaches to identify bioactive small molecules have been engineered primarily for protein targets. Moreover, the identification of small molecules that bind a specific RNA target with sufficient potency remains a challenge. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) and, in particular, ligand-based drug design provide a myriad of tools to identify rapidly new chemical entities for modulating a target based on previous knowledge of active compounds without relying on a ligand complex. Herein we describe pharmacophore virtual screening based on previously reported active molecules that target the toxic RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). DM1-associated defects are caused by sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1), an alternative splicing regulator, by expanded CUG repeats (r(CUG)(exp)). Several small molecules have been found to disrupt the MBNL1-r(CUG)(exp) complex, ameliorating DM1 defects. Our pharmacophore model identified a number of potential lead compounds from which we selected 11 compounds to evaluate. Of the 11 compounds, several improved DM1 defects both in vitro and in cells.

  14. Investigation of current university research concerning energy conversion and conservation in small single-family dwellings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, G. R.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of university research concerning energy conversion and conservation techniques which may be applied in small single-family residences. Information was accumulated through published papers, progress reports, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. A synopsis of each pertinent investigation is given. Finally, a discussion of the synopses is presented and recommendations are made concerning the applicability of concepts for the design and construction of NASA-Langley Research Center's proposed Technology Utilization House in Hampton, Virginia.

  15. Structure of a Conserved Retroviral RNA Packaging Element by NMR Spectroscopy and Cryo-Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Tolbert, Blanton; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Iyalla, Kilali; Loeliger, Kelsey; D’Souza, Victoria; Khant, Htet; Schmid, Michael F.; Garcia, Eric; Telesnitsky, Alice; Chiu, Wah; Summers, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    The 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs) of all gammaretroviruses contain a conserved “double hairpin motif” (ΨCD) that is required for genome packaging. Both hairpins (SL-C and SL-D) contain GACG tetraloops that, in isolated RNAs, are capable of forming “kissing” interactions stabilized by two intermolecular G-C base pairs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the double hairpin from the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV) ([ΨCD]2, 132-nucleotides, 42.8 kDaltons) using a 2H-edited NMR spectroscopy-based approach. This approach enabled the detection of 1H-1H dipolar interactions that were not observed in previous studies of isolated SL-C and SL-D hairpin RNAs using traditional 1H-1H correlated and 1H-13C-edited NMR methods. The hairpins participate in intermolecular cross-kissing interactions (SL-C to SL-D’ and SLC’ to SL-D), and stack in an end-to-end manner (SL-C to SL-D and SL-C’ to SL-D’) that gives rise to an elongated overall shape (ca. 95 Å by 45 Å by 25 Å). The global structure was confirmed by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), making [ΨCD]2 simultaneously the smallest RNA to be structurally characterized to date by cryo-ET and among the largest to be determined by NMR. Our findings suggest that, in addition to promoting dimerization, [ΨCD]2 functions as a scaffold that helps initiate virus assembly by exposing a cluster of conserved UCUG elements for binding to the cognate nucleocapsid domains of assembling viral Gag proteins. PMID:20933521

  16. The master switchers in the aging of cardiovascular system, reverse senescence by microRNA signatures; as highly conserved molecules.

    PubMed

    Pourrajab, Fatemeh; Vakili Zarch, Abbas; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Zare-Khormizi, Mohamad Reza

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of CVD increases with aging, because of long-term exposure to risk factors/stressors. Aging is a complex biological process resulting in progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. The main hallmarks of aging are cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intracellular communication. The major hallmarks of senescence are mitochondrial dysfunction, genomic instability, telomere attrition and epigenetic alterations, all of which contributing to cellular aging. Such events are controls by a family of small, non-coding RNAs (miRNAs) that interact with component of cellular senescence pathway; mitochondrial biogenesis/removal, DNA damage response machinery and IGF-1 signaling pathway. Here, we review recent in vivo/in vitro reports that miRNAs are key modulators of heart senescence, and act as master switchers to influence reprogramming pathway. We discuss evidence that abrupt deregulation of some mit-miRNAs governing senescence programs underlies age-associated CVD. In particular, due to the highly conserved nature and well-recognized target sites, miRNAs have been defined as master switchers in controlling heart progenitor cell biology. Modulation of mit-miRNA expression holds the great promise in switching off/on cellular senescence/reprogramming to rejuvenate stem cells to aid regenerative process.

  17. Energy conserving coupling through small apertures in an infinite perfect conducting screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, J.; Tkachenko, S.; Vick, R.

    2015-11-01

    Apertures in shielding enclosures are an important issue for determining shielding efficiencies. Various mathematical procedures and theories were employed to describe the coupling between the regions connected via an aperture in a well conducting plane. Bethe's theory describes the coupling via the equivalent problem of field excited dipole moments at the location of the aperture. This approach neglects the reaction of the dipole moments on the exciting field and therefore violates energy conservation. This work emphasizes an analytical approach for coupling between half-spaces through small apertures, inspired by the so called method of small antenna, which allows an understandable generalization of Bethe's theory.

  18. Small RNA-Based Antiviral Defense in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the fungal kingdom contains more than 3 million species, little is known about the biological roles of RNA silencing in fungi. The Colletotrichum genus comprises fungal species that are pathogenic for a wide range of crop species worldwide. To investigate the role of RNA silencing in the ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum, knock-out mutants affecting genes for three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR), two Dicer-like (DCL), and two Argonaute (AGO) proteins were generated by targeted gene replacement. No effects were observed on vegetative growth for any mutant strain when grown on complex or minimal media. However, Δdcl1, Δdcl1Δdcl2 double mutant, and Δago1 strains showed severe defects in conidiation and conidia morphology. Total RNA transcripts and small RNA populations were analyzed in parental and mutant strains. The greatest effects on both RNA populations was observed in the Δdcl1, Δdcl1Δdcl2, and Δago1 strains, in which a previously uncharacterized dsRNA mycovirus [termed Colletotrichum higginsianum non-segmented dsRNA virus 1 (ChNRV1)] was derepressed. Phylogenetic analyses clearly showed a close relationship between ChNRV1 and members of the segmented Partitiviridae family, despite the non-segmented nature of the genome. Immunoprecipitation of small RNAs associated with AGO1 showed abundant loading of 5’U-containing viral siRNA. C. higginsianum parental and Δdcl1 mutant strains cured of ChNRV1 revealed that the conidiation and spore morphology defects were primarily caused by ChNRV1. Based on these results, RNA silencing involving ChDCL1 and ChAGO1 in C. higginsianum is proposed to function as an antiviral mechanism. PMID:27253323

  19. Key Importance of Small RNA Binding for the Activity of a Glycine-Tryptophan (GW) Motif-containing Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

  20. Drosophila oncogene Gas41 is an RNA interference modulator that intersects heterochromatin and the small interfering RNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumit G; Bag, Indira; Sengupta, Saswati; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Glioma amplified sequence41 (Gas41) is a highly conserved putative transcription factor that is frequently abundant in human gliomas. Gas41 shows oncogenic activity by promoting cell growth and viability. In the present study, we show that Gas41 is required for proper functioning of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery in the nuclei, although three basic structural domains of RNAi components PAZ, PIWI and dsRNA with respect to binding are absent in the structural sequences. Variations of structural domains are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gas41 interacts with cytological RNase III enzyme Dicer1 both biochemically and genetically. However, Drosophila Gas41 functions as chromatin remodeler and interacts with different heterochromatin markers and repeat-induced transgene silencing by modulating position effect variegation. We also show that transcriptional inactive Gas41 mutant interferes with the functional assembly of heterochromatin-associated proteins, dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 and heterochromatic protein 1 in developing embryos. A reduction of heterochromatic markers is accompanied by the mini-w promoter sequence in Gas41 mutants. These findings suggest that Drosophila Gas41 guides the repeat associated gene silencing and the Dicer1 interaction, thereby depicting a new role for Gas41. Gas41 is a critical RNAi component. In Drosophila, Gas41 plays a dual role. On the one hand, it appears to participate with Dicer 1 in the RNAi pathway and, alternatively, it also participates in repeat-induced gene silencing by accumulating heterochromatin proteins at the mini-w array promoters. Therefore, it represents an intriguing and apparently paradoxical new finding in RNA technology with respect to the process of heterochromatin gene silencing.

  1. Application of biodegradable dendrigraft poly-l-lysine to a small interfering RNA delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Kuramoto, Haruka; Mieda, Yukari; Muro, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Sakaguchi, Miako; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kitahara, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Dendrigraft poly-l-lysine (DGL), including its central core, consists entirely of lysine, hence it is completely biodegradable. We applied DGL in a small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system. Binary complexes with siRNA and DGL had particle sizes of 23-73 nm and ζ-potentials of 34-42 mV. The siRNA-DGL complexes showed significant silencing effects in a mouse colon carcinoma cell line expressing luciferase (Colon26/Luc cells). The siRNA-DGL complexes induced slight cytotoxicity and hematological toxicity at a high charge ratio of DGL to siRNA, probably because of their cationic charges. Therefore, we recharged the siRNA-DGL complexes with γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), a biodegradable anionic compound, which was reported to reduce the cytotoxicity of cationic complexes. The ternary complexes showed particle sizes of 35-47 nm at a charge ratio of greater than 14 to siRNA with negative charges. Strong silencing effects of the ternary complexes were observed in Colon26/Luc cells without cytotoxicity or hematological toxicity. The cellular uptake and degradation of the binary and ternary complexes were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The ternary complexes suppressed luciferase activity in the tumor after direct injection into the tumors of mice bearing Colon26/Luc cells. Thus, a potentially important siRNA delivery system was constructed using biodegradable DGL.

  2. A systems biology approach for miRNA-mRNA expression patterns analysis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Ali; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Hosseini, Sayed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is a prevalent and heterogeneous subtype of lung cancer accounting for 85 percent of patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs, incorporate into regulation of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs' expression has provided further layers of complexity to the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of different diseases and malignancies. Although, until now considerable number of studies has been carried out to illuminate this complexity in NSCLC, they have remained less effective in their goal due to lack of a holistic and integrative systems biology approach which considers all natural elaborations of miRNAs' function. It is able to reliably nominate most affected signaling pathways and therapeutic target genes by deregulated miRNAs during a particular pathological condition. Herein, we utilized a holistic systems biology approach, based on appropriate re-analyses of microarray datasets followed by reliable data filtering, to analyze integrative and combinatorial deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction network in NSCLC, aiming to ascertain miRNA-dysregulated signaling pathway and potential therapeutic miRNAs and mRNAs which represent a lion' share during various aspects of NSCLC's pathogenesis. Our systems biology approach introduced and nominated 1) important deregulated miRNAs in NSCLCs compared with normal tissue 2) significant and confident deregulated mRNAs which were anti-correlatively targeted by deregulated miRNA in NSCLCs and 3) dysregulated signaling pathways in association with deregulated miRNA-mRNAs interactions in NSCLCs. These results introduce possible mechanism of function of deregulated miRNAs and mRNAs in NSCLC that could be used as potential therapeutic targets.

  3. A Conserved MicroRNA Regulatory Circuit Is Differentially Controlled during Limb/Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    King, Benjamin L.; Yin, Viravuth P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although regenerative capacity is evident throughout the animal kingdom, it is not equally distributed throughout evolution. For instance, complex limb/appendage regeneration is muted in mammals but enhanced in amphibians and teleosts. The defining characteristic of limb/appendage regenerative systems is the formation of a dedifferentiated tissue, termed blastema, which serves as the progenitor reservoir for regenerating tissues. In order to identify a genetic signature that accompanies blastema formation, we employ next-generation sequencing to identify shared, differentially regulated mRNAs and noncoding RNAs in three different, highly regenerative animal systems: zebrafish caudal fins, bichir pectoral fins and axolotl forelimbs. Results These studies identified a core group of 5 microRNAs (miRNAs) that were commonly upregulated and 5 miRNAs that were commonly downregulated, as well as 4 novel tRNAs fragments with sequences conserved with humans. To understand the potential function of these miRNAs, we built a network of 1,550 commonly differentially expressed mRNAs that had functional relationships to 11 orthologous blastema-associated genes. As miR-21 was the most highly upregulated and most highly expressed miRNA in all three models, we validated the expression of known target genes, including the tumor suppressor, pdcd4, and TGFβ receptor subunit, tgfbr2 and novel putative target genes such as the anti-apoptotic factor, bcl2l13, Choline kinase alpha, chka and the regulator of G-protein signaling, rgs5. Conclusions Our extensive analysis of RNA-seq transcriptome profiling studies in three regenerative animal models, that diverged in evolution ~420 million years ago, reveals a common miRNA-regulated genetic network of blastema genes. These comparative studies extend our current understanding of limb/appendage regeneration by identifying previously unassociated blastema genes and the extensive regulation by miRNAs, which could serve as a foundation

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans RIG-I Homolog Mediates Antiviral RNA Interference Downstream of Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Viral Small Interfering RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Stephanie R.; Lu, Jinfeng; Guo, Xunyang; Zhong, Jing; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Li, Wan-Xiang; Lu, Rui; Maduro, Morris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection. However, it remains unclear if DRH-1 acts analogously to initiate antiviral RNAi in C. elegans. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen to characterize antiviral RNAi in C. elegans. Using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy, we uncovered four loss-of-function alleles of drh-1, three of which caused mutations in the helicase and C-terminal domains conserved in RLRs. Deep sequencing of small RNAs revealed an abundant population of Dicer-dependent virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in drh-1 single and double mutant animals after infection with Orsay virus, a positive-strand RNA virus. These findings provide further genetic evidence for the antiviral function of DRH-1 and illustrate that DRH-1 is not essential for the sensing and Dicer-mediated processing of the viral dsRNA replicative intermediates. Interestingly, vsiRNAs produced by drh-1 mutants were mapped overwhelmingly to the terminal regions of the viral genomic RNAs, in contrast to random distribution of vsiRNA hot spots when DRH-1 is functional. As RIG-I translocates on long dsRNA and DRH-1 exists in a complex with Dicer, we propose that DRH-1 facilitates the biogenesis of vsiRNAs in nematodes by catalyzing translocation of the Dicer complex on the viral long dsRNA precursors. PMID:28325765

  5. Conserved 5' flank homologies in dipteran 5S RNA genes that would function on 'A' form DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Rubacha, A; Sumner, W; Richter, L; Beckingham, K

    1984-01-01

    We have sequenced the 480 base pair (bp) repeating unit of the 5S RNA genes of the Dipteran fly Calliphora erythrocephala and compared this sequence to the three known 5S RNA gene sequences from the Dipteran Genus Drosophila (1,2). A striking series of five perfectly conserved homologies identically positioned within the 5' flanks of all four Dipteran 5S RNA coding regions has thus been identified. The spacing (12-13 bp) between all of these homologies is typical of A form rather than B form DNA. Given that the eukaryotic 5S RNA gene specific initiation factor TFIIIA (3) is a DNA unwinding protein (4), a role for these Dipteran 5' flank homologies in initiation site selection on 5S RNA genes transiently unwound for transcription is suggested. One of the Dipteran homology blocks is highly conserved in sequence and position in all but one of the eukaryotic 5S RNA gene sequences known to date (17/18 genes). Its sequence (consensus: TATAAG) and position (average center: -26 bp) are highly reminiscent of the polymerase II gene 'TATA' box (5). PMID:6209610

  6. Interaction between cationic agents and small interfering RNA and DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unksov, I. N.; Slita, A. V.; Petrova, A. V.; Pereviazko, I.; Bakulev, V. M.; Rolich, V. I.; Bondarenko, A. B.; Kasyanenko, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Azobenzene containing surfactant AzoTAB was used for investigation of binding in cationic- agent + nucleic acid in NaCl salt aqueous solutions. Two nucleic acids, macromolecular DNA and small interfering RNA, were examined upon the interaction with the surfactant. For DNA the interaction was studied using spectral methods and the methods of viscometry and flow birefringence measurement. For siRNA the possibility of surfactant-based delivery was checked in vitro.

  7. Regulation of polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in Sinorhizobium meliloti by the trans-encoded small RNA MmgR.

    PubMed

    Lagares, Antonio; Ceizel Borella, Germán; Linne, Uwe; Becker, Anke; Valverde, Claudio

    2017-02-06

    Riboregulation has a major role in the fine-tuning of multiple bacterial processes. Among the RNA players, trans-encoded untranslated small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate complex metabolic networks by tuning expression from multiple target genes in response to numerous signals. In Sinorhizobium meliloti, over 400 sRNAs are expressed under different stimuli. The sRNA MmgR-standing for Makes more granules Regulator-has been of particular interest to us since its sequence and structure are highly conserved among the α-proteobacteria, and its expression is regulated by the amount and quality of the bacterium's available nitrogen source. In this work, we explored the biological role of MmgR in S. meliloti 2011 by characterizing the effect of a deletion of the internal conserved core of mmgR (mmgR(Δ33-51)). This mutation resulted in higher amounts of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) distributed into more intracellular granules than are found in the wild-type strain. This phenotype was expressed upon cessation of balanced growth owing to a nitrogen depletion in the presence of surplus carbon (i. e., at a carbon:nitrogen molar ratio greater than 10). The normal PHB accumulation was complemented with a wild-type mmgR copy, but not with unrelated sRNA genes. Furthermore, the expression of mmgR limited PHB accumulation in the wild-type, regardless of the magnitude of the C surplus. Quantitative proteomic profiling and qRT-PCR revealed that the absence of MmgR results in a posttranscriptional overexpression of both PHB-phasin proteins (PhaP1, PhaP2). All together, our results indicate that the widely conserved α-proteobacterial MmgR sRNA fine-tunes the regulation of PHB storage in S. meliloti IMPORTANCE: High-throughput RNA sequencing has recently uncovered an overwhelming number of trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNAs) in diverse prokaryotes. In the nitrogen-fixing α-proteobacterial symbiont of alfalfa root nodules Sinorhizobium meliloti, only four out of hundreds of identified sRNA genes

  8. Dermal/transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA and antisense oligonucleotides- advances and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Ita, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    A diverse array of nucleic acids has been studied by several researchers for the management of several diseases. Among these compounds, small interfering RNA and antisense oligonucleotides have attracted considerable attention. Antisense oligonucleotides are synthetic single stranded strings of nucleic acids that bind to RNA and thereby alter or reduce expression of the target RNA while siRNAs, on the other hand, are double-stranded RNA molecules which can hybridize with a specific mRNA sequence and block the translation of numerous genes. One of the main obstacles in the dermal or transdermal delivery of these compounds is their low skin permeability. In this review, various techniques used to enhance the delivery of these molecules into or across the skin are described and in some cases, the correlation between enhanced dermal/transdermal delivery and therapeutic efficacy is highlighted.

  9. New insights into small RNA-dependent translational regulation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Desnoyers, Guillaume; Bouchard, Marie-Pier; Massé, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) typically repress translation of target mRNAs by pairing directly to the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and competing with initiating ribosomes, an event that is often followed by rapid mRNA decay. In recent years, however, many examples of translation-repressing sRNAs pairing outside the RBS have been described. In this review, we focus on newly characterized mechanisms that explain how a sRNA can modulate translation by binding outside of the RBS and discuss new insights into the events following translation repression. These new mechanisms broaden current perspectives of sRNA pairing sites on mRNA targets and demonstrate how the interplay between sRNAs, mRNA structures, and protein partners can contribute to post-transcriptional regulation.

  10. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples. PMID:22995534

  11. RNA polymerase II senses obstruction in the DNA minor groove via a conserved sensor motif

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Gotte, Deanna; Yang, Fei; Hare, Alissa A.; Welch, Timothy R.; Li, Benjamin C.; Shin, Ji Hyun; Chong, Jenny; Strathern, Jeffrey N.; Dervan, Peter B.; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (pol II) encounters numerous barriers during transcription elongation, including DNA strand breaks, DNA lesions, and nucleosomes. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides bind to the minor groove of DNA with programmable sequence specificity and high affinity. Previous studies suggest that Py-Im polyamides can prevent transcription factor binding, as well as interfere with pol II transcription elongation. However, the mechanism of pol II inhibition by Py-Im polyamides is unclear. Here we investigate the mechanism of how these minor-groove binders affect pol II transcription elongation. In the presence of site-specifically bound Py-Im polyamides, we find that the pol II elongation complex becomes arrested immediately upstream of the targeted DNA sequence, and is not rescued by transcription factor IIS, which is in contrast to pol II blockage by a nucleosome barrier. Further analysis reveals that two conserved pol II residues in the Switch 1 region contribute to pol II stalling. Our study suggests this motif in pol II can sense the structural changes of the DNA minor groove and can be considered a “minor groove sensor.” Prolonged interference of transcription elongation by sequence-specific minor groove binders may present opportunities to target transcription addiction for cancer therapy. PMID:27791148

  12. Anomalous uptake and circulatory characteristics of the plant-based small RNA MIR2911

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Hotz, Tremearne; Broadnax, LaCassidy; Yarmarkovich, Mark; Elbaz-Younes, Ismail; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent detection of plant-based dietary small RNAs in circulation has thwarted the use of dietary RNA therapeutics. Here we demonstrate mice consuming diets rich in vegetables displayed enhanced serum levels of the plant specific small RNA MIR2911. Differential centrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, and proteinase K treatment of plant extracts suggest this RNA resides within a proteinase K-sensitive complex. Plant derived MIR2911 was more bioavailable than the synthetic RNA. Furthermore, MIR2911 exhibited unusual digestive stability compared with other synthetic plant microRNAs. The characteristics of circulating MIR2911 were also unusual as it was not associated with exosomes and fractionated as a soluble complex that was insensitive to proteinase K treatment, consistent with MIR2911 being stabilized by modifications conferred by the host. These results indicate that intrinsic stability and plant-based modifications orchestrate consumer uptake of this anomalous plant based small RNA and invite revisiting plant-based microRNA therapeutic approaches. PMID:27251858

  13. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  14. Functional analysis of the sea urchin U7 small nuclear RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmartin, G.M.; Schaufele, F.; Schaffner, G.; Birnstiel, M.L.

    1988-03-01

    U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is an essential component of the RNA-processing machinery which generates the 3' end of mature histone mRNA in the sea urchin. The U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) is classified as a member of the Sm-type U snRNP family by virtue of its recognition by both anti-trimethylguanosine and anti-Sm antibodies. The authors analyzed the function-structure relationship of the U7 snRNP by mutagenesis experiments. These suggested that the U7 snRNP of the sea urchin is composed of three important domains. The fist domain encompasses the 5'-terminal sequence, up to about nucleotides 7, which are accessible to micrococcal nuclease, while the remainder of the RNA is highly protected and hence presumably bound by proteins. This region contains the sequence complementarities between the U7 snRNA and the histone pre-mRNA which have previously been shown to be required for 3' processing. Nucleotides 9 to 20 constitute a second domain which includes sequences for Sm protein binding. The complementarities between the U7 snRNA sequences in this region and the terminal palindrome fo the historne mRNA appear to be fortuitous and play only a secondary, if any, role in 3' processing. The third domain is composed of the terminal palindrome of U7 snRNA, the secondary structure of which must be maintained for the U7 snRNP to function, but its sequence can be drastically altered without any observable effect on snRNP assembly or 3' processing.

  15. Precise small-molecule recognition of a toxic CUG RNA repeat expansion.

    PubMed

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Colgan, Lesley A; Nakai, Yoshio; Cameron, Michael D; Furling, Denis; Yasuda, Ryohei; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-02-01

    Excluding the ribosome and riboswitches, developing small molecules that selectively target RNA is a longstanding problem in chemical biology. A typical cellular RNA is difficult to target because it has little tertiary, but abundant secondary structure. We designed allele-selective compounds that target such an RNA, the toxic noncoding repeat expansion (r(CUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). We developed several strategies to generate allele-selective small molecules, including non-covalent binding, covalent binding, cleavage and on-site probe synthesis. Covalent binding and cleavage enabled target profiling in cells derived from individuals with DM1, showing precise recognition of r(CUG)(exp). In the on-site probe synthesis approach, small molecules bound adjacent sites in r(CUG)(exp) and reacted to afford picomolar inhibitors via a proximity-based click reaction only in DM1-affected cells. We expanded this approach to image r(CUG)(exp) in its natural context.

  16. Four plant Dicers mediate viral small RNA biogenesis and DNA virus induced silencing

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Todd; Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Shivaprasad, Padubidri V.; Beknazariants, Daria; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Park, Hyun-Sook; Vazquez, Franck; Robertson, Dominique; Meins, Frederick; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2006-01-01

    Like other eukaryotes, plants use DICER-LIKE (DCL) proteins as the central enzymes of RNA silencing, which regulates gene expression and mediates defense against viruses. But why do plants like Arabidopsis express four DCLs, a diversity unmatched by other kingdoms? Here we show that two nuclear DNA viruses (geminivirus CaLCuV and pararetrovirus CaMV) and a cytoplasmic RNA tobamovirus ORMV are differentially targeted by subsets of DCLs. DNA virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of specific size classes (21, 22 and 24 nt) are produced by all four DCLs, including DCL1, known to process microRNA precursors. Specifically, DCL1 generates 21 nt siRNAs from the CaMV leader region. In contrast, RNA virus infection is mainly affected by DCL4. While the four DCLs are partially redundant for CaLCuV-induced mRNA degradation, DCL4 in conjunction with RDR6 and HEN1 specifically facilitates extensive virus-induced silencing in new growth. Additionally, we show that CaMV infection impairs processing of endogenous RDR6-derived double-stranded RNA, while ORMV prevents HEN1-mediated methylation of small RNA duplexes, suggesting two novel viral strategies of silencing suppression. Our work highlights the complexity of virus interaction with host silencing pathways and suggests that DCL multiplicity helps mediate plant responses to diverse viral infections. PMID:17090584

  17. Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

    2014-06-01

    Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants.

  18. Comparison of small molecules and oligonucleotides that target a toxic, non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Costales, Matthew G; Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Potential RNA targets for chemical probes and therapeutic modalities are pervasive in the transcriptome. Oligonucleotide-based therapeutics are commonly used to target RNA sequence. Small molecules are emerging as a modality to target RNA structures selectively, but their development is still in its infancy. In this work, we compare the activity of oligonucleotides and several classes of small molecules that target the non-coding r(CCUG) repeat expansion (r(CCUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), an incurable disease that is the second-most common cause of adult onset muscular dystrophy. Small molecule types investigated include monomers, dimers, and multivalent compounds synthesized on-site by using RNA-templated click chemistry. Oligonucleotides investigated include phosphorothioates that cleave their target and vivo-morpholinos that modulate target RNA activity via binding. We show that compounds assembled on-site that recognize structure have the highest potencies amongst small molecules and are similar in potency to a vivo-morpholino modified oligonucleotide that targets sequence. These studies are likely to impact the design of therapeutic modalities targeting other repeats expansions that cause fragile X syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, for example.

  19. Adhesions small bowel obstruction in emergency setting: conservative or operative treatment?

    PubMed Central

    ASSENZA, M.; DE GRUTTOLA, I.; ROSSI, D.; CASTALDI, S.; FALASCHI, F.; GIULIANO, G.

    2016-01-01

    Adhesions small bowel obstructions (aSBO) are among the leading causes of emergency operative intervention. About the 80% of aSBO cases resolve without a surgical treatment. It’s important to identify which patients could undergo a conservative treatment to prevent an useless surgery The aim of this study is to determine findings that can indicate whether patients with aSBO should undergo a conservative or a surgical treatment. 313 patients with diagnosis of submission of aSBO were restudied. Patients were divided into two groups based on the different type of treatment received, 225 patients who underwent surgical treatment within 24 hours after admission, 88 patients which underwent conservative treatment successfully. For each patient, clinical, hematochemical and radiological findings have been analysed. The treatment of aSBO should be, at the beginning, conservative except that cases that presents clinical and/or CT-scan findings predictive for a surgical treatment (free peritoneal fluid, mesenterial edema, transitional point) or a peritonitis (pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumoperitoneum). PMID:27938529

  20. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong H.; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3’ end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  1. 7SK small nuclear RNA inhibits cancer cell proliferation through apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Keramati, Farid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Fallah, Parviz; Soleimani, Masoud; Ghanbarian, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is a 331-333-bp non-coding RNA, which recruits HEXIM 1/2 protein to inhibit positive elongation factor b (P-TEFb) activity. P-TEFb is an essential factor in alleviating promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and initiating the productive elongation phase of gene transcription. Without this protein, Pol II will remain in its hypophosphorylated state, and no transcription occurs. In this study, we inhibited P-TEFb activity by over-expressing 7SK snRNA in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cancer cell line. This inhibition led to a significant decrease in cell viability, which can be due to the transcription inhibition. Moreover, 7SK snRNA over-expression promoted apoptosis in cancerous cells. Our results suggest 7SK snRNA as a potential endogenous anti-cancer agent, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a long non-coding RNA's over-expression against cancer cell growth and proliferation.

  2. Transvascular delivery of small interfering RNA to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Priti; Wu, Haoquan; McBride, Jodi L; Jung, Kyeong-Eun; Kim, Moon Hee; Davidson, Beverly L; Lee, Sang Kyung; Shankar, Premlata; Manjunath, N

    2007-07-05

    A major impediment in the treatment of neurological diseases is the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which precludes the entry of therapeutic molecules from blood to brain. Here we show that a short peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) enables the transvascular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the brain. This 29-amino-acid peptide specifically binds to the acetylcholine receptor expressed by neuronal cells. To enable siRNA binding, a chimaeric peptide was synthesized by adding nonamer arginine residues at the carboxy terminus of RVG. This RVG-9R peptide was able to bind and transduce siRNA to neuronal cells in vitro, resulting in efficient gene silencing. After intravenous injection into mice, RVG-9R delivered siRNA to the neuronal cells, resulting in specific gene silencing within the brain. Furthermore, intravenous treatment with RVG-9R-bound antiviral siRNA afforded robust protection against fatal viral encephalitis in mice. Repeated administration of RVG-9R-bound siRNA did not induce inflammatory cytokines or anti-peptide antibodies. Thus, RVG-9R provides a safe and noninvasive approach for the delivery of siRNA and potentially other therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier.

  3. Small RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of TREK-1 potassium channel in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Tang, Ronghua; Liu, Yang; Song, Jingjiao; Yu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Wei; Xie, Minjie

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of TREK-1 silencing on the function of astrocytes. Three 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes (siT1, siT2, siT3) targeting TREK-1 were constructed. Cy3-labeled dsRNA oligmers were used to determine the transfection efficiency in cultured astrocytes. TREK-1-specific siRNA duplexes (siT1, siT2, siT3) at the optimal concentration were transfected into cultured astrocytes, and the most efficient siRNA was identified by the method of immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting. The proliferation of astrocytes tranfected with TREK-1-targeting siRNA under hypoxia condition was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The results showed that TREK-1 was expressed in cultured astrocytes. The dsRNA oligmers targeting TREK-1 could be transfected efficiently in cultured astrocytes and down-regulate the expression of TREK-1 in astrocytes. Moreover, the down-regulation of TREK-1 in astrocytes contributed to the proliferation of astrocytes under hypoxia condition as determined by cell cycle analysis. It was concluded that siRNA is a powerful technique that can be used to knockdown the expression of TREK-1 in astrocytes, which helps further investigate the function of TREK-1 channel in astrocytes under physicological and pathological condition.

  4. Exploration of small RNA-seq data for small non-coding RNAs in Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Srinivas V; Tiwari, Amit K; Hazard, Sprague W; Mahajan, Milind; Ravnic, Dino J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improved healthcare and recent breakthroughs in technology have substantially reduced cancer mortality rates worldwide. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have allowed genomic analysis of the human transcriptome. Now, using NGS we can further look into small non-coding regions of RNAs (sncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting-RNAs (piRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs (sn/snoRNAs) among others. Recent studies looking at sncRNAs indicate their role in important biological processes such as cancer progression and predict their role as biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Results: In the present study, we data mined publically available small RNA sequencing data from colorectal tissue samples of eight matched patients (benign, tumor, and metastasis) and remapped the data for various small RNA annotations. We identified aberrant expression of 13 miRNAs in tumor and metastasis specimens [tumor vs benign group (19 miRNAs) and metastasis vs benign group (38 miRNAs)] of which five were upregulated, and eight were downregulated, during disease progression. Pathway analysis of aberrantly expressed miRNAs showed that the majority of miRNAs involved in colon cancer were also involved in other cancers. Analysis of piRNAs revealed six to be over-expressed in the tumor vs benign cohort and 24 in the metastasis vs benign group. Only two piRNAs were shared between the two cohorts. Examining other types of small RNAs [sn/snoRNAs, mt_rRNA, miscRNA, nonsense mediated decay (NMD), and rRNAs] identified 15 sncRNAs in the tumor vs benign group and 104 in the metastasis vs benign group, with only four others being commonly expressed. Conclusion: In summary, our comprehensive analysis on publicly available small RNA-seq data identified multiple differentially expressed sncRNAs during colorectal cancer progression at different stages compared to normal colon tissue. We speculate that

  5. Gifsy-1 Prophage IsrK with Dual Function as Small and Messenger RNA Modulates Vital Bacterial Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Hershko-Shalev, Tal; Odenheimer-Bergman, Ahuva; Elgrably-Weiss, Maya; Ben-Zvi, Tamar; Govindarajan, Sutharsan; Seri, Hemda; Papenfort, Kai; Vogel, Jörg; Altuvia, Shoshy

    2016-01-01

    While an increasing number of conserved small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are known to function in general bacterial physiology, the roles and modes of action of sRNAs from horizontally acquired genomic regions remain little understood. The IsrK sRNA of Gifsy-1 prophage of Salmonella belongs to the latter class. This regulatory RNA exists in two isoforms. The first forms, when a portion of transcripts originating from isrK promoter reads-through the IsrK transcription-terminator producing a translationally inactive mRNA target. Acting in trans, the second isoform, short IsrK RNA, binds the inactive transcript rendering it translationally active. By switching on translation of the first isoform, short IsrK indirectly activates the production of AntQ, an antiterminator protein located upstream of isrK. Expression of antQ globally interferes with transcription termination resulting in bacterial growth arrest and ultimately cell death. Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells expressing AntQ display condensed chromatin morphology and localization of UvrD to the nucleoid. The toxic phenotype of AntQ can be rescued by co-expression of the transcription termination factor, Rho, or RNase H, which protects genomic DNA from breaks by resolving R-loops. We propose that AntQ causes conflicts between transcription and replication machineries and thus promotes DNA damage. The isrK locus represents a unique example of an island-encoded sRNA that exerts a highly complex regulatory mechanism to tune the expression of a toxic protein. PMID:27057757

  6. Novel microRNA-like viral small regulatory RNAs arising during human hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs.

  7. Packaging of hepatitis delta virus RNA via the RNA-binding domain of hepatitis delta antigens: different roles for the small and large delta antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H W; Chen, P J; Lee, C Z; Wu, H L; Chen, D S

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is composed of four specific components. The first component is envelope protein which contains hepatitis B surface antigens. The second and third components are nucleocapsid proteins, referred to as small and large hepatitis delta antigens (HDAgs). The final component is a single-stranded circular RNA molecule known as the viral genome. In order to study the mechanism of HDV RNA packaging, a four-plasmid cotransfection system in which each viral component was provided by a separate plasmid was employed. Virus-like particles released from Huh-7 cells receiving such a cotransfection were found to contain HDV RNA along with three proteins. Therefore, the four-plasmid cotransfection system could lead to successful HDV RNA packaging in vitro. The system was then used to show that the large HDAg alone was able to achieve a low level of HDV RNA packaging. Analysis of a variety of large HDAg mutants revealed that the RNA-binding domain was essential for viral RNA packaging. By increasing the incorporation of small HDAg into virus-like particles, we found a three- to fourfold enhancement of HDV RNA packaging. This effect was probably through a direct binding of HDV RNA, independent from that of large HDAg, with the small HDAg. The subsequent RNA-protein complex was packaged into particles. The results provided insight into the roles and functional domains of small and large HDAgs in HDV RNA packaging. Images PMID:8083975

  8. Natural-abundance stable carbon isotopes of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from Guaymas Basin (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Mendlovitz, H.; Albert, D.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a phylogenetically informative molecule found in all species. Because it is poorly preserved in most environments, it is a useful marker for active microbial populations. We are using the natural-abundance stable carbon isotopic composition of specific microbial groups to help identify the carbon substrates contributing to microbial biomass in a variety of marine environments. At Guaymas Basin, hydrothermal fluids interact with abundant sedimentary organic carbon to produce natural gas and petroleum. Where this reaches the sediment surface, it can support dense patches of seafloor life, including Beggiatoa mats. We report here on the stable carbon isotopic composition of SSU rRNA from a Beggiatoa mat transect, a cold background site, a warm site with high oil concentration, and a second Beggiatoa mat. The central part of the transect mat overlay the steepest temperature gradient, and was visually dominated by orange Beggiatoa. This was fringed by white Beggiatoa mat and bare, but still warm, sediment. Methane concentrations were saturating beneath the orange and white mats and at the oily site, lower beneath bare sediment, and below detection at the background site. Our initial hypotheses were that rRNA isotopic composition would be strongly influenced by methane supply, and that archaeal rRNA might be lighter than bacterial due to contributions from methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidizers. We used biotin-labeled oligonucleotides to capture Bacterial and Archaeal SSU rRNA for isotopic determination. Background-site rRNA was isotopically heaviest, and bacterial RNA from below 2 cm at the oily site was lightest, consistent with control by methane. Within the transect mat, however, the pattern was more complicated; at some sediment depths, rRNA from the mat periphery was isotopically lightest. Part of this may be due to the spatially and temporally variable paths followed by hydrothermal fluid, which can include horizontal

  9. Conserved Motifs within Hepatitis C Virus Envelope (E2) RNA and Protein Independently Inhibit T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Nirjal; McLinden, James H.; Xiang, Jinhua; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is required for T-cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with impaired T-cell function leading to persistent viremia, delayed and inconsistent antibody responses, and mild immune dysfunction. Although multiple factors appear to contribute to T-cell dysfunction, a role for HCV particles in this process has not been identified. Here, we show that incubation of primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells with HCV RNA-containing serum, HCV-RNA containing extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell culture derived HCV particles (HCVcc) and HCV envelope pseudotyped retrovirus particles (HCVpp) inhibited TCR-mediated signaling. Since HCVpp’s contain only E1 and E2, we examined the effect of HCV E2 on TCR signaling pathways. HCV E2 expression recapitulated HCV particle-induced TCR inhibition. A highly conserved, 51 nucleotide (nt) RNA sequence was sufficient to inhibit TCR signaling. Cells expressing the HCV E2 coding RNA contained a short, virus-derived RNA predicted to be a Dicer substrate, which targeted a phosphatase involved in Src-kinase signaling (PTPRE). T-cells and hepatocytes containing HCV E2 RNA had reduced PTPRE protein levels. Mutation of 6 nts abolished the predicted Dicer interactions and restored PTPRE expression and proximal TCR signaling. HCV RNA did not inhibit distal TCR signaling induced by PMA and Ionomycin; however, HCV E2 protein inhibited distal TCR signaling. This inhibition required lymphocyte-specific tyrosine kinase (Lck). Lck phosphorylated HCV E2 at a conserved tyrosine (Y613), and phospho-E2 inhibited nuclear translocation of NFAT. Mutation of Y613 restored distal TCR signaling, even in the context of HCVpps. Thus, HCV particles delivered viral RNA and E2 protein to T-cells, and these inhibited proximal and distal TCR signaling respectively. These effects of HCV particles likely aid in establishing infection and contribute to viral persistence

  10. Detection of an Abundant Plant-Based Small RNA in Healthy Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Farmer, Lisa M.; Agyekum, Abia A. A.; Elbaz-Younes, Ismail; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of delivery of plant small RNAs to consumers must be investigated in order to harness this technology to positively impact biotechnology. Two groups have used honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) feeding regimes to detect a plant-based small RNA, termed MIR2911, in sera. Meanwhile, numerous groups have failed to detect dietary plant-based small RNAs in consumers. Here we catalog levels of MIR2911 in different herbs, and suggest that in particular herb MIR2911 levels are elevated. Feeding these different herb-based diets to mice, we found MIR2911 levels in the sera and urine were associated with dietary intake levels. Abundance was not the sole determinate of apparent RNA bioavailability, as gavage-feeding large-doses of synthetic MIR2911 permitted only small transient increases in serum levels. Dietary MIR2911 were not modified in circulation by association with the host’s RNA-induced silencing complex, as the RNA did not co-immunoprecipitate with AGO2. The stability of dietary MIR2911 in circulation differed from synthesized small RNAs, as tail vein administration of various synthetic plant-based small RNAs resulted in rapid clearance. However, synthetic MIR2911 appeared to be more stable than the other plant miRNAs tested. Notably, this uptake of dietary MIR2911 was not related to perturbations in the host’s microbiome or gut permeability. We suggest dietary uptake of MIR2911 is commonplace in healthy consumers, and reproducible detection of plant-based small RNAs in consumers depends on dietary abundance, RNA stability and digestion from within the food-matrix. PMID:26335106

  11. Non-small cell lung carcinoma therapy using mTOR-siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Hirochika; Sakakibara, Kenji; Kunimitsu, Tamo; Matsuoka, Hiroyasu; Kato, Kaori; Oyachi, Noboru; Dobashi, Yoh; Matsumoto, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Molecular targeting agents play important roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. Published studies have investigated new drugs categorized as molecular targeting agents that inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We focused on a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that specifically inhibits mTOR and has fewer side effects. To evaluate the antitumor effects of the siRNA, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration were assessed. In the study group, the siRNA was transfected into NSCLC cells. The number of cells present after 6 days of culture was counted to determine changes in cell proliferation. The level of apoptosis was evaluated by the detection of DNA-histone complexes in the cytoplasmic fraction using an absorption spectrometer. Changes in migration were evaluated by calculating the number of cells that passed through a specific filter using a commercial chemotaxis assay kit. mTOR-siRNA transfection inhibited cell proliferation as indicated by 37.3% (p = 0.034) decrease in the number of cells compared with the control cells. Analysis of the level of apoptosis in NSCLC cells revealed 16.7% (p = 0.016) increase following mTOR-siRNA transfection, and mTOR-siRNA transfection significantly inhibited cell migration by 39.2% (p = 0.0001). We confirmed that mTOR-siRNA induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro. Further studies using mTOR-siRNA may aid in the development of an alternative therapy that maximizes the antineoplastic effect of mTOR inhibition. PMID:22400071

  12. Rationally Designed Small Molecules Targeting the RNA That Causes Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Are Potently Bioactive

    PubMed Central

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Hoskins, Jason; Rzuczek, Suzanne G.; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    RNA is an important drug target, but it is difficult to design or discover small molecules that modulate RNA function. In the present study, we report that rationally designed, modularly assembled small molecules that bind the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) are potently bioactive in cell culture models. DM1 is caused when an expansion of r(CUG) repeats, or r(CUG)exp, is present in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) mRNA. r(CUG)exp folds into a hairpin with regularly repeating 5′CUG/3′GUC motifs and sequester muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). A variety of defects are associated with DM1 including: (i) formation of nuclear foci, (ii) decreased translation of DMPK mRNA due to its nuclear retention, and (iii) pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1, which controls the alternative splicing of various pre-mRNAs. Previously, modularly assembled ligands targeting r(CUG)exp were designed using information in an RNA motif-ligand database. These studies showed that a bis-benzimidazole (H) binds the 5′CUG/3′GUC motif in r(CUG)exp. Therefore, we designed multivalent ligands to bind multiple copies of this motif simultaneously in r(CUG)exp. Herein, we report that the designed compounds improve DM1-associated defects including improvement of translational and pre-mRNA splicing defects and the disruption of nuclear foci. These studies may establish a foundation to exploit other RNA targets in genomic sequence. PMID:22332923

  13. Rationally designed small molecules targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 are potently bioactive.

    PubMed

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Hoskins, Jason; Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-05-18

    RNA is an important drug target, but it is difficult to design or discover small molecules that modulate RNA function. In the present study, we report that rationally designed, modularly assembled small molecules that bind the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) are potently bioactive in cell culture models. DM1 is caused when an expansion of r(CUG) repeats, or r(CUG)(exp), is present in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) mRNA. r(CUG)(exp) folds into a hairpin with regularly repeating 5'CUG/3'GUC motifs and sequesters muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). A variety of defects are associated with DM1, including (i) formation of nuclear foci, (ii) decreased translation of DMPK mRNA due to its nuclear retention, and (iii) pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1, which controls the alternative splicing of various pre-mRNAs. Previously, modularly assembled ligands targeting r(CUG)(exp) were designed using information in an RNA motif-ligand database. These studies showed that a bis-benzimidazole (H) binds the 5'CUG/3'GUC motif in r(CUG)(exp.) Therefore, we designed multivalent ligands to bind simultaneously multiple copies of this motif in r(CUG)(exp). Herein, we report that the designed compounds improve DM1-associated defects including improvement of translational and pre-mRNA splicing defects and the disruption of nuclear foci. These studies may establish a foundation to exploit other RNA targets in genomic sequence.

  14. Effect of translational and angular momentum conservation on energy equipartition in microcanonical equilibrium in small clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Taizo R.; Okushima, Teruaki; Ikeda, Kensuke S.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate numerically and analytically the effects of conservation of total translational and angular momentum on the distribution of kinetic energy among particles in microcanonical particle systems with small number of degrees of freedom, specifically microclusters. Molecular dynamics simulations of microclusters with constant total energy and momenta, using Lennard-Jones, Morse, and Coulomb plus Born-Mayer-type potentials, show that the distribution of kinetic energy among particles can be inhomogeneous and depend on particle mass and position even in thermal equilibrium. Statistical analysis using a microcanonical measure taking into account of the additional conserved quantities gives theoretical expressions for kinetic energy as a function of the mass and position of a particle with only O(1/N2) deviation from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. These expressions fit numerical results well. Finally, we propose an intuitive interpretation for the inhomogeneity of the kinetic energy distributions.

  15. User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

  16. HrrF is the Fur-regulated small RNA in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Santana, Estevan A; Harrison, Alistair; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth D; Kelly, Benjamin J; White, Peter; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are Gram-negative commensal bacteria that reside in the nasopharynx. NTHi can also cause multiple upper and lower respiratory tract diseases that include sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and otitis media. In numerous bacterial species the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) acts as a global regulator of iron homeostasis by negatively regulating the expression of iron uptake systems. However in NTHi strain 86-028NP and numerous other bacterial species there are multiple instances where Fur positively affects gene expression. It is known that many instances of positive regulation by Fur occur indirectly through a small RNA intermediate. However, no examples of small RNAs have been described in NTHi. Therefore we used RNA-Seq analysis to analyze the transcriptome of NTHi strain 86-028NPrpsL and an isogenic 86-028NPrpsLΔfur strain to identify Fur-regulated intergenic transcripts. From this analysis we identified HrrF, the first small RNA described in any Haemophilus species. Orthologues of this small RNA exist only among other Pasteurellaceae. Our analysis showed that HrrF is maximally expressed when iron levels are low. Additionally, Fur was shown to bind upstream of the hrrF promoter. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify targets of HrrF which include genes whose products are involved in molybdate uptake, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The stability of HrrF is not dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq. This study is the first step in an effort to investigate the role small RNAs play in altering gene expression in response to iron limitation in NTHi.

  17. Climate Change Risks and Conservation Implications for a Threatened Small-Range Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070–2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. Conclusions/Significance Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be highly vulnerable to

  18. Biodiversity conservation across taxa and landscapes requires many small as well as single large habitat fragments.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Verena; Tscharntke, Teja; Scherber, Christoph; Batáry, Péter

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural intensification has been shown to reduce biodiversity through processes such as habitat degradation and fragmentation. We tested whether several small or single large habitat fragments (re-visiting the 'single large or several small' debate) support more species across a wide range of taxonomic groups (plants, leafhoppers, true bugs, snails). Our study comprised 14 small (<1 ha) and 14 large (1.5-8 ha) fragments of calcareous grassland in Central Germany along orthogonal gradients of landscape complexity and habitat connectivity. Each taxon was sampled on six plots per fragment. Across taxa, species richness did not differ between large and small fragments, whereas species-area accumulation curves showed that both overall and specialist species richness was much higher on several small fragments of calcareous grassland than on few large fragments. On average, 85% of the overall species richness was recorded on all small fragments taken together (4.6 ha), whereas the two largest ones (15.1 ha) only accounted for 37% of the species. This could be due to the greater geographic extent covered by many small fragments. However, community composition differed strongly between large and small fragments, and some of the rarest specialist species appeared to be confined to large fragments. The surrounding landscape did not show any consistent effects on species richness and community composition. Our results show that both single large and many small fragments are needed to promote landscape-wide biodiversity across taxa. We therefore question the focus on large fragments only and call for a new diversified habitat fragmentation strategy for biodiversity conservation.

  19. A phylogenetically conserved RNA structure in the poliovirus open reading frame inhibits the antiviral endoribonuclease RNase L.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-Qiu; Townsend, Hannah L; Jha, Babal Kant; Paranjape, Jayashree M; Silverman, Robert H; Barton, David J

    2007-06-01

    RNase L is an antiviral endoribonuclease that cleaves viral mRNAs after single-stranded UA and UU dinucleotides. Poliovirus (PV) mRNA is surprisingly resistant to cleavage by RNase L due to an RNA structure in the 3C(Pro) open reading frame (ORF). The RNA structure associated with the inhibition of RNase L is phylogenetically conserved in group C enteroviruses, including PV type 1 (PV1), PV2, PV3, coxsackie A virus 11 (CAV11), CAV13, CAV17, CAV20, CAV21, and CAV24. The RNA structure is not present in other human enteroviruses (group A, B, or D enteroviruses). Coxsackievirus B3 mRNA and hepatitis C virus mRNA were fully sensitive to cleavage by RNase L. HeLa cells expressing either wild-type RNase L or a dominant-negative mutant RNase L were used to examine the effects of RNase L on PV replication. PV replication was not inhibited by RNase L activity, but rRNA cleavage characteristic of RNase L activity was detected late during the course of PV infection, after assembly of intracellular virus. Rather than inhibiting PV replication, RNase L activity was associated with larger plaques and better cell-to-cell spread. Mutations in the RNA structure associated with the inhibition of RNase L did not affect the magnitude of PV replication in HeLa cells expressing RNase L, consistent with the absence of observed RNase L activity until after virus assembly. Thus, PV carries an RNA structure in the 3C protease ORF that potently inhibits the endonuclease activity of RNase L, but this RNA structure does not prevent RNase L activity late during the course of infection, as virus assembly nears completion.

  20. DRME: Count-based differential RNA methylation analysis at small sample size scenario.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Yufei; Chen, Runsheng; Meng, Jia

    2016-04-15

    Differential methylation, which concerns difference in the degree of epigenetic regulation via methylation between two conditions, has been formulated as a beta or beta-binomial distribution to address the within-group biological variability in sequencing data. However, a beta or beta-binomial model is usually difficult to infer at small sample size scenario with discrete reads count in sequencing data. On the other hand, as an emerging research field, RNA methylation has drawn more and more attention recently, and the differential analysis of RNA methylation is significantly different from that of DNA methylation due to the impact of transcriptional regulation. We developed DRME to better address the differential RNA methylation problem. The proposed model can effectively describe within-group biological variability at small sample size scenario and handles the impact of transcriptional regulation on RNA methylation. We tested the newly developed DRME algorithm on simulated and 4 MeRIP-Seq case-control studies and compared it with Fisher's exact test. It is in principle widely applicable to several other RNA-related data types as well, including RNA Bisulfite sequencing and PAR-CLIP. The code together with an MeRIP-Seq dataset is available online (https://github.com/lzcyzm/DRME) for evaluation and reproduction of the figures shown in this article.

  1. MicroRNA-Targeted and Small Interfering RNA–Mediated mRNA Degradation Is Regulated by Argonaute, Dicer, and RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ronemus, Michael; Vaughn, Matthew W.; Martienssen, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) of Arabidopsis thaliana mediates the cleavage of microRNA (miRNA)-targeted mRNAs, and it has also been implicated in the posttranscriptional silencing of transgenes and the maintenance of chromatin structure. Mutations in AGO1 severely disrupt plant development, indicating that miRNA function and possibly other aspects of RNA interference are essential for maintaining normal patterns of gene expression. Using microarrays, we found that 1 to 6% of genes display significant expression changes in several alleles of ago1 at multiple developmental stages, with the majority showing higher levels. Several classes of known miRNA targets increased markedly in ago1, whereas others showed little or no change. Cleavage of mRNAs within miRNA-homologous sites was reduced but not abolished in an ago1 -null background, indicating that redundant slicer activity exists in Arabidopsis. Small interfering RNAs and larger 30- to 60-nucleotide RNA fragments corresponding to highly upregulated miRNA target genes accumulated in wild-type plants but not in ago1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutants rdr2 and rdr6, or the Dicer-like mutants dcl1 and dcl3. Both sense and antisense RNAs corresponding to these miRNA targets accumulated in the ago1 and dcl1 backgrounds. These results indicate that a subset of endogenous mRNA targets of RNA interference may be regulated through a mechanism of second-strand RNA synthesis and degradation initiated by or in addition to miRNA-mediated cleavage. PMID:16798886

  2. Evolutionarily Conserved Function of RRP36 in Early Cleavages of the Pre-rRNA and Production of the 40S Ribosomal Subunit ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gérus, Marie; Bonnart, Chrystelle; Caizergues-Ferrer, Michèle; Henry, Yves; Henras, Anthony K.

    2010-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes is a major cellular activity mobilizing the products of over 200 transcriptionally coregulated genes referred to as the rRNA and ribosome biosynthesis regulon. We investigated the function of an essential, uncharacterized gene of this regulon, renamed RRP36. We show that the Rrp36p protein is nucleolar and interacts with 90S and pre-40S preribosomal particles. Its depletion affects early cleavages of the 35S pre-rRNA and results in a rapid decrease in mature 18S rRNA levels. Rrp36p is a novel component of the 90S preribosome, the assembly of which has been suggested to result from the stepwise incorporation of several modules, including the tUTP/UTP-A, PWP2/UTP-B, and UTP-C subcomplexes. We show that Rrp36p depletion does not impair the incorporation of these subcomplexes and the U3 small nucleolar RNP into preribosomes. In contrast, depletion of components of the UTP-A or UTP-B modules, but not Rrp5p, prevents Rrp36p recruitment and reduces its accumulation levels. In parallel, we studied the human orthologue of Rrp36p in HeLa cells, and we show that the function of this protein in early cleavages of the pre-rRNA has been conserved through evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:20038530

  3. Characterization of small RNA populations in non-transgenic and aflatoxin-reducing-transformed peanut.

    PubMed

    Power, Imana L; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S; Orner, Valerie A; Powell, Joseph L; Lamb, Marshall C; Arias, Renee S

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B1 than the controls. The objective was to determine the putative involvement of the small RNA populations in aflatoxin reduction. In total, 41 known microRNA (miRNA) families and many novel miRNAs were identified. Among those, 89 known and 10 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transformed lines. We furthermore found two small interfering RNAs derived from the inverted repeat, and 39 sRNAs that mapped without mismatches to the genome of A. flavus and were present only in the transformed lines. This information will increase our understanding of the effectiveness of RNAi and enable the possible improvement of the RNAi technology for the control of aflatoxins.

  4. Endogenous Small RNA Mediates Meiotic Silencing of a Novel DNA Transposon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhou; Smith, Kristina M; Taylor, John W; Freitag, Michael; Stajich, Jason E

    2015-06-23

    Genome defense likely evolved to curtail the spread of transposable elements and invading viruses. A combination of effective defense mechanisms has been shown to limit colonization of the Neurospora crassa genome by transposable elements. A novel DNA transposon named Sly1-1 was discovered in the genome of the most widely used laboratory "wild-type" strain FGSC 2489 (OR74A). Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, also simply called meiotic silencing, prevents the expression of regions of the genome that are unpaired during karyogamy. This mechanism is posttranscriptional and is proposed to involve the production of small RNA, so-called masiRNAs, by proteins homologous to those involved in RNA interference-silencing pathways in animals, fungi, and plants. Here, we demonstrate production of small RNAs when Sly1-1 was unpaired in a cross between two wild-type strains. These small RNAs are dependent on SAD-1, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase necessary for meiotic silencing. We present the first case of endogenously produced masiRNA from a novel N. crassa DNA transposable element.

  5. A small-scale land-sparing approach to conserving biological diversity in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Richard B; King, David I; Raudales, Raul; Trubey, Richard; Chandler, Carlin; Chávez, Víctor Julio Arce

    2013-08-01

    Two contrasting strategies have been proposed for conserving biological diversity while meeting the increasing demand for agricultural products: land sparing and land sharing production systems. Land sparing involves increasing yield to reduce the amount of land needed for agriculture, whereas land-sharing agricultural practices incorporate elements of native ecosystems into the production system itself. Although the conservation value of these systems has been extensively debated, empirical studies are lacking. We compared bird communities in shade coffee, a widely practiced land-sharing system in which shade trees are maintained within the coffee plantation, with bird communities in a novel, small-scale, land-sparing coffee-production system (integrated open canopy or IOC coffee) in which farmers obtain higher yields under little or no shade while conserving an area of forest equal to the area under cultivation. Species richness and diversity of forest-dependent birds were higher in the IOC coffee farms than in the shade coffee farms, and community composition was more similar between IOC coffee and primary forest than between shade coffee and primary forest. Our study represents the first empirical comparison of well-defined land sparing and land sharing production systems. Because IOC coffee farms can be established by allowing forest to regenerate on degraded land, widespread adoption of this system could lead to substantial increases in forest cover and carbon sequestration without compromising agricultural yield or threatening the livelihoods of traditional small farmers. However, we studied small farms (<5 ha); thus, our results may not generalize to large-scale land-sharing systems. Furthermore, rather than concluding that land sparing is generally superior to land sharing, we suggest that the optimal approach depends on the crop, local climate, and existing land-use patterns.

  6. Conservation and Covariance in Small Bacterial Phosphoglycosyltransferases Identify the Functional Catalytic Core.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Vinita; Luo, Lingqi; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Allen, Karen N; Imperiali, Barbara

    2015-12-22

    Phosphoglycosyltransferases (PGTs) catalyze the transfer of a C1'-phosphosugar from a soluble sugar nucleotide diphosphate to a polyprenol phosphate. These enzymes act at the membrane interface, forming the first membrane-associated intermediates in the biosynthesis of cell-surface glycans and glycoconjugates, including glycoproteins, glycolipids, and the peptidoglycan in bacteria. PGTs vary greatly in both their membrane topologies and their substrate preferences. PGTs, such as MraY and WecA, are polytopic, while other families of uniquely prokaryotic enzymes have only a single predicted transmembrane helix. PglC, a PGT involved in the biosynthesis of N-linked glycoproteins in the enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni, is representative of one of the structurally most simple members of the diverse family of small bacterial PGT enzymes. Herein, we apply bioinformatics and covariance-weighted distance constraints in geometry- and homology-based model building, together with mutational analysis, to investigate monotopic PGTs. The pool of 15000 sequences that are analyzed include the PglC-like enzymes, as well as sequences from two other related PGTs that contain a "PglC-like" domain embedded in their larger structures (namely, the bifunctional PglB family, typified by PglB from Neisseria gonorrheae, and WbaP-like enzymes, typified by WbaP from Salmonella enterica). Including these two subfamilies of PGTs in the analysis highlights key residues conserved across all three families of small bacterial PGTs. Mutagenesis analysis of these conserved residues provides further information about the essentiality of many of these residues in catalysis. Construction of a structural model of the cytosolic globular domain utilizing three-dimensional distance constraints, provided by conservation covariance analysis, provides additional insight into the catalytic core of these families of small bacterial PGT enzymes.

  7. Conservative removal of small pituitary tumours: is it justified by the pathological findings?

    PubMed Central

    Wrightson, P

    1978-01-01

    Operation by the trans-sphenoidal route allows removal of small pituitary adenomata with conservation of normal gland. Histological examination of tissue obtained at operation and necropsy in 73 cases showed that surgical methods at present in use are likely to leave tumour behind in the pituitary gland and in the dura mater of the pituitary fossa. The clinical significance of these findings will only become evident after following patients for an extended period, but there appears to be a strong indication for routine postoperative radiotherapy. Images PMID:632827

  8. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zonghui; Luijten, Erik

    2015-12-28

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.

  9. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers. PMID:26723631

  10. Approaches to Validate and Manipulate RNA Targets with Small Molecules in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA has become an increasingly important target for therapeutic interventions and for chemical probes that dissect and manipulate its cellular function. Emerging targets include human RNAs that have been shown to directly cause cancer, metabolic disorders, and genetic disease. In this review, we describe various routes to obtain bioactive compounds that target RNA, with a particular emphasis on the development of small molecules. We use these cases to describe approaches that are being developed for target validation, which include target-directed cleavage, classic pull-down experiments, and covalent cross-linking. Thus, tools are available to design small molecules to target RNA and to identify the cellular RNAs that are their targets. PMID:26514201

  11. Approaches to Validate and Manipulate RNA Targets with Small Molecules in Cells.

    PubMed

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    RNA has become an increasingly important target for therapeutic interventions and for chemical probes that dissect and manipulate its cellular function. Emerging targets include human RNAs that have been shown to directly cause cancer, metabolic disorders, and genetic disease. In this review, we describe various routes to obtain bioactive compounds that target RNA, with a particular emphasis on the development of small molecules. We use these cases to describe approaches that are being developed for target validation, which include target-directed cleavage, classic pull-down experiments, and covalent cross-linking. Thus, tools are available to design small molecules to target RNA and to identify the cellular RNAs that are their targets.

  12. Small RNA Library Construction for Exosomal RNA from Biological Samples for the Ion Torrent PGM™ and Ion S5™ System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lesley; Hill, Andrew F

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation deep sequencing (NGS) technology represents a powerful and innovative approach to profile small RNA. Currently, there are a number of large-scale and benchtop sequencing platforms available on the market. Although each platform is relatively straightforward to operate, constructing cDNA libraries can be the most difficult part of the NGS workflow. Constructing quality libraries is essential to obtaining a successful sequencing run of high-quality reads and coverage. The quality and yield of RNA affect hybridization and ligation of sequencing adapters. In the field of biomarker discovery, there has been an interest in profiling exosomal RNA from biological fluids. However, very little RNA yield is obtained when extracting RNA from exosomes, thus making library construction difficult. Here, this protocol describes an optimized protocol for constructing small RNA libraries from low yields of RNA, in particular, extracted from exosomes isolated from biological fluids.

  13. Modification of small RNAs associated with suppression of RNA silencing by tobamovirus replicase protein.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Hannes; Akbergenov, Rashid; Shivaprasad, Padubidri V; Dang, Vy; Fasler, Monika; Kwon, Myoung-Ok; Zhanybekova, Saule; Hohn, Thomas; Heinlein, Manfred

    2007-10-01

    Plant viruses act as triggers and targets of RNA silencing and have evolved proteins to suppress this plant defense response during infection. Although Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) triggers the production of virus-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this does not lead to efficient silencing of TMV nor is a TMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) hybrid able to induce silencing of a GFP-transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana, indicating that a TMV silencing suppressor is active and acts downstream of siRNA production. On the other hand, TMV-GFP is unable to spread into cells in which GFP silencing is established, suggesting that the viral silencing suppressor cannot revert silencing that is already established. Although previous evidence indicates that the tobamovirus silencing suppressing activity resides in the viral 126-kDa small replicase subunit, the mechanism of silencing suppression by this virus family is not known. Here, we connect the silencing suppressing activity of this protein with our previous finding that Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus infection leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of siRNA and micro-RNA (miRNA). We demonstrate that TMV infection similarly leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of small RNAs and that this interference and the formation of virus-induced disease symptoms are linked to the silencing suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein. Moreover, we show that also Turnip crinkle virus interferes with the methylation of siRNA but, in contrast to tobamoviruses, not with the methylation of miRNA.

  14. An engineered small RNA-mediated genetic switch based on a ribozyme expression platform

    PubMed Central

    Klauser, Benedikt; Hartig, Jörg S.

    2013-01-01

    An important requirement for achieving many goals of synthetic biology is the availability of a large repertoire of reprogrammable genetic switches and appropriate transmitter molecules. In addition to engineering genetic switches, the interconnection of individual switches becomes increasingly important for the construction of more complex genetic networks. In particular, RNA-based switches of gene expression have become a powerful tool to post-transcriptionally program genetic circuits. RNAs used for regulatory purposes have the advantage to transmit, sense, process and execute information. We have recently used the hammerhead ribozyme to control translation initiation in a small molecule-dependent fashion. In addition, riboregulators have been constructed in which a small RNA acts as transmitter molecule to control translation of a target mRNA. In this study, we combine both concepts and redesign the hammerhead ribozyme to sense small trans-acting RNAs (taRNAs) as input molecules resulting in repression of translation initiation in Escherichia coli. Importantly, our ribozyme-based expression platform is compatible with previously reported artificial taRNAs, which were reported to act as inducers of gene expression. In addition, we provide several insights into key requirements of riboregulatory systems, including the influences of varying transcriptional induction of the taRNA and mRNA transcripts, 5′-processing of taRNAs, as well as altering the secondary structure of the taRNA. In conclusion, we introduce an RNA-responsive ribozyme-based expression system to the field of artificial riboregulators that can serve as reprogrammable platform for engineering higher-order genetic circuits. PMID:23585277

  15. Small Regulatory RNA-Induced Growth Rate Heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions. PMID:25790031

  16. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mars, Ruben A T; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L

    2015-03-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions.

  17. Antitumor and Antimetastatic Effect of Small Immunostimulatory RNA against B16 Melanoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabilova, Tatyana O.; Sen’kova, Aleksandra V.; Nikolin, Valeriy P.; Popova, Nelly A.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Vlassov, Valentin V.; Chernolovskaya, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs, depending on their structure, delivery system and sequence, can stimulate innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of immunostimulatory 19-bp dsRNA with 3’- trinucleotide overhangs (isRNA) on melanoma B16 in C57Bl/6 mice. Recently developed novel cationic liposomes 2X3-DOPE were used for the in vivo delivery of isRNA. Administration of isRNA/2X3-DOPE complexes significantly inhibits melanoma tumor growth and metastasis. Histopathological analysis of spleen cross sections showed hyperplasia of the lymphoid white pulp and formation of large germinal centers after isRNA/2X3-DOPE administration, indicating activation of the immune system. The treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with isRNA/2X3-DOPE decreases the destructive changes in the liver parenchyma. Thus, the developed isRNA displays pronounced immunostimulatory, antitumor and antimetastatic properties against melanoma B16 and may be considered a potential agent in the immunotherapy of melanoma. PMID:26981617

  18. Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P S

    1980-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for transferring RNA from agarose gels to nitrocellulose paper for blot hybridization has been developed. Poly(A)+ and ribosomal RNAs transfer efficiently to nitrocellulose paper in high salt (3 M NaCl/0.3 M trisodium citrate) after denaturation with glyoxal and 50% (vol/vol) dimethyl sulfoxide. RNA also binds to nitrocellulose after treatment with methylmercuric hydroxide. The method is sensitive: about 50 pg of specific mRNA per band is readily detectable after hybridization with high specific activity probes (10(8) cpm/microgram). The RNA is stably bound to the nitrocellulose paper by this procedure, allowing removal of the hybridized probes and rehybridization of the RNA blots without loss of sensitivity. The use of nitrocellulose paper for the analysis of RNA by blot hybridization has several advantages over the use of activated paper (diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper). The method is simple, inexpensive, reproducible, and sensitive. In addition, denaturation of DNA with glyoxal and dimethyl sulfoxide promotes transfer and retention of small DNAs (100 nucleotides and larger) to nitrocellulose paper. A related method is also described for dotting RNA and DNA directly onto nitrocellulose paper treated with a high concentration of salt; under these conditions denatured DNA of less than 200 nucleotides is retained and hybridizes efficiently. Images PMID:6159641

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Stentor (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying-Chun; Yu, Yu-He; Zhu, Fei-Yun; Feng, Wei-Song

    2007-01-01

    To determine the phylogenetic position of Stentor within the Class Heterotrichea, the complete small subunit rRNA genes of three Stentor species, namely Stentor polymorphus, Stentor coeruleus, and Stentor roeseli, were sequenced and used to construct phylogenetic trees using the maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and Bayesian analysis. With all phylogenetic methods, the genus Stentor was monophyletic, with S. roeseli branching basally.

  20. Divergent patterns of endogenous small RNA populations from seed and vegetative tissues of Glycine max

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) are known to have major roles in gene regulation in eukaryotes. In plants, knowledge of the biogenesis and mechanisms of action of smRNA classes including microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) has been gaine...

  1. Comparison of the MagNA pure LC automated system and the RiboPure-Blood RNA manual method for RNA extraction from multiple myeloma bone marrow samples conserved in an RNA stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Effron, G; Gamarra, S; Crooke, A; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Lahuerta, J; Martínez-López, J

    2007-04-01

    A total of 62 frozen bone marrow specimens conserved in RNA later (Ambion) were processed using two different extraction methods, the MagNA Pure LC system (MAG; Roche) and the manual RiboPure-Blood RNA method (RIBO; Ambion); Beta glucoronidase RNA (GUS) was amplified by LightCycler PCR to evaluate the quality of both extraction procedures. Less than 1000 GUS copies/ml was detected in 26 of 62 specimens (41.94%) processed by MAG and in five of 62 specimens (8.06%) processed by RIBO. Moreover, RNA recovery from the 62 specimens by MAG is, on average, 2.91 cycle threshold-fold higher than RIBO (P = 0.0008). Furthermore, we compared the extraction times and reagent costs of both methods. In conclusion, RNA extraction using MAG is faster to process 32 samples and less expensive than RIBO but it is not sensitive enough to be employed for research purpose in our laboratory.

  2. Dynamics of small RNA profiles of virus and host origin in wheat cultivars synergistically infected by Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus: virus infection caused a drastic shift in the endogenous small RNA profile.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Graybosch, Robert A; French, Roy; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Co-infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, a Tritimovirus) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, a Poacevirus) of the family Potyviridae causes synergistic interaction. In this study, the effects of the synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV on endogenous and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) were examined in susceptible ('Arapahoe') and temperature-sensitive resistant ('Mace') wheat cultivars at 18°C and 27°C. Single and double infections in wheat caused a shift in the profile of endogenous small RNAs from 24 nt being the most predominant in healthy plants to 21 nt in infected wheat. Massive amounts of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs accumulated in singly and doubly infected Arapahoe at both temperatures and in Mace at 27°C but not 18°C. The plus- and minus-sense vsiRNAs were distributed throughout the genomic RNAs in Arapahoe at both temperature regimens and in Mace at 27°C, although some regions served as hot-spots, spawning an excessive number of vsiRNAs. The vsiRNA peaks were conserved among cultivars, suggesting that the Dicer-like enzymes in susceptible and resistant cultivars similarly accessed the genomic RNAs of WSMV or TriMV. Accumulation of large amounts of vsiRNAs in doubly infected plants suggests that the silencing suppressor proteins encoded by TriMV and WSMV do not prevent the formation of vsiRNAs; thus, the synergistic effect observed is independent from RNA-silencing mediated vsiRNA biogenesis. The high-resolution map of endogenous and vsiRNAs from WSMV- and/or TriMV-infected wheat cultivars may form a foundation for understanding the virus-host interactions, the effect of synergistic interactions on host defense, and virus resistance mechanisms in wheat.

  3. Metal ion binding and function in natural and artificial small RNA enzymes from a structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    Ribozymes are often perceived as part of an antiquated catalytic arsenal hearkening back to a pre-biotic RNA World that was eventually supplanted by proteins. However, recent genome-wide searches have revealed a plethora of new catalytic RNA motifs that appear to be variations on well-known themes. This suggests that ribozymes have continued to evolve in order to fulfill specific, RNA-essential biological niches. Although such ribozymes are small and catalyze one-step phosphodiester-bond scission reactions, ongoing structure and function analyses at the lab bench have demonstrated that RNA has the capacity for a diverse number of reactions such as carbon-carbon bond formation, and tRNA aminoacylation. Here we describe the fundamental structure and metal binding properties of four naturally occurring RNA enzymes: the hammerhead, hairpin, hepatitis delta virus, and glmS metabolite sensing ribozyme. In addition, we discuss the fold and ion coordination of three artificial ribozymes developed to probe the boundaries of RNA catalysis; these include the leadzyme, the flexizyme, and the Diels-Alder ribozyme. Our approach is to relate structure to function with the knowledge of ideal metal-ion coordination geometry that we have derived herein from surveys of high-resolution small molecule structures. An emergent theme is that natural and artificial ribozymes that catalyze single-step reactions often possess a pre-formed active site. Multivalent ions facilitate RNA active site formation, but can also provide Lewis acid functionality that is necessary for catalysis. When metal ion binding isn't possible, ribozymes make due by ionizing their bases, or by recruiting cofactors that augment their chemical functionality.

  4. Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis genes by the small noncoding RNA PcrZ.

    PubMed

    Mank, Nils N; Berghoff, Bork A; Hermanns, Yannick N; Klug, Gabriele

    2012-10-02

    The small RNA PcrZ (photosynthesis control RNA Z) of the facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is induced upon a drop of oxygen tension with similar kinetics to those of genes for components of photosynthetic complexes. High expression of PcrZ depends on PrrA, the response regulator of the PrrB/PrrA two-component system with a central role in redox regulation in R. sphaeroides. In addition the FnrL protein, an activator of some photosynthesis genes at low oxygen tension, is involved in redox-dependent expression of this small (s)RNA. Overexpression of full-length PcrZ in R. sphaeroides affects expression of a small subset of genes, most of them with a function in photosynthesis. Some mRNAs from the photosynthetic gene cluster were predicted to be putative PcrZ targets and results from an in vivo reporter system support these predictions. Our data reveal a negative effect of PcrZ on expression of its target mRNAs. Thus, PcrZ counteracts the redox-dependent induction of photosynthesis genes, which is mediated by protein regulators. Because PrrA directly activates photosynthesis genes and at the same time PcrZ, which negatively affects photosynthesis gene expression, this is one of the rare cases of an incoherent feed-forward loop including an sRNA. Our data identified PcrZ as a trans acting sRNA with a direct regulatory function in formation of photosynthetic complexes and provide a model for the control of photosynthesis gene expression by a regulatory network consisting of proteins and a small noncoding RNA.

  5. Global microRNA profiling of well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su-Chen; Essaghir, Ahmed; Martijn, Cécile; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Öberg, Kjell; Giandomenico, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors are rare malignancies. They arise from enterochromaffin cells and very little is known about differential microRNA (miRNA) expression. The aim of this study was to identify the miRNA profile of well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, which may have a critical role in tumor development, progression and potentially develop miRNAs as novel clinical biomarkers. Specimens from two test groups, 24 small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor specimens at different stages of malignancy, are included in this study. Total RNA from the first test group, five primary tumors, five mesentery metastases and five liver metastases was hybridized onto the Affymetrix Genechip miRNA arrays to perform a genome-wide profile. The results were validated by using quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and northern blot analyses. We then expanded the investigation to laser capture microdissected small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor cells and immuno-laser capture microdissected normal enterochromaffin cells of the first test group. Furthermore, a second test group, three primary tumors, three mesentery metastases and three liver metastases, was included in the study. Thus, two independent test groups validated the data by QRT-PCR. Moreover, we characterized nine miRNAs, five (miR-96, -182, -183, -196a and -200a), which are upregulated during tumor progression, whereas four (miR-31, -129-5p, -133a and -215) are downregulated. Several online software programs were used to predict potential miRNA target genes to map a number of putative target genes for the aberrantly regulated miRNAs, through an advanced and novel bioinformatics analysis. Our findings provide information about pivotal miRNAs, which may lead to further insights into tumorigenesis, progression mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets recognition. PMID:23328977

  6. Diverse Evolutionary Trajectories for Small RNA Biogenesis Genes in the Oomycete Genus Phytophthora

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Fang, Yufeng; Press, Caroline M.; Tyler, Brett M.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation by small RNA pathways is ubiquitous among eukaryotes, but little is known about small RNA pathways in the Stramenopile kingdom. Phytophthora, a genus of filamentous oomycetes, contains many devastating plant pathogens, causing multibillion-dollar damage to crops, ornamental plants, and natural environments. The genomes of several oomycetes including Phytophthora species such as the soybean pathogen P. sojae, have been sequenced, allowing evolutionary analysis of small RNA-processing enzymes. This study examined the evolutionary origins of the oomycete small RNA-related genes Dicer-like (DCL), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) through broad phylogenetic analyses of the key domains. Two Dicer gene homologs, DCL1 and DCL2, and one RDR homolog were cloned and analyzed from P. sojae. Gene expression analysis revealed only minor changes in transcript levels among different life stages. Oomycete DCL1 homologs clustered with animal and plant Dicer homologs in evolutionary trees, whereas oomycete DCL2 homologs clustered basally to the tree along with Drosha homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RDR homologs confirmed a previous study that suggested the last common eukaryote ancestor possessed three RDR homologs, which were selectively retained or lost in later lineages. Our analysis clarifies the position of some Unikont and Chromalveolate RDR lineages within the tree, including oomycete homologs. Finally, we analyzed alterations in the domain structure of oomycete Dicer and RDR homologs, specifically focusing on the proposed domain transfer of the DEAD-box helicase domain from Dicer to RDR. Implications of the oomycete domain structure are discussed, and possible roles of the two oomycete Dicer homologs are proposed. PMID:27014308

  7. DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for small-subunit processome formation and function.

    PubMed

    Soltanieh, Sahar; Osheim, Yvonne N; Spasov, Krasimir; Trahan, Christian; Beyer, Ann L; Dragon, François

    2015-03-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for 18S rRNA synthesis: cellular depletion of Dbp4 impairs the early cleavage reactions of the pre-rRNA and causes U14 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) to remain associated with pre-rRNA. Immunoprecipitation experiments (IPs) carried out with whole-cell extracts (WCEs) revealed that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Dbp4 is associated with U3 snoRNA but not with U14 snoRNA. IPs with WCEs also showed association with the U3-specific protein Mpp10, which suggests that Dbp4 interacts with the functionally active U3 RNP; this particle, called the small-subunit (SSU) processome, can be observed at the 5' end of nascent pre-rRNA. Electron microscopy analyses indicated that depletion of Dbp4 compromised SSU processome formation and cotranscriptional cleavage of the pre-rRNA. Sucrose density gradient analyses revealed that depletion of U3 snoRNA or the Mpp10 protein inhibited the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA, just as was seen with Dbp4-depleted cells, indicating that alteration of SSU processome components has significant consequences for U14 snoRNA dynamics. We also found that the C-terminal extension flanking the catalytic core of Dbp4 plays an important role in the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA.

  8. DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Dbp4 Is Required for Small-Subunit Processome Formation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Soltanieh, Sahar; Osheim, Yvonne N.; Spasov, Krasimir; Trahan, Christian; Beyer, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for 18S rRNA synthesis: cellular depletion of Dbp4 impairs the early cleavage reactions of the pre-rRNA and causes U14 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) to remain associated with pre-rRNA. Immunoprecipitation experiments (IPs) carried out with whole-cell extracts (WCEs) revealed that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Dbp4 is associated with U3 snoRNA but not with U14 snoRNA. IPs with WCEs also showed association with the U3-specific protein Mpp10, which suggests that Dbp4 interacts with the functionally active U3 RNP; this particle, called the small-subunit (SSU) processome, can be observed at the 5′ end of nascent pre-rRNA. Electron microscopy analyses indicated that depletion of Dbp4 compromised SSU processome formation and cotranscriptional cleavage of the pre-rRNA. Sucrose density gradient analyses revealed that depletion of U3 snoRNA or the Mpp10 protein inhibited the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA, just as was seen with Dbp4-depleted cells, indicating that alteration of SSU processome components has significant consequences for U14 snoRNA dynamics. We also found that the C-terminal extension flanking the catalytic core of Dbp4 plays an important role in the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA. PMID:25535329

  9. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Laura J.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D.; Miller, Joseph T.; McCarthy, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

  10. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Laura J; Rosauer, Dan F; Thornhill, Andrew H; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D; Miller, Joseph T; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-02-19

    Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages.

  11. Conserved sequence-specific lincRNA-steroid receptor interactions drive transcriptional repression and direct cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, William H.; Pickard, Mark R.; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Kuiper, Emily G.; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Conn, Graeme L.; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Williams, Gwyn T.; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2014-12-23

    The majority of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed, generating a significant number of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs). Although lincRNAs represent the most poorly understood product of transcription, recent work has shown lincRNAs fulfill important cellular functions. In addition to low sequence conservation, poor understanding of structural mechanisms driving lincRNA biology hinders systematic prediction of their function. Here we report the molecular requirements for the recognition of steroid receptors (SRs) by the lincRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5), which regulates steroid-mediated transcriptional regulation, growth arrest and apoptosis. We identify the functional Gas5-SR interface and generate point mutations that ablate the SR-Gas5 lincRNA interaction, altering Gas5-driven apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further, we find that the Gas5 SR-recognition sequence is conserved among haplorhines, with its evolutionary origin as a splice acceptor site. This study demonstrates that lincRNAs can recognize protein targets in a conserved, sequence-specific manner in order to affect critical cell functions.

  12. A dominant negative mutation in the conserved RNA helicase motif 'SAT' causes splicing factor PRP2 to stall in spliceosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Plumpton, M; McGarvey, M; Beggs, J D

    1994-01-01

    To characterize sequences in the RNA helicase-like PRP2 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are essential for its function in pre-mRNA splicing, a pool of random PRP2 mutants was generated. A dominant negative allele was isolated which, when overexpressed in a wild-type yeast strain, inhibited cell growth by causing a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. This defect was partially alleviated by simultaneous co-overexpression of wild-type PRP2. The dominant negative PRP2 protein inhibited splicing in vitro and caused the accumulation of stalled splicing complexes. Immunoprecipitation with anti-PRP2 antibodies confirmed that dominant negative PRP2 protein competed with its wild-type counterpart for interaction with spliceosomes, with which the mutant protein remained associated. The PRP2-dn1 mutation led to a single amino acid change within the conserved SAT motif that in the prototype helicase eIF-4A is required for RNA unwinding. Purified dominant negative PRP2 protein had approximately 40% of the wild-type level of RNA-stimulated ATPase activity. As ATPase activity was reduced only slightly, but splicing activity was abolished, we propose that the dominant negative phenotype is due primarily to a defect in the putative RNA helicase activity of PRP2 protein. Images PMID:8112301

  13. RNA interference in the nucleus: roles for small RNAs in transcription, epigenetics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Castel, Stephane E; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    A growing number of functions are emerging for RNA interference (RNAi) in the nucleus, in addition to well-characterized roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing in the cytoplasm. Epigenetic modifications directed by small RNAs have been shown to cause transcriptional repression in plants, fungi and animals. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that RNAi regulates transcription through interaction with transcriptional machinery. Nuclear small RNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and are implicated in nuclear processes such as transposon regulation, heterochromatin formation, developmental gene regulation and genome stability.

  14. Identification of Small Molecule Modulators of MicroRNA by Library Screening.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhangang; Chen, Yangchao

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and are dysregulated in cancer. miRNAs therefore represent promising therapeutic targets for cancer. Small molecules that could modulate the expression of miRNAs would thus have potential as anticancer agents. Library screening of small molecules targeting miRNAs is a useful technology platform for anticancer drug development. Here, we describe a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell-based luciferase reporter system which could be used to screen for small molecule modulators of tumor suppressor microRNA-34a.

  15. The Conserved Foot Domain of RNA Pol II Associates with Proteins Involved in Transcriptional Initiation and/or Early Elongation

    PubMed Central

    García-López, M. Carmen; Pelechano, Vicent; Mirón-García, M. Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana I.; García, Alicia; Calvo, Olga; Werner, Michel; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Navarro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) II establishes many protein–protein interactions with transcriptional regulators to coordinate different steps of transcription. Although some of these interactions have been well described, little is known about the existence of RNA pol II regions involved in contact with transcriptional regulators. We hypothesize that conserved regions on the surface of RNA pol II contact transcriptional regulators. We identified such an RNA pol II conserved region that includes the majority of the “foot” domain and identified interactions of this region with Mvp1, a protein required for sorting proteins to the vacuole, and Spo14, a phospholipase D. Deletion of MVP1 and SPO14 affects the transcription of their target genes and increases phosphorylation of Ser5 in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). Genetic, phenotypic, and functional analyses point to a role for these proteins in transcriptional initiation and/or early elongation, consistent with their genetic interactions with CEG1, a guanylyltransferase subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae capping enzyme. PMID:21954159

  16. Small RNA Sequencing Based Identification of MiRNAs in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ercan Selçuk; Gordon, Donna M; Telli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA molecules are short, non-coding RNAs identified for their crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation. A well-studied example includes miRNAs (microRNAs) which have been identified in several model organisms including the freshwater flea and planktonic crustacean Daphnia. A model for epigenetic-based studies with an available genome database, the identification of miRNAs and their potential role in regulating Daphnia gene expression has only recently garnered interest. Computational-based work using Daphnia pulex, has indicated the existence of 45 miRNAs, 14 of which have been experimentally verified. To extend this study, we took a sequencing approach towards identifying miRNAs present in a small RNA library isolated from Daphnia magna. Using Perl codes designed for comparative genomic analysis, 815,699 reads were obtained from 4 million raw reads and run against a database file of known miRNA sequences. Using this approach, we have identified 205 putative mature miRNA sequences belonging to 188 distinct miRNA families. Data from this study provides critical information necessary to begin an investigation into a role for these transcripts in the epigenetic regulation of Daphnia magna.

  17. Effects of long DNA folding and small RNA stem-loop in thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yusuke T; Tlusty, Tsvi; Libchaber, Albert

    2012-10-30

    In thermophoresis, with the fluid at rest, suspensions move along a gradient of temperature. In an aqueous solution, a PEG polymer suspension is depleted from the hot region and builds a concentration gradient. In this gradient, DNA polymers of different sizes can be separated. In this work the effect of the polymer structure for genomic DNA and small RNA is studied. For genome-size DNA, individual single T4 DNA is visualized and tracked in a PEG solution under a temperature gradient built by infrared laser focusing. We find that T4 DNA follows steps of depletion, ring-like localization, and accumulation patterns as the PEG volume fraction is increased. Furthermore, a coil-globule transition for DNA is observed for a large enough PEG volume fraction. This drastically affects the localization position of T4 DNA. In a similar experiment, with small RNA such as ribozymes we find that the stem-loop folding of such polymers has important consequences. The RNA polymers having a long and rigid stem accumulate, whereas a polymer with stem length less than 4 base pairs shows depletion. Such measurements emphasize the crucial contribution of the double-stranded parts of RNA for thermal separation and selection under a temperature gradient. Because huge temperature gradients are present around hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean seafloor, this process might be relevant, at the origin of life, in an RNA world hypothesis. Ribozymes could be selected from a pool of random sequences depending on the length of their stems.

  18. The phylogenetically invariant ACAGAGA and AGC sequences of U6 small nuclear RNA are more tolerant of mutation in human cells than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, B; Weiner, A M

    1993-01-01

    U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is the most highly conserved of the five spliceosomal snRNAs that participate in nuclear mRNA splicing. The proposal that U6 snRNA plays a key catalytic role in splicing [D. Brow and C. Guthrie, Nature (London) 337:14-15, 1989] is supported by the phylogenetic conservation of U6, the sensitivity of U6 to mutation, cross-linking of U6 to the vicinity of the 5' splice site, and genetic evidence for extensive base pairing between U2 and U6 snRNAs. We chose to mutate the phylogenetically invariant 41-ACAGAGA-47 and 53-AGC-55 sequences of human U6 because certain point mutations within the homologous regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae U6 selectively block the first or second step of mRNA splicing. We found that both sequences are more tolerant to mutation in human cells (assayed by transient expression in vivo) than in S. cerevisiae (assayed by effects on growth or in vitro splicing). These differences may reflect different rate-limiting steps in the particular assays used or differential reliance on redundant RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. The ability of mutations in U6 nucleotides A-45 and A-53 to selectively block step 2 of splicing in S. cerevisiae had previously been construed as evidence that these residues might participate directly in the second chemical step of splicing; an indirect, structural role seems more likely because the equivalent mutations have no obvious phenotype in the human transient expression assay. Images PMID:8355689

  19. Dynamic changes of small RNAs in rice spikelet development reveal specialized reproductive phasiRNA pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Qili; Yang, Li; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing; Meyers, Blake C.

    2016-01-01

    Dissection of the genetic pathways and mechanisms by which anther development occurs in grasses is crucial for both a basic understanding of plant development and for examining traits of agronomic importance such as male sterility. In rice, MULTIPLE SPOROCYTES1 (MSP1), a leucine-rich-repeat receptor kinase, plays an important role in anther development by limiting the number of sporocytes. OsTDL1a (a TPD1-like gene in rice) encodes a small protein that acts as a cofactor of MSP1 in the same regulatory pathway. In this study, we analyzed small RNA and mRNA changes in different stages of spikelets from wild-type rice, and from msp1 and ostdl1a mutants. Analysis of the small RNA data identified miRNAs demonstrating differential abundances. miR2275 was depleted in the two rice mutants; this miRNA is specifically enriched in anthers and functions to trigger the production of 24-nt phased secondary siRNAs (phasiRNAs) from PHAS loci. We observed that the 24-nt phasiRNAs as well as their precursor PHAS mRNAs were also depleted in the two mutants. An analysis of co-expression identified three Argonaute-encoding genes (OsAGO1d, OsAGO2b, and OsAGO18) that accumulate transcripts coordinately with phasiRNAs, suggesting a functional relationship. By mRNA in situ analysis, we demonstrated a strong correlation between the spatiotemporal pattern of these OsAGO transcripts and phasiRNA accumulations. PMID:27702997

  20. Modeling the Structure of RNA Molecules with Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Data

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Michal Jan; Martinez Zapien, Denise; Uchikawa, Emiko; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel fragment assembly method for low-resolution modeling of RNA and show how it may be used along with small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data to model low-resolution structures of particles having as many as 12 independent secondary structure elements. We assessed this model-building procedure by using both artificial data on a previously proposed benchmark and publicly available data. With the artificial data, SAXS-guided models show better similarity to native structures than ROSETTA decoys. The publicly available data showed that SAXS-guided models can be used to reinterpret RNA structures previously deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Our approach allows for fast and efficient building of de novo models of RNA using approximate secondary structures that can be readily obtained from existing bioinformatic approaches. We also offer a rigorous assessment of the resolving power of SAXS in the case of small RNA structures, along with a small multimetric benchmark of the proposed method. PMID:24223750

  1. Development of novel cardiovascular therapeutics from small regulatory RNA molecules--an outline of key requirements.

    PubMed

    Poller, W; Fechner, H

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the roles of RNAs within the cell has changed and expanded dramatically during the past few years. Based on fundamentally new insights it is now increasingly possible to employ RNAs as highly valuable tools in molecular biology and medicine. At present, the most important therapeutic strategies are based on non-coding regulatory RNAs inducing RNA interference (RNAi) to silence single genes, and on modulation of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) to alter complex gene expression patterns in diseased organs. Only recently it became possible to target therapeutic RNAi to specific organs via organotropic viral vector systems and we discuss the most recent strategies in this field, e.g. heart failure treatment by cardiac-targeted RNAi. Due to the peculiar biochemical properties of small RNA molecules, true therapeutic translation of results in vitro is more demanding than with small molecule drugs or proteins. Specifically, there is a critical requirement for extensive studies in animal models of human disease after pre-testing of the RNAi tools in vitro. This requirement likewise applies for miRNA modulations which have complex consequences in the recipient dependent on biochemical stability and distribution of the therapeutic RNA. Problems not yet fully solved are the prediction of targets and specificity of the RNA tools. However, major progress has been made to achieve their tissue-specific and regulatable expression, and breakthroughs in vector technologies from the gene therapy field have fundamentally improved safety and efficacy of RNA-based therapeutic approaches, too. In summary, insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of regulatory RNAs in combination with new delivery tools for RNA therapeutics will significantly expand our cardiovascular therapeutic repertoire beyond classical pharmacology.

  2. Type I Interferons Impede Short Hairpin RNA-Mediated RNAi via Inhibition of Dicer-Mediated Processing to Small Interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Takayama, Kosuke; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-17

    RNAi by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a powerful tool not only for studying gene functions in various organisms, including mammals, but also for the treatment of severe disorders. However, shRNA-expressing vectors can induce type I interferon (IFN) expression by activation of innate immune responses, leading to off-target effects and unexpected side effects. Several strategies have been developed to prevent type I IFN induction. On the other hand, it has remained unclear whether type I IFNs have effects on shRNA-mediated RNAi. Here, we show that the type I IFNs significantly inhibit shRNA-mediated RNAi. Treatment with recombinant human IFN-α significantly inhibited shRNA-mediated knockdown of target genes, while it did not inhibit small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown. Following treatment with IFN-α, increased and decreased copy numbers of shRNA and its processed form, respectively, were found in the cells transfected with shRNA-expressing plasmids. Dicer protein levels were not altered by IFN-α. These results indicate that type I IFNs inhibit shRNA-mediated RNAi via inhibition of dicer-mediated processing of shRNA to siRNA. Our findings should provide important clues for efficient RNAi-mediated knockdown of target genes in both basic researches and clinical gene therapy.

  3. Conservation of miRNA-mediated silencing mechanisms across 600 million years of animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Marta; Kirchner, Marieluise; Aharoni, Reuven; Ciolli Mattioli, Camilla; van den Bruck, David; Gutkovitch, Nadya; Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Selbach, Matthias; Moran, Yehu; Chekulaeva, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay. Further, similarly to bilaterians, GW182 in Nematostella is recruited to the miRNA repression complex via interaction with Argonaute proteins, and functions downstream to repress mRNA. Thus, our work suggests that this mechanism of miRNA-mediated silencing was already active in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. PMID:27604873

  4. Conservation of miRNA-mediated silencing mechanisms across 600 million years of animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Marta; Kirchner, Marieluise; Aharoni, Reuven; Ciolli Mattioli, Camilla; van den Bruck, David; Gutkovitch, Nadya; Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Selbach, Matthias; Moran, Yehu; Chekulaeva, Marina

    2017-01-25

    Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay. Further, similarly to bilaterians, GW182 in Nematostella is recruited to the miRNA repression complex via interaction with Argonaute proteins, and functions downstream to repress mRNA. Thus, our work suggests that this mechanism of miRNA-mediated silencing was already active in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria.

  5. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1993-12-31

    An in vitro degradation system has been developed from petunia and soybean polysomes in order to investigate the mechanisms and determinants controlling RNA turnover in higher plants. This system faithfully degrades soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) mRNA into the same products observed in total RNA preparations. In previous years it was shown that the most stable products represent a nested constellation of fragments, which are shortened from their 3{prime} ends, and have intact 5{prime} ends. Exogenous rbcS RNA tagged with novel 5{prime} sequence 15 or 56 bp long were synthesized in vitro as Sp6 and T7 runoff transcripts, respectively. When added to the system they were degraded faithfully into constellation of products which were 15 or 56 bp longer than the endogenous products, respectively. Detailed kinetics on the appearance of these exogenous products confirmed degradation proceeds in an overall 3{prime} to 5{prime} direction but suggested that there are multiple pathways through which the RNA may be degraded. To further demonstrate a precursor product relationships, in vitro synthesized transcripts truncated at their 3{prime} ends were shown to degrade into the expected smaller fragments previously mapped in the 5{prime} portion of the rbcS RNA.

  6. Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, Kim A.; Cu, Yen; Booth, Carmen J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Wood, Monica J.; Mark Saltzman, W.

    2009-06-01

    Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protection against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach using nanoparticles composed entirely of FDA-approved materials. To render these materials effective for gene silencing, we developed novel approaches to load them with high amounts of siRNA. A single dose of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles to the mouse female reproductive tract caused efficient and sustained gene silencing. Knockdown of gene expression was observed proximal (in the vaginal lumen) and distal (in the uterine horns) to the site of topical delivery. In addition, nanoparticles penetrated deep into the epithelial tissue. This is the first report demonstrating that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are effective delivery vehicles for siRNA to the vaginal mucosa.

  7. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation. PMID:26580233

  8. Development of a software tool and criteria evaluation for efficient design of small interfering RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Aparna; Srivastava, Sonam; Garg, Sanjeev

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The developed tool predicted siRNA constructs with better thermodynamic stability and total score based on positional and other criteria. {yields} Off-target silencing below score 30 were observed for the best siRNA constructs for different genes. {yields} Immunostimulation and cytotoxicity motifs considered and penalized in the developed tool. {yields} Both positional and compositional criteria were observed to be important. -- Abstract: RNA interference can be used as a tool for gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The critical step in effective and specific RNAi processing is the selection of suitable constructs. Major design criteria, i.e., Reynolds's design rules, thermodynamic stability, internal repeats, immunostimulatory motifs were emphasized and implemented in the siRNA design tool. The tool provides thermodynamic stability score, GC content and a total score based on other design criteria in the output. The viability of the tool was established with different datasets. In general, the siRNA constructs produced by the tool had better thermodynamic score and positional properties. Comparable thermodynamic scores and better total scores were observed with the existing tools. Moreover, the results generated had comparable off-target silencing effect. Criteria evaluations with additional criteria were achieved in WEKA.

  9. Filamentous pathogen effectors interfering with small RNA silencing in plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenwu; Ma, Wenbo

    2016-08-01

    Filamentous eukaryotic pathogens including fungi and oomycetes are major threats of plant health. During the co-evolutionary arms race with the hosts, these pathogens have evolved a large repertoire of secreted virulence proteins, called effectors, to facilitate colonization and infection. Many effectors are believed to directly manipulate targeted processes inside the host cells; and a fundamental function of the effectors is to dampen immunity. Recent evidence suggests that the destructive oomycete pathogens in the genus Phytophthora encode RNA silencing suppressors. These effectors play an important virulence role during infection, likely through their inhibitory effect on host small RNA-mediated defense.

  10. In Medicago truncatula, water deficit modulates the transcript accumulation of components of small RNA pathways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Small RNAs (sRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide (nt) RNAs and are involved in plant development and response to abiotic stresses. Plants have several sRNA pathways implicated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing of gene expression. Two key enzyme families common to all pathways are the Dicer-like (DCL) proteins involved in sRNAs maturation and the Argonautes (AGOs) involved in the targeting and functional action of sRNAs. Post-transcriptional silencing mediated by AGOs may occur by cleavage or translational repression of target mRNA's, while transcriptional silencing may be controlled by DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. Thus far, these gene families have not been characterized in legumes, nor has their involvement in adaptation to water deficit been studied. Results A bioinformatic search in Medicago truncatula genome databases, using Arabidopsis thaliana AGO and DCL cDNA and protein sequences, identified three sequences encoding for putative Dicer-like genes and twelve sequences encoding for putative Argonaute genes. Under water deficit conditions and mainly in roots, MtDCL1 and MtAGO1, two enzymes probably involved in the processing and activation of microRNAs (miRNAs), increased their transcript levels. mir162 which target DCL1 mRNA and mir168 which target AGO1 mRNA reduced their expression in the roots of plants subjected to water deficit. Three putative genes, MtDCL3, MtAGO4b and MtAGO4c probably involved in DNA methylation mechanisms, increased their mRNA levels. However, the mRNA levels of MtAGO6 reduced, which probably encodes a protein with functions similar to MtAGO4. MtAGO7 mRNA levels increased and possibly encodes a protein involved in the production of trans-acting small interfering RNAs. The transcript abundance of MtAGO12a, MtAGO12b and MtAGO12c reduced under water deprivation. Plants recovered from water deprivation reacquire the mRNA levels of the controls. Conclusions Our work demonstrates that in M. truncatula

  11. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes can efficiently and rapidly deliver siRNA into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid delivery of siRNA is due to the membrane fusion between liposomes and plasma membrane. -- Abstract: The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24 h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine Trade-Mark-Sign RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic

  12. Transfer RNA gene arrangement and codon usage in vertebrate mitochondrial genomes: a new insight into gene order conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement has been highly conserved among vertebrates from jawless fishes to mammals for more than 500 million years. It remains unclear, however, whether such long-term persistence is a consequence of some constraints on the gene order. Results Based on the analysis of codon usage and tRNA gene positions, we suggest that tRNA gene order of the typical vertebrate mt-genomes may be important for their translational efficiency. The vertebrate mt-genome encodes 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 13 transmembrane proteins consisting mainly of hydrophobic domains. We found that the tRNA genes specifying the hydrophobic residues were positioned close to the control region (CR), where the transcription efficiency is estimated to be relatively high. Using 47 vertebrate mt-genome sequences representing jawless fishes to mammals, we further found a correlation between codon usage and tRNA gene positions, implying that highly-used tRNA genes are located close to the CR. In addition, an analysis considering the asymmetric nature of mtDNA replication suggested that the tRNA loci that remain in single-strand for a longer time tend to have more guanine and thymine not suffering deamination mutations in their anticodon sites. Conclusions Our analyses imply the existence of translational constraint acting on the vertebrate mt-gene arrangement. Such translational constraint, together with the deamination-related constraint, may have contributed to long-term maintenance of gene order. PMID:20723209

  13. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) microRNA transcriptome reveals novel and conserved targets: a foundation for understanding MicroRNA functional roles in hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong-Gyu; Park, June Hyun; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Yourim; Kim, Soyoung; Reeves, Gregory; Yeom, Seon-In; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Doil; Shin, Chanseok

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs approximately 21 nt in length which play important roles in regulating gene expression in plants. Although many miRNA studies have focused on a few model plants, miRNAs and their target genes remain largely unknown in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in pepper extensively from 10 different libraries, including leaf, stem, root, flower, and six developmental stage fruits. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we successfully identified 29 and 35 families of conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. Northern blot analysis was used to validate further the expression of representative miRNAs and to analyze their tissue-specific or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we computationally predicted miRNA targets, many of which were experimentally confirmed using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR-396 was a domain rearranged methyltransferase, the major de novo methylation enzyme, involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants. This work provides the first reliable draft of the pepper miRNA transcriptome. It offers an expanded picture of pepper miRNAs in relation to other plants, providing a basis for understanding the functional roles of miRNAs in pepper.

  14. A novel albumin nanocomplex containing both small interfering RNA and gold nanorods for synergetic anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Hwang, Hai-Jin; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au nanorods per BSA complex and were successively functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies to facilitate active targeting. The synergetic therapeutic activity originating from the two components effectively induced cell death (~80% reduction in viability compared with control cells) in target breast cancer cells after a single dose of laser irradiation. Intracellular SREB nanocomplex decomposition by proteolytic enzymes resulted in simultaneous RNA interference and thermal ablation, thus leading to apoptosis in the targeted cancer cells. Moreover, these therapeutic effects were sustained for approximately 72 hours. The intrinsic biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and potent in vitro anticancer properties of these SREB nanocomplexes indicate that they have great therapeutic potential for in vivo targeted cancer therapy, in addition to other areas of nanomedicine.Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au

  15. Genome-wide screening for components of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, H-J; Chen, T; Ma, X-F; Xue, J; Pan, P-L; Zhang, X-C; Cheng, J-A; Zhang, C-X

    2013-12-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a major rice pest in Asia, and accumulated evidence indicates that this species is susceptible to RNA interference (RNAi); however, the mechanism underlying RNAi and parental RNAi has not yet been determined. We comprehensively investigated the repertoire of core genes involved in small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the BPH by comparing its newly assembled transcriptome and genome with those of Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Caenorhabditis elegans. Our analysis showed that the BPH possesses one drosha and two Dicer (dcr) genes, three dsRNA-binding motif protein genes, two Argonaute (ago) genes, two Eri-1-like genes (eri-1), and a Sid-1-like gene (sid-1). Additionally, we report for first time that parental RNAi might occur in this species, and siRNA pathway and Sid-1 were required for high efficiency of systemic RNAi triggered by exogenous dsRNA. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that the miRNA pathway was involved in BPH metamorphosis as depletion of the ago1 or dcr1 gene severely impaired ecdysis. The BPH might be a good model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in hemimetabolous insects, and RNAi has potential to be developed to control this pest in agricultural settings.

  16. Controlled traffic conservation tillage using small to middle sized machinery in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Hongwen; Gao, Huanwen; Du, Bing; He, Jin; Li, Wenying

    2005-09-01

    Research and farmers' experiences have demonstrated that reduced tillage helps maintain surface residues and provide substantial benefits in terms of water use efficiency, soil condition and productivity. However, the impact of field traffic and its influence on the soil when tillage is reduced or eliminated have been ignored, for small to middle-sized machinery are mostly used in Chinese agriculture. There is a need to study on wheel traffic impacts and to test controlled traffic farming system for Chinese conditions. This paper reports the five-year controlled traffic conservation tillage experiment in North China. Two trial plots (Spring Maize and Winter wheat) with four treatments and five replications were set up. The results indicated that controlled traffic conservation tillage could minimize the compaction of wheel traffic, make field operation timely and precisely, improve soil structure and increase soil moisture on crop zone which is beneficial to crop establishment and growth. With the accumulation of damages year after year, the impacts of random wheeling are becoming more notable. Heavier machinery appeared to compact soil to a greater depth, but even small tractors could compact the surface 10cm, critical to rainfall infiltration, to a remarkable degree. For the small-scaled controlled traffic system tested in this study, traffic lanes occupy about 20% of the land, but the yields were similar to those in the non-controlled traffic fields. Further test is needed for the long-term impacts of the traffic lanes on soil structure and crop yield and detailed analysis is necessary to develop a suitable controlled traffic farming system.

  17. Dynamic Edge Effects in Small Mammal Communities across a Conservation-Agricultural Interface in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Zachary M.; McCleery, Robert A.; Collier, Bret A.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Silvy, Nova J.; Taylor, Peter J.; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics. PMID:24040269

  18. Dynamic edge effects in small mammal communities across a conservation-agricultural interface in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Zachary M; McCleery, Robert A; Collier, Bret A; Fletcher, Robert J; Silvy, Nova J; Taylor, Peter J; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics.

  19. CCR5 small interfering RNA ameliorated joint inflammation in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongmei; Yang, Pingting; Fang, Fang; Ding, Shuang; Xiao, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is found in inflamed synovium of RA patients and is necessary for formation of RA. We aimed to check whether delivery of CCR5-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) via electroporation suppresses local inflammation in arthritis rats. Vectors encoding siRNA that target CCR5 or negative control siRNA were constructed for gene silencing and the silencing effects of suppressing CCR5 expression in synovium examined by western blot. The vector with strongest effect was delivered into the knee joint of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by the in vivo electroporation method 7, 10, 13, and 16 days after immunization with Complete Freund's adjuvant. During an observation of 28 days, behavior, paw swelling, arthritis and histopathologic scoring were estimated. The expression level of CCR5 in synovium was evaluated by western blot and real-time PCR. Anti-CCR5 D1 siRNA was effectively inhibited CCR5 expression in vitro. Moreover, delivery of the siRNA into inflammatory joint also suppressed the expression of CCR5 in vivo and markedly suppressed paw swelling and inflammation. Local electroporation of anti-CCR5 siRNA into the left inflamed joints could achieve the silencing of CCR5 gene and alleviate local inflammation just in the knee joint injected with siRNA other than the opposite joint. Inhibition of CCR5 expression may provide a potential for treatment of RA.

  20. Analysis of U3 snoRNA and small subunit processome components in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahamad, Jamaluddin; Ray, Ashwini Kumar; Kaur, Devinder; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2014-02-01

    In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, pre-rRNA synthesis continues when cells are subjected to growth stress, but processing slows down and unprocessed pre-rRNA accumulates. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation, it is necessary to define the pre-rRNA processing machinery in E. histolytica. We searched the E. histolytica genome sequence for homologs of the SSU processome, which contains the U3snoRNA, and 72 proteins in yeast. We could identify 57 of the proteins with high confidence. Of the rest, 6 were absent in human, and 4 were non-essential in yeast. The remaining 5 were absent in other parasite genomes as well. Analysis of U3snoRNA showed that the E. histolytica U3snoRNA adopted the same conserved secondary structure as seen in yeast and human. The predicted structure was verified by chemical modification followed by primer extension (SHAPE). Further we showed that the predicted interactions of Eh_U3snoRNA boxes A and A' with pre-18S rRNA were highly conserved both in position and sequence. The predicted interactions of 5'-hinge and 3'-hinge sequences of Eh_U3 snoRNA with the 5'-ETS sequences were conserved in position but not in sequence. Transcription of selected genes of SSU processome was tested by northern analysis, and transcripts of predicted sizes were obtained. During serum starvation, when unprocessed pre-RNA accumulated, the transcript levels of some of these genes declined. This is the first report on pre-rRNA processing machinery in E. histolytica, and shows that the components are well conserved with respect to yeast and human.

  1. Small RNA profiling of Xenopus embryos reveals novel miRNAs and a new class of small RNAs derived from intronic transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Harding, Joanne L; Horswell, Stuart; Heliot, Claire; Armisen, Javier; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Miska, Eric A; Hill, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Small RNA control of gene expression is critical for developmental processes in vertebrate embryos. To determine the dynamics of small RNA expression and to uncover novel small RNAs in the early vertebrate embryo, we performed high-throughput sequencing of all small RNAs in Xenopus tropicalis embryos at three developmental time points and in dissected halves of gastrula embryos. This analysis allowed us to identify novel microRNAs and we show that microRNA expression is highly dynamic and spatially localized in early embryos. In addition, we have developed a microRNA prediction pipeline and demonstrate that it has the power to predict new miRNAs that are experimentally detectable in frogs, mice, and humans. By combining the small RNA sequencing with mRNA profiling at the different developmental stages, we identify a new class of small noncoding RNAs that we name siteRNAs, which align in clusters to introns of protein-coding genes. We show that siteRNAs are derived from remnants of transposable elements present in the introns. We find that genes containing clusters of siteRNAs are transcriptionally repressed as compared with all genes. Furthermore, we show that this is true for individual genes containing siteRNA clusters, and that these genes are enriched in specific repressive histone modifications. Our data thus suggest a new mechanism of siteRNA-mediated gene silencing in vertebrates, and provide an example of how mobile elements can affect gene regulation.

  2. Substitution rate calibration of small subunit ribosomal RNA identifies chlorarachniophyte endosymbionts as remnants of green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Rensing, S A; Maier, U G; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Chlorarachniophytes are amoeboid algae with chlorophyll a and b containing plastids that are surrounded by four membranes instead of two as in plants and green algae. These extra membranes form important support for the hypothesis that chlorarachniophytes have acquired their plastids by the ingestion of another eukaryotic plastid-containing alga. Chlorarachniophytes also contain a small nucleus-like structure called the nucleomorph situated between the two inner and the two outer membranes surrounding the plastid. This nucleomorph is a remnant of the endosymbiont's nucleus and encodes, among other molecules, small subunit ribosomal RNA. Previous phylogenetic analyses on the basis of this molecule provided unexpected and contradictory evidence for the origin of the chlorarachniophyte endosymbiont. We developed a new method for measuring the substitution rates of the individual nucleotides of small subunit ribosomal RNA. From the resulting substitution rate distribution, we derived an equation that gives a more realistic relationship between sequence dissimilarity and evolutionary distance than equations previously available. Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of evolutionary distances computed by this new method clearly situate the chlorarachniophyte nucleomorphs among the green algae. Moreover, this relationship is confirmed by transversion analysis of the Chlorarachnion plastid small subunit ribosomal RNA. PMID:8755544

  3. sRNAtoolbox: an integrated collection of small RNA research tools

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Antonio; Barturen, Guillermo; Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Alganza, Ángel; Oliver, José L.; Hackenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA research is a rapidly growing field. Apart from microRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, other types of functional small RNA molecules have been reported in animals and plants. MicroRNAs are important in host-microbe interactions and parasite microRNAs might modulate the innate immunity of the host. Furthermore, small RNAs can be detected in bodily fluids making them attractive non-invasive biomarker candidates. Given the general broad interest in small RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, a large number of bioinformatics aided analysis types are needed by the scientific community. To facilitate integrated sRNA research, we developed sRNAtoolbox, a set of independent but interconnected tools for expression profiling from high-throughput sequencing data, consensus differential expression, target gene prediction, visual exploration in a genome context as a function of read length, gene list analysis and blast search of unmapped reads. All tools can be used independently or for the exploration and downstream analysis of sRNAbench results. Workflows like the prediction of consensus target genes of parasite microRNAs in the host followed by the detection of enriched pathways can be easily established. The web-interface interconnecting all these tools is available at http://bioinfo5.ugr.es/srnatoolbox PMID:26019179

  4. A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The number of small subunit rRNA sequences is now great enough that the three domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya (Woese et al., 1990) can be reliably defined in terms of their sequence "signatures". Approximately 50 homologous positions (or nucleotide pairs) in the small subunit rRNA characterize and distinguish among the three. In addition, the three can be recognized by a variety of nonhomologous rRNA characters, either individual positions and/or higher-order structural features. The Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota, the two archaeal kingdoms, can also be defined and distinguished by their characteristic compositions at approximately fifteen positions in the small subunit rRNA molecule.

  5. A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Winker, S.; Woese, C.R.

    1994-11-01

    The number of small subunit rRNA sequences is not great enough that the three domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya (Woese, et al., 1990) can be reliably defined in terms of their sequence ``signatures.`` Approximately 50 homologous positions (or nucleotide pairs) in the small subunit rRNA characterized and distinguish among the three. In addition, the three can be recognized by a variety of nonhomologous rRNA characters, either individual positions and/or higher-order structural features. The Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota, the two archaeal kingdoms, can also be defined and distinguished by their characteristic composition at approximately fifteen positions in the small subunit rRNA molecule.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of leafbladeless1-regulated and phased small RNAs underscores the importance of the TAS3 ta-siRNA pathway to maize development.

    PubMed

    Dotto, Marcela C; Petsch, Katherine A; Aukerman, Milo J; Beatty, Mary; Hammell, Molly; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2014-12-01

    Maize leafbladeless1 (lbl1) encodes a key component in the trans-acting short-interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) biogenesis pathway. Correlated with a great diversity in ta-siRNAs and the targets they regulate, the phenotypes conditioned by mutants perturbing this small RNA pathway vary extensively across species. Mutations in lbl1 result in severe developmental defects, giving rise to plants with radial, abaxialized leaves. To investigate the basis for this phenotype, we compared the small RNA content between wild-type and lbl1 seedling apices. We show that LBL1 affects the accumulation of small RNAs in all major classes, and reveal unexpected crosstalk between ta-siRNA biogenesis and other small RNA pathways regulating transposons. Interestingly, in contrast to data from other plant species, we found no evidence for the existence of phased siRNAs generated via the one-hit model. Our analysis identified nine TAS loci, all belonging to the conserved TAS3 family. Information from RNA deep sequencing and PARE analyses identified the tasiR-ARFs as the major functional ta-siRNAs in the maize vegetative apex where they regulate expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3) homologs. Plants expressing a tasiR-ARF insensitive arf3a transgene recapitulate the phenotype of lbl1, providing direct evidence that deregulation of ARF3 transcription factors underlies the developmental defects of maize ta-siRNA biogenesis mutants. The phenotypes of Arabidopsis and Medicago ta-siRNA mutants, while strikingly different, likewise result from misexpression of the tasiR-ARF target ARF3. Our data indicate that diversity in TAS pathways and their targets cannot fully account for the phenotypic differences conditioned by ta-siRNA biogenesis mutants across plant species. Instead, we propose that divergence in the gene networks downstream of the ARF3 transcription factors or the spatiotemporal pattern during leaf development in which these proteins act constitute key factors underlying the distinct

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of leafbladeless1-Regulated and Phased Small RNAs Underscores the Importance of the TAS3 ta-siRNA Pathway to Maize Development

    PubMed Central

    Dotto, Marcela C.; Petsch, Katherine A.; Aukerman, Milo J.; Beatty, Mary; Hammell, Molly; Timmermans, Marja C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Maize leafbladeless1 (lbl1) encodes a key component in the trans-acting short-interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) biogenesis pathway. Correlated with a great diversity in ta-siRNAs and the targets they regulate, the phenotypes conditioned by mutants perturbing this small RNA pathway vary extensively across species. Mutations in lbl1 result in severe developmental defects, giving rise to plants with radial, abaxialized leaves. To investigate the basis for this phenotype, we compared the small RNA content between wild-type and lbl1 seedling apices. We show that LBL1 affects the accumulation of small RNAs in all major classes, and reveal unexpected crosstalk between ta-siRNA biogenesis and other small RNA pathways regulating transposons. Interestingly, in contrast to data from other plant species, we found no evidence for the existence of phased siRNAs generated via the one-hit model. Our analysis identified nine TAS loci, all belonging to the conserved TAS3 family. Information from RNA deep sequencing and PARE analyses identified the tasiR-ARFs as the major functional ta-siRNAs in the maize vegetative apex where they regulate expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3) homologs. Plants expressing a tasiR-ARF insensitive arf3a transgene recapitulate the phenotype of lbl1, providing direct evidence that deregulation of ARF3 transcription factors underlies the developmental defects of maize ta-siRNA biogenesis mutants. The phenotypes of Arabidopsis and Medicago ta-siRNA mutants, while strikingly different, likewise result from misexpression of the tasiR-ARF target ARF3. Our data indicate that diversity in TAS pathways and their targets cannot fully account for the phenotypic differences conditioned by ta-siRNA biogenesis mutants across plant species. Instead, we propose that divergence in the gene networks downstream of the ARF3 transcription factors or the spatiotemporal pattern during leaf development in which these proteins act constitute key factors underlying the distinct

  8. Profiling small RNA reveals multimodal substructural signals in a Boltzmann ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Emily; Heitsch, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    As the biomedical impact of small RNAs grows, so does the need to understand competing structural alternatives for regions of functional interest. Suboptimal structure analysis provides significantly more RNA base pairing information than a single minimum free energy prediction. Yet computational enhancements like Boltzmann sampling have not been fully adopted by experimentalists since identifying meaningful patterns in this data can be challenging. Profiling is a novel approach to mining RNA suboptimal structure data which makes the power of ensemble-based analysis accessible in a stable and reliable way. Balancing abstraction and specificity, profiling identifies significant combinations of base pairs which dominate low-energy RNA secondary structures. By design, critical similarities and differences are highlighted, yielding crucial information for molecular biologists. The code is freely available via http://gtfold.sourceforge.net/profiling.html. PMID:25392423

  9. Development of RNA interference-based therapeutics and application of multi-target small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiejun; Wu, Meihua; Zhu, York Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Li

    2014-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been proven in recent years to be a newly advanced and powerful tool for development of therapeutic agents toward various unmet medical needs such as cancer, in particular, a great attention has been paid to the development of antineoplastic agents. Recent success in clinical trials related to RNAi-based therapeutics on cancer and ocular disease has validated that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) constitute a new promising class of therapeutics. Currently, a great wealth of multi-target based siRNA structural modifications is available for promoting siRNA-mediated gene silencing with low side effects. Here, the latest developments in RNAi-based therapeutics and novel structural modifications described for siRNAs--in particular multi-target siRNAs--are reviewed.

  10. Therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs/micro interfering RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2015-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems.

  11. A host small GTP-binding protein ARL8 plays crucial roles in tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5'-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions.

  12. Parvovirus Expresses a Small Noncoding RNA That Plays an Essential Role in Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zekun; Shen, Weiran; Cheng, Fang; Deng, Xuefeng; Engelhardt, John F; Yan, Ziying; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-04-15

    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) belongs to the species Primate bocaparvovirus of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. HBoV1 causes acute respiratory tract infections in young children and has a selective tropism for the apical surface of well-differentiated human airway epithelia (HAE). In this study, we identified an additional HBoV1 gene, bocavirus-transcribed small noncoding RNA (BocaSR), within the 3' noncoding region (nucleotides [nt] 5199 to 5338) of the viral genome of positive sense. BocaSR is transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) from an intragenic promoter at levels similar to that of the capsid protein-coding mRNA and is essential for replication of the viral DNA in both transfected HEK293 and infected HAE cells. Mechanistically, we showed that BocaSR regulates the expression of HBoV1-encoded nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2, NS3, and NP1 but not NS4. BocaSR is similar to the adenovirus-associated type I (VAI) RNA in terms of both nucleotide sequence and secondary structure but differs from it in that its regulation of viral protein expression is independent of RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) regulation. Notably, BocaSR accumulates in the viral DNA replication centers within the nucleus and likely plays a direct role in replication of the viral DNA. Our findings reveal BocaSR to be a novel viral noncoding RNA that coordinates the expression of viral proteins and regulates replication of viral DNA within the nucleus. Thus, BocaSR may be a target for antiviral therapies for HBoV and may also have utility in the production of recombinant HBoV vectors.IMPORTANCE Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is pathogenic to humans, causing acute respiratory tract infections in young children. In this study, we identified a novel HBoV1 gene that lies in the 3' noncoding region of the viral positive-sense genome and is transcribed by RNA polymerase III into a noncoding RNA of 140 nt. This bocavirus-transcribed small RNA (BocaSR) diverges from both adenovirus

  13. Lessons for resource conservation from two contrasting small-scale fisheries.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Hampus; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Purcell, Steven W; Olsson, Per

    2015-04-01

    Small-scale fisheries present challenges to management due to fishers' dependency on resources and the adaptability of management systems. We compared social-ecological processes in the sea cucumber fisheries of Zanzibar and Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean, to better understand the reasons for resource conservation or collapse. Commercial value of wild stocks was at least 30 times higher in Mayotte than in Zanzibar owing to lower fishing pressure. Zanzibar fishers were financially reliant on the fishery and increased fishing effort as stocks declined. This behavioral response occurred without adaptive management and reinforced an unsustainable fishery. In contrast, resource managers in Mayotte adapted to changing fishing effort and stock abundance by implementing a precautionary fishery closure before crossing critical thresholds. Fishery closure may be a necessary measure in small-scale fisheries to preserve vulnerable resources until reliable management systems are devised. Our comparison highlighted four poignant lessons for managing small-scale fisheries: (1) diagnose the fishery regularly, (2) enable an adaptive management system, (3) constrain exploitation within ecological limits, and (4) share management responsibility.

  14. Deep sequencing reveals small RNA characterization of invasive micropapillary carcinomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Yang, Cuicui; Zhai, Lili; Zhang, Wenwei; Yu, Jing; Gu, Feng; Lang, Ronggang; Fan, Yu; Gong, Meihua; Zhang, Xiuqing; Fu, Li

    2012-11-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is an uncommon histological type of breast cancer. IMPC has a special growth pattern and a more aggressive behavior than invasive ductal carcinomas of no special types (IDC-NSTs). microRNAs are a large class of non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of various biological processes. Here, we analyzed the small RNA transcriptomes of five formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pure IMPC samples and five FFPE IDC-NSTs samples by means of next-generation sequencing, generating a total of >170,000,000 clean reads. In an unsupervised cluster analysis, differently expressed miRNAs generated a tree with clear distinction between IMPC and IDC-NSTs classes. Paired fresh-frozen and FFPE specimens showed very similar miRNA expression profiles. By means of RT-qPCR, we further investigated miRNA expression in more IMPC (n = 22) and IDC-NSTs (n = 24) FFPE samples and found let-7b, miR-30c, miR-148a, miR-181a, miR-181a*, and miR-181b were significantly differently expressed between the two groups. We also elucidated several features of miRNA in these breast cancer tissues including 5' variability, miRNA editing, and 3' untemplated addition. Our findings will lead to further understanding of the invasive potency of IMPC and gain an insight into the diversity and complexity of small RNA molecules in breast cancer tissues.

  15. The Small RNA GcvB Promotes Mutagenic Break Repair by Opposing the Membrane Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Brittany; Rogers, Elizabeth; Xia, Jun; Frisch, Ryan L.; Richters, Megan; Fitzgerald, Devon M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes and human cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis mechanisms may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives host-pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance, and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of DNA double-strand breaks is switched to a mutagenic mode, using error-prone DNA polymerases, via the SOS DNA damage and general (σS) stress responses. We investigated small RNA (sRNA) clients of Hfq, an RNA chaperone that promotes mutagenic break repair (MBR), and found that GcvB promotes MBR by allowing a robust σS response, achieved via opposing the membrane stress (σE) response. Cells that lack gcvB were MBR deficient and displayed reduced σS-dependent transcription but not reduced σS protein levels. The defects in MBR and σS-dependent transcription in ΔgcvB cells were alleviated by artificially increasing σS levels, implying that GcvB promotes mutagenesis by allowing a normal σS response. ΔgcvB cells were highly induced for the σE response, and blocking σE response induction restored both mutagenesis and σS-promoted transcription. We suggest that GcvB may promote the σS response and mutagenesis indirectly, by promoting membrane integrity, which keeps σE levels lower. At high levels, σE might outcompete σS for binding RNA polymerase and so reduce the σS response and mutagenesis. The data show the delicate balance of stress response modulation of mutagenesis. IMPORTANCE Mutagenesis mechanisms upregulated by stress responses promote de novo antibiotic resistance and cross-resistance in bacteria, antifungal drug resistance in yeasts, and genome instability in cancer cells under hypoxic stress. This paper describes the role of a small RNA (sRNA) in promoting a stress-inducible-mutagenesis mechanism, mutagenic DNA break repair in Escherichia coli. The roles of many sRNAs in E. coli remain unknown. This study shows that ΔgcvB cells

  16. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Can; Hai, Bao; Du, Guohong; Wang, Hong; Leng, Huijie; Xu, Yingsheng; Song, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA) injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1–2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r) or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r) siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1–34) (rhPTH (1–34)) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD), microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs), and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05). Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01). The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05). This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of siRNA

  17. Topological and thermodynamic factors that influence the evolution of small networks of catalytic RNA species.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Jessica A M; Nghe, Philippe; Lehman, Niles

    2017-04-07

    RNA-directed recombination reaction can result in a network of interacting RNA species. It is now becoming increasingly apparent that such networks would have been an important feature of the RNA world during the nascent evolution of life on the Earth. But the means by which such small RNA networks assimilate other available genotypes in the environment to grow and evolve into the more complex networks that are thought to have existed in the prebiotic milieu are not known. Here, we used the ability of fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron ribozyme to covalently self assemble via genotype-selfish and genotype-cooperative interactions into full-length ribozymes to investigate the dynamics of small (3- and 4-membered) networks. We focused on the influence of a 3-membered core network on the incorporation of additional nodes, and on the degree and direction of connectivity as single new nodes are added to this core. We confirmed experimentally the predictions that additional links to a core should enhance overall network growth rates, but that the directionality of the link (a "giver" or a "receiver") impacts the growth of the core itself. Additionally we used a simple mathematical model based on the first-order effects of lower-level interactions to predict the growth of more complex networks, and find that such a model can, to a first approximation, predict the ordinal rankings of nodes once a steady-state distribution has been reached.

  18. Inhibition of Non-ATG Translational Events in Cells via Covalent Small Molecules Targeting RNA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wang-Yong; Wilson, Henry D.; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    One major class of disease-causing RNAs is expanded repeating transcripts. These RNAs cause diseases via multiple mechanisms, including: (i) gain-of-function, in which repeating RNAs bind and sequester proteins involved in RNA biogenesis and (ii) repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, in which repeating transcripts are translated into toxic proteins without use of a canonical, AUG, start codon. Herein, we develop and study chemical probes that bind and react with an expanded r(CGG) repeat (r(CGG)exp) present in a 5′ untranslated region that causes fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Reactive compounds bind to r(CGG)exp in cellulo as shown with Chem-CLIP-Map, an approach to map small molecule binding sites within RNAs in cells. Compounds also potently improve FXTAS-associated pre-mRNA splicing and RAN translational defects, while not affecting translation of the downstream open reading frame. In contrast, oligonucleotides affect both RAN and canonical translation when they bind to r(CGG)exp, which is mechanistically traced to a decrease in polysome loading. Thus, designer small molecules that react with RNA targets can be used to profile the RNAs to which they bind in cells, including identification of binding sites, and can modulate several aspects of RNA-mediated disease pathology in a manner that may be more beneficial than oligonucleotides. PMID:25825793

  19. A small circular TAR RNA decoy specifically inhibits Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bohjanen, P R; Colvin, R A; Puttaraju, M; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A

    1996-01-01

    Linear TAR RNA has previously been used as a decoy to inhibit HIV-1 transcription in vitro and HIV-1 replication in vivo. A 48 nucleotide circular RNA containing the stem, bulge and loop of the HIV-1 TAR element was synthesized using the self-splicing activity of a group I permuted intron-exon and was tested for its ability to function as a TAR decoy in vitro. This small circular TAR molecule was exceptionally stable in HeLa nuclear extracts, whereas a similar linear TAR molecule was rapidly degraded. The TAR circle bound specifically to Tfr38, a peptide containing the TAR-binding region of Tat. The ability of Tat to trans-activate transcription from the HIV-1 promoter in vitro was efficiently inhibited by circular TAR RNA but not by TAR circles that contained either bulge or loop mutations. TAR circles did not inhibit transactivation exclusively by binding to Tat since this inhibition was not reversed by adding excess Tat to the transcription reaction. Together, these data suggest that TAR circles act as decoys that inhibit transactivation by binding to Tat and at least one cellular factor. These data also demonstrate the utility of small circular RNA molecules as tools for biochemical studies. PMID:8871552

  20. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Pre-mRNA Splicing*

    PubMed Central

    Pawellek, Andrea; McElroy, Stuart; Samatov, Timur; Mitchell, Lee; Woodland, Andrew; Ryder, Ursula; Gray, David; Lührmann, Reinhard; Lamond, Angus I.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing is an essential step in gene expression for all genes that contain introns. In contrast to transcription and translation, few well characterized chemical inhibitors are available with which to dissect the splicing process, particularly in cells. Therefore, the identification of specific small molecules that either inhibit or modify pre-mRNA splicing would be valuable for research and potentially also for therapeutic applications. We have screened a highly curated library of 71,504 drug-like small molecules using a high throughput in vitro splicing assay. This identified 10 new compounds that both inhibit pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and modify splicing of endogenous pre-mRNA in cells. One of these splicing modulators, DDD00107587 (termed “madrasin,” i.e. 2-((7methoxy-4-methylquinazolin-2-yl)amino)-5,6-dimethylpyrimidin-4(3H)-one RNAsplicing inhibitor), was studied in more detail. Madrasin interferes with the early stages of spliceosome assembly and stalls spliceosome assembly at the A complex. Madrasin is cytotoxic at higher concentrations, although at lower concentrations it induces cell cycle arrest, promotes a specific reorganization of subnuclear protein localization, and modulates splicing of multiple pre-mRNAs in both HeLa and HEK293 cells. PMID:25281741

  1. Delivery of antiviral small interfering RNA with gold nanoparticles inhibits dengue virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Amber M.; Shi, Yongliang; Acharya, Dhiraj; Douglas, Jessica R.; Cooley, Amanda; Anderson, John F.; Huang, Faqing

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans can cause flu-like illness, life-threatening haemorrhagic fever or even death. There is no specific anti-DENV therapeutic or approved vaccine currently available, partially due to the possibility of antibody-dependent enhancement reaction. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target specific viral genes are considered a promising therapeutic alternative against DENV infection. However, in vivo, siRNAs are vulnerable to degradation by serum nucleases and rapid renal excretion due to their small size and anionic character. To enhance siRNA delivery and stability, we complexed anti-DENV siRNAs with biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tested them in vitro. We found that cationic AuNP–siRNA complexes could enter Vero cells and significantly reduce DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) replication and infectious virion release under both pre- and post-infection conditions. In addition, RNase-treated AuNP–siRNA complexes could still inhibit DENV-2 replication, suggesting that AuNPs maintained siRNA stability. Collectively, these results demonstrated that AuNPs were able to efficiently deliver siRNAs and control infection in vitro, indicating a novel anti-DENV strategy. PMID:24828333

  2. An XIST-related small RNA regulates KRAS G-quadruplex formation beyond X-inactivation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuli C; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Chan, Wen-Ling; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Shou-Mei; Chou, Han-Lin; Liu, Ta-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Yang, Wen-Kuang; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2016-12-27

    X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST), a long non-coding RNA, is essential for the initiation of X-chromosome inactivation. However, little is known about other roles of XIST in the physiological process in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the bioinformatics approaches revealed XIST could be processed into a small non-coding RNA XPi2. The XPi2 RNA was confirmed by a northern blot assay; its expression was gender-independent, suggesting the role of XPi2 was beyond X-chromosome inactivation. The pull-down assay combined with LC-MS-MS identified two XPi2-associated proteins, nucleolin and hnRNP A1, connected to the formation of G-quadruplex. Moreover, the microarray data showed the knockdown of XPi2 down-regulated the KRAS pathway. Consistently, we tested the expression of ten genes, including KRAS, which was correlated with a G-quadruplex formation and found the knockdown of XPi2 caused a dramatic decrease in the transcription level of KRAS among the ten genes. The results of CD/NMR assay also supported the interaction of XPi2 and the polypurine-polypyrimidine element of KRAS. Accordingly, XPi2 may stimulate the KRAS expression by attenuating G-quadruplex formation. Our present work sheds light on the novel role of small RNA XPi2 in modulating the G-quadruplex formation which may play some essential roles in the KRAS- associated carcinogenesis.

  3. An XIST-related small RNA regulates KRAS G-quadruplex formation beyond X-inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuli C.; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Chan, Wen-Ling; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Shou-Mei; Chou, Han-Lin; Liu, Ta-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Yang, Wen-Kuang; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2016-01-01

    X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST), a long non-coding RNA, is essential for the initiation of X-chromosome inactivation. However, little is known about other roles of XIST in the physiological process in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the bioinformatics approaches revealed XIST could be processed into a small non-coding RNA XPi2. The XPi2 RNA was confirmed by a northern blot assay; its expression was gender-independent, suggesting the role of XPi2 was beyond X-chromosome inactivation. The pull-down assay combined with LC-MS-MS identified two XPi2-associated proteins, nucleolin and hnRNP A1, connected to the formation of G-quadruplex. Moreover, the microarray data showed the knockdown of XPi2 down-regulated the KRAS pathway. Consistently, we tested the expression of ten genes, including KRAS, which was correlated with a G-quadruplex formation and found the knockdown of XPi2 caused a dramatic decrease in the transcription level of KRAS among the ten genes. The results of CD/NMR assay also supported the interaction of XPi2 and the polypurine-polypyrimidine element of KRAS. Accordingly, XPi2 may stimulate the KRAS expression by attenuating G-quadruplex formation. Our present work sheds light on the novel role of small RNA XPi2 in modulating the G-quadruplex formation which may play some essential roles in the KRAS- associated carcinogenesis. PMID:27880931

  4. Novel small Cajal-body-specific RNAs identified in Drosophila: probing guide RNA function

    PubMed Central

    Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    The spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are modified post-transcriptionally by introduction of pseudouridines and 2′-O-methyl modifications, which are mediated by box H/ACA and box C/D guide RNAs, respectively. Because of their concentration in the nuclear Cajal body (CB), these guide RNAs are known as small CB-specific (sca) RNAs. In the cell, scaRNAs are associated with the WD-repeat protein WDR79. We used coimmunoprecipitation with WDR79 to recover seven new scaRNAs from Drosophila cell lysates. We demonstrated concentration of these new scaRNAs in the CB by in situ hybridization, and we verified experimentally that they can modify their putative target RNAs. Surprisingly, one of the new scaRNAs targets U6 snRNA, whose modification is generally assumed to occur in the nucleolus, not in the CB. Two other scaRNAs have dual guide functions, one for an snRNA and one for 28S rRNA. Again, the modification of 28S rRNA is assumed to take place in the nucleolus. These findings suggest that canonical scaRNAs may have functions in addition to their established role in modifying U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNAs. We discuss the likelihood that processing by scaRNAs is not limited to the CB. PMID:24149844

  5. Inhibition of Non-ATG Translational Events in Cells via Covalent Small Molecules Targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang-Yong; Wilson, Henry D; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-04-29

    One major class of disease-causing RNAs is expanded repeating transcripts. These RNAs cause diseases via multiple mechanisms, including: (i) gain-of-function, in which repeating RNAs bind and sequester proteins involved in RNA biogenesis and (ii) repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, in which repeating transcripts are translated into toxic proteins without use of a canonical, AUG, start codon. Herein, we develop and study chemical probes that bind and react with an expanded r(CGG) repeat (r(CGG)(exp)) present in a 5' untranslated region that causes fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Reactive compounds bind to r(CGG)(exp) in cellulo as shown with Chem-CLIP-Map, an approach to map small molecule binding sites within RNAs in cells. Compounds also potently improve FXTAS-associated pre-mRNA splicing and RAN translational defects, while not affecting translation of the downstream open reading frame. In contrast, oligonucleotides affect both RAN and canonical translation when they bind to r(CGG)(exp), which is mechanistically traced to a decrease in polysome loading. Thus, designer small molecules that react with RNA targets can be used to profile the RNAs to which they bind in cells, including identification of binding sites, and can modulate several aspects of RNA-mediated disease pathology in a manner that may be more beneficial than oligonu