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Sample records for conserved wobble uridine

  1. Elongator function in tRNA wobble uridine modification is conserved between yeast and plants

    PubMed Central

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Jablonowski, Daniel; Wrackmeyer, Uta; Tschitschmann, Susan; Sondermann, David; Jäger, Gunilla; Gong, Zhizhong; Byström, Anders S; Schaffrath, Raffael; Breunig, Karin D

    2010-01-01

    Based on studies in yeast and mammalian cells the Elongator complex has been implicated in functions as diverse as histone acetylation, polarized protein trafficking and tRNA modification. Here we show that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the Elongator subunit AtELP3/ELO3 have a defect in tRNA wobble uridine modification. Moreover, we demonstrate that yeast elp3 and elp1 mutants expressing the respective Arabidopsis Elongator homologues AtELP3/ELO3 and AtELP1/ELO2 assemble integer Elongator complexes indicating a high degree of structural conservation. Surprisingly, in vivo complementation studies based on Elongator-dependent tRNA nonsense suppression and zymocin tRNase toxin assays indicated that while AtELP1 rescued defects of a yeast elp1 mutant, the most conserved Elongator gene AtELP3, failed to complement an elp3 mutant. This lack of complementation is due to incompatibility with yeast ELP1 as coexpression of both plant genes in an elp1 elp3 yeast mutant restored Elongator's tRNA modification function in vivo. Similarly, AtELP1, not ScELP1 also supported partial complementation by yeast–plant Elp3 hybrids suggesting that AtElp1 has less stringent sequence requirements for Elp3 than ScElp1. We conclude that yeast and plant Elongator share tRNA modification roles and propose that this function might be conserved in Elongator from all eukaryotic kingdoms of life. PMID:20398216

  2. Loss of wobble uridine modification in tRNA anticodons interferes with TOR pathway signaling

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Viktor; Jüdes, André; Bär, Christian; Klassen, Roland; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in yeast has suggested that modification of tRNAs, in particular uridine bases in the anticodon wobble position (U34), is linked to TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling. Hence, U34 modification mutants were found to be hypersensitive to TOR inhibition by rapamycin. To study whether this involves inappropriate TOR signaling, we examined interaction between mutations in TOR pathway genes (tip41∆, sap190∆, ppm1∆, rrd1∆) and U34 modification defects (elp3∆, kti12∆, urm1∆, ncs2∆) and found the rapamycin hypersensitivity in the latter is epistatic to drug resistance of the former. Epistasis, however, is abolished in tandem with a gln3∆ deletion, which inactivates transcription factor Gln3 required for TOR-sensitive activation of NCR (nitrogen catabolite repression) genes. In line with nuclear import of Gln3 being under control of TOR and dephosphorylation by the Sit4 phosphatase, we identify novel TOR-sensitive sit4 mutations that confer rapamycin resistance and importantly, mislocalise Gln3 when TOR is inhibited. This is similar to gln3∆ cells, which abolish the rapamycin hypersensitivity of U34 modification mutants, and suggests TOR deregulation due to tRNA undermodification operates through Gln3. In line with this, loss of U34 modifications (elp3∆, urm1∆) enhances nuclear import of and NCR gene activation (MEP2, GAP1) by Gln3 when TOR activity is low. Strikingly, this stimulatory effect onto Gln3 is suppressed by overexpression of tRNAs that usually carry the U34 modifications. Collectively, our data suggest that proper TOR signaling requires intact tRNA modifications and that loss of U34 modifications impinges on the TOR-sensitive NCR branch via Gln3 misregulation. PMID:28357221

  3. SURVEY AND SUMMARY: Roles of 5-substituents of tRNA wobble uridines in the recognition of purine-ending codons

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Kazuyuki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2003-01-01

    Many tRNA molecules that recognize the purine-ending codons but not the pyrimidine-ending codons have a modified uridine at the wobble position, in which a methylene carbon is attached directly to position 5 of the uracil ring. Although several models have been proposed concerning the mechanism by which the 5-substituents regulate codon-reading properties of the tRNAs, none could explain recent results of the experiments utilizing well-characterized modification-deficient strains of Escherichia coli. Here, we first summarize previous studies on the codon-reading properties of tRNA molecules with a U derivative at the wobble position. Then, we propose a hypothetical mechanism of the reading of the G-ending codons by such tRNA molecules that could explain the experimental results. The hypothesis supposes unconventional base pairs between a protonated form of the modified uridines and the G at the third position of the codon stabilized by two direct hydrogen bonds between the bases. The hypothesis also addresses differences between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic decoding systems. PMID:14602896

  4. Archaeal Tuc1/Ncs6 Homolog Required for Wobble Uridine tRNA Thiolation Is Associated with Ubiquitin-Proteasome, Translation, and RNA Processing System Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria, Nikita E.; Hwang, Sungmin; Cao, Shiyun; Fu, Xian; Holman, Mary; Elbanna, Dina; Rodriguez, Suzanne; Arrington, Deanna; Englert, Markus; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Söll, Dieter; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    While cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 (Tuc1/Ncs6) and ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (Urm1) are important in the 2-thiolation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) at wobble uridines of tRNAs in eukaryotes, the biocatalytic roles and properties of Ncs6/Tuc1 and its homologs are poorly understood. Here we present the first report of an Ncs6 homolog of archaea (NcsA of Haloferax volcanii) that is essential for maintaining cellular pools of thiolated tRNALysUUU and for growth at high temperature. When purified from Hfx. volcanii, NcsA was found to be modified at Lys204 by isopeptide linkage to polymeric chains of the ubiquitin-fold protein SAMP2. The ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme homolog of archaea (UbaA) was required for this covalent modification. Non-covalent protein partners that specifically associated with NcsA were also identified including UbaA, SAMP2, proteasome activating nucleotidase (PAN)-A/1, translation elongation factor aEF-1α and a β-CASP ribonuclease homolog of the archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 family (aCPSF1). Together, our study reveals that NcsA is essential for growth at high temperature, required for formation of thiolated tRNALysUUU and intimately linked to homologs of ubiquitin-proteasome, translation and RNA processing systems. PMID:24906001

  5. C5-substituents of uridines and 2-thiouridines present at the wobble position of tRNA determine the formation of their keto-enol or zwitterionic forms - a factor important for accuracy of reading of guanosine at the 3'-end of the mRNA codons.

    PubMed

    Sochacka, Elzbieta; Lodyga-Chruscinska, Elzbieta; Pawlak, Justyna; Cypryk, Marek; Bartos, Paulina; Ebenryter-Olbinska, Katarzyna; Leszczynska, Grazyna; Nawrot, Barbara

    2017-01-13

    Modified nucleosides present in the wobble position of the tRNA anticodons regulate protein translation through tuning the reading of mRNA codons. Among 40 of such nucleosides, there are modified uridines containing either a sulfur atom at the C2 position and/or a substituent at the C5 position of the nucleobase ring. It is already evidenced that tRNAs with 2-thiouridines at the wobble position preferentially read NNA codons, while the reading mode of the NNG codons by R5U/R5S2U-containing anticodons is still elusive. For a series of 18 modified uridines and 2-thiouridines, we determined the pKa values and demonstrated that both modifying elements alter the electron density of the uracil ring and modulate the acidity of their N3H proton. In aqueous solutions at physiological pH the 2-thiouridines containing aminoalkyl C5-substituents are ionized in ca. 50%. The results, confirmed also by theoretical calculations, indicate that the preferential binding of the modified units bearing non-ionizable 5-substituents to guanosine in the NNG codons may obey the alternative C-G-like (Watson-Crick) mode, while binding of those bearing aminoalkyl C5-substituents (protonated under physiological conditions) and especially those with a sulfur atom at the C2 position, adopt a zwitterionic form and interact with guanosine via a 'new wobble' pattern.

  6. Uridine Triacetate

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.tell your doctor if you have any medical ... Uridine triacetate may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: vomiting nausea diarrhea Uridine triacetate ...

  7. Does Venus wobble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, C. F.; Ward, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The free wobble damping time for Venus due to solar tides and rotational flexing is found to be approximately 700,000 times Q sub omega years, where Q sub omega is the dissipation function associated with the wobble frequency. The slow spin and expected small (nonhydrostatic) J2 predict a very long wobble period of about 100,000 years. As a result, a simple scaling of the earth's Chandler wobble excitation rate to that of Venus suggests that an appreciable wobble could exist. Detection (or lack thereof) of a free wobble may thus place constraints on the dynamic activity (e.g., mantle convection, Venusquakes, etc.) of the Venus interior.

  8. Divalent metal ion binding to a conserved wobble pair defining the upstream site of cleavage of group I self-splicing introns.

    PubMed Central

    Allain, F H; Varani, G

    1995-01-01

    The upstream site of cleavage of all group I self-splicing introns is identified by an absolutely conserved U.G base pair. Although a wobble C.A pair can substitute the U.G pair, all other combinations of nucleotides at this position abolish splicing, suggesting that it is an unusual RNA structure, rather than sequence, that is recognized by the catalytic intron core. RNA enzymes are metalloenzymes, and divalent metal ion binding may be an important requirement for splice site recognition and catalysis. The paramagnetic broadening of NMR resonances upon manganese binding at specific sites was used to probe the interaction between divalent metal ions and an oligonucleotide model of a group I intron ribozyme substrate. Unlike previous studies in which only imino proton resonances were monitored, we have used isotopically labelled RNA and a set of complete spectral assignments to identify the location of the divalent metal binding site with much greater detail than previously possible. Two independent metal binding sites were identified for this oligonucleotide. A first metal binding site is located in the major groove of the three consecutive G.C base pairs at the end of double helical stem. A second site is found in the major groove of the RNA double helix in the vicinity of the U.G base pair. These results suggest that metal ion coordination (or a metal bridge) and tertiary interactions identified biochemically, may be used by group I intron ribozymes for substrate recognition. Images PMID:7885828

  9. A mini-RNA containing the tetraloop, wobble-pair and loop E motifs of the central conserved region of potato spindle tuber viroid is processed into a minicircle.

    PubMed

    Schrader, O; Baumstark, T; Riesner, D

    2003-02-01

    A Mini-RNA from potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was constructed specifically for cleavage and ligation to circles in vitro. It contains the C-domain with the so-called central conserved region (CCR) of PSTVd with a 17 nt duplication in the upper strand and hairpin structures at the left and rights ends of the secondary structure. The CCR was previously shown to be essential for processing of in vitro transcripts. When folded under conditions which favor formation of a kinetically controlled conformation and incubated in a potato nuclear extract, the Mini-RNA is cleaved correctly at the 5'- and the 3'-end and ligated to a circle. Thus, the CCR obviously contains all structural and functional requirements for correct processing and therefore may be regarded as 'processing domain' of PSTVd. Using the Mini-RNA as a model substrate, the structural and functional relevance of its conserved non-canonical motifs GAAA tetraloop, loop E and G:U wobble base pair were studied by mutational analysis. It was found that (i) the conserved GAAA tetraloop is essential for processing by favoring the kinetically controlled conformation, (ii) a G:U wobble base pair at the 5'-cleavage site contributes to its correct recognition and (iii) an unpaired nucleotide in loop E, which is different from the corresponding nucleotide in the conserved loop E motif, is essential for ligation of the 5'- with the 3'-end. Hence all three structural motifs are functional elements for processing in a potato nuclear extract.

  10. A conserved and essential basic region mediates tRNA binding to the Elp1 subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator complex.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Rachael; Bandau, Susanne; Stark, Michael J R

    2014-06-01

    Elongator is a conserved, multi-protein complex discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of which confers a range of pleiotropic phenotypes. Elongator in higher eukaryotes is required for normal growth and development and a mutation in the largest subunit of human Elongator (Elp1) causes familial dysautonomia, a severe recessive neuropathy. Elongator promotes addition of mcm(5) and ncm(5) modifications to uridine in the tRNA anticodon 'wobble' position in both yeast and higher eukaryotes. Since these modifications are required for the tRNAs to function efficiently, a translation defect caused by hypomodified tRNAs may therefore underlie the variety of phenotypes associated with Elongator dysfunction. The Elp1 carboxy-terminal domain contains a highly conserved arginine/lysine-rich region that resembles a nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Using alanine substitution mutagenesis, we show that this region is essential for Elongator's function in tRNA wobble uridine modification. However, rather than acting to determine the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of Elongator, we find that the basic region plays a critical role in a novel interaction between tRNA and the Elp1 carboxy-terminal domain. Thus the conserved basic region in Elp1 may be essential for tRNA wobble uridine modification by acting as tRNA binding motif.

  11. Feynman's wobbling plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuleja, Slavomir; Gazovic, Boris; Tomori, Alexander; Hanc, Jozef

    2007-03-01

    In the book Surely You Are Joking, Mr. Feynman! Richard Feynman tells a story of a Cornell cafeteria plate being tossed into the air. As the plate spun, it wobbled. Feynman noticed a relation between the two motions. He solved the motion of the plate by using the Lagrangian approach. This solution didn't satisfy him. He wanted to understand the motion of the plate by analyzing the motion of its individual particles and the forces acting on them. He was successful, but he didn't tell us how he did it. We provide an elementary explanation for the two-to-one ratio of wobble to spin frequencies, based on an analysis of the motion of the particles and the forces acting on them. We also demonstrate the power of numerical simulation and computer animation to provide insight into a physical phenomenon and guidance on how to do the analysis.

  12. Anharmonicity in nuclear wobbling motion

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, M.

    2007-09-15

    An unexpected strong anharmonicity was observed in the wobbling spectrum in {sup 163}Lu. In an attempt to understand what causes the deviation from the original wobbling model by Bohr and Mottelson, an analysis is presented using several different approaches, such as exact diagonalization, a semiclassical model to deal with anharmonic wobbling motion, and a microscopic method based on the self-consistent cranking calculation.

  13. Prediction of the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L.; Bizouard, C.

    2015-08-01

    Chandler wobble amplitude have been decreasing in 2010s as in 1930s. We try to predict its future behaviour through prediction of its complex envelope. The excitation of the Chandler wobble (ChW) reconstructed by Panteleev's filter was also analized. The equation for the complex envelope propagation through the Euler-Liouville equation was derived. Similarities with the climate change characteristics are discussed.

  14. The Earth's variable Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, C.; Remus, F.; Lambert, S. B.; Seoane, L.; Gambis, D.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We investigated the causes of the Earth's Chandler wobble variability over the past 60 years. Our approach is based on integrating of the atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum computed by global circulation models. We directly compared the result of the integration with the Earth's pole coordinate observed by precise astrometric, space, and geodetic techniques. This approach differs from the traditional approach in which the observed polar motion is transformed into a so-called geodetic excitation function, and compared afterwards with the angular momentum of the external geophysical fluid layers. Methods: In the time domain, we integrated the atmospheric angular momentum time series from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis project and the oceanic angular momentum data from the ECCO consortium. We extracted the Chandler wobble from this modeled polar motion by singular spectrum analysis, and compared it with the Chandler wobble extracted from the observed polar motion given by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service data. Results: We showed that the combination of the atmosphere and the oceans explains most of the observed Chandler wobble variations, and is consistent with results reported in the literature and obtained with the traditional approach. Our approach allows one to appreciate the separate contributions of the atmosphere and the oceans to the various bumps and valleys observed in the Chandler wobble. Though the atmosphere explains the Chandler wobble amplitude variations between 1949 and 1970, the reexcitation of the Chandler wobble that begins in the 1980s, after a minimum around 1970, and that reaches its maximum in the late 1990s is due to the oceans, while the atmospheric contribution remains stable within the same period.

  15. Spin, Wobble, and Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Richard; Schuh, Harald; Huang, Cheng-li

    2011-01-01

    Observing and Understanding Earth Rotation: A Joint GGOS/IAU Science Workshop; Shanghai, China, 25-28 October 2010 ; The Earth rotates about its axis once a day, but it does not do so uniformly. Instead, the rate of rotation fluctuates by as much as a millisecond a day, the Earth wobbles as it rotates because the Earth's mass is not balanced about its rotation axis, and the Earth's rotation axis precesses and nutates in space. These variations in the Earth's rotation are caused by processes acting within the interior of the Earth such as glacial isostatic adjustment and core-mantle interaction torques, by processes acting at the surface of the Earth such as fluctuations in the transport of mass within the atmosphere and oceans, and by processes acting external to the Earth such as torques due to the gravitational attraction of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. These and other aspects of the Earth's rotation were discussed at a recent workshop in China that attracted 90 participants from 12 countries. The workshop was jointly organized by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy and Commission 19 (Rotation of the Earth) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The objectives of the workshop were to (1) assess our ability to observe the Earth's time-varying rotation, (2) assess our understanding of the causes of the observed variations, (3) assess the consistency of Earth rotation observations with global gravity and shape observations, and (4) explore methods of combining rotation, gravity, and shape observations to gain greater understanding of the processes causing them to change on both the Earth and other planets, like Mars.

  16. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    Variations of Earth rotation on sub-daily to secular timescales are caused by mass redistributions in the Earth system as a consequence of geophysical processes and gravitational influences. Forced oscillations of polar motion are superposed by free oscillations of the Earth, i.e. the Chandler wobble and the free core nutation. In order to study the interactions between externally induced polar motion and the Earth's free oscillations, a non-linear gyroscopic model has been developed. In most of the former investigations on polar motion, the Chandler wobble is introduced as a damped oscillation with predetermined frequency and amplitude. However, as the effect of rotational deformation is a backcoupling mechanism of polar motion on the Earth's rotational dynamics, both period and amplitude of the Chandler wobble are time-dependent when regarding additional excitations from, e.g., atmospheric or oceanic mass redistributions. The gyroscopic model is free of any explicit information concerning amplitude, phase, and period of free oscillations. The characteristics of the Earth's free oscillation is reproduced by the model from rheological and geometrical parameters and rotational deformation is taken into account. This enables to study the time variable Chandler oscillation when the gyro is forced with atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum from the global atmospheric ECHAM3-T21 general circulation model together with the ocean model for circulation and tides OMCT driven by ECHAM including surface pressure. Besides, mass redistributions in the Earth's body due to gravitational and loading deformations are regarded and external torques exerted by Moon and Sun are considered. The numerical results of the gyro are significantly related with the geodetically observed time series of polar motion published by the IERS. It is shown that the consistent excitation is capable to counteract the damping and thus to maintain the Chandler amplitude. Spectral analyses of the ECHAM

  17. Multiple inner core wobbles in a simple Earth model with inviscid core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogister, Yves

    2010-01-01

    The inner core wobble (ICW) is the chandler wobble of the inner core. Its predicted period for the PREM model is about 7.5 years, based upon the resolution of the Liouville equations of conservation of angular momentum. Here, solving the local equation of conservation of linear momentum with a truncated chain that couples the toroidal and spheroidal displacement fields, the ICW is computed for a model made up of three homogeneous layers: an incompressible liquid outer core and rigid mantle and inner core. Contrary to the angular momentum approach, as implemented up to now, that provides a single ICW, the linear momentum approach shows that the dynamics of the neutrally stratified outer core may generate a family of ICWs with periods ranging from a few dozens to thousands of days. The mode with the largest wobble amplitude in the inner core has a period close to that obtained with the angular momentum approach.

  18. Glycal Formation in Crystals of Uridine Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Debamita; O’Leary, Sen E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Bu, Weiming; Toms, Angela; Settembre, Ethan C.; Sanders, Jennie M.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-22

    Uridine phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate (or 2{prime}-deoxyuridine to 2{prime}-deoxyribose 1-phosphate). Here we report the structure of hexameric Escherichia coli uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluorouridine and sulfate and dimeric bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluoro-2{prime}-deoxyuridine or uridine, plus sulfate. In each case the electron density shows three separate species corresponding to the pyrimidine base, sulfate, and a ribosyl species, which can be modeled as a glycal. In the structures of the glycal complexes, the fluorouracil O2 atom is appropriately positioned to act as the base required for glycal formation via deprotonation at C2{prime}. Crystals of bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 2{prime}-deoxyuridine and sulfate show intact nucleoside. NMR time course studies demonstrate that uridine phosphorylase can catalyze the hydrolysis of the fluorinated nucleosides in the absence of phosphate or sulfate, without the release of intermediates or enzyme inactivation. These results add a previously unencountered mechanistic motif to the body of information on glycal formation by enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of glycosyl bonds.

  19. Chandler wobbles and the geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flodmark, Stig; Davstad, K.

    1986-11-01

    Paleomagnetic motion of the magnetic pole is explained by angular momentum balance between the magnetic field, inner core, outer core, and mantle. The Chandler wobbles are explained as a nutation of the mantle and crust, caused by transfer of angular momentum between the core and mantle. Evidence is found for the atmosphere not to be fully responsible for the annual oscillation period of the Chandler wobbles. The main reasons for the principal periods of 12 and 14 months are found to be the flattenings of mantle and core, respectively. The fluid core rotates collectively, as a consequence of globally coworking long-distance electromagnetic coupling. Short-distance forces may locally displace fluid core material without essentially deforming its ellipsoid of inertia. The longitudinal polar drifts of the mantle and outer core are also explained by core-mantle interaction. The core is found to force the Chandler period on the mantle, and it has high wobbling energy in comparison with the mantle.

  20. An adipo-biliary-uridine axis that regulates energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yingfeng; Wang, Zhao V; Gordillo, Ruth; An, Yu; Zhang, Chen; Liang, Qiren; Yoshino, Jun; Cautivo, Kelly M; De Brabander, Jef; Elmquist, Joel K; Horton, Jay D; Hill, Joseph A; Klein, Samuel; Scherer, Philipp E

    2017-03-17

    Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside present at high levels in the plasma of rodents and humans, is critical for RNA synthesis, glycogen deposition, and many other essential cellular processes. It also contributes to systemic metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We found that plasma uridine levels are regulated by fasting and refeeding in mice, rats, and humans. Fasting increases plasma uridine levels, and this increase relies largely on adipocytes. In contrast, refeeding reduces plasma uridine levels through biliary clearance. Elevation of plasma uridine is required for the drop in body temperature that occurs during fasting. Further, feeding-induced clearance of plasma uridine improves glucose metabolism. We also present findings that implicate leptin signaling in uridine homeostasis and consequent metabolic control and thermoregulation. Our results indicate that plasma uridine governs energy homeostasis and thermoregulation in a mechanism involving adipocyte-dependent uridine biosynthesis and leptin signaling.

  1. Chandler wobble parameters from SLR and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, J.; Gross, R.

    2015-06-01

    The period and quality factor Q of the Chandler wobble are functions of the internal structure and dissipation processes of the Earth. Better estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble can therefore be used to better understand these properties of the Earth. Here the period and Q of the Chandler wobble are estimated by finding those values that minimize the power in the Chandler frequency band of the difference between observed and modeled polar motion excitation functions. The observations of the polar motion excitation functions that we used are derived from both space-geodetic polar motion observations and from satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of the degree-2 coefficients of the Earth's time-varying gravitational field. The models of the polar motion excitation functions that we used are derived from general circulation models of the atmosphere and oceans and from hydrologic models. Our preferred values for the period and Q of the Chandler wobble that we estimated using this approach are 430.9 ± 0.7 solar days and 127 (56, 255), respectively.

  2. Excitation study of the Lageos-derived Chandler wobble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.; Chao, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    Euler (1765) has deduced that any nonspherical rigid body which is rotating about some axis that is not its principal moment of inertia axis will experience a wobble as it rotates. The earth's wobble predicted by Euler was actually detected by Chandler (1891). The present paper is concerned with this wobble which is now known as the Chandler wobble. The Chandler wobble has now been under observation for more than 80 years. During part of this time, the amplitude of the wobble has actually been seen to grow. It follows that there must be some mechanisms operating to maintain (or excite) the Chandler wobble preventing it from decaying. Possible excitation mechanisms considered include earthquakes and meteorological variations. In this paper, an analysis is conducted of Lageos polar motion data for the period 1977-1983 to find out what can be learned from these data about the excitation mechanisms.

  3. On modulations of the Chandler wobble excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L.; Bizouard, C.

    2012-12-01

    We derive the Chandler wobble excitation from the polar motion (PM) observations by using the Panteleev corrective filtering. The latter method is based on inversion of the Euler-Liouville equation, with additional filtering in the Chandler frequency band. The excitation reconstruction reveals amplitude changes different from the one observed in the Chandler wobble itself. Their main feature, well observable over the length of the day (LOD), is the presence of a 18.6-year amplitude modulation synchronous with the lunar orbital precession cycle and tidal effects. The filtering of oceanic and atmospheric excitation in the Chandler frequency band also reveals a coherent 18.6-year oceanic pattern. Most probably the ocean provide a channel for the tidal energy transfer.

  4. X-ray structures of uridine phosphorylase from Vibrio cholerae in complexes with uridine, thymidine, uracil, thymine, and phosphate anion: Substrate specificity of bacterial uridine phosphorylases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofev, I. I.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Balaev, V. V.; Seregina, T. A.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    In many types of human tumor cells and infectious agents, the demand for pyrimidine nitrogen bases increases during the development of the disease, thus increasing the role of the enzyme uridine phosphorylase in metabolic processes. The rational use of uridine phosphorylase and its ligands in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries requires knowledge of the structural basis for the substrate specificity of the target enzyme. This paper summarizes the results of the systematic study of the three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae in complexes with substrates of enzymatic reactions—uridine, phosphate anion, thymidine, uracil, and thymine. These data, supplemented with the results of molecular modeling, were used to consider in detail the structural basis for the substrate specificity of uridine phosphorylases. It was shown for the first time that the formation of a hydrogen-bond network between the 2'-hydroxy group of uridine and atoms of the active-site residues of uridine phosphorylase leads to conformational changes of the ribose moiety of uridine, resulting in an increase in the reactivity of uridine compared to thymidine. Since the binding of thymidine to residues of uridine phosphorylase causes a smaller local strain of the β-N1-glycosidic bond in this the substrate compared to the uridine molecule, the β-N1-glycosidic bond in thymidine is more stable and less reactive than that in uridine. It was shown for the first time that the phosphate anion, which is the second substrate bound at the active site, interacts simultaneously with the residues of the β5-strand and the β1-strand through hydrogen bonding, thus securing the gate loop in a conformation

  5. Signal detection techniques applied to the Chandler wobble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A sudden excitation event of the Chandler wobble should induce the earth's rotation pole to undergo damped harmonic motion. This type of motion has been searched for in the observations of the Chandler wobble using techniques based upon the concept of a matched filter. Although the signal detection techniques used here were not sensitive enough to detect any such isolated sudden excitation events, the result that was obtained is consistent with a randomly excited model of the Chandler wobble.

  6. The Forced Annual Wobble in Earth's Polar Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    The annual wobble in Earth's polar motion is a forced motion, as opposed to an excited natural oscillation which is the Chandler wobble in the case of polar motion. It is forced by the combination of many angular momentum variations in the geophysical fluids that exchange these variations with the solid Earth, hence changing its rotation. Among all forcing sources of the annual wobble the geophysical fluid that has the dominant contribution is the atmosphere, while the oceans and the land hydrology make up the remaining budget together with tidal influences. The latter include that from the solid Earth deformation and that from the ocean tides at the annual period. The combined forcing produces both prograde and retrograde wobbles; the prograde wobble gets magnified substantially by the near-by presence of the natural Chandler wobble resonance. On the other hand, the closeness of the prograde annual forcing power to the Chandler period is an indication that some of the power leakage into the Chandler period band becomes the main excitation source for the Chandler wobble. In this paper we will review our knowledge about annual wobble and show the status in the effort of closing the budget with the annual angular momentum variations from the various geophysical fluids.

  7. Modified 5-fluorouracil: Uridine phosphorylase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Shchekotikhin, A. A.; Shtil, A. A.; Sotnichenko, S. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication widely used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer. Being a substrate for the reverse reaction catalyzed by uridine phosphorylase (UPase), 5-FU serves as a promising prototype molecule (molecular scaffold) for the design of a selective UPase inhibitor that enhances the antitumor activity of 5-FU and exhibits intrinsic cytostatic effects on cancer cells. The chemical formula of the new compound, which binds to the uracil-binding site and, in the presence of a phosphate anion, to the phosphate-binding site of UPase, is proposed and investigated by molecular simulation methods.

  8. Signal detection techniques applied to the Chandler wobble

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R.S.

    1985-10-10

    A sudden excitation event of the Chandler wobble should induce the earth's rotation pole to undergo damped harmonic motion. This type of motion has been searched for in the observations of the Chandler wobble using techniques based upon the concept of a matched filter. Although the signal detection techniques used here were not sensitive enough to detect any such isolated sudden excitation events; the result that was obtained is consistent with a randomly excited model of the Chandler wobble. 16 references, 11 figures, 1 table.

  9. Regional atmospheric influence on the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.; Bizouard, C.

    2015-03-01

    From the maps of regional contribution to atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) over the period 1948-2011 (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data) time domain excitation in Chandler frequency band was extracted by Panteleev's filtering method. This permits us to investigate the evolution of the regional atmospheric influence on Chandler wobble. It appears that the temperate latitudes bring the strongest inputs. For pressure term they are limited to continents, and highlight the role of Europe. For the wind term they mostly result from ocean area, encompassing in particular North Atlantic. A quasi-20 year cycle is found in the regional patterns of the atmospheric excitation. The integrated AAM is finally compared with the geodetic excitation reconstructed from the observed polar motion.

  10. The source of the variable Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, C.; Lambert, S.; Remus, F.; Seoane, L.; Gambis, D.

    2011-10-01

    In the absence of forcing, the Chandler wobble (CW) would have a period of 430.3 days, and would lose most of its energy after a few decades because of dissipation in the mantle and in the oceans. Observation of the Earth's polar motion, however, reveals a prograde oscillation of which pseudo period can be as far as 20 days from the above value (Vondrák 1988). It gains energy at some epochs (Danjon & Guinot 1954) so that it never disappears. The CW excitation is accounted for, on average, by the atmosphere and oceans (Gross 2000, Brzeziñski & Nastula 2002), but its variability is so far poorly explained. We attempt to interpret it as consequence of the hydro-meteorological forcing, as suggested by Plag (1997), Celaya et al. (1999), and Seitz & Schmidt (2005).

  11. Wobbling motion in 135Pr within a collective Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.

    2016-11-01

    The recently reported wobbling bands in 135Pr are investigated by the collective Hamiltonian, in which the collective parameters, including the collective potential and the mass parameter, are respectively determined from the tilted axis cranking (TAC) model and the harmonic frozen alignment (HFA) formula. It is shown that the experimental energy spectra of both yrast and wobbling bands are well reproduced by the collective Hamiltonian. It is confirmed that the wobbling mode in 135Pr changes from transverse to longitudinal with the rotational frequency. The mechanism of this transition is revealed by analyzing the effective moments of inertia of the three principal axes, and the corresponding variation trend of the wobbling frequency is determined by the softness and shapes of the collective potential.

  12. Post-transcriptional modification of the wobble nucleotide in anticodon-substituted yeast tRNAArgII after microinjection into Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, M; Haumont, E; de Henau, S; Gangloff, J; Grosjean, H

    1983-01-01

    An enzymatic procedure for the replacement of the ICG anticodon of yeast tRNAArgII by NCG trinucleotide (N = A, C, G or U) is described. Partial digestion with S1-nuclease and T1-RNAase provides fragments which, when annealed together, form an "anticodon-deprived" yeast tRNAArgII. A novel anticodon, phosphorylated with (32P) label on its 5' terminal residue, is then inserted using T4-RNA ligase. Such "anticodon-substituted" yeast tRNAArgII are microinjected into the cytoplasm of Xenopus laevis oocytes and shown to be able to interact with the anticodon maturation enzymes under in vivo conditions. Our results indicate that when adenosine occurs in the wobble position (A34) in yeast tRNAArgII it is efficiently modified into inosine (I34) while uridine (U34) is transformed into two uridine derivatives, one of which is probably mcm5U. In contrast, when a cytosine (C34) or guanosine (G34) occurs, they are not modified. These results are at variance with those obtained previously under similar conditions with anticodon derivatives of yeast tRNAAsp harbouring A, C, G or U as the first anticodon nucleotide. In this case, guanosine and uridine were modified while adenosine and cytosine were not. Images PMID:6300762

  13. Variable forcing of the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The Chandler wobble (the damped free mode of the rotation axis within the Earth) is strongly irregular, exhibiting amplitude variation up to 100 mas, that is 50% of its mean value. A possible explanation is the variability of the fluid layer excitation at Chandler period (around 433 days). The later is analysed in light of the longest available angular momentum time series of the atmosphere, oceans and land mass water. In contrast with most of the related studies, the geophysical effect on polar motion is computed from the integrated solution of the Euler-Liouville equation. Then the variable effect at the Chandler period is filtered by a sliding window method and compared to the one found in observed polar motion. We show that the Chandler variability mostly originates from the combined atmospheric and oceanic forcing, as estimated from NCEP and ECCO-MIT models respectively. Atmospheric and oceanic processes account for the variable amplitude and phase over years ranging from 1948 to 2008 : decrease of the Chandler amplitude from the 1950's (250 mas) to the 1970's (120 mas), slow increase till mid 1990's (up to 200 mas), and decrease in the first decade of the twenty-first century (present amplitude is 100 mas); the phase variations, less striking, within 40° range, are as well explained. The results we obtained are confirmed by shorter sets of atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum time series.

  14. Translatory and wobbling micro magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Saito, Chihiro; Imaizumi, Nobuo; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2008-03-01

    We propose a three-DOF magnetostrictive micro actuator using Iron-Gallium alloy (Galfenol). The actuator consists of two parallel beam structure having a Galfenol core, located at either end of a Galfenol rod of 1 mm square cross-section and length 11 mm, with two orthogonal ditches cut down it of width 0.3 mm. Around the resulting prongs are wound, and the prongs are bonded to an iron end cap to close the magnetic circuit. When current is passed through a coil wound round one of the orthogonal parallel beams, the resulting magnetostriction enables the actuator to bend in two directions. In addition, longitudinal displacement with high frequency bandwidth can be generated by excitation of two or of all four coils. Maximum displacements were observed of 8 to 10 μm in bending and 2.2 μm in the longitudinal direction. This actuator is potentially applicable in machining (drilling), positioning, and in a micro-motor using wobbling or translational motion when powered by a small power supply.

  15. The Wobbling Mode in ^167Lu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, Amro; Ma, W. C.; Winger, J. A.; Li, Y.; Thompson, J.; Hagemann, G.; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Wilson, J. N.; Jensen, D. R.; Fallon, P.; Ward, D.; Diamond, R. M.; Görgen, A.; Machiavelli, A.; Hübel, H.; Domscheit, J.; Wiedenhöwer, I.

    2002-10-01

    Here we report on the experimental evidence for the wobbling mode in ^167Lu. High spin states in ^167Lu were populated through the ^123Sb(^48Ca,4n) reaction at 203 MeV from the 88 inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Five TSD bands were found in ^167Lu. The two strongest populated, TSD1 and TSD3, bands have been firmly linked to normal deformed (ND) structures. Several transitions connecting TSD2 to TSD1 were identified. From angular distribution and angular correlation analysis, spins and parities for TSD1, TSD2, and TSD3 have been determined. In addition, the mixing and branching ratios for the linking transiti on where experimentally determined to extract the B(E2)_out/B(E2)_in were obtained. These values are much larger than those expected from the signature partner. Furthermore, no three-quasiparticle excitation of the correct spin and parity is expected with similar excitation energies for TSD2 from cranking calculations. This work is supported by US DOE grants DE-FG02-95ER40939 (MSU) and DE-FG02-91ER-40609 (Yale) , the Danish Science Foundation and the German BMBF (contract No. 06 BN 907).

  16. The nucleoside uridine isolated in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2015-03-02

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform (FT) microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2'-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.

  17. 2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts

    DOEpatents

    Soloway, Albert H.; Barth, Rolf F.; Anisuzzaman, Abul K.; Alam, Fazlul; Tjarks, Werner

    1992-01-01

    There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

  18. The Nucleoside Uridine Isolated in the Gas Phase**

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2’-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside. PMID:25683559

  19. Crystal structure of acceptor stem of tRNA(Ala) from Escherichia coli shows unique G.U wobble base pair at 1.16 A resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, U; Schübel, H; Sprinzl, M; Heinemann, U

    1999-01-01

    The acceptor stem of Escherichia coli tRNA(Ala), rGGGGCUA.rUAGCUCC (ALAwt), contains the main identity element for the correct aminoacylation by the alanyl tRNA synthetase. The presence of a G3.U70 wobble base pair is essential for the specificity of this reaction, but there is a debate whether direct minor-groove contact with the 2-amino group of G3 or a distortion of the acceptor stem induced by the wobble pair is the critical feature recognized by the synthetase. We here report the structure analysis of ALAwt at near-atomic resolution using twinned crystals. The crystal lattice is stabilized by a novel strontium binding motif between two cis-diolic O3'-terminal riboses. The two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the crystal show overall A-RNA geometry. A comparison with the crystal structure of the G3-C70 mutant of the acceptor stem (ALA(C70)) determined at 1.4 A exhibits a modulation in ALAwt of helical twist and slide due to the wobble base pair, but no recognizable distortion of the helix fragment distant from the wobble base pair. We suggest that a highly conserved hydration pattern in both grooves around the G3.U70 wobble base pair may be functionally significant. PMID:10334337

  20. Stochastic modeling of the Chandler wobble and its excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, A.; Rajner, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Chandler wobble (CW) is the most important rotational eigenmode of the Earth. Its parameters, the frequency F (or, equivalently, the period T) and the quality factor Q should be known as best as possible because 1) they appear in the equation of polar motion, and 2) they are closely related to various geophysical parameters. Here we report an attempt to derive improved estimate of the CW parameters. We apply stochastic models to express the free wobble excitation and the measurements noise. These models are used to derive the state-space formulation which is the base for application of the Kalman filter for analysis of the related observations. The Chandler wobble parameters are derived either from analysis of the polar motion data alone or from simultaneous processing of polar motion and geophysical excitation data. Our estimates of F and Q are finally compared to the earlier results.

  1. A passive pendulum wobble damper for a low spin rate Jupiter flyby spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    When the spacecraft has a low spin rate and precise pointing requirements, the wobble angle must be damped in a time period equivalent to a very few wobble cycles. The design, analysis, and test of a passive pendulum wobble damper are described.

  2. The Chandler wobble of the poles and its amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenkov, N.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that the period of the Chandler wobble of the poles (CWP) is a combined oscillation caused by three periodic processes experienced by the Earth: (a) lunisolar tides, (b) the precession of the orbit of the Earth's monthly revolution around the barycenter of the Earth-Moon system, and (c) the motion of the perigee of this orbit. The addition of the 1.20 - year Chandler wobble to sidereal, anomalistic, and synodic lunar yearly forcing gives rise slow periodic variations in the CWP amplitude with periods of 32 to 51 years.

  3. Radioimmunoassays of plasma thymidine, uridine, deoxyuridine, and cytidine/deoxycytidine

    SciTech Connect

    Dudman, N.P.B.; Deveski, W.B.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    1981-08-01

    Radioimmunoassay techniques have been developed for the assay of thymidine, uridine, deoxyuridine, and deoxycytidine. Plasma levels of the first three nucleosides have been measured, and an upper limit has been determined for the plasma concentration of deoxycytidine. The assays involve displacement of a (3H)pyrimidine nucleoside from the appropriate labeled rabbit immunoglobulin. By assaying a mixture of uridine and deoxyuridine in the presence and absence of borax, the concentrations of both nucleosides have been measured. In seven healthy adults, plasma levels of uridine were 21.1 +/- 8.4 ..mu..M (mean +/- SD) and of deoxyuridine were 0.62 +/- 0.39 ..mu..M. In cancer patients, thymidine levels were 7.5 +/- 2.7 x 10/sup -7/M. The upper limit for plasma deoxycytidine levels in six healthy adults was 0.71 +/- 0.1 ..mu..M.

  4. The wobbling-to-swimming transition of rotated helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of work aims at designing and testing micron-scale synthetic swimmers. One method, inspired by the locomotion of flagellated bacteria, consists of applying a rotating magnetic field to a rigid, helically shaped, propeller attached to a magnetic head. When the resulting device, termed an artificial bacteria flagellum, is aligned perpendicularly to the applied field, the helix rotates and the swimmer moves forward. Experimental investigation of artificial bacteria flagella shows that at low frequency of the applied field, the axis of the helix does not align perpendicularly to the field but wobbles around the helix, with an angle decreasing as the inverse of the field frequency. Using numerical computations and asymptotic analysis, we provide a theoretical explanation for this wobbling behavior. We numerically demonstrate the wobbling-to-swimming transition as a function of the helix geometry and the dimensionless Mason number which quantifies the ratio of viscous to magnetic torques. We then employ an asymptotic expansion for near-straight helices to derive an analytical estimate for the wobbling angle allowing to rationalize our computations and past experimental results. These results can help guide future design of artificial helical swimmers.

  5. Bistable gaits and wobbling induced by pedestrian-bridge interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, Igor V.; Jeter, Russell; Belykh, Vladimir N.

    2016-11-01

    Several modern footbridges around the world have experienced large lateral vibrations during crowd loading events. The onset of large-amplitude bridge wobbling has generally been attributed to crowd synchrony; although, its role in the initiation of wobbling has been challenged. To study the contribution of a single pedestrian into overall, possibly unsynchronized, crowd dynamics, we use a bio-mechanically inspired inverted pendulum model of human balance and analyze its bi-directional interaction with a lively bridge. We first derive analytical estimates on the frequency of pedestrian's lateral gait in the absence of bridge motion. Then, through theory and numerics, we demonstrate that pedestrian-bridge interactions can induce bistable lateral gaits such that switching between the gaits can initiate large-amplitude wobbling. We also analyze the role of stride frequency and the pedestrian's mass in hysteretic transitions between the two types of wobbling. Our results support a claim that the overall foot force of pedestrians walking out of phase can cause significant bridge vibrations.

  6. Out of the Toolbox: Toddlers Differentiate Wobbly and Wooden Handrails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sarah E.; Adolph, Karen E.; Lobo, Sharon A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether 16-month-old walking infants take the material composition of a handrail into account when assessing its effectiveness as a tool to augment balance. Infants were encouraged to cross from one platform to another via bridges of various widths (10, 20, 40cm) with either a wobbly (foam or latex) or a wooden handrail…

  7. A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Donghyun; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2014-05-01

    A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) wires is proposed. In realizing a motor driving mechanism well known as a type of reduction system, a cycloidal gear mechanism is utilized. It facilitates the achievement of bidirectional continuous rotation with high-torque capability, based on its high efficiency and high reduction ratio. The applied driving mechanism consists of a pin/roller based annular gear as a wobbler, a cycloidal disc as a rotor, and crankshafts to guide the eccentric wobbling motion. The wobbling motion of the annular gear is generated by sequential activation of radially phase-symmetrically placed SMA wires. Consequently the cycloidal disc is rotated by rolling contact based cycloidal gearing between the wobbler and the rotor. In designing the proposed motor, thermomechanical characterization of an SMA wire biased by extension springs is experimentally performed. Then, a simplified geometric model for the motor is devised to conduct theoretical assessment of design parametric effects on structural features and working performance. With consideration of the results from parametric analysis, a functional prototype three-phase motor is fabricated to carry out experimental verification of working performance. The observed experimental results including output torque, rotational speed, bidirectional positioning characteristic, etc obviously demonstrate the practical applicability and potentiality of the wobble motor.

  8. Chandler wobble and free core nutation of single pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.

    2011-10-01

    PSR B1828-11 has long-term, highly periodic and correlated variations pulse shape and of the rate of slow-down with period variations approximately 1000, 500 and 250 days (Stairs et al., 2000). There are three potential explanations of pulses time-of-arrival from pulsar concerned with the interior of the neutron star, planetary bodies, free precession and nutation. We use the Hamiltonian canonical method of Getino et al. (1999) for the dynamically symmetrical pulsar consisting of the rigid crust, elliptical liquid outer core and solid inner core of PSR B1828-11. Correctly extending theory of differential rotation of a pulsar, we investigated dependence on Chandler wobble period, Inner Chandler Wobble, retrograde Free Core Nutation and prograde Free Inner Core Nutation from ellipticity of inner crystal core, outer liquid core and total pulsar.

  9. Atmospheric excitation of the earth's annual wobble - 1980-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. Fong; Au, Andrew Y.

    1991-01-01

    Global meteorological analyses from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts are employed to compute the atmospheric excitation psi of the polar motion for the 9-year period of 1980-1988. Both the matter component psi(matter) and the motion component psi (motion) are computed, the former with and without the oceanic inverted barometer (IB) effect. It is found that psi(motion) contributes significantly to the total excitation psi overall and nonnegligibly to the annual signal in psi, or the annual wobble excitation in particular. The results for the annual wobble excitation, in terms of the prograde component psi(t) and the retrogade component phsi(-) for January 1, are within the (rather large) range of previous estimates. The IB effect has a small impact on psi(+), whereas its impact on psi(-) is considerable.

  10. Search for the Exotic Wobbling Mode in Rhenium-171

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    by A NSI Std. Z39. 18 U.S.N.A. --- Trident Scholar project report; no. 400 (2011) SEARCH FOR THE EXOTIC WOBBLING MODE IN 171Re by...construct the level scheme of γ-ray transitions; the spins of the states must be determined. γ rays are electromagnetic radiation , and in level schemes...they have a change in spin of two and no change in parity. Based on the shape of each radiation pattern (dumbbell shaped for dipole transitions

  11. Measuring Motor-Shaft Clearance And Wobble During Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin James

    1996-01-01

    Noncontact proximity sensor, preferably eddy-current liftoff probe, provides realtime measurement of distance and small variations of distance between two mechanical components designed to be maintained at precise, fixed distance. In particular, system intended for use in measuring lateral clearance and variations in lateral clearance (wobble) of motor shaft relative to motor housing while shaft turning. Provides early indication of wear in motor bearings. Rate of rotation also measured.

  12. Chronic Uridine Administration Induces Fatty Liver and Pre-Diabetic Conditions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Urasaki, Yasuyo; Pizzorno, Giuseppe; Le, Thuc T.

    2016-01-01

    Uridine is a pyrimidine nucleoside that exerts restorative functions in tissues under stress. Short-term co-administration of uridine with multiple unrelated drugs prevents drug-induced liver lipid accumulation. Uridine has the ability to modulate liver metabolism; however, the precise mechanism has not been delineated. In this study, long-term effects of uridine on liver metabolism were examined in both HepG2 cell cultures and C57BL/6J mice. We report that uridine administration was associated with O-GlcNAc modification of FOXO1, increased gluconeogenesis, reduced insulin signaling activity, and reduced expression of a liver-specific fatty acid binding protein FABP1. Long-term uridine feeding induced systemic glucose intolerance and severe liver lipid accumulation in mice. Our findings suggest that the therapeutic potentials of uridine should be designed for short-term acute administration. PMID:26789264

  13. A chain kinematic model to assess the movement of lower-limb including wobbling masses.

    PubMed

    Thouzé, A; Monnet, T; Bélaise, C; Lacouture, P; Begon, M

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulation models have shown that wobbling mass on the lower limb affects the joint kinetics. Our objective was to propose a non-invasive method to estimate bones and wobbling mass kinematics in the lower limb during hopping. The chain kinematic model has set degrees of freedom at the joints and free wobbling bodies. By comparison to a model without wobbling bodies, the marker residual was reduced by 20% but the joint kinematics remains unchanged. Wobbling bodies' displacements reached 6.9 ± 3.5° and 6.9 ± 2.4 mm relative to the modelled bones. This original method is a first step to assess wobbling mass effect on joint kinetics.

  14. Estimating the Period and Q of the Chandler Wobble from Observations and Models of its Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, R. S.; Nastula, J.

    2012-12-01

    Any irregularly shaped solid body rotating about some axis that is not aligned with its figure axis will freely wobble as it rotates. For the Earth, this free wobble is known as the Chandler wobble in honor of S. C. Chandler, Jr. who first observed it in 1891. Unlike the forced wobbles of the Earth, such as the annual wobble, whose periods are the same as the periods of the forcing mechanisms, the period of the free Chandler wobble is a function of the internal structure and rheology of the Earth, and its decay time constant, or quality factor Q, is a function of the dissipation mechanism(s), like mantle anelasticity, that are acting to dampen it. Improved estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble can therefore be used to improve our understanding of these properties of the Earth. Here, estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble are obtained by finding those values that minimize the power within the Chandler band of the difference between observed and modeled polar motion excitation spanning 1962-2010. Atmosphere, ocean, and hydrology models are used to model the excitation caused by both mass and motion variations within these global geophysical fluids. Direct observations of the excitation caused by mass variations as determined from GRACE time varying gravitational field measurements are also used. The resulting estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble will be presented along with a discussion of the robustness of the estimates.

  15. Estimating the Period and Q of the Chandler Wobble from Observations and Models of its Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, R. S.; Nastula, J.

    2014-12-01

    Any irregularly shaped solid body rotating about some axis that is not aligned with its figure axis will freely wobble as it rotates. For the Earth, this free wobble is known as the Chandler wobble in honor of S. C. Chandler, Jr. who first observed it in 1891. Unlike the forced wobbles of the Earth, such as the annual wobble, whose periods are the same as the periods of the forcing mechanisms, the period of the free Chandler wobble is a function of the internal structure and rheology of the Earth, and its decay time constant, or quality factor Q, is a function of the dissipation mechanism(s), like mantle anelasticity, that are acting to dampen it. Improved estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble can therefore be used to improve our understanding of these properties of the Earth. Here, estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble are obtained by finding those values that minimize the power within the Chandler band of the difference between observed and modeled polar motion excitation spanning 1962-2010. Atmosphere, ocean, and hydrology models are used to model the excitation caused by both mass and motion variations within these global geophysical fluids. Direct observations of the excitation caused by mass variations as determined from GRACE time varying gravitational field measurements are also used. The resulting estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble will be presented along with a discussion of the robustness of the estimates.

  16. Structural and evolutionary classification of G/U wobble basepairs in the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Mokdad, Ali; Krasovska, Maryna V.; Sponer, Jiri; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive structural, evolutionary and molecular dynamics (MD) study of the G/U wobble basepairs in the ribosome based on high-resolution crystal structures, including the recent Escherichia coli structure. These basepairs are classified according to their tertiary interactions, and sequence conservation at their positions is determined. G/U basepairs participating in tertiary interactions are more conserved than those lacking any interactions. Specific interactions occurring in the G/U shallow groove pocket—like packing interactions (P-interactions) and some phosphate backbone interactions (phosphate-in-pocket interactions)—lead to higher G/U conservation than others. Two salient cases of unique phylogenetic compensation are discovered. First, a P-interaction is conserved through a series of compensatory mutations involving all four participating nucleotides to preserve or restore the G/U in the optimal orientation. Second, a G/U basepair forming a P-interaction and another one forming a phosphate-in-pocket interaction are replaced by GNRA loops that maintain similar tertiary contacts. MD simulations were carried out on eight P-interactions. The specific GU/CG signature of this interaction observed in structure and sequence analysis was rationalized, and can now be used for improving sequence alignments. PMID:16522645

  17. CAD mutations and uridine-responsive epileptic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Koch, Johannes; Mayr, Johannes A; Alhaddad, Bader; Rauscher, Christian; Bierau, Jörgen; Kovacs-Nagy, Reka; Coene, Karlien L M; Bader, Ingrid; Holzhacker, Monika; Prokisch, Holger; Venselaar, Hanka; Wevers, Ron A; Distelmaier, Felix; Polster, Tilman; Leiz, Steffen; Betzler, Cornelia; Strom, Tim M; Sperl, Wolfgang; Meitinger, Thomas; Wortmann, Saskia B; Haack, Tobias B

    2017-02-01

    Unexplained global developmental delay and epilepsy in childhood pose a major socioeconomic burden. Progress in defining the molecular bases does not often translate into effective treatment. Notable exceptions include certain inborn errors of metabolism amenable to dietary intervention. CAD encodes a multifunctional enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Alternatively, pyrimidines can be recycled from uridine. Exome sequencing in three families identified biallelic CAD mutations in four children with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and anaemia with anisopoikilocytosis. Two died aged 4 and 5 years after a neurodegenerative disease course. Supplementation of the two surviving children with oral uridine led to immediate cessation of seizures in both. A 4-year-old female, previously in a minimally conscious state, began to communicate and walk with assistance after 9 weeks of treatment. A 3-year-old female likewise showed developmental progress. Blood smears normalized and anaemia resolved. We establish CAD as a gene confidently implicated in this neurometabolic disorder, characterized by co-occurrence of global developmental delay, dyserythropoietic anaemia and seizures. While the natural disease course can be lethal in early childhood, our findings support the efficacy of uridine supplementation, rendering CAD deficiency a treatable neurometabolic disorder and therefore a potential condition for future (genetic) newborn screening.

  18. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  19. Out of the toolbox: toddlers differentiate wobbly and wooden handrails.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sarah E; Adolph, Karen E; Lobo, Sharon A

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether 16-month-old walking infants take the material composition of a handrail into account when assessing its effectiveness as a tool to augment balance. Infants were encouraged to cross from one platform to another via bridges of various widths (10, 20, 40 cm) with either a "wobbly" (foam or latex) or a wooden handrail available for assistance. Infants attempted to walk over wider bridges more often than narrow ones, and attempts were more frequent when the sturdy wooden handrail was available. Infants tailored their exploratory behaviors, bridge-crossing strategies, and handrail-use strategies to the material properties of the rail.

  20. Estimating the Q of the Chandler Wobble from Its Free Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Earth wobbles as it rotates because it is not rotating about its figure axis. In addition to the forced wobbles of the Earth that are caused by changes in the motion and distribution of the mass of its various components like its atmosphere and oceans, the Earth also naturally wobbles. In the absence of excitation, and because of dissipation processes within the Earth, the amplitude of this natural, or Chandler, wobble would exponentially decay with a time constant proportional to its Q, the quality factor of the wobble. Examining observations of the Chandler wobble since 1900 reveals that it apparently freely decayed during the early 1960s. The Q associated with this apparent free decay is 32.5, somewhat lower than estimates of the Chandler wobble's Q that have been obtained recently by modeling its excitation by surface geophysical fluids. This may indicate that the Chandler wobble was, in fact, not in free decay during the early 1960s or, alternatively, that recent estimates of its Q based on modeling its excitation are biased high.

  1. Estimating the Q of the Chandler Wobble in the Absence of Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The quality factor Q of the Chandler wobble is a function of various dissipation processes acting in the Earth. Better estimates of the Q of the Chandler wobble can therefore be used to better understand these processes. Because of them, and in the absence of any excitation process, the amplitude of the Chandler wobble will freely decay with a time constant proportional to its Q. If a period of time can be found during which the Chandler wobble is not being excited but is instead freely decaying, then estimating the time constant associated with this free decay yields an estimate of the Q of the Chandler wobble. Observations of the Chandler wobble indicate that it was apparently freely decaying during the early 1960s. The Q associated with this apparent free decay is 32.5, somewhat lower than estimates of the Chandler wobble's Q that have been obtained recently by modeling its excitation by atmospheric and oceanic processes. This may indicate that the Chandler wobble was, in fact, not in free decay during the early 1960s or, alternatively, that recent estimates of its Q based on modeling its excitation are biased high.

  2. Two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian for chiral and wobbling modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.

    2016-10-01

    A two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ =-30∘ ) coupling to one h11 /2 proton particle and one h11 /2 neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.

  3. Two-Dimensional Collective Hamiltonian for Chiral and Wobbling Modes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; ...

    2016-10-03

    Here, a two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ= -30°) coupling to one h11/2 proton particle and one h11/2 neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exactmore » solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.« less

  4. Two-Dimensional Collective Hamiltonian for Chiral and Wobbling Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.

    2016-10-03

    Here, a two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ= -30°) coupling to one h11/2 proton particle and one h11/2 neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.

  5. Code OK3 - An upgraded version of OK2 with beam wobbling function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogoyski, A. I.; Kawata, S.; Popov, P. H.

    2010-07-01

    structure, including beam wobbling function. Reasons for new version: The code OK3 is based on OK2 [3] and uses the same algorithm with some improvements, the most important one is the beam wobbling function. Summary of revisions:In the code OK3, beams are subdivided on many bunches. The displacement of each bunch center from the initial beam direction is calculated. Code OK3 allows the beamlet number to vary from bunch to bunch. That reduces the calculation error especially in case of very complicated mesh structure with big internal holes. The target temperature rises during the time of energy deposition. Some procedures are improved to perform faster. The energy conservation is checked up on each step of calculation process and corrected if necessary. New procedures included in OK3 Procedure BeamCenterRot( ) rotates the beam axis around the impinging direction of each beam. Procedure BeamletRot( ) rotates the beamlet axes that belong to each beam. Procedure Rotation( ) sets the coordinates of rotated beams and beamlets in chamber and pellet systems. Procedure BeamletOut( ) calculates the lost energy of ions that have not impinged on the target. Procedure TargetT( ) sets the temperature of the target layer of energy deposition during the irradiation process. Procedure ECL( ) checks up the energy conservation law at each step of the energy deposition process. Procedure ECLt( ) performs the final check up of the energy conservation law at the end of deposition process. Modified procedures in OK3 Procedure InitBeam( ): This procedure initializes the beam radius and coefficients A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 for Gauss distributed beams [2]. It is enlarged in OK3 and can set beams with radii from 1 to 20 mm. Procedure kBunch( ) is modified to allow beamlet number variation from bunch to bunch during the deposition. Procedure ijkSp( ) and procedure Hole( ) are modified to perform faster. Procedure Espl( ) and procedure ChechE( ) are modified to increase the calculation accuracy

  6. The Ocean De-excites the Chandler Wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Hager, B. H.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the atmosphere alone is more than adequate to excite the Chandler Wobble; the oceanic excitation in fact de-excites the Chandler Wobble by being out of phase with the atmospheric excitation. This result is consistent with our correlation analysis: the oceanic angular momentum (OAM) tends to be out of phase with the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) on all time scales. The general physics for this phenomenon lies in the classic fact that a wind swirl does not directly drag the deep ocean circulation. Instead, the wind stress, under the control of the Coriolis force, moves the surface water inward towards or outward from the center of the wind swirl, generating a pressure gradient in the radial direction of the wind swirl. It is this pressure gradient that drives the deep ocean's circulation through geostrophic balance. For harmonic annual and semi-annual variations of basin-scale oceanic gyres, it appears that the phase difference between the OAM and the AAM is primarily due to the delayed adjustment of the depth of the thermocline near the center of the gyres. However, for fast (as compared to the annual variations) and irregular small spatial-scale variations, which are mostly responsible for the Chandler Wobble excitation, the thermally induced adjustments can be ignored. What is the physical mechanism in this situation for the phase difference between the OAM and the AAM? We present a simple model to explore the wind-driven fast and irregular oceanic currents. We find that the time-scale, as compared to the Earth's spin rate, plays a key role in producing the phase difference between the OAM and the AAM. For slow time variation of a wind swirl, the net effect of the Coriolis force is to drive the deep ocean circulation in the same direction as the wind swirl. If variation of a wind swirl (usually on a small spatial scale) is faster than the spin rate, as is the case in real situations, the Coriolis force would act as a

  7. Mutation and Selection on the Wobble Nucleotide in tRNA Anticodons in Marine Bivalve Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Li, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes typically encode one tRNA for each synonymous codon family, so that each tRNA anticodon essentially has to wobble to recognize two or four synonymous codons. Several factors have been hypothesized to determine the nucleotide at the wobble site of a tRNA anticodon in mitochondrial genomes, such as the codon-anticodon adaptation hypothesis, the wobble versatility hypothesis, the translation initiation and elongation conflict hypothesis, and the wobble cost hypothesis. Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed codon usage and tRNA anticodon wobble sites of 29 marine bivalve mitochondrial genomes to evaluate features of the wobble nucleotides in tRNA anticodons. The strand-specific mutation bias favors G and T on the H strand in all the 29 marine bivalve mitochondrial genomes. A bias favoring G and T is also visible in the third codon positions of protein-coding genes and the wobble sites of anticodons, rejecting that codon usage bias drives the wobble sites of tRNA anticodons or tRNA anticodon bias drives the evolution of codon usage. Almost all codon families (98.9%) from marine bivalve mitogenomes support the wobble versatility hypothesis. There are a few interesting exceptions involving tRNATrp with an anticodon CCA fixed in Pectinoida species, tRNASer with a GCU anticodon fixed in Mytiloida mitogenomes, and the uniform anticodon CAU of tRNAMet translating the AUR codon family. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that most of the nucleotides at the wobble sites of tRNA anticodons in marine bivalve mitogenomes are determined by wobble versatility. Other factors such as the translation initiation and elongation conflict, and the cost of wobble translation may contribute to the determination of the wobble nucleotide in tRNA anticodons. The finding presented here provides valuable insights into the previous hypotheses of the wobble nucleotide in tRNA anticodons by adding some new evidence. PMID:21267462

  8. The influence of earthquakes on the Chandler wobble during 1977-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Variations in the Chandler wobble's excitation function are examined in order to study the effect of 1287 earthquakes on the Chandler wobble. The computation of the moment tensor data using the centroid-moment tensor solution technique is described. An excitation function is calculated from the moment tensor data and compared to an observed excitation function derived from the polar motion observations of Gross and Chao (1985). It is observed, based on the power spectrum of the earthquake excitation function, that the earthquakes' static deformation fields have little influence on the Chandler wobble during 1977-1983.

  9. Rotational structures and the wobbling mode in {sup 167}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D. J.; Ludington, A.; Pifer, R.; Seyfried, E. P.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Riedinger, L. L.; Darby, I. G.; Riley, M. A.; Wang, X.; Aguilar, A.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Lakshmi, S.; Shirwadkar, U.; Tandel, S. K.

    2011-06-15

    Excited states in the neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 167}Ta were studied through the {sup 120}Sn({sup 51}V,4n) reaction. Twelve rotational bands have been observed and the relative excitation energy of each sequence is now known owing to the multiple interband connections. Several quasineutron alignments were observed that aided in the quasiparticle assignments of these bands. The resulting interpretation is in line with observations in neighboring nuclei. Trends in the wobbling phonon energy seen in {sup 161,163,165,167}Lu and {sup 167}Ta are also discussed and particle-rotor model calculations (assuming constant moments of inertia) are found to be inconsistent with the experimental data.

  10. The period and Q of the Chandler wobble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Dahlen, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The calculation of the theoretical period of the Chandler wobble is extended to account for the non-hydrostatic portion of the earth's equatorial bulge and the effect of the fluid core upon the lengthening of the period due to the pole tide. The theoretical period of a realistic perfectly elastic earth with an equilibrium pole tide is found to be 426.7 sidereal days, which is 8.5 days shorter than the observed period of 435.2 days. Using Rayleigh's principle for a rotating earth, this discrepancy is exploited together with the observed Chandler Q to place constraints on the frequency dependence of mantle anelasticity. In all cases these limits arise from exceeding the 68 percent confidence limits of + or - 2.6 days in the observed period. Since slight departures from an equilibrium pole tide affect the Q much more strongly than the period, these limits are believed to be robust.

  11. Uridine Nucleoside Thiation: Gas-Phase Structures and Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlow, Lucas; Lee, Justin; Rodgers, M. T.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The naturally occurring thiated uridine nucleosides, 4-thiouridine (s4Urd) and 2-thiouridine (s2Urd), play important roles in the function and analysis of a variety of RNAs. 2-Thiouridine and its C5 modified analogues are commonly found in tRNAs and are believed to play an important role in codon recognition possibly due to their different structure, which has been shown by NMR to be predominantly C3'-endo. 2-Thiouridine may also play an important role in facilitating nonenzymatic RNA replication and transcription. 4-Thiouridine is a commonly used photoactivatable crosslinker that is often used to study RNA-RNA and RNA-protein cross-linking behavior. Differences in the base pairing between uracil and 4-thiouracil with adenine and guanine are an important factor in their role as a cross linker. The photoactivity of s4Urd may also aid in preventing near-UV lethality in cells. An understanding of their intrinsic structure in the gas-phase may help further elucidate the roles these modified nucleosides play in the regulation of RNAs. In this work, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectra of the protonated forms of s2Urd and s4Urd were collected in the IR fingerprint region. Structural information is determined by comparison with theoretical linear IR spectra generated from density functional theory calculations using molecular modeling to generate low-energy candidate structures. Present results are compared with analogous results for the protonated forms of uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine as well as solution phase NMR data and crystal structures.

  12. Excitation of the Earth's Chandler wobble by a turbulent oceanic double-gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibi, S. E.; Jalali, M. A.; Karabasov, S. A.; Alam, M.-R.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a layer-averaged, multiple-scale spectral ocean model and show how an oceanic double-gyre can communicate with the Earth's Chandler wobble. The overall transfers of energy and angular momentum from the double-gyre to the Chandler wobble are used to calibrate the turbulence parameters of the layer-averaged model. Our model is tested against a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic ocean model in turbulent regime, and base states used in parameter identification are obtained from meso-scale eddy resolving numerical simulations. The Chandler wobble excitation function obtained from the model predicts a small role of North Atlantic ocean region on the wobble dynamics as compared to all oceans, in agreement with the existing observations.

  13. Simulation of the 14-month Chandler wobble in a global climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, S.; Currie, R.G. )

    1989-03-01

    The agent that generates and maintains the 14-month Chandler wobble of the solid earth about its rotation axis has remained unresolved for a century with first the atmosphere, later earthquakes, and more recently the earth's fluid core proposed as candidates. Here the authors report that surface air pressure calculated in a coupled ocean-atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) displays a 14.7 month signal, whose amplitude is similar to that found by Maksimov (1960) in station data; they identify it as the atmospheric Chandler wobble. This result indicates that changes in atmospheric mass distribution excite and maintain the wobble of the solid earth, and that neither earthquakes nor the fluid core are significant contributors. Another result is that in the GCM, the amplitude of the wobble at high latitudes is a substantial fraction of the annual cycle, and thus is an important factor in climate formation as Maksimov (1960) suggested.

  14. Evaluation of a Wobbling Method Applied to Correcting Defective Pixels of CZT Detectors in SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhaoheng; Li, Suying; Yang, Kun; Xu, Baixuan; Ren, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a wobbling method to correct bad pixels in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors, using information of related images. We build up an automated device that realizes the wobbling correction for small animal Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. The wobbling correction method is applied to various constellations of defective pixels. The corrected images are compared with the results of conventional interpolation method, and the correction effectiveness is evaluated quantitatively using the factor of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). In summary, the proposed wobbling method, equipped with the automatic mechanical system, provides a better image quality for correcting defective pixels, which could be used for all pixelated detectors for molecular imaging. PMID:27240368

  15. Thio-Modification of tRNA at the Wobble Position as Regulator of the Kinetics of Decoding and Translocation on the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Namit; Rodnina, Marina V

    2017-04-13

    Uridine 34 (U34) at the wobble position of the tRNA anticodon is post-transcriptionally modified, usually to mcm(5)s(2), mcm(5), or mnm(5). The lack of the mcm(5) or s(2) modification at U34 of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu), and tRNA(Gln) causes ribosome pausing at the respective codons in yeast. The pauses occur during the elongation step, but the mechanism that triggers ribosome pausing is not known. Here, we show how the s(2) modification in yeast tRNA(Lys) affects mRNA decoding and tRNA-mRNA translocation. Using real-time kinetic analysis we show that mcm(5)-modified tRNA(Lys) lacking the s(2) group has a lower affinity of binding to the cognate codon and is more efficiently rejected than the fully modified tRNA(Lys). The lack of the s(2) modification also slows down the rearrangements in the ribosome-EF-Tu-GDP-Pi-Lys-tRNA(Lys) complex following GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu. Finally, tRNA-mRNA translocation is slower with the s(2)-deficient tRNA(Lys). These observations explain the observed ribosome pausing at AAA codons during translation and demonstrate how the s(2) modification helps to ensure the optimal translation rates that maintain proteome homeostasis of the cell.

  16. Glycal Formation in Crystals of Uridine Phosphorylase †‖‡

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Debamita; O'Leary, Seán E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Bu, Weiming; Toms, Angela; Settembre, Ethan C.; Sanders, Jennie M.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Uridine phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate (or 2′-deoxyuridine to 2′-deoxyribose 1-phosphate). Here we report the structure of hexameric Escherichia coli uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluorouridine and sulfate and dimeric bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine or uridine, plus sulfate. In each case the electron density shows three separate species corresponding to the pyrimidine base, sulfate and a ribosyl species, which can be modeled as a glycal. In the structures of the glycal complexes, the fluorouracil O2 atom is appropriately positioned to act as the base required for glycal formation via deprotonation at C2′. Crystals of bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 2′-deoxyuridine and sulfate show intact nucleoside. NMR time course studies demonstrate that uridine phosphorylase can catalyze the hydrolysis of the fluorinated nucleosides in the absence of phosphate or sulfate, without the release of intermediates or enzyme inactivation. These results add a previously-unencountered motif to the body of information on glycal formation by enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of glycosyl bonds. PMID:20364833

  17. Analysis of the wobbling effect in a lens-shaped body rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minho

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the wobbling motion in a lens-shaped body rotation, focusing on the frequencies and the amplitude of nutation by filming the rotational motion and wobbling of the body. The friction coefficient of the surface is altered to examine its influence for two lenses with different curvature radii. MATLAB programs are developed to retrieve the Euler angles, which are graphed according to time. It is shown that the lens with a smaller curvature radius exhibits the wobbling effect in all cases, whereas the lens with a larger curvature radius shows such behaviour in limited circumstances. The study confirms that the friction coefficient has a negative linear correlation with the vertical axis declination amplitude with the R-squared value 0.878, showing that friction gives damping and causes smaller axis declination amplitudes. Negative linear correlation also exists with relation to the number of wobbles before the motion stops, where the R-squared value is 0.938, providing further evidence that friction and wobbling cause higher energy dissipation rates. The frequency of the wobbling motion only has a correlation with the curvature radius of the lens, showing no explicit correlation with the friction coefficient, with its R-squared value being 0.077. No losses of contact were observable in this motion. The overall process does not utilize particularly expensive apparatus and will be applicable for senior undergraduate students to experiment on and analyze the motion of a special situation regarding a rigid body that is both spinning and nutating.

  18. WOBBLING AND PRECESSING JETS FROM WARPED DISKS IN BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikhnezami, Somayeh; Fendt, Christian E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2015-12-01

    We present results of the first ever three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the accretion–ejection structure. We investigate the 3D evolution of jets launched symmetrically from single stars but also jets from warped disks in binary systems. We have applied various model setups and tested them by simulating a stable and bipolar symmetric 3D structure from a single star–disk–jet system. Our reference simulation maintains a good axial symmetry and also a bipolar symmetry for more than 500 rotations of the inner disk, confirming the quality of our model setup. We have then implemented a 3D gravitational potential (Roche potential) due by a companion star and run a variety of simulations with different binary separations and mass ratios. These simulations show typical 3D deviations from axial symmetry, such as jet bending outside the Roche lobe or spiral arms forming in the accretion disk. In order to find indications of precession effects, we have also run an exemplary parameter setup, essentially governed by a small binary separation of only ≃200 inner disk radii. This simulation shows a strong indication that we observe the onset of a jet precession caused by the wobbling of the jet-launching disk. We estimate the opening angle of the precession cone defined by the lateral motion of the jet axis to be about 4° after about 5000 dynamical time steps.

  19. Chandler wobble: two more large phase jumps revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Zinovy; Miller, Natalia

    2010-12-01

    Investigations of the anomalies in the Earth rotation, in particular, the polar motion components, play an important role in our understanding of the processes that drive changes in the Earth's surface, interior, atmosphere, and ocean. This paper is primarily aimed at investigation of the Chandler wobble (CW) at the whole available 163-year interval to search for the major CW amplitude and phase variations. First, the CW signal was extracted from the IERS (International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service) Pole coordinates time series using two digital filters: the singular spectrum analysis and Fourier transform. The CW amplitude and phase variations were examined by means of the wavelet transform and Hilbert transform. Results of our analysis have shown that, besides the well-known CW phase jump in the 1920s, two other large phase jumps have been found in the 1850s and 2000s. As in the 1920s, these phase jumps occurred contemporarily with a sharp decrease in the CW amplitude.

  20. Crystal structures of the ribonuclease MC1 from bitter gourd seeds, complexed with 2'-UMP or 3'-UMP, reveal structural basis for uridine specificity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Yao, M; Tanaka, I; Numata, T; Kikukawa, S; Yamasaki, N; Kimura, M

    2000-08-28

    Ribonuclease MC1 (RNase MC1) isolated from seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) consists of 190 amino acids and is characterized by a preferential cleavage at the 5'-side of uridine. This uridine specificity distinguishes RNase MC1 from other enzymes belonging to the RNase T2 family. The three-dimensional structures of RNase MC1, in a complex with either 2'-UMP or 3'-UMP, were determined at 1.48 and 1.77 A resolutions, respectively. The side chains of Gln9 and Asn71 interact with O4 and N3, respectively, of the uracil base by hydrogen bondings. In addition, the uracil base is sandwiched by the hydrophobic side chains of Leu73 and Phe80. Compared with these amino acid residues and corresponding residues in RNases in the RNase T2 family, Gln9 and Phe80 are highly conserved in the RNases in T2 family, while Asn71 and Leu73 in RNase MC1 are variant in sequences. It is thus likely that interactions of the side chains of Asn71 and Leu73 with the uracil base are responsible for the absolute uridine specificity of RNase MC1. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that replacement of Asn by Thr decreased both the catalytic efficiency and the binding affinity by 2.3- and 7.0-fold, respectively, and substitution of Leu73 for Ala predominantly decreased the binding affinity by 14. 5-fold, compared with findings in case of wild-type RNase MC1. It is thus demonstrated that Asn71 and Leu73 play an essential role in uridine preference for RNase MC1.

  1. Gas-phase study on uridine: Conformation and X-ray photofragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Itälä, Eero Kooser, Kuno; Levola, Helena; Rachlew, Elisabeth; Ha, Dang Trinh; Kukk, Edwin

    2015-05-21

    Fragmentation of RNA nucleoside uridine, induced by carbon 1s core ionization, has been studied. The measurements by combined electron and ion spectroscopy have been performed in gas phase utilizing synchrotron radiation. As uridine is a combination of d-ribose and uracil, which have been studied earlier with the same method, this study also considers the effect of chemical environment and the relevant functional groups. Furthermore, since in core ionization the initial core hole is always highly localized, charge migration prior to fragmentation has been studied here. This study also demonstrates the destructive nature of core ionization as in most cases the C 1s ionization of uridine leads to concerted explosions producing only small fragments with masses ≤43 amu. In addition to fragmentation patterns, we found out that upon evaporation the sugar part of the uridine molecule attains hexagonal form.

  2. Estimating the period and Q of the Chandler Wobble from observations and models of its excitation (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, R.; Nastula, J.

    2015-08-01

    Any irregularly shaped solid body rotating about some axis that is not aligned with its figure axis will freely wobble as it rotates. For the Earth, this free wobble is known as the Chandler wobble in honor of S.C. Chandler, Jr. who first observed it in 1891. Unlike the forced wobbles of the Earth, such as the annual wobble, whose periods are the same as the periods of the forcing mechanisms, the period of the free Chandler wobble is a function of the internal structure and rheology of the Earth, and its decay time constant, or quality factor Q, is a function of the dissipation mechanism(s), like mantle anelasticity, that are acting to dampen it. Improved estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble can therefore be used to improve our understanding of these properties of the Earth. Here, estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble are obtained by finding those values that minimize the power within the Chandler band of the difference between observed and modeled polar motion excitation spanning 1962- 2010. Atmosphere, ocean, and hydrology models are used to model the excitation caused by both mass and motion variations within these global geophysical fluids. Direct observations of the excitation caused by mass variations as determined from GRACE time varying gravitational field measurements are also used. The resulting estimates of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble will be presented along with a discussion of the robustness of the estimates.

  3. 2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts

    DOEpatents

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

    1992-12-15

    A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

  4. Serum "uracil+uridine" levels in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Parry, T E; Blackmore, J A

    1976-12-01

    The serum "uracil+uridine" level, expressed as uracil, has been measured in 21 cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which the serum folate was normal, and compared with the level in 97 normal subjects. The level in the vitamin B12 deficient group (11.9 mumol/1). was significantly lower than in the controls (15.7 mumol/1., P less than 0.005). Nine of the former were complicated by stystemic illness but the clinical and haematological features in the remaining 12 were consistent with the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in relapse. The serum uracil level in this group was even lower (10.21 mumol/1., P less than 0.01). This finding is unexpected in view of the generally accepted indirect role of vitamine B12 in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate. Reasons are given for not accepting these results as reflecting the main biochemical lesion in vitamin B12 deficiency. Although they do not give direct support to an impairment in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, they do not exclude it as they test only one possible metabolic pathway and moreover they could represent the result of more than one action of vitamin B12 on uracil metabolism. They do show, however, that some aspect of uracil metabolism other than methylation is affected in vitamin B12 deficiency in man.

  5. A reliable Pd-mediated hydrogenolytic deprotection of BOM group of uridine ureido nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Aleiwi, Bilal A; Kurosu, Michio

    2012-07-18

    The benzyloxymethyl (BOM) group has been utilized widely in syntheses of a variety of natural and non-natural products. The BOM group is also one of few choices to protect uridine ureido nitrongen. However, hydrogenolytic cleavage of the BOM group of uridine derivatives has been unrealizably performed via heterogeneous conditions using Pd catalysts. One of the undesirable by-products formed by Pd-mediated hydrogenation conditions is the over-reduced product of which the C5-C6 double bond of the uracil moiety was saturated. To date, we have generated a wide range of uridine-containing antibacterial agents, where the BOM group has been utilized in their syntheses. In screening of deprotection conditions of the BOM group of uridine ureido nitrogen under Pd-mediated hydrogenation conditions, we realized that the addition of water to the (i)PrOH-based hydrogenation conditions can suppress the formation of over-reduced uridine derivatives and the addition of HCO(2)H (0.5%) dramatically improve the reaction rate. An optimized hydrogenation condition described here can be applicable to the BOM-deprotections of a wide range of uridine derivatives.

  6. Excitation of the Earth's Chandler wobble by southern oscillation/El Nino, 1900-1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The southern oscillation/El Nino (ENSO) is the single most prominent interannual signal in global atmospheric/oceanic fluctuations. The following question is addressed: how important is the angular momentum carried by ENSO in exciting the Earth's Chandler wobble? The question is attacked through a statistical analysis of the coherence spectra (correlation as a function of frequency) between two data sets spanning 1900 to 1979-the southern oscillation index (SOI) time series and the excitation function psi (with x-component psi sub x and y-component psi sub y) of the Chandler wobble derived from the homogeneous ILS (International Latitude Service) polar motion data. The coherence power and phase in the Chandler frequency band (approx. 0.79 to 0.89 cpy) are studied. It is found that, during 1900 to 1979 the coherence between SOI and psi sub x is significant well over the 95% confidence threshold whereas that between SOI and psi sub y is practically nil. Quantitatively, the coherence study shows that ENSO provides some 20% of the observed Chandler wobble excitation power. Since earlier investigations have shown that the total atmospheric/oceanic variation can account for the Chandler wobble excitation at about 20% level, the implication is that ENSO maybe an important (interannual) part of the atmospheric/oceanic variation that is responsible for the Chandler wobble excitation during 1900 to 1979.

  7. Amplitude and phase variations of Earth's Chandler wobble under continual excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Chung, Wei-Yung

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple physical explanation for the cause of the well-known but so-far baffling behavior of the Chandler wobble during ˜1925 when it reached a near-zero amplitude and underwent a concurrent large phase jump. We do so by numerical Monte-Carlo simulations, designed based on simple physical reasoning, of the statistical behavior of the Earth's Chandler wobble under continual excitation. Rather than subscribing to the view that something extraordinary or anomalous had occurred to the Earth system sometime during the later half of the 1920s, we assert the scenario that the Chandler wobble excitation during that time happened to oppose and cancel the Chandler motion momentarily before starting anew the motion that became unrelated to its immediate past, hence manifesting as an apparent phase jump in the time series. The seemingly peculiar event was simply fortuitous by chance.

  8. Wobble Pairs of the HDV Ribozyme Play Specific Roles in Stabilization of Active Site Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, Kamali N.; Banáš, Pavel; Reblova, Kamila; Šponer, Jiři; Otyepka, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the only known human pathogen whose genome contains a catalytic RNA motif (ribozyme). The overall architecture of the HDV ribozyme is that of a double-nested pseudoknot, with two GU pairs flanking the active site. Although extensive studies have shown that mutation of either wobble results in decreased catalytic activity, little work has focused on linking these mutations to specific structural effects on catalytic fitness. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations based on an activated structure to probe the active site dynamics as a result of wobble pair mutations. In both wild-type and mutant ribozymes, the in-line fitness of the active site (as a measure of catalytic proficiency) strongly depends on the presence of a C75(N3H3+)N1(O5′) hydrogen bond, which positions C75 as the general acid for the reaction. Our mutational analyses show that each GU wobble supports catalytically fit conformations in distinct ways; the reverse G25U20 wobble promotes high in-line fitness, high occupancy of the C75(N3H3+)G1(O5′) general-acid hydrogen bond and stabilization of the G1U37 wobble, while the G1U37 wobble acts more locally by stabilizing high in-line fitness and the C75(N3H3+)G1(O5′) hydrogen bond. We also find that stable type I A-minor and P1.1 hydrogen bonding above and below the active site, respectively, prevent local structural disorder from spreading and disrupting global conformation. Taken together, our results define specific, often redundant architectural roles for several structural motifs of the HDV ribozyme active site, expanding the known roles of these motifs within all HDV-like ribozymes and other structured RNAs. PMID:25631765

  9. Actin Dosage Lethality Screening in Yeast Mediated by Selective Ploidy Ablation Reveals Links to Urmylation/Wobble Codon Recognition and Chromosome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Haarer, Brian; Mi-Mi, Lei; Cho, Jessica; Cortese, Matthew; Viggiano, Susan; Burke, Daniel; Amberg, David

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton exists in a dynamic equilibrium with monomeric and filamentous states of its subunit protein actin. The spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics is critical to the many functions of actin. Actin levels are remarkably constant, suggesting that cells have evolved to function within a narrow range of actin concentrations. Here we report the results of screens in which we have increased actin levels in strains deleted for the ~4800 nonessential yeast genes using a technical advance called selective ploidy ablation. We detected 83 synthetic dosage interactions with actin, 78 resulted in reduced growth, whereas in 5 cases overexpression of actin suppressed the growth defects caused by the deleted genes. The genes were highly enriched in several classes, including transfer RNA wobble uridine modification, chromosome stability and segregation, cell growth, and cell division. We show that actin overexpression sequesters a limited pool of eEF1A, a bifunctional protein involved in aminoacyl-transfer RNA recruitment to the ribosome and actin filament cross-linking. Surprisingly, the largest class of genes is involved in chromosome stability and segregation. We show that actin mutants have chromosome segregation defects, suggesting a possible role in chromosome structure and function. Monomeric actin is a core component of the INO80 and SWR chromatin remodeling complexes and the NuA4 histone modification complex, and our results suggest these complexes may be sensitive to actin stoichiometry. We propose that the resulting effects on chromatin structure can lead to synergistic effects on chromosome stability in strains lacking genes important for chromosome maintenance. PMID:23450344

  10. Estimating the Period and Q of the Chandler Wobble from mass variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, Jolanta; Gross, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The free Chandler wobble is the largest component of the observed polar motion. The period of the Chandler wobble and quality factor Q depend on the internal structure and rheology of the Earth. There is quite good agreement in empirical determination and theoretical estimations of the Chandler wobble period but there is still large dispersions of the Q values. One of the methods to assess the value of the period and Q of the Chandler wobble is to determine those values that minimize the power within the Chandler band of the difference between observed and modeled polar motion excitation. Modeling of the polar motion excitation requires information on geophysical fluids distribution. Only recent investigations using atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological excitation computed for the period spanning from 1962 to 2010 shown the value of Q is about 111. Here we estimate the period and Q of the Chandler values on the basis of that method using direct observations of the excitation caused by mass variations as determined from approximately 25 years of SLR data from five geodetic satellites and from GRACE time varying gravitational field. Atmosphere, ocean, and hydrology models are also used to model the excitation caused by both mass and motion variations within these global geophysical fluids.

  11. Modern observations of the effect of earthquakes on the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smylie, D. E.; Henderson, Gary A.; Zuberi, Midhat

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes have long been postulated as the source of excitation of the Chandler wobble (Mansinha and Smylie, 1967). More recently, the classical astronometric observations of the polar motion have been replaced by very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with an improvement in accuracy by a factor of several thousand. We analyze the record of nearly 29 years of VLBI polar motion observations from the Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition to the Chandler wobble, the polar motion has annual components making the analysis more difficult. The present study extends the polar motion sequence in both directions by the maximum entropy method (MEM). This allows the annual components, both the prograde motion and a weaker retrograde motion, to be identified and removed, leaving a pure Chandler wobble and secular polar shift. In the absence of excitation, the free Chandler wobble is closely a prograde circular motion. Circular arcs are fitted to the pole path, free of the annual components, to determine breaks corresponding to sudden excitations. The event times of earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.5 are shown on the plotted pole paths. Often, the effects on the pole path precede the earthquake by many days, confirming the establishment of the far-field displacements in advance of the earthquake. The precursory rise in P-wave attenuation before the 2004 Parkfield earthquake, as discovered by Chun et al. (2010), may indicate a similar effect from local deformations.

  12. Book Review: Precession, Nutation, and Wobble of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Dehant, V.; Mathews, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    This great book describes and explains observational and computational aspects of three apparently tiny changes in the Earth's motion and orientation, viz., precession, nutation, and wobble. The three introductory chapters of this book present fundamental definitions, elementary geodetic theory, and celestial/terrestrial reference systems - including transformations between reference frames. The next chapter on observational techniques describes the principle of accurate measurements of the orientation of the Earth's axis, as obtained from measurements of extra-galactic radio sources using Very Long Baseline Interferometry and GPS observations. Chapter 5 handles precession and nutation of the rigid Earth (i.e., a celestial body that cannot, by definition, deform) and the subsequent chapter takes deformation into consideration, viz., the effect of a centrifugal force caused by a constant-rate rotation that causes the Earth's shape and structure to become ellipsoidal. Deformations caused by external solar-system bodies are discussed in terms of deformability parameters. The next three chapters handle additional complex deviations: non-rigid Earth and more general Earth models, anelastic Earth parameters, and the effects of the fluid layers (i.e., ocean and atmosphere) on Earth rotation. Chapter 10 complements Chapter 7 with refinements that take into account diverse small effects such as the effect of a thermal conductive layer at the top of the core, Core Mantle and Inner Boundary coupling effects on nutation, electromagnetic coupling, and so-called topographic coupling. Chapter 11 covers comparison of observation and theory, and tells us that the present-date precision of the nutation theory is at the level of milliarcseconds in the time domain, and of a tenth of a microsecond in the frequency domain (with some exceptions). This chapter is followed by a 25-page chapter of definitions of equator, equinox, celestial intermediate pole and origin, stellar angle

  13. Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of uridine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Zilly, M; Langmann, P; Winzer, R; Benesic, A; Schirmer, D; Walker, U A; Klinker, H

    2004-04-25

    To evaluate uridine levels in humans we developed a very sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of uridine in serum. We use techniques which are available in a standard analytical laboratory. Chromatographic analysis was carried out on a Phenomenex Aqua C18 5 micro 125A column protected by a guard cartridge system. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile was used as an eluent and oxypurinol as the internal standard. All sample preparation steps were done at 4 degrees C and the autosampler was cooled down to 4 degrees C. The calibration curve was linear throughout the calibration range from 0.25 to 100 micromol/l. This method was primarily established to evaluate uridine serum levels in patients with HIV infection since patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) might develop metabolic disturbances that could lead to severe and fatal lactic acidosis due to mitochondrial toxicity. It is suggested that a limited or inadequate uridine supply is at least in part responsible for the onset of such deterioration.

  14. Uridine from Pleurotus giganteus and Its Neurite Outgrowth Stimulatory Effects with Underlying Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to neuronal cell death and impairment of neurite outgrowth. An edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus was found to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro but the chemical constituents and the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The chemical constituents of P. giganteus (linoleic acid, oleic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, succinic acid, benzoic acid, and uridine) were tested for neurite outgrowth activity. Uridine (100 μM) was found to increase the percentage of neurite-bearing cells of differentiating neuroblastoma (N2a) cells by 43.1 ± 0.5%, which was 1.8-fold higher than NGF (50 ng/mL)-treated cells. Uridine which was present in P. giganteus (1.80 ± 0.03 g/100g mushroom extract) increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (Akt). Further, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was also increased. MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR further induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43); all of which promoted neurite outgrowth of N2a cells. This study demonstrated that P. giganteus may enhance neurite outgrowth and one of the key bioactive molecules responsible for neurite outgrowth is uridine.

  15. Preliminary Effects of Oral Uridine on the Ocular Surface in Dry Eye Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ki Cheol; Oh, Joo Youn; In, Youn Seok; Shin, Ki Cheul; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak; Park, Myung Gyu

    2009-01-01

    We designed a randomized, double blinded, 3-months controlled prospective clinical study to investigate effects of oral uridine on the ocular surface in dry eye patients. Twenty-seven patients who diagnosed as dry eye with lower than 5 mm of wetting in the Schirmer strip, with corneal epithelial erosion and who completely followed-up till 3 months were enrolled. Corneal-conjunctival fluorescein staining, non-anesthetic Schirmer test, impression cytology, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) were evaluated in the experimental and placebo groups at the baseline, 1 and 3 months after start of medication in a double blinded manner. Fluorescein stain score of the cornea was markedly decreased in oral uridine group compared to the placebo group at 3 months after medication (P=0.032, Mann-Whitney U test). The Schirmer wetting score for the oral uridine group was significantly increased (P=0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test) at 3 months and its difference between two groups was statistically significant (P=0.030, Mann-Whitney U test). OSDI scores were significantly decreased at 1 and 3 months in treatment group. Oral uridine is effective in treatment of dry eyes. PMID:19654956

  16. Uridine from Pleurotus giganteus and Its Neurite Outgrowth Stimulatory Effects with Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to neuronal cell death and impairment of neurite outgrowth. An edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus was found to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro but the chemical constituents and the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The chemical constituents of P. giganteus (linoleic acid, oleic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, succinic acid, benzoic acid, and uridine) were tested for neurite outgrowth activity. Uridine (100 μM) was found to increase the percentage of neurite-bearing cells of differentiating neuroblastoma (N2a) cells by 43.1±0.5%, which was 1.8-fold higher than NGF (50 ng/mL)-treated cells. Uridine which was present in P. giganteus (1.80±0.03 g/100g mushroom extract) increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (Akt). Further, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was also increased. MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR further induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43); all of which promoted neurite outgrowth of N2a cells. This study demonstrated that P. giganteus may enhance neurite outgrowth and one of the key bioactive molecules responsible for neurite outgrowth is uridine. PMID:26565787

  17. Uridine supplementation in the treatment of HIV lipoatrophy: Results of ACTG 5229

    PubMed Central

    McComsey, Grace A; Walker, Ulrich A; Budhathoki, Chakra B; Su, Zhaohui; Currier, Judith S; Kosmiski, Lisa; Naini, Linda G; Charles, Stéphannie; Medvik, Kathy; Aberg, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipoatrophy is prevalent on thymidine NRTIs (tNRTI). A pilot trial showed that uridine (NucleomaxX®) increased limb fat. METHODS A5229 was a multicenter trial in which HIV-infected individuals with lipoatrophy on tNRTI-regimens were randomized to NucleomaxX or placebo. Primary endpoint was change in limb fat from baseline to week-48. The study was powered to detect 400-gram difference between arms at week-48. A stratified Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to assess between-arm differences. RESULTS The 165 subjects were 91% male, 62% white; median age 49 years, CD4 506 cells/mm3, and limb fat 3037 grams; 81% had HIV-1 RNA ≤50 copies/mL; 76% were on AZT. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Only 59% completed 48-weeks of treatment, however only 3 subjects (1 on uridine) discontinued due to toxicity (diarrhea). In intent-to-treat, there was no difference for changes in limb fat between treatments at week-24 or week-48. On as-treated analysis, uridine resulted in an increase in %limb fat vs. placebo (3.4% vs. −0.8%, p=0.01) at week-24 but not at week-48 (1.8% vs.3.8%, p=0.93). Similar results were seen when limiting the analysis to subjects with ≥80% adherence. The results were not related to severity of lipoatrophy or type of tNRTI. No changes were found in facial-anthropometrics, fasting lipids, trunk-fat, CD4, or HIV-RNA. CONCLUSIONS We found a modest transient improvement in limb fat after 24 weeks of uridine. The lack of sustained efficacy at week-48 was not due to changes in adherence or reduction in sample size. Uridine was safe and did not impair virologic control. PMID:20827170

  18. How to detect the Chandler and the annual wobble of the Earth with a large ring laser gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, K U; Klügel, T; Wells, J-P R; Hurst, R B; Gebauer, A

    2011-10-21

    We demonstrate a 16 m(2) helium-neon ring laser gyroscope with sufficient sensitivity and stability to directly detect the Chandler wobble of the rotating Earth. The successful detection of both the Chandler and the annual wobble is verified by comparing the time series of the ring laser measurements against the "C04 series" of Earth rotation data from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service.

  19. How to Detect the Chandler and the Annual Wobble of the Earth with a Large Ring Laser Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, K. U.; Klügel, T.; Wells, J.-P. R.; Hurst, R. B.; Gebauer, A.

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a 16m2 helium-neon ring laser gyroscope with sufficient sensitivity and stability to directly detect the Chandler wobble of the rotating Earth. The successful detection of both the Chandler and the annual wobble is verified by comparing the time series of the ring laser measurements against the “C04 series” of Earth rotation data from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service.

  20. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  1. Analysis of Chandler wobble excitation, reconstructed from observations of the polar motion of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.

    2011-10-01

    Chandler excitation was reconstructed since 1846 yr. from EOP C01 by three methods: complex Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) with Wilson filter, least squares adjustment (LSA) with Tikhonov regularization, Panteleev smoothing. The aim was to damp annual component and side frequencies and to obtain excitation only for chandler wobble. Results of different methods are in agreement with each other. Modulation of Chandler excitation of ~18.6 yr period, synchronous with Saros tidal effects in the length of the day (LOD) was found. It means that Chandler wobble swings under the influence of Luni-Solar tide. Amplitude and phase evolution in time was analyzed with use of Gabor transform. Phase changes in Chandler excitation found to have ~37 yr period. It explains, why 18.6 yr modulation is not seen in the Chandler component itself, but only in its excitation.

  2. New determination of period and quality factor of Chandler wobble, considering geophysical excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrák, J.; Ron, C.; Chapanov, Ya.

    2017-03-01

    Polar motion consists of both free (Chandler wobble, with approximately 14-month period) and forced components. The latter are caused by different excitations of geophysical origin. Very long-periodic (or secular) part is most probably due to post-glacial rebound, shorter periodic part (with dominant annual period) are caused mainly by motions of the atmosphere and oceans. Recently it was also proposed that impulse-like excitations due to geomagnetic jerks might be responsible for rapid changes of the amplitude and phase of Chandler wobble. In order to precisely determine the parameters of the free part, it is necessary to consider all these influences. We use the IERS combined solution C04 together with ERA atmospheric/oceanic excitations in the interval 1974.0-2014.0, and also additional excitations due to nine geomagnetic jerks, registered during this interval, to determine the period and quality factor of Chandler wobble, free from these geophysical effects. We obtained solutions for three different time intervals: 1974.0-1994.0, 1994.0-2014.0, and 1974.0-2014.0. The estimated values of Q-factor are much smaller if GMJ excitations are used in addition to atmospheric and oceanic ones, and they are determined with higher accuracy. Our preferred values, valid for the whole interval 1974.0-2014.0, are P = 432.86 ± 0.04 days and Q = 35.0 ± 0.3 .

  3. An innate twist between Crick's wobble and Watson-Crick base pairs.

    PubMed

    Ananth, Prakash; Goldsmith, Gunaseelan; Yathindra, Narayanarao

    2013-08-01

    Non-Watson-Crick pairs like the G·U wobble are frequent in RNA duplexes. Their geometric dissimilarity (nonisostericity) with the Watson-Crick base pairs and among themselves imparts structural variations decisive for biological functions. Through a novel circular representation of base pairs, a simple and general metric scheme for quantification of base-pair nonisostericity, in terms of residual twist and radial difference that can also envisage its mechanistic effect, is proposed. The scheme is exemplified by G·U and U·G wobble pairs, and their predicable local effects on helical twist angle are validated by MD simulations. New insights into a possible rationale for contextual occurrence of G·U and other non-WC pairs, as well as the influence of a G·U pair on other non-Watson-Crick pair neighborhood and RNA-protein interactions are obtained from analysis of crystal structure data. A few instances of RNA-protein interactions along the major groove are documented in addition to the well-recognized interaction of the G·U pair along the minor groove. The nonisostericity-mediated influence of wobble pairs for facilitating helical packing through long-range interactions in ribosomal RNAs is also reviewed.

  4. Truncation effects in computing free wobble/nutation modes explored using a simple Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, Behnam; Rochester, Michael G.; Rogers, Christopher M.

    2017-03-01

    The displacement field accompanying the wobble/nutation of the Earth is conventionally represented by an infinite chain of toroidal and spheroidal vector spherical harmonics, coupled by rotation and ellipticity. Numerical solutions for the eigenperiods require truncation of that chain, and the standard approaches using the linear momentum description (LMD) of deformation during wobble/nutation have truncated it at very low degrees, usually degree 3 or 4, and at most degree 5. The effects of such heavy truncation on the computed eigenperiods have hardly been examined. We here investigate the truncation effects on the periods of the free wobble/nutation modes using a simplified Earth model consisting of a homogeneous incompressible inviscid liquid outer core with a rigid (but not fixed) inner core and mantle. A novel Galerkin method is implemented using a Clairaut coordinate system to solve the classic Poincaré problem in the liquid core and, to close the problem, we use the Lagrangean formulation of the Liouville equation for each of the solid parts of the Earth model. We find that, except for the free inner core nutation (FICN), the periods of the free rotational modes converge rather quickly. The period of the tiltover mode (TOM) is found to excellent accuracy. The computed periods of the Chandler wobble (CW) and free core nutation (FCN) are nearly identical to the values cited in the literature for similar Earth models, but that for the inner core wobble (ICW) is slightly different. Truncation at low-degree harmonics causes the FICN period to fluctuate over a range as large as 90 sd, with different values at different truncation levels. For example, truncation at degree 6 gives a period of 752 sd (almost identical with the value cited in the literature for such an Earth model) but truncation at degree 24 is required to obtain convergence, and the resulting period is 746 ± 1 sd, as more terms are included, with no guarantee that its proximity to earlier values

  5. Structure of the homodimer of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium in the native state at 1.9 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Pavlyuk, B. F.; Lashkov, A. A.; Seregina, T. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Vaĭnshteĭn, B. K.; Mikhaĭlov, A. M.

    2007-11-01

    Uridine phosphorylase ( UPh) belongs to pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases. This enzyme catalyzes cleavage of the C-N glycoside bond in uridine to form uracil and ribose-1’-phosphate. Uridine phosphorylase supplies cells with nucleotide precursors by catalyzing the phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. This is an alternative to de novo nucleotide synthesis. The three-dimensional structure of native uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium ( StUPh) in a new crystal form was solved and refined at 1.90 Å resolution ( R st = 20.37%; R free = 24.69%; the rmsd of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.009 Å and 1.223°, respectively). A homodimer containing two asynchronously functioning active sites was demonstrated to be the minimum structural unit necessary for function of the hexameric StUPh molecule ( L 33 L 2). Each active site is formed by amino acid residues of both subunits.

  6. Nonenzymatic template-directed synthesis on hairpin oligonucleotides. III - Incorporation of adenosine and uridine residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Taifeng; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonenzymatic template-directed incorporation of adenosine and uridine residues into template sequences was obtained using nucleoside-5-prime phosphoro (2-methyl)imidazolides as substrates and hairpin oligonucleotides as templates. The reactions are regiospecific, producing mainly 3-prime-5-prime phosphodiester bonds. Limited synthesis of CA and AC sequences was observed along with some synthesis of the AA sequences on templates containing TG and GT sequences, along wilth some synthesis of the AA sequences on templates containing TT sequences.

  7. a Nucleoside Under Observation in the Gas Phase: a Rotational Study of Uridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    The nucleoside of uridine has been placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and the most stable C2{'}-anti conformation characterized by broadband chirped pulse (CP-FTMW) and narrowband molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectroscopies. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, originated by two 14N nuclei, has been completely resolved. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.

  8. Detection of RNA nucleoside modifications with the uridine-specific ribonuclease MC1 from Momordica charantia

    PubMed Central

    Addepalli, Balasubrahmanym; Lesner, Nicholas P.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    A codon-optimized recombinant ribonuclease, MC1 is characterized for its uridine-specific cleavage ability to map nucleoside modifications in RNA. The published MC1 amino acid sequence, as noted in a previous study, was used as a template to construct a synthetic gene with a natural codon bias favoring expression in Escherichia coli. Following optimization of various expression conditions, the active recombinant ribonuclease was successfully purified as a C-terminal His-tag fusion protein from E. coli [Rosetta 2(DE3)] cells. The isolated protein was tested for its ribonuclease activity against oligoribonucleotides and commercially available E. coli tRNATyr I. Analysis of MC1 digestion products by ion-pairing reverse phase liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-RP-LC-MS) revealed enzymatic cleavage of RNA at the 5′-termini of uridine and pseudouridine, but cleavage was absent if the uridine was chemically modified or preceded by a nucleoside with a bulky modification. Furthermore, the utility of this enzyme to generate complementary digestion products to other common endonucleases, such as RNase T1, which enables the unambiguous mapping of modified residues in RNA is demonstrated. PMID:26221047

  9. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, Vladimir I.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Pavlyuk, Bogdan Ph.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Betzel, Christian

    2007-10-01

    S. typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been isolated and crystallized in the presence of ligand. Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) is a member of the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase family of enzymes which catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the C—N glycoside bond of uridine, with the formation of ribose 1-phosphate and uracil. This enzyme has been shown to be important in the activation and catabolism of fluoropyrimidines. Modulation of its enzymatic activity may affect the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The structural investigation of the bacterial uridine phosphorylases, both unliganded and complexed with substrate/product analogues and inhibitors, may help in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the phosphorolytic cleavage of uridine. Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.15 Å. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicates that the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.52, b = 123.98, c = 133.52 Å. The solvent content is 45.51%, assuming the presence of one hexamer molecule per asymmetric unit.

  10. WOBBLE: A Proposed Mission to Characterize Past and Present Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udrea, Bogdan; Delory, Greg; Landis, Geoffrey; Duvet, Ludovic; Choudhuri, Ahsan; Prina, Mauro; Moreels, Pierre; Bedard, Donald; Furano, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    WOBBLE ("Water Observations from a Balloon Borne Light Explorer") is a mission concept study for a small robotic probe to explore Mars and to accomplish a scientific mission compatible with the goals of the NASA Code S enterprise. The detection of past or present water is a crucial goal for Mars exploration, representing a cross-cutting science theme relevant to past or extant life, climate history, sample return missions and eventual human exploration. The WOBBLE mission concept was developed to study evidence of water using in-situ detection methods. The features on Mars most suited to this investigation are the gullies identified by Malin and Edgett as evidence for recent, near-surface runoff of liquid water. These features are typically located on the inside face of crater rims, where the local slope angle is at or near the angle of repose. This makes the terrain difficult or impossible to access with conventional wheeled rover technology. Combined with the small size of the gullies in relation to a standard landing error ellipse, scientific investigation of these features requires a new approach to surface mobility. WOBBLE uses a low-altitude balloon-borne platform to traverse the surface from the landing site, to the investigation site, and then rise up the slope to investigate the regions of interest at close range. Of the mobility technologies available for near-term Mars exploration, only a balloon platform is capable of a well targeted, detailed sampling of the gully regions over periods of days or more. The science approach embodied in WOBBLE is two-pronged, designed to investigate both the historical evidence of liquid water utilizing high-resolution geomorphology and the characterization of mineral deposits, and present subsurface liquid water using radar sounding techniques. The WOBBLE balloon is a high-pressure hydrogen gas design, 24 meters in diameter and lifting a total payload of 130 kg, including a high-resolution camera/IR imager, Raman

  11. Astrocytoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Makoto; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Itou, Takuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takeo

    2011-10-01

    A 28-month-old African hedgehog was referred to our hospital with progressive tetraparesis. On the first presentation, the hedgehog was suspected as having wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) and the animal was treated with medication and rehabilitation. The animal died 22 days after onset. Pathological examination revealed that the animal was involved in astrocytoma between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord (C1). This report indicates that a primary central nervous system tumor should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses for hedgehogs presenting with progressive paresis, together with WHS.

  12. Amplitude and phase variations of the chandler wobble from 164-yr polar motion series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Z. M.; Miller, N. O.

    2011-10-01

    This paper is aimed at investigation of the Chandler wobble (CW) at the 164-year interval to search for the major CW amplitude and phase variations. The CW signal was extracted from the IERS polar motion series using digital filtering. The CW amplitude and phase variations were examined by means of several methods which yield very similar results. Results of our analysis have shown that, besides the well-known CW phase jump in the 1920s, two other large phase jumps have been found in the 1850s and 2000s, all three contemporarily with a sharp decrease in the CW amplitude.

  13. G-induced vestibular dysfunction ('the wobblies') among aerobatic pilots: a case report and review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Thomas Upson

    2002-01-01

    G-induced vestibular dysfunction (GIVD) is a condition well known to aircraft pilots who experience high positive and negative G loads during unlimited-aerobatic competitions and air-show demonstrations. After landing and walking from their aircraft, pilots with GIVD manifest an extremely unstable gait, which they call the wobblies. This article includes a report of one such case of GIVD, which to the author's knowledge is the first published case report of this condition in the medical literature. The author also discusses what is known and theorized about the pathogenesis of GIVD, and he reviews its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  14. High-performance wobbling subreflector for the Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory 2.6-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainella, Gianni; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; Mandiello, Alfonso; Perciballi, Maurizio; Romeo, Gianni

    1996-05-01

    The Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory 2.6-m Cassegrain telescope has been designed to allow high-sensitivity observations in the millimeter spectral range. For this purpose, in order to reduce unwanted contributions from local foregrounds, we adopted a sky-chopping technique, by wobbling the telescope subreflector. We describe the design and performance of the wobbling system, which can endure external forced two and three fields square-wave modulation and includes features such as high frequency, high amplitude, high duty cycle, low microphonics, and high stability. millimeter-wave telescope.

  15. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  16. Reaction of uridine diphosphate galactose 4-epimerase with a suicide inactivator

    SciTech Connect

    Flentke, G.R.; Frey, P.A. )

    1990-03-06

    UDPgalactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli is rapidly inactivated by the compounds uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate chloroacetol (UDC) and uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate bromoacetol (UCB). Both UDC and UDB inactivate the enzyme in neutral solution concomitant with the appearance of chromophores absorbing maximally at 325 and 328 nm, respectively. The reaction of UDC with the enzyme follows saturation kinetics characterized by a K{sub D} of 0.110 mM and k{sub inact} of 0.84 min{sup {minus}1} at pH 8.5 and ionic strength 0.2 M. The inactivation by UDC is competitively inhibited by competitive inhibitors of UDPgalactose 4-epimerase, and it is accompanied by the tight but noncovalent binding of UDC to the enzyme in a stoichiometry of 1 mol of UDC/mol of enzyme dimer, corresponding to 1 mol of UDC/mol of enzyme-bound NAD{sup +}. The inactivation of epimerase by uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate ({sup 2}H{sub 2})chloroacetol proceeds with a primary kinetic isotope effect (k{sub H}/k{sub D}) of 1.4. The inactivation mechanism is proposed to involve a minimum of three steps: (a) reversible binding of UDC to the active site of UDPgalactose 4-epimerase; (b) enolization of the chloroacetol moiety of enzyme-bound UDC, catalyzed by an enzymic general base at the active site; (c) alkylation of the nicotinamide ring of NAD{sup +} at the active site by the chloroacetol enolate. The resulting adduct between UDC and NAD{sup +} is proposed to be the chromophore with {lambda}{sub max} at 325 nm. The enzymic general base required to facilitate proton transfer in redox catalysis by this enzyme may be the general base that facilitates enolization of the chloroacetol moiety of UDC in the inactivation reaction.

  17. Metabolomics profiles delineate uridine deficiency contributes to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by celastrol in human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Huan, Fei; Li, Aiping; Liu, Yanqing; Xia, Yankai; Duan, Jin-ao; Ma, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Celastrol, extracted from “Thunder of God Vine”, is a promising anti-cancer natural product. However, its effect on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and underlying molecular mechanism are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore its effect on APL and underlying mechanism based on metabolomics. Firstly, multiple assays indicated that celastrol could induce apoptosis of APL cells via p53-activated mitochondrial pathway. Secondly, unbiased metabolomics revealed that uridine was the most notable changed metabolite. Further study verified that uridine could reverse the apoptosis induced by celastrol. The decreased uridine was caused by suppressing the expression of gene encoding Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, whose inhibitor could also induce apoptosis of APL cells. At last, mouse model confirmed that celastrol inhibited tumor growth through enhanced apoptosis. Celastrol could also decrease uridine and DHODH protein level in tumor tissues. Our in vivo study also indicated that celastrol had no systemic toxicity at pharmacological dose (2 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days). Altogether, our metabolomics study firstly reveals that uridine deficiency contributes to mitochondrial apoptosis induced by celastrol in APL cells. Celastrol shows great potential for the treatment of APL. PMID:27374097

  18. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Vladimir I.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Pavlyuk, Bogdan Ph.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Betzel, Christian; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Zhukhlistova, Nadezhda E.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2007-01-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) is a member of the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase family of enzymes which catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the C—N glycoside bond of uridine, with the formation of ribose 1-­phosphate and uracil. This enzyme has been shown to be important in the activation and catabolism of fluoropyrimidines. Modulation of its enzymatic activity may affect the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The structural investigation of the bacterial uridine phosphorylases, both unliganded and complexed with substrate/product analogues and inhibitors, may help in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the phosphorolytic cleavage of uridine. Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.15 Å. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicates that the crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.52, b = 123.98, c = 133.52 Å. The solvent content is 45.51%, assuming the presence of one hexamer molecule per asymmetric unit. PMID:17909287

  19. The triaxial particle plus rotor model and wobbling mode: A semiclassical view

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajiv; Malik, S. S.; Jain, A. K.; Jain, S. R.

    2010-11-24

    A systematic analysis of the triaxial particle rotor model with single-j shell configuration is carried out to explain the prominent features of observed wobbling excitations in odd A nuclei. The equations of motion for the angular momentum vectors I-vector and j-vector generate two types of equilibrium (i.e., (i) the axes aligned and (ii) the planar) states. The planar equilibrium states involve mainly the orientation degree of freedom {gamma} and their Jacobian matrix J gives purely imaginary eigenvalues in conjugate pairs. Also, our dynamical results show a substantial projection of angular momentum vectors on all the three principal axes, which implies that the resultant angular momentum lies outside the planes of three axes. Both these signatures confirm the spontaneous breakdown of time reversal (T) plus rotation by 180 deg. (R{sub {pi}}) i.e., R{sub {pi}T} symmetry and as a result nearly two identical bands consisting of even and odd spins emerge. We have tested our dynamical formalism for the wobbling mode observed in {sup 163}Lu.

  20. Determinants of the CmoB carboxymethyl transferase utilized for selective tRNA wobble modification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungwook; Xiao, Hui; Koh, Junseock; Wang, Yikai; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Thomas, Keisha; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Brown, Shoshana; Lee, Young-Sam; Almo, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-mediated modifications at the wobble position of tRNAs are essential for the translation of the genetic code. We report the genetic, biochemical and structural characterization of CmoB, the enzyme that recognizes the unique metabolite carboxy-S-adenosine-L-methionine (Cx-SAM) and catalyzes a carboxymethyl transfer reaction resulting in formation of 5-oxyacetyluridine at the wobble position of tRNAs. CmoB is distinctive in that it is the only known member of the SAM-dependent methyltransferase (SDMT) superfamily that utilizes a naturally occurring SAM analog as the alkyl donor to fulfill a biologically meaningful function. Biochemical and genetic studies define the in vitro and in vivo selectivity for Cx-SAM as alkyl donor over the vastly more abundant SAM. Complementary high-resolution structures of the apo- and Cx-SAM bound CmoB reveal the determinants responsible for this remarkable discrimination. Together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into the enzymatic and non-enzymatic feature of this alkyl transfer reaction which affords the broadened specificity required for tRNAs to recognize multiple synonymous codons. PMID:25855808

  1. Spin rotation, Chandler wobble and free core nutation of isolated multi-layer pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Alexander; Kitiashvili, Irina

    2013-03-01

    At present time there are investigations of precession and nutation for very different celestial multi-layer bodies: the Earth (Getino 1995), Moon (Gusev 2010), planets of Solar system (Gusev 2010) and pulsars (Link et al. 2007). The long-periodic precession phenomenon was detected for few pulsars: PSR B1828-11, PSR B1557-50, PSR 2217+47, PSR 0531+21, PSR B0833-45, and PSR B1642-03. Stairs, Lyne & Shemar (2000) have found that the arrival-time residuals from PSR B1828-11 vary periodically with a different periods. According to our model, the neutron star has the rigid crust (RC), the fluid outer core (FOC) and the solid inner core (SIC). The model explains generation of four modes in the rotation of the pulsar: two modes of Chandler wobble (CW, ICW) and two modes connecting with free core nutation (FCN, FICN) (Gusev & Kitiashvili 2008). We are propose the explanation for all harmonics of Time of Arrival (TOA) pulses variations as precession of a neutron star owing to differential rotation of RC, FOC and crystal SIC of the pulsar PSR B1828-11: 250, 500, 1000 days. We used canonical method for interpretation TOA variations by Chandler Wobble (CW) and Free Core Nutation (FCN) of pulsar.

  2. Free and forced polar motion and modern observations of the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smylie, Doug E.; Zuberi, Midhat

    2009-12-01

    In the absence of excitation, the Chandler wobble is closely a prograde motion along a circular arc. For a step excitation, the centre of the arc shifts, giving a secular motion but an equal and nearly opposite contribution to the Chandler wobble occurs, giving only a second order discontinuity in the pole path. To detect excitation events, we fit circular arcs by least squares to the unequally spaced data, weighting by the inverse of the square of the accompanying standard errors. A break is determined if extrapolation along the circular arc leads to a forecast pole position for which the next measured position lies outside a circle of acceptance. We find that often for quite long periods of time, there seems to be relatively little continuous excitation, leading to the conclusion that much of the excitation comes from sudden events. In particular, we are encouraged that a break in the pole path was found 11 days before the December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake ( M=9.1).

  3. Variable Chandler and Annual Wobbles in Earth's Polar Motion During 1900-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guocheng; Liu, Lintao; Su, Xiaoqing; Liang, Xinghui; Yan, Haoming; Tu, Yi; Li, Zhonghua; Li, Wenping

    2016-11-01

    The Chandler wobble (CW) and annual wobble (AW) are the two main components of polar motion, which are difficult to separate because of their very close periods. In the light of Fourier dictionary and basis pursuit method, a Fourier basis pursuit (FBP) spectrum is developed, which can reduce spectral smearing and leakage caused by the finite length of the time series. Further, a band-pass filtering method based on FBP spectrum (FBPBPF), which can effectively suppress the edge effect, is proposed in this paper. The simulation test results show that the FBPBPF method can effectively suppress the edge effect caused by spectral smearing and leakage and that its reconstruction accuracy at the boundary is approximately three times higher than the Fourier transform band-pass filtering method, which is based on Hamming windowed FFT spectrum, in extracting quasi-harmonic signals. The FBPBPF method is then applied to Earth's polar motion data during 1900-2015. Through analyzing the amplitude and period variations of CW and AW, and calculating the eccentricity variation of the AW, we found that: (1) the amplitude of the CW is currently at a historic minimum level, and it is even possible to diminish further until a complete stop; and (2) the eccentricity of the AW has a gradually decreased fluctuation during the last 116 years.

  4. Structural basis for the mechanism of inhibition of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkov, A. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Sotnichenko, S. E.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2010-01-15

    The three-dimensional structures of three complexes of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase with the inhibitor 2,2'-anhydrouridine, the substrate PO{sub 4}, and with both the inhibitor 2,2'-anhydrouridine and the substrate PO{sub 4} (a binary complex) were studied in detail by X-ray diffraction. The structures of the complexes were refined at 2.38, 1.5, and 1.75 A resolution, respectively. Changes in the three-dimensional structure of the subunits in different crystal structures are considered depending on the presence or absence of the inhibitor molecule and (or) the phosphate ion in the active site of the enzyme. The presence of the phosphate ion in the phosphate-binding site was found to substantially change the orientations of the side chains of the amino-acid residues Arg30, Arg91, and Arg48 coordinated to this ion. A comparison showed that the highly flexible loop L9 is unstable. The atomic coordinates of the refined structures of the complexes and the corresponding structure factors were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (their PDB ID codes are 3DD0 and 3C74). The experimental data on the spatial reorganization of the active site caused by changes in its functional state from the unligated to the completely inhibited state suggest the structural basis for the mechanism of inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase.

  5. Ab initio calculations of nonlinear optical rotation by several small chiral molecules and by uridine stereoisomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weixing; Tabisz, George C.

    2006-05-01

    Expressions for nonlinear optical rotation are presented based on the quantum theory of optical birefringence of Atkins and Barron [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 304, 303 (1968); 306, 119 (1968)]. As concrete examples, the ordinary and nonlinear optical rotations are calculated with density functional theory (DFT) methodology for some simple single-ring molecules, namely, oxaziridine, diaziridine, and their derivatives, and for two, somewhat more complicated, conformations of uridine. For the single-ring molecules, (1) the angles of the ordinary optical rotation are mostly positive and (2) the contributions of the nonlinear effect to the total optical rotation depend both on the nature of the substituted species and of the host atom located on the ring. For the two conformations of uridine, (1) the signs of nonlinear optical rotation differ even though their ordinary optical rotations have the same sign and (2) whether the molecular structures are geometrically optimized with Hartree-Fock or DFT methodologies has no significant effect on the calculated nonlinear optical rotation when gauge-including atomic orbitals were used, even though the basis sets are small. These studies are expected to be helpful for interpretation of experimental results on nonlinear optical rotation by molecules underway in our research group.

  6. Structural basis for the mechanism of inhibition of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Sotnichenko, S. E.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structures of three complexes of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase with the inhibitor 2,2'-anhydrouridine, the substrate PO4, and with both the inhibitor 2,2'-anhydrouridine and the substrate PO4 (a binary complex) were studied in detail by X-ray diffraction. The structures of the complexes were refined at 2.38, 1.5, and 1.75 Å resolution, respectively. Changes in the three-dimensional structure of the subunits in different crystal structures are considered depending on the presence or absence of the inhibitor molecule and (or) the phosphate ion in the active site of the enzyme. The presence of the phosphate ion in the phosphate-binding site was found to substantially change the orientations of the side chains of the amino-acid residues Arg30, Arg91, and Arg48 coordinated to this ion. A comparison showed that the highly flexible loop L9 is unstable. The atomic coordinates of the refined structures of the complexes and the corresponding structure factors were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (their PDB ID codes are 3DD0 and 3C74). The experimental data on the spatial reorganization of the active site caused by changes in its functional state from the unligated to the completely inhibited state suggest the structural basis for the mechanism of inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase.

  7. Dinucleosidetetraphosphatase from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells: inhibition by adenosine, guanosine and uridine 5'-tetraphosphates.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Lobatón, C D; Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1982-01-01

    1. An enzyme has been partially purified from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells which specifically hydrolyses dinucleosidetetraphosphates, with Km values of around 2 microM. The products of the hydrolysis are the corresponding nucleoside tri- and monophosphates. Dinucleoside Tri- and diphosphates were not substrates of the reaction. 2. The enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+, is maximally active at a pH value of approx. 7.5 and has a mol, wt of 19,800 as estimated by filtration on Sephadex G-75. Nucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates were competitive inhibitors of the reaction with Ki values in the 0.1 mM range. 3. Particularly relevant is the inhibition of this enzyme by adenosine and guanosine 5'tetraphosphates. In the course of this investigation, the presence of uridine 5'-tetraphosphate was detected in a commercial preparation of UTP. Adenosine, guanosine and uridine 5'-tetraphosphates were very strong inhibitors of the reaction with Ki values in the nM range.

  8. The Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ExoIII homologue Mth212 is a DNA uridine endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Georg, Jens; Schomacher, Lars; Chong, James P. J.; Majerník, Alan I.; Raabe, Monika; Urlaub, Henning; Müller, Sabine; Ciirdaeva, Elena; Kramer, Wilfried; Fritz, Hans-Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The genome of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, as a hitherto unique case, is apparently devoid of genes coding for general uracil DNA glycosylases, the universal mediators of base excision repair following hydrolytic deamination of DNA cytosine residues. We have now identified protein Mth212, a member of the ExoIII family of nucleases, as a possible initiator of DNA uracil repair in this organism. This enzyme, in addition to bearing all the enzymological hallmarks of an ExoIII homologue, is a DNA uridine endonuclease (U-endo) that nicks double-stranded DNA at the 5′-side of a 2′-d-uridine residue, irrespective of the nature of the opposing nucleotide. This type of activity has not been described before; it is absent from the ExoIII homologues of Escherichia coli, Homo sapiens and Methanosarcina mazei, all of which are equipped with uracil DNA repair glycosylases. The U-endo activity of Mth212 is served by the same catalytic center as its AP-endo activity. PMID:17012282

  9. Design and synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[(1,2,3)triazol-1-yl]uridines using click chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surender

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel nucleosides bearing a 1,2,3-triazole moiety at the 2'-position of the sugar moiety has been synthesized starting from 2'-azidouridine and using the copper (I)-catalyzed Huisgen-Sharpless-Meldal 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The reactions proceeded in overall yield of 52-82% and gave almost exclusively the 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. The 2'-azidouridine was synthesized from uridine in two steps, and reacted with a variety of differently substituted alkynes to give the desired 2'-triazole-substituted uridine derivatives.

  10. Estimation of the Chandler wobble parameters by the use of the Kalman deconvolution filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, A.; Rajner, M.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate the Chandler wobble (CW) parameters, the period T and the quality factor Q, based on the stochastic models of polar motion and geophysical excitation data. We apply the Kalman deconvolution filter developed by Brzezinski (1992). This filter can be used to analyze either the polar motion data alone, or simultaneously the polar motion and the excitation data, in order to estimate the unknown residual excitation. By imposing the minimum variance constraint upon the estimated unknown excitation we can find the best value of the resonant parameters T and Q. The CW parameters estimated from different sets of polar motion and geophysical excitation data are compared to each other as well as to the earlier results derived by the alternative algorithms.

  11. The aetiology of wobbly possum disease: Reproduction of the disease with purified nidovirus.

    PubMed

    Giles, Julia; Perrott, Matthew; Roe, Wendi; Dunowska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a role of a recently discovered marsupial nidovirus in the development of a neurological disease, termed wobbly possum disease (WPD), in the Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Four possums received 1 mL of a standard inoculum that had been prepared from tissues of WPD-affected possums, 4 possums received 1.8 mL (1 × 10(6) TCID50) of a cell lysate from inoculated cultures, and 4 possums received 1 mL (× 10(7) TCID50) of a purified WPD isolate. All but one possum that received infectious inocula developed neurological disease and histopathological lesions characteristic for WPD. High levels of viral RNA were detected in livers from all possums that received infectious inocula, but not from control possums. Altogether, our data provide strong experimental evidence for the causative involvement of WPD virus in development of a neurological disease in infected animals.

  12. A new description of Earth's wobble modes using Clairaut coordinates: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochester, M. G.; Crossley, D. J.; Zhang, Y. L.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel mathematical reformulation of the theory of the free wobble/nutation of an axisymmetric reference earth model in hydrostatic equilibrium, using the linear momentum description. The new features of this work consist in the use of (i) Clairaut coordinates (rather than spherical polars), (ii) standard spherical harmonics (rather than generalized spherical surface harmonics), (iii) linear operators (rather than J-square symbols) to represent the effects of rotational and ellipticity coupling between dependent variables of different harmonic degree and (iv) a set of dependent variables all of which are continuous across material boundaries. The resulting infinite system of coupled ordinary differential equations is given explicitly, for an elastic solid mantle and inner core, an inviscid outer core and no magnetic field. The formulation is done to second order in the Earth's ellipticity. To this order it is shown that for wobble modes (in which the lowest harmonic in the displacement field is degree 1 toroidal, with azimuthal order m = ±1), it is sufficient to truncate the chain of coupled displacement fields at the toroidal harmonic of degree 5 in the solid parts of the earth model. In the liquid core, however, the harmonic expansion of displacement can in principle continue to indefinitely high degree at this order of accuracy. The full equations are shown to yield correct results in three simple cases amenable to analytic solution: a general earth model in rigid rotation, the tiltover mode in a homogeneous solid earth model and the tiltover and Chandler periods for an incompressible homogeneous solid earth model. Numerical results, from programmes based on this formulation, are presented in part II of this paper.

  13. The Chandler wobble as a trigger of the El Niño excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Sonechkin, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    Using data of the Met Office Hadley Centre, time series of the near surface temperature and sea-surface pressure for the period 1875-2012 are processed to compute the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) and the Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (ESOI). Detailed spectra of the ONI and ESOI show peaks that exist throughout the year, but the most powerful in the boreal winter months. Peak periods are consist of 29, 43 and 58 months, which is roughly equivalent to 2, 3 and 4 periods of the well-known 14-month Chandler wobble of the Earth's pole motion. A plausible physical mechanism of the Chandler wobble influence on the El Niño excitation is presented. A computation of the global fields of the spectral energy at each of the periods afore-indicated admits to identify some distinctive features of the spatial structure of the most powerful disturbances during El Niño. Detailed spectra of the El Niño Modoki Index (EMI) computed for each month separately show differences between main oscillations of El Niño Modoki and classic El Niño. Besides, computations are made of cross-correlations and lead/lag interrelations between El Niño and some other processes in the global climate system for all afore-indicated periods. Some regions are identified for which the cross-correlations are essential, but the processes being considered either lead or lag El Niño. This finding admits to suppose that there exists an external force common for both, El Niño and other macroscale climatic processes.

  14. Lack of incorporation of tritiated uridine by nuclei of mature sieve elements in Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Sequoiadendron giganteum.

    PubMed

    Hébant, C

    1975-01-01

    The majority of nuclei which persist in "mature" sieve elements of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu and Chen and Sequoiadendron giganteum Buchholz fail to incorporate tritiated uridine (10 μCi/ml; 7 hours incubation of stem fragments). This is interpreted as further evidence for the degenerated condition of these nuclei.

  15. Structure of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thomas E; Gardberg, Anna S; Phan, Isabelle Q H; Zhang, Yang; Staker, Bart L; Myler, Peter J; Lorimer, Donald D

    2015-05-01

    Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, which is involved in cell-wall biogenesis in plants and fungi and in protein glycosylation. Small-molecule inhibitors have been developed against UAP from Trypanosoma brucei that target an allosteric pocket to provide selectivity over the human enzyme. A 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure was determined of UAP from Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic parasitic protozoan that causes amoebic dysentery. Although E. histolytica UAP exhibits the same three-domain global architecture as other UAPs, it appears to lack three α-helices at the N-terminus and contains two amino acids in the allosteric pocket that make it appear more like the enzyme from the human host than that from the other parasite T. brucei. Thus, allosteric inhibitors of T. brucei UAP are unlikely to target Entamoeba UAPs.

  16. A new description of Earth's wobble modes using Clairaut coordinates 2: results and inferences on the core mode spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, D. J.; Rochester, M. G.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical solutions are presented for the formulation of the linear momentum description of Earth's dynamics using Clairaut coordinates. We have developed a number of methods to integrate the equations of motion, including starting at the Earth's centre of mass, starting at finite radius and separating the displacement associated with the primary rigid rotation. We include rotation and ellipticity to second order up to spherical harmonic T_5^m, starting with the primary displacement T_1^m with m = ±1. We are able to confirm many of the previous results for models PREM (with no surface ocean) and 1066A, both in their original form and with neutrally stratified liquid cores. Our period search ranges from the near-seismic band [0.1 sidereal days (sd)] to 3500 sd, within which we have identified the four well-known wobble-nutation modes: the Free Core Nutation (retrograde) at -456 sd, the Free Inner Core Nutation (FICN, prograde) at 468 sd, the Chandler Wobble (prograde) at 402 sd, and the Inner Core Wobble (ICW, prograde) at about 2842 sd (7.8 yr) for neutral PREM. The latter value varies significantly with earth model and integration method. In addition we have verified to high accuracy the tilt-over mode at 1 sd within a factor 10-6. In an exhaustive search we found no additional near-diurnal wobble modes that could be identified as nutations. We show that the eigenfunctions for the as-yet-unidentified ICW are extremely sensitive to the details of the earth model, especially the core stability profile and there is no well-defined sense of its wobble relative to the mantle. Calculations are also done for a range of models derived from PREM with homogeneous layers, as well as with incompressible cores. For this kind of model the ICW ceases to have just a simple IC rigid motion when the fluid compressibility is either unchanged or multiplied by a factor 10; in this case the outer core exhibits oscillations that arise from an unstable fluid density stratification. For

  17. Probing the Watson-Crick, wobble, and sugar-edge hydrogen bond sites of uracil and thymine.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Frey, Jann A; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2005-06-16

    The nucleobases uracil (U) and thymine (T) offer three hydrogen-bonding sites for double H-bond formation via neighboring N-H and C=O groups, giving rise to the Watson-Crick, wobble and sugar-edge hydrogen bond isomers. We probe the hydrogen bond properties of all three sites by forming hydrogen bonded dimers of U, 1-methyluracil (1MU), 3-methyluracil (3MU), and T with 2-pyridone (2PY). The mass- and isomer-specific S1 <-- S0 vibronic spectra of 2PY.U, 2PY.3MU, 2PY.1MU, and 2PY.T were measured using UV laser resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). The spectra of the Watson-Crick and wobble isomers of 2PY.1MU were separated using UV-UV spectral hole-burning. We identify the different isomers by combining three different diagnostic tools: (1) Selective methylation of the uracil N3-H group, which allows formation of the sugar-edge isomer only, and methylation of the N1-H group, which leads to formation of the Watson-Crick and wobble isomers. (2) The experimental S1 <-- S0 origins exhibit large spectral blue shifts relative to the 2PY monomer. Ab initio CIS calculations of the spectral shifts of the different hydrogen-bonded dimers show a linear correlation with experiment. This correlation allows us to identify the R2PI spectra of the weakly populated Watson-Crick and wobble isomers of both 2PY.U and 2PY.T. (3) PW91 density functional calculation of the ground-state binding and dissociation energies De and D0 are in agreement with the assignment of the dominant hydrogen bond isomers of 2PY.U, 2PY.3MU and 2PY.T as the sugar-edge form. For 2PY.U, 2PY.T and 2PY.1MU the measured wobble:Watson-Crick:sugar-edge isomer ratios are in good agreement with the calculated ratios, based on the ab initio dissociation energies and gas-phase statistical mechanics. The Watson-Crick and wobble isomers are thereby determined to be several kcal/mol less strongly bound than the sugar-edge isomers. The 36 observed intermolecular frequencies of the nine different H-bonded isomers give

  18. Spectral analysis of the Chandler wobble: comparison of the discrete Fourier analysis and the maximum entropy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    The methods of spectral analysis are applied to solve the following two problems concerning the free Chandler wobble (CW): 1) to estimate the CW resonance parameters, the period T and the quality factor Q, and 2) to perform the excitation balance of the observed free wobble. It appears, however, that the results depend on the algorithm of spectral analysis applied. Here we compare the following two algorithms which are frequently applied for analysis of the polar motion data, the classical discrete Fourier analysis and the maximum entropy method corresponding to the autoregressive modeling of the input time series. We start from general description of both methods and of their application to the analysis of the Earth orientation observations. Then we compare results of the analysis of the polar motion and the related excitation data.

  19. Novel base-pairing interactions at the tRNA wobble position crucial for accurate reading of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, Alexey; Demeshkina, Natalia; Khusainov, Iskander; Westhof, Eric; Yusupov, Marat; Yusupova, Gulnara

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications at the wobble position of transfer RNAs play a substantial role in deciphering the degenerate genetic code on the ribosome. The number and variety of modifications suggest different mechanisms of action during messenger RNA decoding, of which only a few were described so far. Here, on the basis of several 70S ribosome complex X-ray structures, we demonstrate how Escherichia coli tRNALysUUU with hypermodified 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U) at the wobble position discriminates between cognate codons AAA and AAG, and near-cognate stop codon UAA or isoleucine codon AUA, with which it forms pyrimidine–pyrimidine mismatches. We show that mnm5s2U forms an unusual pair with guanosine at the wobble position that expands general knowledge on the degeneracy of the genetic code and specifies a powerful role of tRNA modifications in translation. Our models consolidate the translational fidelity mechanism proposed previously where the steric complementarity and shape acceptance dominate the decoding mechanism. PMID:26791911

  20. Nonenzymatic template-directed synthesis on hairpin oligonucleotides. 3. Incorporation of adenosine and uridine residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Orgel, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have used [32P]-labeled hairpin oligonucleotides to study template-directed synthesis on templates containing one or more A or T residues within a run of C residues. When nucleoside-5'-phosphoro(2-methyl)imidazolides are used as substrates, isolated A and T residues function efficiently in facilitating the incorporation of U and A, respectively. The reactions are regiospecific, producing mainly 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds. Pairs of consecutive non-C residues are copied much less efficiently. Limited synthesis of CA and AC sequences on templates containing TG and GT sequences was observed along with some synthesis of the AA sequences on templates containing TT sequences. The other dimer sequences investigated, AA, AG, GA, TA, and AT, could not be copied. If A is absent from the reaction mixture, misincorporation of G residues is a significant reaction on templates containing an isolated T residue or two consecutive T residues. However, if both A and G are present, A is incorporated to a much greater extent than G. We believe that wobble-pairing between T and G is responsible for misincorporation when only G is present.

  1. Triaxial Earth's rotation: Chandler wobble, free core nutation and diurnal polar motion (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R.; Shen, W.-B.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we formulate two-layered triaxial Earth rotation theory, focusing on the influence of the triaxiality on the Chandler wobble (CW), free core nutation (FCN) and diurnal polar motion. We estimate the frequencies of the normal modes CW and FCN, and results show that though the influence of two-layer triaxiality on the CW and FCN frequencies are very small, there appear some new natures. The response of the Earth's polar motion to the excitation consists of two parts. One is in response to the same frequency excitation and the other is in response to the opposite frequency excitation. For an Earth model with triaxial mantle and core, both of these two parts have four resonant frequencies rather than two that are suggested by rotational symmetric Earth model. However, due to the small strength of these new resonances, the effects of these resonances are only significant when the excitation frequencies are very near to these resonance frequencies. In addition, compared to the biaxial case, the influences of the triaxiality on the prograde and retrograde diurnal polar motions excited by ocean tide component K1 are estimated as - 1.4 μas and - 0.9 μas respectively, which should be taken into account in theory. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  2. Probabilistic approach to describing the Chandler wobble: the role of the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurkis, I.; Kuchay, M.; Spiridonov, E.; Sinyukhina, S.

    2015-08-01

    The atmospheric component of polar motion can be treated as the anisotropic Markov process with discrete time, and the torque exerted by the atmosphere on the solid Earth, as the white noise. The efficiency of the atmospheric mechanism in the excitation of the Chandler wobble (CW) is estimated in the context of the probabilistic model. It was shown, that one can interprets the oceanic perturbation as a stationary anisotropic random process characterized by the correlation time less than 100 days. The probabilistic approach to the description of the CW is expanded to the case of anisotropic random load. The polar motion is treated as a two-dimensional Markov process, i.e. the solution of the Liouville equation with discrete time. With a sufficiently large time step, the polar motion can be considered as an isotropic process irrespective of the particular ratio between the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix. Thus, it is demonstrated that the observed variations in amplitude can be explained in the context of the probabilistic approach without hypothesizing the isotropy of the random load.

  3. Primary possum macrophage cultures support the growth of a nidovirus associated with wobbly possum disease.

    PubMed

    Giles, Julia C; Perrott, Matthew R; Dunowska, Magdalena

    2015-09-15

    The objective of the study was to establish a system for isolation of a recently described, thus far uncultured, marsupial nidovirus associated with a neurological disease of possums, termed wobbly possum disease (WPD). Primary cultures of possum macrophages were established from livers of adult Australian brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). High viral copy numbers (up to 6.9×10(8)/mL of cell lysate) were detected in infected cell culture lysates from up to the 5th passage of the virus, indicating that the putative WPD virus (WPDV) was replicating in cultured cells. A purified virus stock with a density of 1.09 g/mL was prepared using iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation. Virus-like particles approximately 60 nm in diameter were observed using electron microscopy in negatively stained preparations of the purified virus. The one-step growth curve of WPDV in macrophage cultures showed the highest increase in intracellular viral RNA between 6 and 12h post-infection. Maximum levels of cell-associated viral RNA were detected at 24h post-infection, followed by a decline. Levels of extracellular RNA increased starting at 9h post-infection, with maximum levels detected at 48 h post-infection. The establishment of the in vitro system to culture WPDV will facilitate further characterisation of this novel nidovirus.

  4. Ultrastructural and cytochemical changes in the respiratory compartment of the lungs in rats after combined treatment with fine silicon dioxide powder and uridine.

    PubMed

    Lebkova, N P; Baranov, V I

    2004-06-01

    Electron microscopy and cytochemical study of alveolar tissue of rat lungs were performed at the early stage after intratracheal treatment with fine silicon dioxide powder. The preparation was administered to animals receiving or not receiving intravenous injection of uridine. Dust particles permeated the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nuclei of cells in the air-blood barrier of the alveoli. Uridine decreased the severity of dust-induced damage to cells and increased intracellular glycogen content.

  5. The Cytidine Analog Fluorocyclopentenylcytosine (RX-3117) Is Activated by Uridine-Cytidine Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Kees; de Klerk, Daniël; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Meinsma, Rutger; Lee, Young B.; Kim, Deog J.; Peters, Godefridus J.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorocyclopentenylcytosine (RX-3117) is an orally available cytidine analog, currently in Phase I clinical trial. RX-3117 has promising antitumor activity in various human tumor xenografts including gemcitabine resistant tumors. RX-3117 is activated by uridine-cytidine kinase (UCK). Since UCK exists in two forms, UCK1 and UCK2, we investigated which form is responsible for RX-3117 phosphorylation. For that purpose we transfected A549 and SW1573 cell lines with UCK-siRNAs. Transfection of UCK1-siRNA efficiently downregulated UCK1-mRNA, but not UCK2-mRNA expression, and did not affect sensitivity to RX-3117. However, transfection of UCK2-siRNA completely downregulated UCK2-mRNA and protein and protected both A549 and SW1573 against RX-3117. UCK enzyme activity in two panels of tumor cell lines and xenograft cells correlated only with UCK2-mRNA expression (r = 0.803 and 0.915, respectively), but not with UCK1-mRNA. Moreover, accumulation of RX-3117 nucleotides correlated with UCK2 expression. In conclusion, RX-3117 is activated by UCK2 which may be used to select patients potentially sensitive to RX-3117. PMID:27612203

  6. Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylcytidine- and 5-Hydroxymethyl-uridine-Modified RNA

    PubMed Central

    Riml, Christian; Micura, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We report on the syntheses of 5-hydroxymethyl-uridine [5hm(rU)] and -cytidine [5hm(rC)] phosphoramidites and their incorporation into RNA by solid-phase synthesis. Deprotection of the oligonucleotides is accomplished in a straightforward manner using standard conditions, confirming the appropriateness of the acetyl protection used for the pseudobenzylic alcohol moieties. The approach provides robust access to 5hm(rC/U)-modified RNAs that await applications in pull-down experiments to identify potential modification enzymes. They will also serve as synthetic probes for the development of high-throughput-sequencing methods in native RNAs. 1Introduction2Protection Strategies Reported for the Synthesis of 5hm(dC)-Modified DNA3Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylpyrimidine-Modified RNA3.1Synthesis of 5hm(rC) Phosphoramidite3.2Synthesis of 5hm(rU) Phosphoramidite3.3Synthesis of 5hm(rC)- and 5hm(rU)-Modified RNA4Conclusions PMID:27413246

  7. Uridine-based paramagnetic supramolecular nanoaggregate with high relaxivity capable of detecting primitive liver tumor lesions.

    PubMed

    Bhuniya, Sankarprasad; Moon, Hyeyoung; Lee, Hyunseung; Hong, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sumin; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Kim, Jong Seung

    2011-09-01

    The water soluble uridine-based paramagnetic self-assembled amphiphilic molecules (LGd2-5) with DTTA binding site were synthesized and have been characterized in regard to their T(1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (CA) properties. The water proton relaxivities have been measured in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 36 °C at 3 different magnetic fields. Among the self-assembled CAs, LGd3 showed unprecedented, high relaxivities of 30.3 and 23.4 mM(-1) s(-1) in PBS solution at 36 °C at 0.47 and 1.41 T, respectively. The non-covalent interactions between the new CAs and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated and the relaxivity was further increased by 135-215% depending on alkyl chain lengths. The chemically inertness of these complexes (LGd1, LGd2, LGd3, LGd4) against biologically most abundant metal ion (i.e. Zn(2+)) have shown within the range of commercial DTPA-based CAs. In vivo pharmacokinetics of the complex LGd3 showed highly specific for hepatocytes resulting in increase of contrast noise ratio by ∼240% in T(1)-weighted MR images of mouse liver 2 h after injection of the LGd3. It is capable to detect small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with diameter of 1.5 mm.

  8. Stacking-unstacking of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine studied with molecular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, J; Nilsson, L

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on two conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine (GpU) in aqueous solution with one sodium counterion. One stacked conformation and one with the C3'-O3'-P-O5' backbone torsion angle twisted 180 degrees to create an unstacked conformation. We observed a relatively stable behavior of the stacked conformation, which remained stacked throughout the simulation, whereas the unstacked conformation showed major changes in the backbone torsion and glycosidic angles. During the simulation the unstacked conformation transformed into a more stacked form and then back again to an unstacked one. The calculated correlation times for rotational diffusion from the molecular dynamics simulations are in agreement with fluorescence anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance data. As expected, the correlation times for rotational diffusion of the unstacked conformation were observed to be longer than for the stacked conformation. The 2'OH group may contribute in stabilizing the stacked conformation, where the O2'-H...O4' hydrogen bond occurred in 82.7% of the simulation. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:7948694

  9. Abscisic acid uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferases play a crucial role in abscisic acid homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Park, Youngmin; Kim, Dae Heon; Lee, Yongjik; Hwang, Inhwan

    2014-05-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is crucial for plant growth and adaptive responses to various stress conditions. Plants continuously adjust the ABA level to meet physiological needs, but how ABA homeostasis occurs is not fully understood. This study provides evidence that UGT71B6, an ABA uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (UGT), and its two closely related homologs, UGT71B7 and UGT71B8, play crucial roles in ABA homeostasis and in adaptation to dehydration, osmotic stress, and high-salinity stresses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). UGT RNA interference plants that had low levels of these three UGT transcripts displayed hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and high-salt conditions during germination and exhibited a defect in plant growth. However, the ectopic expression of UGT71B6 in the atbg1 (for β-glucosidase) mutant background aggravated the ABA-deficient phenotype of atbg1 mutant plants. In addition, modulation of the expression of the three UGTs affects the expression of CYP707A1 to CYP707A4, which encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases; four CYP707As were expressed at higher levels in the UGT RNA interference plants but at lower levels in the UGT71B6:GFP-overexpressing plants. Based on these data, this study proposes that UGT71B6 and its two homologs play a critical role in ABA homeostasis by converting active ABA to an inactive form (abscisic acid-glucose ester) depending on intrinsic cellular and environmental conditions in plants.

  10. Constrictor prostanoids and uridine adenosine tetraphosphate: vascular mediators and therapeutic targets in hypertension and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Taguchi, Kumiko; Tostes, Rita C; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of systemic complications associated with arterial hypertension and diabetes. The endothelium, or more specifically, various factors derived from endothelial cells tightly regulate vascular function, including vascular tone. In physiological conditions, there is a balance between endothelium-derived factors, that is, relaxing factors (endothelium-derived relaxing factors; EDRFs) and contracting factors (endothelium-derived contracting factors; EDCFs), which mediate vascular homeostasis. However, in disease states, such as diabetes and arterial hypertension, there is an imbalance between EDRF and EDCF, with a reduction of EDRF signalling and an increase of EDCF signalling. Among EDCFs, COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids play an important role in the development of vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension and diabetes. Moreover, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A), identified as an EDCF in 2005, also modulates vascular function. However, the role of Up4A in hypertension- and diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction is unclear. In the present review, we focused on experimental and clinical evidence that implicate these two EDCFs (vasoconstrictor prostanoids and Up4A) in vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension and diabetes. PMID:26031319

  11. Chandler wobble in variations of the Pulkovo latitude for 170 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. O.

    2011-08-01

    The work studies the Chandler component of polar motion, obtained from variations in the Pulkovo latitude over 170 years (1840-2009). To extend the time series of variations in the Pulkovo latitude back into the past until 1840, we used the first Pulkov observations on the basis of the Reynolds transit instrument in the prime vertical and on the basis of large vertical Ertel circle. We employed different methods of analysis of nonstationary time series, such as wavelet analysis, methods of bandpass filtering, singular spectral analysis, and Fourier and Hilbert transforms. Changes in the Pulkovo latitude from 1904-2006, as inferred from ZTF-135 observations and as calculated from international data, were compared. It was shown that time changes in the amplitude and phase of Chandler polar motion can be studied based on long-term observation time series of latitude at a single observatory, even if these observation records have gaps. We were the first to study the changes in the Chandler wobble for that long time series of variations in the Pulkovo latitude with the help of different methods. The long observation record and the methods of analysis of nonstationary time series had allowed us to identify two similar structures, both well apparent during the periods of 1845-1925 and 1925-2005 in the time variations of phase and amplitude. The presence of this structure indicates that low-frequency regularities may be present in the Chandler polar motion, and one of the manifestations of this may be the well known feature in the region of 1925. The superimposed epoch method was used to estimate the period of variations in the amplitude with a simultaneous change of phase of this oscillation, which was found to be 80 years. In addition, advantages of singular spectral analysis for studying the long-period time series with involved structure are demonstrated.

  12. Strategies for equilibrium maintenance during single leg standing on a wobble board.

    PubMed

    Silva, Priscila de Brito; Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Laessoe, Uffe; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and compare movement strategies used to maintain balance while single leg standing on either a firm surface (FS) or on a wobble board (WB). In 17 healthy men, retroreflective markers were positioned on the xiphoid process and nondominant lateral malleolus to calculate trunk and contralateral-leg excursion (EXC) and velocity (VEL), and center of pressure (CoP) EXC and VEL during FS on a force platform. From the WB test, standing time (WBTIME) was determined and the board's angular EXC and VEL were calculated from four markers on the WB as surrogate measures for CoP dynamics. Electromyographic average rectified values (ARV) from eight leg and thigh muscles of the supporting limb were calculated for both tasks. WB ARV amplitudes were normalized with respect to the value of FS ARV and presented significantly higher peroneus longus and biceps femoris activity (p<0.05). WB standing time was correlated to trunk sagittal plane velocity (r=-0.73 at p=0.016) and excursion (r=-0.67 at p=0.03). CoP and WB angular movement measures were weakly and not significantly correlated between tasks. This lack of correlation indicates that WB balance maintenance requires movement beyond the ankle strategy as described for the FS task. WB standing likely demands different biomechanical and neuromuscular control strategies, which has immediate implications for the significance of WB tests in contrast to FS balance tests. Differences in control strategies will also have implications for the understanding of mechanisms for rehabilitation training using such devices.

  13. Oligomerization of uridine phosphorimidazolides on montmorillonite: a model for the prebiotic synthesis of RNA on minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, P. Z.; Kawamura, K.; Ferris, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The 5'-phosphorimidazolide of uridine reacts on Na(+)-montmorillonite 22A in aqueous solution to give oligomers as long as 7 mers. The maximum chain length increases to 9 mers and the overall oligomer yield increases when 9:1 ImpU, A5' ppA mixtures react under the same conditions. The oligomer yield and maximum chain length decreases with the structure of the added pyrophosphate in the order A5' ppA > A5' ppU > U5' ppU. Structure analysis of individual oligomer fractions was performed by selective enzymatic hydrolyses followed by HPLC analysis of the products. The regioselectivity for 3',5'-bond formation is 80-90% in the 9:1 ImpU, A5' ppA reaction, a percentage comparable to that observed in the 9:1 ImpA, A5' ppA reaction. Oligomerization of ImpU is inhibited by addition of dA5' ppdA, and MeppA. No oligomers containing A5' ppU were products of the 9:1 ImpU,A5' ppA reaction, a finding consistent with the simple addition of the ImpU to the A5' ppA and not the rearrangement of an ImpU-A5' ppA adduct. Concentrations of lysine or arginine which were close to that of the ImpU did not inhibit oligomer formation. Treatment of Na(+)-montmorillonite with 1 M arginine yielded arginine-montmorillonite, an amino acid-mineral adduct which did not catalyze ImpU oligomerization. Neither the 4-9 mers formed in the 9:1 ImpU, A5' ppA reaction nor the 4-9 mers formed by the base hydrolysis of poly(U) served as templates for the formation of oligo(A)s.

  14. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate is a novel neurogenic P2Y1 receptor activator in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Durnin, Leonie; Hwang, Sung Jin; Kurahashi, Masaaki; Drumm, Bernard T.; Ward, Sean M.; Sasse, Kent C.; Sanders, Kenton M.; Mutafova-Yambolieva, Violeta N.

    2014-01-01

    Enteric purinergic motor neurotransmission, acting through P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1R), mediates inhibitory neural control of the intestines. Recent studies have shown that NAD+ and ADP ribose better meet criteria for enteric inhibitory neurotransmitters in colon than ATP or ADP. Here we report that human and murine colon muscles also release uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) spontaneously and upon stimulation of enteric neurons. Release of Up4A was reduced by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that at least a portion of Up4A is of neural origin. Up4A caused relaxation (human and murine colons) and hyperpolarization (murine colon) that was blocked by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS 2500, and by apamin, an inhibitor of Ca2+-activated small-conductance K+ (SK) channels. Up4A responses were greatly reduced or absent in colons of P2ry1−/− mice. Up4A induced P2Y1R–SK-channel–mediated hyperpolarization in isolated PDGFRα+ cells, which are postjunctional targets for purinergic neurotransmission. Up4A caused MRS 2500-sensitive Ca2+ transients in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells expressing human P2Y1R. Up4A was more potent than ATP, ADP, NAD+, or ADP ribose in colonic muscles. In murine distal colon Up4A elicited transient P2Y1R-mediated relaxation followed by a suramin-sensitive contraction. HPLC analysis of Up4A degradation suggests that exogenous Up4A first forms UMP and ATP in the human colon and UDP and ADP in the murine colon. Adenosine then is generated by extracellular catabolism of ATP and ADP. However, the relaxation and hyperpolarization responses to Up4A are not mediated by its metabolites. This study shows that Up4A is a potent native agonist for P2Y1R and SK-channel activation in human and mouse colon. PMID:25341729

  15. Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Xenobiotic Metabolizing Activity and Genetic Evolution in Pinniped Species.

    PubMed

    Kakehi, Mayu; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Kawai, Yusuke K; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-10-01

    There are various interspecies differences in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. It is known that cats show slow glucuronidation of drugs such as acetaminophen and strong side effects due to the UGT1A6 pseudogene. Recently, the UGT1A6 pseudogene was found in the Northern elephant seal and Otariidae was suggested to be UGT1A6-deficient. From the results of measurements of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity using liver microsomes, the Steller sea lion, Northern fur seal, and Caspian seal showed UGT activity toward 1-hydroxypyrene and acetaminophen as low as in cats, which was significantly lower than in rat and dog. Furthermore, UGT1A6 pseudogenes were found in Steller sea lion and Northern fur seal, and all Otariidae species were suggested to have the UGT1A6 pseudogene. The UGT1 family genes appear to have undergone birth-and-death evolution based on a phylogenetic and synteny analysis of the UGT1 family in mammals including Carnivora. UGT1A2-1A5 and UGT1A7-1A10 are paralogous genes to UGT1A1 and UGTA6, respectively, and their numbers were lower in cat, ferret and Pacific walrus than in human, rat, and dog. Felidae and Pinnipedia, which are less exposed to natural xenobiotics such as plant-derived toxins due to their carnivorous diet, have experienced fewer gene duplications of xenobiotic-metabolizing UGT genes, and even possess UGT1A6 pseudogenes. Artificial environmental pollutants and drugs conjugated by UGT are increasing dramatically, and their elimination to the environment can be of great consequence to cat and Pinnipedia species, whose low xenobiotic glucuronidation capacity makes them highly sensitive to these compounds.

  16. Uridine Triphosphate Thio Analogues Inhibit Platelet P2Y12 Receptor and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Dursun; Tanislav, Christian; Sedding, Daniel; Parahuleva, Mariana; Santoso, Sentot; Troidl, Christian; Hamm, Christian W.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Platelet P2Y12 is an important adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor that is involved in agonist-induced platelet aggregation and is a valuable target for the development of anti-platelet drugs. Here we characterise the effects of thio analogues of uridine triphosphate (UTP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Using human platelet-rich plasma, we demonstrate that UTP inhibits P2Y12 but not P2Y1 receptors and antagonises 10 µM ADP-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of ~250 µM. An eight-fold higher platelet inhibitory activity was observed with a 2-thio analogue of UTP (2S-UTP), with an IC50 of 30 µM. The 4-thio analogue (4S-UTP) with an IC50 of 7.5 µM was 33-fold more effective. A three-fold decrease in inhibitory activity, however, was observed by introducing an isobutyl group at the 4S- position. A complete loss of inhibition was observed with thio-modification of the γ phosphate of the sugar moiety, which yields an enzymatically stable analogue. The interaction of UTP analogues with P2Y12 receptor was verified by P2Y12 receptor binding and cyclic AMP (cAMP) assays. These novel data demonstrate for the first time that 2- and 4-thio analogues of UTP are potent P2Y12 receptor antagonists that may be useful for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28146050

  17. Detection of a pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS).

    PubMed

    Madarame, Hiroo; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kimura, Moe; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ochiai, Hideharu; Mizutani, Tetsyuya

    2014-09-17

    A pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) from an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) was detected and genetically characterized. The affected hedgehog had a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vacuolization of the white matter, and the brain samples yielded RNA reads highly homogeneous to PVM strain 15 (96.5% of full genomic sequence homology by analysis of next generation sequencing). PVM antigen was also detected in the brain and the lungs immunohistochemically. A PVM was strongly suggested as a causative agent of encephalitis of a hedgehog with suspected WHS. This is a first report of PVM infection in hedgehogs.

  18. Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Escherichia coli TadA, the Wobble-Specific tRNA Deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,J.; Malashkevich, V.; Roday, S.; Lisbin, M.; Schramm, V.; Almo, S.

    2006-01-01

    The essential tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine at the wobble position of tRNAs. This modification allows for a single tRNA species to recognize multiple synonymous codons containing A, C, or U in the last (3'-most) position and ensures that all sense codons are appropriately decoded. We report the first combined structural and kinetic characterization of a wobble-specific deaminase. The structure of the Escherichia coli enzyme clearly defines the dimer interface and the coordination of the catalytically essential zinc ion. The structure also identifies the nucleophilic water and highlights residues near the catalytic zinc likely to be involved in recognition and catalysis of polymeric RNA substrates. A minimal 19 nucleotide RNA stem substrate has permitted the first steady-state kinetic characterization of this enzyme (k{sub cat} = 13 {+-} 1 min{sup -1} and K{sub M} = 0.83 {+-} 0.22 {micro}M). A continuous coupled assay was developed to follow the reaction at high concentrations of polynucleotide substrates (>10 {micro}M). This work begins to define the chemical and structural determinants responsible for catalysis and substrate recognition and lays the foundation for detailed mechanistic analysis of this essential enzyme.

  19. Crystallization of uridine phosphorylase from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the laboratory and under microgravity and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Safonova, Tatyana N; Mordkovich, Nadezhda N; Polyakov, Konstantin M; Manuvera, Valentin A; Veiko, Vladimir P; Popov, Vladimir O

    2012-11-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UDP, EC 2.4.2.3), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyses the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate. The gene expression of UDP from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was performed in the recipient strain Escherichia coli. The UDP protein was crystallized on earth (in the free form and in complex with uridine as the substrate) by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 296 K and under microgravity conditions (in the free form) aboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station by the capillary counter-diffusion method. The data sets were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å from crystals of the free form grown on earth, 1.6 Å from crystals of the complex with uridine and 0.95 Å from crystals of the free form grown under microgravity. All crystals belong to the space group P2(1) and have similar unit-cell parameters. The crystal of uridine phosphorylase grown under microgravity diffracted to ultra-high resolution and gave high-quality X-ray diffraction data.

  20. Uridine uptake inhibition as a cytotoxicity test for a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells): comparison with the neutral red assay.

    PubMed

    Valentin, I; Philippe, M; Lhuguenot, J; Chagnon, M

    2001-02-14

    This study describes a sensitive microassay for measuring cytotoxicity based on the degree of inhibition of RNA synthesis in HepG2 cells. RNA synthesis is measured by the kinetic uptake of radiolabeled uridine. A large number of compounds were tested in a wide range of concentrations. The concentration required to induce 50% inhibition of HepG2 uridine uptake rates (IC(50)) was determined for each compound and used to rank its potency. These IC(50)s were compared with IC(50)s measured with the neutral red assay. 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene and methylnitrosourea were not cytotoxic in the neutral red assay. Uridine uptake was always inhibited at lower concentrations than those required in the neutral red assay, suggesting that the uridine uptake assay is a more sensitive indicator of toxic action than the neutral red inclusion. Uridine uptake assay provides a rapid and quantitative method for assessing toxicity in a human cell line. Application of this method to bottled spring waters are described. Due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility, this method provides a suitable tool for screening a great number of samples and will be a helpful test for evaluating food safety and controlling the recycling process of wrapping materials.

  1. Non-enzymatic synthesis of the coenzymes, uridine diphosphate glucose and cytidine diphosphate choline, and other phosphorylated metabolic intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mar, A.; Dworkin, J.; Oro, J.

    1987-01-01

    Using urea and cyanamide, the two condensing agents considered to have been present on the primitive earth, uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG), cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) were synthesized under simulated prebiotic conditions. The reaction products were separated and identified using paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, enzymatic analyses, and ion-pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The possibility of nonenzymatic synthesis of metabolic intermediates on the primitive earth from simple precursors was thus demonstrated.

  2. Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Marius; Niro, Giuliana; Leyerer, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muraymycins are a promising class of antimicrobial natural products. These uridine-derived nucleoside-peptide antibiotics inhibit the bacterial membrane protein translocase I (MraY), a key enzyme in the intracellular part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This review describes the structures of naturally occurring muraymycins, their mode of action, synthetic access to muraymycins and their analogues, some structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies and first insights into muraymycin biosynthesis. It therefore provides an overview on the current state of research, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in this field. PMID:27340469

  3. Functional and structural variation of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) gene of Stevia rebaudiana-UGTSr involved in the synthesis of rebaudioside A.

    PubMed

    Madhav, Harish; Bhasker, Salini; Chinnamma, Mohankumar

    2013-02-01

    The sweetness of honey leaf plant Stevia rebaudiana is attributed to steviol glycosides or steviosides, accumulated in the leaves. Steviol glycosides are diterpenoids derived from steviol as the final step of glycosylation by the marker enzyme Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT). Out of the eight different steviol glycosides, rebaudioside A was detected as the sweetest glycoside with reduced bitter aftertaste. The pattern of glycosylation of steviol has a crucial role in maintaining the sweetness as well as the taste perception of stevioside. Within the 12 UGTs of S. rebaudiana so far elucidated, the functional genomics of three UGTs-UGT76G1, UGT74G1 & UGT85C2 in stevioside synthesis were studied. In the present study a UGT gene of S. rebaudiana named UGTSr showing resemblance with UGT76G1 was structurally analyzed and the functional role of the recombinant UGTSr in the synthesis of rebaudioside A was ascertained. The relative expression of UGTSr by qPCR showed a higher level of expression in mature leaves than in tender. Despite the similarity of nucleotide with UGT76G1, the gene UGTSr exhibits 48 SNPs and 39 associated amino acid substitutions with remarkable variation in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The helical changes, the presence of a new amino acid, novel substitutions of amino acids and the hydrogen bond in the conserved histidine and aspartame residues observed in UGTSr support its functional stability and specificity from that of other UGTs of S. rebaudiana. Based on these features UGTSr exhibits a novel status from other UGTs of S. rebaudiana.

  4. Using Constraints from Satellite Gravimetry to Study Meteorological Excitations of the Chandler Wobble for an Earth Model with Frequency-dependent Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Li, J.; Ray, J.; Cheng, M.; Chen, J.; Wilson, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    What maintain(s) the damping Chandler wobble (CW) is still under debate though meteorological excitations are now more preferred. However, controversial results have been obtained: Gross [2000] and Gross et al. [2003] suggested oceanic processes are more efficient to excite the CW than atmospheric ones during 1980 - 2000. Brzezinski and Nastula [2002] concluded that their contributions are almost the same, and they can only provide ~80% of the power needed to maintain the CW observed during 1985 - 1996. Polar motion excitations involve not only the perturbations within the Earth system (namely, mass redistributions and motions of relative to the mantle), but also the Earth's responses to those perturbations (namely, the rheology of the Earth). Chen et al. [2013a] developed an improved theory for polar motion excitation taking into account the Earth's frequency-dependent responses, of which the polar motion transfer functions are ~10% higher than those of previous theories around the CW band. Chen et al. [2013b] compared the geophysical excitations derived from various global atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological models (NCEP, ECCO, ERA40, ERAinterim and ECMWF operational products), and found significant and broad-band discrepancies for models released by different institutes. In addition, the atmosphere, ocean and hydrology models are usually developed in a somewhat independent manner and thus the global (atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological) mass is not conserved [e.g., Yan and Chao, 2012]. Therefore, the matter-term excitations estimated from those models are problematic. In one word, it is unlikely to obtain reliable conclusions on meteorological excitations of CW on the basis of the original meteorological models. Satellite gravimetry can measure mass transportations caused by atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological processes much more accurately than those provided by the original meteorological models, and can force the global (atmospheric, oceanic and

  5. The occurrence of uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate in quail egg white and characteristic distribution of sulfated sugar nucleotides in different avian eggs.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Y; Okuda, S; Tsuji, M; Suzuki, S

    1979-08-29

    A sulfated sugar nucleotide has been isolated from quail egg white, and accounts for nearly 80% of the total sugar nucleotides found in the egg white. Evidence is presented that this nucleotide is uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate, an isomer of the 4-sulfated derivative of uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine previously found in chicken egg white. Further studies on the distribution of sulfated sugar nucleotides in egg white of various birds (chicken, quail, pheasant, peafowl, turkey, goose, and duck) demonstrate that each species has a characteristic composition, differing from one another regarding the relative amounts of 4-sulfated, 6-sulfated, and 4,6-bissulfated derivatives of uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine.

  6. A novel procedure for purification of uridine 5'-monophosphate based on adsorption methodology using a hyper-cross-linked resin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Yanan; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhuang, Wei; Jiao, Pengfei; Ke, Xu; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-05-01

    The conventional ion exchange process used for recovery of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) from the enzymatic hydrolysate of RNA is environmentally harmful and cost intensive. In this work, an innovative benign process, which comprises adsorption technology and use of a hyper-cross-linked resin as a stationary phase is proposed. The adsorption properties of this kind of resin in terms of adsorption equilibrium as well as kinetics were evaluated. The influences of the operating conditions, i.e., initial UMP concentration, feed flow rate, and bed height on the breakthrough curves of UMP in the fixed bed system were investigated. Subsequently, a chromatographic column model was established and validated for the prediction of the experimentally attained breakthrough curves of UMP and the main impurity component (phosphate ion) with a real enzymatic hydrolysate of RNA as a feed mixture. At the end of this paper, the crystallization of UMP was carried out. The purity of the final product (uridine 5'-monophosphate disodium, UMPNa2) of over 99.5 % was obtained.

  7. In vivo protective effect of Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, on genotoxicity induced by Levodopa/Carbidopa in mice.

    PubMed

    Orenlili Yaylagul, Esra; Cansev, Mehmet; Celikler Kasimogullari, Serap

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people all over the world. Motor symptoms of PD are most commonly controlled by L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Levodopa, L-DOPA), a precursor of dopamine, plus a peripherally-acting aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase) inhibitor, such as carbidopa. However, chronic treatment with a combination of Levodopa plus carbidopa has been demonstrated to cause a major complication, namely abnormal involuntary movements. On the other hand, the effect of this treatment on bone marrow cells is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate possible genotoxic effects of Levodopa and Carbidopa using male Balb/C mice. Our results showed that Levodopa alone or in combination with carbidopa caused genotoxicity in in vivo micronucleus test (mouse bone marrow) and Comet assay (blood cells). Furthermore, we showed that simultaneous administration of uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, reversed the genotoxic effect of Levodopa and Carbidopa in both assays. Our data show for the first time that Levodopa plus carbidopa combination causes genotoxicity which is reversed by uridine treatment. These findings might enhance our understanding for the complications of a common Parkinson's treatment and confer benefit in terms of reducing a possible genotoxic effect of this treatment.

  8. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent vascular responses to purinergic agonists adenosine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate in the anesthetized mouse.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mrugeshkumar K; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism by which purinergic agonist adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) decrease systemic arterial pressure in the anesthetized mouse was investigated. Intravenous injections of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) produced dose-dependent decreases in systemic blood pressure in the mouse. The order of potency was ATP > UTP. Vasodilator responses to ATP and UTP were altered by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram. The vascular responses to ATP and UTP were not altered by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or a particular P2 receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ATP and UTP cause a decrease in systemic arterial pressure in the mouse via a cAMP-dependent pathway via a novel P2 receptor linked to adenylate cyclase and that nitric oxide release, prostaglandin synthesis, cGMP, and P2X1, P2Y1, and P2Y4 receptors play little or no role in the vascular effects of these purinergic agonists in the mouse.

  9. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fakeng; Jin, Rui; Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-19

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells.

  10. S-(N-dansylaminoethyl)-6-mercaptoguanosine as a fluorescent probe for the uridine transport system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shohami, E; Koren, R

    1979-02-15

    A fluorescent derivative of 6-mercaptoguanosine, S-(N-dansylaminoethyl)-6-mercaptoguanosine, was synthesized, and found to be a strong inhibitor of the uridine transport system of erythrocyte (Ki approximately 0.3 microM). The emission spectrum of this compound has peaks at 400 and 550 nm. The emission at 550, but not that a 400 nm, in environment-sensitive. A method was devised for preparing a suspension of erythrocyte-membrane fragments with sufficiently low light scattering so that a detailed study could be made of the fluorescence of the probe when bound to membranes. Direct binding measurements showed the existence of a tight binding site, with a dissociation constant of the same order of magnitude as the inhibition constant. Binding of probe and substrate are not mutually exclusive, but the fluorescence and affinity of the bound probe are sensitive to the presence of uridine. The emission spectrum suggests that the bound probe penetrates into the bilayer region of the membrane.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase complexed with 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Shtil, A. A.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of uridine to form ribose 1-phosphate and uracil. This enzyme also activates pyrimidine-containing drugs, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In order to better understand the mechanism of the enzyme–drug interaction, the complex of Salmonella typhimurium UPh with 5-FU was cocrystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 294 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution. Analysis of these data revealed that the crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 158.26, b = 93.04, c = 149.87 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 90.65°. The solvent content was 45.85% assuming the presence of six hexameric molecules of the complex in the unit cell. PMID:19478441

  12. Emergency use of uridine triacetate for the prevention and treatment of life‐threatening 5‐fluorouracil and capecitabine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif; El‐Rayes, Bassel F.; Fakih, Marwan G.; Cartwright, Thomas H.; Posey, James A.; King, Thomas R.; von Borstel, Reid W.; Bamat, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased susceptibility to 5‐fluorouracil (5‐FU)/capecitabine can lead to rapidly occurring toxicity caused by impaired clearance, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, and other genetic variations in the enzymes that metabolize 5‐FU. Life‐threatening 5‐FU overdoses occur because of infusion pump errors, dosage miscalculations, and accidental or suicidal ingestion of capecitabine. Uridine triacetate (Vistogard) was approved in 2015 for adult and pediatric patients who exhibit early‐onset severe or life‐threatening 5‐FU/capecitabine toxicities or present with an overdose. Uridine triacetate delivers high concentrations of uridine, which competes with toxic 5‐FU metabolites. METHODS In 2 open‐label clinical studies, patients who presented with a 5‐FU/capecitabine overdose or an early onset of severe toxicities were treated. Patients received uridine triacetate as soon as possible (most within the first 96 hours after 5‐FU/capecitabine). Outcomes included survival, resumption of chemotherapy, and safety. Their survival was compared with the survival of a historical cohort of overdose patients who received only supportive care. RESULTS A total of 137 of 142 overdose patients (96%) treated with uridine triacetate survived and had a rapid reversal of severe acute cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity; in addition, mucositis and leukopenia were prevented, or the patients recovered from them. In the historical cohort, 21 of 25 patients (84%) died. Among the 141 uridine triacetate–treated overdose patients with a diagnosis of cancer (the noncancer patients included 6 intentional or accidental pediatric overdoses), 53 resumed chemotherapy in < 30 days (median time after 5‐FU, 19.6 days), and this indicated a rapid recovery from toxicity. Adverse reactions in patients receiving uridine triacetate included vomiting (8.1%), nausea (4.6%), and diarrhea (3.5%). CONCLUSIONS In these studies, uridine triacetate was a safe and effective

  13. SU-E-T-666: Radionuclides and Activity of the Patient Apertures Used in a Proton Beam of Wobbling System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.Y.; Chen, H.H.; Tsai, H.Y.; Sheu, R.J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity of the patient apertures used in a 190-MeV proton beam of wobbling system. Methods: A proton beam of wobbling system in the first proton center in Taiwan, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, was used to bombard the patient apertures. The patient aperture was composed of 60.5 % copper, 39.4 % Zinc, 0.05 % iron, 0.05 % lead. A protable high-purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector was used to measure the spectra of the induced nuclides of patient apertures. The analysis of the spectra and the identification of the radionuclides were preliminarily operated by the Nuclide Navigator III Master Library. On the basis of the results by Nuclide Navigator III Master Library, we manually selected the reliable nuclides by the gamma-ray energies, branching ratio, and half life. In the spectra, we can quantify the activity of radionuclides by the Monte Carlo efficiency transfer method. Results: In this study, the radioisotopes activated in patient apertures by the 190-MeV proton beam were divided into two categories. The first category is long half-life radionuclides, such as Co-56 (half life, 77.3 days). Other radionuclides of Cu-60, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-66, and Zn-62 have shorter half life. The radionuclide of Cu-60 had the highest activity. From calculation with the efficiency transfer method, the deviations between the computed results and the measured efficiencies were mostly within 10%. Conclusion: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity helps us to estimate proper time intervals for cooling the patient apertures. This study was supported by the grants from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0682)

  14. How many tautomerization pathways connect Watson-Crick-like G*·T DNA base mispair and wobble mismatches?

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have theoretically demonstrated the intrinsic ability of the wobble G·T(w)/G*·T*(w)/G·T(w1)/G·T(w2) and Watson-Crick-like G*·T(WC) DNA base mispairs to interconvert into each other via the DPT tautomerization. We have established that among all these transitions, only one single G·T(w) ↔ G*·T(WC) pathway is eligible from a biological perspective. It involves short-lived intermediate - the G·T*(WC) base mispair - and is governed by the planar, highly stable, and zwitterionic [Formula: see text] transition state stabilized by the participation of the unique pattern of the five intermolecular O6(+)H⋯O4(-), O6(+)H⋯N3(-), N1(+)H⋯N3(-), N1(+)H⋯O2(-), and N2(+)H⋯O2(-) H-bonds. This non-dissociative G·T(w) ↔ G*·T(WC) tautomerization occurs without opening of the pair: Bases within mispair remain connected by 14 different patterns of the specific intermolecular interactions that successively change each other along the IRC. Novel kinetically controlled mechanism of the thermodynamically non-equilibrium spontaneous point GT/TG incorporation errors has been suggested. The mutagenic effect of the analogues of the nucleotide bases, in particular 5-bromouracil, can be attributed to the decreasing of the barrier of the acquisition by the wobble pair containing these compounds of the enzymatically competent Watson-Crick's geometry via the intrapair mutagenic tautomerization directly in the essentially hydrophobic recognition pocket of the replication DNA-polymerase machinery. Proposed approaches are able to explain experimental data, namely growth of the rate of the spontaneous point incorporation errors during DNA biosynthesis with increasing temperature.

  15. Amino acid residues in ribonuclease MC1 from bitter gourd seeds which are essential for uridine specificity.

    PubMed

    Numata, T; Suzuki, A; Yao, M; Tanaka, I; Kimura, M

    2001-01-16

    The ribonuclease MC1 (RNase MC1), isolated from seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), consists of 190 amino acids and is characterized by specific cleavage at the 5'-side of uridine. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to evaluate the contribution of four amino acids, Asn71, Val72, Leu73, and Arg74, at the alpha4-alpha5 loop between alpha4 and alpha5 helices for recognition of uracil base by RNase MC1. Four mutants, N71T, V72L, L73A, and R74S, in which Asn71, Val72, Leu73, and Arg74 in RNase MC1 were substituted for the corresponding amino acids, Thr, Leu, Ala, and Ser, respectively, in a guanylic acid preferential RNase NW from Nicotiana glutinosa, were prepared and characterized with respect to enzymatic activity. Kinetic analysis with a dinucleoside monophosphate, CpU, showed that the mutant N71T exhibited 7.0-fold increased K(m) and 2.3-fold decreased k(cat), while the mutant L73A had 14.4-fold increased K(m), although it did retain the k(cat) value comparable to that of the wild-type. In contrast, replacements of Val72 and Arg74 by the corresponding amino acids Leu and Ser, respectively, had little effect on the enzymatic activity. This observation is consistent with findings in the crystal structure analysis that Asn71 and Leu73 are responsible for a uridine specificity for RNase MC1. The role of Asn71 in enzymatic reaction of RNase MC1 was further investigated by substituting amino acids Ala, Ser, Gln, and Asp. Our observations suggest that Asn71 has at least two roles: one is base recognition by hydrogen bonding, and the other is to stabilize the conformation of the alpha4-alpha5 loop by hydrogen bonding to the peptide backbone, events which possibly result in an appropriate orientation of the alpha-helix (alpha5) containing active site residues. Mutants N71T and N71S showed a remarkable shift from uracil to guanine specificity, as evaluated by cleavage of CpG, although they did exhibit uridine specificity against yeast RNA and homopolynucleotides.

  16. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A. Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} = 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  17. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  18. Syn- and anti-conformations of 5'-deoxy- and 5'-O-methyl-uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Grabarkiewicz, Tomasz; Hoffmann, Marcin

    2006-01-01

    Two uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (cUMP) derivatives, 5'-deoxy (DcUMP) and 5'-O-methyl (McUMP), were studied by means of quantum chemical methods. Aqueous solvent effects were estimated based on the isodensity-surface polarized-continuum model (IPCM). Gas phase calculations revealed only slight energy differences between the syn- and anti-conformers of both compounds: the relative energies of the syn-structure are -0.9 and 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for DcUMP and McUMP, respectively. According to the results from the IPCM calculations, however, both syn-conformers become about 14 kcal mol(-1) more stable in aqueous solution than their corresponding anti-structures. Additionally, the effects of a countercation and protonation on DcUMP were studied, revealing that the syn-structure is also favored over the anti-one for these systems.

  19. Theoretical pKa prediction of the α-phosphate moiety of uridine 5‧-diphosphate-GlcNAc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperla, Bhavaniprasad; Griffiths, Thomas M.; Wang, Xingyong; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    The pKa value of the α-phosphate moiety of uridine 5‧-diphosphate-GlcNAc (UDP-GlcNAc) has been successfully calculated using density functional theory methods in conjunction with the Polarizable Continuum Models. Theoretical methods were benchmarked over a dataset comprising of alkyl phosphates. B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations using SMD solvation model provide excellent agreement with the experimental data. The predicted pKa for UDP-GlcNAc is consistent with most recent NMR studies but much higher than what it has long been thought to be. The importance of this study is evident that the predicted pKa for UDP-GlcNAc supports its potential role as a catalytic base in the substrate-assisted biocatalysis.

  20. Reparameterization of RNA chi Torsion Parameters for the AMBER Force Field and Comparison to NMR Spectra for Cytidine and Uridine.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ilyas; Stern, Harry A; Kennedy, Scott D; Tubbs, Jason D; Turner, Douglas H

    2010-05-11

    A reparameterization of the torsional parameters for the glycosidic dihedral angle, chi, for the AMBER99 force field in RNA nucleosides is used to provide a modified force field, AMBER99chi. Molecular dynamics simulations of cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and guanosine in aqueous solution using the AMBER99 and AMBER99chi force fields are compared with NMR results. For each nucleoside and force field, 10 individual molecular dynamics simulations of 30 ns each were run. For cytidine with AMBER99chi force field, each molecular dynamics simulation time was extended to 120 ns for convergence purposes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, including one-dimensional (1D) (1)H, steady-state 1D (1)H nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), and transient 1D (1)H NOE, was used to determine the sugar puckering and preferred base orientation with respect to the ribose of cytidine and uridine. The AMBER99 force field overestimates the population of syn conformations of the base orientation and of C2'-endo sugar puckering of the pyrimidines, while the AMBER99chi force field's predictions are more consistent with NMR results. Moreover, the AMBER99 force field prefers high anti conformations with glycosidic dihedral angles around 310 degrees for the base orientation of purines. The AMBER99chi force field prefers anti conformations around 185 degrees , which is more consistent with the quantum mechanical calculations and known 3D structures of folded ribonucleic acids (RNAs). Evidently, the AMBER99chi force field predicts the structural characteristics of ribonucleosides better than the AMBER99 force field and should improve structural and thermodynamic predictions of RNA structures.

  1. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  2. Feature extraction of micro-motion frequency and the maximum wobble angle in a small range of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Jiang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. In this paper, a simplified cone-shaped model for ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation is established, followed by the theoretical formula of micro-nutation is derived. It is confirmed that the theoretical results are identical to simulation results by using short-time Fourier transform. Then we propose a new method for nutation period extraction via signature maximum energy fitting based on empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform. The maximum wobble angle is also extracted by distance approximate approach in a small range of wobble angle, which is combined with the maximum likelihood estimation. By the simulation studies, it is shown that these two feature extraction methods are both valid even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Low viscosity of the bottom of the Earth's mantle inferred from the decay time of Chandler wobble and tidal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, M.; Karato, S.

    2011-12-01

    Viscosity of the D" layer of the Earth's mantle, the lowermost layer in the Earth's mantle, plays an important role in the dynamics and evolution of the Earth. That is, its rheological properties control a number of important geodynamic processes such as the mantle dynamics and the material exchange between the mantle and core. However, inferring the viscosity of this region is difficult because of the lack of relevant geodynamic observations. Two methods have been used to infer the rheological properties of Earth's mantle. One is to use the observed time-dependent deformation associated with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and another is to analyze gravity-related observations in terms of the density distributions inside of the mantle. The GIA observations for the relative sea level have little sensitivity to the viscosity of the mantle deeper than ~1200 km. The latter approach can be applied to Earth's deep interior because density variation driving mantle flow can occur in the deep interior of the Earth and resultant gravity signals can be measured at the Earth's surface. However, the gravity signals in terms of heterogeneity in seismic wave velocities suffer from major uncertainties in the velocity-to-density conversion factor, particularly in the deep mantle where the temperature sensitivity of seismic wave velocities decreases due to high pressure. In this paper, we show that the decay time of Chandler wobble and semi-diurnal to 18.6 years tidal deformation combined with the constraints from the GIA observations provide a strong constraint on the viscosity of this layer. In inferring the viscosity structure of the D" layer, we first examine the validity of the Maxwell model based on the microscopic models of rheological properties of Earth materials. That is, we confirm that the Maxwell model is a good approximation at least for the Chandler wobble and 18.6 years tide. The decay time of Chandler wobble (30-300 years) indicates the effective viscosity

  4. The absence of A-to-I editing in the anticodon of plant cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG demands a relaxation of the wobble decoding rules.

    PubMed

    Aldinger, Carolin A; Leisinger, Anne-Katrin; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A; Igloi, Gabor L

    2012-10-01

    It is a prevalent concept that, in line with the Wobble Hypothesis, those tRNAs having an adenosine in the first position of the anticodon become modified to an inosine at this position. Sequencing the cDNA derived from the gene coding for cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG from several higher plants as well as mass spectrometric analysis of the isoacceptor has revealed that for this kingdom an unmodified A in the wobble position of the anticodon is the rule rather than the exception. In vitro translation shows that in the plant system the absence of inosine in the wobble position of tRNA (Arg) does not prevent decoding. This isoacceptor belongs to the class of tRNA that is imported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria of higher plants. Previous studies on the mitochondrial tRNA pool have demonstrated the existence of tRNA (Arg) ICG in this organelle. In moss the mitochondrial encoded distinct tRNA (Arg) ACG isoacceptor possesses the I34 modification. The implication is that for mitochondrial protein biosynthesis A-to-I editing is necessary and occurs by a mitochondrion-specific deaminase after import of the unmodified nuclear encoded tRNA (Arg) ACG.

  5. O⁶-carboxymethylguanine in DNA forms a sequence context-dependent wobble base-pair structure with thymine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Tsunoda, Masaru; Kikuchi, Yuji; Wilkinson, Oliver; Millington, Christopher L; Margison, Geoffrey P; Williams, David M; Takénaka, Akio

    2014-06-01

    N-Nitrosation of glycine and its derivatives generates potent alkylating agents that can lead to the formation of O(6)-carboxymethylguanine (O(6)-CMG) in DNA. O(6)-CMG has been identified in DNA derived from human colon tissue and its occurrence has been linked to diets high in red and processed meats, implying an association with the induction of colorectal cancer. By analogy to O(6)-methylguanine, O(6)-CMG is expected to be mutagenic, inducing G-to-A mutations that may be the molecular basis of increased cancer risk. Previously, the crystal structure of the DNA dodecamer d(CGCG[O(6)-CMG]ATTCGCG) has been reported, in which O(6)-CMG forms a Watson-Crick-type pair with thymine similar to the canonical A:T pair. In order to further investigate the versatility of O(6)-CMG in base-pair formation, the structure of the DNA dodecamer d(CGC[O(6)-CMG]AATTTGCG) containing O(6)-CMG at a different position has been determined by X-ray crystallography using four crystal forms obtained under conditions containing different solvent ions (Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) or Na(+)) with and without Hoechst 33258. The most striking finding is that the pairing modes of O(6)-CMG with T are quite different from those previously reported. In the present dodecamer, the T bases are displaced (wobbled) into the major groove to form a hydrogen bond between the thymine N(3) N-H and the carboxyl group of O(6)-CMG. In addition, a water molecule is bridged through two hydrogen bonds between the thymine O(2) atom and the 2-amino group of O(6)-CMG to stabilize the pairing. These interaction modes commonly occur in the four crystal forms, regardless of the differences in crystallization conditions. The previous and the present results show that O(6)-CMG can form a base pair with T in two alternative modes: the Watson-Crick type and a high-wobble type, the nature of which may depend on the DNA-sequence context.

  6. Low viscosity of the bottom of the Earth's mantle inferred from the analysis of Chandler wobble and tidal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masao; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2012-02-01

    Viscosity of the D″ layer of the Earth's mantle, the lowermost layer in the Earth's mantle, controls a number of geodynamic processes, but a robust estimate of its viscosity has been hampered by the lack of relevant observations. A commonly used analysis of geophysical signals in terms of heterogeneity in seismic wave velocities suffers from major uncertainties in the velocity-to-density conversion factor, and the glacial rebound observations have little sensitivity to the D″ layer viscosity. We show that the decay of Chandler wobble and semi-diurnal to 18.6 years tidal deformation combined with the constraints from the postglacial isostatic adjustment observations suggest that the effective viscosity in the bottom ˜300 km layer is 1019-1020 Pa s, and also the effective viscosity of the bottom part of the D″ layer (˜100 km thickness) is less than 1018 Pa s. Such a viscosity structure of the D″ layer would be a natural consequence of a steep temperature gradient in the D″ layer, and will facilitate small scale convection and melt segregation in the D″ layer.

  7. The ribosome prohibits the G•U wobble geometry at the first position of the codon–anticodon helix

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, Alexey; Westhof, Eric; Yusupov, Marat; Yusupova, Gulnara

    2016-01-01

    Precise conversion of genetic information into proteins is essential to cellular health. However, a margin of error exists and is at its highest on the stage of translation of mRNA by the ribosome. Here we present three crystal structures of 70S ribosome complexes with messenger RNA and transfer RNAs and show that when a G•U base pair is at the first position of the codon–anticodon helix a conventional wobble pair cannot form because of inescapable steric clash between the guanosine of the A codon and the key nucleotide of decoding center adenosine 1493 of 16S rRNA. In our structure the rigid ribosomal decoding center, which is identically shaped for cognate or near-cognate tRNAs, forces this pair to adopt a geometry close to that of a canonical G•C pair. We further strengthen our hypothesis that spatial mimicry due either to base tautomerism or ionization dominates the translation infidelity mechanism. PMID:27174928

  8. DPT tautomerisation of the wobble guanine·thymine DNA base mispair is not mutagenic: QM and QTAIM arguments.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Zhurakivsky, Roman O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    We have shown for the first time, connecting QM methods with QTAIM analysis and using the methodology of the sweeps of the energetical, electron-topological and geometrical parameters, that the tautomerisation of the wobble guanine·thymine (wG·T) DNA base mispair into the wG(*)·T(*) base mispair induced by the double proton transfer (DPT), which undergoes a concerted asynchronous pathway, is not mutagenic. The wG·T → wG(*)·T(*) DPT tautomerisation does not result in the transition of the G base into its mutagenic tautomeric form G(*) able to mispair with the T base within the Watson-Crick base pairing scheme. This observation is explained by the so-called quantum protection of the wG·T DNA base mispair from its mutagenic tautomerisation - the dynamical non-stability of the tautomerised wG(*)·T(*) base mispair and significantly negative value of the Gibbs free energy of activation for the reverse reaction of the wG·T → wG(*)·T(*) DPT tautomerisation.

  9. Selective Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2) Inhibitors: Nucleotide Mimetics Derived from Uridine-5′-carboxamide†

    PubMed Central

    Brunschweiger, Andreas; Iqbal, Jamshed; Umbach, Frank; Scheiff, Anja B.; Munkonda, Mercedes N.; Sévigny, Jean; Knowles, Aileen F.; Müller, Christa E

    2016-01-01

    Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases, subtypes 1, 2, 3, 8 of NTPDases) dephosphorylate nucleoside tri- and diphosphates to the corresponding di- and monophosphates. In the present study we synthesized adenine and uracil nucleotide mimetics, in which the phosphate residues were replaced by phosphonic acid esters attached to the nucleoside at the 5′-position by amide linkers. Among the synthesized uridine derivatives, we identified the first potent and selective inhibitors of human NTPDase2. The most potent compound was 19a (PSB-6426), which was a competitive inhibitor of NTPDase2 exhibiting a Ki value of 8.2 μM and selectivity versus other NTPDases. It was inactive toward uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptor subtypes. Compound 19a was chemically and metabolically highly stable. In contrast to the few known (unselective) NTPDase inhibitors, 19a is an uncharged molecule and may be perorally bioavailable. NTPDase2 inhibitors have potential as novel cardioprotective drugs for the treatment of stroke and for cancer therapy. PMID:18630897

  10. Kinetic Isotope Effects and Stereochemical Studies on a Ribonuclease Model: Hydrolysis Reactions of Uridine 3'-Nitrophenyl Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hengge; Bruzik; Tobin; Cleland; Tsai

    2000-06-01

    The reactions of a ribonuclease model substrate, the compound uridine-3'-p-nitrophenyl phosphate, have been examined using heavy-atom isotope effects and stereochemical analysis. The cyclization of this compound is subject to catalysis by general base (by imidazole buffer), specific base (by carbonate buffer), and by acid. All three reactions proceed by the same mechanistic sequence, via cyclization to cUMP, which is stable under basic conditions but which is rapidly hydrolyzed to a mixture of 2'- and 3'-UMP under acid conditions. The isotope effects indicate that the specific base-catalyzed reaction exhibits an earlier transition state with respect to bond cleavage to the leaving group compared to the general base-catalyzed reaction. Stereochemical analysis indicates that both of the base-catalyzed reactions proceed with the same stereochemical outcome. It is concluded that the difference in the nucleophile in the two base-catalyzed reactions results in a difference in the transition state structure but both reactions are most likely concerted, with no phosphorane intermediate. The (15)N isotope effects were also measured for the reaction of the substrate with ribonuclease A. The results indicate that considerably less negative charge develops on the leaving group in the transition state than for the general base-catalyzed reaction in solution. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase activity in normal and rheumatoid synovium: the description of a specialized synovial lining cell.

    PubMed

    Pitsillides, A A; Wilkinson, L S; Mehdizadeh, S; Bayliss, M T; Edwards, J C

    1993-02-01

    Although synovial lining cells (SLC) have been implicated in the production of hyaluronan (HA), which is found at particularly high concentrations in synovial fluid, the degree to which individual cells within the synovium are adapted to this particular function remains to be elucidated. Uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase (UDPGD) activity is the irreversible, rate-limiting step in the production of UDP-glucuronate, an essential monosaccharide in the synthesis of HA. We have assessed the UDPGD activity, microdensitometrically, in individual lining cells of normal and rheumatoid (RA) synovium, using a modified quantitative cytochemical method. In normal synovium, high activity was confined to the cells of the lining with negligible activity in the deeper subintima. The mean UDPGD activity/cell in lining cells of rheumatoid synovium was significantly lower than the activity in normal SLC. In some samples of RA and normal synovium, a bimodal distribution of cells was evident in the lining on the basis of UDPGD activity, a zone of cells in the basal layers with high UDPGD activity and a separate population of cells in more superficial layers with relatively low UDPGD activity. The results suggest that a particular population of cells is present, consistently in normal and more variably in RA synovial lining, which have high UDPGD activity/cell and may be involved in the production of HA. Furthermore, in RA synovium both the UDPGD activity/cell and the relative proportion of these cells within the lining appear to be decreased.

  12. The effect of chemical modification of 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine on tRNA function.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S

    1979-08-10

    The minor base 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine (acp3U) in Escherichia coli tRNAPhe was acylated with the N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of acetic, phenoxy-acetic, and naphthoxyacetic acid, as well as the ester of 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl (dansyl)-glycine. The derivatives of tRNAPhe formed were all capable of accepting phenylalanine. There were only minor effects on the kinetic parameters of these derivatives for E. coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. There was no effect on the ability of tRNAPhe to participate in poly(U)- or poly(ACU)-directed polypeptide synthesis or in the poly(U)-stimulated binding to E. coli ribosomes. The rate of photodynamic cross-linking of 4-Srd 8 to Cyd 13 was decreased in tRNAs containing the acetyl and dansyl-glycyl derivatives of acp3U, indicating that acylation of this base may perturb the tertiary structure of the tRNA. This base in tRNAPhe does not appear to play any role in the known biological functions of tRNAPhe.

  13. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  14. The viscosity structure of the D″ layer of the Earth's mantle inferred from the analysis of Chandler wobble and tidal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masao; Iriguchi, Chihiro; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2012-10-01

    The viscosity structure of the D″ layer of the Earth's mantle is inferred from the decay time of the Chandler wobble and semi-diurnal to 18.6 years tidal deformations combined with model viscosity-depth profiles corresponding to a range of temperature-depth models. We use two typical temperature profiles of the D″ layer by considering its dynamic state: (i) bottom thermal boundary layer of the mantle convection (TBL model) and (ii) vigorously small-scale convecting layer (CON model). Three possible models are derived from the comparison between the numerical and observationally inferred decay times of Chandler wobble and tidal deformation. The first and second models are those with a viscosity of ˜1016 Pa s at the core-mantle boundary. The temperature gradient for the first one, TBL model with a thickness of the D″ layer (L) of ˜200 km, is nearly constant within the D″ layer. The second one, TBL and CON models with L ˜ 300 km, requires that the temperature gradient of the lower part (˜100 km thickness) is larger than that of the upper part. The temperature increases within the D″ layer for these two models are larger than ˜1500 K. The third model has a constant low viscosity layer (˜100 km thickness and viscosity smaller than ˜1017 Pa s) at the bottom of the D″ layer in TBL (L ˜ 200 and 300 km) and CON (L ˜ 300 km) models. The temperature increases would be 1000-1600 K depending on the viscosity at the top of the D″ layer (1021-1022 Pa s). The heat flows from the core to the mantle for these three models are estimated to be larger than ˜5 TW. The third model may be preferable after comprehensively taking account of the fitness of the decay time of the Chandler wobble and the tidal deformations for each model.

  15. SU-E-T-594: Out-Of-Field Neutron and Gamma Dose Estimated Using TLD-600/700 Pairs in the Wobbling Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Lin, Y; Tsai, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Secondary fast neutrons and gamma rays are mainly produced due to the interaction of the primary proton beam with the beam delivery nozzle. These secondary radiation dose to patients and radiation workers are unwanted. The purpose of this study is to estimate the neutron and gamma dose equivalent out of the treatment volume during the wobbling proton therapy system. Methods: Two types of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF: Mg, Ti) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF: Mg, Ti) were used in this study. They were calibrated in the standard neutron and gamma sources at National Standards Laboratory. Annealing procedure is 400°C for 1 hour, 100°C for 2 hours and spontaneously cooling down to the room temperature in a programmable oven. Two-peak method (a kind of glow curve analysis technique) was used to evaluate the TL response corresponding to the neutron and gamma dose. The TLD pairs were placed outside the treatment field at the neutron-gamma mixed field with 190-MeV proton beam produced by the wobbling system through the polyethylene plate phantom. The results of TLD measurement were compared to the Monte Carlo simulation. Results: The initial experiment results of calculated dose equivalents are 0.63, 0.38, 0.21 and 0.13 mSv per Gy outside the field at the distance of 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm. Conclusion: The TLD-600 and TLD-700 pairs are convenient to estimate neutron and gamma dosimetry during proton therapy. However, an accurate and suitable glow curve analysis technique is necessary. During the wobbling system proton therapy, our results showed that the neutron and gamma doses outside the treatment field are noticeable. This study was supported by the grants from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0682)

  16. AM-2201 Inhibits Multiple Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5'-Diphospho-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kong, Tae Yeon; Cheong, Jae Chul; Kim, Hee Seung; In, Moon Kyo; Lee, Hye Suk

    2017-03-10

    AM-2201 is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a potent agonist at cannabinoid receptors and its abuse has increased. However, there are no reports of the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) or uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on the activities of eight major human CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and six major human UGTs (1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) enzymes in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate drug interaction potentials of AM-2201. AM-2201 potently inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, UGT1A3-catalyzed chenodeoxycholic acid 24-acyl-glucuronidation, and UGT2B7-catalyzed naloxone 3-glucuronidation with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, and 10.0 μM, respectively, and showed mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation with a Ki value of 2.1 μM. It negligibly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities at 50 μM in human liver microsomes. These in vitro results indicate that AM-2201 needs to be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo due to its potent inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and UGT2B7 enzyme activities.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of Vibrio cholerae uridine phosphorylase in complex with thymidine

    PubMed Central

    Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdulkhakov, Azat G.; Prokofev, Igor I.; Seregina, Tatyana A.; Sotnichenko, Sergey E.; Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Shtil, Alexander A.; Mironov, Alexander S.; Betzel, Christian; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2012-01-01

    A high-resolution structure of the complex of Vibrio cholerae uridine phosphorylase (VchUPh) with its physiological ligand thymidine is important in order to determine the mechanism of the substrate specificity of the enzyme and for the rational design of pharmacological modulators. Here, the expression and purification of VchUPh and the crystallization of its complex with thymidine are reported. Conditions for crystallization were determined with an automated Cartesian Dispensing System using The Classics, MbClass and MbClass II Suites crystallization kits. Crystals of the VchUPh–thymidine complex (of dimensions ∼200–350 µm) were grown by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in ∼7 d at 291 K. The crystallization solution consisted of 1.5 µl VchUPh (15 mg ml−1), 1 µl 0.1 M thymidine and 1.5 µl reservoir solution [15%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.2 M MgCl2.6H2O in 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5]. The crystals diffracted to 2.12 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21 (No. 4), with unit-cell parameters a = 91.80, b = 95.91, c = 91.89 Å, β = 119.96°. The Matthews coefficient was calculated as 2.18 Å3 Da−1; the corresponding solvent content was 43.74%. PMID:23143257

  18. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  19. Queuine, a tRNA anticodon wobble base, maintains the proliferative and pluripotent potential of HL-60 cells in the presence of the differentiating agent 6-thioguanine.

    PubMed

    French, B T; Patrick, D E; Grever, M R; Trewyn, R W

    1991-01-15

    6-Thioguanine (6-TG)-induced differentiation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (IMP: pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8)-deficient HL-60 cells is characterized by 2 days of growth, after which morphological differentiation proceeds. Addition of the tRNA wobble base queuine, in the presence of 6-TG, maintains the proliferative capability of the cells. The ability of 6-TG to induce differentiation correlates with c-myc mRNA down-regulation, but queuine has no effect on this parameter. Treatment with 6-TG for 2-3 days commits HL-60 cells to granulocytic differentiation, and, once committed, these cells do not respond to the monocytic inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Nonetheless, when cells are treated with queuine and 6-TG, they maintain the promyelocytic morphology and are capable of being induced down the monocytic pathway by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate as indicated by stabilization of c-fms mRNA and cell adherence. In the absence of queuine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is incapable of inducing monocytic markers in the 6-TG-treated cells. The data presented indicate that 6-TG-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells is a tRNA-facilitated event and that the tRNA wobble base queuine is capable of maintaining both the proliferative and pluripotent potential of the cells.

  20. Queuine, a tRNA anticodon wobble base, maintains the proliferative and pluripotent potential of HL-60 cells in the presence of the differentiating agent 6-thioguanine.

    PubMed Central

    French, B T; Patrick, D E; Grever, M R; Trewyn, R W

    1991-01-01

    6-Thioguanine (6-TG)-induced differentiation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (IMP: pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8)-deficient HL-60 cells is characterized by 2 days of growth, after which morphological differentiation proceeds. Addition of the tRNA wobble base queuine, in the presence of 6-TG, maintains the proliferative capability of the cells. The ability of 6-TG to induce differentiation correlates with c-myc mRNA down-regulation, but queuine has no effect on this parameter. Treatment with 6-TG for 2-3 days commits HL-60 cells to granulocytic differentiation, and, once committed, these cells do not respond to the monocytic inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Nonetheless, when cells are treated with queuine and 6-TG, they maintain the promyelocytic morphology and are capable of being induced down the monocytic pathway by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate as indicated by stabilization of c-fms mRNA and cell adherence. In the absence of queuine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is incapable of inducing monocytic markers in the 6-TG-treated cells. The data presented indicate that 6-TG-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells is a tRNA-facilitated event and that the tRNA wobble base queuine is capable of maintaining both the proliferative and pluripotent potential of the cells. Images PMID:1988936

  1. Protection by uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid and DT-diaphorase against the cytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons isolated from a complex coal gasification condensate.

    PubMed

    Swanson, M S; Haugen, D A; Reilly, C A; Stamoudis, V C

    1986-06-30

    The cytotoxicities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) subclasses isolated from a complex organic mixture (coal gasification condensate) were studied in vitro in Chinese hamster ovary cells, in the presence of rat liver microsomes from animals pretreated with Aroclor. Toxicity was enhanced by microsomal metabolism and was inversely related to aromatic ring number. Rat liver cytosol, semipurified DT-diaphorase, and uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreased the cytotoxicity of a variety of PAH mixtures and representative PAH, as well as individual PAH metabolites. The results indicate that the in vitro toxicity of complex PAH mixtures is caused primarily by hydroxy-PAH and quinone metabolites of the predominant, nonmutagenic two- and three-ring PAHs.

  2. Glycan structure and site of glycosylation in the ER-resident glycoprotein, uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferases 1 from rat, porcine, bovine, and human.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Shusaku; Seko, Akira; Ito, Yukishige; Kanie, Osamu

    2014-08-29

    Here we report glycan structures and their position of attachment to a carrier protein, uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1), as detected using tandem mass spectrometry. UGGT1 acts as a folding sensor of newly synthesized glycosylated polypeptides in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the transferase itself is known to be glycosylated. The structure of glycan attached to UGGT1, however, has not been investigated. In this study, we reveal the site of glycosylation (N269) and the glycan structures (Hex5-8HexNAc2) in UGGT1 obtained from rat (Rattus norvegicus), pig (Sus scrofa), cow (Bos taurus), and human (Homo sapiens).

  3. On the Observation of Discrete Fluorine NMR Spectra for Uridine 5′-β,γ-Fluoromethylenetriphosphate Diastereomers at Basic pH

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Jakeman et al. recently reported the inability to distinguish the diastereomers of uridine 5′-β,γ-fluoromethylenetriphosphate (β,γ-CHF-UTP, 1) by 19F NMR under conditions we previously prescribed for the resolution of the corresponding β,γ-CHF-dGTP spectra, stating further that 1 decomposed under these basic conditions. Here we show that the 19F NMR spectra of 1 (∼1:1 diastereomer mixture prepared by coupling of UMP-morpholidate with fluoromethylenebis(phosphonic acid)) in D2O at pH 10 are indeed readily distinguishable. 1 in this solution was stable for 24 h at rt. PMID:24819695

  4. The mechanisms of citrate on regulating the distribution of carbon flux in the biosynthesis of uridine 5'-monophosphate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Li, Shuya; Xiong, Jian; Li, Zhenjiang; Bai, Jianxin; Zhang, Lei; Ye, Qi; Ouyang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-03-01

    A whole cell biocatalytic process for uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) production from orotic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. The concentration of UMP was increased by 23% when 1 g l(-1) sodium citrate was fed into the broth. Effects of citrate addition on UMP production were investigated. Glucose-6-phosphate pool was elevated by onefold, while FBP and pyruvate were decreased by 42% and 40%, respectively. Organic acid pools such as acetate and succinate were averagely decreased by 30% and 49%. The results demonstrated that manipulation of citrate levels could be used as a novel tool to regulate the metabolic fluxes distribution among glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle.

  5. Conservation Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Maurice R.; Daniel, Tommy C.; Schweizer, Edward E.; Allmaras, Raymond R.

    1985-11-01

    Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more.

  6. Wobbly Corner: Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Lisa; Maklad, Rania; Dunne, Mick; Grace, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    During a final seminar with BA year 4 science specialist trainee teachers, the authors posed a question about the difficulties associated with understanding magnetism. The ensuing discussion focused on a number of concerns commonly identified by students, which may also be of interest to classroom teachers teaching magnetism. Issues raised…

  7. Tilting a wobbly chair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-03-01

    If a small object is placed under the front leg of a chair, the chair tilts backwards. If the object is placed under a rear leg, the chair tilts sideways. The effect is surprising but can be analysed in terms of elementary physics.

  8. Three-dimensional structures of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 1.4 Å resolution and its complex with an antibacterial drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Uridine phosphorylases play an essential role in the cellular metabolism of some antibacterial agents. Acute infectious diseases (bubonic plague, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc., caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia) are treated using both sulfanilamide medicines and antibiotics, including trimethoprim. The action of an antibiotic on a bacterial cell is determined primarily by the character of its interactions with cellular components, including those which are not targets (for example, with pyrimidine phosphorylases). This type of interaction should be taken into account in designing drugs. The three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) with the free active site was determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography and refined at 1.40 Å resolution (DPI = 0.062 Å; ID PDB: 4OF4). The structure of the complex of YptUPh with the bacteriostatic drug trimethoprim was studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods. The trimethoprim molecule was shown to be buffered by the enzyme YptUPh, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency of the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia with trimethoprim.

  9. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  10. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  11. A genome-wide screen identifies genes required for formation of the wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Lu, Jian; Byström, Anders S.

    2008-01-01

    We recently showed that the γ-subunit of Kluyveromyces lactis killer toxin (γ-toxin) is a tRNA endonuclease that cleaves , , and 3′ of the wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U). The 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) side chain was important for efficient cleavage by γ-toxin, and defects in mcm5 side-chain synthesis correlated with resistance to γ-toxin. Based on this correlation, a genome-wide screen was performed to identify gene products involved in the formation of the mcm5 side chain. From a collection of 4826 homozygous diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, each with one nonessential gene deleted, 63 mutants resistant to Kluyveromyces lactis killer toxin were identified. Among these, eight were earlier identified to have a defect in formation of the mcm5 side chain. Analysis of the remaining mutants and other known γ-toxin resistant mutants revealed that sit4, kti14, and KTI5 mutants also have a defect in the formation of mcm5. A mutant lacking two of the Sit4-associated proteins, Sap185 and Sap190, displays the same modification defect as a sit4-null mutant. Interestingly, several mutants were found to be defective in the synthesis of the 2-thio (s2) group of the mcm5s2U nucleoside. In addition to earlier described mutants, formation of the s2 group was also abolished in urm1, uba4, and ncs2 mutants and decreased in the yor251c mutant. Like the absence of the mcm5 side chain, the lack of the s2 group renders less sensitive to γ-toxin, reinforcing the importance of the wobble nucleoside mcm5s2U for tRNA cleavage by γ-toxin. PMID:18755837

  12. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  13. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  14. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  15. Lighting Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Frank D.

    1975-01-01

    With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

  16. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  17. Efficient heterologous expression and one-step purification of fully active c-terminal histidine-tagged uridine monophosphate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Penpassakarn, Praweenuch; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit

    2011-11-01

    Tuberculosis has long been recognized as one of the most significant public health problems. Finding novel antituberculous drugs is always a necessary approach for controlling the disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrH gene (Rv2883c) encodes for uridine monophosphate kinase (UMK), which is a key enzyme in the uridine nucleotide interconversion pathway. The enzyme is essential for M. tuberculosis to sustain growth and hence is a potential drug target. In this study, we have developed a rapid protocol for production and purification of M. tuberculosis UMK by cloning pyrH (Rv2883c) of M. tuberculosis H37Rv with the addition of 6-histidine residues to the C-terminus of the protein, and expressing in E. coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL using an auto-induction medium. The enzyme was efficiently purified by a single-step TALON cobalt affinity chromatography with about 8 fold increase in specific activity, which was determined by a coupled assay with the pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The molecular mass of monomeric UMK was 28.2 kDa and that of the native enzyme was 217 kDa. The enzyme uses UMP as a substrate but not CMP and TMP and activity was enhanced by GTP. Measurements of enzyme kinetics revealed the kcat value of 7.6 +/- 0.4 U mg(-1) or 0.127 +/- 0.006 sec(-1).The protocol reported here can be used for expression of M. tuberculosis UMK in large quantity for formulating a high throughput target-based assay for screening anti-tuberculosis UMK compounds.

  18. In silico analysis of the three-dimensional structures of the homodimer of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis in the ligand-free state and in a complex with 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Sotnichenko, S. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis is an acute infectious disease characterized by a lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. A positive therapeutic effect can be achieved by selectively suppressing the activity of uridine phosphorylase from the causative agent of the disease Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The synergistic effect of a combination of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil and antimicrobial drugs, which block the synthesis of pyrimidine bases, on the cells of pathogenic protozoa and bacteria is described in the literature. The three-dimensional structures of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) both in the ligand-free state and in complexes with pharmacological agents are unknown, which hinders the search for and design of selective inhibitors of YptUPh. The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-free homodimer of YptUPh was determined by homology-based molecular modeling. The three-dimensional structure of the subunit of the YptUPh molecule belongs to α/β proteins, and its topology is a three-layer α/β/α sandwich. The subunit monomer of the YptUPh molecule consists of 38% helices and 24% β strands. A model of the homodimer structure of YptUPh in a complex with 5-FU was obtained by the molecular docking. The position of 5-FU in the active site of the molecule is very consistent with the known data on the X-ray diffraction structures of other bacterial uridine phosphorylases (the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium ( StUPh) with 5-FU, ID PDB: 4E1V and the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli ( EcUPh) with 5-FU and ribose 1-phosphate, ID PDB: 1RXC).

  19. In silico analysis of the three-dimensional structures of the homodimer of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis in the ligand-free state and in a complex with 5-fluorouracil

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkov, A. A. Sotnichenko, S. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2013-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis is an acute infectious disease characterized by a lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. A positive therapeutic effect can be achieved by selectively suppressing the activity of uridine phosphorylase from the causative agent of the disease Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The synergistic effect of a combination of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil and antimicrobial drugs, which block the synthesis of pyrimidine bases, on the cells of pathogenic protozoa and bacteria is described in the literature. The three-dimensional structures of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) both in the ligand-free state and in complexes with pharmacological agents are unknown, which hinders the search for and design of selective inhibitors of YptUPh. The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-free homodimer of YptUPh was determined by homology-based molecular modeling. The three-dimensional structure of the subunit of the YptUPh molecule belongs to {alpha}/{beta} proteins, and its topology is a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich. The subunit monomer of the YptUPh molecule consists of 38% helices and 24% {beta} strands. A model of the homodimer structure of YptUPh in a complex with 5-FU was obtained by the molecular docking. The position of 5-FU in the active site of the molecule is very consistent with the known data on the X-ray diffraction structures of other bacterial uridine phosphorylases (the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium (StUPh) with 5-FU, ID PDB: 4E1V and the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli (EcUPh) with 5-FU and ribose 1-phosphate, ID PDB: 1RXC).

  20. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  1. Variable Frequency of Plastid RNA Editing among Ferns and Repeated Loss of Uridine-to-Cytidine Editing from Vascular Plants

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution. PMID:25568947

  2. Variable frequency of plastid RNA editing among ferns and repeated loss of uridine-to-cytidine editing from vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution.

  3. Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, P.

    1995-06-01

    There are two fundamental reasons or motivations for energy conservation: (1) economics; and (2) consideration of energy - its sources and availability. Economics speaks for itself and needs little explanation: a project is undertaken, the cost is recovered in a given period of time (we hope) and our company realizes cost savings thereafter. We study and propose a project; we estimate the payback. If approved, we implement the project. Then, we eagerly watch for its effectiveness - for the proposed payback. The second consideration in regard to energy conservation might - in the foreseeable future - become by far the most important - that of availability. Very knowledgeable persons have stated that this - in reality - is the most serious problem facing our nation today. Readily available, reasonably priced energy has given to the US the high form of living experienced today. An interruption in this flow could catapult our nation in an awesome catastrophe. The energy shortage of the late 70`s might be a forerunner of such an experience.

  4. Influence of 5-HALOGENATION on the Structure of Protonated Uridine: Irmpd Action Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies of the Protonated 5-HALOURIDINES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Harrison; Hamlow, Lucas; Lee, Justin; Rodgers, M. T.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and structural diversity and the extent of post-transcriptional modification of RNA is remarkable! Presently, there are 142 different naturally-occurring and many more synthetically modified nucleosides known. Uridine (Urd) is the most commonly modified nucleoside among those that occur naturally, but has also been an important target for synthesis and development of modified nucleosides for pharmaceutical applications. Indeed, modified nucleosides are of pharmaceutical interest due to their bioactivities. In particular, 5-bromouridine (br5Urd) has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity to human immunodeficiency virus and has been used in RNA labeling studies. Halogenation is a common modification employed in pharmaceutical studies that enables systematic variation is the electronic properties of the molecule of interest due to the availability of halogen substituents that vary in size, dipole moment, polarizability, and electron withdrawing properties. In order to elucidate the influence of 5-halogenation on the intrinsic gas-phase structure and stability on the protonated form of Urd, synergistic spectroscopic and theoretical studies of the protonated forms of the 5-halouridines are performed here, where x5Urd = 5-fluorouridine (f5Urd), 5-chlorouridine (cl5Urd), br5Urd, and 5-iodouridine (i5Urd). Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectra of the protonated forms of the 5-halouridines, [x5Urd+H]+, are measured over the IR fingerprint region using the FELIX free electron laser and the hydrogen stretching region using an OPO/OPA laser from 3300-3800 wn. Complementary electronic structure calculations are performed to determine the stable low-energy conformations available to these species and to predict their IR spectra. Comparative analyses of the measured IRMPD spectra and predicted IR spectra are performed to elucidate the preferred sites of protonation, and the low-energy tautomeric conformations that are populated by

  5. S-Geranyl-2-thiouridine wobble nucleosides of bacterial tRNAs; chemical and enzymatic synthesis of S-geranylated-RNAs and their physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Sierant, Malgorzata; Leszczynska, Grazyna; Sadowska, Klaudia; Dziergowska, Agnieszka; Rozanski, Michal; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-12-15

    Recently, highly lipophilic S-geranylated derivatives of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5geS2U) and 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (cmnm5geS2U) were found at the first (wobble) anticodon position in bacterial tRNAs specific for Lys, Glu and Gln. The function and cellular biogenesis of these unique tRNAs remain poorly understood. Here, we present one direct and two post-synthetic chemical routes for preparing model geS2U-RNAs. Our experimental data demonstrate that geS2U-RNAs are more lipophilic than their parent S2U-RNAs as well as non-modified U-RNAs. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the S-geranyl-2-thiouridine-containing RNA has higher affinity toward complementary RNA strand with G opposite the modified unit than with A. Recombinant tRNA selenouridine synthase (SelU) exhibits sulfur-specific geranylation activity toward model S2U-RNA, which is composed of the anticodon-stem-loop (ASL) from the human tRNA(Lys3) sequence. In addition, the presence of magnesium ions is required to achieve appreciable geranylation efficiencies.

  6. Effect of BrU on the transition between wobble Gua-Thy and tautomeric Gua-Thy base-pairs: ab initio molecular orbital calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuya; Hoshino, Ryota; Hoshiba, Yasuhiro; Danilov, Victor I.; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2013-04-01

    We investigated transition states (TS) between wobble Guanine-Thymine (wG-T) and tautomeric G-T base-pair as well as Br-containing base-pairs by MP2 and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The obtained TS between wG-T and G*-T (asterisk is an enol-form of base) is different from TS got by the previous DFT calculation. The activation energy (17.9 kcal/mol) evaluated by our calculation is significantly smaller than that (39.21 kcal/mol) obtained by the previous calculation, indicating that our TS is more preferable. In contrast, the obtained TS and activation energy between wG-T and G-T* are similar to those obtained by the previous DFT calculation. We furthermore found that the activation energy between wG-BrU and tautomeric G-BrU is smaller than that between wG-T and tautomeric G-T. This result elucidates that the replacement of CH3 group of T by Br increases the probability of the transition reaction producing the enol-form G* and T* bases. Because G* prefers to bind to T rather than to C, and T* to G not A, our calculated results reveal that the spontaneous mutation from C to T or from A to G base is accelerated by the introduction of wG-BrU base-pair.

  7. Tautomeric transition between wobble A·C DNA base mispair and Watson-Crick-like A·C* mismatch: microstructural mechanism and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-06-21

    Here, we use MP2/DFT quantum-chemical methods combined with Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules to study the tautomeric transition between wobble A·C(w) mismatch and Watson-Crick-like A·C*(WC) base mispair, proceeding non-dissociatively via sequential proton transfer between bases through the planar, highly stable and zwitterionic TS(A∙C-)(A∙C(W)<-->A∙C&(WC)) transition state joined by the participation of (A)N6(+)H∙∙∙N4(-)(C), (A)N1(+)H∙∙∙N4(-)(C) and (A)C2(+)H∙∙∙N3(-)(C) H-bonds. Notably, the A·C(w) ↔ A·C*(WC) tautomerization reaction is accompanied by 10 unique patterns of the specific intermolecular interactions that consistently replace each other. Our data suggest that biologically significant A·C(w) → A·C*(WC) tautomerization is a kinetically controlled pathway for formation of the enzymatically competent Watson-Crick-like A·C*(WC) DNA base mispair in the essentially hydrophobic recognition pocket of the high-fidelity DNA-polymerase, responsible for the occurrence of spontaneous point AC/CA incorporation errors during DNA biosynthesis.

  8. S-Geranyl-2-thiouridine wobble nucleosides of bacterial tRNAs; chemical and enzymatic synthesis of S-geranylated-RNAs and their physicochemical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sierant, Malgorzata; Leszczynska, Grazyna; Sadowska, Klaudia; Dziergowska, Agnieszka; Rozanski, Michal; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Recently, highly lipophilic S-geranylated derivatives of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5geS2U) and 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (cmnm5geS2U) were found at the first (wobble) anticodon position in bacterial tRNAs specific for Lys, Glu and Gln. The function and cellular biogenesis of these unique tRNAs remain poorly understood. Here, we present one direct and two post-synthetic chemical routes for preparing model geS2U-RNAs. Our experimental data demonstrate that geS2U-RNAs are more lipophilic than their parent S2U-RNAs as well as non-modified U-RNAs. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the S-geranyl-2-thiouridine-containing RNA has higher affinity toward complementary RNA strand with G opposite the modified unit than with A. Recombinant tRNA selenouridine synthase (SelU) exhibits sulfur-specific geranylation activity toward model S2U-RNA, which is composed of the anticodon-stem-loop (ASL) from the human tRNALys3 sequence. In addition, the presence of magnesium ions is required to achieve appreciable geranylation efficiencies. PMID:27566149

  9. A postsynthetically 2’-“clickable” uridine with arabino configuration and its application for fluorescent labeling and imaging of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Olshausen, Bettina; Schepers, Ute

    2017-01-01

    The arabino-configured analog of uridine with a propargyl group at the 2’-position was synthesized and incorporated into DNA by solid-phase chemistry. The fluorescence quantum yields of DNA strands that were postsynthetically modified by blue and green emitting cyanine-styryl dyes were improved due to the arabino-configured anchor. These oligonucleotides were used as energy transfer donors in hybrids with oligonucleotides modified with acceptor dyes that emit in the yellow-red range. These combinations give energy transfer pairs with blue–yellow, blue–red and green–red emission color changes. All combinations of arabino- and ribo-configured donor strands with arabino- and ribo-configured acceptor strands were evaluated. This array of doubly modified hybrids was screened by their emission color contrast and fluorescence quantum yield. Especially mixed combinations, that means donor dyes with arabino-configured anchor with acceptor dyes with ribo-configured anchor, and vice versa, showed significantly improved fluorescence properties. Those were successfully applied for fluorescent imaging of DNA after transport into living cells. PMID:28228854

  10. Comparative analysis of three-dimensional structures of homodimers of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium in the unligated state and in a complex with potassium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkov, A. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2009-03-15

    The spatial organization of the homodimer of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium (St UPh) was determined with high accuracy. The structure was refined at 1.80 A resolution to R{sub work} = 16.1% and R{sub free} = 20.0%. The rms deviations for the bond lengths, bond angles, and chiral angles are 0.006 A, 1.042{sup o}, and 0.071{sup o}, respectively. The coordinate error estimated by the Luzzati plot is 0.166 A. The coordinate error based on the maximum likelihood is 0.199 A. A comparative analysis of the spatial organization of the homodimer in two independently refined structures and the structure of the homodimer St UPh in the complex with a K{sup +} ion was performed. The substrate-binding sites in the homodimers StUPhs in the unligated state were found to act asynchronously. In the presence of a potassium ion, the three-dimensional structures of the subunits in the homodimer are virtually identical, which is apparently of importance for the synchronous action of both substrate-binding sites. The atomic coordinates of the refined structure of the homodimer and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID code 3DPS).

  11. Comparative analysis of three-dimensional structures of homodimers of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium in the unligated state and in a complex with potassium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2009-03-01

    The spatial organization of the homodimer of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium ( St UPh) was determined with high accuracy. The structure was refined at 1.80 Å resolution to R work = 16.1% and R free = 20.0%. The rms deviations for the bond lengths, bond angles, and chiral angles are 0.006 Å, 1.042°, and 0.071°, respectively. The coordinate error estimated by the Luzzati plot is 0.166 Å. The coordinate error based on the maximum likelihood is 0.199 Å. A comparative analysis of the spatial organization of the homodimer in two independently refined structures and the structure of the homodimer St UPh in the complex with a K+ ion was performed. The substrate-binding sites in the homodimers StUPhs in the unligated state were found to act asynchronously. In the presence of a potassium ion, the three-dimensional structures of the subunits in the homodimer are virtually identical, which is apparently of importance for the synchronous action of both substrate-binding sites. The atomic coordinates of the refined structure of the homodimer and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID code 3DPS).

  12. Breast milk jaundice: in vitro inhibition of rat liver bilirubin-uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase activity and Z protein-bromosulfophthalein binding by human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Foliot, A; Ploussard, J P; Housset, E; Christoforov

    1976-06-01

    Twenty-four samples of breast milk from nine mothers of infants suffering from breast milk jaundice were studied. Eight samples of milk from mothers of nonjaundiced infants, along with five formula milks enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids, served as controls. Milks from mothers with jaundiced infants had no inhibitory effect when assayed immediately after thawing. However, after these milk samples were stores at 4 degrees, they strongly inhibited bilirubin conjugation (80.3% inhibition of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) binding to cytoplasmic Z protein (dye binding inhibited 82.1%). There was no effect on BSP binding to Y protein (see Table 1). Heating the milk to 56 degrees modified the results in the following manner; when the milk was heated immediately after thawing, no inhibitory effect was seen, even after storage for 96 hr. On the other hand, when the milk was first stored at 96 hr and then heated, it had the same inhibitory effects as the milks which were stored without heating. The present study shows that pathologic breast milk will inhibit BSP-Z protein binding only when stored under conditions that also cause the appearance of the capacity to inhibit bilirubin conjugation in vitro, as well as causing the liberation of nonesterified fatty acids. Thus, the appearance of this inhibitory capacity in vitro seems linked to the lipolytic activity particular to pathologic milks.

  13. SU-E-T-263: Development of Dose Monitor Unit Calculation Using Clarkson Integration for Proton Beam Therapy Using Beam-Wobbling System

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Y; Takada, Y; Yamaguchi, H; Kohno, R; Hotta, K; Akimoto, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to develop a calculation method of dose-calibration-factor using Clarkson integration for proton therapy employing the wobbling system and to evaluate accuracy of the calculation by comparison between calculations and measurements. Methods: CF and CALF stand for a dose-calibration-factor and a dose per monitor unit (MU), respectively. A measured dose-calibration-factor CFmeas is defined as a ratio of the measured dose per monitor unit in a patient-specific condition CALFpat to the measured dose per MU in a reference beam condition CALFref. The CFcalc is a product of three factors: CF1, CF2 and CF3. The CF1 and CF2 are a factor reflecting the effect of common beam delivery devices and that of patient specific devices and parameter (an aperture collimator, a range compensator and an air gap), respectively. The CF1 was obtained by interpolation using measured data. The CF2 was calculated using the Simplified Monte Carlo (SMC) method. The SMC method calculates a dose distribution by tracing individual protons and by using a measured Bragg curve in water. The CF3 representing the correction factor of field size effect was obtained by using the Clarkson integration. We compared the calculated and measured CF values for 20 prostate cases. Results: Field size correction was found to be important. The calculations reproduce the measurement results within an error of ±2.0%, except for a few cases. The error was about –3.1% for the small field area of less than19 square centimeters. Conclusion: We have developed a calculation method of dose-calibration-factor. Calculations agreed with measurements within ±2.0% for 90% of 20 prostate cases. Except for a small field size cases, the calculation method can be applied to determine the dose-calibration–factor for majority cases of prostate cancer.

  14. Borate-aided anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography of uridine diphosphate-sugars in brain, heart, adipose and liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Oikari, Sanna; Venäläinen, Tuula; Tammi, Markku

    2014-01-03

    In this paper we describe a method optimized for the purification of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-sugars from liver, adipose tissue, brain, and heart, with highly reproducible up to 85% recoveries. Rapid tissue homogenization in cold ethanol, lipid removal by butanol extraction, and purification with a graphitized carbon column resulted in isolation of picomolar quantities of the UDP-sugars from 10 to 30mg of tissue. The UDP-sugars were baseline separated from each other, and from all major nucleotides using a CarboPac PA1 anion exchange column eluted with a gradient of acetate and borate buffers. The extraction and purification protocol produced samples with few unidentified peaks. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine was a dominant UDP-sugar in all the rat tissues studied. However, brain and adipose tissue showed high UDP-glucose levels, equal to that of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine showed 2.3-2.7 times higher levels than UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine in all tissues, and about the same ratio was found between UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose in adipose tissue and brain (2.6 and 2.8, respectively). Interestingly, the UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose ratio was markedly lower in liver (1.1) and heart (1.7). The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine/UDP-glucuronic acid ratio was also constant, between 9.7 and 7.7, except in liver with the ratio as low as 1.8. The distinct UDP-glucose/galactose ratio, and the abundance of UDP-glucuronic acid may reflect the specific role of liver in glycogen synthesis, and metabolism of hormones and xenobiotics, respectively, using these UDP-sugars as substrates.

  15. Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cows reared in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to obtain an indication on the importance of these defects in Turkish Holsteins. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from blood and the amplicons of BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID were obtained by using PCR. PCR products were digested with TaqI, AvaI and AvaII restriction enzymes for BLAD, DUMPS, and BC, respectively. These digested products and PCR product of FXID were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. CVM genotypes were detected by DNA sequencing. Additionally, all genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether there was a mutant allele or not. Results Fourteen BLAD, twelve CVM and four FXID carriers were found among the 350 Holstein cows examined, while carriers of DUMPS and BC were not detected. The mutant allele frequencies were calculated as 0.02, 0.017, and 0.006 for BLAD, CVM and FXID, respectively with corresponding carrier prevalence of 4.0% (BLAD), 3.4% (CVM) and 1.2% (FXID). Conclusion This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are present in the Turkish Holstein population, although at a low frequency. The actual number of clinical cases is unknown, but sporadic cases may appear. As artificial insemination is widely used in dairy cattle breeding, carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are likely present within the population of breeding sires. It is recommended to screen breeding sires for these defective genes in order to avoid an unwanted spread within the population. PMID:20929557

  16. Do Cyclosporine A, an IL-1 Receptor Antagonist, Uridine Triphosphate, Rebamipide, and/or Bimatoprost Regulate Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Wendy R.; Liu, Yang; Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Researchers have hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A (CyA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA; e.g., anakinra), P2Y2 receptor agonists (e.g., uridine triphosphate; UTP), and rebamipide may alleviate human meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and/or dry eye disease. Investigators have also proposed that prostaglandin analogues (e.g., bimatoprost) may induce MGD. Our goal was to determine whether these compounds directly influence human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) function. Methods Multiple concentrations of each compound were tested for effects on immortalized (I) HMGEC morphology and survival. Nontoxic dosages were used for our studies. Immortalized HMGEC were cultured in the presence of vehicle, CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, or bimatoprost for up to 6 days in various media. Experiments included positive controls for proliferation (epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract), differentiation (azithromycin), and signaling pathway activation (insulin-like growth factor 1). Cells were analyzed for neutral lipid staining, lysosome accumulation, lipid composition, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt (AKT), phosphorylation. Results Our findings demonstrate that CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, and bimatoprost had no effect on the proliferation; neutral lipid content; lysosome number; or levels of free cholesterol, triglycerides, or phospholipids in IHMGECs. Cylosporine A, IL-1RA, rebamipide, and bimatoprost significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AKT, as compared to control. Of interest, tested doses of CyA above 8 nM killed the IHMGECs. Conclusions Our results show that CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, and bimatoprost do not influence the proliferation or differentiation of IHMGEC. However, with the exception of UTP, these compounds do decrease the activity of the AKT signaling pathway, which is known to promote cell survival. PMID:27552406

  17. Two Leptinotarsa uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases are specialized for chitin synthesis in larval epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Fu, Jia; Mu, Li-Li; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine-pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is involved in the biosynthesis of chitin, an essential component of the epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix (PM) in insects. In the present paper, two putative LdUAP genes were cloned in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In vivo bioassay revealed that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide activated the expression of the two LdUAPs, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and a 20E signaling gene LdFTZ-F1 repressed the expression. Juvenile hormone (JH), a JH analog pyriproxyfen and an increase in JH by RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C downregulated LdUAP1 but upregulated LdUAP2, whereas a decrease in JH by silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT had converse effects. Thus, expression of LdUAPs responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdUAP1 reduced chitin contents in whole larvae and integument samples, thinned tracheal taenidia, impaired larval-larval molt, larval-pupal ecdysis and adult emergence. In contrast, silencing of LdUAP2 significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut samples, damaged PM, and retarded larval growth. The resulting larvae had lighter fresh weights, smaller body sizes and depleted fat body. As a result, the development was arrested. Combined knockdown of LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 caused an additive negative effect. Our data suggest that LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 have specialized functions in biosynthesizing chitin in the epidermal cuticle and PM respectively in L. decemlineata.

  18. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  19. The wobbling Christmas tree toy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigo, R. B.

    1984-04-01

    A common but fascinating little toy is analyzed for its unusual oscillatory behavior. A simplified model of the toy lends itself nicely to a Lagrangian-effective potential solution. Some results are obtained. Others are left to the interested classical mechanics student at the intermediate level.

  20. Pharmacology of INS37217 [P(1)-(uridine 5')-P(4)- (2'-deoxycytidine 5')tetraphosphate, tetrasodium salt], a next-generation P2Y(2) receptor agonist for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yerxa, B R; Sabater, J R; Davis, C W; Stutts, M J; Lang-Furr, M; Picher, M; Jones, A C; Cowlen, M; Dougherty, R; Boyer, J; Abraham, W M; Boucher, R C

    2002-09-01

    INS37217 [P(1)-(uridine 5')-P(4)-(2'-deoxycytidine 5')tetraphosphate, tetrasodium salt] is a deoxycytidine-uridine dinucleotide with agonist activity at the P2Y(2) receptor. In primate lung tissues, the P2Y(2) receptor mRNA was located by in situ hybridization predominantly in epithelial cells and not in smooth muscle or stromal tissue. The pharmacologic profile of INS37217 parallels that of UTP, leading to increased chloride and water secretion, increased cilia beat frequency, and increased mucin release. The combined effect of these actions was confirmed in an animal model of tracheal mucus velocity that showed that a single administration of INS37217 significantly enhanced mucus transport for at least 8 h after dosing. This extended duration of action is consistent with the ability of INS37217 to resist metabolism by airway cells and sputum enzymes. The enhanced metabolic stability and resultant increased duration of improved mucociliary clearance may confer significant advantages to INS37217 over other P2Y(2) agonists in the treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

  1. Conservation: Threatened by Luxury.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J

    2016-06-20

    When animals are traded in lucrative international luxury markets, individuals really do matter to conservation. Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make some species especially vulnerable to this kind of threat helps set guidelines for more effective conservation.

  2. Meeting global conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    Hot on the heels of last year's Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, representatives from the global conservation community met to set the conservation agenda that will help to implement these targets.

  3. Building robust conservation plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain--a common reality--our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that χ, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites.

  4. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  5. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  6. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  7. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  8. Fixism and conservation science.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2016-12-10

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles.

  9. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  10. Effects of co-treatment with sulforaphane and autophagy modulators on uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A isoforms and cytochrome P450 3A4 expression in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MIN; ZHU, JING-YU; CHEN, SHUO; QING, YING; WU, DONG; LIN, YING-MIN; LUO, JI-ZHUANG; HAN, WEI; LI, YAN-QING

    2014-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), which is highly enriched in cruciferous vegetables, has been investigated for its cancer chemopreventive properties and ability to induce autophagy. Uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A induction is one of the mechanisms that is responsible for the cancer chemopreventive activity of SFN. The current study demonstrates that rapamycin may enhance the chemopreventive effects of SFN on Caco-2 cells; this may be partially attributed to nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)- and human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-mediated UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 induction. These results indicate that targeting autophagy modulation may be a promising strategy for increasing the chemopreventive effects of SFN in cases of colon cancer. PMID:25364403

  11. Conservation and behavioral neuroendocrinology.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, J F

    2005-11-01

    The total number of threatened species of vertebrates is likely to be more than 10,000, with approximately one quarter of the world's mammal species, one eighth of the birds and one third of the amphibians threatened with extinction. The rate of loss of animal species and hence of biodiversity is increasing and may become even greater as ecosystems become affected by climate change due to global warming. Behavioral neuroendocrinology, which considers interactions between behavior and neuroendocrine function in animals from all vertebrate taxa, can contribute to animal conservation. Research with laboratory animals can address questions in basic biology relevant to conservation and develop methods for use with threatened animals. Field work with free-living animals considers the basic biology of new species and the use of endocrine tools to assess the susceptibility of species to threats. Non-invasive measurements of hormone concentrations, especially fecal steroids, are extensively used to assess reproductive function and the stress status of animals in captive breeding programs and in the wild. Biodiversity and natural selection both depend on individual variation, and conservation programs often work with animals on an individual basis. The consideration of data from individuals is essential in conservation endocrinology. Direct contributions to conservation programs are challenging as study situations are determined by practical conservation concerns. Indirect contributions such as the provision of scientific input to conservation plans and participation in public education programs offer significant benefits for conservation programs. Directly and indirectly, there are many opportunities for behavioral neuroendocrinologists to contribute to conservation.

  12. A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of the use of a combination of uridine triphosphate trisodium, cytidine monophosphate disodium, and hydroxocobalamin, versus isolated treatment with hydroxocobalamin, in patients presenting with compressive neuralgias

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Henrique; Mibielli, Marco Antonio; Nunes, Carlos Pereira; Goldberg, Stephanie Wrobel; Buchman, Luiz; Mezitis, Spyros GE; Rzetelna, Helio; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro; Wajnsztajn, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Context This paper reports on the results of treatment of compressive neuralgia using a combination of nucleotides (uridine triphosphate trisodium [UTP] and cytidine monophosphate disodium [CMP]) and vitamin B12. Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of nucleotides (UTP and CMP) and vitamin B12 in patients presenting with neuralgia arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma, and to compare these effects with isolated administration of vitamin B12. Methods A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, consisting of a 30-day oral treatment period: Group A (n=200) receiving nucleotides + vitamin B12, and Group B (n=200) receiving vitamin B12 alone. The primary study endpoint was the percentage of subjects presenting pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores ≤20 at end of study treatment period. Secondary study endpoints included the percentage of subjects presenting improvement ≥5 points on the patient functionality questionnaire (PFQ); percentage of subjects presenting pain reduction (reduction in VAS scores at study end in relation to pretreatment); and number of subjects presenting adverse events. Results The results of this study showed a more expressive improvement in efficacy evaluations among subjects treated with the combination of nucleotides + vitamin B12, with a statistically significant superiority of the combination in pain reduction (evidenced by VAS scores). There were adverse events in both treatment groups, but these were transitory and no severe adverse event was recorded during the study period. Safety parameters were maintained throughout the study in both treatment groups. Conclusion The combination of uridine, cytidine, and vitamin B12 was safe and effective in the treatment of neuralgias arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma. PMID:28243144

  13. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  14. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  15. Creative Soil Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  16. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  17. Setting conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  18. Conservation in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  19. On exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.C.; Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

  20. Conservation--Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

    Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

  1. The Syntax of Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Charles H.

    This paper outlines the syntactic structures which represent a stage in the cognitive development of children, and focusses on an aspect of cognitive development known as conservation. The cognitive components of conservation are presented as the primordial base for the set of syntactic structures which map or mirror them. Piaget proposed four…

  2. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  3. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  4. Home Energy Conservation Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, V. William; And Others

    This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

  5. Conservative mastectomies: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Maurizio Bruno; Catanuto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Conservative mastectomies provide removal of the entire breast parenchyma, saving the outer covering of the mammary gland with the possibility of performing an immediate reconstruction preserving women body image. We rationalised and systematically organized our reconstructive algorythms giving a new different light to mastectomies, the so-called “conservative mastectomies”, an oxymoron indicating skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM), nipple-areola complex-sparing mastectomies (NSM) and skin-reducing mastectomies (SRM). Eventhough randomized controlled trials comparing conservative mastectomies with traditional mastectomy and breast conserving surgery would be auspicable in order to achieve higher levels of evidence, we could confidently conclude that conservative mastectomies offer the psychological advantages of good cosmesis and maintenance of woman body image without compromising the oncological safety of mastectomy. PMID:26645000

  6. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-09-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  7. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  8. Monitoring for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Williams, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Human-mediated environmental changes have resulted in appropriate concern for the conservation of ecological systems and have led to the development of many ecological monitoring programs worldwide. Many programs that are identified with the purpose of `surveillance? represent an inefficient use of conservation funds and effort. Here, we revisit the 1964 paper by Platt and argue that his recommendations about the conduct of science are equally relevant to the conduct of ecological monitoring programs. In particular, we argue that monitoring should not be viewed as a stand-alone activity, but instead as a component of a larger process of either conservation-oriented science or management. Corresponding changes in monitoring focus and design would lead to substantial increases in the efficiency and usefulness of monitoring results in conservation.

  9. The Librarian as Conservator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James W.; Krupp, Robert G.

    1970-01-01

    Guideposts for the librarian who seeks to establish a total conservation program: organizing the program and management in selection, screening, maintenance, treatment, personnel, costs, and cooperation. (Author/JS)

  10. Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

  11. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  12. Conservation of wading birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  13. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  14. Energy conservation in infants.

    PubMed

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  15. Conservation ethics and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Houghton, I T

    2003-10-01

    The current attitude of conservators towards restoration is to preserve objects and materials in the condition as they are but without attempting to restore them 'as new'. Museum objects have generally ceased to serve their original utilitarian function but have become objects for study, information and inspiration. Conservation and restoration are discussed in relation to anaesthetic exhibits. Conservation is the prevention, detection, containment, control and recovery but risk avoidance and monitoring hopefully will lessen the need for conservation. Some objects such as rubber and plastic items are, by their very nature, prone to ageing, accident and mistreatment. Cleaning and maintenance may lead to loss of original detail and is 'an act of critical interpretation'. Reshaping of distorted objects and repair of broken pieces can sometimes be justified but, in other work, the actual restoration may become part of the object's history that should not be lost in trying to restore something to a presumed earlier state. The mind interprets images by reference to earlier patterns and so imperfections, if not disguised, may be unduly distracting. Museums exist for information, evidence, enlightenment and even entertainment. Conservation must serve these purposes and is not an end in its own right. The professional actions of the conservator must be governed by a total respect for physical, historic, and aesthetic integrity but this must be interpreted widely.

  16. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  17. Resource Management and Conservation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arey, David G.; Baumann, Duane D.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of conservation, the future of resource availability, the status of conservation education today are topics examined and suggestions are made on improving the content and emphasis of conservation courses. (Author)

  18. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  19. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  20. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, R A; Mittermeier, C G; Brooks, T M; Pilgrim, J D; Konstant, W R; da Fonseca, G A B; Kormos, C

    2003-09-02

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > or = 1 million hectares, are > or = 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  1. Creative Conservation Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  2. Energy Conservation Simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-02-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy (KE), work (W), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy (PE): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the principle developed. The final conservation law, although rich in specificity, is fairly involved. More significantly, it obscures a fundamental underlying simplicity, which could only be appreciated post-relativity (1905). Energy is the scalar measure of physical change. Using the special theory it will be shown that there are only two all-encompassing classifications of energy—energy of rest and energy of motion—and that we can apply the idea of conservation of energy to all physical processes using only these two energy types as quantified by mass and KE.

  3. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  4. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  5. Direct photoaffinity labeling of gizzard myosin with ( sup 3 H)uridine diphosphate places Glu185 of the heavy chain at the active site

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, T.E.; Yount, R.G. )

    1990-12-25

    The active site of chicken gizzard myosin was labeled by direct photoaffinity labeling with ({sup 3}H)UDP. ({sup 3}H) UDP was stably trapped at the active site by addition of vanadate (Vi) and Co{sup 2+}. The extraordinary stability of the myosin.Co2+.(3H)UDP.Vi complex (t1/2 greater than 5 days at 0{degrees}C) allowed it to be purified free of extraneous ({sup 3}H)UDP before irradiation began. Upon UV irradiation, greater than 60% of the trapped ({sup 3}H)UDP was photoincorporated into the active site. Only the 200-kDa heavy chain was labeled, confirming earlier results using ({sup 3}H)UTP. Extensive tryptic digestion of photolabeled myosin subfragment 1 followed by high performance liquid chromatography separations and removal of nucleotide phosphates by treatment with alkaline phosphatase allowed two labeled peptides to be isolated. Sequencing of the labeled peptides and radioactive counting showed that Glu185 was the residue labeled. Since UDP is a zero-length cross-linker, Glu185 is located at the purine-binding pocket of the active site of smooth myosin and adjacent to the glycine-rich loop which binds the polyphosphate portion of ATP. This Glu residue is conserved in smooth and nonmuscle myosins and is the same residue identified previously by ({sup 3}H)UTP photolabeling in Acanthamoeba myosin II.

  6. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  7. In vitro metabolism of canagliflozin in human liver, kidney, intestine microsomes, and recombinant uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and the effect of genetic variability of UGT enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in humans.

    PubMed

    Francke, Stephan; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Solanki, Bhavna; Scheers, Ellen; Jadwin, Andrew; Favis, Reyna; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2015-09-01

    O-glucuronidation is the major metabolic elimination pathway for canagliflozin. The objective was to identify enzymes and tissues involved in the formation of 2 major glucuronidated metabolites (M7 and M5) of canagliflozin and subsequently to assess the impact of genetic variations in these uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) on in vivo pharmacokinetics in humans. In vitro incubations with recombinant UGTs revealed involvement of UGT1A9 and UGT2B4 in the formation of M7 and M5, respectively. Although M7 and M5 were formed in liver microsomes, only M7 was formed in kidney microsomes. Participants from 7 phase 1 studies were pooled for pharmacogenomic analyses. A total of 134 participants (mean age, 41 years; men, 63%; white, 84%) were included in the analysis. In UGT1A9*3 carriers, exposure of plasma canagliflozin (Cmax,ss , 11%; AUCτ,ss , 45%) increased relative to the wild type. An increase in exposure of plasma canagliflozin (Cmax,ss , 21%; AUCt,ss , 18%) was observed in participants with UGT2B4*2 genotype compared with UGT2B4*2 noncarriers. Metabolites further delineate the role of both enzymes. The pharmacokinetic findings in participants carrying the UGT1A9*3 and UGT2B4*2 allele implicate that UGT1A9 and UGT2B4 are involved in the metabolism of canagliflozin to M7 and M5, respectively.

  8. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  9. Energy Conservation Simplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  10. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position.

  11. Soil: Conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary source to meet global food and fiber demands is production agriculture, but accelerated soil erosion threatens its sustainability. Soil erosion is an important contributor to the normal soil formation process, but erosion becomes problematic when it is accelerated. Soil conservation prac...

  12. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  13. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  14. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  15. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  16. [Conservative Therapy of Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The therapy of osteoarthritis is based on conservative therapeutic approaches, depending on the disease's severity. In this context, physical therapy and the use of sufficient analgesic regimes are of decisive importance. This article will discuss the current evidence based therapeutic concepts as well as promising new therapeutic approaches.

  17. Conservation and gene banking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  18. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  19. Conservation of fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  20. Designing for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Alief Independent School District, Texas, has been successful in obtaining energy efficient designs for its new schools by developing energy goals prior to the selection of architects and engineers. Features of four projects designed to conserve energy are described. (Author/MLF)

  1. Conservation Awareness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rosa County Board of Public Instruction, Milton, FL.

    Recommendations for incorporating conservation education into the K-5 curriculum comprise this teacher's guide. Examined are eight natural resources: air, energy, forests and plant life, human resources, minerals, soil, water, and wildlife. Each of these topics is considered in two ways: (1) a chart depicts concepts basic to understanding the…

  2. Scale in conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation planning has been widely embraced as a method to efficiently allocate limited resources to those aspects of biodiversity most in need of protection or management. However, in order to create successful strategies for long-term biodiversity protection and sustainability, explicit conside...

  3. Human tRNALys3UUU Is Pre-Structured by Natural Modifications for Cognate and Wobble Codon Binding through Keto-Enol Tautomerism

    SciTech Connect

    Vendeix, Franck A.P.; Murphy, IV, Frank V.; Cantara, William A.; Leszczy,; #324; ska, Gra; #380; yna,; Gustilo, Estella M.; Sproat, Brian; Malkiewicz, Andrzej; Agris, Paul F.

    2013-09-27

    nucleotides mcm5s2U34 and ms2t6A37 participate in the stability of the anticodon–codon interaction. Importantly, the mcm5s2U34·G3 wobble base pair is in the Watson–Crick geometry, requiring unusual hydrogen bonding to G in which mcm5s2U34 must shift from the keto to the enol form. The results unambiguously demonstrate that modifications pre-structure the anticodon as a key prerequisite for efficient and accurate recognition of cognate and wobble codons.

  4. Supply curves of conserved energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, A. K.

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes.

  5. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  6. Three strategies for conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The three strategies considered as energy conservation oriented were given: national energy conservation, electrification, and diversification. The first one applies to the near term period (now-1985), the second one to the mid term (1985-2000), and the third one to the far term (2000- ). The rest of this section was focussed on the near term period. The following proposed actions were considered: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal, (3) freeze gasoline production for three years at 1972 levels, (4) mandate automobile mileage requirements, (5) require industry to improve energy efficiency, and (6) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency. Each of these six actions was described and discussed in more detail.

  7. The conservation attitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    Forsaking his inheritance and its assurance of a comfortable existence, Guatama Buddha adopted the life of a pauper to seek the intellectual joys of pure contemplation. Under a mulberry tree, it is said, he propounded a 12-point program of ethical conduct stressing the development of a disinterested outlook in each individual. Temples, ritual, and idols he considered distractions from the basic need. He felt that there was a basic need for the development of an attitude.The Brahmins as well as the lower castes recognized the merits of the system suggested by Buddha, but they molded his teachings into an accessory to existing rituals and dogma. They soon forgot that Guatama wanted no idols and no temples. They forgot his admonition that an attitude was the thing that really counted. Despite his expressed wish, today Buddha in stone, in bronze, and in gold ponders these things in thousands of temples and hears the prayers of millions who still seek the truths of an ethical life.Today, conservation has its temples. The temples of conservation include hundreds of irrigation reservoirs; it has prayer-sticks in miles of contour plow furrows, and the Buddha of a drop-inlet structure looks down on a conservation pool in myriad detention dams.Conservation is well established today in the minds of the American public. It seems appropriate to analyze at this time just what it is that is established in the public mind. In what ways have we, too, substituted the temples, the ritual, and the idols for an attitude?

  8. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation

    PubMed

    Burger

    2000-04-17

    One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long

  9. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  10. Laser conservation paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2001-10-01

    Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well as surface divestment and cleaning. The initial endeavors in exploring and assessing the utility of these tools for art conservation are recounted for investigations involving ruby, glass, ion, YAG, carbon dioxide, dye, and excimer lasers as well as high-intensity nonlaser light generators such as xenon flashlamps and argon pinchlamps. Initially, laser divestment/cleaning was, by general consensus, the least plausible laser application in art conservation. In the past ten years it has emerged to dominate all the other applications noted above. Today, at least a dozen firms supply user-friendly laser systems optimized for a range of art-conservation divestment applications. The first-generation laser-cleaning tools are essentially a laser, a beam-delivery device, and a debris- collection accessory. Advanced developmental work has turned in large measure to ancillary subsystems for more sophisticated process control. Of particular importance are acoustic, optical, spectral, EMP, and electronic-vision process control. Beam direction may be via manual, translational-scanner, or robotic beam positioning implemented by means of fiber optics, minors, or prisms and computer control. Substrate thermal alteration and debris redeposition may be minimized or avoided through the incorporation of a gas jet, fluid or fluid jet, or dry-ice blast.

  11. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action.

  12. Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

  13. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  14. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  15. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  16. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  17. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States... concerning the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) coordination responsibilities. DATES..., Director, Ecological Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources...

  18. Reversibility and Discrimination in Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jeffrey P.

    1974-01-01

    Five-year-old children who failed pretests of conservation of Number, Length, Mass, and Liquid Amount, but who possessed counting ability and knowledge of the terms "same" and "different" underwent Training and Conservation Posttests. (Author/CS)

  19. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  20. Regulation of the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells by extracellular uridine triphosphate: The role of P2Y2 receptor and ERK1/2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    LI, WENKAI; WEI, SHENG; LIU, CHAOXU; SONG, MINGYU; WU, HUA; YANG, YONG

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance in the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) is a crucial pathological factor in the development of osteoporosis. Growing evidence suggests that extracellular nucleotide signaling involving the P2 receptors plays a significant role in bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of uridine triphosphate (UTP) on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The differentiation of the BMSCs was determined by measuring the mRNA and protein expression levels of osteogenic- and adipogenic-related markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red staining and Oil Red O staining. The effects of UTP on BMSC differentiation were assayed using selective P2Y receptor antagonists, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and an intracellular signaling inhibitor. The incubation of the BMSCs with UTP resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in osteogenesis and an increase in adipogenesis, without affecting cell proliferation. Significantly, siRNA targeting the P2Y2 receptor prevented the effects of UTP, whereas the P2Y6 receptor antagonist (MRS2578) and siRNA targeting the P2Y4 receptor had little effect. The activation of P2Y receptors by UTP transduced to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. This transduction was prevented by the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (U0126) and siRNA targeting the P2Y2 receptor. U0126 prevented the effects of UTP on osteogenic- and adipogenic-related gene expression after 24 h of culture, as opposed to 3 to 7 days of culture. Thus, our data suggest that UTP suppresses the osteogenic and enhances the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs by activating the P2Y2 receptor. The ERK1/2 signaling pathway mediates the early stages of this process. PMID:26531757

  1. 4-Alkyloxyimino Derivatives of Uridine-5′-triphosphate: Distal Modification of Potent Agonists as a Strategy for Molecular Probes of P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extended N4-(3-arylpropyl)oxy derivatives of uridine-5′-triphosphate were synthesized and potently stimulated phospholipase C stimulation in astrocytoma cells expressing G protein-coupled human (h) P2Y receptors (P2YRs) activated by UTP (P2Y2/4R) or UDP (P2Y6R). The potent P2Y4R-selective N4-(3-phenylpropyl)oxy agonist was phenyl ring-substituted or replaced with terminal heterocyclic or naphthyl rings with retention of P2YR potency. This broad tolerance for steric bulk in a distal region was not observed for dinucleoside tetraphosphate agonists with both nucleobases substituted. The potent N4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propyl)oxy analogue 19 (EC50: P2Y2R, 47 nM; P2Y4R, 23 nM) was functionalized for chain extension using click tethering of fluorophores as prosthetic groups. The BODIPY 630/650 conjugate 28 (MRS4162) exhibited EC50 values of 70, 66, and 23 nM at the hP2Y2/4/6Rs, respectively, and specifically labeled cells expressing the P2Y6R. Thus, an extended N4-(3-arylpropyl)oxy group accessed a structurally permissive region on three Gq-coupled P2YRs, and potency and selectivity were modulated by distal structural changes. This freedom of substitution was utilized to design of a pan-agonist fluorescent probe of a subset of uracil nucleotide-activated hP2YRs. PMID:24712832

  2. Mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis binds to adenine/uridine-rich stability elements in the vascular endothelial growth factor 3′-untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuelin; Lu, Liang; Bush, Donald J.; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zheng, Lei; Suswam, Esther A.; King, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a neurotrophic factor essential for maintenance of motor neurons. Loss of this factor produces a phenotype similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We recently showed that ALS-producing mutations of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) disrupt post-transcriptional regulation of VEGF mRNA, leading to significant loss of expression. Mutant SOD1 was present in the ribonucleoprotein complex associated with adenine/uridine-rich elements (ARE) of the VEGF 3′-untranslated region (UTR). Here, we show by electrophoretic mobility shift assay that mutant SOD1 bound directly to the VEGF 3′-UTR with a predilection for AREs similar to the RNA stabilizer HuR. SOD1 mutants A4V and G37R showed higher affinity for the ARE than L38V or G93A. Wild-type SOD1 bound very weakly with an apparent Kd 11- to 72-fold higher than mutant forms. Mutant SOD1 showed an additional lower shift with VEGF ARE that was accentuated in the metal-free state. A similar pattern of binding was observed with AREs of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8, except only a single shift predominated. Using an ELISA-based assay, we demonstrated that mutant SOD1 competes with HuR and neuronal HuC for VEGF 3′-UTR binding. To define potential RNA-binding domains, we truncated G37R, G93A and wild-type SOD1 and found that peptides from the N-terminal portion of the protein that included amino acids 32-49 could recapitulate the binding pattern of full-length protein. Thus, the strong RNA-binding affinity conferred by ALS-associated mutations of SOD1 may contribute to the post-transcriptional dysregulation of VEGF mRNA. PMID:19196430

  3. Conservation systems in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation describes how conservation systems that include non-inversion tillage and cover crops, a key component of conservation systems, are managed in the Southeast to maximize benefits. Benefits include weed suppression, moisture conservation, and increased organic matter contents. Mana...

  4. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  5. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  6. Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Judith; And Others

    This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps volunteers and other field workers with ideas, activities, and resources for incorporating conservation education into their day-to-day community activities. It begins with a chapter dealing with a self-contained conservation center. Other chapters tell of ways in which a conservation education…

  7. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  8. Energy conservation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Courtright, H.A.

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  9. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  10. Conservation Laws with Dissipation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    smooth, due to the formation of shock waves. However, global solutions exist in the class of functions of bounded variation ,/in the sense of Tonelli...hyperbolic conservation law (2.2) ut + f(u)x -0 The Cauchy problem for (2.2), with initial data u(x,O), of bounded variation , admits a solution in the class...BV of functions of bounded variation ,.in the sense of Tonelli-Cesari. No gain would be made by assuming that u(x,O) is smoother, even analytic! In

  11. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  12. On integrable conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-08

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations.

  13. Is Baryon Number Conserved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Jogesh C.; Salam, Abdus

    We suggest that baryon-number conservation may not be absolute and that an integrally charged quark may disintegrate into two leptons and an antilepton with a coupling strength G Bmp2≲ 10-9. On the other hand, if quarks are much heavier than low-lying hadrons, the decay of a three-quark system like the proton is highly forbidden (proton lifetime ≳ 1028 y). Motivation for these ideas appears to arise within a unified theory of hadrons and leptons and their gauge interactions. We emphasize the consequences of such a possibility for real quark searches.

  14. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  15. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  16. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  17. Biodiversity conservation in local planning.

    PubMed

    Miller, James R; Groom, Martha; Hess, George R; Steelman, Toddi; Stokes, David L; Thompson, Jan; Bowman, Troy; Fricke, Laura; King, Brandon; Marquardt, Ryan

    2009-02-01

    Local land-use policy is increasingly being recognized as fundamental to biodiversity conservation in the United States. Many planners and conservation scientists have called for broader use of planning and regulatory tools to support the conservation of biodiversity at local scales. Yet little is known about the pervasiveness of these practices. We conducted an on-line survey of county, municipal, and tribal planning directors (n =116) in 3 geographic regions of the United States: metropolitan Seattle, Washington; metropolitan Des Moines, Iowa; and the Research Triangle, North Carolina. Our objectives were to gauge the extent to which local planning departments address biodiversity conservation and to identify factors that facilitate or hinder conservation actions in local planning. We found that biodiversity conservation was seldom a major consideration in these departments. Staff time was mainly devoted to development mandates and little time was spent on biodiversity conservation. Regulations requiring conservation actions that might benefit biodiversity were uncommon, with the exception of rules governing water quality in all 3 regions and the protection of threatened and endangered species in the Seattle region. Planning tools that could enhance habitat conservation were used infrequently. Collaboration across jurisdictions was widespread, but rarely focused on conservation. Departments with a conservation specialist on staff tended to be associated with higher levels of conservation actions. Jurisdictions in the Seattle region also reported higher levels of conservation action, largely driven by state and federal mandates. Increased funding was most frequently cited as a factor that would facilitate greater consideration of biodiversity in local planning. There are numerous opportunities for conservation biologists to play a role in improving conservation planning at local scales.

  18. Selling energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  19. Vaccination in conservation medicine.

    PubMed

    Plumb, G; Babiuk, L; Mazet, J; Olsen, S; Rupprecht, C; Pastoret, P P; Slate, D

    2007-04-01

    Unprecedented human population growth and anthropogenic environmental changes have resulted in increased numbers of people living in closer contact with more animals (wild, domestic, and peridomestic) than at any other time in history. Intimate linkage of human and animal health is not a new phenomenon. However, the global scope of contemporary zoonoses has no historical precedent. Indeed, most human infectious diseases classed as emerging are zoonotic, and many of these have spilled over from natural wildlife reservoirs into humans either directly or via domestic or peridomestic animals. Conservation medicine has recently emerged as a meaningful discipline to address the intersection of animal, human, and ecosystem health. Interest in the development of novel vaccines for wildlife encounters important challenges that may prevent progress beyond the conceptual phase. Although notable examples of successful wildlife immunisation programmes exist, depending upon key considerations, vaccination may or may not prove to be effective in the field. When implemented, wildlife vaccination requires a combination of novel zoonosis pathogen management strategies and public education to balance conservation, economic, and public health issues.

  20. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  1. Molecular contributions to conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

  2. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  3. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  4. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  5. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  6. Energy conservation system

    SciTech Connect

    Long, W.E.

    1984-02-21

    Conservation system is disclosed for use with a power source which supplies power over premises wiring to utilization equipment such as lighting equipment. Contactors and a control system are provided to temporarily interrupt the supplying of power from the power source to at least a portion of the utilization equipment. At least one switching circuit is connected in series between the power and that portion of the utilization equipment. The switching circuit is responsive to the temporary interruption of power to open the circuit between the power source and that portion of the utilization equipment and to maintain that circuit open after the temporary interruption of power ceases, thereby automatically deenergizing that portion of the utilization equipment upon interruption of the power.

  7. National energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

  8. Why not energy conservation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics.

  9. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    PubMed

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  10. Regulation of the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells by extracellular uridine triphosphate: The role of P2Y2 receptor and ERK1/2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkai; Wei, Sheng; Liu, Chaoxu; Song, Mingyu; Wu, Hua; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance in the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) is a crucial pathological factor in the development of osteoporosis. Growing evidence suggests that extracellular nucleotide signaling involving the P2 receptors plays a significant role in bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of uridine triphosphate (UTP) on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The differentiation of the BMSCs was determined by measuring the mRNA and protein expression levels of osteogenic- and adipogenic-related markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red staining and Oil Red O staining. The effects of UTP on BMSC differentiation were assayed using selective P2Y receptor antagonists, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and an intracellular signaling inhibitor. The incubation of the BMSCs with UTP resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in osteogenesis and an increase in adipogenesis, without affecting cell proliferation. Significantly, siRNA targeting the P2Y2 receptor prevented the effects of UTP, whereas the P2Y6 receptor antagonist (MRS2578) and siRNA targeting the P2Y4 receptor had little effect. The activation of P2Y receptors by UTP transduced to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. This transduction was prevented by the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (U0126) and siRNA targeting the P2Y2 receptor. U0126 prevented the effects of UTP on osteogenic- and adipogenic-related gene expression after 24 h of culture, as opposed to 3 to 7 days of culture. Thus, our data suggest that UTP suppresses the osteogenic and enhances the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs by activating the P2Y2 receptor. The ERK1/2 signaling pathway mediates the early stages of this process.

  11. Binding of hnRNP H and U2AF65 to Respective G-codes and a Poly-Uridine Tract Collaborate in the N50-5'ss Selection of the REST N Exon in H69 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Galindo-Rosales, José Manuel; Calderón-Salinas, José Victor; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica; Valdés, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The splicing of the N exon in the pre-mRNA coding for the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) results in a truncated protein that modifies the expression pattern of some of its target genes. A weak 3'ss, three alternative 5'ss (N4-, N50-, and N62-5'ss) and a variety of putative target sites for splicing regulatory proteins are found around the N exon; two GGGG codes (G2-G3) and a poly-Uridine tract (N-PU) are found in front of the N50-5'ss. In this work we analyzed some of the regulatory factors and elements involved in the preferred selection of the N50-5'ss (N50 activation) in the small cell lung cancer cell line H69. Wild type and mutant N exon/β-globin minigenes recapitulated N50 exon splicing in H69 cells, and showed that the N-PU and the G2-G3 elements are required for N50 exon splicing. Biochemical and knockdown experiments identified these elements as U2AF65 and hnRNP H targets, respectively, and that they are also required for N50 exon activation. Compared to normal MRC5 cells, and in keeping with N50 exon activation, U2AF65, hnRNP H and other splicing factors were highly expressed in H69 cells. CLIP experiments revealed that hnRNP H RNA-binding occurs first and is a prerequisite for U2AF65 RNA binding, and EMSA and CLIP experiments suggest that U2AF65-RNA recognition displaces hnRNP H and helps to recruit other splicing factors (at least U1 70K) to the N50-5'ss. Our results evidenced novel hnRNP H and U2AF65 functions: respectively, U2AF65-recruiting to a 5'ss in humans and the hnRNP H-displacing function from two juxtaposed GGGG codes. PMID:22792276

  12. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up{sub 4}A) is a strong inductor of smooth muscle cell migration via activation of the P2Y{sub 2} receptor and cross-communication to the PDGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedon, Annette; Toelle, Markus; Bastine, Joschika; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Huang, Tao; Jankowski, Vera; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Giet, Markus van der

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up{sub 4}A induces VSMC migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VSMC migration towards Up{sub 4}A involves P2Y{sub 2} activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up{sub 4}A-induced VSMC migration is OPN-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of ERK1/2 pathway is necessary for VSMC migration towards Up{sub 4}A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up{sub 4}A-directed VSMC migration cross-communicates with the PDGFR. -- Abstract: The recently discovered dinucleotide uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up{sub 4}A) was found in human plasma and characterized as endothelium-derived vasoconstrictive factor (EDCF). A further study revealed a positive correlation between Up{sub 4}A and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Due to the dominant role of migration in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions our aim was to investigate the migration stimulating potential of Up{sub 4}A. Indeed, we found a strong chemoattractant effect of Up{sub 4}A on VSMC by using a modified Boyden chamber. This migration dramatically depends on osteopontin secretion (OPN) revealed by the reduction of the migration signal down to 23% during simultaneous incubation with an OPN-blocking antibody. Due to inhibitory patterns using specific and unspecific purinoreceptor inhibitors, Up{sub 4}A mediates it's migratory signal mainly via the P2Y{sub 2}. The signaling behind the receptor was investigated with luminex technique and revealed an activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. By use of the specific PDGF receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor AG1296 and siRNA technique against PDGFR-{beta} we found a strongly reduced migration signal after Up{sub 4}A stimulation in the PDGFR-{beta} knockdown cells compared to control cells. In this study, we present substantiate data that Up{sub 4}A exhibits migration stimulating potential probably involving the signaling cascade of MEK1 and ERK1/2 as well as the matrix protein OPN. We

  13. Architecture of the yeast Elongator complex.

    PubMed

    Dauden, Maria I; Kosinski, Jan; Kolaj-Robin, Olga; Desfosses, Ambroise; Ori, Alessandro; Faux, Celine; Hoffmann, Niklas A; Onuma, Osita F; Breunig, Karin D; Beck, Martin; Sachse, Carsten; Séraphin, Bertrand; Glatt, Sebastian; Müller, Christoph W

    2017-02-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic Elongator complex performs specific chemical modifications on wobble base uridines of tRNAs, which are essential for proteome stability and homeostasis. The complex is formed by six individual subunits (Elp1-6) that are all equally important for its tRNA modification activity. However, its overall architecture and the detailed reaction mechanism remain elusive. Here, we report the structures of the fully assembled yeast Elongator and the Elp123 sub-complex solved by an integrative structure determination approach showing that two copies of the Elp1, Elp2, and Elp3 subunits form a two-lobed scaffold, which binds Elp456 asymmetrically. Our topological models are consistent with previous studies on individual subunits and further validated by complementary biochemical analyses. Our study provides a structural framework on how the tRNA modification activity is carried out by Elongator.

  14. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant

  15. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-06-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  16. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  17. Precession, Nutation and Wobble of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V.; Mathews, P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Covering both astronomical and geophysical perspectives, this book describes changes in the Earth's orientation, specifically precession and nutation, and how they are observed and computed in terms of tidal forcing and models of the Earth's interior. Following an introduction to key concepts and elementary geodetic theory, the book describes how precise measurements of the Earth's orientation are made using observations of extra-galactic radio-sources by Very Long Baseline Interferometry techniques. It demonstrates how models are used to accurately pinpoint the location and orientation of the Earth with reference to the stars and how to determine variations in its rotation speed. A theoretical framework is also presented that describes the role played by the structure and properties of the Earth's deep interior. Incorporating suggestions for future developments in nutation theory for the next generation models, this book is ideal for advanced-level students and researche! rs in solid Earth geophysics, planetary science and astronomy.

  18. Chandler wobble excitation reconstruction and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Different methods of geodetic excitation reconstruction from observations of the polar motion are compared. Among them Wilson-Jeffreys filter, Tikhonov regularization, Panteleev corrective smoothing. Reconstruction of Chandler excitation is an inverse problem, aggravated by the strong annual oscillation, which is nearby in frequency band. Special attempts to filter annual oscillation out were undertaken, among them the harmonic model subtraction, Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) and Panteleev smoothing. Obtained results compared one with another and with geophysical excitations, such as atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum, El Nino event, solar and lunar tides. Amplitude and phase correlation analysis was performed. Phase change of the Chandler oscillation in the 30-th of the XX century found a partial explanation. This work is supported by grant of the President of Russia MK-4234.2009.5

  19. Linkage arms for minimizing piston wobble

    SciTech Connect

    Langstroth, S.W.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a block within which at least one piston is attached to a crankshaft by a connecting rod between the crankpin of the crankshaft and the wrist pin of the piston. This patent describes improvement in a fixed gear concentric with the axis of the crankshaft and coupled to the block; a follower gear concentric with the crankpin; at least one intermediate gear coupling the fixed gear to the follower gear; wherein the ratio of the gears is such that the follower gear orbits the fixed gear and does not rotate; and linkage arms interconnecting the follower gear and the piston for preventing the rotation of the piston about the wrist pin.

  20. Recology: Material Conservation Program Fieldbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwood, Bill

    Recology is the combination of teaching and learning through the interaction of conservation (waste management and recycling) and ecology. This fieldbook is designed to provide an overview of the development of a Recology environmental education program. The program facilitates infusion of material conservation education into existing curriculum.…

  1. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  2. Orchid conservation: making the links

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael F.; Pailler, Thierry; Dixon, Kingsley W.

    2015-01-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, present particular challenges for conservation, due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees. In this Highlight, we present seven papers focusing on orchids and their interactions and other factors relating to their conservation. PMID:26311710

  3. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  4. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  5. Creative Learning Experiences in Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is a collection of ten short articles originally published in "Soil Conservation" from 1964-1968. The articles are written for the teacher and are concerned with recent innovations in conservation education in various schools in the eastern United States. Innovations include school land laboratories, soil monolith tours for teachers,…

  6. Piagetian Conservation in Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenhouse, Robert K.

    1987-01-01

    The study examined the rate and order of conservation in 24 deaf children, ages 8.2 to 12.9 years using standard Piagetian instructions and procedures in sign language. Even the older children failed to demonstrate control over the conservation concept suggesting the presence of a cognitive difference in deaf children. (DB)

  7. Conservation laws and thermodynamic efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Wang, Jiao

    2013-02-15

    We show that generic systems with a single relevant conserved quantity reach the Carnot efficiency in the thermodynamic limit. Such a general result is illustrated by means of a diatomic chain of hard-point elastically colliding particles where the total momentum is the only relevant conserved quantity.

  8. Piagetian Conservation in Navajo Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Sandra J.; Ferraro, Douglas P.

    In order to determine the cognitive development of Navajo children in terms of Piagetian conservation of number, mass, and continuous quantity, 168 Navajo children at seven different age levels from 5 to adult were presented with a series of three conservation tasks. The tasks consisted of a standard object and an equivalent object that could be…

  9. Conservation Concepts in Elementary Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John Ruthven

    1973-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of teaching conservation of chemical identity, composition, and mass to 12 boys and 11 girls of ages ranging from 11.11 to 12.10, using techniques analogous to Piaget's. Indicated the necessity of course re-examination to facilitate attainment of conservation concepts. (CC)

  10. How Academe Shortchanges Conservative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Notwithstanding the outcome of the recent election, in one respect, the last few decades mark a breakthrough era for conservative intellectuals. Their visibility has soared. Thirty years ago, the only place to find conservatives on television was Firing Line, William F. Buckley's urbane talk show. Today they appear on Meet the Press and 60…

  11. Communication Skills for Conservation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    This book provides in-depth guidance for students, scientists, managers, and professionals in achieving conservation goals through better communication. It introduces communication approaches--marketing and mass media, citizen participation, public information, environmental interpretation, and conservation education activities--and offers scores…

  12. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  13. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available conservation technology; cost-effective; and shall not cause undue economic hardship on the person... authorized by section 1231 of the Food Security Act of 1985, as amended, shall have 2 years after...

  14. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  15. Do Private Conservation Activities Match Science-Based Conservation Priorities?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Dills, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Background Private land conservation is an essential strategy for biodiversity protection in the USA, where half of the federally listed species have at least 80% of their habitat on private lands. We investigated the alignment between private land protection conducted by the world's largest land trust (The Nature Conservancy) and the science driven identification of priority areas for conservation. This represents the first quantitative assessment of the influence of defining priority areas on the land acquisitions of a conservation non-governmental organization (NGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The lands acquired by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) were analyzed using GIS to determine to what extent they were in areas defined as priorities for conservation. The spatial analysis of TNC lands was broken up into land known to be acquired in the last five years, five to ten years ago, prior to ten years ago, and anytime during the last sixty years (including previous sets of data plus acquisitions lacking a date). For the entire history of TNC the proportion of TNC lands within the priority areas was 74%. Prior to 10 years ago it was 80%, 5–10 years ago it was 76%, and in the last five years it was 81%. Conservation easements were found to have lower alignment with priority areas (64%) than outright fee simple acquisitions (86%). Conclusions/Significance Overall the location of lands acquired was found to be well aligned with the priority areas. Since there was comparable alignment in lands acquired before and after formalized conservation planning had been implemented as a standard operating procedure, this analysis did not find evidence that defining priority areas has influenced land acquisition decisions. PMID:23029516

  16. Fuel Conservation and Construction Equipment,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    4 A-R14i 363 FUEL CONSERVATION AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT(U) ARMY ii IBELVOIR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER FORT BELVOIR VA V T FALCNETTA FEB 84...141A 11111~~ 11111 __ MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-I963-A .: .. ’V - ’ .o- .- "" AD IReport 2400 FUEL CONSERVATION AND...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FUEL CONSERVATION AND CONSTRUCTION- iEQUIPME.NT EQUI, 1T6. P1 HFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a

  17. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources.

  18. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  19. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  20. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  1. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  2. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  3. Is There a Conservative Ideology of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas H.

    This paper discusses: (1) the link between the conservative education policies of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher and conservative educational thinking; (2) political, economic, and sociological conservative theories; and (3) characteristics of conservative thinking in education. The extent to which conservatives hold congruent or distinctive…

  4. Energy Conservation and Historic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donna

    1986-01-01

    Explains some of the finer details in the requirements and the responsibilities grantees of Institutional Conservation Program's (ICP) funding have to building preservation of historic or potentially historic buildings under the National Historic Preservation Act. (MD)

  5. Conservation and renewable energy program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, K. H.

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1990. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. The NASA Energy Conservation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, G. P.

    1977-01-01

    Large energy-intensive research and test equipment at NASA installations is identified, and methods for reducing energy consumption outlined. However, some of the research facilities are involved in developing more efficient, fuel-conserving aircraft, and tradeoffs between immediate and long-term conservation may be necessary. Major programs for conservation include: computer-based systems to automatically monitor and control utility consumption; a steam-producing solid waste incinerator; and a computer-based cost analysis technique to engineer more efficient heating and cooling of buildings. Alternate energy sources in operation or under evaluation include: solar collectors; electric vehicles; and ultrasonically emulsified fuel to attain higher combustion efficiency. Management support, cooperative participation by employees, and effective reporting systems for conservation programs, are also discussed.

  7. Energy conservation in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentis, Jeffrey J.; Fedak, William A.

    2004-05-01

    In the classical mechanics of conservative systems, the position and momentum evolve deterministically such that the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy remains constant in time. This canonical trademark of energy conservation is absent in the standard presentations of quantum mechanics based on the Schrödinger picture. We present a purely canonical proof of energy conservation that focuses exclusively on the time-dependent position x(t) and momentum p(t) operators. This treatment of energy conservation serves as an introduction to the Heisenberg picture and illuminates the classical-quantum connection. We derive a quantum-mechanical work-energy theorem and show explicitly how the time dependence of x and p and the noncommutivity of x and p conspire to bring about a perfect temporal balance between the evolving kinetic and potential parts of the total energy operator.

  8. Developing a Sight Conservation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Olivia A.; Farris, R. Linsy

    1975-01-01

    Among the services added to Harlem (New York) Hospital's opthalmology department was a sight conservation program designed to alert the community to the need for eye care and to screen for early signs of eye disorders causing sight impairment. (SB)

  9. Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID

  10. The political economy of conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

  11. Sequence-Dependent T:G Base Pair Opening in DNA Double Helix Bound by Cren7, a Chromatin Protein Conserved among Crenarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lei; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Wang, Hanqian; Zhao, Mohan; Dong, Yuhui; Gong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    T:G base pair arising from spontaneous deamination of 5mC or polymerase errors is a great challenge for DNA repair of hyperthermophilic archaea, especially Crenarchaea. Most strains in this phylum lack the protein homologues responsible for the recognition of the mismatch in the DNA repair pathways. To investigate whether Cren7, a highly conserved chromatin protein in Crenarchaea, serves a role in the repair of T:G mispairs, the crystal structures of Cren7-GTAATTGC and Cren7-GTGATCGC complexes were solved at 2.0 Å and 2.1 Å. In our structures, binding of Cren7 to the AT-rich DNA duplex (GTAATTGC) induces opening of T2:G15 but not T10:G7 base pair. By contrast, both T:G mispairs in the GC-rich DNA duplex (GTGATCGC) retain the classic wobble type. Structural analysis also showed DNA helical changes of GTAATTGC, especially in the steps around the open T:G base pair, as compared to GTGATCGC or the matched DNAs. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed a 4-fold lower binding affinity of Cren7 for GTAATTGC than that for GTGATCGC, which was dominantly contributed by the decrease of association rate. These results suggested that binding of Cren7 to DNA leads to T:G mispair opening in a sequence dependent manner, and therefore propose the potential roles of Cren7 in DNA repair. PMID:27685992

  12. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  13. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens.

  14. 77 FR 74500 - Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Western Butte County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for...) under the National Environmental Policy Act for the proposed Habitat Conservation Plan/ Natural Community Conservation Plan for Western Butte County, hereafter referred to as the Butte...

  15. 77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation AGENCIES: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance... associated with Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements....

  16. 75 FR 34924 - Conservation Stewardship Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1470 RIN 0578-AA43 Conservation Stewardship Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Natural Resources Conservation Service is...

  17. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  18. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  19. Forest conservation delivers highly variable coral reef conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Selig, Elizabeth R; Watts, Matthew E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kamal, Muhammad; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2012-06-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by human activities on both the land (e.g., deforestation) and the sea (e.g., overfishing). Most conservation planning for coral reefs focuses on removing threats in the sea, neglecting management actions on the land. A more integrated approach to coral reef conservation, inclusive of land-sea connections, requires an understanding of how and where terrestrial conservation actions influence reefs. We address this by developing a land-sea planning approach to inform fine-scale spatial management decisions and test it in Fiji. Our aim is to determine where the protection of forest can deliver the greatest return on investment for coral reef ecosystems. To assess the benefits of conservation to coral reefs, we estimate their relative condition as influenced by watershed-based pollution and fishing. We calculate the cost-effectiveness of protecting forest and find that investments deliver rapidly diminishing returns for improvements to relative reef condition. For example, protecting 2% of forest in one area is almost 500 times more beneficial than protecting 2% in another area, making prioritization essential. For the scenarios evaluated, relative coral reef condition could be improved by 8-58% if all remnant forest in Fiji were protected rather than deforested. Finally, we determine the priority of each coral reef for implementing a marine protected area when all remnant forest is protected for conservation. The general results will support decisions made by the Fiji Protected Area Committee as they establish a national protected area network that aims to protect 20% of the land and 30% of the inshore waters by 2020. Although challenges remain, we can inform conservation decisions around the globe by tackling the complex issues relevant to integrated land-sea planning.

  20. Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Leader-Williams, N

    2002-08-15

    International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the building blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species and ecosystems are conserved are more inclusive than statutory protected areas. Equal emphasis needs to be placed on including effective regimes that also encompass private and communal ownership through incentive-based approaches. Nevertheless, if globalized industries such as nature-based tourism or consumptive use are to provide meaningful incentives locally, a key requirement is to reduce leakage of revenue that is earned as a result of conserving species, such that local development concerns are addressed. However, current biodiversity conventions that address these needs are largely aspirational, while globalized industries such as tourism mainly promote their green credentials only through voluntary codes of conduct. Greatly improved linkages are needed between international conservation concerns and ensuring effective solutions to sustainability, which inevitably rest at national and sub-national levels, through systems of rights, tenure, benefits and incentives.

  1. Water conservation behavior in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring a nation's long term water supply requires the use of both supply-sided approaches such as water augmentation through water recycling, and demand-sided approaches such as water conservation. Conservation behavior can only be increased if the key drivers of such behavior are understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the main drivers from a comprehensive pool of hypothesized factors. An empirical study was conducted with 3094 Australians. Data was analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis and decision trees to determine which factors best predict self-reported water conservation behavior. Two key factors emerge: high level of pro-environmental behavior; and pro-actively seeking out information about water. A number of less influential factors are also revealed. Public communication strategy implications are derived. PMID:22522412

  2. Conservative treatment for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Anal incontinence (AI) in adults is a troublesome condition that negatively impacts upon quality of life and results in significant embarrassment and social isolation. The conservative management of AI is the first step and targets symptomatic relief. The reported significant improvement with conservative treatments for AI is close to 25% and involves prescribed changes in lifestyle habits, a reduced intake of foods that may cause or aggravate diarrhea or rectal urgency, and the use of specific anti-diarrheal agents. The use of a mechanical barrier in the form of an anal plug and the outcomes and principles of pelvic kinesitherapies and biofeedback options are outlined. This review discusses a gastroenterologist's approach towards conservative therapy in patients referred with anal incontinence. PMID:24759347

  3. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  4. Energy Conservation Guidelines - 2: Energy Conservation in School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Irving M., Ed.; Gates, Richard M., Ed.

    The suggestions contained in this guide are intended to help reduce energy consumption in school facilities. Energy conservation measures are discussed on three levels: (1) the educational program and activities schedule, (2) operation of the facility and supporting systems, and (3) the physical plant. Discussed are high cost, medium cost, and low…

  5. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  6. Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Guidelines 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

    Fourth in a series of four publications on energy conservation, this booklet offers basic guidelines for sound fuel reduction in school transportation. The pamphlet suggests ways to implement energy-saving practices, guidelines for preventive maintenance of school vehicles, a definition of the drivers' and superintendents' roles, school policies…

  7. Reasons for the Decalage between Identity Conservation and Equivalence Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ron

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments investigated which of two factors is responsible for decalage between Piaget's equivalence and identity conservation tasks. Performance of 78 primary school students between 57 and 79 months of age was compared on equivalence and identity tasks and a third task, equivalence I, which retains transitivity requirement of Piaget's task…

  8. Backyard Conservation: Bringing Conservation from the Countryside to Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildlife Habitat Council, Silver Spring, MD.

    This guide highlights 10 conservation activities, adapted from farms and ranches, that can be used in the backyard. Each activity provides background information and instructions on how to complete the activity. The activities concern: (1) tree planting; (2) wildlife habitat; (3) backyard ponds; (4) nutrient management; (5) terracing; (6) water…

  9. Animal models and conserved processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter

  10. A conserved germline multipotency program

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Celina E.; Swartz, S. Zachary; Wessel, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    The germline of multicellular animals is segregated from somatic tissues, which is an essential developmental process for the next generation. Although certain ecdysozoans and chordates segregate their germline during embryogenesis, animals from other taxa segregate their germline after embryogenesis from multipotent progenitor cells. An overlapping set of genes, including vasa, nanos and piwi, operate in both multipotent precursors and in the germline. As we propose here, this conservation implies the existence of an underlying germline multipotency program in these cell types that has a previously underappreciated and conserved function in maintaining multipotency. PMID:21098563

  11. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  12. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  13. 76 FR 19683 - Conservation Program Recipient Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Conservation Service 7 CFR Parts 622, 624 and 625 Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Parts 1465 and 1470 RIN 0578-AA56 Conservation Program Recipient Reporting AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service... Conservation Stewardship Program have application or plan due dates after October 1, 2010, and therefore,...

  14. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  15. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  16. 50 CFR 660.410 - Conservation objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conservation objectives. 660.410 Section 660.410 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.410 Conservation objectives. (a) The conservation objectives are summarized in Table 3-1 of...

  17. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  18. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  19. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  20. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  1. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  2. 50 CFR 660.410 - Conservation objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conservation objectives. 660.410 Section 660.410 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.410 Conservation objectives. (a) The conservation objectives are summarized in Table 3-1 of...

  3. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  4. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  5. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  6. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  7. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  8. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  9. Effective primate conservation education: gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K

    2010-05-01

    Conservation education goals generally include influencing people's conservation awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. Effective programs can help foster sustainable behavior, improve public support for conservation, reduce vandalism and poaching in protected areas, improve compliance with conservation regulations, increase recreation carrying capacities, and influence policies and decisions that affect the environment. Primate conservation problems cut across many disciplines, and primate conservation education must likewise address cross-disciplinary issues. Conservation educators must incorporate both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills to develop effective programs, and the skill set must stretch beyond pedagogy. Expertise needed comes from the areas of planning, collaboration, psychology, entertainment, and evaluation. Integration of these elements can lead to greater program success.

  10. Conservative Bin-to-Bin Fractional Collisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    Extra DOF in Tails Variable Weight “All-or-Nothing” Collisions? Physically Inconsistent! (Mixing Violates Momentum /Energy Conservation) ROBERT MARTIN...UNLIMITED; PA #16326 7 / 18 REVIEW OF CONSERVATIVE MERGE Merge to Pair→ DOF for Conservation: (n+2):2 yields Exact Mass, Momentum , and Kinetic Energy...2):2 yields Exact Mass, Momentum , and Kinetic Energy Conservation Applied Spatially also Shown to Conserve Electrostatic Energy Though Energy

  11. Buying into conservation: intrinsic versus instrumental value.

    PubMed

    Justus, James; Colyvan, Mark; Regan, Helen; Maguire, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Many conservation biologists believe the best ethical basis for conserving natural entities is their claimed intrinsic value, not their instrumental value for humans. But there is significant confusion about what intrinsic value is and how it could govern conservation decision making. After examining what intrinsic value is supposed to be, we argue that it cannot guide the decision making conservation requires. An adequate ethical basis for conservation must do this, and instrumental value does it best.

  12. CONSERVATION EDUCATION, A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARVAJAL, JOAN; MUNZER, MARTHA E.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTAINS REFERENCES TO PRINTED MATERIALS COVERING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION WHICH WERE PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1957 TO 1966, WHICH ARE STILL IN PRINT, AND WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED WITHOUT GREAT DIFFICULTY. SOME TITLES PUBLISHED BEFORE 1957 ALSO ARE INCLUDED. PUBLICATIONS OF GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES OR OF…

  13. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  14. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  15. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  16. The National Conservation Training Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jeffrey P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the National Conservation Training Center (NCTC) which provides a host of benefits for fish and wildlife pros and includes classrooms, laboratories, and residential lodges. Provides information about some of the courses offered such as how to use global positioning systems and water quality testing. (ASK)

  17. Ecology for conserving our sirenians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees. Helene Marsh, Thomas J. O'Shea and John E. Reynolds III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, 521 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-88828-8, US$135 and 978-0-521-71643-7, US$65.

  18. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  19. CURRICULUM GUIDE IN CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HERRINGTON, EUGENE H.; ROBBINS, LARRY

    THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE PRESENTS CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AS AN INTEGRATED NATURAL SCIENCE STUDY. NATURAL RESOURCES ARE SEEN AS BEING INORGANIC (MINERALS, AIR, WATER, AND SOIL) OR ORGANIC (PLANT, ANIMAL, AND HUMAN). THESE RESOURCES ARE PRESENTED AS SUGGESTED CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES DESIGNED FOR THE PRIMARY, INTERMEDIATE, AND JUNIOR HIGH…

  20. Consumer behavior and energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ester, P.

    1985-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a number of behaviour modification instruments aimed at teaching consumers how to use energy in a more efficient way. The following instruments were tested: energy conservation information, bi-weekly and monthly energy consumption feedback and self-monitoring by consumers of their household energy consumption. This study tries to combine psychological paradigms, experimental approaches and policy relevance.

  1. Energy Conservation through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a teaching unit designed to create in students an awareness of and an appreciation for the possibilities for energy conservation as they relate to architecture. It is noted that the unit can be adapted for use in many industrial programs and with different teaching methods due to the variety of activities that can be used. (Editor/TA)

  2. Reversible energy quenching and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, S. G.; Burshtein, A. I.

    2010-05-01

    The kinetics of reversible energy transfer from photo-excited donors to energy acceptors is studied at arbitrary concentrations of both and any relationship between the decay-times of the reactants. The backward reaction of transfer products in a bulk is included in the consideration. Its contribution to delayed fluorescence, resulting from the energy conservation on the long-lived acceptors, is specified.

  3. Tapir health and conservation medicine.

    PubMed

    Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Medici, Emilia Patrícia; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Tapirs have unique nutritional needs, as well as anatomical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that must be considered when managing their health, both in the wild and in captivity. Information about how tapirs live in their natural habitats can provide crucial knowledge to prevent many of the health problems found in captivity such as infectious and parasitic diseases, reproductive issues and nutritional and behavioral disorders. Likewise, proper management in captivity can significantly contribute to in situ conservation programs. Conservation medicine is a science created to address the global health crisis that jeopardizes biodiversity causing imbalances among ecosystem, human, animal and vegetal health. In this context, common threats to tapir health and conservation, such as isolated and small populations surrounded by human activity, chemical pollution, domestic animals and their pathogenic agents, need to be better understood. This manuscript provides information about the health of tapirs both in captivity and in the wild and aims to encourage tapir conservationists worldwide to gather information about pathogen and disease dynamics and manifestation, as well as implications for tapir conservation.

  4. Conservation Agriculture in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...

  5. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  6. Conservation Education Improvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Kenneth L.; Hennebry, Howard M.

    In an attempt to improve the teaching of conservation in elementary and junior high schools, a set of integrated sequential core units was formulated and tested in five Wyoming school districts during the fall and early winter of 1968. Based on a total sample of 840 elementary students (38% usable response) and 960 junior high students (49% usable…

  7. Recreation Planning for Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Seymour M.

    1977-01-01

    To conserve energy consumed by cars and to improve the environment by reducing air pollution caused by them, communities should develop and expand already existing urban parks so they will be attractive to potential users who can reach them by walking or bicyling. (JD)

  8. Linearization of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, A.; Alvarez, M. L.; Fernandez, E.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for…

  9. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  10. Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2001-01-01

    A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.

  11. Conservation Laws in Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-03-01

    Notes are presented on four lectures given at Harvard University in March 1957 on elementary particle physics, the theta-tau problem, validity of parity conservation, tests for invariance under P, C, and T, and the two-component theory of the neutrino. (W.D.M.)

  12. Mass Conservation and Chemical Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Thomas M.; Corio, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a method for obtaining all mass conservation conditions implied by a given mechanism in which the conditions are used to simplify integration of the rate equations and to derive stoichiometric relations. Discusses possibilities of faulty inference of kinetic information from a given stoichiometry. (CS)

  13. Children's Ideas about Animal Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Emma; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes the results of an open-form questionnaire designed to provide a picture of students' justifications of animal conservation. The results suggest that the negative attitudes students have towards zoos and wildlife parks may impede the educational benefits of such visits for some children. (DDR)

  14. Understanding Conservation: A Playful Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kefaloukos, Mary-Anne; Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some aspects of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. It highlights the importance of giving young children specific access to explore conservation in measurement, which will give students invaluable experiences in measurement that in years to come will be regarded as their prior knowledge of the concept. This is…

  15. Electromagnetic momentum conservation in media

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A.

    2011-03-15

    That static electric and magnetic fields can store momentum may be perplexing, but is necessary to ensure total conservation of momentum. Simple situations in which such field momentum is transferred to nearby bodies and point charges have often been considered for pedagogical purposes, normally assuming vacuum surroundings. If dielectric media are involved, however, the analysis becomes more delicate, not least since one encounters the electromagnetic energy-momentum problem in matter, the 'Abraham-Minkowski enigma', of what the momentum is of a photon in matter. We analyze the momentum balance in three nontrivial examples obeying azimuthal symmetry, showing how the momentum conservation is satisfied as the magnetic field decays and momentum is transferred to bodies present. In the last of the examples, that of point charge outside a dielectric sphere in an infinite magnetic field, we find that not all of the field momentum is transferred to the nearby bodies; a part of the momentum appears to vanish as momentum flux towards infinity. We discuss this and other surprising observations which can be attributed to the assumption of magnetic fields of infinite extent. We emphasize how formal arguments of conserved quantities cannot determine which energy-momentum tensor is more 'correct', and each of our conservation checks may be performed equally well in the Minkowski or Abraham framework.

  16. Conservation of North American rallids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Manley, Brooke; Reid, Frederic A.; Zembal, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Rallidae are a diverse group in their habitat selection, yet most North American species occur in or near wetlands As a consequence, most species are subject to habitat enhancement or perturbation from waterfowl management programs. The overall effects of these management programs relative to rallid conservation have been assessed for few species, and there is a need for synthesis of such information. In the cases of some species or raves, population status is not known, and suggested directions for conservation and management are needed. Rare, endangered, or status undetermined species or races often occur in areas where related species are classified as game birds, and the effects of such hunting on rarer forms are not known. Their generally secretive nature, the endangered status of several races and populations, and continued loss of habitat and threats to present habitat, warrant an examination of the conservation status of the North American taxa in this group. In 1977, a committee of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies summarized available information on management and biology of American Coots (Fulica americana), rails, and gallinules in North America (Holliman 1977). That summary was intended to provide relatively complete information on conservation of these species, and also to provide guidance for research within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Accelerated Research Program for Webless Migratory Shore and Upland Game Birds (ARP). Subsequently, a number of rallid studies were funded under this program. The program was eliminated in 1982, following substantial research activities on North American rallids. Since the demise of the ARP, additional research on rallids in North America has focused on an area the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies report failed to cover in detail--that of endangered rallids in the U.S. and their possessions. Most of these studies have been of threatened and endangered

  17. Incorporating geodiversity into conservation decisions.

    PubMed

    Comer, Patrick J; Pressey, Robert L; Hunter, Malcolm L; Schloss, Carrie A; Buttrick, Steven C; Heller, Nicole E; Tirpak, John M; Faith, Daniel P; Cross, Molly S; Shaffer, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    In a rapidly changing climate, conservation practitioners could better use geodiversity in a broad range of conservation decisions. We explored selected avenues through which this integration might improve decision making and organized them within the adaptive management cycle of assessment, planning, implementation, and monitoring. Geodiversity is seldom referenced in predominant environmental law and policy. With most natural resource agencies mandated to conserve certain categories of species, agency personnel are challenged to find ways to practically implement new directives aimed at coping with climate change while retaining their species-centered mandate. Ecoregions and ecological classifications provide clear mechanisms to consider geodiversity in plans or decisions, the inclusion of which will help foster the resilience of conservation to climate change. Methods for biodiversity assessment, such as gap analysis, climate change vulnerability analysis, and ecological process modeling, can readily accommodate inclusion of a geophysical component. We adapted others' approaches for characterizing landscapes along a continuum of climate change vulnerability for the biota they support from resistant, to resilient, to susceptible, and to sensitive and then summarized options for integrating geodiversity into planning in each landscape type. In landscapes that are relatively resistant to climate change, options exist to fully represent geodiversity while ensuring that dynamic ecological processes can change over time. In more susceptible landscapes, strategies aiming to maintain or restore ecosystem resilience and connectivity are paramount. Implementing actions on the ground requires understanding of geophysical constraints on species and an increasingly nimble approach to establishing management and restoration goals. Because decisions that are implemented today will be revisited and amended into the future, increasingly sophisticated forms of monitoring and

  18. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp Fire Girls, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first section of this manual has been developed to help leaders and youth examine and gradually understand some of the more complex environmental factors. It helps to explain what things are where and why, why a certain project has been suggested, whether it is a practical one for a given place, and what must be known before it can be…

  19. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  20. A case study of assigning conservation value to dispersed habitat units for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohweder, Jason J.; Sara C. Vacek,; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers are increasingly tasked with developing habitat conservation plans in the face of numerous, sometimes competing, objectives. These plans must often be implemented across dispersed habitat conservation units that may contribute unequally to overall conservation objectives. Using U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service waterfowl production areas (WPA) in western Minnesota as our conservation landscape, we develop a landscape-scale approach for evaluating the conservation value of dispersed habitat conservation units with multiple conservation priorities. We evaluated conservation value based on a suite of variables directly applicable to conservation management practices, thus providing a direct link between conservation actions and outcomes. We developed spatial models specific to each of these conservation objectives and also developed two freely available prioritization tools to implement these analyses. We found that some WPAs provided high conservation value across a range of conservation objectives, suggesting that managing these specific areas would achieve multiple conservation goals. Conversely, other WPAs provided low conservation value for some objectives, suggesting they would be most effectively managed for a distinct set of specific conservation goals. Approaches such as ours provide a direct means of assessing the conservation value of dispersed habitat conservation units and could be useful in the development of habitat management plans, particularly when faced with multiple conservation objectives.

  1. Discovery of an essential nucleotidylating activity associated with a newly delineated conserved domain in the RNA polymerase-containing protein of all nidoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Kathleen C.; Gulyaeva, Anastasia; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Janssen, George M. C.; Ruben, Mark; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; van Veelen, Peter A.; Samborskiy, Dmitry V.; Kravchenko, Alexander A.; Leontovich, Andrey M.; Sidorov, Igor A.; Snijder, Eric J.; Posthuma, Clara C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that catalyzes the synthesis of their RNA(s). In the case of positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the order Nidovirales, the RdRp resides in a replicase subunit that is unusually large. Bioinformatics analysis of this non-structural protein has now revealed a nidoviral signature domain (genetic marker) that is N-terminally adjacent to the RdRp and has no apparent homologs elsewhere. Based on its conservation profile, this domain is proposed to have nucleotidylation activity. We used recombinant non-structural protein 9 of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV) and different biochemical assays, including irreversible labeling with a GTP analog followed by a proteomics analysis, to demonstrate the manganese-dependent covalent binding of guanosine and uridine phosphates to a lysine/histidine residue. Most likely this was the invariant lysine of the newly identified domain, named nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN), whose substitution with alanine severely diminished the described binding. Furthermore, this mutation crippled EAV and prevented the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in cell culture, indicating that NiRAN is essential for nidoviruses. Potential functions supported by NiRAN may include nucleic acid ligation, mRNA capping and protein-primed RNA synthesis, possibilities that remain to be explored in future studies. PMID:26304538

  2. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  3. Conserved nonlinear quantities in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2005-11-15

    We give a detailed and improved presentation of our recently proposed formalism for nonlinear perturbations in cosmology, based on a covariant and fully nonperturbative approach. We work, in particular, with a covector combining the gradients of the energy density and of the local number of e-folds to obtain a nonlinear generalization of the familiar linear uniform-density perturbation. We show that this covector obeys a remarkably simple conservation equation which is exact, fully nonlinear and valid at all scales. We relate explicitly our approach to the coordinate-based formalisms for linear perturbations and for second-order perturbations. We also consider other quantities, which are conserved on sufficiently large scales for adiabatic perturbations, and discuss the issue of gauge invariance.

  4. Environmentalism and the new conservatives

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, L.

    1983-03-01

    The environmental movement has grown, gaining political power and attracting the affluent middle class. Environmentalism's claim that the US has suffered from the attendant ills of too much prosperity and too rapid economic growth is also evident in the Green movement in Germany, both pursuing liberal politics. Charges that the movement is manned by persons of privilege and that it is inherently conservative can be backed by demographic statistics. Citing a range of philosophical writers, from Paul Ehrich to Karl Marx, the author demonstrates the conservative basis for environmentalism and the linking of man and nature. The social implications of limiting economic growth overlook the connection with material betterment and the quality of life.

  5. Two methods of conserving fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.

    1981-01-01

    The first method of conservation of fuel described requires the collection of polyethylene and polypropylene containers and films now being discarded as waste. Present methods of disposal are costly in money, in energy and in ecological damage. The second method eliminates grass lawns and the need for lawn-maintenance with a power-mower. In place of grass-cover, the world-wide use of perennial ground cover plants and low-spreading evergreens is proposed. 7 refs.

  6. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data.

  7. Conservative management of fingertip amputations.

    PubMed

    Farrell, R G; Disher, W A; Nesland, R S; Palmatier, T H; Truhler, T D

    1977-06-01

    A method of conservative treatment of fingertip amputations, allowing for spontaneous healing of the defect, was evaluated in a one-year study involving 17 consecutive patients and 21 amputations. Six presented with exposed bone in the lesion. These injuries healed with excellent results in terms of maintenace of maximum finger length and minimization of cosmetic deformity and functional disability. Rapid retrun to work was possible in most cases and morbidity associated with surgery was avoided.

  8. Conservation of circulation in magnetohydrodynamics

    PubMed

    Bekenstein; Oron

    2000-10-01

    We demonstrate at both the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids) that is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices.

  9. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  10. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Bhavna; Jain, Amit; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2013-09-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management.

  11. Consequences of Not Conserving Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of fresh water is not only local, but also global. In certain parts of the world, much needed rain is becoming less frequent, possibly due to the effects of global warming. The resources of clean fresh water on earth are very limited and are reducing every year due to pollution like industrial waste, oil spills, untreated sewage, inefficient irrigation systems, waste and leakage, etc. This is destroying the ecosystem of the entire planet. Of course, in some parts of world there is rain almost throughout the year. Regardless, major problems are still prevalent because of a variety of reasons such as drainage, storage, evaporation, cleanliness, etc. It is all too well known that evapotranspiration contributes to a significant water loss from drainage basins. Most of the citizens of this world are still careless about water usage and are unappreciative of the need for water conservation. This is a very unpleasant fact and needs to change. Cost expenditures for the development of infrastructure to supply water to households and industries are becoming prohibitively expensive. Many parts in this world have extremely dry terrain and rainfall is not as frequent as it should be. As a result, the underground water tables are not replenished properly, thereby turning regions to arid land and deserts. Unless effective irrigation methods are used, potential evapotranspiration may be actually greater than precipitation provided by nature. The soil therefore dries out creating an arid landmass. The earth and its inhabitants can sustain only if creative methods of clean water conservation ideas are effectively implemented. (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=conservationhttp://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sandiego.gov/water/conservation/http://www.swcs.org/http://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/water-knowledge/water-conservation.aspxhttp://www.benefits-of-recycling.com/waterconservationmethods/

  12. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  13. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation

    PubMed Central

    Asensio, Omar I.; Delmas, Magali A.

    2015-01-01

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt–hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers. PMID:25583494

  14. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  15. The universally conserved prokaryotic GTPases.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Natalie; Fauvart, Maarten; Versées, Wim; Michiels, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Members of the large superclass of P-loop GTPases share a core domain with a conserved three-dimensional structure. In eukaryotes, these proteins are implicated in various crucial cellular processes, including translation, membrane trafficking, cell cycle progression, and membrane signaling. As targets of mutation and toxins, GTPases are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and infectious diseases. In prokaryotes also, it is hard to overestimate the importance of GTPases in cell physiology. Numerous papers have shed new light on the role of bacterial GTPases in cell cycle regulation, ribosome assembly, the stress response, and other cellular processes. Moreover, bacterial GTPases have been identified as high-potential drug targets. A key paper published over 2 decades ago stated that, "It may never again be possible to capture [GTPases] in a family portrait" (H. R. Bourne, D. A. Sanders, and F. McCormick, Nature 348:125-132, 1990) and indeed, the last 20 years have seen a tremendous increase in publications on the subject. Sequence analysis identified 13 bacterial GTPases that are conserved in at least 75% of all bacterial species. We here provide an overview of these 13 protein subfamilies, covering their cellular functions as well as cellular localization and expression levels, three-dimensional structures, biochemical properties, and gene organization. Conserved roles in eukaryotic homologs will be discussed as well. A comprehensive overview summarizing current knowledge on prokaryotic GTPases will aid in further elucidating the function of these important proteins.

  16. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects.

  17. Conservation of North Pacific shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.; Butler, Robert W.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Mundkur, Taej; Handel, Colleen M.

    1994-01-01

    In his introduction to the 1979 Symposium proceedings entitled “Shorebirds in Marine Environments," Frank Pitelka stressed the need for studies and conservation programs that spanned the western hemisphere (Pitelka 1979). In the 15 years since Pitelka's call to arms, the locations of many important migratory and wintering sites for shorebirds have been identified in the Americas (Senner and Howe 1984, Morrison and Ross 1989, Morrison and Butler 1994) and in the East Asian-Australasian flyway (Lane and Parish 1991, Mundkur 1993, Watkins 1993). However, assessments for Central America, the Russian Far East and most of Oceania remain incomplete or lacking.The recognition that shorebird conservation required the protection of habitats throughout the birds' range (e.g., Morrison 1984, Davidson and Evans 1989 in Ens et al. 1990) prompted the establishment of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN) in the Americas in 1985 (Joyce 1986). This program complemented the 1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially for Waterbirds (Ramsar Convention, Smart 1987), recognized by more that 50 countries world-wide.Our purpose for writing this paper is to: (1) describe the distribution of North Pacific shorebirds throughout their annual cycle; (2) review the locations of and threats to important sites used by North Pacific shorebirds during the breeding, migration, and wintering periods, and (3) outline a program for international conservation of Pacific shorebirds.

  18. Water and the conservation movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1958-01-01

    Every age has its unique touchstone, its hallmark. The Nineties were thought gay. The Twenties had jazz and John Held, Jr. The Thirties had breadlines, dust bowls, the forgotten man. And each recent period has been studded with so many flashy gems, both paste and genuine, that no hallmark would alone be enough to label it.Of the present age, one of the nameplates will carry the word "Conservation." The first time a museum visitor walks by that label he will probably stop, push back the plexiglas globe of his space helmet and say to himself, "I never thought that conservation was a keynote of the Fifties." But I imagine he might agree as the pathetic truth of that label dawned on his tired body, accustomed to canned entertainment, synthetic flavors, and fighting the afternoon traffic of the jet lanes. I can imagine him musing: "Conservation, the hallmark of the Fifties. Somebody about that time said about something or other, 'too little and too late.'"

  19. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  20. Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Anderson, Barbara J; Moilanen, Atte; Eigenbrod, Felix; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Quaife, Tristan; Roy, David B; Gillings, Simon; Armsworth, Paul R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is leading to the development of land-based mitigation and adaptation strategies that are likely to have substantial impacts on global biodiversity. Of these, approaches to maintain carbon within existing natural ecosystems could have particularly large benefits for biodiversity. However, the geographical distributions of terrestrial carbon stocks and biodiversity differ. Using conservation planning analyses for the New World and Britain, we conclude that a carbon-only strategy would not be effective at conserving biodiversity, as have previous studies. Nonetheless, we find that a combined carbon-biodiversity strategy could simultaneously protect 90% of carbon stocks (relative to a carbon-only conservation strategy) and > 90% of the biodiversity (relative to a biodiversity-only strategy) in both regions. This combined approach encapsulates the principle of complementarity, whereby locations that contain different sets of species are prioritised, and hence disproportionately safeguard localised species that are not protected effectively by carbon-only strategies. It is efficient because localised species are concentrated into small parts of the terrestrial land surface, whereas carbon is somewhat more evenly distributed; and carbon stocks protected in one location are equivalent to those protected elsewhere. Efficient compromises can only be achieved when biodiversity and carbon are incorporated together within a spatial planning process.

  1. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  2. Energy conservation is a waste

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1998-07-01

    Energy conservation is virtually always a bust. Governments around the world continually trot out new schemes to reduce energy use and promote efficiency. The prime American example of this futility is government regulation of automobile gas mileage. Prompted by the Arab oil embargo of 1973, Congress mandated a doubling of gas mileage. What happened? Gasoline consumption rose from 1973 to the 1990s, as the roads were flooded with energy-efficient cars. Huge sport-utility vehicles crowd parking lots, also thanks to more efficient engines. Conservation fails because it takes no account of economics of human nature. The combination of greater engine efficiency and rising disposable income has produced a true golden age of motoring. In the same way, what is saved by installing special light bulbs is often wasted on new hot tubs, exterior lighting and a host of other energy uses, as homeowners assume that their electric bills will drop off substantially. In spite of these and dozens of other clear failures, the claims for conservation to solve virtually all the national energy dilemmas continue. Few if any are valid. While each of us can reduce energy use in one or two areas, one finds that the nation gradually uses more.

  3. Conservation successes at micro-, meso- and macroscales.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Navjot S; Butler, Rhett; Laurance, William F; Gibson, Luke

    2011-11-01

    Although large-scale biodiversity declines are ongoing, certain conservation actions have made a positive difference. Rates of extinction and endangerment of vertebrate species, for instance, have probably been reduced via conservation interventions. Such conservation actions operate at different spatial scales. Habitat preservation and endangered species recovery are examples of conservation successes at microscales. Mesoscale conservation includes regional cooperation among neighboring countries that has arrested population declines of endangered species, such as mountain gorillas. At macroscales, public pressure on multinational corporations has sometimes resulted in their abandoning environmentally damaging practices or suppliers with poor environmental records. Overall, conservation projects such as these need more long-term funding and greater political and popular support, and must also include provisions to evaluate and document their outcomes. As we discuss here, a focus on conservation successes achieved at different scales can help to promote these aims and guide future conservation victories.

  4. Conservation of Mass: Its Proper Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of relativity, mass, and energy, and the relationships between them. Argues that mass conservation inevitably follows from energy conservation. Proposes a scheme for introducing the laws relating to these concepts in general chemistry courses. (TW)

  5. From Dust Bowl to Conservation Tillage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Dale

    1992-01-01

    Examines the causes of the dust bowl and recent changes in tillage practices in Oklahoma and other prairie states that conserve soil. Briefly discusses the success of programs that target school children for conservation education. (LZ)

  6. Energy Conservation for Public Office Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Larry F.

    1973-01-01

    The energy conservation policy for public office buildings includes experimental designs of new federal office buildings in Manchester, New Hampshire and Saginaw, Michigan, as well as immediate energy conservation efforts. (Author/MF)

  7. Inhibition, Conflict Detection, and Number Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Amélie; Simon, Grégory; Houdé, Olivier; De Neys, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of number conservation is a critical step in children's numerical and mathematical development. Classic developmental studies have established that children's number conservation is often biased by misleading intuitions. However, the precise nature of these conservation errors is not clear. A key question is whether conservation…

  8. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.9...

  9. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.9...

  10. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  11. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.9...

  12. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  13. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  14. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  15. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  16. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  17. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  18. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-08-15

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy.

  19. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... of its water users. This ensures that the measures reflect the priorities and collective judgment...

  20. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...