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Sample records for conserved wrpw motif

  1. Structural assessment of glycyl mutations in invariantly conserved motifs.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Tulika; Sandhu, Kuljeet Singh; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Bhasin, Yasha; Ramakrishnan, C; Brahmachari, Samir K

    2007-11-15

    Motifs that are evolutionarily conserved in proteins are crucial to their structure and function. In one of our earlier studies, we demonstrated that the conserved motifs occurring invariantly across several organisms could act as structural determinants of the proteins. We observed the abundance of glycyl residues in these invariantly conserved motifs. The role of glycyl residues in highly conserved motifs has not been studied extensively. Thus, it would be interesting to examine the structural perturbations induced by mutation in these conserved glycyl sites. In this work, we selected a representative set of invariant signature (IS) peptides for which both the PDB structure and mutation information was available. We thoroughly analyzed the conformational features of the glycyl sites and their local interactions with the surrounding residues. Using Ramachandran angles, we showed that the glycyl residues occurring in these IS peptides, which have undergone mutation, occurred more often in the L-disallowed as compared with the L-allowed region of the Ramachandran plot. Short range contacts around the mutation site were analyzed to study the steric effects. With the results obtained from our analysis, we hypothesize that any change of activity arising because of such mutations must be attributed to the long-range interaction(s) of the new residue if the glycyl residue in the IS peptide occurred in the L-allowed region of the Ramachandran plot. However, the mutation of those conserved glycyl residues that occurred in the L-disallowed region of the Ramachandran plot might lead to an altered activity of the protein as a result of an altered conformation of the backbone in the immediate vicinity of the glycyl residue, in addition to long range effects arising from the long side chains of the new residue. Thus, the loss of activity because of mutation in the conserved glycyl site might either relate to long range interactions or to local perturbations around the site

  2. Genomic analysis of membrane protein families: abundance and conserved motifs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Engelman, Donald M; Gerstein, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Background Polytopic membrane proteins can be related to each other on the basis of the number of transmembrane helices and sequence similarities. Building on the Pfam classification of protein domain families, and using transmembrane-helix prediction and sequence-similarity searching, we identified a total of 526 well-characterized membrane protein families in 26 recently sequenced genomes. To this we added a clustering of a number of predicted but unclassified membrane proteins, resulting in a total of 637 membrane protein families. Results Analysis of the occurrence and composition of these families revealed several interesting trends. The number of assigned membrane protein domains has an approximately linear relationship to the total number of open reading frames (ORFs) in 26 genomes studied. Caenorhabditis elegans is an apparent outlier, because of its high representation of seven-span transmembrane (7-TM) chemoreceptor families. In all genomes, including that of C. elegans, the number of distinct membrane protein families has a logarithmic relation to the number of ORFs. Glycine, proline, and tyrosine locations tend to be conserved in transmembrane regions within families, whereas isoleucine, valine, and methionine locations are relatively mutable. Analysis of motifs in putative transmembrane helices reveals that GxxxG and GxxxxxxG (which can be written GG4 and GG7, respectively; see Materials and methods) are among the most prevalent. This was noted in earlier studies; we now find these motifs are particularly well conserved in families, however, especially those corresponding to transporters, symporters, and channels. Conclusions We carried out a genome-wide analysis on patterns of the classified polytopic membrane protein families and analyzed the distribution of conserved amino acids and motifs in the transmembrane helix regions in these families. PMID:12372142

  3. Genome-wide conserved consensus transcription factor binding motifs are hyper-methylated

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA methylation can regulate gene expression by modulating the interaction between DNA and proteins or protein complexes. Conserved consensus motifs exist across the human genome ("predicted transcription factor binding sites": "predicted TFBS") but the large majority of these are proven by chromatin immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) not to be biological transcription factor binding sites ("empirical TFBS"). We hypothesize that DNA methylation at conserved consensus motifs prevents promiscuous or disorderly transcription factor binding. Results Using genome-wide methylation maps of the human heart and sperm, we found that all conserved consensus motifs as well as the subset of those that reside outside CpG islands have an aggregate profile of hyper-methylation. In contrast, empirical TFBS with conserved consensus motifs have a profile of hypo-methylation. 40% of empirical TFBS with conserved consensus motifs resided in CpG islands whereas only 7% of all conserved consensus motifs were in CpG islands. Finally we further identified a minority subset of TF whose profiles are either hypo-methylated or neutral at their respective conserved consensus motifs implicating that these TF may be responsible for establishing or maintaining an un-methylated DNA state, or whose binding is not regulated by DNA methylation. Conclusions Our analysis supports the hypothesis that at least for a subset of TF, empirical binding to conserved consensus motifs genome-wide may be controlled by DNA methylation. PMID:20875111

  4. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  5. TOPDOM: database of conservatively located domains and motifs in proteins.

    PubMed

    Varga, Julia; Dobson, László; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2016-09-01

    The TOPDOM database-originally created as a collection of domains and motifs located consistently on the same side of the membranes in α-helical transmembrane proteins-has been updated and extended by taking into consideration consistently localized domains and motifs in globular proteins, too. By taking advantage of the recently developed CCTOP algorithm to determine the type of a protein and predict topology in case of transmembrane proteins, and by applying a thorough search for domains and motifs as well as utilizing the most up-to-date version of all source databases, we managed to reach a 6-fold increase in the size of the whole database and a 2-fold increase in the number of transmembrane proteins. TOPDOM database is available at http://topdom.enzim.hu The webpage utilizes the common Apache, PHP5 and MySQL software to provide the user interface for accessing and searching the database. The database itself is generated on a high performance computer. tusnady.gabor@ttk.mta.hu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Catania, Francesco; Lynch, Michael

    2010-05-04

    In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa) remains a virtually unexplored issue. By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Our observations 1) shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2) are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3) reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa) remains a virtually unexplored issue. Results By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Our observations 1) shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2) are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3) reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes. PMID:20441586

  8. D-MATRIX: a web tool for constructing weight matrix of conserved DNA motifs.

    PubMed

    Sen, Naresh; Mishra, Manoj; Khan, Feroz; Meena, Abha; Sharma, Ashok

    2009-07-27

    Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif prediction in whole genome remains a challenge for researchers. Currently the genome wide motif prediction tools required either direct pattern sequence (for single motif) or weight matrix (for multiple motifs). Although there are known motif pattern databases and tools for genome level prediction but no tool for weight matrix construction. Considering this, we developed a D-MATRIX tool which predicts the different types of weight matrix based on user defined aligned motif sequence set and motif width. For retrieval of known motif sequences user can access the commonly used databases such as TFD, RegulonDB, DBTBS, Transfac. D-MATRIX program uses a simple statistical approach for weight matrix construction, which can be converted into different file formats according to user requirement. It provides the possibility to identify the conserved motifs in the co-regulated genes or whole genome. As example, we successfully constructed the weight matrix of LexA transcription factor binding site with the help of known sos-box cis-regulatory elements in Deinococcus radiodurans genome. The algorithm is implemented in C-Sharp and wrapped in ASP.Net to maintain a user friendly web interface. D-MATRIX tool is accessible through the CIMAP domain network. http://203.190.147.116/dmatrix/

  9. D-MATRIX: A web tool for constructing weight matrix of conserved DNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Naresh; Mishra, Manoj; Khan, Feroz; Meena, Abha; Sharma, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif prediction in whole genome remains a challenge for researchers. Currently the genome wide motif prediction tools required either direct pattern sequence (for single motif) or weight matrix (for multiple motifs). Although there are known motif pattern databases and tools for genome level prediction but no tool for weight matrix construction. Considering this, we developed a D-MATRIX tool which predicts the different types of weight matrix based on user defined aligned motif sequence set and motif width. For retrieval of known motif sequences user can access the commonly used databases such as TFD, RegulonDB, DBTBS, Transfac. D­MATRIX program uses a simple statistical approach for weight matrix construction, which can be converted into different file formats according to user requirement. It provides the possibility to identify the conserved motifs in the co­regulated genes or whole genome. As example, we successfully constructed the weight matrix of LexA transcription factor binding site with the help of known sos­box cis­regulatory elements in Deinococcus radiodurans genome. The algorithm is implemented in C-Sharp and wrapped in ASP.Net to maintain a user friendly web interface. D­MATRIX tool is accessible through the CIMAP domain network. Availability http://203.190.147.116/dmatrix/ PMID:19759861

  10. Identification of protein motifs using conserved amino acid properties and partitioning techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.D.; Brutlag, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Analyzing a set of protein sequences involves a fundamental relationship between the coherency of the set and the specificity of the motif that describes it. Motifs may be obscured by training sets that contain incoherent sequences, in part due to protein subclasses, contamination, or errors. We develop an algorithm for motif identification that systematically explores possible patterns of coherency within a set of protein sequences, Our algorithm constructs alternative partitions of the training set data, where one subset of each partition is presumed to contain coherent data and is used for forming a motif. The motif is represented by multiple overlapping amino acid groups based on evolutionary, biochemical, or physical properties. We demonstrate our method on a training set of reverse transcriptases that contains subclasses, sequence errors, misalignments, and contaminating sequences. Despite these complications, our program identifies a novel motif for the subclass of retroviral and retrovirus-related reverse transcriptases. This motif has a much higher specificity than previously reported motifs and suggests the importance of conserved hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues in the structure of reverse transcriptases.

  11. A conserved motif of vertebrate Y RNAs essential for chromosomal DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Timothy J.; Christov, Christo P.; Langley, Alexander R.; Krude, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Noncoding Y RNAs are required for the reconstitution of chromosomal DNA replication in late G1 phase template nuclei in a human cell-free system. Y RNA genes are present in all vertebrates and in some isolated nonvertebrates, but the conservation of Y RNA function and key determinants for its function are unknown. Here, we identify a determinant of Y RNA function in DNA replication, which is conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. Vertebrate Y RNAs are able to reconstitute chromosomal DNA replication in the human cell-free DNA replication system, but nonvertebrate Y RNAs are not. A conserved nucleotide sequence motif in the double-stranded stem of vertebrate Y RNAs correlates with Y RNA function. A functional screen of human Y1 RNA mutants identified this conserved motif as an essential determinant for reconstituting DNA replication in vitro. Double-stranded RNA oligonucleotides comprising this RNA motif are sufficient to reconstitute DNA replication, but corresponding DNA or random sequence RNA oligonucleotides are not. In intact cells, wild-type hY1 or the conserved RNA duplex can rescue an inhibition of DNA replication after RNA interference against hY3 RNA. Therefore, we have identified a new RNA motif that is conserved in vertebrate Y RNA evolution, and essential and sufficient for Y RNA function in human chromosomal DNA replication. PMID:19474146

  12. [Conserved motifs in the primary and secondary ITS1 structures in bryophytes].

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatov, M S

    2015-01-01

    A study of the ITS1 nucleotide sequences of 1000 moss species of 62 families, 11 liverwort species from five orders, and one hornwort Anthoceros agrestis identified five highly conserved motifs (CM1-CM5), which are presumably involved in pre-rRNA processing. Although the ITS1 sequences substantially differ in length and the extent of divergence, the conserved motifs are found in all of them. ITS1 secondary structures were constructed for 76 mosses, and main regularities at conserved motif positioning were observed. The positions of processing sites in the ITS1 secondary structure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to be similar to the positions of the conserved motifs in the ITS1 secondary structures of mosses and liverworts. In addition, a potential hairpin formation in the putative secondary structure of a pre-rRNA fragment was considered for the region between ITS1 CM4-CM5 and a highly conserved region between hairpins 49 and 50 (H49 and H50) of the 18S rRNA.

  13. Conservation defines functional motifs in the squint/nodal-related 1 RNA dorsal localization element

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Patrick C.; Kumari, Pooja; Lim, Shimin; Cheong, Albert; Chang, Alex; Sampath, Karuna

    2011-01-01

    RNA localization is emerging as a general principle of sub-cellular protein localization and cellular organization. However, the sequence and structural requirements in many RNA localization elements remain poorly understood. Whereas transcription factor-binding sites in DNA can be recognized as short degenerate motifs, and consensus binding sites readily inferred, protein-binding sites in RNA often contain structural features, and can be difficult to infer. We previously showed that zebrafish squint/nodal-related 1 (sqt/ndr1) RNA localizes to the future dorsal side of the embryo. Interestingly, mammalian nodal RNA can also localize to dorsal when injected into zebrafish embryos, suggesting that the sequence motif(s) may be conserved, even though the fish and mammal UTRs cannot be aligned. To define potential sequence and structural features, we obtained ndr1 3′-UTR sequences from approximately 50 fishes that are closely, or distantly, related to zebrafish, for high-resolution phylogenetic footprinting. We identify conserved sequence and structural motifs within the zebrafish/carp family and catfish. We find that two novel motifs, a single-stranded AGCAC motif and a small stem-loop, are required for efficient sqt RNA localization. These findings show that comparative sequencing in the zebrafish/carp family is an efficient approach for identifying weak consensus binding sites for RNA regulatory proteins. PMID:21149265

  14. A conserved motif mediates both multimer formation and allosteric activation of phosphoglycerate mutase 5.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Jordan M; McConnell, Cyrus; Tipton, Peter A; Hannink, Mark

    2014-09-05

    Phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) is an atypical mitochondrial Ser/Thr phosphatase that modulates mitochondrial dynamics and participates in both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. The mechanisms that regulate the phosphatase activity of PGAM5 are poorly understood. The C-terminal phosphoglycerate mutase domain of PGAM5 shares homology with the catalytic domains found in other members of the phosphoglycerate mutase family, including a conserved histidine that is absolutely required for catalytic activity. However, this conserved domain is not sufficient for maximal phosphatase activity. We have identified a highly conserved amino acid motif, WDXNWD, located within the unique N-terminal region, which is required for assembly of PGAM5 into large multimeric complexes. Alanine substitutions within the WDXNWD motif abolish the formation of multimeric complexes and markedly reduce phosphatase activity of PGAM5. A peptide containing the WDXNWD motif dissociates the multimeric complex and reduces but does not fully abolish phosphatase activity. Addition of the WDXNWD-containing peptide in trans to a mutant PGAM5 protein lacking the WDXNWD motif markedly increases phosphatase activity of the mutant protein. Our results are consistent with an intermolecular allosteric regulation mechanism for the phosphatase activity of PGAM5, in which the assembly of PGAM5 into multimeric complexes, mediated by the WDXNWD motif, results in maximal activation of phosphatase activity. Our results suggest the possibility of identifying small molecules that function as allosteric regulators of the phosphatase activity of PGAM5.

  15. A Conserved Metal Binding Motif in the Bacillus subtilis Competence Protein ComFA Enhances Transformation.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Scott S; Falbel, Tanya G; Hromada, Susan; Burton, Briana M

    2017-08-01

    Genetic competence is a process in which cells are able to take up DNA from their environment, resulting in horizontal gene transfer, a major mechanism for generating diversity in bacteria. Many bacteria carry homologs of the central DNA uptake machinery that has been well characterized in Bacillus subtilis It has been postulated that the B. subtilis competence helicase ComFA belongs to the DEAD box family of helicases/translocases. Here, we made a series of mutants to analyze conserved amino acid motifs in several regions of B. subtilis ComFA. First, we confirmed that ComFA activity requires amino acid residues conserved among the DEAD box helicases, and second, we show that a zinc finger-like motif consisting of four cysteines is required for efficient transformation. Each cysteine in the motif is important, and mutation of at least two of the cysteines dramatically reduces transformation efficiency. Further, combining multiple cysteine mutations with the helicase mutations shows an additive phenotype. Our results suggest that the helicase and metal binding functions are two distinct activities important for ComFA function during transformation.IMPORTANCE ComFA is a highly conserved protein that has a role in DNA uptake during natural competence, a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer observed in many bacteria. Investigation of the details of the DNA uptake mechanism is important for understanding the ways in which bacteria gain new traits from their environment, such as drug resistance. To dissect the role of ComFA in the DNA uptake machinery, we introduced point mutations into several motifs in the protein sequence. We demonstrate that several amino acid motifs conserved among ComFA proteins are important for efficient transformation. This report is the first to demonstrate the functional requirement of an amino-terminal cysteine motif in ComFA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Correlating novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with significant biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Gendoo, Deena MA; El-Hefnawi, Mahmoud M; Werner, Mark; Siam, Rania

    2008-01-01

    Background Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico study to determine characteristics of novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein from previously reported H3N2 strains isolated from Hong Kong from 1968–1999 to predict viral motifs involved in significant biological functions. Results 14 MEME blocks were generated and comparative analysis of the MEME blocks identified blocks 1, 2, 3 and 7 to correlate with several biological functions. Analysis of the different Hemagglutinin sequences elucidated that the single block 7 has the highest frequency of amino acid substitution and the highest number of co-mutating pairs. MEME 2 showed intermediate variability and MEME 1 was the most conserved. Interestingly, MEME blocks 2 and 7 had the highest incidence of potential post-translational modifications sites including phosphorylation sites, ASN glycosylation motifs and N-myristylation sites. Similarly, these 2 blocks overlap with previously identified antigenic sites and receptor binding sites. Conclusion Our study identifies motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with different amino acid substitution frequencies over a 31 years period, and derives relevant functional characteristics by correlation of these motifs with potential post-translational modifications sites, antigenic and receptor binding sites. PMID:18681973

  17. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs.

    PubMed

    Neely, Robert K; Roberts, Richard J

    2008-05-14

    Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360), cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases.

  18. Functional synthetic Antennapedia genes and the dual roles of YPWM motif and linker size in transcriptional activation and repression

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Reséndez-Pérez, Diana; Cárdenas-Chávez, Diana L.; Villanueva-Segura, Karina; Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Felix, Daniel A.; Fünfschilling, Raphael; Gehring, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Segmental identity along the anteroposterior axis of bilateral animals is specified by Hox genes. These genes encode transcription factors, harboring the conserved homeodomain and, generally, a YPWM motif, which binds Hox cofactors and increases Hox transcriptional specificity in vivo. Here we derive synthetic Drosophila Antennapedia genes, consisting only of the YPWM motif and homeodomain, and investigate their functional role throughout development. Synthetic peptides and full-length Antennapedia proteins cause head-to-thorax transformations in the embryo, as well as antenna-to-tarsus and eye-to-wing transformations in the adult, thus converting the entire head to a mesothorax. This conversion is achieved by repression of genes required for head and antennal development and ectopic activation of genes promoting thoracic and tarsal fates, respectively. Synthetic Antennapedia peptides bind DNA specifically and interact with Extradenticle and Bric-à-brac interacting protein 2 cofactors in vitro and ex vivo. Substitution of the YPWM motif by alanines abolishes Antennapedia homeotic function, whereas substitution of YPWM by the WRPW repressor motif, which binds the transcriptional corepressor Groucho, allows all proteins to act as repressors only. Finally, naturally occurring variations in the size of the linker between the homeodomain and YPWM motif enhance Antennapedia repressive or activating efficiency, emphasizing the importance of linker size, rather than sequence, for specificity. Our results clearly show that synthetic Antennapedia genes are functional in vivo and therefore provide powerful tools for synthetic biology. Moreover, the YPWM motif is necessary—whereas the entire N terminus of the protein is dispensable—for Antennapedia homeotic function, indicating its dual role in transcriptional activation and repression by recruiting either coactivators or corepressors. PMID:21712439

  19. A Conserved Di-Basic Motif of Drosophila Crumbs Contributes to Efficient ER Export.

    PubMed

    Kumichel, Alexandra; Kapp, Katja; Knust, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    The Drosophila type I transmembrane protein Crumbs is an apical determinant required for the maintenance of apico-basal epithelial cell polarity. The level of Crumbs at the plasma membrane is crucial, but how it is regulated is poorly understood. In a genetic screen for regulators of Crumbs protein trafficking we identified Sar1, the core component of the coat protein complex II transport vesicles. sar1 mutant embryos show a reduced plasma membrane localization of Crumbs, a defect similar to that observed in haunted and ghost mutant embryos, which lack Sec23 and Sec24CD, respectively. By pulse-chase assays in Drosophila Schneider cells and analysis of protein transport kinetics based on Endoglycosidase H resistance we identified an RNKR motif in Crumbs, which contributes to efficient ER export. The motif identified fits the highly conserved di-basic RxKR motif and mediates interaction with Sar1. The RNKR motif is also required for plasma membrane delivery of transgene-encoded Crumbs in epithelial cells of Drosophila embryos. Our data are the first to show that a di-basic motif acts as a signal for ER exit of a type I plasma membrane protein in a metazoan organism.

  20. Conserved sequence motifs among bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal phosphatases that define a new phosphohydrolase superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Thaller, M. C.; Schippa, S.; Rossolini, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Members of a new molecular family of bacterial nonspecific acid phosphatases (NSAPs), indicated as class C, were found to share significant sequence similarities to bacterial class B NSAPs and to some plant acid phosphatases, representing the first example of a family of bacterial NSAPs that has a relatively close eukaryotic counterpart. Despite the lack of an overall similarity, conserved sequence motifs were also identified among the above enzyme families (class B and class C bacterial NSAPs, and related plant phosphatases) and several other families of phosphohydrolases, including bacterial phosphoglycolate phosphatases, histidinol-phosphatase domains of the bacterial bifunctional enzymes imidazole-glycerolphosphate dehydratases, and bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal phosphoserine phosphatases and threalose-6-phosphatases. These conserved motifs are clustered within two domains, separated by a variable spacer region, according to the pattern [FILMAVT]-D-[ILFRMVY]-D-[GSNDE]-[TV]-[ILVAM]-[AT S VILMC]-X-¿YFWHKR)-X-¿YFWHNQ¿-X( 102,191)-¿KRHNQ¿-G-D-¿FYWHILVMC¿-¿QNH¿-¿FWYGP¿-D -¿PSNQYW¿. The dephosphorylating activity common to all these proteins supports the definition of this phosphatase motif and the inclusion of these enzymes into a superfamily of phosphohydrolases that we propose to indicate as "DDDD" after the presence of the four invariant aspartate residues. Database searches retrieved various hypothetical proteins of unknown function containing this or similar motifs, for which a phosphohydrolase activity could be hypothesized. PMID:9684901

  1. Conserved Hydration Sites in Pin1 Reveal a Distinctive Water Recognition Motif in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Barman, Arghya; Smitherman, Crystal; Souffrant, Michael; Gadda, Giovanni; Hamelberg, Donald

    2016-01-25

    Structurally conserved water molecules are important for biomolecular stability, flexibility, and function. X-ray crystallographic studies of Pin1 have resolved a number of water molecules around the enzyme, including two highly conserved water molecules within the protein. The functional role of these localized water molecules remains unknown and unexplored. Pin1 catalyzes cis/trans isomerizations of peptidyl prolyl bonds that are preceded by a phosphorylated serine or threonine residue. Pin1 is involved in many subcellular signaling processes and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of several life threatening diseases. Here, we investigate the significance of these structurally conserved water molecules in the catalytic domain of Pin1 using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, free energy calculations, analysis of X-ray crystal structures, and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. MD simulations and free energy calculations suggest the tighter binding water molecule plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and stability of a critical hydrogen-bonding network in the active site. The second water molecule is exchangeable with bulk solvent and is found in a distinctive helix-turn-coil motif. Structural bioinformatics analysis of nonredundant X-ray crystallographic protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) suggest this motif is present in several other proteins and can act as a water site, akin to the calcium EF hand. CD experiments suggest the isolated motif is in a distorted PII conformation and requires the protein environment to fully form the α-helix-turn-coil motif. This study provides valuable insights into the role of hydration in the structural integrity of Pin1 that can be exploited in protein engineering and drug design.

  2. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  3. Dipeptide frequency/bias analysis identifies conserved sites of nonrandomness shared by cysteine-rich motifs.

    PubMed

    Campion, S R; Ameen, A S; Lai, L; King, J M; Munzenmaier, T N

    2001-08-15

    This report describes the application of a simple computational tool, AAPAIR.TAB, for the systematic analysis of the cysteine-rich EGF, Sushi, and Laminin motif/sequence families at the two-amino acid level. Automated dipeptide frequency/bias analysis detects preferences in the distribution of amino acids in established protein families, by determining which "ordered dipeptides" occur most frequently in comprehensive motif-specific sequence data sets. Graphic display of the dipeptide frequency/bias data revealed family-specific preferences for certain dipeptides, but more importantly detected a shared preference for employment of the ordered dipeptides Gly-Tyr (GY) and Gly-Phe (GF) in all three protein families. The dipeptide Asn-Gly (NG) also exhibited high-frequency and bias in the EGF and Sushi motif families, whereas Asn-Thr (NT) was distinguished in the Laminin family. Evaluation of the distribution of dipeptides identified by frequency/bias analysis subsequently revealed the highly restricted localization of the G(F/Y) and N(G/T) sequence elements at two separate sites of extreme conservation in the consensus sequence of all three sequence families. The similar employment of the high-frequency/bias dipeptides in three distinct protein sequence families was further correlated with the concurrence of these shared molecular determinants at similar positions within the distinctive scaffolds of three structurally divergent, but similarly employed, motif modules.

  4. A conserved heptamer motif for ribosomal RNA transcription termination in animal mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, J R; Marco, R; Garesse, R

    1994-01-01

    A search of sequence data bases for a tridecamer transcription termination signal, previously described in human mtDNA as being responsible for the accumulation of mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in excess over the rest of mitochondrial genes, has revealed that this termination signal occurs in equivalent positions in a wide variety of organisms from protozoa to mammals. Due to the compact organization of the mtDNA, the tridecamer motif usually appears as part of the 3' adjacent gene sequence. Because in phylogenetically widely separated organisms the mitochondrial genome has experienced many rearrangements, it is interesting that its occurrence near the 3' end of the large rRNA is independent of the adjacent gene. The tridecamer sequence has diverged in phylogenetically widely separated organisms. Nevertheless, a well-conserved heptamer--TGGCAGA, the mitochondrial rRNA termination box--can be defined. Although extending the experimental evidence of its role as a transcription termination signal in humans will be of great interest, its evolutionary conservation strongly suggests that mitochondrial rRNA transcription termination could be a widely conserved mechanism in animals. Furthermore, the conservation of a homologous tridecamer motif in one of the last 3' secondary loops of nonmitochondrial 23S-like rRNAs suggests that the role of the sequence has changed during mitochondrial evolution. PMID:7515499

  5. Integrative analysis of tissue-specific methylation and alternative splicing identifies conserved transcription factor binding motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Oliver, Verity F.; Zhu, Heng; Zack, Donald J.; Qian, Jiang; Merbs, Shannath L.

    2013-01-01

    The exact role of intragenic DNA methylation in regulating tissue-specific gene regulation is unclear. Recently, the DNA-binding protein CTCF has been shown to participate in the regulation of alternative splicing in a DNA methylation-dependent manner. To globally evaluate the relationship between DNA methylation and tissue-specific alternative splicing, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse retina and brain. In protein-coding genes, tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) were preferentially located in exons and introns. Gene ontology and evolutionary conservation analysis suggest that these T-DMRs are likely to be biologically relevant. More than 14% of alternatively spliced genes were associated with a T-DMR. T-DMR-associated genes were enriched for developmental genes, suggesting that a specific set of alternatively spliced genes may be regulated through DNA methylation. Novel DNA sequences motifs overrepresented in T-DMRs were identified as being associated with positive and/or negative regulation of alternative splicing in a position-dependent context. The majority of these evolutionarily conserved motifs contain a CpG dinucleotide. Some transcription factors, which recognize these motifs, are known to be involved in splicing. Our results suggest that DNA methylation-dependent alternative splicing is widespread and lay the foundation for further mechanistic studies of the role of DNA methylation in tissue-specific splicing regulation. PMID:23887936

  6. Identification of four conserved motifs among the RNA-dependent polymerase encoding elements.

    PubMed Central

    Poch, O; Sauvaget, I; Delarue, M; Tordo, N

    1989-01-01

    Four consensus sequences are conserved with the same linear arrangement in RNA-dependent DNA polymerases encoded by retroid elements and in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases encoded by plus-, minus- and double-strand RNA viruses. One of these motifs corresponds to the YGDD span previously described by Kamer and Argos (1984). These consensus sequences altogether lead to 4 strictly and 18 conservatively maintained amino acids embedded in a large domain of 120 to 210 amino acids. As judged from secondary structure predictions, each of the 4 motifs, which may cooperate to form a well-ordered domain, places one invariant amino acid in or proximal to turn structures that may be crucial for their correct positioning in a catalytic process. We suggest that this domain may constitute a prerequisite 'polymerase module' implicated in template seating and polymerase activity. At the evolutionary level, the sequence similarities, gap distribution and distances between each motif strongly suggest that the ancestral polymerase module was encoded by an individual genetic element which was most closely related to the plus-strand RNA viruses and the non-viral retroposons. This polymerase module gene may have subsequently propagated in the viral kingdom by distinct gene set recombination events leading to the wide viral variety observed today. Images PMID:2555175

  7. Role of the conserved lysine within the Walker A motif of human DMC1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepti; Say, Amanda F.; Ledford, LeAnna L.; Hughes, Ami J.; Sehorn, Hilarie A.; Dwyer, Donard S.; Sehorn, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    During meiosis, the RAD51 recombinase and its meiosis-specific homolog DMC1 mediate DNA strand exchange between homologous chromosomes. The proteins form a right-handed nucleoprotein complex on ssDNA called the presynaptic filament. In an ATP-dependent manner, the presynaptic filament searches for homology to form a physical connection with the homologous chromosome. We constructed two variants of hDMC1 altering the conserved lysine residue of the Walker A motif to arginine (hDMC1K132R) or alanine (hDMC1K132A). The hDMC1 variants were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. Both hDMC1K132R and hDMC1K132A variants were devoid of ATP hydrolysis. The hDMC1K132R variant was attenuated for ATP binding that was partially restored by the addition of either ssDNA or calcium. The hDMC1K132R variant was partially capable of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange in the presence of calcium and protecting DNA from a nuclease, while the hDMC1K132A variant was inactive. These results suggest that the conserved lysine of the Walker A motif in hDMC1 plays a key role in ATP binding. Furthermore, the binding of calcium and ssDNA promotes a conformational change in the ATP binding pocket of hDMC1 that promotes ATP binding. Our results provide evidence that the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of hDMC1 is critical for ATP binding which is required for presynaptic filament formation. PMID:23182424

  8. Identification of conserved splicing motifs in mutually exclusive exons of 15 insect species.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Patricia; Tyree, John; Loredo, Robert; Hsu, Shu-Ning

    2012-04-12

    During alternative splicing, the inclusion of an exon in the final mRNA molecule is determined by nuclear proteins that bind cis-regulatory sequences in a target pre-mRNA molecule. A recent study suggested that the regulatory codes of individual RNA-binding proteins may be nearly immutable between very diverse species such as mammals and insects. The model system Drosophila melanogaster therefore presents an excellent opportunity for the study of alternative splicing due to the availability of quality EST annotations in FlyBase. In this paper, we describe an in silico analysis pipeline to extract putative exonic splicing regulatory sequences from a multiple alignment of 15 species of insects. Our method, ESTs-to-ESRs (E2E), uses graph analysis of EST splicing graphs to identify mutually exclusive (ME) exons and combines phylogenetic measures, a sliding window approach along the multiple alignment and the Welch's t statistic to extract conserved ESR motifs. The most frequent 100% conserved word of length 5 bp in different insect exons was "ATGGA". We identified 799 statistically significant "spike" hexamers, 218 motifs with either a left or right FDR corrected spike magnitude p-value < 0.05 and 83 with both left and right uncorrected p < 0.01. 11 genes were identified with highly significant motifs in one ME exon but not in the other, suggesting regulation of ME exon splicing through these highly conserved hexamers. The majority of these genes have been shown to have regulated spatiotemporal expression. 10 elements were found to match three mammalian splicing regulator databases. A putative ESR motif, GATGCAG, was identified in the ME-13b but not in the ME-13a of Drosophila N-Cadherin, a gene that has been shown to have a distinct spatiotemporal expression pattern of spliced isoforms in a recent study. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships and variability of sequence conservation as implemented in the E2E spikes method may lead to improved identification of ESRs

  9. Novel hexamerization motif is discovered in a conserved cytoplasmic protein from Salmonella typhimurium.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrova, T.; Cuff, M.; Wu, R.; Kim, Y.; Holzle, D.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Inst. of Mathematical Problems of Biology

    2007-01-01

    The cytoplasmic protein Stm3548 of unknown function obtained from a strain of Salmonella typhimurium was determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.25 A. The asymmetric unit contains a hexamer of structurally identical monomers. The monomer is a globular domain with a long beta-hairpin protrusion that distinguishes this structure. This beta-hairpin occupies a central position in the hexamer, and its residues participate in the majority of interactions between subunits of the hexamer. We suggest that the structure of Stm3548 presents a new hexamerization motif. Because the residues participating in interdomain interactions are highly conserved among close members of protein family DUF1355 and buried solvent accessible area for the hexamer is significant, the hexamer is most likely conserved as well. A light scattering experiment confirmed the presence of hexamer in solution.

  10. Conserved motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic polypeptide release factors: tRNA-protein mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Ebihara, K; Uno, M; Nakamura, Y

    1996-01-01

    Translation termination requires two codon-specific polypeptide release factors in prokaryotes and one omnipotent factor in eukaryotes. Sequences of 17 different polypeptide release factors from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were compared. The prokaryotic release factors share residues split into seven motifs. Conservation of many discrete, perhaps critical, amino acids is observed in eukaryotic release factors, as well as in the C-terminal portion of elongation factor (EF) G. Given that the C-terminal domains of EF-G interacts with ribosomes by mimicry of a tRNA structure, the pattern of conservation of residues in release factors may reflect requirements for a tRNA-mimicry for binding to the A site of the ribosome. This mimicry would explain why release factors recognize stop codons and suggests that all prokaryotic and eukaryotic release factors evolved from the progenitor of EF-G. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643594

  11. A conserved acidic motif is crucial for enzymatic activity of protein O-mannosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Lommel, Mark; Schott, Andrea; Jank, Thomas; Hofmann, Verena; Strahl, Sabine

    2011-11-18

    Protein O-mannosylation is an essential modification in fungi and mammals. It is initiated at the endoplasmic reticulum by a conserved family of dolichyl phosphate mannose-dependent protein O-mannosyltransferases (PMTs). PMTs are integral membrane proteins with two hydrophilic loops (loops 1 and 5) facing the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Formation of dimeric PMT complexes is crucial for mannosyltransferase activity, but the direct cause is not known to date. In bakers' yeast, O-mannosylation is catalyzed largely by heterodimeric Pmt1p-Pmt2p and homodimeric Pmt4p complexes. To further characterize Pmt1p-Pmt2p complexes, we developed a photoaffinity probe based on the artificial mannosyl acceptor substrate Tyr-Ala-Thr-Ala-Val. The photoreactive probe was preferentially cross-linked to Pmt1p, and deletion of the loop 1 (but not loop 5) region abolished this interaction. Analysis of Pmt1p loop 1 mutants revealed that especially Glu-78 is crucial for binding of the photoreactive probe. Glu-78 belongs to an Asp-Glu motif that is highly conserved among PMTs. We further demonstrate that single amino acid substitutions in this motif completely abolish activity of Pmt4p complexes. In contrast, both acidic residues need to be exchanged to eliminate activity of Pmt1p-Pmt2p complexes. On the basis of our data, we propose that the loop 1 regions of dimeric complexes form part of the catalytic site.

  12. The transcription factor Spn1 regulates gene expression via a highly conserved novel structural motif

    PubMed Central

    Pujari, Venugopal; Radebaugh, Catherine A.; Chodaparambil, Jayanth V.; Muthurajan, Uma M.; Almeida, Adam R.; Fischbeck, Julie A.; Luger, Karolin; Stargell, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Spn1 plays essential roles in the regulation of gene expression by RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII), and it is highly conserved in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Spn1 physically and/or genetically interacts with RNAPII, TBP, TFIIS and a number of chromatin remodeling factors (Swi/Snf and Spt6). The central domain of Spn1 (residues 141-305 out of 410) is necessary and sufficient for performing the essential functions of SPN1 in yeast cells. Here we report the high-resolution (1.85Å) crystal structure of the conserved central domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spn1. The central domain is comprised of eight alpha-helices in a right handed super helical arrangement, and exhibits structural similarity to domain I of TFIIS. A unique structural feature of Spn1 is a highly conserved loop, which defines one side of a pronounced cavity. The loop and the other residues forming the cavity are highly conserved at the amino acid level among all Spn1 family members, suggesting that this is a signature motif for Spn1 orthologs. The locations and the molecular characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in Spn1 indicate that the cavity is a key attribute of Spn1 that is critical for its regulatory functions during RNAPII-mediated transcriptional activity. PMID:20875428

  13. The transcription factor Spn1 regulates gene expression via a highly conserved novel structural motif.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Venugopal; Radebaugh, Catherine A; Chodaparambil, Jayanth V; Muthurajan, Uma M; Almeida, Adam R; Fischbeck, Julie A; Luger, Karolin; Stargell, Laurie A

    2010-11-19

    Spn1/Iws1 plays essential roles in the regulation of gene expression by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), and it is highly conserved in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Spn1 physically and/or genetically interacts with RNAPII, TBP (TATA-binding protein), TFIIS (transcription factor IIS), and a number of chromatin remodeling factors (Swi/Snf and Spt6). The central domain of Spn1 (residues 141-305 out of 410) is necessary and sufficient for performing the essential functions of SPN1 in yeast cells. Here, we report the high-resolution (1.85 Å) crystal structure of the conserved central domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spn1. The central domain is composed of eight α-helices in a right-handed superhelical arrangement and exhibits structural similarity to domain I of TFIIS. A unique structural feature of Spn1 is a highly conserved loop, which defines one side of a pronounced cavity. The loop and the other residues forming the cavity are highly conserved at the amino acid level among all Spn1 family members, suggesting that this is a signature motif for Spn1 orthologs. The locations and the molecular characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in Spn1 indicate that the cavity is a key attribute of Spn1 that is critical for its regulatory functions during RNAPII-mediated transcriptional activity.

  14. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Palladino, Claudia; Briz, Veronica; Rudolph, Jochen M.; Fackler, Oliver T.; Relloso, Miguel; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121–137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection. PMID:26700863

  15. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of Dof transcription factors identified a conserved motif for intercellular protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Ahmad, Munawar; Rim, Yeonggil; Lucas, William J; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2013-06-01

    · Cell-to-cell trafficking of transcription factors (TFs) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of plant developmental events, but the evolutionary relationship between cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous (NCA) TFs remains elusive. · AtDof4.1, named INTERCELLULAR TRAFFICKING DOF 1 (ITD1), was chosen as a representative NCA member to explore this evolutionary relationship. Using domain structure-function analyses and swapping studies, we examined the cell-to-cell trafficking of plant-specific Dof TF family members across Arabidopsis and other species. · We identified a conserved intercellular trafficking motif (ITM) that is necessary and sufficient for selective cell-to-cell trafficking and can impart gain-of-function cell-to-cell movement capacity to an otherwise cell-autonomous TF. The functionality of related motifs from Dof members across the plant kingdom extended, surprisingly, to a unicellular alga that lacked plasmodesmata. By contrast, the algal homeodomain related to the NCA KNOX homeodomain was either inefficient or unable to impart such cell-to-cell movement function. · The Dof ITM appears to predate the evolution of selective plasmodesmal trafficking in the plant kingdom, which may well have acted as a molecular template for the evolution of Dof proteins as NCA TFs. However, the ability to efficiently traffic for KNOX homeodomain (HD) proteins may have been acquired during the evolution of early nonvascular plants.

  16. A conserved motif flags Acyl Carrier Proteins for β-branching in polyketide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhongshu; Farmer, Rohit; Williams, Christopher; Hothersall, Joanne; Płoskoń, Eliza; Wattana-amorn, Pakorn; Stephens, Elton R.; Yamada, Erika; Gurney, Rachel; Takebayashi, Yuiko; Masschelein, Joleen; Cox, Russell J.; Lavigne, Rob; Willis, Christine L.; Simpson, Thomas J.; Crosby, John; Winn, Peter J.; Thomas, Christopher M.; Crump, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Type I PKSs often utilise programmed β-branching, via enzymes of an “HMG-CoA synthase (HCS) cassette”, to incorporate various side chains at the second carbon from the terminal carboxylic acid of growing polyketide backbones. We identified a strong sequence motif in Acyl Carrier Proteins (ACPs) where β-branching is known. Substituting ACPs confirmed a correlation of ACP type with β-branching specificity. While these ACPs often occur in tandem, NMR analysis of tandem β-branching ACPs indicated no ACP-ACP synergistic effects and revealed that the conserved sequence motif forms an internal core rather than an exposed patch. Modelling and mutagenesis identified ACP Helix III as a probable anchor point of the ACP-HCS complex whose position is determined by the core. Mutating the core affects ACP functionality while ACP-HCS interface substitutions modulate system specificity. Our method for predicting β-carbon branching expands the potential for engineering novel polyketides and lays a basis for determining specificity rules. PMID:24056399

  17. Interpreting Frequency Responses to Dose-Conserved Pulsatile Input Signals in Simple Cell Signaling Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Patrick A.; Clément, Frédérique; Vidal, Alexandre; Tabak, Joel; Bertram, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Many hormones are released in pulsatile patterns. This pattern can be modified, for instance by changing pulse frequency, to encode relevant physiological information. Often other properties of the pulse pattern will also change with frequency. How do signaling pathways of cells targeted by these hormones respond to different input patterns? In this study, we examine how a given dose of hormone can induce different outputs from the target system, depending on how this dose is distributed in time. We use simple mathematical models of feedforward signaling motifs to understand how the properties of the target system give rise to preferences in input pulse pattern. We frame these problems in terms of frequency responses to pulsatile inputs, where the amplitude or duration of the pulses is varied along with frequency to conserve input dose. We find that the form of the nonlinearity in the steady state input-output function of the system predicts the optimal input pattern. It does so by selecting an optimal input signal amplitude. Our results predict the behavior of common signaling motifs such as receptor binding with dimerization, and protein phosphorylation. The findings have implications for experiments aimed at studying the frequency response to pulsatile inputs, as well as for understanding how pulsatile patterns drive biological responses via feedforward signaling pathways. PMID:24748217

  18. Identification of LAG3 high affinity aptamers by HT-SELEX and Conserved Motif Accumulation (CMA).

    PubMed

    Soldevilla, Mario Martínez; Hervas, Sandra; Villanueva, Helena; Lozano, Teresa; Rabal, Obdulia; Oyarzabal, Julen; Lasarte, Juan José; Bendandi, Maurizio; Inoges, Susana; López-Díaz de Cerio, Ascensión; Pastor, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    LAG3 receptor belongs to a family of immune-checkpoints expressed in T lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. It plays an important role as a rheostat of the immune response. Focus on this receptor as a potential therapeutic target in cancer immunotherapy has been underscored after the success of other immune-checkpoint blockade strategies in clinical trials. LAG3 showcases the interest in the field of autoimmunity as several studies show that LAG3-targeting antibodies can also be used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this work we describe the identification of a high-affinity LAG3 aptamer by High Throughput Sequencing SELEX in combination with a study of potential conserved binding modes according to sequence conservation by using 2D-structure prediction and 3D-RNA modeling using Rosetta. The aptamer with the highest accumulation of these conserved sequence motifs displays the highest affinity to LAG3 recombinant soluble proteins and binds to LAG3-expressing lymphocytes. The aptamer described herein has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent, as it enhances the threshold of T-cell activation. Nonetheless, in future applications, it could also be engineered for treatment of autoimmune diseases by target depletion of LAG3-effector T lymphocytes.

  19. Conserved DNA motifs in the type II-A CRISPR leader region

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Kesavan; Najar, Fares Z.

    2017-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems consist of RNA-protein complexes that provide bacteria and archaea with sequence-specific immunity against bacteriophages, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Bacteria and archaea become immune to phage or plasmid infections by inserting short pieces of the intruder DNA (spacer) site-specifically into the leader-repeat junction in a process called adaptation. Previous studies have shown that parts of the leader region, especially the 3′ end of the leader, are indispensable for adaptation. However, a comprehensive analysis of leader ends remains absent. Here, we have analyzed the leader, repeat, and Cas proteins from 167 type II-A CRISPR loci. Our results indicate two distinct conserved DNA motifs at the 3′ leader end: ATTTGAG (noted previously in the CRISPR1 locus of Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC7710) and a newly defined CTRCGAG, associated with the CRISPR3 locus of S. thermophilus DGCC7710. A third group with a very short CG DNA conservation at the 3′ leader end is observed mostly in lactobacilli. Analysis of the repeats and Cas proteins revealed clustering of these CRISPR components that mirrors the leader motif clustering, in agreement with the coevolution of CRISPR-Cas components. Based on our analysis of the type II-A CRISPR loci, we implicate leader end sequences that could confer site-specificity for the adaptation-machinery in the different subsets of type II-A CRISPR loci. PMID:28392985

  20. Identification of multiple distinct Snf2 subfamilies with conserved structural motifs

    PubMed Central

    Flaus, Andrew; Martin, David M. A.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The Snf2 family of helicase-related proteins includes the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes found in all eukaryotes. These act to regulate the structure and dynamic properties of chromatin and so influence a broad range of nuclear processes. We have exploited progress in genome sequencing to assemble a comprehensive catalogue of over 1300 Snf2 family members. Multiple sequence alignment of the helicase-related regions enables 24 distinct subfamilies to be identified, a considerable expansion over earlier surveys. Where information is known, there is a good correlation between biological or biochemical function and these assignments, suggesting Snf2 family motor domains are tuned for specific tasks. Scanning of complete genomes reveals all eukaryotes contain members of multiple subfamilies, whereas they are less common and not ubiquitous in eubacteria or archaea. The large sample of Snf2 proteins enables additional distinguishing conserved sequence blocks within the helicase-like motor to be identified. The establishment of a phylogeny for Snf2 proteins provides an opportunity to make informed assignments of function, and the identification of conserved motifs provides a framework for understanding the mechanisms by which these proteins function. PMID:16738128

  1. Detecting Remote Sequence Homology in Disordered Proteins: Discovery of Conserved Motifs in the N-Termini of Mononegavirales phosphoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, David; Belshaw, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Paramyxovirinae are a large group of viruses that includes measles virus and parainfluenza viruses. The viral Phosphoprotein (P) plays a central role in viral replication. It is composed of a highly variable, disordered N-terminus and a conserved C-terminus. A second viral protein alternatively expressed, the V protein, also contains the N-terminus of P, fused to a zinc finger. We suspected that, despite their high variability, the N-termini of P/V might all be homologous; however, using standard approaches, we could previously identify sequence conservation only in some Paramyxovirinae. We now compared the N-termini using sensitive sequence similarity search programs, able to detect residual similarities unnoticeable by conventional approaches. We discovered that all Paramyxovirinae share a short sequence motif in their first 40 amino acids, which we called soyuz1. Despite its short length (11–16aa), several arguments allow us to conclude that soyuz1 probably evolved by homologous descent, unlike linear motifs. Conservation across such evolutionary distances suggests that soyuz1 plays a crucial role and experimental data suggest that it binds the viral nucleoprotein to prevent its illegitimate self-assembly. In some Paramyxovirinae, the N-terminus of P/V contains a second motif, soyuz2, which might play a role in blocking interferon signaling. Finally, we discovered that the P of related Mononegavirales contain similarly overlooked motifs in their N-termini, and that their C-termini share a previously unnoticed structural similarity suggesting a common origin. Our results suggest several testable hypotheses regarding the replication of Mononegavirales and suggest that disordered regions with little overall sequence similarity, common in viral and eukaryotic proteins, might contain currently overlooked motifs (intermediate in length between linear motifs and disordered domains) that could be detected simply by comparing orthologous proteins. PMID:22403617

  2. Evolutionary Conserved Motif Finder (ECMFinder) for genome-wide identification of clustered YY1- and CTCF-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Keunsoo; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Joomyeong

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new bioinformatics approach called ECMFinder (Evolutionary Conserved Motif Finder). This program searches for a given DNA motif within the entire genome of one species and uses the gene association information of a potential transcription factor-binding site (TFBS) to screen the homologous regions of a second and third species. If multiple species have this potential TFBS in homologous positions, this program recognizes the identified TFBS as an evolutionary conserved motif (ECM). This program outputs a list of ECMs, which can be uploaded as a Custom Track in the UCSC genome browser and can be visualized along with other available data. The feasibility of this approach was tested by searching the genomes of three mammals (human, mouse and cow) with the DNA-binding motifs of YY1 and CTCF. This program successfully identified many clustered YY1- and CTCF-binding sites that are conserved among these species but were previously undetected. In particular, this program identified CTCF-binding sites that are located close to the Dlk1, Magel2 and Cdkn1c imprinted genes. Individual ChIP experiments confirmed the in vivo binding of the YY1 and CTCF proteins to most of these newly discovered binding sites, demonstrating the feasibility and usefulness of ECMFinder. PMID:19208640

  3. A conserved motif in the promoters of several cytokines expressed by human Th2-type lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Staynov, D Z; Cousins, D J; Lee, T H

    1995-01-01

    We have recently found a novel conserved motif in the promoters of several T-cell-expressed cytokines [human interleukin-2, -4, -5 and -13 and human and mouse granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)]. It contains a core sequence CTTGG ... CCAAG which is present as part of larger palindromic sequences in each gene. This suggest that they may interact with a new family of trans-acting factors. In transfection assays, the human GM-CSF element has a strong positive effect on the expression of a reporter gene by the human T cell line Jurkat J6 upon stimulation. In DNA mobility shift assays, this sequence can give either six different specific bands which are competed out by different parts of the sequence or one specific band which is competed out by each of the inverted repeats, depending on the reconstitution conditions. In different genes, the core sequences are separated by integer numbers of helical turns. Considering the strong positive regulatory effect of this element and its presence in several T-cell-expressed cytokine genes, it may be crucial to the coordinated expression of these cytokines in T helper cells.

  4. Multiple cellular proteins interact with LEDGF/p75 through a conserved unstructured consensus motif.

    PubMed

    Tesina, Petr; Čermáková, Kateřina; Hořejší, Magdalena; Procházková, Kateřina; Fábry, Milan; Sharma, Subhalakshmi; Christ, Frauke; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Debyser, Zeger; De Rijck, Jan; Veverka, Václav; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-08-06

    Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is an epigenetic reader and attractive therapeutic target involved in HIV integration and the development of mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL1) fusion-driven leukaemia. Besides HIV integrase and the MLL1-menin complex, LEDGF/p75 interacts with various cellular proteins via its integrase binding domain (IBD). Here we present structural characterization of IBD interactions with transcriptional repressor JPO2 and domesticated transposase PogZ, and show that the PogZ interaction is nearly identical to the interaction of LEDGF/p75 with MLL1. The interaction with the IBD is maintained by an intrinsically disordered IBD-binding motif (IBM) common to all known cellular partners of LEDGF/p75. In addition, based on IBM conservation, we identify and validate IWS1 as a novel LEDGF/p75 interaction partner. Our results also reveal how HIV integrase efficiently displaces cellular binding partners from LEDGF/p75. Finally, the similar binding modes of LEDGF/p75 interaction partners represent a new challenge for the development of selective interaction inhibitors.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Krishanu; Bürglin, Thomas R

    2007-08-01

    TALE homeodomain proteins are an ancient subgroup within the group of homeodomain transcription factors that play important roles in animal, plant, and fungal development. We have extracted the full complement of TALE superclass homeobox genes from the genome projects of seven protostomes, seven deuterostomes, and Nematostella. This was supplemented with TALE homeobox genes from additional species and phylogenetic analyses were carried out with 276 sequences. We found 20 homeobox genes and 4 pseudogenes in humans, 21 genes in mouse, 8 genes in Drosophila, and 5 genes plus one truncated gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apart from the previously identified TALE classes MEIS, PBC, IRO, and TGIF, a novel class is identified, termed MOHAWK (MKX). Further, we show that the MEIS class can be divided into two families, PREP and MEIS. Prep genes have previously only been described in vertebrates but are lacking in Drosophila. Here we identify orthologues in other insect taxa as well as in the cnidarian Nematostella. In C. elegans, a divergent Prep protein has lost the homeodomain. Full-length multiple sequence alignment of the protostome and deuterostome sequences allowed us to identify several novel conserved motifs within the MKX, TGIF, and MEIS classes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed fast-evolving PBC class genes; in particular, some X-linked PBC genes in nematodes are subject to rapid evolution. In addition, several instances of gene loss were identified. In conclusion, our comprehensive analysis provides a defining framework for the classification of animal TALE homeobox genes and the understanding of their evolution.

  6. Conserved Functional Motifs and Homology Modeling to Predict Hidden Moonlighting Functional Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Aloysius; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.

    2015-01-01

    Moonlighting functional centers within proteins can provide them with hitherto unrecognized functions. Here, we review how hidden moonlighting functional centers, which we define as binding sites that have catalytic activity or regulate protein function in a novel manner, can be identified using targeted bioinformatic searches. Functional motifs used in such searches include amino acid residues that are conserved across species and many of which have been assigned functional roles based on experimental evidence. Molecules that were identified in this manner seeking cyclic mononucleotide cyclases in plants are used as examples. The strength of this computational approach is enhanced when good homology models can be developed to test the functionality of the predicted centers in silico, which, in turn, increases confidence in the ability of the identified candidates to perform the predicted functions. Computational characterization of moonlighting functional centers is not diagnostic for catalysis but serves as a rapid screening method, and highlights testable targets from a potentially large pool of candidates for subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments required to confirm the functionality of the predicted moonlighting centers. PMID:26106597

  7. RNA polymerase II senses obstruction in the DNA minor groove via a conserved sensor motif

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Gotte, Deanna; Yang, Fei; Hare, Alissa A.; Welch, Timothy R.; Li, Benjamin C.; Shin, Ji Hyun; Chong, Jenny; Strathern, Jeffrey N.; Dervan, Peter B.; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (pol II) encounters numerous barriers during transcription elongation, including DNA strand breaks, DNA lesions, and nucleosomes. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides bind to the minor groove of DNA with programmable sequence specificity and high affinity. Previous studies suggest that Py-Im polyamides can prevent transcription factor binding, as well as interfere with pol II transcription elongation. However, the mechanism of pol II inhibition by Py-Im polyamides is unclear. Here we investigate the mechanism of how these minor-groove binders affect pol II transcription elongation. In the presence of site-specifically bound Py-Im polyamides, we find that the pol II elongation complex becomes arrested immediately upstream of the targeted DNA sequence, and is not rescued by transcription factor IIS, which is in contrast to pol II blockage by a nucleosome barrier. Further analysis reveals that two conserved pol II residues in the Switch 1 region contribute to pol II stalling. Our study suggests this motif in pol II can sense the structural changes of the DNA minor groove and can be considered a “minor groove sensor.” Prolonged interference of transcription elongation by sequence-specific minor groove binders may present opportunities to target transcription addiction for cancer therapy. PMID:27791148

  8. Ser/Thr Motifs in Transmembrane Proteins: Conservation Patterns and Effects on Local Protein Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    del Val, Coral; White, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    We combined systematic bioinformatics analyses and molecular dynamics simulations to assess the conservation patterns of Ser and Thr motifs in membrane proteins, and the effect of such motifs on the structure and dynamics of α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. We find that Ser/Thr motifs are often present in β-barrel TM proteins. At least one Ser/Thr motif is present in almost half of the sequences of α-helical proteins analyzed here. The extensive bioinformatics analyses and inspection of protein structures led to the identification of molecular transporters with noticeable numbers of Ser/Thr motifs within the TM region. Given the energetic penalty for burying multiple Ser/Thr groups in the membrane hydrophobic core, the observation of transporters with multiple membrane-embedded Ser/Thr is intriguing and raises the question of how the presence of multiple Ser/Thr affects protein local structure and dynamics. Molecular dynamics simulations of four different Ser-containing model TM peptides indicate that backbone hydrogen bonding of membrane-buried Ser/Thr hydroxyl groups can significantly change the local structure and dynamics of the helix. Ser groups located close to the membrane interface can hydrogen bond to solvent water instead of protein backbone, leading to an enhanced local solvation of the peptide. PMID:22836667

  9. Characterization of the highly conserved VFMGD motif in a bacterial polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferase.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Sarah E; Valvano, Miguel A

    2012-09-01

    Polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferases (PNPTs) constitute a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins that catalyze the transfer of a sugar-1-phosphate to a phosphoisoprenyl lipid carrier. All PNPT members share a highly conserved 213-Valine-Phenylalanine-Methionine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-217 (VFMGD) motif. Previous studies using the MraY protein suggested that the aspartic acid residue in this motif, D267, is a nucleophile for a proposed double-displacement mechanism involving the cleavage of the phosphoanhydride bond of the nucleoside. Here, we demonstrate that the corresponding residue in the E. coli WecA, D217, is not directly involved in catalysis, as its replacement by asparagine results in a more active enzyme. Kinetic data indicate that the D217N replacement leads to more than twofold increase in V(max) without significant change in the K(m) for the nucleoside sugar substrate. Furthermore, no differences in the binding of the reaction intermediate analog tunicamycin were found in D217N as well as in other replacement mutants at the same position. We also found that alanine substitutions in various residues of the VFMGD motif affect to various degrees the enzymatic activity of WecA in vivo and in vitro. Together, our data suggest that the highly conserved VFMGD motif defines a common region in PNPT proteins that contributes to the active site and is likely involved in the release of the reaction product. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  10. Characterization of the highly conserved VFMGD motif in a bacterial polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferase

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Sarah E; Valvano, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferases (PNPTs) constitute a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins that catalyze the transfer of a sugar-1-phosphate to a phosphoisoprenyl lipid carrier. All PNPT members share a highly conserved 213-Valine-Phenylalanine-Methionine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-217 (VFMGD) motif. Previous studies using the MraY protein suggested that the aspartic acid residue in this motif, D267, is a nucleophile for a proposed double-displacement mechanism involving the cleavage of the phosphoanhydride bond of the nucleoside. Here, we demonstrate that the corresponding residue in the E. coli WecA, D217, is not directly involved in catalysis, as its replacement by asparagine results in a more active enzyme. Kinetic data indicate that the D217N replacement leads to more than twofold increase in Vmax without significant change in the Km for the nucleoside sugar substrate. Furthermore, no differences in the binding of the reaction intermediate analog tunicamycin were found in D217N as well as in other replacement mutants at the same position. We also found that alanine substitutions in various residues of the VFMGD motif affect to various degrees the enzymatic activity of WecA in vivo and in vitro. Together, our data suggest that the highly conserved VFMGD motif defines a common region in PNPT proteins that contributes to the active site and is likely involved in the release of the reaction product. PMID:22811320

  11. Conserved motifs II to VI of DNA helicase II from Escherichia coli are all required for biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, G; Deng, E; Baugh, L R; Hamilton, C M; Maples, V F; Kushner, S R

    1997-01-01

    There are seven conserved motifs (IA, IB, and II to VI) in DNA helicase II of Escherichia coli that have high homology among a large family of proteins involved in DNA metabolism. To address the functional importance of motifs II to VI, we employed site-directed mutagenesis to replace the charged amino acid residues in each motif with alanines. Cells carrying these mutant alleles exhibited higher UV and methyl methanesulfonate sensitivity, increased rates of spontaneous mutagenesis, and elevated levels of homologous recombination, indicating defects in both the excision repair and mismatch repair pathways. In addition, we also changed the highly conserved tyrosine(600) in motif VI to phenylalanine (uvrD309, Y600F). This mutant displayed a moderate increase in UV sensitivity but a decrease in spontaneous mutation rate, suggesting that DNA helicase II may have different functions in the two DNA repair pathways. Furthermore, a mutation in domain IV (uvrD307, R284A) significantly reduced the viability of some E. coli K-12 strains at 30 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. The implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:9393722

  12. Targeting of the human adrenoleukodystrophy protein to the peroxisomal membrane by an internal region containing a highly conserved motif.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Pablo; Mayerhofer, Peter U; Polanetz, Roman; Roscher, Adelbert A; Holzinger, Andreas

    2003-08-01

    In this study we addressed the targeting requirements of peroxisomal ABC transporters, in particular the human adrenoleukodystrophy protein. This membrane protein is defective or missing in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly presenting in childhood. Using adrenoleukodystrophy protein deletion constructs and green fluorescent protein fusion constructs we identified the amino acid regions 1-110 and 67-164 to be sufficient for peroxisomal targeting. However, the minimal region shared by these constructs (amino acids 67-110) is not sufficient for peroxisomal targeting by itself. Additionally, the NH2-terminal 66 amino acids enhance targeting efficiency. Green fluorescent protein-labeled fragments of human peroxisomal membrane protein 69 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pxa1 corresponding to the amino acid 67-164 adrenoleukodystrophy protein region were also directed to the mammalian peroxisome. The required region contains a 14-amino-acid motif (71-84) conserved between the adrenoleukodystrophy protein and human peroxisomal membrane protein 69 and yeast Pxa1. Omission or truncation of this motif in the adrenoleukodystrophy protein abolished peroxisomal targeting. The single amino acid substitution L78F resulted in a significant reduction of targeting efficiency. The in-frame deletion of three amino acids (del78-80LLR) within the proposed targeting motif in two patients suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy resulted in the mislocalization of a green fluorescent protein fusion protein to nucleus, cytosol and mitochondria. Our data define the targeting region of human adrenoleukodystrophy protein containing a highly conserved 14-amino-acid motif.

  13. Interleukin-11 binds specific EF-hand proteins via their conserved structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Alexei S; Sokolov, Andrei S; Vologzhannikova, Alisa A; Permyakova, Maria E; Khorn, Polina A; Ismailov, Ramis G; Denessiouk, Konstantin A; Denesyuk, Alexander I; Rastrygina, Victoria A; Baksheeva, Viktoriia E; Zernii, Evgeni Yu; Zinchenko, Dmitry V; Glazatov, Vladimir V; Uversky, Vladimir N; Mirzabekov, Tajib A; Permyakov, Eugene A; Permyakov, Sergei E

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a hematopoietic cytokine engaged in numerous biological processes and validated as a target for treatment of various cancers. IL-11 contains intrinsically disordered regions that might recognize multiple targets. Recently we found that aside from IL-11RA and gp130 receptors, IL-11 interacts with calcium sensor protein S100P. Strict calcium dependence of this interaction suggests a possibility of IL-11 interaction with other calcium sensor proteins. Here we probed specificity of IL-11 to calcium-binding proteins of various types: calcium sensors of the EF-hand family (calmodulin, S100B and neuronal calcium sensors: recoverin, NCS-1, GCAP-1, GCAP-2), calcium buffers of the EF-hand family (S100G, oncomodulin), and a non-EF-hand calcium buffer (α-lactalbumin). A specific subset of the calcium sensor proteins (calmodulin, S100B, NCS-1, GCAP-1/2) exhibits metal-dependent binding of IL-11 with dissociation constants of 1-19 μM. These proteins share several amino acid residues belonging to conservative structural motifs of the EF-hand proteins, 'black' and 'gray' clusters. Replacements of the respective S100P residues by alanine drastically decrease its affinity to IL-11, suggesting their involvement into the association process. Secondary structure and accessibility of the hinge region of the EF-hand proteins studied are predicted to control specificity and selectivity of their binding to IL-11. The IL-11 interaction with the EF-hand proteins is expected to occur under numerous pathological conditions, accompanied by disintegration of plasma membrane and efflux of cellular components into the extracellular milieu.

  14. A Conserved Structural Motif Mediates Retrograde Trafficking of Shiga Toxin Types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Selyunin, Andrey S; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) produce two types of Shiga toxin (STx): STx1 and STx2. The toxin A-subunits block protein synthesis, while the B-subunits mediate retrograde trafficking. STEC infections do not have definitive treatments, and there is growing interest in generating toxin transport inhibitors for therapy. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of toxin trafficking is essential for drug development. While STx2 is more toxic in vivo, prior studies focused on STx1 B-subunit (STx1B) trafficking. Here, we show that, compared with STx1B, trafficking of the B-subunit of STx2 (STx2B) to the Golgi occurs with slower kinetics. Despite this difference, similar to STx1B, endosome-to-Golgi transport of STx2B does not involve transit through degradative late endosomes and is dependent on dynamin II, epsinR, retromer and syntaxin5. Importantly, additional experiments show that a surface-exposed loop in STx2B (β4-β5 loop) is required for its endosome-to-Golgi trafficking. We previously demonstrated that residues in the corresponding β4-β5 loop of STx1B are required for interaction with GPP130, the STx1B-specific endosomal receptor, and for endosome-to-Golgi transport. Overall, STx1B and STx2B share a common pathway and use a similar structural motif to traffic to the Golgi, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of endosomal sorting may be evolutionarily conserved.

  15. Functional conservation of PISTILLATA activity in a pea homolog lacking the PI motif.

    PubMed

    Berbel, Ana; Navarro, Cristina; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Cañas, Luis Antonio; Beltrán, José-Pío; Madueño, Francisco

    2005-09-01

    Current understanding of floral development is mainly based on what we know from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Antirrhinum majus. However, we can learn more by comparing developmental mechanisms that may explain morphological differences between species. A good example comes from the analysis of genes controlling flower development in pea (Pisum sativum), a plant with more complex leaves and inflorescences than Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, and a different floral ontogeny. The analysis of UNIFOLIATA (UNI) and STAMINA PISTILLOIDA (STP), the pea orthologs of LEAFY and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS, has revealed a common link in the regulation of flower and leaf development not apparent in Arabidopsis. While the Arabidopsis genes mainly behave as key regulators of flower development, where they control the expression of B-function genes, UNI and STP also contribute to the development of the pea compound leaf. Here, we describe the characterization of P. sativum PISTILLATA (PsPI), a pea MADS-box gene homologous to B-function genes like PI and GLOBOSA (GLO), from Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, respectively. PsPI encodes for an atypical PI-type polypeptide that lacks the highly conserved C-terminal PI motif. Nevertheless, constitutive expression of PsPI in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis shows that it can specifically replace the function of PI, being able to complement the strong pi-1 mutant. Accordingly, PsPI expression in pea flowers, which is dependent on STP, is identical to PI and GLO. Interestingly, PsPI is also transiently expressed in young leaves, suggesting a role of PsPI in pea leaf development, a possibility that fits with the established role of UNI and STP in the control of this process.

  16. A Conserved Leucine Zipper Motif in Gammaherpesvirus ORF52 Is Critical for Distinct Microtubule Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Matthew S; Verville, Nancy; Kedes, Dean H

    2017-09-01

    Productive viral infection often depends on the manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Herpesviruses, including rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and its close homolog, the oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8), exploit microtubule (MT)-based retrograde transport to deliver their genomes to the nucleus. Subsequently, during the lytic phase of the life cycle, the maturing viral particles undergo orchestrated translocation to specialized regions within the cytoplasm, leading to tegumentation, secondary envelopment, and then egress. As a result, we hypothesized that RRV might induce changes in the cytoskeleton at both early and late stages of infection. Using confocal imaging, we found that RRV infection led to the thickening and acetylation of MTs emanating from the MT-organizing center (MTOC) shortly after viral entry and more pronounced and diffuse MT reorganization during peak stages of lytic gene expression and virion production. We subsequently identified open reading frame 52 (ORF52), a multifunctional and abundant tegument protein, as being the only virally encoded component responsible for these cytoskeletal changes. Mutational and modeling analyses indicated that an evolutionarily conserved, truncated leucine zipper motif near the N terminus as well as a strictly conserved arginine residue toward the C terminus of ORF52 play critical roles in its ability to rearrange the architecture of the MT cytoskeleton. Taken together, our findings combined with data from previous studies describing diverse roles for ORF52 suggest that it likely binds to different cellular components, thereby allowing context-dependent modulation of function.IMPORTANCE A thorough understanding of the processes governing viral infection includes knowledge of how viruses manipulate their intracellular milieu, including the cytoskeleton. Altering the dynamics of actin or MT polymerization, for example, is a common strategy

  17. A Conserved Leucine Zipper Motif in Gammaherpesvirus ORF52 Is Critical for Distinct Microtubule Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Matthew S.; Verville, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Productive viral infection often depends on the manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Herpesviruses, including rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and its close homolog, the oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8), exploit microtubule (MT)-based retrograde transport to deliver their genomes to the nucleus. Subsequently, during the lytic phase of the life cycle, the maturing viral particles undergo orchestrated translocation to specialized regions within the cytoplasm, leading to tegumentation, secondary envelopment, and then egress. As a result, we hypothesized that RRV might induce changes in the cytoskeleton at both early and late stages of infection. Using confocal imaging, we found that RRV infection led to the thickening and acetylation of MTs emanating from the MT-organizing center (MTOC) shortly after viral entry and more pronounced and diffuse MT reorganization during peak stages of lytic gene expression and virion production. We subsequently identified open reading frame 52 (ORF52), a multifunctional and abundant tegument protein, as being the only virally encoded component responsible for these cytoskeletal changes. Mutational and modeling analyses indicated that an evolutionarily conserved, truncated leucine zipper motif near the N terminus as well as a strictly conserved arginine residue toward the C terminus of ORF52 play critical roles in its ability to rearrange the architecture of the MT cytoskeleton. Taken together, our findings combined with data from previous studies describing diverse roles for ORF52 suggest that it likely binds to different cellular components, thereby allowing context-dependent modulation of function. IMPORTANCE A thorough understanding of the processes governing viral infection includes knowledge of how viruses manipulate their intracellular milieu, including the cytoskeleton. Altering the dynamics of actin or MT polymerization, for example, is a common

  18. A conserved structural motif reveals the essential transcriptional repression function of Spen proteins and their role in developmental signaling.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Mariko; Schwabe, John W R

    2003-08-01

    Spen proteins regulate the expression of key transcriptional effectors in diverse signaling pathways. They are large proteins characterized by N-terminal RNA-binding motifs and a highly conserved C-terminal SPOC domain. The specific biological role of the SPOC domain (Spen paralog and ortholog C-terminal domain), and hence, the common function of Spen proteins, has been unclear to date. The Spen protein, SHARP (SMRT/HDAC1-associated repressor protein), was identified as a component of transcriptional repression complexes in both nuclear receptor and Notch/RBP-Jkappa signaling pathways. We have determined the 1.8 A crystal structure of the SPOC domain from SHARP. This structure shows that essentially all of the conserved surface residues map to a positively charged patch. Structure-based mutational analysis indicates that this conserved region is responsible for the interaction between SHARP and the universal transcriptional corepressor SMRT/NCoR (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors/nuclear receptor corepressor. We demonstrate that this interaction involves a highly conserved acidic motif at the C terminus of SMRT/NCoR. These findings suggest that the conserved function of the SPOC domain is to mediate interaction with SMRT/NCoR corepressors, and that Spen proteins play an essential role in the repression complex.

  19. Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Conserved Sequence Motifs between Helices E and H: Prediction of Critical Motifs and Residues in Enzyme Functions

    PubMed Central

    Oezguen, Numan; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Rational approaches have been extensively used to investigate the role of active site residues in cytochrome P450 (CYP) functions. However, recent studies using random mutagenesis suggest an important role for non-active site residues in CYP functions. Meta-analysis of the random mutants showed that 75% of the functionally important non-active site residues are present in 20% of the entire protein between helices E and H (E-H) and conserved sequence motif (CSM) between 7 and 11. The CSM approach was developed recently to investigate the functional role of non-active site residues in CYP2B4. Furthermore, we identified and analyzed the CSM in multiple CYP families and subfamilies in the E-H region. Results from CSM analysis showed that CSM 7, 8, 10, and 11 are conserved in CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 families, while CSM 9 is conserved only in CYP2 family. Analysis of different CYP2 subfamilies showed that CYP2B and CYP2C have similar characteristics in the CSM, while the characteristics of CYP2A and CYP2D subfamilies are different. Finally, we analyzed CSM 7, 8, 10, and 11, which are common in all the CYP families/subfamilies analyzed, in fifteen important drug-metabolizing CYPs. The results showed that while CSM 8 is most conserved among these CYPs, CSM 7, 9, and 10 have significant variations. We suggest that CSM8 has a common role in all the CYPs that have been analyzed, while CSM 7, 10, and 11 may have relatively specific role within the subfamily. We further suggest that these CSM play important role in opening and closing of the substrate access/egress channel by modulating the flexible/plastic region of the protein. Thus, site-directed mutagenesis of these CSM can be used to study structure-function and dynamic/plasticity-function relationships and to design CYP biocatalysts. PMID:25426333

  20. Evolutionarily divergent spliceosomal snRNAs and a conserved non-coding RNA processing motif in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Andrew J.; Moore, Ashley N.; Elniski, David; Joseph, Joella; Yee, Janet; Russell, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have diverse essential biological functions in all organisms, and in eukaryotes, two such classes of ncRNAs are the small nucleolar (sno) and small nuclear (sn) RNAs. In this study, we have identified and characterized a collection of sno and snRNAs in Giardia lamblia, by exploiting our discovery of a conserved 12 nt RNA processing sequence motif found in the 3′ end regions of a large number of G. lamblia ncRNA genes. RNA end mapping and other experiments indicate the motif serves to mediate ncRNA 3′ end formation from mono- and di-cistronic RNA precursor transcripts. Remarkably, we find the motif is also utilized in the processing pathway of all four previously identified trans-spliced G. lamblia introns, revealing a common RNA processing pathway for ncRNAs and trans-spliced introns in this organism. Motif sequence conservation then allowed for the bioinformatic and experimental identification of additional G. lamblia ncRNAs, including new U1 and U6 spliceosomal snRNA candidates. The U6 snRNA candidate was then used as a tool to identity novel U2 and U4 snRNAs, based on predicted phylogenetically conserved snRNA–snRNA base-pairing interactions, from a set of previously identified G. lamblia ncRNAs without assigned function. The Giardia snRNAs retain the core features of spliceosomal snRNAs but are sufficiently evolutionarily divergent to explain the difficulties in their identification. Most intriguingly, all of these snRNAs show structural features diagnostic of U2-dependent/major and U12-dependent/minor spliceosomal snRNAs. PMID:23019220

  1. Evolutionarily divergent spliceosomal snRNAs and a conserved non-coding RNA processing motif in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Andrew J; Moore, Ashley N; Elniski, David; Joseph, Joella; Yee, Janet; Russell, Anthony G

    2012-11-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have diverse essential biological functions in all organisms, and in eukaryotes, two such classes of ncRNAs are the small nucleolar (sno) and small nuclear (sn) RNAs. In this study, we have identified and characterized a collection of sno and snRNAs in Giardia lamblia, by exploiting our discovery of a conserved 12 nt RNA processing sequence motif found in the 3' end regions of a large number of G. lamblia ncRNA genes. RNA end mapping and other experiments indicate the motif serves to mediate ncRNA 3' end formation from mono- and di-cistronic RNA precursor transcripts. Remarkably, we find the motif is also utilized in the processing pathway of all four previously identified trans-spliced G. lamblia introns, revealing a common RNA processing pathway for ncRNAs and trans-spliced introns in this organism. Motif sequence conservation then allowed for the bioinformatic and experimental identification of additional G. lamblia ncRNAs, including new U1 and U6 spliceosomal snRNA candidates. The U6 snRNA candidate was then used as a tool to identity novel U2 and U4 snRNAs, based on predicted phylogenetically conserved snRNA-snRNA base-pairing interactions, from a set of previously identified G. lamblia ncRNAs without assigned function. The Giardia snRNAs retain the core features of spliceosomal snRNAs but are sufficiently evolutionarily divergent to explain the difficulties in their identification. Most intriguingly, all of these snRNAs show structural features diagnostic of U2-dependent/major and U12-dependent/minor spliceosomal snRNAs.

  2. Conserved XPB Core Structure and Motifs for DNA Unwinding:Implications for Pathway Selection of Transcription or ExcisionRepair

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Li; Arval, Andrew S.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Iwai, Shigenori; Hanaoka, Fumio; Tainer, John A.

    2005-04-01

    The human xeroderma pigmentosum group B (XPB) helicase is essential for transcription, nucleotide excision repair, and TFIIH functional assembly. Here, we determined crystal structures of an Archaeoglobus fulgidus XPB homolog (AfXPB) that characterize two RecA-like XPB helicase domains and discover a DNA damage recognition domain (DRD), a unique RED motif, a flexible thumb motif (ThM), and implied conformational changes within a conserved functional core. RED motif mutations dramatically reduce helicase activity, and the DRD and ThM, which flank the RED motif, appear structurally as well as functionally analogous to the MutS mismatch recognition and DNA polymerase thumb domains. Substrate specificity is altered by DNA damage, such that AfXPB unwinds dsDNA with 3' extensions, but not blunt-ended dsDNA, unless it contains a lesion, as shown for CPD or (6-4) photoproducts. Together, these results provide an unexpected mechanism of DNA unwinding with Implications for XPB damage verification in nucleotide excision repair.

  3. Plant and yeast cornichon possess a conserved acidic motif required for correct targeting of plasma membrane cargos.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Lagunas-Gomez, Daniel; Yáñez-Domínguez, Carolina; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-10-01

    The export of membrane proteins along the secretory pathway is initiated at the endoplasmic reticulum after proteins are folded and packaged inside this organelle by their recruiting into the coat complex COPII vesicles. It is proposed that cargo receptors are required for the correct transport of proteins to its target membrane, however, little is known about ER export signals for cargo receptors. Erv14/Cornichon belong to a well conserved protein family in Eukaryotes, and have been proposed to function as cargo receptors for many transmembrane proteins. Amino acid sequence alignment showed the presence of a conserved acidic motif in the C-terminal in homologues from plants and yeast. Here, we demonstrate that mutation of the C-terminal acidic motif from ScErv14 or OsCNIH1, did not alter the localization of these cargo receptors, however it modified the proper targeting of the plasma membrane transporters Nha1p, Pdr12p and Qdr2p. Our results suggest that mistargeting of these plasma membrane proteins is a consequence of a weaker interaction between the cargo receptor and cargo proteins caused by the mutation of the C-terminal acidic motif. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional Role of Histidine in the Conserved His-x-Asp Motif in the Catalytic Core of Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lun; Wang, Jian-Chuan; Hou, Li; Cao, Peng-Rong; Wu, Li; Zhang, Qian-Sen; Yang, Huai-Yu; Zang, Yi; Ding, Jian-Ping; Li, Jia

    2015-05-11

    The His-x-Asp (HxD) motif is one of the most conserved structural components of the catalytic core of protein kinases; however, the functional role of the conserved histidine is unclear. Here we report that replacement of the HxD-histidine with Arginine or Phenylalanine in Aurora A abolishes both the catalytic activity and auto-phosphorylation, whereas the Histidine-to-tyrosine impairs the catalytic activity without affecting its auto-phosphorylation. Comparisons of the crystal structures of wild-type (WT) and mutant Aurora A demonstrate that the impairment of the kinase activity is accounted for by (1) disruption of the regulatory spine in the His-to-Arg mutant, and (2) change in the geometry of backbones of the Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif and the DFG-1 residue in the His-to-Tyr mutant. In addition, bioinformatics analyses show that the HxD-histidine is a mutational hotspot in tumor tissues. Moreover, the H174R mutation of the HxD-histidine, in the tumor suppressor LKB1 abrogates the inhibition of anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells by WT LKB1. Based on these data, we propose that the HxD-histidine is involved in a conserved inflexible organization of the catalytic core that is required for the kinase activity. Mutation of the HxD-histidine may also be involved in the pathogenesis of some diseases including cancer.

  5. A highly conserved redox-active Mx(2)CWx(6)R motif regulates Zap70 stability and activity

    PubMed Central

    Thurm, Christoph; Poltorak, Mateusz P.; Reimer, Elisa; Brinkmann, Melanie M.; Leichert, Lars; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    ζ-associated protein of 70 kDa (Zap70) is crucial for T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Loss of Zap70 in both humans and mice results in severe immunodeficiency. On the other hand, the expression of Zap70 in B-cell malignancies correlates with the severity of the disease. Because of its role in immune-related disorders, Zap70 has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of human diseases. It is well-established that the activity/expression of Zap70 is regulated by post-translational modifications of crucial amino acids including the phosphorylation of tyrosines and the ubiquitination of lysines. Here, we have investigated whether also oxidation of cysteine residues regulates Zap70 functions. We have identified C575 as a major sulfenylation site of Zap70. A C575A substitution results in protein instability, reduced activity, and increased dependency on the Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone system. Indeed, Cdc37 overexpression reconstituted partially the expression but fully the function of Zap70C575A. C575 lies within a Mx(2)CWx(6)R motif which is highly conserved among almost all human tyrosine kinases. Mutation of any of the conserved amino acids, but not of a non-conserved residue preceding the cysteine, also results in Zap70 instability. Collectively, we have identified a new redox-active motif which is crucial for the regulation of Zap70 stability/activity. We believe that this motif has the potential to become a novel target for the development of therapeutic tools to modulate the expression/activity of kinases. PMID:28415650

  6. Structure of PEP carboxykinase from the succinate-producing Actinobacillus succinogenes: a new conserved active-site motif.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Yvonne A; Prasad, Lata; Laivenieks, Maris; Zeikus, J Gregory; Delbaere, Louis T J

    2005-07-01

    Actinobacillus succinogenes can produce, via fermentation, high concentrations of succinate, an important industrial commodity. A key enzyme in this pathway is phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), which catalyzes the production of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide, with the concomitant conversion of adenosine 5'-diphosphate to adenosine 5'-triphosphate. 1.85 and 1.70 A resolution structures of the native and a pyruvate/Mn(2+)/phosphate complex have been solved, respectively. The structure of the complex contains sulfhydryl reducing agents covalently bound to three cysteine residues via disulfide bonds. One of these cysteine residues (Cys285) is located in the active-site cleft and may be analogous to the putative reactive cysteine of PCK from Trypanosoma cruzi. Cys285 is also part of a previously unreported conserved motif comprising residues 280-287 and containing the pattern NXEXGXY(/F)A(/G); this new motif appears to have a structural role in stabilizing and positioning side chains that bind substrates and metal ions. The first few residues of this motif connect the two domains of the enzyme and a fulcrum point appears to be located near Asn280. In addition, an active-site Asp residue forms two coordinate bonds with the Mn(2+) ion present in the structure of the complex in a symmetrical bidentate manner, unlike in other PCK structures that contain a manganese ion.

  7. A conserved motif in JNK/p38-specific MAPK phosphatases as a determinant for JNK1 recognition and inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Chen-Song; Lu, Chang; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), important in a large array of signalling pathways, are tightly controlled by a cascade of protein kinases and by MAPK phosphatases (MKPs). MAPK signalling efficiency and specificity is modulated by protein–protein interactions between individual MAPKs and the docking motifs in cognate binding partners. Two types of docking interactions have been identified: D-motif-mediated interaction and FXF-docking interaction. Here we report the crystal structure of JNK1 bound to the catalytic domain of MKP7 at 2.4-Å resolution, providing high-resolution structural insight into the FXF-docking interaction. The 285FNFL288 segment in MKP7 directly binds to a hydrophobic site on JNK1 that is near the MAPK insertion and helix αG. Biochemical studies further reveal that this highly conserved structural motif is present in all members of the MKP family, and the interaction mode is universal and critical for the MKP-MAPK recognition and biological function. PMID:26988444

  8. Linear array of conserved sequence motifs to discriminate protein subfamilies: study on pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductases

    PubMed Central

    Avila, César L; Rapisarda, Viviana A; Farías, Ricardo N; De Las Rivas, Javier; Chehín, Rosana

    2007-01-01

    Background The pyridine nucleotide disulfide reductase (PNDR) is a large and heterogeneous protein family divided into two classes (I and II), which reflect the divergent evolution of its characteristic disulfide redox active site. However, not all the PNDR members fit into these categories and this suggests the need of further studies to achieve a more comprehensive classification of this complex family. Results A workflow to improve the clusterization of protein families based on the array of linear conserved motifs is designed. The method is applied to the PNDR large family finding two main groups, which correspond to PNDR classes I and II. However, two other separate protein clusters, previously classified as class I in most databases, are outgrouped: the peroxide reductases (NAOX, NAPE) and the type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2). In this way, two novel PNDR classes III and IV for NAOX/NAPE and NDH-2 respectively are proposed. By knowledge-driven biochemical and functional data analyses done on the new class IV, a linear array of motifs putatively related to Cu(II)-reductase activity is detected in a specific subset of NDH-2. Conclusion The results presented are a novel contribution to the classification of the complex and large PNDR protein family, supporting its reclusterization into four classes. The linear array of motifs detected within the class IV PNDR subfamily could be useful as a signature for a particular subgroup of NDH-2. PMID:17367536

  9. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5′-NNCCAC-3′ and 5′-GCGMGN′N′-3′ (M:A or C; N and N′ form Watson–Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences. PMID:23709277

  10. Direct contacts between conserved motifs of different subunits provide major contribution to active site organization in human and mycobacterial dUTPases

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Enikő; Nagy, Gergely; Leveles, Ibolya; Harmat, Veronika; Lopata, Anna; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G.

    2010-01-01

    dUTPases are essential for genome integrity. Recent results allowed characterization of the role of conserved residues. Here we analyzed the Asp/Asn mutation within conserved Motif I of human and mycobacterial dUTPases, wherein the Asp residue was previously implicated in Mg2+-coordination. Our results on transient/steady-state kinetics, ligand-binding and a 1.80 Å-resolution structure of the mutant mycobacterial enzyme, in comparison with wild type and C-terminally truncated structures, argue that this residue has a major role in providing intra- and intersubunit contacts, but is not essential for Mg2+ accommodation. We conclude that in addition to the role of conserved motifs in substrate accommodation, direct subunit interaction between protein atoms of active site residues from different conserved motifs are crucial for enzyme function. PMID:20493855

  11. NMR characterisation of a highly conserved secondary structural RNA motif of Halobacterium halobium 23S rRNA.

    PubMed

    King, John; Shammas, Christos; Nareen, Misbah; Lelli, Moreno; Ramesh, Vasudevan

    2013-05-28

    The highly conserved 29-mer RNA motif corresponding to the peptidyl transferase central circle region of the domain V of Halobacterium halobium 23S rRNA has been characterised by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The NMR structure has a good all atom average RMSD of 1.28 Å and a stable A-form helical conformation. The NMR structure differs from the X-ray crystal structure of an analogous motif, contained within the Escherichia coli ribosome, as none of the bases are flipped out and a number of non-canonical base pairs are formed in the solution structure. Thus in the observed NMR structure, the predicted A7 to U30 base pair is not seen and a non-canonical U6 to U30 base pair was formed in its place. Similarly the predicted A9 to U26 base pair was also not observed and another non-canonical A9 to A27 base pair was formed. It was also seen from the conformational analysis that the steps near the bulges had the greatest deviation from the canonical Watson-Crick base pair step parameters. Despite these differences, the 29-mer structure provides a working model of the RNA within the ribosome in a more natural solution state than that observed in the intact ribosome crystal structures, particularly around the A27 residue. The NMR structure determination of the 29-mer RNA motif provides a solid foundation for determining the NMR structure of the RNA-amicetin complex in the next step. To extend the above study, a fully (13)C and (15)N isotopically labelled 37-mer RNA version of the Halobacterium halobium RNA sample has been characterised using ultra high field 1 GHz spectroscopy. The results have been used to demonstrate the advantages conferred by the use of a 1 GHz spectrometer frequency over 800 MHz in terms of superior sensitivity and greater spectral dispersion achieved in the spectrum of the RNA.

  12. Conserved amino acid motifs from the novel Piv/MooV family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of DNA inversion by Piv.

    PubMed

    Tobiason, D M; Buchner, J M; Thiel, W H; Gernert, K M; Karls, A C

    2001-02-01

    Piv, a site-specific invertase from Moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements. The functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (Piv/MooV family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in Piv. All Piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the M. lacunata invertible DNA segment, but competent for in vivo binding to Piv DNA recognition sequences. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Piv/MooV recombinases do not contain a conserved DDE motif, which defines the retroviral integrase/transposase (IN/Tnps) family, the predicted secondary structural elements of Piv align well with those of the IN/Tnps for which crystal structures have been determined. Molecular modelling of Piv based on these alignments predicts that E59, conserved as either E or D in the Piv/MooV family, forms a catalytic pocket with the conserved D9 and D101 residues. Analysis of Piv E59G confirms a role for E59 in catalysis of inversion. These results suggest that Piv and the related IS110/IS492 transposases mediate DNA recombination by a common mechanism involving a catalytic DED or DDD motif.

  13. A Conserved Motif within RAP1 Plays Diversified Roles in Telomere Protection and Regulation in Different Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Rai, Rekha; Zhou, Zi-Ren; Kanoh, Junko; Ribeyre, Cyril; Yang, Yuting; Zheng, Hong; Damay, Pascal; Wang, Feng; Tsujii, Hisayo; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Shore, David; Hu, Hong-Yu; Chang, Sandy; Lei, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Repressor activator protein 1 (RAP1) is the most highly conserved telomere protein. It is involved in protecting chromosome ends in fission yeast, promoting gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae while in Kluyveromyces lactis it is required to repress homology directed recombination (HDR) at telomeres. Since mammalian RAP1 requires TRF2 for stable expression, its role in telomere function has remained obscure. To understand how RAP1 plays such diverse functions at telomeres, we solved the crystal or solution structures of the C-terminal RCT domains of RAP1 from multiple organisms in complex with their respective protein-binding partners. Our comparative structural analysis establishes the RCT domain of RAP1 as an evolutionarily conserved protein-protein interaction module. In mammalian and fission yeast cells, this module interacts with TRF2 and Taz1, respectively, targeting RAP1 to chromosome ends for telomere end protection. While RAP1 repress NHEJ at fission yeast telomeres, at mammalian telomeres it is required to repress HDR. In contrast, S. cerevisiae RAP1 utilizes the RCT domain to recruit Sir3 to telomeres to mediate gene silencing. Together, our results reveal that depending on the organism, the evolutionarily conserved RAP1 RCT motif plays diverse functional roles at telomeres. PMID:21217703

  14. Human and mouse introns are linked to the same processes and functions through each genome's most frequent non-conserved motifs.

    PubMed

    Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2008-06-01

    We identified the most frequent, variable-length DNA sequence motifs in the human and mouse genomes and sub-selected those with multiple recurrences in the intergenic and intronic regions and at least one additional exonic instance in the corresponding genome. We discovered that these motifs have virtually no overlap with intronic sequences that are conserved between human and mouse, and thus are genome-specific. Moreover, we found that these motifs span a substantial fraction of previously uncharacterized human and mouse intronic space. Surprisingly, we found that these genome-specific motifs are over-represented in the introns of genes belonging to the same biological processes and molecular functions in both the human and mouse genomes even though the underlying sequences are not conserved between the two genomes. In fact, the processes and functions that are linked to these genome-specific sequence-motifs are distinct from the processes and functions which are associated with intronic regions that are conserved between human and mouse. The findings show that intronic regions from different genomes are linked to the same processes and functions in the absence of underlying sequence conservation. We highlight the ramifications of this observation with a concrete example that involves the microsatellite instability gene MLH1.

  15. PairMotifChIP: A Fast Algorithm for Discovery of Patterns Conserved in Large ChIP-seq Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Hongwei; Feng, Dazheng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying conserved patterns in DNA sequences, namely, motif discovery, is an important and challenging computational task. With hundreds or more sequences contained, the high-throughput sequencing data set is helpful to improve the identification accuracy of motif discovery but requires an even higher computing performance. To efficiently identify motifs in large DNA data sets, a new algorithm called PairMotifChIP is proposed by extracting and combining pairs of l-mers in the input with relatively small Hamming distance. In particular, a method for rapidly extracting pairs of l-mers is designed, which can be used not only for PairMotifChIP, but also for other DNA data mining tasks with the same demand. Experimental results on the simulated data show that the proposed algorithm can find motifs successfully and runs faster than the state-of-the-art motif discovery algorithms. Furthermore, the validity of the proposed algorithm has been verified on real data. PMID:27843946

  16. Alignment of U3 region sequences of mammalian type C viruses: identification of highly conserved motifs and implications for enhancer design.

    PubMed Central

    Golemis, E A; Speck, N A; Hopkins, N

    1990-01-01

    We aligned published sequences for the U3 region of 35 type C mammalian retroviruses. The alignment reveals that certain sequence motifs within the U3 region are strikingly conserved. A number of these motifs correspond to previously identified sites. In particular, we found that the enhancer region of most of the viruses examined contains a binding site for leukemia virus factor b, a viral corelike element, the consensus motif for nuclear factor 1, and the glucocorticoid response element. Most viruses containing more than one copy of enhancer sequences include these binding sites in both copies of the repeat. We consider this set of binding sites to constitute a framework for the enhancers of this set of viruses. Other highly conserved motifs in the U3 region include the retrovirus inverted repeat sequence, a negative regulatory element, and the CCAAT and TATA boxes. In addition, we identified two novel motifs in the promoter region that were exceptionally highly conserved but have not been previously described. PMID:2153223

  17. Evening Expression of Arabidopsis GIGANTEA Is Controlled by Combinatorial Interactions among Evolutionarily Conserved Regulatory Motifs[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Karl; Cremer, Frédéric; Tóth, Réka; Hartke, Martin; Simon, Samson; Klasen, Jonas R.; Bürstel, Ingmar; Coupland, George

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of gene transcription are often conferred by complex interactions between circadian clock control and acute responses to environmental cues. Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA (GI) contributes to photoperiodic flowering, circadian clock control, and photoreceptor signaling, and its transcription is regulated by the circadian clock and light. We used phylogenetic shadowing to identify three evolutionarily constrained regions (conserved regulatory modules [CRMs]) within the GI promoter and show that CRM2 is sufficient to confer a similar transcriptional pattern as the full-length promoter. Dissection of CRM2 showed that one subfragment (CRM2-A) contributes light inducibility, while another (CRM2-B) exhibits a diurnal response. Mutational analysis showed that three ABA RESPONSE ELEMENT LIKE (ABREL) motifs in CRM2-A and three EVENING ELEMENTs (EEs) in CRM2-B are essential in combination to confer a high amplitude diurnal pattern of expression. Genome-wide analysis identified characteristic spacing patterns of EEs and 71 A. thaliana promoters containing three EEs. Among these promoters, that of FLAVIN BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX1 was analyzed in detail and shown to harbor a CRM functionally related to GI CRM2. Thus, combinatorial interactions among EEs and ABRELs confer diurnal patterns of transcription via an evolutionarily conserved module present in GI and other evening-expressed genes. PMID:25361953

  18. Conserved forkhead dimerization motif controls DNA replication timing and spatial organization of chromosomes in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, A Zachary; Kalhor, Reza; Gan, Yan; Villwock, Sandra K; Linke, Christian; Barberis, Matteo; Chen, Lin; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2017-03-21

    Forkhead Box (Fox) proteins share the Forkhead domain, a winged-helix DNA binding module, which is conserved among eukaryotes from yeast to humans. These sequence-specific DNA binding proteins have been primarily characterized as transcription factors regulating diverse cellular processes from cell cycle control to developmental fate, deregulation of which contributes to developmental defects, cancer, and aging. We recently identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forkhead 1 (Fkh1) and Forkhead 2 (Fkh2) as required for the clustering of a subset of replication origins in G1 phase and for the early initiation of these origins in the ensuing S phase, suggesting a mechanistic role linking the spatial organization of the origins and their activity. Here, we show that Fkh1 and Fkh2 share a unique structural feature of human FoxP proteins that enables FoxP2 and FoxP3 to form domain-swapped dimers capable of bridging two DNA molecules in vitro. Accordingly, Fkh1 self-associates in vitro and in vivo in a manner dependent on the conserved domain-swapping region, strongly suggestive of homodimer formation. Fkh1- and Fkh2-domain-swap-minus (dsm) mutations are functional as transcription factors yet are defective in replication origin timing control. Fkh1-dsm binds replication origins in vivo but fails to cluster them, supporting the conclusion that Fkh1 and Fkh2 dimers perform a structural role in the spatial organization of chromosomal elements with functional importance.

  19. Conserved forkhead dimerization motif controls DNA replication timing and spatial organization of chromosomes in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, A. Zachary; Gan, Yan; Villwock, Sandra K.; Linke, Christian; Barberis, Matteo; Chen, Lin; Aparicio, Oscar M.

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead Box (Fox) proteins share the Forkhead domain, a winged-helix DNA binding module, which is conserved among eukaryotes from yeast to humans. These sequence-specific DNA binding proteins have been primarily characterized as transcription factors regulating diverse cellular processes from cell cycle control to developmental fate, deregulation of which contributes to developmental defects, cancer, and aging. We recently identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forkhead 1 (Fkh1) and Forkhead 2 (Fkh2) as required for the clustering of a subset of replication origins in G1 phase and for the early initiation of these origins in the ensuing S phase, suggesting a mechanistic role linking the spatial organization of the origins and their activity. Here, we show that Fkh1 and Fkh2 share a unique structural feature of human FoxP proteins that enables FoxP2 and FoxP3 to form domain-swapped dimers capable of bridging two DNA molecules in vitro. Accordingly, Fkh1 self-associates in vitro and in vivo in a manner dependent on the conserved domain-swapping region, strongly suggestive of homodimer formation. Fkh1- and Fkh2-domain-swap-minus (dsm) mutations are functional as transcription factors yet are defective in replication origin timing control. Fkh1-dsm binds replication origins in vivo but fails to cluster them, supporting the conclusion that Fkh1 and Fkh2 dimers perform a structural role in the spatial organization of chromosomal elements with functional importance. PMID:28265091

  20. Spatial clustering of binding motifs and charges reveals conserved functional features in disordered nucleoporin sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, David; Colvin, Michael; Rexach, Michael; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    The Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) gates the only channel through which cells exchange material between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Traffic is regulated by transport receptors bound to cargo which interact with numerous of disordered phenylalanine glycine (FG) repeat containing proteins (FG nups) that line this channel. The precise physical mechanism of transport regulation has remained elusive primarily due to the difficulty in understanding the structure and dynamics of such a large assembly of interacting disordered proteins. Here we have performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis, specifically tailored towards disordered proteins, on thousands of nuclear pore proteins from a variety of species revealing a set of highly conserved features in the sequence structure among FG nups. Contrary to the general perception that these proteins are functionally equivalent to homogeneous polymers, we show that biophysically important features within individual nups like the separation, spatial localization and ordering along the chain of FG and charge domains are highly conserved. Our current understanding of NPC structure and function should therefore be revised to account for these common features that are functionally relevant for the underlying physical mechanism of NPC gating.

  1. Conserved structural motifs in the central pair complex of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-González, Blanca I; Heuser, Thomas; Fu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianfeng; Smith, Brandon W; Mitchell, David R; Nicastro, Daniela

    2013-02-01

    Cilia and flagella are conserved hair-like appendages of eukaryotic cells that function as sensing and motility generating organelles. Motility is driven by thousands of axonemal dyneins that require precise regulation. One essential motility regulator is the central pair complex (CPC) and many CPC defects cause paralysis of cilia/flagella. Several human diseases, such as immotile cilia syndrome, show CPC abnormalities, but little is known about the detailed three-dimensional (3D) structure and function of the CPC. The CPC is located in the center of typical [9+2] cilia/flagella and is composed of two singlet microtubules (MTs), each with a set of associated projections that extend toward the surrounding nine doublet MTs. Using cryo-electron tomography coupled with subtomogram averaging, we visualized and compared the 3D structures of the CPC in both the green alga Chlamydomonas and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus at the highest resolution published to date. Despite the evolutionary distance between these species, their CPCs exhibit remarkable structural conservation. We identified several new projections, including those that form the elusive sheath, and show that the bridge has a more complex architecture than previously thought. Organism-specific differences include the presence of MT inner proteins in Chlamydomonas, but not Strongylocentrotus, and different overall outlines of the highly connected projection network, which forms a round-shaped cylinder in algae, but is more oval in sea urchin. These differences could be adaptations to the mechanical requirements of the rotating CPC in Chlamydomonas, compared to the Strongylocentrotus CPC which has a fixed orientation.

  2. A conserved MADS-box phosphorylation motif regulates differentiation and mitochondrial function in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mughal, W; Nguyen, L; Pustylnik, S; da Silva Rosa, S C; Piotrowski, S; Chapman, D; Du, M; Alli, N S; Grigull, J; Halayko, A J; Aliani, M; Topham, M K; Epand, R M; Hatch, G M; Pereira, T J; Kereliuk, S; McDermott, J C; Rampitsch, C; Dolinsky, V W; Gordon, J W

    2015-10-29

    Exposure to metabolic disease during fetal development alters cellular differentiation and perturbs metabolic homeostasis, but the underlying molecular regulators of this phenomenon in muscle cells are not completely understood. To address this, we undertook a computational approach to identify cooperating partners of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors, known regulators of muscle differentiation and metabolic function. We demonstrate that MEF2 and the serum response factor (SRF) collaboratively regulate the expression of numerous muscle-specific genes, including microRNA-133a (miR-133a). Using tandem mass spectrometry techniques, we identify a conserved phosphorylation motif within the MEF2 and SRF Mcm1 Agamous Deficiens SRF (MADS)-box that regulates miR-133a expression and mitochondrial function in response to a lipotoxic signal. Furthermore, reconstitution of MEF2 function by expression of a neutralizing mutation in this identified phosphorylation motif restores miR-133a expression and mitochondrial membrane potential during lipotoxicity. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that miR-133a regulates mitochondrial function through translational inhibition of a mitophagy and cell death modulating protein, called Nix. Finally, we show that rodents exposed to gestational diabetes during fetal development display muscle diacylglycerol accumulation, concurrent with insulin resistance, reduced miR-133a, and elevated Nix expression, as young adult rats. Given the diverse roles of miR-133a and Nix in regulating mitochondrial function, and proliferation in certain cancers, dysregulation of this genetic pathway may have broad implications involving insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer biology.

  3. CCN2/CTGF regulates neovessel formation via targeting structurally conserved cystine knot motifs in multiple angiogenic regulators

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Liya; Shenoy, Anitha K.; Liu, Jianwen; Kim, Seungbum; Nelson, Nikole; Xia, Huiming; Hauswirth, William W.; Petersen, Bryon E.; Schultz, Gregory S.; Scott, Edward W.

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels are formed during development and tissue repair through a plethora of modifiers that coordinate efficient vessel assembly in various cellular settings. Here we used the yeast 2-hybrid approach and demonstrated a broad affinity of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) to C-terminal cystine knot motifs present in key angiogenic regulators Slit3, von Willebrand factor, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and VEGF-A. Biochemical characterization and histological analysis showed close association of CCN2/CTGF with these regulators in murine angiogenesis models: normal retinal development, oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), and Lewis lung carcinomas. CCN2/CTGF and Slit3 proteins worked in concert to promote in vitro angiogenesis and downstream Cdc42 activation. A fragment corresponding to the first three modules of CCN2/CTGF retained this broad binding ability and gained a dominant-negative function. Intravitreal injection of this mutant caused a significant reduction in vascular obliteration and retinal neovascularization vs. saline injection in the OIR model. Knocking down CCN2/CTGF expression by short-hairpin RNA or ectopic expression of this mutant greatly decreased tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. These results provided mechanistic insight into the angiogenic action of CCN2/CTGF and demonstrated the therapeutic potential of dominant-negative CCN2/CTGF mutants for antiangiogenesis.—Pi, L., Shenoy, A. K., Liu, J., Kim, S., Nelson, N., Xia, H., Hauswirth, W. W., Petersen, B. E., Schultz, G. S., Scott, E. W. CCN2/CTGF regulates neovessel formation via targeting structurally conserved cystine knot motifs in multiple angiogenic regulators. PMID:22611085

  4. A conserved Glu-Arg salt bridge connects co-evolved motifs that define the eukaryote protein kinase fold

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Jian; Steichen, Jon M.; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Deal, Michael S.; Li, Sheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Woods, Virgil L.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases (EPK)feature two co-evolved structural segments, the Activation segment which starts with the Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) and ends with the Ala-Pro-Glu (APE) motifs, and the helical GHI-subdomain that comprises αG-αH-αI helices. Eukaryotic-like kinases have a much shorter Activation segment and lack the GHI-subdomain. They thus lack the conserved salt bridge interaction between the APE Glu and an Arg from the GHI-subdomain, a hallmark signature of EPKs. Although the conservation of this salt bridge in EPKs is well known and its implication in diseases has been illustrated by polymorphism analysis, its function has not been carefully studied. In this work, we use murine cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) as the model enzyme (Glu208 and Arg280) to examine the role of these two residues. We showed that Ala replacement of either residue caused a 40–120 fold decrease in catalytic efficiency of the enzyme due to an increase in Km(ATP) and a decrease in kcat. Crystal structures, as well as solution studies, also demonstratethat this ion pair contributes to the hydrophobic network and stability of the enzyme. We show that mutation of either Glu or Arg to Ala renders bothmutant proteins less effective substrates for upstream kinase phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1. We propose that the Glu208-Arg280 pair serves as a center hub of connectivity between these two structurally conserved elements in EPKs. Mutations of either residue disrupt communication not only between the two segments but also within the rest of the molecule leading to altered catalytic activity and enzyme regulation. PMID:22138346

  5. The Carboxy Terminus of YCF1 Contains a Motif Conserved throughout >500 Myr of Streptophyte Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, John M.; Gould, Sven B.

    2017-01-01

    Plastids evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. During the course of evolution, the coding capacity of plastid genomes shrinks due to gene loss or transfer to the nucleus. In the green lineage, however, there were apparent gene gains including that of ycf1. Although its function is still debated, YCF1 has proven to be a useful marker for plastid evolution. YCF1 sequence and predicted structural features unite the plastid genomes of land plants with those of their closest algal relatives, the higher streptophyte algae; YCF1 appears to have undergone pronounced changes during the course of streptophyte algal evolution. Using new data, we show that YCF1 underwent divergent evolution in the common ancestor of higher streptophyte algae and Klebsormidiophycae. This divergence resulted in the origin of an extreme, klebsormidiophycean-specific YCF1 and the higher streptophyte Ste-YCF1. Most importantly, our analysis uncovers a conserved carboxy-terminal sequence stretch within YCF1 that is unique to higher streptophytes and hints at an important, yet unexplored function. PMID:28164224

  6. Tyrosine-heme ligation in heme-peptide complex: design based on conserved motif of catalase.

    PubMed

    Rai, Jagdish; Raghothama, S; Sahal, D

    2007-06-01

    On the basis of evolutionary conservation of sequence in catalases, we have designed a heme-binding peptide (Ac-RLKSYTDTQISR12-(GGGG)-CRIVHC22-NH2) for the 'redox activity modulation' of heme. Heme-binding studies showed a blue-shifted Soret (369 nm) in the presence of TFE and a red-shifted Soret (418 nm) in the absence of TFE. These blue- and red-shifted Sorets suggest ligation through tyrosinate and histidine, respectively. This is the first designed peptide ligating to heme through tyrosine. NMR studies have confirmed that tyrosine ligation to heme in this heme-peptide complex occurs only in the presence of TFE. We suggest that TFE induces helicity in the peptide and brings the arginine and tyrosine in proximity, resulting in ionization of the phenolic side chain of tyrosine. In the absence of TFE, the unstructured peptide lacks the intra-molecular Arg(+)Tyr(-) ion pair, allowing heme binding to histidine. This peptide has significant peroxidase activity though it does not have catalase activity. Copyright (c) 2007 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Novel selenoproteins identified in silico and in vivo by using a conserved RNA structural motif.

    PubMed

    Lescure, A; Gautheret, D; Carbon, P; Krol, A

    1999-12-31

    Selenocysteine is incorporated into selenoproteins by an in-frame UGA codon whose readthrough requires the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS), a conserved hairpin in the 3'-untranslated region of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs. To identify new selenoproteins, we developed a strategy that obviates the need for prior amino acid sequence information. A computational screen was used to scan nucleotide sequence data bases for sequences presenting a potential SECIS secondary structure. The computer-selected hairpins were then assayed in vivo for their functional capacities, and the cDNAs corresponding to the SECIS winners were identified. Four of them encoded novel selenoproteins as confirmed by in vivo experiments. Among these, SelZf1 and SelZf2 share a common domain with mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase-2. The three proteins, however, possess distinct N-terminal domains. We found that another protein, SelX, displays sequence similarity to a protein involved in bacterial pilus formation. For the first time, four novel selenoproteins were discovered based on a computational screen for the RNA hairpin directing selenocysteine incorporation.

  8. Targeting of Arabidopsis KNL2 to Centromeres Depends on the Conserved CENPC-k Motif in Its C Terminus[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Talbert, Paul; Demidov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    KINETOCHORE NULL2 (KNL2) is involved in recognition of centromeres and in centromeric localization of the centromere-specific histone cenH3. Our study revealed a cenH3 nucleosome binding CENPC-k motif at the C terminus of Arabidopsis thaliana KNL2, which is conserved among a wide spectrum of eukaryotes. Centromeric localization of KNL2 is abolished by deletion of the CENPC-k motif and by mutating single conserved amino acids, but can be restored by insertion of the corresponding motif of Arabidopsis CENP-C. We showed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay that the C terminus of KNL2 binds DNA sequence-independently and interacts with the centromeric transcripts in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-KNL2 antibodies indicated that in vivo KNL2 is preferentially associated with the centromeric repeat pAL1. Complete deletion of the CENPC-k motif did not influence its ability to interact with DNA in vitro. Therefore, we suggest that KNL2 recognizes centromeric nucleosomes, similar to CENP-C, via the CENPC-k motif and binds adjoining DNA. PMID:28062749

  9. A conserved motif in Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase reverse transcriptase is proximal to the RNA template and is essential for boundary definition.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Benjamin M; Gomez, Anastassia; Stone, Michael D

    2013-07-26

    The ends of linear chromosomes are extended by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex minimally consisting of a protein subunit called telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the telomerase RNA (TER). TERT functions by reverse transcribing a short template region of TER into telomeric DNA. Proper assembly of TERT and TER is essential for telomerase activity; however, a detailed understanding of how TERT interacts with TER is lacking. Previous studies have identified an RNA binding domain (RBD) within TERT, which includes three evolutionarily conserved sequence motifs: CP2, CP, and T. Here, we used site-directed hydroxyl radical probing to directly identify sites of interaction between the TERT RBD and TER, revealing that the CP2 motif is in close proximity to a conserved region of TER known as the template boundary element (TBE). Gel shift assays on CP2 mutants confirmed that the CP2 motif is an RNA binding determinant. Our results explain previous work that established that mutations to the CP2 motif of TERT and to the TBE of TER both permit misincorporation of nucleotides into the growing DNA strand beyond the canonical template. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which the CP2 motif binds the TBE to strictly define which TER nucleotides can be reverse transcribed.

  10. A Conserved Phenylalanine of Motif IV in Superfamily 2 Helicases Is Required for Cooperative, ATP-Dependent Binding of RNA Substrates in DEAD-Box Proteins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Banroques, Josette; Cordin, Olivier; Doère, Monique; Linder, Patrick; Tanner, N. Kyle

    2008-01-01

    We have identified a highly conserved phenylalanine in motif IV of the DEAD-box helicases that is important for their enzymatic activities. In vivo analyses of essential proteins in yeast showed that mutants of this residue had severe growth phenotypes. Most of the mutants also were temperature sensitive, which suggested that the mutations altered the conformational stability. Intragenic suppressors of the F405L mutation in yeast Ded1 mapped close to regions of the protein involved in ATP or RNA binding in DEAD-box crystal structures, which implicated a defect at this level. In vitro experiments showed that these mutations affected ATP binding and hydrolysis as well as strand displacement activity. However, the most pronounced effect was the loss of the ATP-dependent cooperative binding of the RNA substrates. Sequence analyses and an examination of the Protein Data Bank showed that the motif IV phenylalanine is conserved among superfamily 2 helicases. The phenylalanine appears to be an anchor that maintains the rigidity of the RecA-like domain. For DEAD-box proteins, the phenylalanine also aligns a highly conserved arginine of motif VI through van der Waals and cation-π interactions, thereby helping to maintain the network of interactions that exist between the different motifs involved in ATP and RNA binding. PMID:18332124

  11. A conserved secondary structural motif in 23S rRNA defines the site of interaction of amicetin, a universal inhibitor of peptide bond formation.

    PubMed Central

    Leviev, I G; Rodriguez-Fonseca, C; Phan, H; Garrett, R A; Heilek, G; Noller, H F; Mankin, A S

    1994-01-01

    The binding site and probable site of action have been determined for the universal antibiotic amicetin which inhibits peptide bond formation. Evidence from in vivo mutants, site-directed mutations and chemical footprinting all implicate a highly conserved motif in the secondary structure of the 23S-like rRNA close to the central circle of domain V. We infer that this motif lies at, or close to, the catalytic site in the peptidyl transfer centre. The binding site of amicetin is the first of a group of functionally related hexose-cytosine inhibitors to be localized on the ribosome. Images PMID:8157007

  12. Conserved Intramolecular Interactions Maintain Myosin Interacting-Heads Motifs Explaining Tarantula Muscle Super-Relaxed State Structural Basis.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Qi, Dan; Wriggers, Willy; Pinto, Antonio; Zhu, Jingui; Bilbao, Aivett; Gillilan, Richard E; Hu, Songnian; Padrón, Raúl

    2016-03-27

    Tarantula striated muscle is an outstanding system for understanding the molecular organization of myosin filaments. Three-dimensional reconstruction based on cryo-electron microscopy images and single-particle image processing revealed that, in a relaxed state, myosin molecules undergo intramolecular head-head interactions, explaining why head activity switches off. The filament model obtained by rigidly docking a chicken smooth muscle myosin structure to the reconstruction was improved by flexibly fitting an atomic model built by mixing structures from different species to a tilt-corrected 2-nm three-dimensional map of frozen-hydrated tarantula thick filament. We used heavy and light chain sequences from tarantula myosin to build a single-species homology model of two heavy meromyosin interacting-heads motifs (IHMs). The flexibly fitted model includes previously missing loops and shows five intramolecular and five intermolecular interactions that keep the IHM in a compact off structure, forming four helical tracks of IHMs around the backbone. The residues involved in these interactions are oppositely charged, and their sequence conservation suggests that IHM is present across animal species. The new model, PDB 3JBH, explains the structural origin of the ATP turnover rates detected in relaxed tarantula muscle by ascribing the very slow rate to docked unphosphorylated heads, the slow rate to phosphorylated docked heads, and the fast rate to phosphorylated undocked heads. The conservation of intramolecular interactions across animal species and the presence of IHM in bilaterians suggest that a super-relaxed state should be maintained, as it plays a role in saving ATP in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionarily Conserved Dual Lysine Motif Determines the Non-Chaperone Function of Secreted Hsp90alpha in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Divya; Hou, Yingping; Tsen, Fred; Tong, Chang; O’Brien, Kathryn; Situ, Alan J.; Schmidt, Thomas; Chen, Mei; Ying, Qilong; Ulmer, Tobias S.; Woodley, David T.; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Both intracellular and extracellular heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family proteins (α and β) have been shown to support tumor progression. The tumor-promoting activity of the intracellular Hsp90 proteins is attributed to their N-terminal ATPase-driven chaperone function. What determines the extracellular function of secreted Hsp90 was unclear. Here we show that knocking out Hsp90α nullifies tumor cell abilities to migrate, invade and metastasize without affecting cell survival and growth. Knocking out Hsp90β leads to cell death. Extracellular supplementation with recombinant Hsp90α, but not Hsp90β, protein recovers the tumorigenicity of Hsp90α-knockout cells. Sequential mutagenesis identifies two evolutionarily conserved lysine residues, lys-270 and lys-277, in Hsp90α subfamily that determine the extracellular Hsp90α function. Hsp90β subfamily lacks the dual lysine motif and does not show the same extracellular function. Substitutions of gly-262 and thr-269 in Hsp90β with lysines convert Hsp90β to act as Hsp90α outside the cells. Monoclonal antibody, 1G6-D7, against the dual lysine region of secreted Hsp90α blocks de novo tumor formation and significantly inhibits expansion of already formed tumors. This study suggests an alternative therapeutic approach to selectively target the extracellular Hsp90α to the conventional approach targeting the ATPase of intracellular Hsp90α and Hsp90β in cancer. PMID:27721406

  14. Using a color-coded ambigraphic nucleic acid notation to visualize conserved palindromic motifs within and across genomes.

    PubMed

    Rozak, David A; Rozak, Anthony J

    2014-01-22

    Ambiscript is a graphically-designed nucleic acid notation that uses symbol symmetries to support sequence complementation, highlight biologically-relevant palindromes, and facilitate the analysis of consensus sequences. Although the original Ambiscript notation was designed to easily represent consensus sequences for multiple sequence alignments, the notation's black-on-white ambiguity characters are unable to reflect the statistical distribution of nucleotides found at each position. We now propose a color-augmented ambigraphic notation to encode the frequency of positional polymorphisms in these consensus sequences. We have implemented this color-coding approach by creating an Adobe Flash® application ( http://www.ambiscript.org) that shades and colors modified Ambiscript characters according to the prevalence of the encoded nucleotide at each position in the alignment. The resulting graphic helps viewers perceive biologically-relevant patterns in multiple sequence alignments by uniquely combining color, shading, and character symmetries to highlight palindromes and inverted repeats in conserved DNA motifs. Juxtaposing an intuitive color scheme over the deliberate character symmetries of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation yields a highly-functional nucleic acid notation that maximizes information content and successfully embodies key principles of graphic excellence put forth by the statistician and graphic design theorist, Edward Tufte.

  15. Exploring the conserved water site and hydration of a coiled-coil trimerisation motif: a MD simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dolenc, Jozica; Baron, Riccardo; Missimer, John H; Steinmetz, Michel O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2008-07-21

    The solvent structure and dynamics around ccbeta-p, a 17-residue peptide that forms a parallel three-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil in solution, was analysed through 10 ns explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 278 and 330 K. Comparison with two corresponding simulations of the monomeric form of ccbeta-p was used to investigate the changes of hydration upon coiled-coil formation. Pronounced peaks in the solvent density distribution between residues Arg8 and Glu13 of neighbouring helices show the presence of water bridges between the helices of the ccbeta-p trimer; this is in agreement with the water sites observed in X-ray crystallography experiments. Interestingly, this water site is structurally conserved in many three-stranded coiled coils and, together with the Arg and Glu residues, forms part of a motif that determines three-stranded coiled-coil formation. Our findings show that little direct correlation exists between the solvent density distribution and the temporal ordering of water around the trimeric coiled coil. The MD-calculated effective residence times of up to 40 ps show rapid exchange of surface water molecules with the bulk phase, and indicate that the solvent distribution around biomolecules requires interpretation in terms of continuous density distributions rather than in terms of discrete molecules of water. Together, our study contributes to understanding the principles of three-stranded coiled-coil formation.

  16. One to rule them all: A highly conserved motif in mariner transposase controls multiple steps of transposition.

    PubMed

    Bouuaert, Corentin Claeys; Tellier, Michael; Chalmers, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The development of transposon-based genome manipulation tools can benefit greatly from understanding transposons' inherent regulatory mechanisms. The Tc1-mariner transposons, which are being widely used in biotechnological applications, are subject to a self-inhibitory mechanism whereby increasing transposase expression beyond a certain point decreases the rate of transposition. In a recent paper, Liu and Chalmers performed saturating mutagenesis on the highly conserved WVPHEL motif in the mariner-family transposase from the Hsmar1 element. Curiously, they found that the majority of all possible single mutations were hyperactive. Biochemical characterizations of the mutants revealed that the hyperactivity is due to a defect in communication between transposase subunits, which normally regulates transposition by reducing the rate of synapsis. This provides important clues for improving transposon-based tools. However, some WVPHEL mutants also showed features that would be undesirable for most biotechnological applications: they showed uncontrolled DNA cleavage activities and defects in the coordination of cleavage between the two transposon ends. The study illustrates how the knowledge of inhibitory mechanisms can help improve transposon tools but also highlights an important challenge, which is to specifically target a regulatory mechanism without affecting other important functions of the transposase.

  17. Using a color-coded ambigraphic nucleic acid notation to visualize conserved palindromic motifs within and across genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ambiscript is a graphically-designed nucleic acid notation that uses symbol symmetries to support sequence complementation, highlight biologically-relevant palindromes, and facilitate the analysis of consensus sequences. Although the original Ambiscript notation was designed to easily represent consensus sequences for multiple sequence alignments, the notation’s black-on-white ambiguity characters are unable to reflect the statistical distribution of nucleotides found at each position. We now propose a color-augmented ambigraphic notation to encode the frequency of positional polymorphisms in these consensus sequences. Results We have implemented this color-coding approach by creating an Adobe Flash® application ( http://www.ambiscript.org) that shades and colors modified Ambiscript characters according to the prevalence of the encoded nucleotide at each position in the alignment. The resulting graphic helps viewers perceive biologically-relevant patterns in multiple sequence alignments by uniquely combining color, shading, and character symmetries to highlight palindromes and inverted repeats in conserved DNA motifs. Conclusion Juxtaposing an intuitive color scheme over the deliberate character symmetries of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation yields a highly-functional nucleic acid notation that maximizes information content and successfully embodies key principles of graphic excellence put forth by the statistician and graphic design theorist, Edward Tufte. PMID:24447494

  18. A dominant negative mutation in the conserved RNA helicase motif 'SAT' causes splicing factor PRP2 to stall in spliceosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Plumpton, M; McGarvey, M; Beggs, J D

    1994-01-01

    To characterize sequences in the RNA helicase-like PRP2 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are essential for its function in pre-mRNA splicing, a pool of random PRP2 mutants was generated. A dominant negative allele was isolated which, when overexpressed in a wild-type yeast strain, inhibited cell growth by causing a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. This defect was partially alleviated by simultaneous co-overexpression of wild-type PRP2. The dominant negative PRP2 protein inhibited splicing in vitro and caused the accumulation of stalled splicing complexes. Immunoprecipitation with anti-PRP2 antibodies confirmed that dominant negative PRP2 protein competed with its wild-type counterpart for interaction with spliceosomes, with which the mutant protein remained associated. The PRP2-dn1 mutation led to a single amino acid change within the conserved SAT motif that in the prototype helicase eIF-4A is required for RNA unwinding. Purified dominant negative PRP2 protein had approximately 40% of the wild-type level of RNA-stimulated ATPase activity. As ATPase activity was reduced only slightly, but splicing activity was abolished, we propose that the dominant negative phenotype is due primarily to a defect in the putative RNA helicase activity of PRP2 protein. Images PMID:8112301

  19. The conserved helicase motifs of the herpes simplex virus type 1 origin-binding protein UL9 are important for function.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, R; Shao, L; Weller, S K

    1992-01-01

    The UL9 gene of herpes simplex virus encodes a protein that specifically recognizes sequences within the viral origins of replication and exhibits helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities. The specific DNA binding domain of the UL9 protein was localized to the carboxy-terminal one-third of the molecule (H. M. Weir, J. M. Calder, and N. D. Stow, Nucleic Acids Res. 17:1409-1425, 1989). The N-terminal two-thirds of the UL9 gene contains six sequence motifs found in all members of a superfamily of DNA and RNA helicases, suggesting that this region may be important for helicase activity of UL9. In this report, we examined the functional significance of these six motifs for the UL9 protein through the introduction of site-specific mutations resulting in single amino acid substitutions of the most highly conserved residues within each motif. An in vivo complementation test was used to study the effect of each mutation on the function of the UL9 protein in viral DNA replication. In this assay, a mutant UL9 protein expressed from a transfected plasmid is used to complement a replication-deficient null mutant in the UL9 gene for the amplification of herpes simplex virus origin-containing plasmids. Mutations in five of the six conserved motifs inactivated the function of the UL9 protein in viral DNA replication, providing direct evidence for the importance of these conserved motifs. Insertion mutants resulting in the introduction of two alanines at 100-residue intervals in regions outside the conserved motifs were also constructed. Three of the insertion mutations were tolerated, whereas the other five abolished UL9 function. These data indicate that other regions of the protein, in addition to the helicase motifs, are important for function in vivo. Several mutations result in instability of the mutant products, presumably because of conformational changes in the protein. Taken together, these results suggest that UL9 is very sensitive to mutations with respect to both

  20. The Ku-binding motif is a conserved module for recruitment and stimulation of non-homologous end-joining proteins

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Gabrielle J.; Rulten, Stuart L.; Arribas-Bosacoma, Raquel; Davidson, Kathryn; Kozik, Zuzanna; Oliver, Antony W.; Pearl, Laurence H.; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    The Ku-binding motif (KBM) is a short peptide module first identified in APLF that we now show is also present in Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and in Modulator of retrovirus infection homologue (MRI). We also identify a related but functionally distinct motif in XLF, WRN, MRI and PAXX, which we denote the XLF-like motif. We show that WRN possesses two KBMs; one at the N terminus next to the exonuclease domain and one at the C terminus next to an XLF-like motif. We reveal that the WRN C-terminal KBM and XLF-like motif function cooperatively to bind Ku complexes and that the N-terminal KBM mediates Ku-dependent stimulation of WRN exonuclease activity. We also show that WRN accelerates DSB repair by a mechanism requiring both KBMs, demonstrating the importance of WRN interaction with Ku. These data define a conserved family of KBMs that function as molecular tethers to recruit and/or stimulate enzymes during NHEJ. PMID:27063109

  1. Assessment of the potential contribution of the highly conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C in transmission and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Earnhart, Christopher G; Rhodes, DeLacy V L; Smith, Alexis A; Yang, Xiuli; Tegels, Brittney; Carlyon, Jason A; Pal, Utpal; Marconi, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    OspC is produced by all species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and is required for infectivity in mammals. To test the hypothesis that the conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of OspC is required for function in vivo, a mutant B. burgdorferi strain (B31::ospCΔC10) was created in which ospC was replaced with an ospC gene lacking the C10 motif. The ability of the mutant to infect mice was investigated using tick transmission and needle inoculation. Infectivity was assessed by cultivation, qRT-PCR, and measurement of IgG antibody responses. B31::ospCΔC10 retained the ability to infect mice by both needle and tick challenge and was competent to survive in ticks after exposure to the blood meal. To determine whether recombinant OspC protein lacking the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues (rOspCΔC10) can bind plasminogen, the only known mammalian-derived ligand for OspC, binding analyses were performed. Deletion of the C10 motif resulted in a statistically significant decrease in plasminogen binding. Although deletion of the C10 motif influenced plasminogen binding, it can be concluded that the C10 motif is not required for OspC to carry out its critical in vivo functions in tick to mouse transmission. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Ku-binding motif is a conserved module for recruitment and stimulation of non-homologous end-joining proteins.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Gabrielle J; Rulten, Stuart L; Arribas-Bosacoma, Raquel; Davidson, Kathryn; Kozik, Zuzanna; Oliver, Antony W; Pearl, Laurence H; Caldecott, Keith W

    2016-04-11

    The Ku-binding motif (KBM) is a short peptide module first identified in APLF that we now show is also present in Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and in Modulator of retrovirus infection homologue (MRI). We also identify a related but functionally distinct motif in XLF, WRN, MRI and PAXX, which we denote the XLF-like motif. We show that WRN possesses two KBMs; one at the N terminus next to the exonuclease domain and one at the C terminus next to an XLF-like motif. We reveal that the WRN C-terminal KBM and XLF-like motif function cooperatively to bind Ku complexes and that the N-terminal KBM mediates Ku-dependent stimulation of WRN exonuclease activity. We also show that WRN accelerates DSB repair by a mechanism requiring both KBMs, demonstrating the importance of WRN interaction with Ku. These data define a conserved family of KBMs that function as molecular tethers to recruit and/or stimulate enzymes during NHEJ.

  3. Evolutionarily conserved dual lysine motif determines the non-chaperone function of secreted Hsp90alpha in tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Zou, M; Bhatia, A; Dong, H; Jayaprakash, P; Guo, J; Sahu, D; Hou, Y; Tsen, F; Tong, C; O'Brien, K; Situ, A J; Schmidt, T; Chen, M; Ying, Q; Ulmer, T S; Woodley, D T; Li, W

    2017-04-01

    Both intracellular and extracellular heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family proteins (α and β) have been shown to support tumour progression. The tumour-supporting activity of the intracellular Hsp90 is attributed to their N-terminal ATPase-driven chaperone function. What molecular entity determines the extracellular function of secreted Hsp90 and the distinction between Hsp90α and Hsp90β was unclear. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Case9 knocking out Hsp90α nullifies tumour cells' ability to migrate, invade and metastasize without affecting the cell survival and growth. Knocking out Hsp90β leads to tumour cell death. Extracellular supplementation with recombinant Hsp90α, but not Hsp90β, protein recovers tumourigenicity of the Hsp90α-knockout cells. Sequential mutagenesis identifies two evolutionarily conserved lysine residues, lys-270 and lys-277, in the Hsp90α subfamily that determine the extracellular Hsp90α function. Hsp90β subfamily lacks the dual lysine motif and the extracellular function. Substitutions of gly-262 and thr-269 in Hsp90β with lysines convert Hsp90β to a Hsp90α-like protein. Newly constructed monoclonal antibody, 1G6-D7, against the dual lysine region of secreted Hsp90α inhibits both de novo tumour formation and expansion of already formed tumours in mice. This study suggests an alternative therapeutic approach to target Hsp90 in cancer, that is, the tumour-secreted Hsp90α, instead of the intracellular Hsp90α and Hsp90β.

  4. Conserved Tryptophan Motifs in the Large Tegument Protein pUL36 Are Required for Efficient Secondary Envelopment of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Lyudmila; Buch, Anna; Döhner, Katinka; Pohlmann, Anja; Binz, Anne; Prank, Ute; Sandbaumhüter, Malte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) replicates in the skin and mucous membranes, and initiates lytic or latent infections in sensory neurons. Assembly of progeny virions depends on the essential large tegument protein pUL36 of 3,164 amino acid residues that links the capsids to the tegument proteins pUL37 and VP16. Of the 32 tryptophans of HSV-1-pUL36, the tryptophan-acidic motifs 1766WD1767 and 1862WE1863 are conserved in all HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates. Here, we characterized the role of these motifs in the HSV life cycle since the rare tryptophans often have unique roles in protein function due to their large hydrophobic surface. The infectivity of the mutants HSV-1(17+)Lox-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA and HSV-1(17+)Lox-CheVP26-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA, in which the capsid has been tagged with the fluorescent protein Cherry, was significantly reduced. Quantitative electron microscopy shows that there were a larger number of cytosolic capsids and fewer enveloped virions compared to their respective parental strains, indicating a severe impairment in secondary capsid envelopment. The capsids of the mutant viruses accumulated in the perinuclear region around the microtubule-organizing center and were not dispersed to the cell periphery but still acquired the inner tegument proteins pUL36 and pUL37. Furthermore, cytoplasmic capsids colocalized with tegument protein VP16 and, to some extent, with tegument protein VP22 but not with the envelope glycoprotein gD. These results indicate that the unique conserved tryptophan-acidic motifs in the central region of pUL36 are required for efficient targeting of progeny capsids to the membranes of secondary capsid envelopment and for efficient virion assembly. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus infections give rise to severe animal and human diseases, especially in young, immunocompromised, and elderly individuals. The structural hallmark of herpesvirus virions is the tegument, which contains evolutionarily conserved proteins that are essential for several

  5. Conserved Tryptophan Motifs in the Large Tegument Protein pUL36 Are Required for Efficient Secondary Envelopment of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Lyudmila; Buch, Anna; Döhner, Katinka; Pohlmann, Anja; Binz, Anne; Prank, Ute; Sandbaumhüter, Malte; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) replicates in the skin and mucous membranes, and initiates lytic or latent infections in sensory neurons. Assembly of progeny virions depends on the essential large tegument protein pUL36 of 3,164 amino acid residues that links the capsids to the tegument proteins pUL37 and VP16. Of the 32 tryptophans of HSV-1-pUL36, the tryptophan-acidic motifs (1766)WD(1767) and (1862)WE(1863) are conserved in all HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates. Here, we characterized the role of these motifs in the HSV life cycle since the rare tryptophans often have unique roles in protein function due to their large hydrophobic surface. The infectivity of the mutants HSV-1(17(+))Lox-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA and HSV-1(17(+))Lox-CheVP26-pUL36-WD/AA-WE/AA, in which the capsid has been tagged with the fluorescent protein Cherry, was significantly reduced. Quantitative electron microscopy shows that there were a larger number of cytosolic capsids and fewer enveloped virions compared to their respective parental strains, indicating a severe impairment in secondary capsid envelopment. The capsids of the mutant viruses accumulated in the perinuclear region around the microtubule-organizing center and were not dispersed to the cell periphery but still acquired the inner tegument proteins pUL36 and pUL37. Furthermore, cytoplasmic capsids colocalized with tegument protein VP16 and, to some extent, with tegument protein VP22 but not with the envelope glycoprotein gD. These results indicate that the unique conserved tryptophan-acidic motifs in the central region of pUL36 are required for efficient targeting of progeny capsids to the membranes of secondary capsid envelopment and for efficient virion assembly. Herpesvirus infections give rise to severe animal and human diseases, especially in young, immunocompromised, and elderly individuals. The structural hallmark of herpesvirus virions is the tegument, which contains evolutionarily conserved proteins that are essential for several stages of

  6. An evolutionarily conserved motif in the TAB1 C-terminal region is necessary for interaction with and activation of TAK1 MAPKKK.

    PubMed

    Ono, K; Ohtomo, T; Sato, S; Sugamata, Y; Suzuki, M; Hisamoto, N; Ninomiya-Tsuji, J; Tsuchiya, M; Matsumoto, K

    2001-06-29

    TAK1, a member of the MAPKKK family, is involved in the intracellular signaling pathways mediated by transforming growth factor beta, interleukin 1, and Wnt. TAK1 kinase activity is specifically activated by the TAK1-binding protein TAB1. The C-terminal 68-amino acid sequence of TAB1 (TAB1-C68) is sufficient for TAK1 interaction and activation. Analysis of various truncated versions of TAB1-C68 defined a C-terminal 30-amino acid sequence (TAB1-C30) necessary for TAK1 binding and activation. NMR studies revealed that the TAB1-C30 region has a unique alpha-helical structure. We identified a conserved sequence motif, PYVDXA/TXF, in the C-terminal domain of mammalian TAB1, Xenopus TAB1, and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog TAP-1, suggesting that this motif constitutes a specific TAK1 docking site. Alanine substitution mutagenesis showed that TAB1 Phe-484, located in the conserved motif, is crucial for TAK1 binding and activation. The C. elegans homolog of TAB1, TAP-1, was able to interact with and activate the C. elegans homolog of TAK1, MOM-4. However, the site in TAP-1 corresponding to Phe-484 of TAB1 is an alanine residue (Ala-364), and changing this residue to Phe abrogates the ability of TAP-1 to interact with and activate MOM-4. These results suggest that the Phe or Ala residue within the conserved motif of the TAB1-related proteins is important for interaction with and activation of specific TAK1 MAPKKK family members in vivo.

  7. A Conserved EAR Motif Is Required for Avirulence and Stability of the Ralstonia solanacearum Effector PopP2 In Planta.

    PubMed

    Segonzac, Cécile; Newman, Toby E; Choi, Sera; Jayaraman, Jay; Choi, Du Seok; Jung, Ga Young; Cho, Heejung; Lee, Young Kee; Sohn, Kee Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease in many high value Solanaceae crops. R. solanacearum secretes around 70 effectors into host cells in order to promote infection. Plants have, however, evolved specialized immune receptors that recognize corresponding effectors and confer qualitative disease resistance. In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the paired immune receptors RRS1 (resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1) and RPS4 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4) cooperatively recognize the R. solanacearum effector PopP2 in the nuclei of infected cells. PopP2 is an acetyltransferase that binds to and acetylates the RRS1 WRKY DNA-binding domain resulting in reduced RRS1-DNA association thereby activating plant immunity. Here, we surveyed the naturally occurring variation in PopP2 sequence among the R. solanacearum strains isolated from diseased tomato and pepper fields across the Republic of Korea. Our analysis revealed high conservation of popP2 sequence with only three polymorphic alleles present amongst 17 strains. Only one variation (a premature stop codon) caused the loss of RPS4/RRS1-dependent recognition in Arabidopsis. We also found that PopP2 harbors a putative eukaryotic transcriptional repressor motif (ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression or EAR), which is known to be involved in the recruitment of transcriptional co-repressors. Remarkably, mutation of the EAR motif disabled PopP2 avirulence function as measured by the development of hypersensitive response, electrolyte leakage, defense marker gene expression and bacterial growth in Arabidopsis. This lack of recognition was partially but significantly reverted by the C-terminal addition of a synthetic EAR motif. We show that the EAR motif-dependent gain of avirulence correlated with the stability of the PopP2 protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated the requirement of the PopP2 EAR motif for PTI suppression. A yeast

  8. Explorations of linked editosome domains leading to the discovery of motifs defining conserved pockets in editosome OB-folds.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jun; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosomatids form a group of protozoa which contain parasites of human, animals and plants. Several of these species cause major human diseases, including Trypanosoma brucei which is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, also called sleeping sickness. These organisms have many highly unusual features including a unique U-insertion/deletion RNA editing process in the single mitochondrion. A key multi-protein complex, called the ∼20S editosome, or editosome, carries out a cascade of essential RNA-modifying reactions and contains a core of 12 different proteins of which six are the interaction proteins A1 to A6. Each of these interaction proteins comprises a C-terminal OB-fold and the smallest interaction protein A6 has been shown to interact with four other editosome OB-folds. Here we report the results of a "linked OB-fold" approach to obtain a view of how multiple OB-folds might interact in the core of the editosome. Constructs with variants of linked domains in 25 expression and co-expression experiments resulted in 13 soluble multi-OB-fold complexes. In several instances, these complexes were more homogeneous in size than those obtained from corresponding unlinked OB-folds. The crystal structure of A3(OB) linked to A6 could be elucidated and confirmed the tight interaction between these two OB domains as seen also in our recent complex of A3(OB) and A6 with nanobodies. In the current crystal structure of A3(OB) linked to A6, hydrophobic side chains reside in well-defined pockets of neighboring OB-fold domains. When analyzing the available crystal structures of editosome OB-folds, it appears that in five instances "Pocket 1" of A1(OB), A3(OB) and A6 is occupied by a hydrophobic side chain from a neighboring protein. In these three different OB-folds, Pocket 1 is formed by two conserved sequence motifs and an invariant arginine. These pockets might play a key role in the assembly or mechanism of the editosome by interacting with hydrophobic

  9. The Elongin BC complex interacts with the conserved SOCS-box motif present in members of the SOCS, ras, WD-40 repeat, and ankyrin repeat families

    PubMed Central

    Kamura, Takumi; Sato, Shigeo; Haque, Dewan; Liu, Li; Kaelin, William G.; Conaway, Ronald C.; Conaway, Joan Weliky

    1998-01-01

    The Elongin BC complex was identified initially as a positive regulator of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin A and subsequently as a component of the multiprotein von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor complex, in which it participates in both tumor suppression and negative regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Elongin B is a ubiquitin-like protein, and Elongin C is a Skp1-like protein that binds to a BC-box motif that is present in both Elongin A and VHL and is distinct from the conserved F-box motif recognized by Skp1. In this report, we demonstrate that the Elongin BC complex also binds to a functional BC box present in the SOCS box, a sequence motif identified recently in the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) protein, as well as in a collection of additional proteins belonging to the SOCS, ras, WD-40 repeat, SPRY domain, and ankyrin repeat families. In addition, we present evidence (1) that the Elongin BC complex is a component of a multiprotein SOCS-1 complex that attenuates Jak/STAT signaling by binding to Jak2 and inhibiting Jak2 kinase, and (2) that by interacting with the SOCS box, the Elongin BC complex can increase expression of the SOCS-1 protein by inhibiting its degradation. These results suggest that Elongin BC is a multifunctional regulatory complex capable of controlling multiple pathways in the cell through interaction with a short degenerate sequence motif found in many different proteins. PMID:9869640

  10. The histone chaperone sNASP binds a conserved peptide motif within the globular core of histone H3 through its TPR repeats

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew; Lercher, Lukas; Singh, Hari R.; Zinne, Daria; Timinszky, Gyula; Carlomagno, Teresa; Ladurner, Andreas G.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is a complex yet dynamic structure, which is regulated in part by the assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes. Key to this process is a group of proteins termed histone chaperones that guide the thermodynamic assembly of nucleosomes by interacting with soluble histones. Here we investigate the interaction between the histone chaperone sNASP and its histone H3 substrate. We find that sNASP binds with nanomolar affinity to a conserved heptapeptide motif in the globular domain of H3, close to the C-terminus. Through functional analysis of sNASP homologues we identified point mutations in surface residues within the TPR domain of sNASP that disrupt H3 peptide interaction, but do not completely disrupt binding to full length H3 in cells, suggesting that sNASP interacts with H3 through additional contacts. Furthermore, chemical shift perturbations from 1H-15N HSQC experiments show that H3 peptide binding maps to the helical groove formed by the stacked TPR motifs of sNASP. Our findings reveal a new mode of interaction between a TPR repeat domain and an evolutionarily conserved peptide motif found in canonical H3 and in all histone H3 variants, including CenpA and have implications for the mechanism of histone chaperoning within the cell. PMID:26673727

  11. Conserved structural motifs at the C-terminus of baculovirus protein IE0 are important for its functions in transactivation and supporting hr5-mediated DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Luria, Neta; Lu, Liqun; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2012-05-01

    IE0 and IE1 are transactivator proteins of the most studied baculovirus, the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). IE0 is a 72.6 kDa protein identical to IE1 with the exception of its 54 N-terminal amino acid residues. To gain some insight about important structural motifs of IE0, we expressed the protein and C‑terminal mutants of it under the control of the Drosophila heat shock promoter and studied the transactivation and replication functions of the transiently expressed proteins. IE0 was able to promote replication of a plasmid bearing the hr5 origin of replication of AcMNPV in transient transfections with a battery of eight plasmids expressing the AcMNPV genes dnapol, helicase, lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, p35, ie-2 and lef-7. IE0 transactivated expression of the baculovirus 39K promoter. Both functions of replication and transactivation were lost after introduction of selected mutations at the basic domain II and helix-loop-helix conserved structural motifs in the C-terminus of the protein. These IE0 mutants were unable to translocate to the cell nucleus. Our results point out the important role of some structural conserved motifs to the proper functioning of IE0.

  12. Conserved DNA Motifs, Including the CENP-B Box-like, Are Possible Promoters of Satellite DNA Array Rearrangements in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Car, Ana; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Abad, Pierre; Plohl, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Tandemly arrayed non-coding sequences or satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are rapidly evolving segments of eukaryotic genomes, including the centromere, and may raise a genetic barrier that leads to speciation. However, determinants and mechanisms of satDNA sequence dynamics are only partially understood. Sequence analyses of a library of five satDNAs common to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax together with a satDNA, which is specific for M. chitwoodi only revealed low sequence identity (32–64%) among them. However, despite sequence differences, two conserved motifs were recovered. One of them turned out to be highly similar to the CENP-B box of human alpha satDNA, identical in 10–12 out of 17 nucleotides. In addition, organization of nematode satDNAs was comparable to that found in alpha satDNA of human and primates, characterized by monomers concurrently arranged in simple and higher-order repeat (HOR) arrays. In contrast to alpha satDNA, phylogenetic clustering of nematode satDNA monomers extracted either from simple or from HOR array indicated frequent shuffling between these two organizational forms. Comparison of homogeneous simple arrays and complex HORs composed of different satDNAs, enabled, for the first time, the identification of conserved motifs as obligatory components of monomer junctions. This observation highlights the role of short motifs in rearrangements, even among highly divergent sequences. Two mechanisms are proposed to be involved in this process, i.e., putative transposition-related cut-and-paste insertions and/or illegitimate recombination. Possibility for involvement of the nematode CENP-B box-like sequence in the transposition-related mechanism and together with previously established similarity of the human CENP-B protein and pogo-like transposases implicate a novel role of the CENP-B box and related sequence motifs in addition to the known function in centromere protein binding. PMID:23826269

  13. Molecular sensing of bacteria in plants. The highly conserved RNA-binding motif RNP-1 of bacterial cold shock proteins is recognized as an elicitor signal in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Felix, Georg; Boller, Thomas

    2003-02-21

    To detect microbial infection multicellular organisms have evolved sensing systems for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Here, we identify bacterial cold shock protein (CSP) as a new such PAMP that acts as a highly active elicitor of defense responses in tobacco. Tobacco cells perceive a conserved domain of CSP and synthetic peptides representing 15 amino acids of this domain-induced responses at subnanomolar concentrations. Central to the elicitor-active domain is the RNP-1 motif KGFGFITP, a motif conserved also in many RNA- and DNA-binding proteins of eukaryotes. Csp15-Nsyl, a peptide representing the domain with highest homology to csp15 in a protein of Nicotiana sylvestris exhibited only weak activity in tobacco cells. Crystallographic and genetic data from the literature show that the RNP-1 domain of bacterial CSPs resides on a protruding loop and exposes a series of aromatic and basic side chains to the surface that are essential for the nucleotide-binding activity of CSPs. Similarly, these side chains were also essential for elicitor activity and replacement of single residues in csp15 with Ala strongly reduced or abolished activity. Most strikingly, csp15-Ala10, a peptide with the RNP-1 motif modified to KGAGFITP, lacked elicitor activity but acted as a competitive antagonist for CSP-related elicitors. Bacteria commonly have a small family of CSP-like proteins including both cold-inducible and noninducible members, and Csp-related elicitor activity was detected in extracts from all bacteria tested. Thus, the CSP domain containing the RNP-1 motif provides a structure characteristic for bacteria in general, and tobacco plants have evolved a highly sensitive chemoperception system to detect this bacterial PAMP.

  14. Phylogenomics-guided discovery of a novel conserved cassette of short linear motifs in BubR1 essential for the spindle checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Debora

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintains genomic integrity by preventing progression of mitotic cell division until all chromosomes are stably attached to spindle microtubules. The SAC critically relies on the paralogues Bub1 and BubR1/Mad3, which integrate kinetochore–spindle attachment status with generation of the anaphase inhibitory complex MCC. We previously reported on the widespread occurrences of independent gene duplications of an ancestral ‘MadBub’ gene in eukaryotic evolution and the striking parallel subfunctionalization that lead to loss of kinase function in BubR1/Mad3-like paralogues. Here, we present an elaborate subfunctionalization analysis of the Bub1/BubR1 gene family and perform de novo sequence discovery in a comparative phylogenomics framework to trace the distribution of ancestral sequence features to extant paralogues throughout the eukaryotic tree of life. We show that known ancestral sequence features are consistently retained in the same functional paralogue: GLEBS/CMI/CDII/kinase in the Bub1-like and KEN1/KEN2/D-Box in the BubR1/Mad3-like. The recently described ABBA motif can be found in either or both paralogues. We however discovered two additional ABBA motifs that flank KEN2. This cassette of ABBA1-KEN2-ABBA2 forms a strictly conserved module in all ancestral and BubR1/Mad3-like proteins, suggestive of a specific and crucial SAC function. Indeed, deletion of the ABBA motifs in human BUBR1 abrogates the SAC and affects APC/C–Cdc20 interactions. Our detailed comparative genomics analyses thus enabled discovery of a conserved cassette of motifs essential for the SAC and shows how this approach can be used to uncover hitherto unrecognized functional protein features. PMID:28003474

  15. Polar residues in a conserved motif spanning helices 1 and 2 are functionally important in the SulP transporter family.

    PubMed

    Leves, Fiona P; Tierney, M Louise; Howitt, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    The SulP family (including the SLC26 family) is a diverse family of anion transporters found in all domains of life, with different members transporting different anions. We used sequence and bioinformatics analysis of helices 1 and 2 of SulP family members to identify a conserved motif, extending the previously defined 'sulfate transporter motif'. The analysis showed that in addition to being highly conserved in both sequence and spacing, helices 1 and 2 contain a significant number of polar residues and are predicted to be buried within the protein interior, with at least some faces packed closely against other helices. This suggests a significant functional role for this region and we tested this by mutating polar residues in helices 1 and 2 in the sulfate transporter, SHST1. All mutations made, even those removing only a single hydroxyl group, had significant effects on transport. Many mutations abolished transport without affecting plasma membrane expression of the mutant protein, suggesting a functional role for these residues. Different helical faces appear to have different roles, with the most severe effects being localised to two interacting faces of helices 1 and 2. Our results confirm the predicted importance of conserved polar residues in helices 1 and 2 and suggest that transport of sulfate by SHST1 is dependent on a network of polar and aromatic interactions between these two helices.

  16. A common set of conserved motifs in a vast variety of putative nucleic acid-dependent ATPases including MCM proteins involved in the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, E V

    1993-01-01

    A new superfamily of (putative) DNA-dependent ATPases is described that includes the ATPase domains of prokaryotic NtrC-related transcription regulators, MCM proteins involved in the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication, and a group of uncharacterized bacterial and chloroplast proteins. MCM proteins are shown to contain a modified form of the ATP-binding motif and are predicted to mediate ATP-dependent opening of double-stranded DNA in the replication origins. In a second line of investigation, it is demonstrated that the products of unidentified open reading frames from Marchantia mitochondria and from yeast, and a domain of a baculovirus protein involved in viral DNA replication are related to the superfamily III of DNA and RNA helicases that previously has been known to include only proteins of small viruses. Comparison of the multiple alignments showed that the proteins of the NtrC superfamily and the helicases of superfamily III share three related sequence motifs tightly packed in the ATPase domain that consists of 100-150 amino acid residues. A similar array of conserved motifs is found in the family of DnaA-related ATPases. It is hypothesized that the three large groups of nucleic acid-dependent ATPases have similar structure of the core ATPase domain and have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:8332451

  17. Redundant ERF-VII Transcription Factors Bind to an Evolutionarily Conserved cis-Motif to Regulate Hypoxia-Responsive Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gasch, Philipp; Fundinger, Moritz; Müller, Jana T.; Lee, Travis; Mustroph, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The response of Arabidopsis thaliana to low-oxygen stress (hypoxia), such as during shoot submergence or root waterlogging, includes increasing the levels of ∼50 hypoxia-responsive gene transcripts, many of which encode enzymes associated with anaerobic metabolism. Upregulation of over half of these mRNAs involves stabilization of five group VII ethylene response factor (ERF-VII) transcription factors, which are routinely degraded via the N-end rule pathway of proteolysis in an oxygen- and nitric oxide-dependent manner. Despite their importance, neither the quantitative contribution of individual ERF-VIIs nor the cis-regulatory elements they govern are well understood. Here, using single- and double-null mutants, the constitutively synthesized ERF-VIIs RELATED TO APETALA2.2 (RAP2.2) and RAP2.12 are shown to act redundantly as principle activators of hypoxia-responsive genes; constitutively expressed RAP2.3 contributes to this redundancy, whereas the hypoxia-induced HYPOXIA RESPONSIVE ERF1 (HRE1) and HRE2 play minor roles. An evolutionarily conserved 12-bp cis-regulatory motif that binds to and is sufficient for activation by RAP2.2 and RAP2.12 is identified through a comparative phylogenetic motif search, promoter dissection, yeast one-hybrid assays, and chromatin immunopurification. This motif, designated the hypoxia-responsive promoter element, is enriched in promoters of hypoxia-responsive genes in multiple species. PMID:26668304

  18. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. Results The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192) in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Conclusions Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure. PMID:20678238

  19. A conserved motif in the ITK PH-domain is required for phosphoinositide binding and TCR signaling but dispensable for adaptor protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hirve, Nupura; Levytskyy, Roman M; Rigaud, Stephanie; Guimond, David M; Zal, Tomasz; Sauer, Karsten; Tsoukas, Constantine D

    2012-01-01

    Binding of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) to the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain of the Tec family protein tyrosine kinase, Inducible T cell Kinase (ITK), is critical for the recruitment of the kinase to the plasma membrane and its co-localization with the TCR-CD3 molecular complex. Three aromatic residues, termed the FYF motif, located in the inner walls of the phospholipid-binding pocket of the ITK PH domain, are conserved in the PH domains of all Tec kinases, but not in other PH-domain containing proteins, suggesting an important function of the FYF motif in the Tec kinase family. However, the biological significance of the FYF amino acid motif in the ITK-PH domain is unknown. To elucidate it, we have tested the effects of a FYF triple mutant (F26S, Y90F, F92S), henceforth termed FYF-ITK mutant, on ITK function. We found that FYF triple mutation inhibits the TCR-induced production of IL-4 by impairing ITK binding to PIP(3), reducing ITK membrane recruitment, inducing conformational changes at the T cell-APC contact site, and compromising phosphorylation of ITK and subsequent phosphorylation of PLCγ(1). Interestingly, however, the FYF motif is dispensable for the interaction of ITK with two of its signaling partners, SLP-76 and LAT. Thus, the FYF mutation uncouples PIP(3)-mediated ITK membrane recruitment from the interactions of the kinase with key components of the TCR signalosome and abrogates ITK function in T cells.

  20. A Conserved Motif in the ITK PH-Domain Is Required for Phosphoinositide Binding and TCR Signaling but Dispensable for Adaptor Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, Stephanie; Guimond, David M.; Zal, Tomasz; Sauer, Karsten; Tsoukas, Constantine D.

    2012-01-01

    Binding of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) to the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain of the Tec family protein tyrosine kinase, Inducible T cell Kinase (ITK), is critical for the recruitment of the kinase to the plasma membrane and its co-localization with the TCR-CD3 molecular complex. Three aromatic residues, termed the FYF motif, located in the inner walls of the phospholipid-binding pocket of the ITK PH domain, are conserved in the PH domains of all Tec kinases, but not in other PH-domain containing proteins, suggesting an important function of the FYF motif in the Tec kinase family. However, the biological significance of the FYF amino acid motif in the ITK-PH domain is unknown. To elucidate it, we have tested the effects of a FYF triple mutant (F26S, Y90F, F92S), henceforth termed FYF-ITK mutant, on ITK function. We found that FYF triple mutation inhibits the TCR-induced production of IL-4 by impairing ITK binding to PIP3, reducing ITK membrane recruitment, inducing conformational changes at the T cell-APC contact site, and compromising phosphorylation of ITK and subsequent phosphorylation of PLCγ1. Interestingly, however, the FYF motif is dispensable for the interaction of ITK with two of its signaling partners, SLP-76 and LAT. Thus, the FYF mutation uncouples PIP3-mediated ITK membrane recruitment from the interactions of the kinase with key components of the TCR signalosome and abrogates ITK function in T cells. PMID:23028816

  1. Microfluidic affinity and ChIP-seq analyses converge on a conserved FOXP2-binding motif in chimp and human, which enables the detection of evolutionarily novel targets.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher S; Fuller, Chris K; Fordyce, Polly M; Greninger, Alexander L; Li, Hao; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2013-07-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is believed to be important in the evolution of human speech. A mutation in its DNA-binding domain causes severe speech impairment. Humans have acquired two coding changes relative to the conserved mammalian sequence. Despite intense interest in FOXP2, it has remained an open question whether the human protein's DNA-binding specificity and chromatin localization are conserved. Previous in vitro and ChIP-chip studies have provided conflicting consensus sequences for the FOXP2-binding site. Using MITOMI 2.0 microfluidic affinity assays, we describe the binding site of FOXP2 and its affinity profile in base-specific detail for all substitutions of the strongest binding site. We find that human and chimp FOXP2 have similar binding sites that are distinct from previously suggested consensus binding sites. Additionally, through analysis of FOXP2 ChIP-seq data from cultured neurons, we find strong overrepresentation of a motif that matches our in vitro results and identifies a set of genes with FOXP2 binding sites. The FOXP2-binding sites tend to be conserved, yet we identified 38 instances of evolutionarily novel sites in humans. Combined, these data present a comprehensive portrait of FOXP2's-binding properties and imply that although its sequence specificity has been conserved, some of its genomic binding sites are newly evolved.

  2. Conserved sequence motifs upstream from the co-ordinately expressed vitellogenin and apoVLDLII genes of chicken.

    PubMed

    van het Schip, F; Strijker, R; Samallo, J; Gruber, M; Geert, A B

    1986-11-11

    The vitellogenin and apoVLDLII yolk protein genes of chicken are transcribed in the liver upon estrogenization. To get information on putative regulatory elements, we compared more than 2 kb of their 5' flanking DNA sequences. Common sequence motifs were found in regions exhibiting estrogen-induced changes in chromatin structure. Stretches of alternating pyrimidines and purines of about 30-nucleotides long are present at roughly similar positions. A distinct box of sequence homology in the chicken genes also appears to be present at a similar position in front of the vitellogenin genes of Xenopus laevis, but is absent from the estrogen-responsive egg-white protein genes expressed in the oviduct. In front of the vitellogenin (position -595) and the VLDLII gene (position -548), a DNA element of about 300 base-pairs was found, which possesses structural characteristics of a mobile genetic element and bears homology to the transposon-like Vi element of Xenopus laevis.

  3. Mutation of the Conserved Calcium-Binding Motif in Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilC1 Impacts Adhesion but Not Piliation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Johnson, Michael D. L.; Burillo-Kirch, Christine; Mocny, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, James E.; Garrett, Christopher K.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilC1 is a member of the PilC family of type IV pilus-associated adhesins found in Neisseria species and other type IV pilus-producing genera. Previously, a calcium-binding domain was described in the C-terminal domains of PilY1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in PilC1 and PilC2 of Kingella kingae. Genetic analysis of N. gonorrhoeae revealed a similar calcium-binding motif in PilC1. To evaluate the potential significance of this calcium-binding region in N. gonorrhoeae, we produced recombinant full-length PilC1 and a PilC1 C-terminal domain fragment. We show that, while alterations of the calcium-binding motif disrupted the ability of PilC1 to bind calcium, they did not grossly affect the secondary structure of the protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both full-length wild-type PilC1 and full-length calcium-binding-deficient PilC1 inhibited gonococcal adherence to cultured human cervical epithelial cells, unlike the truncated PilC1 C-terminal domain. Similar to PilC1 in K. kingae, but in contrast to the calcium-binding mutant of P. aeruginosa PilY1, an equivalent mutation in N. gonorrhoeae PilC1 produced normal amounts of pili. However, the N. gonorrhoeae PilC1 calcium-binding mutant still had partial defects in gonococcal adhesion to ME180 cells and genetic transformation, which are both essential virulence factors in this human pathogen. Thus, we conclude that calcium binding to PilC1 plays a critical role in pilus function in N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:24002068

  4. ICAP-1, a Novel β1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Domain–associated Protein, Binds to a Conserved and Functionally Important NPXY Sequence Motif of β1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, David D.; Wong, Carol; Smith, Healy; Liu, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domains of integrins are essential for cell adhesion. We report identification of a novel protein, ICAP-1 (integrin cytoplasmic domain– associated protein-1), which binds to the β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The interaction between ICAP-1 and β1 integrins is highly specific, as demonstrated by the lack of interaction between ICAP-1 and the cytoplasmic domains of other β integrins, and requires a conserved and functionally important NPXY sequence motif found in the COOH-terminal region of the β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain. Mutational studies reveal that Asn and Tyr of the NPXY motif and a Val residue located NH2-terminal to this motif are critical for the ICAP-1 binding. Two isoforms of ICAP-1, a 200–amino acid protein (ICAP-1α) and a shorter 150–amino acid protein (ICAP-1β), derived from alternatively spliced mRNA, are expressed in most cells. ICAP-1α is a phosphoprotein and the extent of its phosphorylation is regulated by the cell–matrix interaction. First, an enhancement of ICAP-1α phosphorylation is observed when cells were plated on fibronectin-coated but not on nonspecific poly-l-lysine–coated surface. Second, the expression of a constitutively activated RhoA protein that disrupts the cell–matrix interaction results in dephosphorylation of ICAP-1α. The regulation of ICAP-1α phosphorylation by the cell–matrix interaction suggests an important role of ICAP-1 during integrin-dependent cell adhesion. PMID:9281591

  5. Function of the PEX19-binding site of human adrenoleukodystrophy protein as targeting motif in man and yeast. PMP targeting is evolutionarily conserved.

    PubMed

    Halbach, André; Lorenzen, Stephan; Landgraf, Christiane; Volkmer-Engert, Rudolf; Erdmann, Ralf; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter

    2005-06-03

    We predicted in human peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) the binding sites for PEX19, a key player in the topogenesis of PMPs, by virtue of an algorithm developed for yeast PMPs. The best scoring PEX19-binding site was found in the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). The identified site was indeed bound by human PEX19 and was also recognized by the orthologous yeast PEX19 protein. Likewise, both human and yeast PEX19 bound with comparable affinities to the PEX19-binding site of the yeast PMP Pex13p. Interestingly, the identified PEX19-binding site of ALDP coincided with its previously determined targeting motif. We corroborated the requirement of the ALDP PEX19-binding site for peroxisomal targeting in human fibroblasts and showed that the minimal ALDP fragment targets correctly also in yeast, again in a PEX19-binding site-dependent manner. Furthermore, the human PEX19-binding site of ALDP proved interchangeable with that of yeast Pex13p in an in vivo targeting assay. Finally, we showed in vitro that most of the predicted binding sequences of human PMPs represent true binding sites for human PEX19, indicating that human PMPs harbor common PEX19-binding sites that do resemble those of yeast. Our data clearly revealed a role for PEX19-binding sites as PMP-targeting motifs across species, thereby demonstrating the evolutionary conservation of PMP signal sequences from yeast to man.

  6. Multi-layered control of Galectin-8 mediated autophagy during adenovirus cell entry through a conserved PPxY motif in the viral capsid.

    PubMed

    Montespan, Charlotte; Marvin, Shauna A; Austin, Sisley; Burrage, Andrew M; Roger, Benoit; Rayne, Fabienne; Faure, Muriel; Campell, Edward M; Schneider, Carola; Reimer, Rudolph; Grünewald, Kay; Wiethoff, Christopher M; Wodrich, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Cells employ active measures to restrict infection by pathogens, even prior to responses from the innate and humoral immune defenses. In this context selective autophagy is activated upon pathogen induced membrane rupture to sequester and deliver membrane fragments and their pathogen contents for lysosomal degradation. Adenoviruses, which breach the endosome upon entry, escape this fate by penetrating into the cytosol prior to autophagosome sequestration of the ruptured endosome. We show that virus induced membrane damage is recognized through Galectin-8 and sequesters the autophagy receptors NDP52 and p62. We further show that a conserved PPxY motif in the viral membrane lytic protein VI is critical for efficient viral evasion of autophagic sequestration after endosomal lysis. Comparing the wildtype with a PPxY-mutant virus we show that depletion of Galectin-8 or suppression of autophagy in ATG5-/- MEFs rescues infectivity of the PPxY-mutant virus while depletion of the autophagy receptors NDP52, p62 has only minor effects. Furthermore we show that wildtype viruses exploit the autophagic machinery for efficient nuclear genome delivery and control autophagosome formation via the cellular ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2 resulting in reduced antigenic presentation. Our data thus demonstrate that a short PPxY-peptide motif in the adenoviral capsid permits multi-layered viral control of autophagic processes during entry.

  7. A short conserved motif in ALYREF directs cap- and EJC-dependent assembly of export complexes on spliced mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gromadzka, Agnieszka M.; Steckelberg, Anna-Lena; Singh, Kusum K.; Hofmann, Kay; Gehring, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    The export of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is the final of several nuclear posttranscriptional steps of gene expression. The formation of export-competent mRNPs involves the recruitment of export factors that are assumed to facilitate transport of the mature mRNAs. Using in vitro splicing assays, we show that a core set of export factors, including ALYREF, UAP56 and DDX39, readily associate with the spliced RNAs in an EJC (exon junction complex)- and cap-dependent manner. In order to elucidate how ALYREF and other export adaptors mediate mRNA export, we conducted a computational analysis and discovered four short, conserved, linear motifs present in RNA-binding proteins. We show that mutation in one of the new motifs (WxHD) in an unstructured region of ALYREF reduced RNA binding and abolished the interaction with eIF4A3 and CBP80. Additionally, the mutation impaired proper localization to nuclear speckles and export of a spliced reporter mRNA. Our results reveal important details of the orchestrated recruitment of export factors during the formation of export competent mRNPs. PMID:26773052

  8. Multi-layered control of Galectin-8 mediated autophagy during adenovirus cell entry through a conserved PPxY motif in the viral capsid

    PubMed Central

    Montespan, Charlotte; Marvin, Shauna A.; Burrage, Andrew M.; Roger, Benoit; Rayne, Fabienne; Schneider, Carola; Reimer, Rudolph; Wiethoff, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    Cells employ active measures to restrict infection by pathogens, even prior to responses from the innate and humoral immune defenses. In this context selective autophagy is activated upon pathogen induced membrane rupture to sequester and deliver membrane fragments and their pathogen contents for lysosomal degradation. Adenoviruses, which breach the endosome upon entry, escape this fate by penetrating into the cytosol prior to autophagosome sequestration of the ruptured endosome. We show that virus induced membrane damage is recognized through Galectin-8 and sequesters the autophagy receptors NDP52 and p62. We further show that a conserved PPxY motif in the viral membrane lytic protein VI is critical for efficient viral evasion of autophagic sequestration after endosomal lysis. Comparing the wildtype with a PPxY-mutant virus we show that depletion of Galectin-8 or suppression of autophagy in ATG5-/- MEFs rescues infectivity of the PPxY-mutant virus while depletion of the autophagy receptors NDP52, p62 has only minor effects. Furthermore we show that wildtype viruses exploit the autophagic machinery for efficient nuclear genome delivery and control autophagosome formation via the cellular ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2 resulting in reduced antigenic presentation. Our data thus demonstrate that a short PPxY-peptide motif in the adenoviral capsid permits multi-layered viral control of autophagic processes during entry. PMID:28192531

  9. A short conserved motif in ALYREF directs cap- and EJC-dependent assembly of export complexes on spliced mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Gromadzka, Agnieszka M; Steckelberg, Anna-Lena; Singh, Kusum K; Hofmann, Kay; Gehring, Niels H

    2016-03-18

    The export of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is the final of several nuclear posttranscriptional steps of gene expression. The formation of export-competent mRNPs involves the recruitment of export factors that are assumed to facilitate transport of the mature mRNAs. Using in vitro splicing assays, we show that a core set of export factors, including ALYREF, UAP56 and DDX39, readily associate with the spliced RNAs in an EJC (exon junction complex)- and cap-dependent manner. In order to elucidate how ALYREF and other export adaptors mediate mRNA export, we conducted a computational analysis and discovered four short, conserved, linear motifs present in RNA-binding proteins. We show that mutation in one of the new motifs (WxHD) in an unstructured region of ALYREF reduced RNA binding and abolished the interaction with eIF4A3 and CBP80. Additionally, the mutation impaired proper localization to nuclear speckles and export of a spliced reporter mRNA. Our results reveal important details of the orchestrated recruitment of export factors during the formation of export competent mRNPs.

  10. Functional interaction between the Fanconi Anemia D2 protein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) via a conserved putative PCNA interaction motif.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Niall G; Harney, Julie A; Rego, Meghan A; Kolling, Frederick W; Glover, Thomas W

    2009-10-16

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare recessive disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. The FA proteins and the familial breast cancer susceptibility gene products, BRCA1 and FANCD1/BRCA2, function cooperatively in the FA-BRCA pathway to repair damaged DNA and to prevent cellular transformation. Activation of this pathway occurs via the mono-ubiquitination of the FANCD2 protein, targeting it to nuclear foci where it co-localizes with FANCD1/BRCA2, RAD51, and PCNA. The regulation of the mono-ubiquitination of FANCD2, as well as its function in DNA repair remain poorly understood. In this study, we have further characterized the interaction between the FANCD2 and PCNA proteins. We have identified a highly conserved, putative FANCD2 PCNA interaction motif (PIP-box), and demonstrate that mutation of this motif disrupts FANCD2-PCNA binding and precludes the mono-ubiquitination of FANCD2. Consequently, the FANCD2 PIP-box mutant protein fails to correct the mitomycin C hypersensitivity of FA-D2 patient cells. Our results suggest that PCNA may function as a molecular platform to facilitate the mono-ubiquitination of FANCD2 and activation of the FA-BRCA pathway.

  11. Structure of the Brd4 ET domain bound to a C-terminal motif from γ-retroviral integrases reveals a conserved mechanism of interaction.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Brandon L; Larue, Ross C; Yuan, Chunhua; Hess, Sonja; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Foster, Mark P

    2016-02-23

    The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) protein family are promising therapeutic targets for a range of diseases linked to transcriptional activation, cancer, viral latency, and viral integration. Tandem bromodomains selectively tether BET proteins to chromatin by engaging cognate acetylated histone marks, and the extraterminal (ET) domain is the focal point for recruiting a range of cellular and viral proteins. BET proteins guide γ-retroviral integration to transcription start sites and enhancers through bimodal interaction with chromatin and the γ-retroviral integrase (IN). We report the NMR-derived solution structure of the Brd4 ET domain bound to a conserved peptide sequence from the C terminus of murine leukemia virus (MLV) IN. The complex reveals a protein-protein interaction governed by the binding-coupled folding of disordered regions in both interacting partners to form a well-structured intermolecular three-stranded β sheet. In addition, we show that a peptide comprising the ET binding motif (EBM) of MLV IN can disrupt the cognate interaction of Brd4 with NSD3, and that substitutions of Brd4 ET residues essential for binding MLV IN also impair interaction of Brd4 with a number of cellular partners involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. This suggests that γ-retroviruses have evolved the EBM to mimic a cognate interaction motif to achieve effective integration in host chromatin. Collectively, our findings identify key structural features of the ET domain of Brd4 that allow for interactions with both cellular and viral proteins.

  12. A family of cyclin D homologs from plants differentially controlled by growth regulators and containing the conserved retinoblastoma protein interaction motif.

    PubMed Central

    Soni, R; Carmichael, J P; Shah, Z H; Murray, J A

    1995-01-01

    A new family of three related cyclins has been identified in Arabidopsis by complementation of a yeast strain deficient in G1 cyclins. Individual members show tissue-specific expression and are conserved in other plant species. They form a distinctive group of plant cyclins, which we named delta-type cyclins to indicate their similarities with mammalian D-type cyclins. The sequence relationships between delta and D cyclins include the N-terminal sequence LXCXE. This motif was originally identified in certain viral oncoproteins and is strongly implicated in binding to the retinoblastoma protein pRb. By analogy to mammalian cyclin D, these plant homologs may mediate growth and phytohormonal signals into the plant cell cycle. In support of this hypothesis, we show that, on restimulation of suspension-cultured cells, cyclin delta 3 is rapidly induced by the plant growth regulator cytokinin and cyclin delta 2 is induced by carbon source. PMID:7696881

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi Binds to Cytokeratin through Conserved Peptide Motifs Found in the Laminin-G-Like Domain of the gp85/Trans-sialidase Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Andre Azevedo Reis; de Vasconcelos, Veronica de Cássia Sardinha; Colli, Walter; Alves, Maria Júlia Manso; Giordano, Ricardo José

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a disease that affects millions of people most of them living in South and Central Americas. There are few treatment options for individuals with Chagas' disease making it important to understand the molecular details of parasite infection, so novel therapeutic alternatives may be developed for these patients. Here, we investigate the interaction between host cell intermediate filament proteins and the T. cruzi gp85 glycoprotein superfamily with hundreds of members that have long been implicated in parasite cell invasion. Methodology/Principal Findings An in silico analysis was utilized to identify peptide motifs shared by the gp85 T. cruzi proteins and, using phage display, these selected peptide motifs were screened for their ability to bind to cells. One peptide, named TS9, showed significant cell binding capacity and was selected for further studies. Affinity chromatography, phage display and invasion assays revealed that peptide TS9 binds to cytokeratins and vimentin, and prevents T. cruzi cell infection. Interestingly, peptide TS9 and a previously identified binding site for intermediate filament proteins are disposed in an antiparallel β-sheet fold, present in a conserved laminin-G-like domain shared by all members of the family. Moreover, peptide TS9 overlaps with an immunodominant T cell epitope. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, the present study reinforces previous results from our group implicating the gp85 superfamily of glycoproteins and the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin and vimentin in the parasite infection process. It also suggests an important role in parasite biology for the conserved laminin-G-like domain, present in all members of this large family of cell surface proteins. PMID:26398185

  14. Candidate disease resistance genes in sunflower cloned using conserved nucleotide-binding site motifs: genetic mapping and linkage to the downy mildew resistance gene Pl1.

    PubMed

    Gedil, M A; Slabaugh, M B; Berry, S; Johnson, R; Michelmore, R; Miller, J; Gulya, T; Knapp, S J

    2001-04-01

    Disease resistance gene candidates (RGCs) belonging to the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) superfamily have been cloned from numerous crop plants using highly conserved DNA sequence motifs. The aims of this research were to (i) isolate genomic DNA clones for RGCs in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and (ii) map RGC markers and Pl1, a gene for resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. & de Toni) race 1. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers targeted to conserved NBS DNA sequence motifs were used to amplify RGC fragments from sunflower genomic DNA. PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and assigned to 11 groups. RFLP analyses mapped six RGC loci to three linkage groups. One of the RGCs (Ha-4W2) was linked to Pl1, a downy mildew resistance gene. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed for Ha-4W2 using gene-specific oligonucleotide primers. Downy mildew susceptible lines (HA89 and HA372) lacked a 276-bp Tsp5091 restriction fragment that was present in downy mildew resistant lines (HA370, 335, 336, 337, 338, and 339). HA370 x HA372 F2 progeny were genotyped for the Ha-4W2 CAPS marker and phenotyped for resistance to downy mildew race 1. The CAPS marker was linked to but did not completely cosegregate with Pl1 on linkage group 8. Ha-4W2 was found to comprise a gene family with at least five members. Although genetic markers for Ha-4W2 have utility for marker-assisted selection, the RGC detected by the CAPS marker has been ruled out as a candidate gene for Pl1. Three of the RGC probes were monomorphic between HA370 and HA372 and still need to be mapped and screened for linkage to disease resistance loci.

  15. Rust Secreted Protein Ps87 Is Conserved in Diverse Fungal Pathogens and Contains a RXLR-like Motif Sufficient for Translocation into Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Biao; Kale, Shiv D.; Wang, Qinhu; Wang, Dinghe; Pan, Qiaona; Cao, Hua; Meng, Yuling; Kang, Zhensheng; Tyler, Brett M.; Shan, Weixing

    2011-01-01

    Background Effector proteins of biotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes are delivered into host cells and play important roles in both disease development and disease resistance response. How obligate fungal pathogen effectors enter host cells is poorly understood. The Ps87 gene of Puccinia striiformis encodes a protein that is conserved in diverse fungal pathogens. Ps87 homologs from a clade containing rust fungi are predicted to be secreted. The aim of this study is to test whether Ps87 may act as an effector during Puccinia striiformis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Yeast signal sequence trap assay showed that the rust protein Ps87 could be secreted from yeast cells, but a homolog from Magnaporthe oryzae that was not predicted to be secreted, could not. Cell re-entry and protein uptake assays showed that a region of Ps87 containing a conserved RXLR-like motif [K/R]RLTG was confirmed to be capable of delivering oomycete effector Avr1b into soybean leaf cells and carrying GFP into soybean root cells. Mutations in the Ps87 motif (KRLTG) abolished the protein translocation ability. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that Ps87 and its secreted homologs could utilize similar protein translocation machinery as those of oomycete and other fungal pathogens. Ps87 did not show direct suppression activity on plant defense responses. These results suggest Ps87 may represent an “emerging effector” that has recently acquired the ability to enter plant cells but has not yet acquired the ability to alter host physiology. PMID:22076138

  16. Conserved Ser/Arg-rich Motif in PPZ Orthologs from Fungi Is Important for Its Role in Cation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Anupriya; Sharma, Anupam; Kaur, Harsimran; Rawal, Yashpal; Ganesan, Kaliannan; Mondal, Alok K.

    2012-01-01

    PPZ1 orthologs, novel members of a phosphoprotein phosphatase family of phosphatases, are found only in fungi. They regulate diverse physiological processes in fungi e.g. ion homeostasis, cell size, cell integrity, etc. Although they are an important determinant of salt tolerance in fungi, their physiological role remained unexplored in any halotolerant species. In this context we report here molecular and functional characterization of DhPPZ1 from Debaryomyces hansenii, which is one of the most halotolerant and osmotolerant species of yeast. Our results showed that DhPPZ1 knock-out strain displayed higher tolerance to toxic cations, and unlike in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Na+/H+ antiporter appeared to have an important role in this process. Besides salt tolerance, DhPPZ1 also had role in cell wall integrity and growth in D. hansenii. We have also identified a short, serine-arginine-rich sequence motif in DhPpz1p that is essential for its role in salt tolerance but not in other physiological processes. Taken together, these results underscore a distinct role of DhPpz1p in D. hansenii and illustrate an example of how organisms utilize the same molecular tool box differently to garner adaptive fitness for their respective ecological niches. PMID:22232558

  17. Conserved cytoplasmic motifs that distinguish sub-groups of the polyprenol phosphate:N-acetylhexosamine-1-phosphate transferase family.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M S; Eveland, S S; Price, N P

    2000-10-15

    WecA, MraY and WbcO are conserved members of the polyprenol phosphate:N-acetylhexosamine-1-phosphate transferase family involved in the assembly of bacterial cell walls, and catalyze reactions involving a membrane-associated polyprenol phosphate acceptor substrate and a cytoplasmically located UDP-D-amino sugar donor. MraY, WbcO and WecA purportedly utilize different UDP-sugars, although the molecular basis of this specificity is largely unknown. However, domain variations involved in specificity are predicted to occur on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, adjacent to conserved domains involved in the mechanistic activity, and with access to the cytoplasmically located sugar nucleotides. Conserved C-terminal domains have been identified that satisfy these criteria. Topological analyses indicate that they form the highly basic, fifth cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane regions IX and X. Four diverse loops are apparent, for MraY, WecA, WbcO and RgpG, that uniquely characterize these sub-groups of the transferase family, and a correlation is evident with the known or implied UDP-sugar specificity.

  18. Conserved Acidic Amino Acid Residues in a Second RNA Recognition Motif Regulate Assembly and Function of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Noriko; Ayaki, Takashi; Morimura, Toshifumi; Oono, Miki; Uchida, Tsukasa; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ito, Hidefumi; Urushitani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that pathogenic TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43 fragments contain a partial RNA-recognition motif domain 2 (RRM2) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal lobar degeneration. However, the molecular basis for how this domain links to the conformation and function of TDP-43 is unclear. Previous crystal analyses have documented that the RRM2-DNA complex dimerizes under acidic and high salt conditions, mediated by the intermolecular hydrogen bonds of Glu246-Ile249 and Asp247-Asp247. The aims of this study were to investigate the roles of Glu246 and Asp247 in the molecular assembly of RRM2 under physiological conditions, and to evaluate their potential use as markers for TDP-43 misfolding due to the aberrantly exposed dimer interface. Unexpectedly, gel filtration analyses showed that, regardless of DNA interaction, the RRM2 domain remained as a stable monomer in phosphate-buffered saline. Studies using substitution mutants revealed that Glu246 and, especially, Asp247 played a crucial role in preserving the functional RRM2 monomers. Substitution to glycine at Glu246 or Asp247 induced the formation of fibrillar oligomers of RRM2 accompanied by the loss of DNA-binding affinity, which also affected the conformation and the RNA splicing function of full-length TDP-43. A novel monoclonal antibody against peptides containing Asp247 was found to react with TDP-43 inclusions of ALS patients and mislocalized cytosolic TDP-43 in cultured cells, but not with nuclear wild-type TDP-43. Our findings indicate that Glu246 and Asp247 play pivotal roles in the proper conformation and function of TDP-43. In particular, Asp247 should be studied as a molecular target with an aberrant conformation related to TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:23300771

  19. Genetic diversity of the conserved motifs of six bacterial leaf blight resistance genes in a set of rice landraces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by the vascular pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious diseases leading to crop failure in rice growing countries. A total of 37 resistance genes against Xoo has been identified in rice. Of these, ten BLB resistance genes have been mapped on rice chromosomes, while 6 have been cloned, sequenced and characterized. Diversity analysis at the resistance gene level of this disease is scanty, and the landraces from West Bengal and North Eastern states of India have received little attention so far. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity at conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes in a set of 22 rice accessions including landraces and check genotypes collected from the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and West Bengal. Results In this study 34 pairs of primers were designed from conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes; Xa1, xa5, Xa21, Xa21(A1), Xa26 and Xa27. The designed primer pairs were used to generate PCR based polymorphic DNA profiles to detect and elucidate the genetic diversity of the six genes in the 22 diverse rice accessions of known disease phenotype. A total of 140 alleles were identified including 41 rare and 26 null alleles. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) value was 0.56/primer pair. The DNA profiles identified each of the rice landraces unequivocally. The amplified polymorphic DNA bands were used to calculate genetic similarity of the rice landraces in all possible pair combinations. The similarity among the rice accessions ranged from 18% to 89% and the dendrogram produced from the similarity values was divided into 2 major clusters. The conserved domains identified within the sequenced rare alleles include Leucine-Rich Repeat, BED-type zinc finger domain, sugar transferase domain and the domain of the carbohydrate esterase 4 superfamily. Conclusions This study revealed high genetic diversity at conserved domains of six BLB

  20. A Novel Family in Medicago truncatula Consisting of More Than 300 Nodule-Specific Genes Coding for Small, Secreted Polypeptides with Conserved Cysteine Motifs1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mergaert, Peter; Nikovics, Krisztina; Kelemen, Zsolt; Maunoury, Nicolas; Vaubert, Danièle; Kondorosi, Adam; Kondorosi, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of Medicago truncatula nodules has led to the discovery of a gene family named NCR (nodule-specific cysteine rich) with more than 300 members. The encoded polypeptides were short (60–90 amino acids), carried a conserved signal peptide, and, except for a conserved cysteine motif, displayed otherwise extensive sequence divergence. Family members were found in pea (Pisum sativum), broad bean (Vicia faba), white clover (Trifolium repens), and Galega orientalis but not in other plants, including other legumes, suggesting that the family might be specific for galegoid legumes forming indeterminate nodules. Gene expression of all family members was restricted to nodules except for two, also expressed in mycorrhizal roots. NCR genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in nodules and, thus, were coupled to different stages of development. The signal peptide targeted the polypeptides in the secretory pathway, as shown by green fluorescent protein fusions expressed in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Coregulation of certain NCR genes with genes coding for a potentially secreted calmodulin-like protein and for a signal peptide peptidase suggests a concerted action in nodule development. Potential functions of the NCR polypeptides in cell-to-cell signaling and creation of a defense system are discussed. PMID:12746522

  1. Bivalent Formation 1, a plant-conserved gene, encodes an OmpH/coiled-coil motif-containing protein required for meiotic recombination in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Han, Jingluan; Chen, Yuanling; Wang, Yingxiang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-03-24

    Meiosis is essential for eukaryotic sexual reproduction and plant fertility. In comparison with over 80 meiotic genes identified in Arabidopsis, there are only ~30 meiotic genes characterized in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Many genes involved in the regulation of meiotic progression remain to be determined. In this study, we identified a sterile rice mutant and cloned a new meiotic gene, OsBVF1 (Bivalent Formation 1) by map-based cloning. Molecular genetics and cytological approaches were carried out to address the function of OsBVF1 in meiosis. Phylogenetic analyses were used to study the evolution of OsBVF1 and its homologs in plant species. Here we showed that the bvf1 male meiocytes were defective in formation of meiotic double strand break, thereby resulting in a failure of bivalent formation in diakinesis and unequal chromosome segregation in anaphase I. The causal gene, OsBVF1, encodes a unique OmpH/coiled-coil motif-containing protein and its homologs are highly conserved in the plant kingdom and seem to be a single-copy gene in the majority of plant species. Our study demonstrates that OsBVF1 is a novel plant-conserved factor involved in meiotic recombination in rice, providing a new insight into understanding of meiotic progression regulation.

  2. Protospacer recognition motifs

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shiraz A.; Erdmann, Susanne; Mojica, Francisco J.M.; Garrett, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) were originally characterized for CRISPR-Cas systems that were classified on the basis of their CRISPR repeat sequences. A few short 2–5 bp sequences were identified adjacent to one end of the protospacers. Experimental and bioinformatical results linked the motif to the excision of protospacers and their insertion into CRISPR loci. Subsequently, evidence accumulated from different virus- and plasmid-targeting assays, suggesting that these motifs were also recognized during DNA interference, at least for the recently classified type I and type II CRISPR-based systems. The two processes, spacer acquisition and protospacer interference, employ different molecular mechanisms, and there is increasing evidence to suggest that the sequence motifs that are recognized, while overlapping, are unlikely to be identical. In this article, we consider the properties of PAM sequences and summarize the evidence for their dual functional roles. It is proposed to use the terms protospacer associated motif (PAM) for the conserved DNA sequence and to employ spacer acqusition motif (SAM) and target interference motif (TIM), respectively, for acquisition and interference recognition sites. PMID:23403393

  3. Cloning and mapping of a human gene (TBX2) sharing a highly conserved protein motif with a Drosophila omb gene

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.; Goodrich, K.; Casey, G.; Beatty, B.

    1995-07-20

    We have identified and cloned a human gene (TBX2) that exhibits strong sequence homology within a putative DNA binding domain to the drosophila optomotor-blind (omb) gene and lesser homology to the DNA binding domain of the murine brachyury or T gene. Unlike omb, which is expressed in neural tissue, or T, which is not expressed in adult animals, TBX2 is expressed primarily in adult in kidney, lung, and placenta as multiple transcripts of between {approximately} 2 and 4 kb. At least part of this transcript heterogenity appears to be due to alternative polyadenylation. This is the first reported human member of a new family of highly evolutionarily conserved DNA binding proteins, the Tbx or T-box proteins. The human gene has been mapped by somatic cell hybrid mapping and chromosomal in situ hybridization to chromosome 17q23, a region frequently altered in ovarian carcinomas. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Composite Conserved Promoter–Terminator Motifs (PeSLs) that Mediate Modular Shuffling in the Diverse T4-Like Myoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Arbiol, Christine; Krisch, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse T4-like phages (Tquatrovirinae) infect a wide array of gram-negative bacterial hosts. The genome architecture of these phages is generally well conserved, most of the phylogenetically variable genes being grouped together in a series hyperplastic regions (HPRs) that are interspersed among large blocks of conserved core genes. Recent evidence from a pair of closely related T4-like phages has suggested that small, composite terminator/promoter sequences (promoterearly stem loop [PeSLs]) were implicated in mediating the high levels of genetic plasticity by indels occurring within the HPRs. Here, we present the genome sequence analysis of two T4-like phages, PST (168 kb, 272 open reading frames [ORFs]) and nt-1 (248 kb, 405 ORFs). These two phages were chosen for comparative sequence analysis because, although they are closely related to phages that have been previously sequenced (T4 and KVP40, respectively), they have different host ranges. In each case, one member of the pair infects a bacterial strain that is a human pathogen, whereas the other phage’s host is a nonpathogen. Despite belonging to phylogenetically distant branches of the T4-likes, these pairs of phage have diverged from each other in part by a mechanism apparently involving PeSL-mediated recombination. This analysis confirms a role of PeSL sequences in the generation of genomic diversity by serving as a point of genetic exchange between otherwise unrelated sequences within the HPRs. Finally, the palette of divergent genes swapped by PeSL-mediated homologous recombination is discussed in the context of the PeSLs’ potentially important role in facilitating phage adaption to new hosts and environments. PMID:24951563

  5. Conserved Motifs within Hepatitis C Virus Envelope (E2) RNA and Protein Independently Inhibit T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Nirjal; McLinden, James H.; Xiang, Jinhua; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is required for T-cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with impaired T-cell function leading to persistent viremia, delayed and inconsistent antibody responses, and mild immune dysfunction. Although multiple factors appear to contribute to T-cell dysfunction, a role for HCV particles in this process has not been identified. Here, we show that incubation of primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells with HCV RNA-containing serum, HCV-RNA containing extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell culture derived HCV particles (HCVcc) and HCV envelope pseudotyped retrovirus particles (HCVpp) inhibited TCR-mediated signaling. Since HCVpp’s contain only E1 and E2, we examined the effect of HCV E2 on TCR signaling pathways. HCV E2 expression recapitulated HCV particle-induced TCR inhibition. A highly conserved, 51 nucleotide (nt) RNA sequence was sufficient to inhibit TCR signaling. Cells expressing the HCV E2 coding RNA contained a short, virus-derived RNA predicted to be a Dicer substrate, which targeted a phosphatase involved in Src-kinase signaling (PTPRE). T-cells and hepatocytes containing HCV E2 RNA had reduced PTPRE protein levels. Mutation of 6 nts abolished the predicted Dicer interactions and restored PTPRE expression and proximal TCR signaling. HCV RNA did not inhibit distal TCR signaling induced by PMA and Ionomycin; however, HCV E2 protein inhibited distal TCR signaling. This inhibition required lymphocyte-specific tyrosine kinase (Lck). Lck phosphorylated HCV E2 at a conserved tyrosine (Y613), and phospho-E2 inhibited nuclear translocation of NFAT. Mutation of Y613 restored distal TCR signaling, even in the context of HCVpps. Thus, HCV particles delivered viral RNA and E2 protein to T-cells, and these inhibited proximal and distal TCR signaling respectively. These effects of HCV particles likely aid in establishing infection and contribute to viral persistence

  6. The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess; Chaves, Arielle; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Anderson, Charles T.; Roberts, Alison W.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2015-12-08

    Cellulose synthases (CESAs) synthesize the β-1,4-glucan chains that coalesce to form cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. In addition to a large cytosolic (catalytic) domain, CESAs have eight predicted transmembrane helices (TMHs). However, analogous to the structure of BcsA, a bacterial CESA, predicted TMH5 in CESA may instead be an interfacial helix. This would place the conserved FxVTxK motif in the plant cell cytosol where it could function as a substrate-gating loop as occurs in BcsA. To define the functional importance of the CESA region containing FxVTxK, we tested five parallel mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana CESA1 and Physcomitrella patens CESA5 in complementation assays of the relevant cesa mutants. In both organisms, the substitution of the valine or lysine residues in FxVTxK severely affected CESA function. In Arabidopsis roots, both changes were correlated with lower cellulose anisotropy, as revealed by Pontamine Fast Scarlet. Analysis of hypocotyl inner cell wall layers by atomic force microscopy showed that two altered versions of Atcesa1 could rescue cell wall phenotypes observed in the mutant background line. Overall, the data show that the FxVTxK motif is functionally important in two phylogenetically distant plant CESAs. The results show that Physcomitrella provides an efficient model for assessing the effects of engineered CESA mutations affecting primary cell wall synthesis and that diverse testing systems can lead to nuanced insights into CESA structure–function relationships. Although CESA membrane topology needs to be experimentally determined, the results support the possibility that the FxVTxK region functions similarly in CESA and BcsA.

  7. SarA, a global regulator of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus, binds to a conserved motif essential for sar-dependent gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Chien, Y; Manna, A C; Projan, S J; Cheung, A L

    1999-12-24

    The expression of many virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus including alpha-hemolysin-, protein A-, and fibronectin-binding proteins is controlled by global regulatory loci such as sar and agr. In addition to controlling target gene expression via agr (e.g. alpha-hemolysin), the sar locus can also regulate target gene transcription via agr-independent mechanisms. In particular, we have found that SarA, the major regulatory protein encoded within sar, binds to a conserved sequence, homologous to the SarA-binding site on the agr promoter, upstream of the -35 promoter boxes of several target genes including hla (alpha-hemolysin gene), spa (protein A gene), fnb (fibronectin-binding protein genes), and sec (enterotoxin C gene). Deletion of the SarA recognition motif in the promoter regions of agr and hla in shuttle plasmids rendered the transcription of these genes undetectable in agr and hla mutants, respectively. Likewise, the transcription activity of spa (a gene normally repressed by sar), as measured by a XylE reporter fusion assay, became derepressed in a wild type strain containing a shuttle plasmid in which the SarA recognition site had been deleted from the spa promoter region. However, DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated that the SarA-binding region on the spa and hla promoter is more extensive than the predicted consensus sequence, thus raising the possibility that the consensus sequence is an activation site within a larger binding region. Because the sar and agr regulate an assortment of virulence factors in S. aureus, we propose, based on our data, a unifying hypothesis for virulence gene activation in S. aureus whereby SarA is a regulatory protein that binds to its consensus SarA recognition motif to activate (e.g. hla) or repress (e.g. spa) the transcription of sar target genes, thus accounting for both agr-dependent and agr-independent mode of regulation.

  8. The Evolutionarily Conserved Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC), Lysin Motif (LysM), Domain Catalytic (TLDc) Domain Is Neuroprotective against Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Mattéa J; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Liu, Kevin X; Davies, Kay E; Oliver, Peter L

    2016-02-05

    Oxidative stress is a pathological feature of many neurological disorders; therefore, utilizing proteins that are protective against such cellular insults is a potentially valuable therapeutic approach. Oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) has been shown previously to be critical for oxidative stress resistance in neuronal cells; deletion of this gene causes neurodegeneration in mice, yet conversely, overexpression of OXR1 is protective in cellular and mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. OXR1 contains the Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC), lysin motif (LysM), domain catalytic (TLDc) domain, a motif present in a family of proteins including TBC1 domain family member 24 (TBC1D24), a protein mutated in a range of disorders characterized by seizures, hearing loss, and neurodegeneration. The TLDc domain is highly conserved across species, although the structure-function relationship is unknown. To understand the role of this domain in the stress response, we carried out systematic analysis of all mammalian TLDc domain-containing proteins, investigating their expression and neuroprotective properties in parallel. In addition, we performed a detailed structural and functional study of this domain in which we identified key residues required for its activity. Finally, we present a new mouse insertional mutant of Oxr1, confirming that specific disruption of the TLDc domain in vivo is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that the integrity of the TLDc domain is essential for conferring neuroprotection, an important step in understanding the functional significance of all TLDc domain-containing proteins in the cellular stress response and disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess; Chaves, Arielle; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W; Haigler, Candace H

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose synthases (CESAs) synthesize the β-1,4-glucan chains that coalesce to form cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. In addition to a large cytosolic (catalytic) domain, CESAs have eight predicted transmembrane helices (TMHs). However, analogous to the structure of BcsA, a bacterial CESA, predicted TMH5 in CESA may instead be an interfacial helix. This would place the conserved FxVTxK motif in the plant cell cytosol where it could function as a substrate-gating loop as occurs in BcsA. To define the functional importance of the CESA region containing FxVTxK, we tested five parallel mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana CESA1 and Physcomitrella patens CESA5 in complementation assays of the relevant cesa mutants. In both organisms, the substitution of the valine or lysine residues in FxVTxK severely affected CESA function. In Arabidopsis roots, both changes were correlated with lower cellulose anisotropy, as revealed by Pontamine Fast Scarlet. Analysis of hypocotyl inner cell wall layers by atomic force microscopy showed that two altered versions of Atcesa1 could rescue cell wall phenotypes observed in the mutant background line. Overall, the data show that the FxVTxK motif is functionally important in two phylogenetically distant plant CESAs. The results show that Physcomitrella provides an efficient model for assessing the effects of engineered CESA mutations affecting primary cell wall synthesis and that diverse testing systems can lead to nuanced insights into CESA structure-function relationships. Although CESA membrane topology needs to be experimentally determined, the results support the possibility that the FxVTxK region functions similarly in CESA and BcsA.

  10. Drosophila melanogaster Hox Transcription Factors Access the RNA Polymerase II Machinery through Direct Homeodomain Binding to a Conserved Motif of Mediator Subunit Med19

    PubMed Central

    Boube, Muriel; Hudry, Bruno; Immarigeon, Clément; Carrier, Yannick; Bernat-Fabre, Sandra; Merabet, Samir; Graba, Yacine; Bourbon, Henri-Marc; Cribbs, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Hox genes in species across the metazoa encode transcription factors (TFs) containing highly-conserved homeodomains that bind target DNA sequences to regulate batteries of developmental target genes. DNA-bound Hox proteins, together with other TF partners, induce an appropriate transcriptional response by RNA Polymerase II (PolII) and its associated general transcription factors. How the evolutionarily conserved Hox TFs interface with this general machinery to generate finely regulated transcriptional responses remains obscure. One major component of the PolII machinery, the Mediator (MED) transcription complex, is composed of roughly 30 protein subunits organized in modules that bridge the PolII enzyme to DNA-bound TFs. Here, we investigate the physical and functional interplay between Drosophila melanogaster Hox developmental TFs and MED complex proteins. We find that the Med19 subunit directly binds Hox homeodomains, in vitro and in vivo. Loss-of-function Med19 mutations act as dose-sensitive genetic modifiers that synergistically modulate Hox-directed developmental outcomes. Using clonal analysis, we identify a role for Med19 in Hox-dependent target gene activation. We identify a conserved, animal-specific motif that is required for Med19 homeodomain binding, and for activation of a specific Ultrabithorax target. These results provide the first direct molecular link between Hox homeodomain proteins and the general PolII machinery. They support a role for Med19 as a PolII holoenzyme-embedded “co-factor” that acts together with Hox proteins through their homeodomains in regulated developmental transcription. PMID:24786462

  11. Conservation of PEX19-Binding Motifs Required for Protein Targeting to Mammalian Peroxisomal and Trypanosome Glycosomal Membranes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Saveria, Tracy; Halbach, André; Erdmann, Ralf; Volkmer-Engert, Rudolf; Landgraf, Christiane; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Parsons, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Glycosomes are divergent peroxisomes found in trypanosomatid protozoa, including those that cause severe human diseases throughout much of the world. While peroxisomes are dispensable for both yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and others) and mammalian cells in vitro, glycosomes are essential for trypanosomes and hence are viewed as a potential drug target. The import of proteins into the matrix of peroxisomes utilizes multiple peroxisomal membrane proteins which require the peroxin PEX19 for insertion into the peroxisomal membrane. In this report, we show that the specificity of peroxisomal membrane protein binding for Trypanosoma brucei PEX19 is very similar to those previously identified for human and yeast PEX19. Our studies show that trafficking is conserved across these distant phyla and that both a PEX19 binding site and a transmembrane domain are required for the insertion of two test proteins into the glycosomal membrane. However, in contrast to T. brucei PEX10 and PEX12, T. brucei PEX14 does not traffic to human peroxisomes, indicating that it is not recognized by the human PEX14 import mechanism. PMID:17586720

  12. A comparative analysis of two conserved motifs in bacterial poly(A) polymerase and CCA-adding enzyme.

    PubMed

    Just, Andrea; Butter, Falk; Trenkmann, Michelle; Heitkam, Tony; Mörl, Mario; Betat, Heike

    2008-09-01

    Showing a high sequence similarity, the evolutionary closely related bacterial poly(A) polymerases (PAP) and CCA-adding enzymes catalyze quite different reactions--PAP adds poly(A) tails to RNA 3'-ends, while CCA-adding enzymes synthesize the sequence CCA at the 3'-terminus of tRNAs. Here, two highly conserved structural elements of the corresponding Escherichia coli enzymes were characterized. The first element is a set of amino acids that was identified in CCA-adding enzymes as a template region determining the enzymes' specificity for CTP and ATP. The same element is also present in PAP, where it confers ATP specificity. The second investigated region corresponds to a flexible loop in CCA-adding enzymes and is involved in the incorporation of the terminal A-residue. Although, PAP seems to carry a similar flexible region, the functional relevance of this element in PAP is not known. The presented results show that the template region has an essential function in both enzymes, while the second element is surprisingly dispensable in PAP. The data support the idea that the bacterial PAP descends from CCA-adding enzymes and still carries some of the structural elements required for CCA-addition as an evolutionary relic and is now fixed in a conformation specific for A-addition.

  13. Structural and immunochemical relatedness suggests a conserved pathogenicity motif for secondary cell wall polysaccharides in Bacillus anthracis and infection-associated Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Saile, Elke; Klee, Silke R.; Hoffmaster, Alex; Kannenberg, Elmar L.

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis (Ba) and human infection-associated Bacillus cereus (Bc) strains Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87 have secondary cell wall polysaccharides (SCWPs) comprising an aminoglycosyl trisaccharide repeat: →4)-β-d-ManpNAc-(1→4)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→6)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→, substituted at GlcNAc residues with both α- and β-Galp. In Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87, an additional α-Galp is attached to O-3 of ManNAc. Using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods, we compared these structures to SCWPs from Bc biovar anthracis strains isolated from great apes displaying “anthrax-like” symptoms in Cameroon (Bc CA) and Côte d’Ivoire (Bc CI). The SCWPs of Bc CA/CI contained the identical HexNAc trisaccharide backbone and Gal modifications found in Ba, together with the α-Gal-(1→3) substitution observed previously at ManNAc residues only in Bc G9241/03BB87. Interestingly, the great ape derived strains displayed a unique α-Gal-(1→3)-α-Gal-(1→3) disaccharide substitution at some ManNAc residues, a modification not found in any previously examined Ba or Bc strain. Immuno-analysis with specific polyclonal anti-Ba SCWP antiserum demonstrated a reactivity hierarchy: high reactivity with SCWPs from Ba 7702 and Ba Sterne 34F2, and Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87; intermediate reactivity with SCWPs from Bc CI/CA; and low reactivity with the SCWPs from structurally distinct Ba CDC684 (a unique strain producing an SCWP lacking all Gal substitutions) and non-infection-associated Bc ATCC10987 and Bc 14579 SCWPs. Ba-specific monoclonal antibody EAII-6G6-2-3 demonstrated a 10–20 fold reduced reactivity to Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87 SCWPs compared to Ba 7702/34F2, and low/undetectable reactivity to SCWPs from Bc CI, Bc CA, Ba CDC684, and non-infection-associated Bc strains. Our data indicate that the HexNAc motif is conserved among infection-associated Ba and Bc isolates (regardless of human or great ape origin), and that the number, positions and structures of Gal

  14. Comparative Analysis of P450 Signature Motifs EXXR and CXG in the Large and Diverse Kingdom of Fungi: Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Amino Acid Patterns Characteristic of P450 Family

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Mashele, Samson Sitheni

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins distributed across the biological kingdoms. P450s are catalytically versatile and play key roles in organisms primary and secondary metabolism. Identification of P450s across the biological kingdoms depends largely on the identification of two P450 signature motifs, EXXR and CXG, in the protein sequence. Once a putative protein has been identified as P450, it will be assigned to a family and subfamily based on the criteria that P450s within a family share more than 40% homology and members of subfamilies share more than 55% homology. However, to date, no evidence has been presented that can distinguish members of a P450 family. Here, for the first time we report the identification of EXXR- and CXG-motifs-based amino acid patterns that are characteristic of the P450 family. Analysis of P450 signature motifs in the under-explored fungal P450s from four different phyla, ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota and chytridiomycota, indicated that the EXXR motif is highly variable and the CXG motif is somewhat variable. The amino acids threonine and leucine are preferred as second and third amino acids in the EXXR motif and proline and glycine are preferred as second and third amino acids in the CXG motif in fungal P450s. Analysis of 67 P450 families from biological kingdoms such as plants, animals, bacteria and fungi showed conservation of a set of amino acid patterns characteristic of a particular P450 family in EXXR and CXG motifs. This suggests that during the divergence of P450 families from a common ancestor these amino acids patterns evolve and are retained in each P450 family as a signature of that family. The role of amino acid patterns characteristic of a P450 family in the structural and/or functional aspects of members of the P450 family is a topic for future research. PMID:24743800

  15. Association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane requires a conserved C-terminal sequence motif and a proximal polybasic domain.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2006-06-01

    Plant ROPs (or RACs) are soluble Ras-related small GTPases that are attached to cell membranes by virtue of the post-translational lipid modifications of prenylation and S-acylation. ROPs (RACs) are subdivided into two major subgroups called type-I and type-II. Whereas type-I ROPs terminate with a conserved CaaL box and undergo prenylation, type-II ROPs undergo S-acylation on two or three C-terminal cysteines. In the present work we determined the sequence requirement for association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane. We identified a conserved sequence motif, designated the GC-CG box, in which the modified cysteines are flanked by glycines. The GC-CG box cysteines are separated by five to six mostly non-polar residues. Deletion of this sequence or the introduction of mutations that change its nature disrupted the association of ROPs with the membrane. Mutations that changed the GC-CG box glycines to alanines also interfered with membrane association. Deletion of a polybasic domain proximal to the GC-CG box disrupted the plasma membrane association of AtROP10. A green fluorescent protein fusion protein containing the C-terminal 25 residues of AtROP10, including its polybasic domain and GC-CG box, was primarily associated with the plasma membrane but a similar fusion protein lacking the polybasic domain was exclusively localized in the soluble fraction. These data provide evidence for the minimal sequence required for plasma membrane association of type-II ROPs in Arabidopsis and other plant species.

  16. Four thiol peroxidases contain a conserved GCT catalytic motif and act as a versatile array of lipid peroxidases in Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mee-Kyung; Hong, Seung-Keun; Kim, Il-Han

    2007-06-01

    The Anabaena sp. (ANASP) genome contains seven open reading frames with homology to thiol peroxidase (TPx), also known as peroxiredoxin (Prx). Based on sequence similarities among putative TPx's derived from various cyanobacteria genomes, we designated the seven putative TPx members as VCP, VCT, TCS, and GCT clusters according to the sequence of their conserved catalytic motif. The GCT cluster consists of four members, named GCT1, GCT2, GCT3, and GCT4. The ANASP GCT-TPx genes were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified proteins were characterized with an emphasis on the ability to destroy various peroxides, the electron donor, and the conserved cysteine structure as a catalytic intermediate. All GCT members, as an atypical 2-Cys TPx family, exerted the highest peroxidase activity toward a lipid hydroperoxide using an electron from thioredoxin. Periplasmic protein analysis revealed that GCT2 and GCT4 are distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas GCT1 and GCT3, homologues of E. coli bacterioferritin comigratory protein/plant PrxQ, are localized in the periplasmic space. Immunoblots of the heterocystic proteins showed that the level of GCT2 in the heterocyst is comparable to that in the vegetative cell, whereas the other GCT members were not significantly detected in the heterocyst. The transcriptional responses of ANASP GCT genes to various oxidative stresses and growth environments were multifarious. Their intrinsic differences in transcriptional responsiveness and cellular localization suggest that this large GCT cluster is designed as an adaptive strategy to efficiently combat lipid hydroperoxide in Anabaena sp. that perform oxygenic photosynthesis and N(2) fixation.

  17. Reversibly Bound Chloride in the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Hormone Binding Domain: Possible Allosteric Regulation and a Conserved Structural Motif for the Chloride-binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, H.; Qiu, Y; Philo, J; Arakawa, T; Ogata, C; Misono, K

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.

  18. CsCTL1, a teleost C-type lectin that promotes antibacterial and antiviral immune defense in a manner that depends on the conserved EPN motif.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ze-jun; Sun, Li

    2015-06-01

    Many C-type lectins (CTLs) have been identified in teleost, however, the in vivo function of fish CTLs is essentially unknown. In this study, we examined the function of a CTL (CsCTL1) from tongue sole. CsCTL1 possesses the conserved EPN motif required for mannose binding in mammals but unknown in function in fish. Recombinant CsCTL1 (rCsCTL1), but not the mutant rCsCTL1M bearing substitutions at EPN, interacted with and agglutinated a limited range of bacteria. The agglutinating ability of rCsCTL1 was abolished in the absence of calcium or presence of mannose. Binding of rCsCTL1 to bacteria promoted phagocytosis and antimicrobial activity of head kidney monocytes. Fish administered with rCsCTL1 exhibited enhanced resistance against bacterial and viral infections. These results provide the first evidence that the EPN site is essential to a fish CTL and that, in addition to antibacterial properties, a fish CTL promotes the immune defense against viral infection as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae): absence of the typical conserved motif in the origin of the light-strand replication.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Shi, Ge; Xu, Tianjun; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Yueyan; Wang, Rixin

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus was determined first. The genome was 16,500 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light-strand replication); the gene composition and order of which were similar to most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was T 25.5%, C 30.7%, A 27.5%, and G 16.3%, with a slight AT bias of 53%. Within the control region, the discrete and conserved sequence blocks were identified. Motif 5'-ACCGG-3' rather than 5'-GCCGG-3' was detected in the origin of light-strand replication (O(L)) of red drum, which is rare in the mitogenomes of Sciaenidae species. These results would play an important role in elucidating sequence-function relationships of the O(L).

  20. A mini-RNA containing the tetraloop, wobble-pair and loop E motifs of the central conserved region of potato spindle tuber viroid is processed into a minicircle.

    PubMed

    Schrader, O; Baumstark, T; Riesner, D

    2003-02-01

    A Mini-RNA from potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was constructed specifically for cleavage and ligation to circles in vitro. It contains the C-domain with the so-called central conserved region (CCR) of PSTVd with a 17 nt duplication in the upper strand and hairpin structures at the left and rights ends of the secondary structure. The CCR was previously shown to be essential for processing of in vitro transcripts. When folded under conditions which favor formation of a kinetically controlled conformation and incubated in a potato nuclear extract, the Mini-RNA is cleaved correctly at the 5'- and the 3'-end and ligated to a circle. Thus, the CCR obviously contains all structural and functional requirements for correct processing and therefore may be regarded as 'processing domain' of PSTVd. Using the Mini-RNA as a model substrate, the structural and functional relevance of its conserved non-canonical motifs GAAA tetraloop, loop E and G:U wobble base pair were studied by mutational analysis. It was found that (i) the conserved GAAA tetraloop is essential for processing by favoring the kinetically controlled conformation, (ii) a G:U wobble base pair at the 5'-cleavage site contributes to its correct recognition and (iii) an unpaired nucleotide in loop E, which is different from the corresponding nucleotide in the conserved loop E motif, is essential for ligation of the 5'- with the 3'-end. Hence all three structural motifs are functional elements for processing in a potato nuclear extract.

  1. Structure of the HopA1(21-102)-ShcA Chaperone-Effector Complex of Pseudomonas syringae Reveals Conservation of a Virulence Factor Binding Motif from Animal to Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Janjusevic, Radmila; Quezada, Cindy M.; Small, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae injects numerous bacterial proteins into host plant cells through a type 3 secretion system (T3SS). One of the first such bacterial effectors discovered, HopA1, is a protein that has unknown functions in the host cell but possesses close homologs that trigger the plant hypersensitive response in resistant strains. Like the virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens of animals, HopA1 depends upon a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively translocated by the P. syringae T3SS. Herein, we report the crystal structure of a complex of HopA1(21–102) with its chaperone, ShcA, determined to 1.56-Å resolution. The structure reveals that three key features of the chaperone-effector interactions found in animal pathogens are preserved in the Gram-negative pathogens of plants, namely, (i) the interaction of the chaperone with a nonglobular polypeptide of the effector, (ii) an interaction centered on the so-called β-motif, and (iii) the presence of a conserved hydrophobic patch in the chaperone that recognizes the β-motif. Structure-based mutagenesis and biochemical studies have established that the β-motif is critical for the stability of this complex. Overall, these results show that the β-motif interactions are broadly conserved in bacterial pathogens utilizing T3SSs, spanning an interkingdom host range. PMID:23204470

  2. Structure of the HopA1(21-102)-ShcA chaperone-effector complex of Pseudomonas syringae reveals conservation of a virulence factor binding motif from animal to plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Janjusevic, Radmila; Quezada, Cindy M; Small, Jennifer; Stebbins, C Erec

    2013-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae injects numerous bacterial proteins into host plant cells through a type 3 secretion system (T3SS). One of the first such bacterial effectors discovered, HopA1, is a protein that has unknown functions in the host cell but possesses close homologs that trigger the plant hypersensitive response in resistant strains. Like the virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens of animals, HopA1 depends upon a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively translocated by the P. syringae T3SS. Herein, we report the crystal structure of a complex of HopA1(21-102) with its chaperone, ShcA, determined to 1.56-Å resolution. The structure reveals that three key features of the chaperone-effector interactions found in animal pathogens are preserved in the Gram-negative pathogens of plants, namely, (i) the interaction of the chaperone with a nonglobular polypeptide of the effector, (ii) an interaction centered on the so-called β-motif, and (iii) the presence of a conserved hydrophobic patch in the chaperone that recognizes the β-motif. Structure-based mutagenesis and biochemical studies have established that the β-motif is critical for the stability of this complex. Overall, these results show that the β-motif interactions are broadly conserved in bacterial pathogens utilizing T3SSs, spanning an interkingdom host range.

  3. Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16

    SciTech Connect

    Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-03-01

    Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

  4. A conserved motif in the linker domain of STAT1 transcription factor is required for both recognition and release from high-affinity DNA-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hüntelmann, Bettina; Staab, Julia; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Binding to specific palindromic sequences termed gamma-activated sites (GAS) is a hallmark of gene activation by members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of cytokine-inducible transcription factors. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the signal-dependent finding of target genes by STAT dimers have not yet been very well studied. In this study, we have characterized a sequence motif in the STAT1 linker domain which is highly conserved among the seven human STAT proteins and includes surface-exposed residues in close proximity to the bound DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that a lysine residue in position 567 of the full-length molecule is required for GAS recognition. The substitution of alanine for this residue completely abolished both binding to high-affinity GAS elements and transcriptional activation of endogenous target genes in cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ), while the time course of transient nuclear accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation were virtually unchanged. In contrast, two glutamic acid residues (E559 and E563) on each monomer are important for the dissociation of dimeric STAT1 from DNA and, when mutated to alanine, result in elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as well as prolonged IFNγ-stimulated nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that the kinetics of signal-dependent GAS binding is determined by an array of glutamic acid residues located at the interior surface of the STAT1 dimer. These negatively charged residues appear to align the long axis of the STAT1 dimer in a position perpendicular to the DNA, thereby facilitating the interaction between lysine 567 and the phosphodiester backbone of a bound GAS element, which is a prerequisite for transient gene induction.

  5. Inhibition by Avibactam and Clavulanate of the β-Lactamases KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 Harboring the Substitution N(132)G in the Conserved SDN Motif.

    PubMed

    Ourghanlian, Clément; Soroka, Daria; Arthur, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The substitution N(132)G in the SDN motif of class A β-lactamases from rapidly growing mycobacteria was previously shown to impair their inhibition by avibactam but to improve the stability of acyl-enzymes formed with clavulanate. The same substitution was introduced in KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 to assess its impact on β-lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae and evaluate whether it may lead to resistance to the ceftazidime-avibactam combination. Kinetic parameters for the inhibition of the β-lactamases by avibactam and clavulanate were determined by spectrophotometry using nitrocefin as the substrate. The substitution N(132)G impaired (>1,000-fold) the efficacy of carbamylation of KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 by avibactam. The substitution improved the inhibition of KPC-2 by clavulanate due to reduced deacylation, whereas the presence or absence of N(132)G resulted in the inhibition of CTX-M-15 by clavulanate. The hydrolysis of amoxicillin and nitrocefin by KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 was moderately affected by the substitution N(132)G, but that of ceftazidime, ceftaroline, and aztreonam was drastically reduced. Isogenic strains producing KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 were constructed to assess the impact of the substitution N(132)G on the antibacterial activities of β-lactam-inhibitor combinations. For amoxicillin, the substitution resulted in resistance and susceptibility for avibactam and clavulanate, respectively. For ceftazidime, ceftaroline, and aztreonam, the negative impact of the substitution on β-lactamase activity prevented resistance to the β-lactam-avibactam combinations. In conclusion, the N(132)G substitution has profound effects on the substrate and inhibition profiles of class A β-lactamases, which are largely conserved in distantly related enzymes. Fortunately, the substitution does not lead to resistance to the ceftazidime-avibactam combination.

  6. A Conserved Interaction between a C-Terminal Motif in Norovirus VPg and the HEAT-1 Domain of eIF4G Is Essential for Translation Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Leen, Eoin N.; Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Correia, Samantha; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Cannac, Fabien; Pastore, Chiara; Xu, Yingqi; Graham, Stephen C.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Curry, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has neither a 5´ m7G cap nor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), adopts an unusual mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that relies on interactions between the VPg protein covalently attached to the 5´-end of the viral RNA and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) in the host cell. For murine norovirus (MNV) we previously showed that VPg binds to the middle fragment of eIF4G (4GM; residues 652–1132). Here we have used pull-down assays, fluorescence anisotropy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to demonstrate that a stretch of ~20 amino acids at the C terminus of MNV VPg mediates direct and specific binding to the HEAT-1 domain within the 4GM fragment of eIF4G. Our analysis further reveals that the MNV C terminus binds to eIF4G HEAT-1 via a motif that is conserved in all known noroviruses. Fine mutagenic mapping suggests that the MNV VPg C terminus may interact with eIF4G in a helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy was used to define the VPg binding site on eIF4G HEAT-1, which was confirmed by mutagenesis and binding assays. We have found that this site is non-overlapping with the binding site for eIF4A on eIF4G HEAT-1 by demonstrating that norovirus VPg can form ternary VPg-eIF4G-eIF4A complexes. The functional significance of the VPg-eIF4G interaction was shown by the ability of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal peptide of MNV VPg to inhibit in vitro translation of norovirus RNA but not cap- or IRES-dependent translation. These observations define important structural details of a functional interaction between norovirus VPg and eIF4G and reveal a binding interface that might be exploited as a target for antiviral therapy. PMID:26734730

  7. Uncharacterized conserved motifs outside the HD-Zip domain in HD-Zip subfamily I transcription factors; a potential source of functional diversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant HD-Zip transcription factors are modular proteins in which a homeodomain is associated to a leucine zipper. Of the four subfamilies in which they are divided, the tested members from subfamily I bind in vitro the same pseudopalindromic sequence CAAT(A/T)ATTG and among them, several exhibit similar expression patterns. However, most experiments in which HD-Zip I proteins were over or ectopically expressed under the control of the constitutive promoter 35S CaMV resulted in transgenic plants with clearly different phenotypes. Aiming to elucidate the structural mechanisms underlying such observation and taking advantage of the increasing information in databases of sequences from diverse plant species, an in silico analysis was performed. In addition, some of the results were also experimentally supported. Results A phylogenetic tree of 178 HD-Zip I proteins together with the sequence conservation presented outside the HD-Zip domains allowed the distinction of six groups of proteins. A motif-discovery approach enabled the recognition of an activation domain in the carboxy-terminal regions (CTRs) and some putative regulatory mechanisms acting in the amino-terminal regions (NTRs) and CTRs involving sumoylation and phosphorylation. A yeast one-hybrid experiment demonstrated that the activation activity of ATHB1, a member of one of the groups, is located in its CTR. Chimerical constructs were performed combining the HD-Zip domain of one member with the CTR of another and transgenic plants were obtained with these constructs. The phenotype of the chimerical transgenic plants was similar to the observed in transgenic plants bearing the CTR of the donor protein, revealing the importance of this module inside the whole protein. Conclusions The bioinformatical results and the experiments conducted in yeast and transgenic plants strongly suggest that the previously poorly analyzed NTRs and CTRs of HD-Zip I proteins play an important role in their function, hence

  8. A conserved sequence extending motif III of the motor domain in the Snf2-family DNA translocase Rad54 is critical for ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Janke, Ryan; Kingsley, James; Luo, Jerry; Fasching, Clare; Ehmsen, Kirk T; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Rad54 is a dsDNA-dependent ATPase that translocates on duplex DNA. Its ATPase function is essential for homologous recombination, a pathway critical for meiotic chromosome segregation, repair of complex DNA damage, and recovery of stalled or broken replication forks. In recombination, Rad54 cooperates with Rad51 protein and is required to dissociate Rad51 from heteroduplex DNA to allow access by DNA polymerases for recombination-associated DNA synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed that Rad54 contains a perfect match to the consensus PIP box sequence, a widely spread PCNA interaction motif. Indeed, Rad54 interacts directly with PCNA, but this interaction is not mediated by the Rad54 PIP box-like sequence. This sequence is located as an extension of motif III of the Rad54 motor domain and is essential for full Rad54 ATPase activity. Mutations in this motif render Rad54 non-functional in vivo and severely compromise its activities in vitro. Further analysis demonstrated that such mutations affect dsDNA binding, consistent with the location of this sequence motif on the surface of the cleft formed by two RecA-like domains, which likely forms the dsDNA binding site of Rad54. Our study identified a novel sequence motif critical for Rad54 function and showed that even perfect matches to the PIP box consensus may not necessarily identify PCNA interaction sites.

  9. BayesMotif: de novo protein sorting motif discovery from impure datasets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein sorting is the process that newly synthesized proteins are transported to their target locations within or outside of the cell. This process is precisely regulated by protein sorting signals in different forms. A major category of sorting signals are amino acid sub-sequences usually located at the N-terminals or C-terminals of protein sequences. Genome-wide experimental identification of protein sorting signals is extremely time-consuming and costly. Effective computational algorithms for de novo discovery of protein sorting signals is needed to improve the understanding of protein sorting mechanisms. Methods We formulated the protein sorting motif discovery problem as a classification problem and proposed a Bayesian classifier based algorithm (BayesMotif) for de novo identification of a common type of protein sorting motifs in which a highly conserved anchor is present along with a less conserved motif regions. A false positive removal procedure is developed to iteratively remove sequences that are unlikely to contain true motifs so that the algorithm can identify motifs from impure input sequences. Results Experiments on both implanted motif datasets and real-world datasets showed that the enhanced BayesMotif algorithm can identify anchored sorting motifs from pure or impure protein sequence dataset. It also shows that the false positive removal procedure can help to identify true motifs even when there is only 20% of the input sequences containing true motif instances. Conclusion We proposed BayesMotif, a novel Bayesian classification based algorithm for de novo discovery of a special category of anchored protein sorting motifs from impure datasets. Compared to conventional motif discovery algorithms such as MEME, our algorithm can find less-conserved motifs with short highly conserved anchors. Our algorithm also has the advantage of easy incorporation of additional meta-sequence features such as hydrophobicity or charge of the motifs which

  10. rMotifGen: random motif generator for DNA and protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Rouchka, Eric C; Hardin, C Timothy

    2007-08-07

    Detection of short, subtle conserved motif regions within a set of related DNA or amino acid sequences can lead to discoveries about important regulatory domains such as transcription factor and DNA binding sites as well as conserved protein domains. In order to help assess motif detection algorithms on motifs with varying properties and levels of conservation, we have developed a computational tool, rMotifGen, with the sole purpose of generating a number of random DNA or protein sequences containing short sequence motifs. Each motif consensus can be user-defined, randomly generated, or created from a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM). Insertions and mutations within these motifs are created according to user-defined parameters and substitution matrices. The resulting sequences can be helpful in mutational simulations and in testing the limits of motif detection algorithms. Two implementations of rMotifGen have been created, one providing a graphical user interface (GUI) for random motif construction, and the other serving as a command line interface. The second implementation has the added advantages of platform independence and being able to be called in a batch mode. rMotifGen was used to construct sample sets of sequences containing DNA motifs and amino acid motifs that were then tested against the Gibbs sampler and MEME packages. rMotifGen provides an efficient and convenient method for creating random DNA or amino acid sequences with a variable number of motifs, where the instance of each motif can be incorporated using a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) or by creating an instance mutated from its corresponding consensus using an evolutionary model based on substitution matrices. rMotifGen is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.louisville.edu/brg/rMotifGen/.

  11. A conserved motif N-terminal to the DNA-binding domains of myogenic bHLH transcription factors mediates cooperative DNA binding with pbx-Meis1/Prep1.

    PubMed

    Knoepfler, P S; Bergstrom, D A; Uetsuki, T; Dac-Korytko, I; Sun, Y H; Wright, W E; Tapscott, S J; Kamps, M P

    1999-09-15

    The t(1;19) chromosomal translocation of pediatric pre-B cell leukemia produces chimeric oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1, which contains the N-terminal transactivation domain of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, E2a, joined to the majority of the homeodomain protein, Pbx1. There are three Pbx family members, which bind DNA as heterodimers with both broadly expressed Meis/Prep1 homeo-domain proteins and specifically expressed Hox homeodomain proteins. These Pbx heterodimers can augment the function of transcriptional activators bound to adjacent elements. In heterodimers, a conserved tryptophan motif in Hox proteins binds a pocket on the surface of the Pbx homeodomain, while Meis/Prep1 proteins bind an N-terminal Pbx domain, raising the possibility that the tryptophan-interaction pocket of the Pbx component of a Pbx-Meis/Prep1 complex is still available to bind trypto-phan motifs of other transcription factors bound to flanking elements. Here, we report that Pbx-Meis1/Prep1 binds DNA cooperatively with heterodimers of E2a and MyoD, myogenin, Mrf-4 or Myf-5. As with Hox proteins, a highly conserved tryptophan motif N-terminal to the DNA-binding domains of each myogenic bHLH family protein is required for cooperative DNA binding with Pbx-Meis1/Prep1. In vivo, MyoD requires this tryptophan motif to evoke chromatin remodeling in the Myogenin promoter and to activate Myogenin transcription. Pbx-Meis/Prep1 complexes, therefore, have the potential to cooperate with the myogenic bHLH proteins in regulating gene transcription.

  12. Conserved Asp327 of Walker B motif in the N-terminal Nucleotide Binding Domain (NBD-1) of Cdr1p of Candida albicans has acquired a new role in ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Versha; Gaur, Manisha; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Komath, Sneha Sudha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-01-01

    The Walker A and B motifs of nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of Cdr1p though almost identical to all ABC transporters, has unique substitutions. We have in the past shown that Trp326 of Walker B and Cys193 of Walker A motifs of N-terminal NBD of Cdr1p have distinct roles in ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. In the present study, we have examined the role of a well conserved Asp327 in the Walker B motif of the N-terminal NBD which is preceded (Trp326) and followed (Asn328) by atypical amino acid substitutions and compared it with its equivalent well conserved Asp1026 of the C-terminal NBD of Cdr1p. We observed that the removal of the negative charge by D327N, D327A, D1026N, D1026A and D327N/D1026N substitutions, resulted in Cdr1p mutant variants that were severely impaired in ATPase activity and drug efflux. Importantly, all the mutant variants showed characteristics similar to those of wild type with respect to cell surface expression and photoaffinity drug analogue [125I] IAAP and [3H] azidopine labeling. While Cdr1p D327N mutant variant showed comparable binding with [α-32P] 8-azido ATP, Cdr1p D1026N and Cdr1p D327N/D1026N mutant variants were crippled in nucleotide binding. That the two conserved carboxylate residues Asp327 and Asp1026 are functionally different was further evident from the pH profile of ATPase activity. Cdr1p D327N mutant variant showed ∼40% enhancement of its residual ATPase activity at acidic pH while no such pH effect was seen with Cdr1p D1026N mutant variant. Our experimental data suggest that Asp327 of N-terminal NBD has acquired a new role to act as a catalytic base in ATP hydrolysis, a role normally conserved for Glu present adjacent to the conserved Asp in the Walker B motif of all the non-fungal transporters. PMID:17144665

  13. A novel conserved phosphotyrosine motif in the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor signaling adaptor Dof with a redundant role in signal transmission.

    PubMed

    Csiszar, Agnes; Vogelsang, Elisabeth; Beug, Hartmut; Leptin, Maria

    2010-04-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signals through adaptors constitutively associated with the receptor. In Drosophila melanogaster, the FGFR-specific adaptor protein Downstream-of-FGFR (Dof) becomes phosphorylated upon receptor activation at several tyrosine residues, one of which recruits Corkscrew (Csw), the Drosophila homolog of SHP2, which provides a molecular link to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, the Csw pathway is not the only link from Dof to MAPK. In this study, we identify a novel phosphotyrosine motif present in four copies in Dof and also found in other insect and vertebrate signaling molecules. We show that these motifs are phosphorylated and contribute to FGF signal transduction. They constitute one of three sets of phosphotyrosines that act redundantly in signal transmission: (i) a Csw binding site, (ii) four consensus Grb2 recognition sites, and (iii) four novel tyrosine motifs. We show that Src64B binds to Dof and that Src kinases contribute to FGFR-dependent MAPK activation. Phosphorylation of the novel tyrosine motifs is required for the interaction of Dof with Src64B. Thus, Src64B recruitment to Dof through the novel phosphosites can provide a new link to MAPK activation and other cellular responses. This may give a molecular explanation for the involvement of Src kinases in FGF-dependent developmental events.

  14. rMotifGen: random motif generator for DNA and protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rouchka, Eric C; Hardin, C Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Background Detection of short, subtle conserved motif regions within a set of related DNA or amino acid sequences can lead to discoveries about important regulatory domains such as transcription factor and DNA binding sites as well as conserved protein domains. In order to help assess motif detection algorithms on motifs with varying properties and levels of conservation, we have developed a computational tool, rMotifGen, with the sole purpose of generating a number of random DNA or protein sequences containing short sequence motifs. Each motif consensus can be user-defined, randomly generated, or created from a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM). Insertions and mutations within these motifs are created according to user-defined parameters and substitution matrices. The resulting sequences can be helpful in mutational simulations and in testing the limits of motif detection algorithms. Results Two implementations of rMotifGen have been created, one providing a graphical user interface (GUI) for random motif construction, and the other serving as a command line interface. The second implementation has the added advantages of platform independence and being able to be called in a batch mode. rMotifGen was used to construct sample sets of sequences containing DNA motifs and amino acid motifs that were then tested against the Gibbs sampler and MEME packages. Conclusion rMotifGen provides an efficient and convenient method for creating random DNA or amino acid sequences with a variable number of motifs, where the instance of each motif can be incorporated using a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) or by creating an instance mutated from its corresponding consensus using an evolutionary model based on substitution matrices. rMotifGen is freely available at: . PMID:17683637

  15. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  16. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  17. A novel human gene (SARM) at chromosome 17q11 encodes a protein with a SAM motif and structural similarity to Armadillo/beta-catenin that is conserved in mouse, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mink, M; Fogelgren, B; Olszewski, K; Maroy, P; Csiszar, K

    2001-06-01

    A novel human gene, SARM, encodes the orthologue of a Drosophila protein (CG7915) and contains a unique combination of the sterile alpha (SAM) and the HEAT/Armadillo motifs. The SARM gene was identified on chromosome 17q11, between markers D17S783 and D17S841 on BAC clone AC002094, which also included a HERV repeat and keratin-18-like, MAC30, TNFAIP1, HSPC017, and vitronectin genes in addition to three unknown genes. The mouse SARM gene was located on a mouse chromosome 11 BAC clone (AC002324). The SARM gene is 1.8 kb centromeric to the vitronectin gene, and the two genes share a promoter region that directs a high level of liver-specific expression of both the SARM and the vitronectin genes. In addition to the liver, the SARM gene was highly expressed in the kidney. A 0.4-kb antisense transcript was coordinately expressed with the SARM gene in the kidney and liver, while in the brain and malignant cell lines, it appeared independent of SARM gene transcription. The SARM gene encodes a protein of 690 amino acids. Based on amino acid sequence homology, we have identified a SAM motif within this derived protein. Structure modeling and protein folding recognition studies confirmed the presence of alpha-alpha right-handed superhelix-like folds consistent with the structure of the Armadillo and HEAT repeats of the beta-catenin and importin protein families. Both motifs are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions promoting the formation of diverse protein complexes. We have identified the same conserved SAM/Armadillo motif combination in the mouse, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans SARM proteins.

  18. The Calmodulin-Binding, Short Linear Motif, NSCaTE Is Conserved in L-Type Channel Ancestors of Vertebrate Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Taiakina, Valentina; Boone, Adrienne N.; Fux, Julia; Senatore, Adriano; Weber-Adrian, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    NSCaTE is a short linear motif of (xWxxx(I or L)xxxx), composed of residues with a high helix-forming propensity within a mostly disordered N-terminus that is conserved in L-type calcium channels from protostome invertebrates to humans. NSCaTE is an optional, lower affinity and calcium-sensitive binding site for calmodulin (CaM) which competes for CaM binding with a more ancient, C-terminal IQ domain on L-type channels. CaM bound to N- and C- terminal tails serve as dual detectors to changing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, promoting calcium-dependent inactivation of L-type calcium channels. NSCaTE is absent in some arthropod species, and is also lacking in vertebrate L-type isoforms, Cav1.1 and Cav1.4 channels. The pervasiveness of a methionine just downstream from NSCaTE suggests that L-type channels could generate alternative N-termini lacking NSCaTE through the choice of translational start sites. Long N-terminus with an NSCaTE motif in L-type calcium channel homolog LCav1 from pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has a faster calcium-dependent inactivation than a shortened N-termini lacking NSCaTE. NSCaTE effects are present in low concentrations of internal buffer (0.5 mM EGTA), but disappears in high buffer conditions (10 mM EGTA). Snail and mammalian NSCaTE have an alpha-helical propensity upon binding Ca2+-CaM and can saturate both CaM N-terminal and C-terminal domains in the absence of a competing IQ motif. NSCaTE evolved in ancestors of the first animals with internal organs for promoting a more rapid, calcium-sensitive inactivation of L-type channels. PMID:23626724

  19. Discovering novel sequence motifs with MEME.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Timothy L

    2002-11-01

    This unit illustrates how to use MEME to discover motifs in a group of related nucleotide or peptide sequences. A MEME motif is a sequence pattern that occurs repeatedly in one or more sequences in the input group. MEME can be used to discover novel patterns because it bases its discoveries only on the input sequences, not on any prior knowledge (such as databases of known motifs). The input to MEME is a set of unaligned sequences of the same type (peptide or nucleotide). For each motif it discovers, MEME reports the occurrences (sites), consensus sequence, and the level of conservation (information content) at each position in the pattern. MEME also produces block diagrams showing where all of the discovered motifs occur in the training set sequences. MEME's hypertext (HTML) output also contains buttons that allow for the convenient use of the motifs in other searches.

  20. Localization of the labile disulfide bond between SU and TM of the murine leukemia virus envelope protein complex to a highly conserved CWLC motif in SU that resembles the active-site sequence of thiol-disulfide exchange enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, A; Kopelman, R; Li, Z; Kayman, S C; Sanders, D A

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits of the envelope protein (Env) of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) are joined by a labile disulfide bond that can be stabilized by treatment of virions with thiol-specific reagents. In the present study this observation was extended to the Envs of additional classes of MuLV, and the cysteines of SU involved in this linkage were mapped by proteolytic fragmentation analyses to the CWLC sequence present at the beginning of the C-terminal domain of SU. This sequence is highly conserved across a broad range of distantly related retroviruses and resembles the CXXC motif present at the active site of thiol-disulfide exchange enzymes. A model is proposed in which rearrangements of the SU-TM intersubunit disulfide linkage, mediated by the CWLC sequence, play roles in the assembly and function of the Env complex. PMID:9311907

  1. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR139 is activated by the peptides: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-, and β-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, and β-MSH), and the conserved core motif HFRW.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Shehata, Mohamed A; Hauser, Alexander S; Isberg, Vignir; Mokrosinski, Jacek; Andersen, Kirsten B; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Gloriam, David E; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-01-01

    GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed primarily in the brain. Not much is known regarding the function of GPR139. Recently we have shown that GPR139 is activated by the amino acids l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine (EC50 values of 220 μM and 320 μM, respectively), as well as di-peptides comprised of aromatic amino acids. This led us to hypothesize that GPR139 may be activated by peptides. Sequence alignment of the binding cavities of all class A GPCRs, revealed that the binding pocket of the melanocortin 4 receptor is similar to that of GPR139. Based on the chemogenomics principle "similar targets bind similar ligands", we tested three known endogenous melanocortin 4 receptor agonists; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and α- and β-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH and β-MSH) on CHO-k1 cells stably expressing the human GPR139 in a Fluo-4 Ca(2+)-assay. All three peptides, as well as their conserved core motif HFRW, were found to activate GPR139 in the low micromolar range. Moreover, we found that peptides consisting of nine or ten N-terminal residues of α-MSH activate GPR139 in the submicromolar range. α-MSH1-9 was found to correspond to the product of a predicted cleavage site in the pre-pro-protein pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Our results demonstrate that GPR139 is a peptide receptor, activated by ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, the conserved core motif HFRW as well as a potential endogenous peptide α-MSH1-9. Further studies are needed to determine the functional relevance of GPR139 mediated signaling by these peptides.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Solution Structures of Lacticin Q and Aureocin A53 Reveal a Structural Motif Conserved among Leaderless Bacteriocins with Broad-Spectrum Activity.

    PubMed

    Acedo, Jeella Z; van Belkum, Marco J; Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; Vederas, John C

    2016-02-02

    Lacticin Q (LnqQ) and aureocin A53 (AucA) are leaderless bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis QU5 and Staphylococcus aureus A53, respectively. These bacteriocins are characterized by the absence of an N-terminal leader sequence and are active against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria. LnqQ and AucA consist of 53 and 51 amino acids, respectively, and have 47% identical sequences. In this study, their three-dimensional structures were elucidated using solution nuclear magnetic resonance and were shown to consist of four α-helices that assume a very similar compact, globular overall fold (root-mean-square deviation of 1.7 Å) with a highly cationic surface and a hydrophobic core. The structures of LnqQ and AucA resemble the shorter two-component leaderless bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B, despite having low levels of sequence identity. Homology modeling revealed that the observed structural motif may be shared among leaderless bacteriocins with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive organisms. The elucidated structures of LnqQ and AucA also exhibit some resemblance to circular bacteriocins. Despite their similar overall fold, inhibition studies showed that LnqQ and AucA have different antimicrobial potency against the Gram-positive strains tested, suggesting that sequence disparities play a crucial role in their mechanisms of action.

  3. Novel ABCA4 mutation leads to loss of a conserved C-terminal motif: implications for predicting pathogenicity based on genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Wangtiraumnuay, Nutsuchar; Capasso, Jenina; Tsukikawa, Mai; Levin, Alex; Biswas-Fiss, Esther

    2017-09-08

    Mutations in the ABCA4 gene result in a broad spectrum of severe retinal degeneration, including Stargardt macular dystrophy, fundus flavimaculatus, autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, and cone-rod dystrophy. In addition to the detection of well-characterized mutations, genetic testing frequently yields novel variants of unknown significance. The purpose of this report is to describe an approach to aid in the assessment of genetic variants of unknown significance. We report an 11-year-old girl with Stargardt disease harboring novel compound heterozygous deletions of ABCA4 (c.850_857delATTCAAGA and c.6184_6187delGTCT). The pathogenicity of these variants was otherwise unknown. Both deletions introduce premature stop codons and are localized within the open reading frame of ABCA4. The c.850_857delATTCAAGA occurs early in the gene and leads to a significantly truncated protein of only 317 amino acids. The c.6184_6187delGTCT, is localized to the 3' terminus of the ORF and results in removal of the last 161 out of 2,273 amino acids of ABCA4, including the VFVNFA motif, which has been shown to be critical in ABCA4 protein function. Homology-based protein modeling of ABCA4 harboring this deletion suggests significant alterations in the protein structure and function. Our analyses allowed us to classify novel variants in ABCA4 as being clearly loss-of-function mutations, and thus pathogenic variants. In cases of variants of unknown significance, appraising the protein structure-function consequences of genetic mutations using in silico tools may help to predict the clinical importance of variants of uncertain pathogenicity.

  4. The highly conserved amino acid sequence motif Tyr-Gly-Asp-Thr-Asp-Ser in alpha-like DNA polymerases is required by phage phi 29 DNA polymerase for protein-primed initiation and polymerization.

    PubMed Central

    Bernad, A; Lázaro, J M; Salas, M; Blanco, L

    1990-01-01

    The alpha-like DNA polymerases from bacteriophage phi 29 and other viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes contain an amino acid consensus sequence that has been proposed to form part of the dNTP binding site. We have used site-directed mutants to study five of the six highly conserved consecutive amino acids corresponding to the most conserved C-terminal segment (Tyr-Gly-Asp-Thr-Asp-Ser). Our results indicate that in phi 29 DNA polymerase this consensus sequence, although irrelevant for the 3'----5' exonuclease activity, is essential for initiation and elongation. Based on these results and on its homology with known or putative metal-binding amino acid sequences, we propose that in phi 29 DNA polymerase the Tyr-Gly-Asp-Thr-Asp-Ser consensus motif is part of the dNTP binding site, involved in the synthetic activities of the polymerase (i.e., initiation and polymerization), and that it is involved particularly in the metal binding associated with the dNTP site. Images PMID:2191296

  5. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  6. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton I; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access.

  7. Detecting DNA regulatory motifs by incorporating positional trendsin information content

    SciTech Connect

    Kechris, Katherina J.; van Zwet, Erik; Bickel, Peter J.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-05-04

    On the basis of the observation that conserved positions in transcription factor binding sites are often clustered together, we propose a simple extension to the model-based motif discovery methods. We assign position-specific prior distributions to the frequency parameters of the model, penalizing deviations from a specified conservation profile. Examples with both simulated and real data show that this extension helps discover motifs as the data become noisier or when there is a competing false motif.

  8. The complete sequence of a Spanish isolate of Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1) reveals a high variability and conserved motifs in the genus Fabavirus.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, R M; Guerri, J; Luis-Arteaga, M S; Moreno, P; Rubio, L

    2005-10-01

    The genome of a Spanish isolate of Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV-1) was completely sequenced and compared with available sequences of other isolates of the genus Fabavirus (BBWV-1 and BBWV-2). This consisted of two RNAs of 5814 and 3431 nucleotides, respectively, and their organization was similar to that of other members of the family Comoviridae. Its mean nucleotide identity with a BBWV-1 American isolate was 81.5%, and between 59.8 and 63.5% with seven BBWV-2 isolates. Our analysis showed sequence stretches in the 5' non-coding regions which are conserved in both genomic RNAs and in BBWV-1 and BBWV-2 isolates.

  9. The transcription factor HNF1α induces expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in pancreatic islets from evolutionarily conserved promoter motifs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kim Brint; Chhabra, Kavaljit H; Nguyen, Van K; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Pancreatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has previously been shown to be critical for maintaining glycemia and β-cell function. Efforts to maintain or increase ACE2 expression in pancreatic β-cells might therefore have therapeutic potential for treating diabetes. In our study, we investigated the transcriptional role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) in induction of ACE2 expression in insulin-secreting cells. A deficient allele of HNF1α or HNF1β causes maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) types 3 and 5, respectively, in humans. We found that ACE2 is primarily transcribed from the proximal part of the ACE2 promoter in the pancreas. In the proximal part of the human ACE2 promoter, we further identified three functional HNF1 binding sites, as they have binding affinity for HNF1α and HNF1β and are required for induction of promoter activity by HNF1β in insulinoma cells. These three sites are well-conserved among mammalian species. Both HNF1α and HNF1β induce expression of ACE2 mRNA and lead to elevated levels of ACE2 protein and ACE2 enzymatic activity in insulinoma cells. Furthermore, HNF1α dose-dependently increases ACE2 expression in primary pancreatic islet cells. We conclude that HNF1α can induce the expression of ACE2 in pancreatic islet cells via evolutionarily conserved HNF1 binding sites in the ACE2 promoter. Potential therapeutics aimed at counteracting functional HNF1α depletion in diabetes and MODY3 will thus have ACE2 induction in pancreatic islets as a likely beneficial effect.

  10. A highly conserved interaction involving the middle residue of the SXN active-site motif is crucial for function of class B penicillin-binding proteins: mutational and computational analysis of PBP 2 from N. gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Tomberg, Joshua; Temple, Brenda; Fedarovich, Alena; Davies, Christopher; Nicholas, Robert A

    2012-04-03

    Insertion of an aspartate residue at position 345a in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2), which lowers the rate of penicillin acylation by ~6-fold, is commonly observed in penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Here, we show that insertions of other amino acids also lower the penicillin acylation rate of PBP 2, but none supported growth of N. gonorrhoeae, indicating loss of essential transpeptidase activity. The Asp345a mutation likely acts by altering the interaction between its adjacent residue, Asp346, in the β2a-β2d hairpin loop and Ser363, the middle residue of the SXN active site motif. Because the adjacent aspartate creates ambiguity in the position of the insertion, we also examined if insertions at position 346a could confer decreased susceptibility to penicillin. However, only aspartate insertions were identified, indicating that only an Asp-Asp couple can confer resistance and retain transpeptidase function. The importance of the Asp346-Ser363 interaction was assessed by mutation of each residue to Ala. Although both mutants lowered the acylation rate of penicillin G by 5-fold, neither could support growth of N. gonorrhoeae, again indicating loss of transpeptidase function. Interaction between a residue in the equivalent of the β2a-β2d hairpin loop and the middle residue of the SXN motif is observed in crystal structures of other Class B PBPs, and its importance is also supported by multisequence alignments. Overall, these results suggest that this conserved interaction can be manipulated (e.g., by insertion) to lower the acylation rate by β-lactam antibiotics and increase resistance, but only if essential transpeptidase activity is preserved.

  11. The Bordetella type III secretion system effector BteA contains a conserved N-terminal motif that guides bacterial virulence factors to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher T; Panina, Ekaterina M; Yeh, Sylvia H; Griffith, Natasha; Arambula, Diego G; Miller, Jeff F

    2009-12-01

    The Bordetella type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein BteA is necessary and sufficient for rapid cytotoxicity in a wide range of mammalian cells. We show that BteA is highly conserved and functionally interchangeable between Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The identification of BteA sequences required for cytotoxicity allowed the construction of non-cytotoxic mutants for localization studies. BteA derivatives were targeted to lipid rafts and showed clear colocalization with cortical actin, ezrin and the lipid raft marker GM1. We hypothesized that BteA associates with the cytoplasmic face of lipid rafts to locally modulate host cell responses to Bordetella attachment. B. bronchiseptica adhered to host cells almost exclusively to GM1-enriched lipid raft microdomains and BteA colocalized to these same sites following T3SS-mediated translocation. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin protected cells from T3SS-induced cytotoxicity. Localization to lipid rafts was mediated by a 130-amino-acid lipid raft targeting domain at the N-terminus of BteA, and homologous domains were identified in virulence factors from other bacterial species. Lipid raft targeting sequences from a T3SS effector (Plu4750) and an RTX-type toxin (Plu3217) from Photorhabdus luminescens directed fusion proteins to lipid rafts in a manner identical to the N-terminus of BteA.

  12. Conserved Patterns of Microbial Immune Escape: Pathogenic Microbes of Diverse Origin Target the Human Terminal Complement Inhibitor Vitronectin via a Single Common Motif

    PubMed Central

    Kraiczy, Peter; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F.; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of many microbes relies on their capacity to resist innate immunity, and to survive and persist in an immunocompetent human host microbes have developed highly efficient and sophisticated complement evasion strategies. Here we show that different human pathogens including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, acquire the human terminal complement regulator vitronectin to their surface. By using truncated vitronectin fragments we found that all analyzed microbial pathogens (n = 13) bound human vitronectin via the same C-terminal heparin-binding domain (amino acids 352–374). This specific interaction leaves the terminal complement complex (TCC) regulatory region of vitronectin accessible, allowing inhibition of C5b-7 membrane insertion and C9 polymerization. Vitronectin complexed with the various microbes and corresponding proteins was thus functionally active and inhibited complement-mediated C5b-9 deposition. Taken together, diverse microbial pathogens expressing different structurally unrelated vitronectin-binding molecules interact with host vitronectin via the same conserved region to allow versatile control of the host innate immune response. PMID:26808444

  13. Conserved Patterns of Microbial Immune Escape: Pathogenic Microbes of Diverse Origin Target the Human Terminal Complement Inhibitor Vitronectin via a Single Common Motif.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Teresia; Singh, Birendra; Kraiczy, Peter; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of many microbes relies on their capacity to resist innate immunity, and to survive and persist in an immunocompetent human host microbes have developed highly efficient and sophisticated complement evasion strategies. Here we show that different human pathogens including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, acquire the human terminal complement regulator vitronectin to their surface. By using truncated vitronectin fragments we found that all analyzed microbial pathogens (n = 13) bound human vitronectin via the same C-terminal heparin-binding domain (amino acids 352-374). This specific interaction leaves the terminal complement complex (TCC) regulatory region of vitronectin accessible, allowing inhibition of C5b-7 membrane insertion and C9 polymerization. Vitronectin complexed with the various microbes and corresponding proteins was thus functionally active and inhibited complement-mediated C5b-9 deposition. Taken together, diverse microbial pathogens expressing different structurally unrelated vitronectin-binding molecules interact with host vitronectin via the same conserved region to allow versatile control of the host innate immune response.

  14. The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular 11-heme Cytochrome UndA Reveals a Conserved 10-heme Motif and Defined Binding Site for Soluble Iron Chelates.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-07-03

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure is the first outer membrane cytochrome to be crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  15. Unsupervised statistical discovery of spaced motifs in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hao; Schliekelman, Paul; Mrázek, Jan

    2017-01-05

    DNA sequences contain repetitive motifs which have various functions in the physiology of the organism. A number of methods have been developed for discovery of such sequence motifs with a primary focus on detection of regulatory motifs and particularly transcription factor binding sites. Most motif-finding methods apply probabilistic models to detect motifs characterized by unusually high number of copies of the motif in the analyzed sequences. We present a novel method for detection of pairs of motifs separated by spacers of variable nucleotide sequence but conserved length. Unlike existing methods for motif discovery, the motifs themselves are not required to occur at unusually high frequency but only to exhibit a significant preference to occur at a specific distance from each other. In the present implementation of the method, motifs are represented by pentamers and all pairs of pentamers are evaluated for statistically significant preference for a specific distance. An important step of the algorithm eliminates motif pairs where the spacers separating the two motifs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity; such motif pairs likely arise from duplications of the whole segment including the motifs and the spacer rather than due to selective constraints indicative of a functional importance of the motif pair. The method was used to scan 569 complete prokaryotic genomes for novel sequence motifs. Some motifs detected were previously known but other motifs found in the search appear to be novel. Selected motif pairs were subjected to further investigation and in some cases their possible biological functions were proposed. We present a new motif-finding technique that is applicable to scanning complete genomes for sequence motifs. The results from analysis of 569 genomes suggest that the method detects previously known motifs that are expected to be found as well as new motifs that are unlikely to be discovered by traditional motif-finding methods. We conclude

  16. Substitution of a conserved cysteine-996 in a cysteine-rich motif of the laminin {alpha}2-chain in congenital muscular dystrophy with partial deficiency of the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Nissinen, M.; Xu Zhang; Tryggvason, K.

    1996-06-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are autosomal recessive muscle disorders of early onset. Approximately half of CMD patients present laminin {alpha}2-chain (merosin) deficiency in muscle biopsies, and the disease locus has been mapped to the region of the LAMA2 gene (6q22-23) in several families. Recently, two nonsense mutations in the laminin {alpha}2-chain gene were identified in CMD patients exhibiting complete deficiency of the laminin {alpha}2-chain in muscle biopsies. However, a subset of CMD patients with linkage to LAMA2 show only partial absence of the laminin {alpha}2-chain around muscle fibers, by immunocytochemical analysis. In the present study we have identified a homozygous missense mutation in the {alpha}2-chain gene of a consanguineous Turkish family with partial laminin {alpha}2-chain deficiency. The T{r_arrow}C transition at position 3035 in the cDNA sequence results in a Cys996{r_arrow}Arg substitution. The mutation that affects one of the conserved cysteine-rich repeats in the short arm of the laminin {alpha}2-chain should result in normal synthesis of the chain and in formation and secretion of a heterotrimeric laminin molecule. Muscular dysfunction is possibly caused either by abnormal disulfide cross-links and folding of the laminin repeat, leading to the disturbance of an as yet unknown binding function of the laminin {alpha}2-chain and to shorter half-life of the muscle-specific laminin-2 and laminin-4 isoforms, or by increased proteolytic sensitivity, leading to truncation of the short arm. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Sequence-Based Screening for Rare Enzymes: New Insights into the World of AMDases Reveal a Conserved Motif and 58 Novel Enzymes Clustering in Eight Distinct Families

    PubMed Central

    Maimanakos, Janine; Chow, Jennifer; Gaßmeyer, Sarah K.; Güllert, Simon; Busch, Florian; Kourist, Robert; Streit, Wolfgang R.

    2016-01-01

    Arylmalonate Decarboxylases (AMDases, EC 4.1.1.76) are very rare and mostly underexplored enzymes. Currently only four known and biochemically characterized representatives exist. However, their ability to decarboxylate α-disubstituted malonic acid derivatives to optically pure products without cofactors makes them attractive and promising candidates for the use as biocatalysts in industrial processes. Until now, AMDases could not be separated from other members of the aspartate/glutamate racemase superfamily based on their gene sequences. Within this work, a search algorithm was developed that enables a reliable prediction of AMDase activity for potential candidates. Based on specific sequence patterns and screening methods 58 novel AMDase candidate genes could be identified in this work. Thereby, AMDases with the conserved sequence pattern of Bordetella bronchiseptica’s prototype appeared to be limited to the classes of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria. Amino acid homologies and comparison of gene surrounding sequences enabled the classification of eight enzyme clusters. Particularly striking is the accumulation of genes coding for different transporters of the tripartite tricarboxylate transporters family, TRAP transporters and ABC transporters as well as genes coding for mandelate racemases/muconate lactonizing enzymes that might be involved in substrate uptake or degradation of AMDase products. Further, three novel AMDases were characterized which showed a high enantiomeric excess (>99%) of the (R)-enantiomer of flurbiprofen. These are the recombinant AmdA and AmdV from Variovorax sp. strains HH01 and HH02, originated from soil, and AmdP from Polymorphum gilvum found by a data base search. Altogether our findings give new insights into the class of AMDases and reveal many previously unknown enzyme candidates with high potential for bioindustrial processes. PMID:27610105

  18. MSDmotif: exploring protein sites and motifs

    PubMed Central

    Golovin, Adel; Henrick, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein structures have conserved features – motifs, which have a sufficient influence on the protein function. These motifs can be found in sequence as well as in 3D space. Understanding of these fragments is essential for 3D structure prediction, modelling and drug-design. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the source of this information however present search tools have limited 3D options to integrate protein sequence with its 3D structure. Results We describe here a web application for querying the PDB for ligands, binding sites, small 3D structural and sequence motifs and the underlying database. Novel algorithms for chemical fragments, 3D motifs, ϕ/ψ sequences, super-secondary structure motifs and for small 3D structural motif associations searches are incorporated. The interface provides functionality for visualization, search criteria creation, sequence and 3D multiple alignment options. MSDmotif is an integrated system where a results page is also a search form. A set of motif statistics is available for analysis. This set includes molecule and motif binding statistics, distribution of motif sequences, occurrence of an amino-acid within a motif, correlation of amino-acids side-chain charges within a motif and Ramachandran plots for each residue. The binding statistics are presented in association with properties that include a ligand fragment library. Access is also provided through the distributed Annotation System (DAS) protocol. An additional entry point facilitates XML requests with XML responses. Conclusion MSDmotif is unique by combining chemical, sequence and 3D data in a single search engine with a range of search and visualisation options. It provides multiple views of data found in the PDB archive for exploring protein structures. PMID:18637174

  19. FastMotif: spectral sequence motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Nicoló; Vlassis, Nikos

    2015-08-15

    Sequence discovery tools play a central role in several fields of computational biology. In the framework of Transcription Factor binding studies, most of the existing motif finding algorithms are computationally demanding, and they may not be able to support the increasingly large datasets produced by modern high-throughput sequencing technologies. We present FastMotif, a new motif discovery algorithm that is built on a recent machine learning technique referred to as Method of Moments. Based on spectral decompositions, our method is robust to model misspecifications and is not prone to locally optimal solutions. We obtain an algorithm that is extremely fast and designed for the analysis of big sequencing data. On HT-Selex data, FastMotif extracts motif profiles that match those computed by various state-of-the-art algorithms, but one order of magnitude faster. We provide a theoretical and numerical analysis of the algorithm's robustness and discuss its sensitivity with respect to the free parameters. The Matlab code of FastMotif is available from http://lcsb-portal.uni.lu/bioinformatics. vlassis@adobe.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Molecular cloning of a zinc finger autoantigen transiently associated with interphase nucleolus and mitotic centromeres and midbodies. Orthologous proteins with nine CXXC motifs highly conserved from nematodes to humans.

    PubMed

    Bolívar, J; Díaz, I; Iglesias, C; Valdivia, M M

    1999-12-17

    We have cloned a novel human autoimmune antigen in a patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis with high levels of antibodies to the nucleolus organizer regions. Initially the human autoimmune serum was used to select a cDNA of 317 amino acids from a hamster expression library. Using the hamster DNA as a probe, we isolated the human homologous cDNA of 320 amino acids. Human and hamster polypeptides share a 95% amino acid homology. The deduced 36-kDa protein contains a putative amino-terminal NLS signal, nine cysteine-X-X-cysteine motifs highly conserved, and a carboxyl-terminal poly acidic region. Several homologous expressed sequence tags have been identified in data bases suggesting that orthologous proteins are present throughout evolution from worms to humans. A Drosophila expressed sequence tag was further completely sequenced for a full-length protein with 60% amino acid identity to the human homologue. Northern blot analysis revealed that this novel protein is widely distributed in human tissues with significantly higher expression levels in heart and skeletal muscle. Specific antibodies to the recombinant protein and transfection experiments demonstrated by immunofluorescence the localization of the protein predominantly but not exclusively to the nucleolus of interphase mammalian cells. In actinomycin D-treated cells the protein remains associated with the nucleolus but is not segregated, like other ribosomal factors such as upstream binding factor. In mitosis the protein was found to be associated with centromeres and concentrated at the midbody in cytokinesis. Transient distribution of this evolutionarily conserved zinc finger nucleolar autoantigen to the mitotic centromeres may provide the means for several aspects of cell cycle control and transcriptional regulation.

  1. The Drosophila Juvenile Hormone Receptor Candidates Methoprene-tolerant (MET) and Germ Cell-expressed (GCE) Utilize a Conserved LIXXL Motif to Bind the FTZ-F1 Nuclear Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Travis J.; Dubrovsky, Edward B.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has been implicated in many developmental processes in holometabolous insects, but its mechanism of signaling remains controversial. We previously found that in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells, the nuclear receptor FTZ-F1 is required for activation of the E75A gene by JH. Here, we utilized insect two-hybrid assays to show that FTZ-F1 interacts with two JH receptor candidates, the bHLH-PAS paralogs MET and GCE, in a JH-dependent manner. These interactions are severely reduced when helix 12 of the FTZ-F1 activation function 2 (AF2) is removed, implicating AF2 as an interacting site. Through homology modeling, we found that MET and GCE possess a C-terminal α-helix featuring a conserved motif LIXXL that represents a novel nuclear receptor (NR) box. Docking simulations supported by two-hybrid experiments revealed that FTZ-F1·MET and FTZ-F1·GCE heterodimer formation involves a typical NR box-AF2 interaction but does not require the canonical charge clamp residues of FTZ-F1 and relies primarily on hydrophobic contacts, including a unique interaction with helix 4. Moreover, we identified paralog-specific features, including a secondary interaction site found only in MET. Our findings suggest that a novel NR box enables MET and GCE to interact JH-dependently with the AF2 of FTZ-F1. PMID:22249180

  2. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Human Green Opsin Reveals a Conserved Pro-Pro Motif in Extracellular Loop 2 of Monostable Visual G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Lukas; Alexander, Nathan S; Sun, Wenyu; Zhang, Jianye; Orban, Tivadar; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2017-05-02

    Opsins comprise the protein component of light sensitive G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the retina of the eye that are responsible for the transduction of light into a biochemical signal. Here, we used hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled with mass spectrometry to map conformational changes in green cone opsin upon light activation. We then compared these findings with those reported for rhodopsin. The extent of H/D exchange in green cone opsin was greater than in rhodopsin in the dark and bleached states, suggesting a higher structural heterogeneity for green cone opsin. Further analysis revealed that green cone opsin exists as a dimer in both dark (inactive) and bleached (active) states, and that the predicted glycosylation sites at N(32) and N(34) are indeed glycosylated. Comparison of deuterium uptake between inactive and active states of green cone opsin also disclosed a reduced solvent accessibility of the extracellular N-terminal region and an increased accessibility of the chromophore binding site. Increased H/D exchange at the extracellular side of transmembrane helix four (TM4) combined with an analysis of sequence alignments revealed a conserved Pro-Pro motif in extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of monostable visual GPCRs. These data present new insights into the locus of chromophore release at the extracellular side of TM4 and TM5 and provide a foundation for future functional evaluation.

  3. MotifHyades: Expectation Maximization for de novo DNA Motif Pair Discovery on Paired Sequences.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2017-06-13

    In higher eukaryotes, protein-DNA binding interactions are the central activities in gene regulation. In particular, DNA motifs such as transcription factor binding sites are the key components in gene transcription. Harnessing the recently available chromatin interaction data, computational methods are desired for identifying the coupling DNA motif pairs enriched on long-range chromatin-interacting sequence pairs (e.g. promoter-enhancer pairs) systematically. To fill the void, a novel probabilistic model (namely, MotifHyades) is proposed and developed for de novo DNA motif pair discovery on paired sequences. In particular, two expectation maximization algorithms are derived for efficient model training with linear computational complexity. Under diverse scenarios, MotifHyades is demonstrated faster and more accurate than the existing ad hoc computational pipeline. In addition, MotifHyades is applied to discover thousands of DNA motif pairs with higher gold standard motif matching ratio, higher DNase accessibility, and higher evolutionary conservation than the previous ones in the human K562 cell line. Lastly, it has been run on five other human cell lines (i.e. GM12878, HeLa-S3, HUVEC, IMR90, and NHEK), revealing another thousands of novel DNA motif pairs which are characterized across a broad spectrum of genomic features on long-range promoter-enhancer pairs. The matrix-algebra-optimized versions of MotifHyades and the discovered DNA motif pairs can be found in http://bioinfo.cs.cityu.edu.hk/MotifHyades . kc.w@cityu.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ϵ, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for this notion is limited. Exploiting assays available for duck HBV (DHBV) but not the HBV P protein, we assessed the functional consequences of numerous mutations in box E, which forms the DNA primer grip in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT. This substructure coordinates primer 3′-end positioning and RT subdomain movements during the polymerization cycle and is a prime target for nonnucleosidic RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) of HIV-1 RT. Box E was indeed critical for DHBV replication, with the mutations affecting the folding, ϵ RNA interactions, and polymerase activity of the P protein in a position- and amino acid side chain-dependent fashion similar to that of HIV-1 RT. Structural similarity to HIV-1 RT was underlined by molecular modeling and was confirmed by the replication activity of chimeric P proteins carrying box E, or even box C to box E, from HIV-1 RT. Hence, box E in the DHBV P protein and likely the HBV P protein forms a primer grip-like structure that may provide a new target for anti-HBV NNRTIs. PMID:22514339

  5. Specificity for the hairy/enhancer of split basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins maps outside the bHLH domain and suggests two separable modes of transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S R; Turner, D L; Weintraub, H; Parkhurst, S M

    1995-12-01

    The Hairy/Enhancer of split/Deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins function as transcriptional repressors. We have examined the mechanisms of repression used by the Hairy and E(SPL) proteins by assaying the antagonism between wild-type or altered Hairy/E(SPL) and Scute bHLH proteins during sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Domain swapping and mutagenesis of the Hairy and E(SPL) proteins show that three evolutionarily conserved domains are required for their function: the bHLH, Orange, and WRPW domains. However, the suppression of Scute activity by Hairy does not require the WRPW domain. We show that the Orange domain is an important functional domain that confers specificity among members of the Hairy/E(SPL) family. In addition, we show that a Xenopus Hairy homology conserves not only Hairy's structure but also its biological activity in our assays. We propose that transcriptional repression by the Hairy/E(SPL) family of bHLH proteins involves two separable mechanisms: repression of specific transcriptional activators, such as Scute, through the bHLH and Orange domains and repression of other activators via interaction of the C-terminal WRPW motif with corepressors, such as the Groucho protein.

  6. CLIMP: Clustering Motifs via Maximal Cliques with Parallel Computing Design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A set of conserved binding sites recognized by a transcription factor is called a motif, which can be found by many applications of comparative genomics for identifying over-represented segments. Moreover, when numerous putative motifs are predicted from a collection of genome-wide data, their similarity data can be represented as a large graph, where these motifs are connected to one another. However, an efficient clustering algorithm is desired for clustering the motifs that belong to the same groups and separating the motifs that belong to different groups, or even deleting an amount of spurious ones. In this work, a new motif clustering algorithm, CLIMP, is proposed by using maximal cliques and sped up by parallelizing its program. When a synthetic motif dataset from the database JASPAR, a set of putative motifs from a phylogenetic foot-printing dataset, and a set of putative motifs from a ChIP dataset are used to compare the performances of CLIMP and two other high-performance algorithms, the results demonstrate that CLIMP mostly outperforms the two algorithms on the three datasets for motif clustering, so that it can be a useful complement of the clustering procedures in some genome-wide motif prediction pipelines. CLIMP is available at http://sqzhang.cn/climp.html. PMID:27487245

  7. Characteristic motifs for families of allergenic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Torres, Miguel; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner

    2008-01-01

    The identification of potential allergenic proteins is usually done by scanning a database of allergenic proteins and locating known allergens with a high sequence similarity. However, there is no universally accepted cut-off value for sequence similarity to indicate potential IgE cross-reactivity. Further, overall sequence similarity may be less important than discrete areas of similarity in proteins with homologous structure. To identify such areas, we first classified all allergens and their subdomains in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to their closest protein families as defined in Pfam, and identified conserved physicochemical property motifs characteristic of each group of sequences. Allergens populate only a small subset of all known Pfam families, as all allergenic proteins in SDAP could be grouped to only 130 (of 9318 total) Pfams, and 31 families contain more than four allergens. Conserved physicochemical property motifs for the aligned sequences of the most populated Pfam families were identified with the PCPMer program suite and catalogued in the webserver Motif-Mate (http://born.utmb.edu/motifmate/summary.php). We also determined specific motifs for allergenic members of a family that could distinguish them from non-allergenic ones. These allergen specific motifs should be most useful in database searches for potential allergens. We found that sequence motifs unique to the allergens in three families (seed storage proteins, Bet v 1, and tropomyosin) overlap with known IgE epitopes, thus providing evidence that our motif based approach can be used to assess the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. PMID:18951633

  8. Gibbs motif sampling: detection of bacterial outer membrane protein repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Neuwald, A. F.; Liu, J. S.; Lawrence, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The detection and alignment of locally conserved regions (motifs) in multiple sequences can provide insight into protein structure, function, and evolution. A new Gibbs sampling algorithm is described that detects motif-encoding regions in sequences and optimally partitions them into distinct motif models; this is illustrated using a set of immunoglobulin fold proteins. When applied to sequences sharing a single motif, the sampler can be used to classify motif regions into related submodels, as is illustrated using helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. Other statistically based procedures are described for searching a database for sequences matching motifs found by the sampler. When applied to a set of 32 very distantly related bacterial integral outer membrane proteins, the sampler revealed that they share a subtle, repetitive motif. Although BLAST (Altschul SF et al., 1990, J Mol Biol 215:403-410) fails to detect significant pairwise similarity between any of the sequences, the repeats present in these outer membrane proteins, taken as a whole, are highly significant (based on a generally applicable statistical test for motifs described here). Analysis of bacterial porins with known trimeric beta-barrel structure and related proteins reveals a similar repetitive motif corresponding to alternating membrane-spanning beta-strands. These beta-strands occur on the membrane interface (as opposed to the trimeric interface) of the beta-barrel. The broad conservation and structural location of these repeats suggests that they play important functional roles. PMID:8520488

  9. A conserved C-terminal domain in PBX increases DNA binding by the PBX homeodomain and is not a primary site of contact for the YPWM motif of HOXA1.

    PubMed

    Green, N C; Rambaldi, I; Teakles, J; Featherstone, M S

    1998-05-22

    HOX proteins are dependent upon cofactors of the PBX family for specificity of DNA binding. Two regions that have been implicated in HOX/PBX cooperative interactions are the YPWM motif, found N-terminal to the HOX homeodomain, and the GKFQ domain (also known as the Hox cooperativity motif) immediately C-terminal to the PBX homeodomain. Using derivatives of the E2A-PBX oncoprotein, we find that the GKFQ domain is not essential for cooperative interaction with HOXA1 but contributes to the stability of the complex. By contrast, the YPWM motif is strictly required for cooperative interactions in vitro and in vivo, even with mutants of E2A-PBX lacking the GKFQ domain. Using truncated PBX proteins, we show that the YPWM motif contacts the PBX homeodomain. The presence of the GKFQ domain increases monomer binding by the PBX homeodomain 5-fold, and the stability of the HOXA1.E2A-PBX complex 2-fold. These data suggest that the GKFQ domain acts mainly to increase DNA binding by PBX, rather than providing a primary contact site for the YPWM motif of HOXA1. We have identified 2 residues, Glu-301 and Tyr-305, required for GKFQ function and suggest that this is dependent on alpha-helical character.

  10. The telomere repeat motif of basal Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Traut, Walther; Szczepanowski, Monika; Vítková, Magda; Opitz, Christian; Marec, Frantisek; Zrzavý, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In most eukaryotes the telomeres consist of short DNA tandem repeats and associated proteins. Telomeric repeats are added to the chromosome ends by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase. We examined telomerase activity and telomere repeat sequences in representatives of basal metazoan groups. Our results show that the 'vertebrate' telomere motif (TTAGGG)( n ) is present in all basal metazoan groups, i.e. sponges, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Placozoa, and also in the unicellular metazoan sister group, the Choanozoa. Thus it can be considered the ancestral telomere repeat motif of Metazoa. It has been conserved from the metazoan radiation in most animal phylogenetic lineages, and replaced by other motifs-according to our present knowledge-only in two major lineages, Arthropoda and Nematoda.

  11. Motif enrichment tool.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. ADDRESS: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/.

  12. EXTREME: an online EM algorithm for motif discovery

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Daniel; Xie, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying regulatory elements is a fundamental problem in the field of gene transcription. Motif discovery—the task of identifying the sequence preference of transcription factor proteins, which bind to these elements—is an important step in this challenge. MEME is a popular motif discovery algorithm. Unfortunately, MEME’s running time scales poorly with the size of the dataset. Experiments such as ChIP-Seq and DNase-Seq are providing a rich amount of information on the binding preference of transcription factors. MEME cannot discover motifs in data from these experiments in a practical amount of time without a compromising strategy such as discarding a majority of the sequences. Results: We present EXTREME, a motif discovery algorithm designed to find DNA-binding motifs in ChIP-Seq and DNase-Seq data. Unlike MEME, which uses the expectation-maximization algorithm for motif discovery, EXTREME uses the online expectation-maximization algorithm to discover motifs. EXTREME can discover motifs in large datasets in a practical amount of time without discarding any sequences. Using EXTREME on ChIP-Seq and DNase-Seq data, we discover many motifs, including some novel and infrequent motifs that can only be discovered by using the entire dataset. Conservation analysis of one of these novel infrequent motifs confirms that it is evolutionarily conserved and possibly functional. Availability and implementation: All source code is available at the Github repository http://github.com/uci-cbcl/EXTREME. Contact: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24532725

  13. [Personal motif in art].

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.

  14. De Novo Regulatory Motif Discovery Identifies Significant Motifs in Promoters of Five Classes of Plant Dehydrin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zolotarov, Yevgen; Strömvik, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Plants accumulate dehydrins in response to osmotic stresses. Dehydrins are divided into five different classes, which are thought to be regulated in different manners. To better understand differences in transcriptional regulation of the five dehydrin classes, de novo motif discovery was performed on 350 dehydrin promoter sequences from a total of 51 plant genomes. Overrepresented motifs were identified in the promoters of five dehydrin classes. The Kn dehydrin promoters contain motifs linked with meristem specific expression, as well as motifs linked with cold/dehydration and abscisic acid response. KS dehydrin promoters contain a motif with a GATA core. SKn and YnSKn dehydrin promoters contain motifs that match elements connected with cold/dehydration, abscisic acid and light response. YnKn dehydrin promoters contain motifs that match abscisic acid and light response elements, but not cold/dehydration response elements. Conserved promoter motifs are present in the dehydrin classes and across different plant lineages, indicating that dehydrin gene regulation is likely also conserved. PMID:26114291

  15. A novel cysteine-rich sequence-specific DNA-binding protein interacts with the conserved X-box motif of the human major histocompatibility complex class II genes via a repeated Cys-His domain and functions as a transcriptional repressor

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules function in the presentation of processed peptides to helper T cells. As most mammalian cells can endocytose and process foreign antigen, the critical determinant of an antigen-presenting cell is its ability to express class II MHC molecules. Expression of these molecules is usually restricted to cells of the immune system and dysregulated expression is hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of a severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome and certain autoimmune diseases. Human complementary DNA clones encoding a newly identified, cysteine-rich transcription factor, NF-X1, which binds to the conserved X-box motif of class II MHC genes, were obtained, and the primary amino acid sequence deduced. The major open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 1,104 amino acids with a symmetrical organization. A central cysteine-rich portion encodes the DNA-binding domain, and is subdivided into seven repeated motifs. This motif is similar to but distinct from the LIM domain and the RING finger family, and is reminiscent of known metal-binding regions. The unique arrangement of cysteines indicates that the consensus sequence CX3CXL-XCGX1- 5HXCX3CHXGXC represents a novel cysteine-rich motif. Two lines of evidence indicate that the polypeptide encodes a potent and biologically relevant repressor of HLA-DRA transcription: (a) overexpression of NF-X1 from a retroviral construct strongly decreases transcription from the HLA-DRA promoter; and (b) the NF-X1 transcript is markedly induced late after induction with interferon gamma (IFN- gamma), coinciding with postinduction attenuation of HLA-DRA transcription. The NF-X1 protein may therefore play an important role in regulating the duration of an inflammatory response by limiting the period in which class II MHC molecules are induced by IFN-gamma. PMID:7964459

  16. Motifs from the deep

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tony W; Codrea, Vlad; Ellington, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation, there is considerable interest in identifying RNA motifs in genomic data. In a recent report in BMC Genomics, Breaker and colleagues describe a new algorithm for identifying functional noncoding RNAs in metagenomic sequences of marine organisms, a strategy that may be particularly effective for discovering new and unique riboswitches. PMID:19735583

  17. Classification and assessment tools for structural motif discovery algorithms.

    PubMed

    Badr, Ghada; Al-Turaiki, Isra; Mathkour, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Motif discovery is the problem of finding recurring patterns in biological data. Patterns can be sequential, mainly when discovered in DNA sequences. They can also be structural (e.g. when discovering RNA motifs). Finding common structural patterns helps to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of action (e.g. post-transcriptional regulation). Unlike DNA motifs, which are sequentially conserved, RNA motifs exhibit conservation in structure, which may be common even if the sequences are different. Over the past few years, hundreds of algorithms have been developed to solve the sequential motif discovery problem, while less work has been done for the structural case. In this paper, we survey, classify, and compare different algorithms that solve the structural motif discovery problem, where the underlying sequences may be different. We highlight their strengths and weaknesses. We start by proposing a benchmark dataset and a measurement tool that can be used to evaluate different motif discovery approaches. Then, we proceed by proposing our experimental setup. Finally, results are obtained using the proposed benchmark to compare available tools. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to compare tools solely designed for structural motif discovery. Results show that the accuracy of discovered motifs is relatively low. The results also suggest a complementary behavior among tools where some tools perform well on simple structures, while other tools are better for complex structures. We have classified and evaluated the performance of available structural motif discovery tools. In addition, we have proposed a benchmark dataset with tools that can be used to evaluate newly developed tools.

  18. Discriminative motif discovery in DNA and protein sequences using the DEME algorithm.

    PubMed

    Redhead, Emma; Bailey, Timothy L

    2007-10-15

    Motif discovery aims to detect short, highly conserved patterns in a collection of unaligned DNA or protein sequences. Discriminative motif finding algorithms aim to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of motif discovery by utilizing a second set of sequences, and searching only for patterns that can differentiate the two sets of sequences. Potential applications of discriminative motif discovery include discovering transcription factor binding site motifs in ChIP-chip data and finding protein motifs involved in thermal stability using sets of orthologous proteins from thermophilic and mesophilic organisms. We describe DEME, a discriminative motif discovery algorithm for use with protein and DNA sequences. Input to DEME is two sets of sequences; a "positive" set and a "negative" set. DEME represents motifs using a probabilistic model, and uses a novel combination of global and local search to find the motif that optimally discriminates between the two sets of sequences. DEME is unique among discriminative motif finders in that it uses an informative Bayesian prior on protein motif columns, allowing it to incorporate prior knowledge of residue characteristics. We also introduce four, synthetic, discriminative motif discovery problems that are designed for evaluating discriminative motif finders in various biologically motivated contexts. We test DEME using these synthetic problems and on two biological problems: finding yeast transcription factor binding motifs in ChIP-chip data, and finding motifs that discriminate between groups of thermophilic and mesophilic orthologous proteins. Using artificial data, we show that DEME is more effective than a non-discriminative approach when there are "decoy" motifs or when a variant of the motif is present in the "negative" sequences. With real data, we show that DEME is as good, but not better than non-discriminative algorithms at discovering yeast transcription factor binding motifs. We also show that DEME can find

  19. Variable motif utilization in homeotic selector (Hox)-cofactor complex formation controls specificity.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Katherine M; Noro, Barbara; Mann, Richard S

    2011-12-27

    Homeotic selector (Hox) proteins often bind DNA cooperatively with cofactors such as Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) to achieve functional specificity in vivo. Previous studies identified the Hox YPWM motif as an important Exd interaction motif. Using a comparative approach, we characterize the contribution of this and additional conserved sequence motifs to the regulation of specific target genes for three Drosophila Hox proteins. We find that Sex combs reduced (Scr) uses a simple interaction mechanism, where a single tryptophan-containing motif is necessary for Exd-dependent DNA-binding and in vivo functions. Abdominal-A (AbdA) is more complex, using multiple conserved motifs in a context-dependent manner. Lastly, Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is the most flexible, in that it uses multiple conserved motifs that function in parallel to regulate target genes in vivo. We propose that using different binding mechanisms with the same cofactor may be one strategy to achieve functional specificity in vivo.

  20. Discriminative Motif Finding for Predicting Protein Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tien-ho; Murphy, Robert F.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2010-01-01

    Many methods have been described to predict the subcellular location of proteins from sequence information. However, most of these methods either rely on global sequence properties or use a set of known protein targeting motifs to predict protein localization. Here we develop and test a novel method that identifies potential targeting motifs using a discriminative approach based on hidden Markov models (discriminative HMMs). These models search for motifs that are present in a compartment but absent in other, nearby, compartments by utilizing an hierarchical structure that mimics the protein sorting mechanism. We show that both discriminative motif finding and the hierarchical structure improves localization prediction on a benchmark dataset of yeast proteins. The motifs identified can be mapped to known targeting motifs and they are more conserved than the average protein sequence. Using our motif-based predictions we can identify potential annotation errors in public databases for the location of some of the proteins. A software implementation and the dataset described in this paper are available from http://murphylab.web.cmu.edu/software/2009_TCBB_motif/ PMID:21233524

  1. Using the Gibbs Motif Sampler for Phylogenetic Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann; Lawrence, Charles

    2007-07-01

    The Gibbs Motif Sampler (Gibbs) (1) is a software package used to predict conserved elements in biopolymer sequences. While the software can be used to locate conserved motifs in protein sequences, its most common use is the prediction of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in promoters upstream of gene sequences. We will describe approaches that use Gibbs to locate TFBSs in a collection of orthologous nucleotide sequences, i.e. phylogenetic footprinting. To illustrate this technique, we present examples that use Gibbs to detect binding sites for the transcription factor LexA in orthologous sequence data from representative species belonging to two different proteobacterial divisions.

  2. Automatic annotation of protein motif function with Gene Ontology terms

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinghua; Zhai, Chengxiang; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Buchanan, Bruce G

    2004-01-01

    Background Conserved protein sequence motifs are short stretches of amino acid sequence patterns that potentially encode the function of proteins. Several sequence pattern searching algorithms and programs exist foridentifying candidate protein motifs at the whole genome level. However, amuch needed and importanttask is to determine the functions of the newly identified protein motifs. The Gene Ontology (GO) project is an endeavor to annotate the function of genes or protein sequences with terms from a dynamic, controlled vocabulary and these annotations serve well as a knowledge base. Results This paperpresents methods to mine the GO knowledge base and use the association between the GO terms assigned to a sequence and the motifs matched by the same sequence as evidence for predicting the functions of novel protein motifs automatically. The task of assigning GO terms to protein motifsis viewed as both a binary classification and information retrieval problem, where PROSITE motifs are used as samples for mode training and functional prediction. The mutual information of a motif and aGO term association isfound to be a very useful feature. We take advantageof the known motifs to train a logistic regression classifier, which allows us to combine mutual information with other frequency-based features and obtain a probability of correctassociation. The trained logistic regression model has intuitively meaningful and logically plausible parameter values, and performs very well empirically according to our evaluation criteria. Conclusions In this research, different methods for automatic annotation of protein motifs have been investigated. Empirical result demonstrated that the methods have a great potential for detecting and augmenting information about thefunctions of newly discovered candidate protein motifs. PMID:15345032

  3. LibME-automatic extraction of 3D ligand-binding motifs for mechanistic analysis of protein-ligand recognition.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Liang, Zhi; Teng, MaiKun; Niu, LiWen

    2016-12-01

    Identifying conserved binding motifs is an efficient way to study protein-ligand recognition. Most 3D binding motifs only contain information from the protein side, and so motifs that combine information from both protein and ligand sides are desired. Here, we propose an algorithm called LibME (Ligand-binding Motif Extractor), which automatically extracts 3D binding motifs composed of the target ligand and surrounding conserved residues. We show that the motifs extracted by LibME for ATP and its analogs are highly similar to well-known motifs reported by previous studies. The superiority of our method to handle flexible ligands was also demonstrated using isocitric acid as an example. Finally, we show that these motifs, together with their visual exhibition, permit better investigating and understanding of protein-ligand recognition process.

  4. Profile-based short linear protein motif discovery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Short linear protein motifs are attracting increasing attention as functionally independent sites, typically 3–10 amino acids in length that are enriched in disordered regions of proteins. Multiple methods have recently been proposed to discover over-represented motifs within a set of proteins based on simple regular expressions. Here, we extend these approaches to profile-based methods, which provide a richer motif representation. Results The profile motif discovery method MEME performed relatively poorly for motifs in disordered regions of proteins. However, when we applied evolutionary weighting to account for redundancy amongst homologous proteins, and masked out poorly conserved regions of disordered proteins, the performance of MEME is equivalent to that of regular expression methods. However, the two approaches returned different subsets within both a benchmark dataset, and a more realistic discovery dataset. Conclusions Profile-based motif discovery methods complement regular expression based methods. Whilst profile-based methods are computationally more intensive, they are likely to discover motifs currently overlooked by regular expression methods. PMID:22607209

  5. MINER: software for phylogenetic motif identification.

    PubMed

    La, David; Livesay, Dennis R

    2005-07-01

    MINER is web-based software for phylogenetic motif (PM) identification. PMs are sequence regions (fragments) that conserve the overall familial phylogeny. PMs have been shown to correspond to a wide variety of catalytic regions, substrate-binding sites and protein interfaces, making them ideal functional site predictions. The MINER output provides an intuitive interface for interactive PM sequence analysis and structural visualization. The web implementation of MINER is freely available at http://www.pmap.csupomona.edu/MINER/. Source code is available to the academic community on request.

  6. A type of nucleotide motif that distinguishes tobamovirus species more efficiently than nucleotide signatures.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A J; Armstrong, J S; Gibbs, M J

    2004-10-01

    The complete genomic sequences of forty-eight tobamoviruses were classified and found to form at least twelve species clusters. Individual species were not conveniently defined by 'nucleotide signatures' (i.e. strings of one or more nucleotides unique to a taxon) as these were scattered sparsely throughout the genomes and were mostly single nucleotides. By contrast all the species were concisely and uniquely distinguished by short nucleotide motifs consisting of conserved genus-specific sites intercalated with variable sites that provided species-specific combinations of nucleotides (nucleotide combination motifs; NC-motifs). We describe the procedure for finding NC-motifs in a convenient and phylogenetically conserved region of the tobamovirus RNA polymerase gene, the '4404-50 motif'. NC-motifs have been found in other sets of homologous sequences, and are convenient for use in published taxonomic descriptions.

  7. A comprehensive analysis of the La-motif protein superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet-Antonelli, Cécile; Deragon, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    The extremely well-conserved La motif (LAM), in synergy with the immediately following RNA recognition motif (RRM), allows direct binding of the (genuine) La autoantigen to RNA polymerase III primary transcripts. This motif is not only found on La homologs, but also on La-related proteins (LARPs) of unrelated function. LARPs are widely found amongst eukaryotes and, although poorly characterized, appear to be RNA-binding proteins fulfilling crucial cellular functions. We searched the fully sequenced genomes of 83 eukaryotic species scattered along the tree of life for the presence of LAM-containing proteins. We observed that these proteins are absent from archaea and present in all eukaryotes (except protists from the Plasmodium genus), strongly suggesting that the LAM is an ancestral motif that emerged early after the archaea-eukarya radiation. A complete evolutionary and structural analysis of these proteins resulted in their classification into five families: the genuine La homologs and four LARP families. Unexpectedly, in each family a conserved domain representing either a classical RRM or an RRM-like motif immediately follows the LAM of most proteins. An evolutionary analysis of the LAM-RRM/RRM-L regions shows that these motifs co-evolved and should be used as a single entity to define the functional region of interaction of LARPs with their substrates. We also found two extremely well conserved motifs, named LSA and DM15, shared by LARP6 and LARP1 family members, respectively. We suggest that members of the same family are functional homologs and/or share a common molecular mode of action on different RNA baits. PMID:19299548

  8. A comprehensive analysis of the La-motif protein superfamily.

    PubMed

    Bousquet-Antonelli, Cécile; Deragon, Jean-Marc

    2009-05-01

    The extremely well-conserved La motif (LAM), in synergy with the immediately following RNA recognition motif (RRM), allows direct binding of the (genuine) La autoantigen to RNA polymerase III primary transcripts. This motif is not only found on La homologs, but also on La-related proteins (LARPs) of unrelated function. LARPs are widely found amongst eukaryotes and, although poorly characterized, appear to be RNA-binding proteins fulfilling crucial cellular functions. We searched the fully sequenced genomes of 83 eukaryotic species scattered along the tree of life for the presence of LAM-containing proteins. We observed that these proteins are absent from archaea and present in all eukaryotes (except protists from the Plasmodium genus), strongly suggesting that the LAM is an ancestral motif that emerged early after the archaea-eukarya radiation. A complete evolutionary and structural analysis of these proteins resulted in their classification into five families: the genuine La homologs and four LARP families. Unexpectedly, in each family a conserved domain representing either a classical RRM or an RRM-like motif immediately follows the LAM of most proteins. An evolutionary analysis of the LAM-RRM/RRM-L regions shows that these motifs co-evolved and should be used as a single entity to define the functional region of interaction of LARPs with their substrates. We also found two extremely well conserved motifs, named LSA and DM15, shared by LARP6 and LARP1 family members, respectively. We suggest that members of the same family are functional homologs and/or share a common molecular mode of action on different RNA baits.

  9. AliBiMotif: integrating alignment and biclustering to unravel transcription factor binding sites in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana P; Moreau, Yves; Madeira, Sara C

    2012-01-01

    Transcription Factors (TFs) control transcription by binding to specific sites in the promoter regions of the target genes, which can be modelled by structured motifs. In this paper we propose AliBiMotif, a method combining sequence alignment and a biclustering approach based on efficient string matching techniques using suffix trees to unravel approximately conserved sets of blocks (structured motifs) while straightforwardly disregarding non-conserved stretches in-between. The ability to ignore the width of non-conserved regions is a major advantage of the proposed method over other motif finders, as the lengths of the binding sites are usually easier to estimate than the separating distances.

  10. The mouse B cell-specific mb-1 gene encodes an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) protein that may be evolutionarily conserved in diverse species by purifying selection.

    PubMed

    Sims, Richard; Vandergon, Virginia Oberholzer; Malone, Cindy S

    2012-03-01

    The B-lymphocyte accessory molecule Ig-alpha (Ig-α) is encoded by the mouse B cell-specific gene (mb-1), and along with the Ig-beta (Ig-β) molecule and a membrane bound immunoglobulin (mIg) makes up the B-cell receptor (BCR). Ig-α and Ig-β form a heterodimer structure that upon antigen binding and receptor clustering primarily initiates and controls BCR intracellular signaling via a phosphorylation cascade, ultimately triggering an effector response. The signaling capacity of Ig-α is contained within its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), which is also a key component for intracellular signaling initiation in other immune cell-specific receptors. Although numerous studies have been devoted to the mb-1 gene product, Ig-α, and its signaling mechanism, an evolutionary analysis of the mb-1 gene has been lacking until now. In this study, mb-1 coding sequences from 19 species were compared using Bayesian inference. Analysis revealed a gene phylogeny consistent with an expected species divergence pattern, clustering species from the primate order separate from lower mammals and other species. In addition, an overall comparison of non-synonymous and synonymous nucleotide mutational changes suggests that the mb-1 gene has undergone purifying selection throughout its evolution.

  11. The value of position-specific priors in motif discovery using MEME

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Position-specific priors have been shown to be a flexible and elegant way to extend the power of Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery algorithms. Information of many types–including sequence conservation, nucleosome positioning, and negative examples–can be converted into a prior over the location of motif sites, which then guides the sequence motif discovery algorithm. This approach has been shown to confer many of the benefits of conservation-based and discriminative motif discovery approaches on Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery methods, but has not previously been studied with methods based on expectation maximization (EM). Results We extend the popular EM-based MEME algorithm to utilize position-specific priors and demonstrate their effectiveness for discovering transcription factor (TF) motifs in yeast and mouse DNA sequences. Utilizing a discriminative, conservation-based prior dramatically improves MEME's ability to discover motifs in 156 yeast TF ChIP-chip datasets, more than doubling the number of datasets where it finds the correct motif. On these datasets, MEME using the prior has a higher success rate than eight other conservation-based motif discovery approaches. We also show that the same type of prior improves the accuracy of motifs discovered by MEME in mouse TF ChIP-seq data, and that the motifs tend to be of slightly higher quality those found by a Gibbs sampling algorithm using the same prior. Conclusions We conclude that using position-specific priors can substantially increase the power of EM-based motif discovery algorithms such as MEME algorithm. PMID:20380693

  12. The value of position-specific priors in motif discovery using MEME.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Timothy L; Bodén, Mikael; Whitington, Tom; Machanick, Philip

    2010-04-09

    Position-specific priors have been shown to be a flexible and elegant way to extend the power of Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery algorithms. Information of many types-including sequence conservation, nucleosome positioning, and negative examples-can be converted into a prior over the location of motif sites, which then guides the sequence motif discovery algorithm. This approach has been shown to confer many of the benefits of conservation-based and discriminative motif discovery approaches on Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery methods, but has not previously been studied with methods based on expectation maximization (EM). We extend the popular EM-based MEME algorithm to utilize position-specific priors and demonstrate their effectiveness for discovering transcription factor (TF) motifs in yeast and mouse DNA sequences. Utilizing a discriminative, conservation-based prior dramatically improves MEME's ability to discover motifs in 156 yeast TF ChIP-chip datasets, more than doubling the number of datasets where it finds the correct motif. On these datasets, MEME using the prior has a higher success rate than eight other conservation-based motif discovery approaches. We also show that the same type of prior improves the accuracy of motifs discovered by MEME in mouse TF ChIP-seq data, and that the motifs tend to be of slightly higher quality those found by a Gibbs sampling algorithm using the same prior. We conclude that using position-specific priors can substantially increase the power of EM-based motif discovery algorithms such as MEME algorithm.

  13. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of the putative regeneration and tolerance factor (RTF/TJ6) as a functional vacuolar ATPase proton pump regulatory subunit with a conserved sequence of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif.

    PubMed

    Babichev, Yael; Tamir, Ami; Park, Meeyoug; Muallem, Shmuel; Isakov, Noah

    2005-10-01

    In an attempt to identify new immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing human molecules that may regulate hitherto unknown immune cell functions, we BLAST searched the National Center for Biotechnology Information database for ITAM-containing sequences. A human expressed sequence tag showing partial homology to the murine TJ6 (mTJ6) gene and encoding a putative ITAM sequence has been identified and used to clone the human TJ6 (hTJ6) gene from an HL-60-derived cDNA library. hTJ6 was found to encode a protein of 856 residues with a calculated mass of 98 155 Da. Immunolocalization and sequence analysis revealed that hTJ6 is a membrane protein with predicted six transmembrane-spanning regions, typical of ion channels, and a single putative ITAM (residues 452-466) in a juxtamembrane or hydrophobic intramembrane region. hTJ6 is highly homologous to Bos taurus 116-kDa subunit of the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase. Over-expression of hTJ6 in HEK 293 cells increased H+ uptake into intracellular organelles, an effect that was sensitive to inhibition by bafilomycin, a selective inhibitor of vacuolar H+ pump. Northern blot analysis demonstrated three different hybridizing mRNA transcripts corresponding to 3.2, 5.0 and 7.3 kb, indicating the presence of several splice variants. Significant differences in hTJ6 mRNA levels in human tissues of different origins point to possible tissue-specific function. Although hTJ6 was found to be a poor substrate for tyrosine-phosphorylating enzymes, suggesting that its ITAM sequence is non-functional in protein tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling pathways, its role in organellar H+ pumping suggests that hTJ6 function may participate in protein trafficking/processing.

  14. Small yet effective: the ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif.

    PubMed

    Kagale, Sateesh; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    The Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif is a small yet distinct regulatory motif that is conserved in many plant transcriptional regulator (TR) proteins associated with diverse biological functions. We have previously established a list of high-confidence Arabidopsis EAR repressors, the EAR repressome, comprising 219 TRs belonging to 21 different TR families. This class of proteins and the sequence context of the EAR motif exhibited a high degree of conservation across evolutionarily diverse plant species. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis enabled refining EAR motifs as comprising either LxLxL or DLNxxP. Comparing the representation of these sequence signatures in TRs to that of other repressor motifs we show that the EAR motif is the one most frequently represented, detected in 10 to 25% of the TRs from diverse plant species. The mechanisms involved in regulation of EAR motif function and the cellular fates of EAR repressors are currently not well understood. Our earlier analysis had implicated amino acid residues flanking the EAR motifs in regulation of their functionality. Here, we present additional evidence supporting possible regulation of EAR motif function by phosphorylation of integral or adjacent Ser and/or Thr residues. Additionally, we discuss potential novel roles of EAR motifs in plant-pathogen interaction and processes other than transcriptional repression.

  15. Evolution of an insect-specific GROUCHO-interaction motif in the ENGRAILED selector protein

    PubMed Central

    Hittinger, Chris Todd; Carroll, Sean B.

    2008-01-01

    Animal morphology evolves through alterations in the genetic regulatory networks that control development. Regulatory connections are commonly added, subtracted, or modified via mutations in cis-regulatory elements, but several cases are also known where transcription factors have gained or lost activity-modulating peptide motifs. In order to better assess the role of novel transcription factor peptide motifs in evolution, we searched for synapomorphic motifs in the homeotic selectors of Drosophila melanogaster and related insects. Here, we describe an evolutionarily novel GROUCHO (GRO)-interaction motif in the ENGRAILED (EN) selector protein. This “ehIFRPF” motif is not homologous to the previously characterized “engrailed homology 1” (eh1) GRO-interaction motif of EN. This second motif is an insect-specific “WRPW”-type motif that has been maintained by purifying selection in at least the dipteran/lepidopteran lineage. We demonstrate that this motif contributes to in vivo repression of the wingless (wg) target gene and to interaction with GRO in vitro. The acquisition and conservation of this auxiliary peptide motif shows how the number and activity of short peptide motifs can evolve in transcription factors while existing regulatory functions are maintained. PMID:18803772

  16. The conserved glycine/alanine residue of the active-site loop containing the putative acetylCoA-binding motif is essential for the overall structural integrity of Mesorhizobium loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Atmane, Noureddine; Dairou, Julien; Flatters, Delphine; Martins, Marta; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Derreumaux, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2007-09-14

    The arylamine N-acetyltransferases are important xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze an acetyl group transfer from acetylCoA to arylamine substrates. NAT enzymes possess an active-site loop (the active-site P-loop) involved in substrate binding and selectivity. The Gly/Ala residue present at the start of the active-site P-loop, although conserved in all NAT enzymes, is not involved in the catalytic mechanism or substrate binding. Here we show that a small amino acid (such as Gly or Ala) at this position is important not only for maintaining the functions of the active-site P-loop but, more surprisingly, also important for maintaining the overall structural integrity of NAT enzymes. Our data thus suggest that in addition to its role in substrate binding and selectivity, the active-site P-loop could play a wider structural role in NAT enzymes.

  17. Fast revelation of the motif mode for a yeast protein interaction network through intelligent agent-based distributed computing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Po; Tzou, Wen-Shyong

    2010-09-01

    In the yeast protein-protein interaction network, motif mode, a collection of motifs of special combinations of protein nodes annotated by the molecular function terms of the Gene Ontology, has revealed differences in the conservation constraints within the same topology. In this study, by employing an intelligent agent-based distributed computing method, we are able to discover motif modes in a fast and adaptive manner. Moreover, by focusing on the highly evolutionarily conserved motif modes belonging to the same biological function, we find a large downshift in the distance between nodes belonging to the same motif mode compared with the whole, suggesting that nodes with the same motif mode tend to congregate in a network. Several motif modes with a high conservation of the motif constituents were revealed, but from a new perspective, including that with a three-node motif mode engaged in the protein fate and that with three four-node motif modes involved in the genome maintenance, cellular organization, and transcription. The network motif modes discovered from this method can be linked to the wealth of biological data which require further elucidation with regard to biological functions.

  18. Purification, kinetics, inhibitors and CD for recombinant β-amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli L and functional analysis of the DCTA motif, which is highly conserved among oxidosqualene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryousuke; Masukawa, Yukari; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    mutated enzymes targeted for the DCTAE(485-489) motif, which is a putative initiation site for the polycyclization reaction. No activity of the D485N variant and significantly decreased activity of the C564A variant were found, definitively demonstrating that the acidic carboxyl residue Asp485 serves as a proton donor to initiate the polycyclization reaction, and that Cys564 is involved in hydrogen bond formation with the carboxyl residue Asp458 to enhance the acidity. The CD spectrum is the first to be reported for OSCs, and the CD spectra of the wild-type and the mutated EtASs were almost the same, indicating that the protein architecture was not altered by these mutations.

  19. Dual requirement for the Ig alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and a conserved non-Ig alpha ITAM tyrosine in supporting Ig alpha beta-mediated B cell development.

    PubMed

    Pike, Kelly A; Ratcliffe, Michael J H

    2005-02-15

    Surface Ig (sIg) expression is a critical checkpoint during avian B cell development. Only cells that express sIg colonize bursal follicles, clonally expand, and undergo Ig diversification by gene conversion. Expression of a heterodimer, in which the extracellular and transmembrane domains of murine CD8alpha or CD8beta are fused to the cytoplasmic domains of chicken Igalpha (chIgalpha) or Igbeta, respectively (murine CD8alpha (mCD8alpha):chIgalpha + mCD8beta:chIgbeta), or an mCD8alpha:chIgalpha homodimer supported bursal B cell development as efficiently as endogenous sIg. In this study we demonstrate that B cell development, in the absence of chIgbeta, requires both the Igalpha ITAM and a conserved non-ITAM Igalpha tyrosine (Y3) that has been associated with binding to B cell linker protein (BLNK). When associated with the cytoplasmic domain of Igbeta, the Igalpha ITAM is not required for the induction of strong calcium mobilization or BLNK phosphorylation, but is still necessary to support B cell development. In contrast, mutation of the Igalpha Y3 severely compromised calcium mobilization when expressed as either a homodimer or a heterodimer with the cytoplasmic domain of Igbeta. However, coexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of Igbeta partially complemented the Igalpha Y3 mutation, rescuing higher levels of BLNK phosphorylation and, more strikingly, supporting B cell development.

  20. RNAMotifScanX: a graph alignment approach for RNA structural motif identification.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cuncong; Zhang, Shaojie

    2015-03-01

    RNA structural motifs are recurrent three-dimensional (3D) components found in the RNA architecture. These RNA structural motifs play important structural or functional roles and usually exhibit highly conserved 3D geometries and base-interaction patterns. Analysis of the RNA 3D structures and elucidation of their molecular functions heavily rely on efficient and accurate identification of these motifs. However, efficient RNA structural motif search tools are lacking due to the high complexity of these motifs. In this work, we present RNAMotifScanX, a motif search tool based on a base-interaction graph alignment algorithm. This novel algorithm enables automatic identification of both partially and fully matched motif instances. RNAMotifScanX considers noncanonical base-pairing interactions, base-stacking interactions, and sequence conservation of the motifs, which leads to significantly improved sensitivity and specificity as compared with other state-of-the-art search tools. RNAMotifScanX also adopts a carefully designed branch-and-bound technique, which enables ultra-fast search of large kink-turn motifs against a 23S rRNA. The software package RNAMotifScanX is implemented using GNU C++, and is freely available from http://genome.ucf.edu/RNAMotifScanX. © 2015 Zhong and Zhang; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Motif types, motif locations and base composition patterns around the RNA polyadenylation site in microorganisms, plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The polyadenylation of RNA is critical for gene functioning, but the conserved sequence motifs (often called signal or signature motifs), motif locations and abundances, and base composition patterns around mRNA polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites are still uncharacterized in most species. The evolutionary tendency for poly(A) site selection is still largely unknown. Results We analyzed the poly(A) site regions of 31 species or phyla. Different groups of species showed different poly(A) signal motifs: UUACUU at the poly(A) site in the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi; UGUAAC (approximately 13 bases upstream of the site) in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; UGUUUG (or UGUUUGUU) at mainly the fourth base downstream of the poly(A) site in the parasite Blastocystis hominis; and AAUAAA at approximately 16 bases and approximately 19 bases upstream of the poly(A) site in animals and plants, respectively. Polyadenylation signal motifs are usually several hundred times more abundant around poly(A) sites than in whole genomes. These predominant motifs usually had very specific locations, whether upstream of, at, or downstream of poly(A) sites, depending on the species or phylum. The poly(A) site was usually an adenosine (A) in all analyzed species except for B. hominis, and there was weak A predominance in C. reinhardtii. Fungi, animals, plants, and the protist Phytophthora infestans shared a general base abundance pattern (or base composition pattern) of “U-rich—A-rich—U-rich—Poly(A) site—U-rich regions”, or U-A-U-A-U for short, with some variation for each kingdom or subkingdom. Conclusion This study identified the poly(A) signal motifs, motif locations, and base composition patterns around mRNA poly(A) sites in protists, fungi, plants, and animals and provided insight into poly(A) site evolution. PMID:25052519

  2. Motif Yggdrasil: sampling sequence motifs from a tree mixture model.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Samuel A; Lagergren, Jens

    2007-06-01

    In phylogenetic foot-printing, putative regulatory elements are found in upstream regions of orthologous genes by searching for common motifs. Motifs in different upstream sequences are subject to mutations along the edges of the corresponding phylogenetic tree, consequently taking advantage of the tree in the motif search is an appealing idea. We describe the Motif Yggdrasil sampler; the first Gibbs sampler based on a general tree that uses unaligned sequences. Previous tree-based Gibbs samplers have assumed a star-shaped tree or partially aligned upstream regions. We give a probabilistic model (MY model) describing upstream sequences with regulatory elements and build a Gibbs sampler with respect to this model. The model allows toggling, i.e., the restriction of a position to a subset of nucleotides, but does not require aligned sequences nor edge lengths, which may be difficult to come by. We apply the collapsing technique to eliminate the need to sample nuisance parameters, and give a derivation of the predictive update formula. We show that the MY model improves the modeling of difficult motif instances and that the use of the tree achieves a substantial increase in nucleotide level correlation coefficient both for synthetic data and 37 bacterial lexA genes. We investigate the sensitivity to errors in the tree and show that using random trees MY sampler still has a performance similar to the original version.

  3. An antibody against a conserved C-terminal consensus motif from plant alternative oxidase (AOX) isoforms 1 and 2 label plastids in the explosive dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum, Santalaceae) fruit exocarp.

    PubMed

    Ross Friedman, Cynthia; Ross, Bradford N; Martens, Garnet D

    2013-02-01

    Dwarf mistletoes, genus Arceuthobium (Santalaceae), are parasitic angiosperms that spread their seeds by an explosive process. As gentle heating triggers discharge in the lab, we wondered if thermogenesis (endogenous heat production) is associated with dispersal. Thermogenesis occurs in many plants and is enabled by mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. The purpose of this study was to probe Arceuthobium americanum fruit (including seed tissues) collected over a 10-week period with an anti-AOX antibody/gold-labeled secondary antibody to determine if AOX could be localized in situ, and if so, quantitatively assess whether label distribution changed during development; immunochemical results were evaluated with Western blotting. No label could be detected in the mitochondria of any fruit or seed tissue, but was observed in fruit exocarp plastids of samples collected in the last 2 weeks of study; plastids collected in week 10 had significantly more label than week 9 (p = 0.002). Western blotting of whole fruit and mitochondrial proteins revealed a signal at 30-36 kD, suggestive of AOX, while blots of whole fruit (but not mitochondrial fraction) proteins showed a second band at 40-45 kD, in agreement with plastid terminal oxidases (PTOXs). AOX enzymes are likely present in the A. americanum fruit, even though they were not labeled in mitochondria. The results strongly indicate that the anti-AOX antibody was labeling PTOX in plastids, probably at a C-terminal region conserved in both enzymes. PTOX in plastids may be involved in fruit ripening, although a role for PTOX in thermogenesis cannot be eliminated.

  4. Improved K-means clustering algorithm for exploring local protein sequence motifs representing common structural property.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Altun, Gulsah; Harrison, Robert; Tai, Phang C; Pan, Yi

    2005-09-01

    Information about local protein sequence motifs is very important to the analysis of biologically significant conserved regions of protein sequences. These conserved regions can potentially determine the diverse conformation and activities of proteins. In this work, recurring sequence motifs of proteins are explored with an improved K-means clustering algorithm on a new dataset. The structural similarity of these recurring sequence clusters to produce sequence motifs is studied in order to evaluate the relationship between sequence motifs and their structures. To the best of our knowledge, the dataset used by our research is the most updated dataset among similar studies for sequence motifs. A new greedy initialization method for the K-means algorithm is proposed to improve traditional K-means clustering techniques. The new initialization method tries to choose suitable initial points, which are well separated and have the potential to form high-quality clusters. Our experiments indicate that the improved K-means algorithm satisfactorily increases the percentage of sequence segments belonging to clusters with high structural similarity. Careful comparison of sequence motifs obtained by the improved and traditional algorithms also suggests that the improved K-means clustering algorithm may discover some relatively weak and subtle sequence motifs, which are undetectable by the traditional K-means algorithms. Many biochemical tests reported in the literature show that these sequence motifs are biologically meaningful. Experimental results also indicate that the improved K-means algorithm generates more detailed sequence motifs representing common structures than previous research. Furthermore, these motifs are universally conserved sequence patterns across protein families, overcoming some weak points of other popular sequence motifs. The satisfactory result of the experiment suggests that this new K-means algorithm may be applied to other areas of bioinformatics

  5. Redox active motifs in selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Lutz, Patricia B; Pepelyayeva, Yuliya; Arnér, Elias S J; Bayse, Craig A; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2014-05-13

    Selenoproteins use the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) to act as the first line of defense against oxidants, which are linked to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Many selenoproteins are oxidoreductases in which the reactive Sec is connected to a neighboring Cys and able to form a ring. These Sec-containing redox motifs govern much of the reactivity of selenoproteins. To study their fundamental properties, we have used (77)Se NMR spectroscopy in concert with theoretical calculations to determine the conformational preferences and mobility of representative motifs. This use of (77)Se as a probe enables the direct recording of the properties of Sec as its environment is systematically changed. We find that all motifs have several ring conformations in their oxidized state. These ring structures are most likely stabilized by weak, nonbonding interactions between the selenium and the amide carbon. To examine how the presence of selenium and ring geometric strain governs the motifs' reactivity, we measured the redox potentials of Sec-containing motifs and their corresponding Cys-only variants. The comparisons reveal that for C-terminal motifs the redox potentials increased between 20-25 mV when the selenenylsulfide bond was changed to a disulfide bond. Changes of similar magnitude arose when we varied ring size or the motifs' flanking residues. This suggests that the presence of Sec is not tied to unusually low redox potentials. The unique roles of selenoproteins in human health and their chemical reactivities may therefore not necessarily be explained by lower redox potentials, as has often been claimed.

  6. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses.

  7. Combinatorial motif analysis of regulatory gene expression in Mafb deficient macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficiency of the transcription factor MafB, which is normally expressed in macrophages, can underlie cellular dysfunction associated with a range of autoimmune diseases and arteriosclerosis. MafB has important roles in cell differentiation and regulation of target gene expression; however, the mechanisms of this regulation and the identities of other transcription factors with which MafB interacts remain uncertain. Bioinformatics methods provide a valuable approach for elucidating the nature of these interactions with transcriptional regulatory elements from a large number of DNA sequences. In particular, identification of patterns of co-occurrence of regulatory cis-elements (motifs) offers a robust approach. Results Here, the directional relationships among several functional motifs were evaluated using the Log-linear Graphical Model (LGM) after extraction and search for evolutionarily conserved motifs. This analysis highlighted GATA-1 motifs and 5’AT-rich half Maf recognition elements (MAREs) in promoter regions of 18 genes that were down-regulated in Mafb deficient macrophages. GATA-1 motifs and MafB motifs could regulate expression of these genes in both a negative and positive manner, respectively. The validity of this conclusion was tested with data from a luciferase assay that used a C1qa promoter construct carrying both the GATA-1 motifs and MAREs. GATA-1 was found to inhibit the activity of the C1qa promoter with the GATA-1 motifs and MafB motifs. Conclusions These observations suggest that both the GATA-1 motifs and MafB motifs are important for lineage specific expression of C1qa. In addition, these findings show that analysis of combinations of evolutionarily conserved motifs can be successfully used to identify patterns of gene regulation. PMID:22784578

  8. Knowledge discovery of multilevel protein motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, D.; Glasgow, J.; Fortier, S.

    1994-12-31

    A new category of protein motif is introduced. This type of motif captures, in addition to global structure, the nested structure of its component parts. A dataset of four proteins is represented using this scheme. A structured machine discovery procedure is used to discover recurrent amino acid motifs and this knowledge is utilized for the expression of subsequent protein motif discoveries. Examples of discovered multilevel motifs are presented.

  9. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117

  10. Sequential visibility-graph motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of sequential visibility-graph motifs, smaller substructures of n consecutive nodes that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated with general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable of distinguishing among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification and description of physical, biological, and financial time series.

  11. Fast and Accurate Discovery of Degenerate Linear Motifs in Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Emmanuel D.; Michnick, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Linear motifs mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, which makes their characterization in protein sequences crucial to understanding cellular systems. However, the short length and degenerate nature of linear motifs make their discovery a difficult problem. Here, we introduce MotifHound, an algorithm particularly suited for the discovery of small and degenerate linear motifs. MotifHound performs an exact and exhaustive enumeration of all motifs present in proteins of interest, including all of their degenerate forms, and scores the overrepresentation of each motif based on its occurrence in proteins of interest relative to a background (e.g., proteome) using the hypergeometric distribution. To assess MotifHound, we benchmarked it together with state-of-the-art algorithms. The benchmark consists of 11,880 sets of proteins from S. cerevisiae; in each set, we artificially spiked-in one motif varying in terms of three key parameters, (i) number of occurrences, (ii) length and (iii) the number of degenerate or “wildcard” positions. The benchmark enabled the evaluation of the impact of these three properties on the performance of the different algorithms. The results showed that MotifHound and SLiMFinder were the most accurate in detecting degenerate linear motifs. Interestingly, MotifHound was 15 to 20 times faster at comparable accuracy and performed best in the discovery of highly degenerate motifs. We complemented the benchmark by an analysis of proteins experimentally shown to bind the FUS1 SH3 domain from S. cerevisiae. Using the full-length protein partners as sole information, MotifHound recapitulated most experimentally determined motifs binding to the FUS1 SH3 domain. Moreover, these motifs exhibited properties typical of SH3 binding peptides, e.g., high intrinsic disorder and evolutionary conservation, despite the fact that none of these properties were used as prior information. MotifHound is available (http://michnick.bcm.umontreal.ca or http

  12. Motif discovery with data mining in 3D protein structure databases: discovery, validation and prediction of the U-shape zinc binding ("Huf-Zinc") motif.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gao, He; Han, Hao; Baeten, Lies; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Zhang, Louxin; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Data mining in protein databases, derivatives from more fundamental protein 3D structure and sequence databases, has considerable unearthed potential for the discovery of sequence motif--structural motif--function relationships as the finding of the U-shape (Huf-Zinc) motif, originally a small student's project, exemplifies. The metal ion zinc is critically involved in universal biological processes, ranging from protein-DNA complexes and transcription regulation to enzymatic catalysis and metabolic pathways. Proteins have evolved a series of motifs to specifically recognize and bind zinc ions. Many of these, so called zinc fingers, are structurally independent globular domains with discontinuous binding motifs made up of residues mostly far apart in sequence. Through a systematic approach starting from the BRIX structure fragment database, we discovered that there exists another predictable subset of zinc-binding motifs that not only have a conserved continuous sequence pattern but also share a characteristic local conformation, despite being included in totally different overall folds. While this does not allow general prediction of all Zn binding motifs, a HMM-based web server, Huf-Zinc, is available for prediction of these novel, as well as conventional, zinc finger motifs in protein sequences. The Huf-Zinc webserver can be freely accessed through this URL (http://mendel.bii.a-star.edu.sg/METHODS/hufzinc/).

  13. Prediction of virus-host protein-protein interactions mediated by short linear motifs.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Andrés; Bucheli, Victor A; Moreno, Pedro A

    2017-03-09

    Short linear motifs in host organisms proteins can be mimicked by viruses to create protein-protein interactions that disable or control metabolic pathways. Given that viral linear motif instances of host motif regular expressions can be found by chance, it is necessary to develop filtering methods of functional linear motifs. We conduct a systematic comparison of linear motifs filtering methods to develop a computational approach for predicting motif-mediated protein-protein interactions between human and the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We implemented three filtering methods to obtain linear motif sets: 1) conserved in viral proteins (C), 2) located in disordered regions (D) and 3) rare or scarce in a set of randomized viral sequences (R). The sets C,D,R are united and intersected. The resulting sets are compared by the number of protein-protein interactions correctly inferred with them - with experimental validation. The comparison is done with HIV-1 sequences and interactions from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The number of correctly inferred interactions allows to rank the interactions by the sets used to deduce them: D∪R and C. The ordering of the sets is descending on the probability of capturing functional interactions. With respect to HIV-1, the sets C∪R, D∪R, C∪D∪R infer all known interactions between HIV1 and human proteins mediated by linear motifs. We found that the majority of conserved linear motifs in the virus are located in disordered regions. We have developed a method for predicting protein-protein interactions mediated by linear motifs between HIV-1 and human proteins. The method only use protein sequences as inputs. We can extend the software developed to any other eukaryotic virus and host in order to find and rank candidate interactions. In future works we will use it to explore possible viral attack mechanisms based on linear motif mimicry.

  14. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-02

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice.

  15. A +1 ribosomal frameshifting motif prevalent among plant amalgaviruses.

    PubMed

    Nibert, Max L; Pyle, Jesse D; Firth, Andrew E

    2016-11-01

    Sequence accessions attributable to novel plant amalgaviruses have been found in the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly database. Sixteen accessions, derived from 12 different plant species, appear to encompass the complete protein-coding regions of the proposed amalgaviruses, which would substantially expand the size of genus Amalgavirus from 4 current species. Other findings include evidence for UUU_CGN as a +1 ribosomal frameshifting motif prevalent among plant amalgaviruses; for a variant version of this motif found thus far in only two amalgaviruses from solanaceous plants; for a region of α-helical coiled coil propensity conserved in a central region of the ORF1 translation product of plant amalgaviruses; and for conserved sequences in a C-terminal region of the ORF2 translation product (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) of plant amalgaviruses, seemingly beyond the region of conserved polymerase motifs. These results additionally illustrate the value of mining the TSA database and others for novel viral sequences for comparative analyses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure and ubiquitin binding of the ubiquitin-interacting motif

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher,R.; Wang, B.; Alam, S.; Higginson, D.; Robinson, H.; Sundquist, C.; Hill, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ubiquitylation is used to target proteins into a large number of different biological processes including proteasomal degradation, endocytosis, virus budding, and vacuolar protein sorting (Vps). Ubiquitylated proteins are typically recognized using one of several different conserved ubiquitin binding modules. Here, we report the crystal structure and ubiquitin binding properties of one such module, the ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM). We found that UIM peptides from several proteins involved in endocytosis and vacuolar protein sorting including Hrs, Vps27p, Stam1, and Eps15 bound specifically, but with modest affinity (K{sub d} = 0.1-1 mM), to free ubiquitin. Full affinity ubiquitin binding required the presence of conserved acidic patches at the N and C terminus of the UIM, as well as highly conserved central alanine and serine residues. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping experiments demonstrated that all of these UIM peptides bind to the I44 surface of ubiquitin. The 1.45 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the second yeast Vps27p UIM (Vps27p-2) revealed that the ubiquitin-interacting motif forms an amphipathic helix. Although Vps27p-2 is monomeric in solution, the motif unexpectedly crystallized as an antiparallel four-helix bundle, and the potential biological implications of UIM oligomerization are therefore discussed.

  17. Parametric bootstrapping for biological sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Patrick K; Erill, Ivan

    2016-10-06

    Biological sequence motifs drive the specific interactions of proteins and nucleic acids. Accordingly, the effective computational discovery and analysis of such motifs is a central theme in bioinformatics. Many practical questions about the properties of motifs can be recast as random sampling problems. In this light, the task is to determine for a given motif whether a certain feature of interest is statistically unusual among relevantly similar alternatives. Despite the generality of this framework, its use has been frustrated by the difficulties of defining an appropriate reference class of motifs for comparison and of sampling from it effectively. We define two distributions over the space of all motifs of given dimension. The first is the maximum entropy distribution subject to mean information content, and the second is the truncated uniform distribution over all motifs having information content within a given interval. We derive exact sampling algorithms for each. As a proof of concept, we employ these sampling methods to analyze a broad collection of prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription factor binding site motifs. In addition to positional information content, we consider the informational Gini coefficient of the motif, a measure of the degree to which information is evenly distributed throughout a motif's positions. We find that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic motifs tend to exhibit higher informational Gini coefficients (IGC) than would be expected by chance under either reference distribution. As a second application, we apply maximum entropy sampling to the motif p-value problem and use it to give elementary derivations of two new estimators. Despite the historical centrality of biological sequence motif analysis, this study constitutes to our knowledge the first use of principled null hypotheses for sequence motifs given information content. Through their use, we are able to characterize for the first time differerences in global motif statistics

  18. Spontaneous Membrane Translocating Peptides: The Role of Leucine-Arginine Consensus Motifs.

    PubMed

    Fuselier, Taylor; Wimley, William C

    2017-08-22

    We previously used an orthogonal high-throughput screen to select peptides that spontaneously cross synthetic lipid bilayers without bilayer disruption. Many of the 12-residue spontaneous membrane translocating peptides (SMTPs) selected from the library contained a 5-residue consensus motif, LRLLR in positions 5-9. We hypothesized that the conserved motif could be a necessary and sufficient minimal motif for translocation. To test this and to explore the mechanism of spontaneous membrane translocation, we synthesized seven arginine placement variants of LRLLRWC and compared their membrane partitioning, translocation, and perturbation to one of the parent SMTPs, called "TP2". Several motif variant peptides translocate into synthetic vesicles with rates that are similar to TP2. However, the peptide containing the selected motif, LRLLRWC, was not the fastest; sequence context is also important for translocation efficiency. Although none of these peptides permeabilize bilayers, the motif peptides translocate faster at higher peptide to lipid ratios, suggesting that bilayer perturbation and/or cooperative interactions are important for their translocation. On the other hand, TP2 translocates slower as its concentration is increased, suggesting that TP2 translocates as a monomer and is inhibited by lateral interactions in the membrane. TP2 and the LRLLR motif peptide induce lipid translocation, suggesting that lipids chaperone them across the bilayer. The other motif peptides do not induce lipid flip-flop, suggesting an alternate mechanism. Concatenated motifs translocate slower than the motifs alone. Variants of TP2 with shorter and longer arginine side-chain analogs translocate slower than TP2. In summary, these results suggest that multiple patterns of leucine and arginine can support spontaneous membrane translocation, and that sequence context is important for the contribution of the motifs. Because motifs do not make simple, additive contributions to spontaneous

  19. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Andrew J.; Brennan, Sean N.; Sauer, Timothy D.; Schiff, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We quantify observability in small (3 node) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and symmetry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3) the nodal dynamics (linear and nonlinear). We find that typical observability metrics for 3 neuron motifs range over several orders of magnitude, depending upon topology, and for motifs containing symmetry the network observability decreases when observing from particularly confounded nodes. Nonlinearities in the nodal equations generally decrease the average network observability and full network information becomes available only in limited regions of the system phase space. Our findings demonstrate that such networks are partially observable, and suggest their potential efficacy in reconstructing network dynamics from limited measurement data. How well such strategies can be used to reconstruct and control network dynamics in experimental settings is a subject for future experimental work. PMID:25909092

  20. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, Paulina M.; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits, two catalytic centers, common amino acid sequence, and specific contacts to provide a flip-flop, or alternate site, mechanism of action. Each catalytic center [PP:PYR] is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and aminopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core [PP:PYR]* within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GX@&(G)@XXGQ, and GDGX25-30 within the PP- domain, and the E&(G)@XXG@ within the PYR-domain, where Q, corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  1. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, Paulina M.; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits, two catalytic centers, common amino acid sequence, and specific contacts to provide a flip-flop, or alternate site, mechanism of action. Each catalytic center [PP:PYR] is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and aminopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core [PP:PYR]* within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GX@&(G)@XXGQ, and GDGX25-30 within the PP- domain, and the E&(G)@XXG@ within the PYR-domain, where Q, corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  2. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, P.; Ciszak, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits and two catalytic centers. Each catalytic center (PP:PYR) is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and amhopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core (PP:PYR)(sub 2) within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GXPhiX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGQ and GDGX(sub 25-30)NN in the PP-domain, and the EX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGPhi in the PYR-domain, where Phi corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  3. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, P.; Ciszak, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits and two catalytic centers. Each catalytic center (PP:PYR) is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and amhopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core (PP:PYR)(sub 2) within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GXPhiX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGQ and GDGX(sub 25-30)NN in the PP-domain, and the EX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGPhi in the PYR-domain, where Phi corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  4. Analysis of repetitive amino acid motifs reveals the essential features of spider dragline silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Malay, Ali D; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Numata, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    The extraordinary mechanical properties of spider dragline silk are dependent on the highly repetitive sequences of the component proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 and 2 (MaSp2 and MaSp2). MaSp sequences are dominated by repetitive modules composed of short amino acid motifs; however, the patterns of motif conservation through evolution and their relevance to silk characteristics are not well understood. We performed a systematic analysis of MaSp sequences encompassing infraorder Araneomorphae based on the conservation of explicitly defined motifs, with the aim of elucidating the essential elements of MaSp1 and MaSp2. The results show that the GGY motif is nearly ubiquitous in the two types of MaSp, while MaSp2 is invariably associated with GP and di-glutamine (QQ) motifs. Further analysis revealed an extended MaSp2 consensus sequence in family Araneidae, with implications for the classification of the archetypal spidroins ADF3 and ADF4. Additionally, the analysis of RNA-seq data showed the expression of a set of distinct MaSp-like variants in genus Tetragnatha. Finally, an apparent association was uncovered between web architecture and the abundance of GP, QQ, and GGY motifs in MaSp2, which suggests a co-expansion of these motifs in response to the evolution of spiders' prey capture strategy.

  5. Comprehensive discovery of DNA motifs in 349 human cells and tissues reveals new features of motifs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiyu; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive motif discovery under experimental conditions is critical for the global understanding of gene regulation. To generate a nearly complete list of human DNA motifs under given conditions, we employed a novel approach to de novo discover significant co-occurring DNA motifs in 349 human DNase I hypersensitive site datasets. We predicted 845 to 1325 motifs in each dataset, for a total of 2684 non-redundant motifs. These 2684 motifs contained 54.02 to 75.95% of the known motifs in seven large collections including TRANSFAC. In each dataset, we also discovered 43 663 to 2 013 288 motif modules, groups of motifs with their binding sites co-occurring in a significant number of short DNA regions. Compared with known interacting transcription factors in eight resources, the predicted motif modules on average included 84.23% of known interacting motifs. We further showed new features of the predicted motifs, such as motifs enriched in proximal regions rarely overlapped with motifs enriched in distal regions, motifs enriched in 5' distal regions were often enriched in 3' distal regions, etc. Finally, we observed that the 2684 predicted motifs classified the cell or tissue types of the datasets with an accuracy of 81.29%. The resources generated in this study are available at http://server.cs.ucf.edu/predrem/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Both the PPPY and PTAP motifs are involved in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 particle release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huating; Machesky, Nicholas J; Mansky, Louis M

    2004-02-01

    In retroviruses, the late (L) domain has been defined as a conserved motif in the Gag polyprotein precursor that, when mutated, leads to the emergence of virus particles that fail to pinch off from the plasma membrane. These domains have been observed to contain the PPXY, PTAP, or YXXL motifs. The deltaretroviruses, which include bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2, have a conserved PPPY motif in the C-terminal region of the matrix (MA) domain of Gag, while HTLV-1 also encodes a PTAP motif in MA. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the PPPY and PTAP motifs in the C terminus of MA in HTLV-1 particle release. Mutation of either motif (i.e., PPPY changed to APPY or PTAP changed to PTRP) reduced budding efficiencies. Particle buds and electron-dense regions of plasma membrane were observed by electron microscopy. When the locations of PPPY and PTAP were switched, particle release was eliminated. Intriguingly, the replacement of the PTAP motif with either the PPPY or YPDL motifs did not influence the release of virus particles, but the replacement of the PPPY motif with either PTAP or YPDL eliminated particle production. This indicates that the role that PPPY plays in HTLV-1 budding cannot be replaced with either PTAP or YPDL. A similar observation was made with the BLV PPPY motif. Finally, HTLV-1 particle release was found to be sensitive to proteasome inhibitors, implicating a role for ubiquitin in HTLV-1 budding. In summary, our observations indicate that (i) the PPPY motif plays a crucial role in virus budding and (ii) the PTAP motif plays a more subtle role in HTLV-1 particle release. Each of these motifs may play an important role in virus release from specific cell types and therefore be important in efficient virus spread and transmission.

  7. Both the PPPY and PTAP Motifs Are Involved in Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Particle Release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huating; Machesky, Nicholas J.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2004-01-01

    In retroviruses, the late (L) domain has been defined as a conserved motif in the Gag polyprotein precursor that, when mutated, leads to the emergence of virus particles that fail to pinch off from the plasma membrane. These domains have been observed to contain the PPXY, PTAP, or YXXL motifs. The deltaretroviruses, which include bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2, have a conserved PPPY motif in the C-terminal region of the matrix (MA) domain of Gag, while HTLV-1 also encodes a PTAP motif in MA. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the PPPY and PTAP motifs in the C terminus of MA in HTLV-1 particle release. Mutation of either motif (i.e., PPPY changed to APPY or PTAP changed to PTRP) reduced budding efficiencies. Particle buds and electron-dense regions of plasma membrane were observed by electron microscopy. When the locations of PPPY and PTAP were switched, particle release was eliminated. Intriguingly, the replacement of the PTAP motif with either the PPPY or YPDL motifs did not influence the release of virus particles, but the replacement of the PPPY motif with either PTAP or YPDL eliminated particle production. This indicates that the role that PPPY plays in HTLV-1 budding cannot be replaced with either PTAP or YPDL. A similar observation was made with the BLV PPPY motif. Finally, HTLV-1 particle release was found to be sensitive to proteasome inhibitors, implicating a role for ubiquitin in HTLV-1 budding. In summary, our observations indicate that (i) the PPPY motif plays a crucial role in virus budding and (ii) the PTAP motif plays a more subtle role in HTLV-1 particle release. Each of these motifs may play an important role in virus release from specific cell types and therefore be important in efficient virus spread and transmission. PMID:14722305

  8. Bayesian multiple-instance motif discovery with BAMBI: inference of recombinase and transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Wang, Xiaodong; Arkin, Adam P.; Samoilov, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Finding conserved motifs in genomic sequences represents one of essential bioinformatic problems. However, achieving high discovery performance without imposing substantial auxiliary constraints on possible motif features remains a key algorithmic challenge. This work describes BAMBI—a sequential Monte Carlo motif-identification algorithm, which is based on a position weight matrix model that does not require additional constraints and is able to estimate such motif properties as length, logo, number of instances and their locations solely on the basis of primary nucleotide sequence data. Furthermore, should biologically meaningful information about motif attributes be available, BAMBI takes advantage of this knowledge to further refine the discovery results. In practical applications, we show that the proposed approach can be used to find sites of such diverse DNA-binding molecules as the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and Din-family site-specific serine recombinases. Results obtained by BAMBI in these and other settings demonstrate better statistical performance than any of the four widely-used profile-based motif discovery methods: MEME, BioProspector with BioOptimizer, SeSiMCMC and Motif Sampler as measured by the nucleotide-level correlation coefficient. Additionally, in the case of Din-family recombinase target site discovery, the BAMBI-inferred motif is found to be the only one functionally accurate from the underlying biochemical mechanism standpoint. C++ and Matlab code is available at http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~guido/BAMBI or http://genomics.lbl.gov/BAMBI/. PMID:21948794

  9. The PXDLS linear motif regulates circadian rhythmicity through protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Moran; Aviram, Rona; Adamovich, Yaarit; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Shamia, Tal; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golik, Marina; Asher, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The circadian core clock circuitry relies on interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops that largely count on multiple protein interactions. The molecular mechanisms implicated in the assembly of these protein complexes are relatively unknown. Our bioinformatics analysis of short linear motifs, implicated in protein interactions, reveals an enrichment of the Pro-X-Asp-Leu-Ser (PXDLS) motif within circadian transcripts. We show that the PXDLS motif can bind to BMAL1/CLOCK and disrupt circadian oscillations in a cell-autonomous manner. Remarkably, the motif is evolutionary conserved in the core clock protein REV-ERBα, and additional proteins implicated in the clock's function (NRIP1, CBP). In this conjuncture, we uncover a novel cross talk between the two principal core clock feedback loops and show that BMAL/CLOCK and REV-ERBα interact and that the PXDLS motif of REV-ERBα participates in their binding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PXDLS motifs of NRIP1 and CBP are involved in circadian rhythmicity. Our findings suggest that the PXDLS motif plays an important role in circadian rhythmicity through regulation of protein interactions within the clock circuitry and that short linear motifs can be employed to modulate circadian oscillations. PMID:25260595

  10. The EDLL motif: a potent plant transcriptional activation domain from AP2/ERF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shiv B; Belachew, Alemu; Ma, Siu Fong; Young, Melinda; Ade, Jules; Shen, Yu; Marion, Colleen M; Holtan, Hans E; Bailey, Adina; Stone, Jeffrey K; Edwards, Leslie; Wallace, Andreah D; Canales, Roger D; Adam, Luc; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Repetti, Peter P

    2012-06-01

    In plants, the ERF/EREBP family of transcriptional regulators plays a key role in adaptation to various biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins contain a conserved AP2 DNA-binding domain and several uncharacterized motifs. Here, we describe a short motif, termed 'EDLL', that is present in AtERF98/TDR1 and other clade members from the same AP2 sub-family. We show that the EDLL motif, which has a unique arrangement of acidic amino acids and hydrophobic leucines, functions as a strong activation domain. The motif is transferable to other proteins, and is active at both proximal and distal positions of target promoters. As such, the EDLL motif is able to partly overcome the repression conferred by the AtHB2 transcription factor, which contains an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif. We further examined the activation potential of EDLL by analysis of the regulation of flowering time by NF-Y (nuclear factor Y) proteins. Genetic evidence indicates that NF-Y protein complexes potentiate the action of CONSTANS in regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis; we show that the transcriptional activation function of CONSTANS can be substituted by direct fusion of the EDLL activation motif to NF-YB subunits. The EDLL motif represents a potent plant activation domain that can be used as a tool to confer transcriptional activation potential to heterologous DNA-binding proteins.

  11. G.U base pairing motifs in ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Gautheret, D; Konings, D; Gutell, R R

    1995-10-01

    An increasing number of recognition mechanisms in RNA are found to involve G.U base pairs. In order to detect new functional sites of this type, we exhaustively analyzed the sequence alignments and secondary structures of eubacterial and chloroplast 16S and 23S rRNA, seeking positions with high levels of G.U pairs. Approximately 120 such sites were identified and classified according to their secondary structure and sequence environment. Overall biases in the distribution of G.U pairs are consistent with previously proposed structural rules: the side of the wobble pair that is subject to a loss of stacking is preferentially exposed to a secondary structure loop, where stacking is not as essential as in helical regions. However, multiple sites violate these rules and display highly conserved G.U pairs in orientations that could cause severe stacking problems. In addition, three motifs displaying a conserved G.U pair in a specific sequence/structure environment occur at an unusually high frequency. These motifs, of which two had not been reported before, involve sequences 5'UG3' 3'GA5' and 5'UG3' 3'GU5', as well as G.U pairs flanked by a bulge loop 3' of U. The possible structures and functions of these recurrent motifs are discussed.

  12. G.U base pairing motifs in ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gautheret, D; Konings, D; Gutell, R R

    1995-01-01

    An increasing number of recognition mechanisms in RNA are found to involve G.U base pairs. In order to detect new functional sites of this type, we exhaustively analyzed the sequence alignments and secondary structures of eubacterial and chloroplast 16S and 23S rRNA, seeking positions with high levels of G.U pairs. Approximately 120 such sites were identified and classified according to their secondary structure and sequence environment. Overall biases in the distribution of G.U pairs are consistent with previously proposed structural rules: the side of the wobble pair that is subject to a loss of stacking is preferentially exposed to a secondary structure loop, where stacking is not as essential as in helical regions. However, multiple sites violate these rules and display highly conserved G.U pairs in orientations that could cause severe stacking problems. In addition, three motifs displaying a conserved G.U pair in a specific sequence/structure environment occur at an unusually high frequency. These motifs, of which two had not been reported before, involve sequences 5'UG3' 3'GA5' and 5'UG3' 3'GU5', as well as G.U pairs flanked by a bulge loop 3' of U. The possible structures and functions of these recurrent motifs are discussed. PMID:7493326

  13. Detecting correlations among functional-sequence motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirino, Davide; Rigosa, Jacopo; Ledda, Alice; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Sequence motifs are words of nucleotides in DNA with biological functions, e.g., gene regulation. Identification of such words proceeds through rejection of Markov models on the expected motif frequency along the genome. Additional biological information can be extracted from the correlation structure among patterns of motif occurrences. In this paper a log-linear multivariate intensity Poisson model is estimated via expectation maximization on a set of motifs along the genome of E. coli K12. The proposed approach allows for excitatory as well as inhibitory interactions among motifs and between motifs and other genomic features like gene occurrences. Our findings confirm previous stylized facts about such types of interactions and shed new light on genome-maintenance functions of some particular motifs. We expect these methods to be applicable to a wider set of genomic features.

  14. Identification of imine reductase-specific sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    Fademrecht, Silvia; Scheller, Philipp N; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Chiral amines are valuable building blocks for the production of a variety of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and other specialty chemicals. Only recently, imine reductases (IREDs) were discovered which catalyze the stereoselective reduction of imines to chiral amines. Although several IREDs were biochemically characterized in the last few years, knowledge of the reaction mechanism and the molecular basis of substrate specificity and stereoselectivity is limited. To gain further insights into the sequence-function relationships, the Imine Reductase Engineering Database (www.IRED.BioCatNet.de) was established and a systematic analysis of 530 putative IREDs was performed. A standard numbering scheme based on R-IRED-Sk was introduced to facilitate the identification and communication of structurally equivalent positions in different proteins. A conservation analysis revealed a highly conserved cofactor binding region and a predominantly hydrophobic substrate binding cleft. Two IRED-specific motifs were identified, the cofactor binding motif GLGxMGx(5 )[ATS]x(4) Gx(4) [VIL]WNR[TS]x(2) [KR] and the active site motif Gx[DE]x[GDA]x[APS]x(3){K}x[ASL]x[LMVIAG]. Our results indicate a preference toward NADPH for all IREDs and explain why, despite their sequence similarity to β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases (β-HADs), no conversion of β-hydroxyacids has been observed. Superfamily-specific conservations were investigated to explore the molecular basis of their stereopreference. Based on our analysis and previous experimental results on IRED mutants, an exclusive role of standard position 187 for stereoselectivity is excluded. Alternatively, two standard positions 139 and 194 were identified which are superfamily-specifically conserved and differ in R- and S-selective enzymes.

  15. Finding sequence motifs in groups of functionally related proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, H O; Annau, T M; Chandrasegaran, S

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a method for rapidly finding patterns of conserved amino acid residues (motifs) in groups of functionally related proteins. All 3-amino acid patterns in a group of proteins of the type aa1 d1 aa2 d2 aa3, where d1 and d2 are distances that can be varied in a range up to 24 residues, are accumulated into an array. Segments of the proteins containing those patterns that occur most frequently are aligned on each other by a scoring method that obtains an average relatedness value for all the amino acids in each column of the aligned sequence block based on the Dayhoff relatedness odds matrix. The automated method successfully finds and displays nearly all of the sequence motifs that have been previously reported to occur in 33 reverse transcriptases, 18 DNA integrases, and 30 DNA methyltransferases.

  16. The Thiamine-Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Dominiak, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), a derivative of vitamin B1, is a cofactor for enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production including the well known decarboxylation of a-keto acid dehydrogenases followed by transketolation. TPP-dependent enzymes constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group exhibiting multimeric subunit organization, multiple domains and two chemically equivalent catalytic centers. Annotation of functional TPP-dependcnt enzymes, therefore, has not been trivial due to low sequence similarity related to this complex organization. Our approach to analysis of structures of known TPP-dependent enzymes reveals for the first time features common to this group, which we have termed the TPP-motif. The TPP-motif consists of specific spatial arrangements of structural elements and their specific contacts to provide for a flip-flop, or alternate site, enzymatic mechanism of action. Analysis of structural elements entrained in the flip-flop action displayed by TPP-dependent enzymes reveals a novel definition of the common amino acid sequences. These sequences allow for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes, thus advancing functional proteomics. Further details of three-dimensional structures of TPP-dependent enzymes will be discussed.

  17. Disparate requirements for the Walker A and B ATPase motifs ofhuman RAD51D in homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, Claudia; Hinz, John M.; Tebbs, Robert S.; Nham, Peter B.; Urbin, Salustra S.; Collins, David W.; Thompson, Larry H.; Schild, David

    2006-04-21

    In vertebrates, homologous recombinational repair (HRR) requires RAD51 and five RAD51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D) that all contain conserved Walker A and B ATPase motifs. In human RAD51D we examined the requirement for these motifs in interactions with XRCC2 and RAD51C, and for survival of cells in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks. Ectopic expression of wild type human RAD51D or mutants having a non-functional A or B motif was used to test for complementation of a rad51d knockout hamster CHO cell line. Although A-motif mutants complement very efficiently, B-motif mutants do not. Consistent with these results, experiments using the yeast two- and three-hybrid systems show that the interactions between RAD51D and its XRCC2 and RAD51C partners also require a functional RAD51D B motif, but not motif A. Similarly, hamster Xrcc2 is unable to bind to the non-complementing human RAD51D B-motif mutants in co-immunoprecipitation assays. We conclude that a functional Walker B motif, but not A motif, is necessary for RAD51D's interactions with other paralogs and for efficient HRR. We present a model in which ATPase sites are formed in a bipartite manner between RAD51D and other RAD51 paralogs.

  18. Discriminative motif discovery via simulated evolution and random under-sampling.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Gu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Conserved motifs in biological sequences are closely related to their structure and functions. Recently, discriminative motif discovery methods have attracted more and more attention. However, little attention has been devoted to the data imbalance problem, which is one of the main reasons affecting the performance of the discriminative models. In this article, a simulated evolution method is applied to solve the multi-class imbalance problem at the stage of data preprocessing, and at the stage of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) training, a random under-sampling method is introduced for the imbalance between the positive and negative datasets. It is shown that, in the task of discovering targeting motifs of nine subcellular compartments, the motifs found by our method are more conserved than the methods without considering data imbalance problem and recover the most known targeting motifs from Minimotif Miner and InterPro. Meanwhile, we use the found motifs to predict protein subcellular localization and achieve higher prediction precision and recall for the minority classes.

  19. Zinc finger binding motifs do not explain recombination rate variation within or between species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Heil, Caiti S S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2012-01-01

    In humans and mice, the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein PRDM9 binds to a DNA sequence motif enriched in hotspots of recombination, possibly modifying nucleosomes, and recruiting recombination machinery to initiate Double Strand Breaks (DSBs). However, since its discovery, some researchers have suggested that the recombinational effect of PRDM9 is lineage or species specific. To test for a conserved role of PRDM9-like proteins across taxa, we use the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group in an attempt to identify recombination associated zinc finger proteins and motifs. We leveraged the conserved amino acid motifs in Cys(2)His(2) zinc fingers to predict nucleotide binding motifs for all Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins in Drosophila pseudoobscura and identified associations with empirical measures of recombination rate. Additionally, we utilized recombination maps from D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda to explore whether changes in the binding motifs between species can account for changes in the recombination landscape, analogous to the effect observed in PRDM9 among human populations. We identified a handful of potential recombination-associated sequence motifs, but the associations are generally tenuous and their biological relevance remains uncertain. Furthermore, we found no evidence that changes in zinc finger DNA binding explains variation in recombination rate between species. We therefore conclude that there is no protein with a DNA sequence specific human-PRDM9-like function in Drosophila. We suggest these findings could be explained by the existence of a different recombination initiation system in Drosophila.

  20. Fission yeast hotspot sequence motifs are also active in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Walter W; Steiner, Estelle M

    2012-01-01

    In most organisms, including humans, meiotic recombination occurs preferentially at a limited number of sites in the genome known as hotspots. There has been substantial progress recently in elucidating the factors determining the location of meiotic recombination hotspots, and it is becoming clear that simple sequence motifs play a significant role. In S. pombe, there are at least five unique sequence motifs that have been shown to produce hotspots of recombination, and it is likely that there are more. In S. cerevisiae, simple sequence motifs have also been shown to produce hotspots or show significant correlations with hotspots. Some of the hotspot motifs in both yeasts are known or suspected to bind transcription factors (TFs), which are required for the activity of those hotspots. Here we show that four of the five hotspot motifs identified in S. pombe also create hotspots in the distantly related budding yeast S. cerevisiae. For one of these hotspots, M26 (also called CRE), we identify TFs, Cst6 and Sko1, that activate and inhibit the hotspot, respectively. In addition, two of the hotspot motifs show significant correlations with naturally occurring hotspots. The conservation of these hotspots between the distantly related fission and budding yeasts suggests that these sequence motifs, and others yet to be discovered, may function widely as hotspots in many diverse organisms.

  1. A novel motif in telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates telomere repeat addition rate and processivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingyi; Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Qi, Xiaodong; Bley, Christopher J.; Chen, Julian J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini. Here, we characterize a new telomerase-specific motif, called motif 3, in the catalytic domain of telomerase reverse transcriptase, that is crucial for telomerase function and evolutionally conserved between vertebrates and ciliates. Comprehensive mutagenesis of motif 3 identified mutations that remarkably increase the rate or alter the processivity of telomere repeat addition. Notably, the rate and processivity of repeat addition are affected independently by separate motif 3 mutations. The processive telomerase action relies upon a template translocation mechanism whereby the RNA template and the telomeric DNA strand separate and realign between each repeat synthesis. By analyzing the mutant telomerases reconstituted in vitro and in cells, we show that the hyperactive mutants exhibit higher repeat addition rates and faster enzyme turnovers, suggesting higher rates of strand-separation during template translocation. In addition, the strong correlation between the processivity of the motif 3 mutants and their ability to use an 8 nt DNA primer, suggests that motif 3 facilitates realignment between the telomeric DNA and the template RNA following strand-separation. These findings support motif 3 as a key determinant for telomerase activity and processivity. PMID:20044353

  2. Coagulase and Efb of Staphylococcus aureus Have a Common Fibrinogen Binding Motif

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ya-Ping; Kang, Mingsong; Ganesh, Vannakambadi K.; Ravirajan, Dharmanand; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coagulase (Coa) and Efb, secreted Staphylococcus aureus proteins, are important virulence factors in staphylococcal infections. Coa interacts with fibrinogen (Fg) and induces the formation of fibrin(ogen) clots through activation of prothrombin. Efb attracts Fg to the bacterial surface and forms a shield to protect the bacteria from phagocytic clearance. This communication describes the use of an array of synthetic peptides to identify variants of a linear Fg binding motif present in Coa and Efb which are responsible for the Fg binding activities of these proteins. This motif represents the first Fg binding motif identified for any microbial protein. We initially located the Fg binding sites to Coa’s C-terminal disordered segment containing tandem repeats by using recombinant fragments of Coa in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type binding experiments. Sequence analyses revealed that this Coa region contained shorter segments with sequences similar to the Fg binding segments in Efb. An alanine scanning approach allowed us to identify the residues in Coa and Efb that are critical for Fg binding and to define the Fg binding motifs in the two proteins. In these motifs, the residues required for Fg binding are largely conserved, and they therefore constitute variants of a common Fg binding motif which binds to Fg with high affinity. Defining a specific motif also allowed us to identify a functional Fg binding register for the Coa repeats that is different from the repeat unit previously proposed. PMID:26733070

  3. Repression domains of class II ERF transcriptional repressors share an essential motif for active repression.

    PubMed

    Ohta, M; Matsui, K; Hiratsu, K; Shinshi, H; Ohme-Takagi, M

    2001-08-01

    We reported previously that three ERF transcription factors, tobacco ERF3 (NtERF3) and Arabidopsis AtERF3 and AtERF4, which are categorized as class II ERFs, are active repressors of transcription. To clarify the roles of these repressors in transcriptional regulation in plants, we attempted to identify the functional domains of the ERF repressor that mediates the repression of transcription. Analysis of the results of a series of deletions revealed that the C-terminal 35 amino acids of NtERF3 are sufficient to confer the capacity for repression of transcription on a heterologous DNA binding domain. This repression domain suppressed the intermolecular activities of other transcriptional activators. In addition, fusion of this repression domain to the VP16 activation domain completely inhibited the transactivation function of VP16. Comparison of amino acid sequences of class II ERF repressors revealed the conservation of the sequence motif (L)/(F)DLN(L)/(F)(x)P. This motif was essential for repression because mutations within the motif eliminated the capacity for repression. We designated this motif the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, and we identified this motif in a number of zinc-finger proteins from wheat, Arabidopsis, and petunia plants. These zinc finger proteins functioned as repressors, and their repression domains were identified as regions that contained an EAR motif.

  4. Sas3 is a histone acetyltransferase and requires a zinc finger motif.

    PubMed

    Takechi, S; Nakayama, T

    1999-12-20

    SAS3 was originally isolated as a gene related to SAS2, which encodes a positive regulator of transcriptional silencing in yeast. The Sas3 protein possesses an evolutionally conserved domain that is shared by a group of SAS-like factors. This conserved domain contains an atypical zinc finger motif and a putative acetyl-CoA binding motif. We showed that recombinant Sas3 exhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity toward acetylate core histones H2A, H3, and H4. This substrate specificity is similar to those of Tip60 and Esa1. Analysis of a series of deletion mutants revealed that the minimum region required for HAT activity is located within amino acid residues 241-577, including the domain conserved in the MYST family proteins. Amino acid substitution mutant analysis showed that both the acetyl-CoA binding motif and the zinc finger motif are required for HAT activity. These results suggest that SAS3 and its family members require the zinc finger motif for their activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. The role of the fibronectin IGD motif in stimulating fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Millard, Christopher J; Ellis, Ian R; Pickford, Andrew R; Schor, Ana M; Schor, Seth L; Campbell, Iain D

    2007-12-07

    The motogenic activity of migration-stimulating factor, a truncated isoform of fibronectin (FN), has been attributed to the IGD motifs present in its FN type 1 modules. The structure-function relationship of various recombinant IGD-containing FN fragments is now investigated. Their structure is assessed by solution state NMR and their motogenic ability tested on fibroblasts. Even conservative mutations in the IGD motif are inactive or have severely reduced potency, while the structure remains essentially the same. A fragment with two IGD motifs is 100 times more active than a fragment with one and up to 10(6) times more than synthetic tetrapeptides. The wide range of potency in different contexts is discussed in terms of cryptic FN sites and cooperativity. These results give new insight into the stimulation of fibroblast migration by IGD motifs in FN.

  6. A motif rich in charged residues determines product specificity in isomaltulose synthase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daohai; Li, Nan; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Zhang, Lian Hui

    2003-01-16

    Isomaltulose synthase (PalI) catalyzes hydrolysis of sucrose and formation of alpha-1,6 and alpha-1,1 bonds to produce isomaltulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-D-fructofranose) and small amount of trehalulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-D-fructofranose). A potential isomaltulose synthase-specific motif ((325)RLDRD(329)), that contains a 'DxD' motif conserved in many glycosyltransferases, was identified based on sequence comparison with reference to the secondary structural features of PalI and homologs. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the motif showed that the four charged amino acid residues (Arg(325), Arg(328), Asp(327) and Asp(329)) influence the enzyme kinetics and determine the product specificity. Mutation of these four residues increased trehalulose formation by 17-61% and decreased isomaltulose by 26-67%. We conclude that the 'RLDRD' motif controls the product specificity of PalI.

  7. DNA motifs determining the accuracy of repeat duplication during CRISPR adaptation in Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Li, Ming; Gong, Luyao; Hu, Songnian; Xiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) acquire new spacers to generate adaptive immunity in prokaryotes. During spacer integration, the leader-preceded repeat is always accurately duplicated, leading to speculations of a repeat-length ruler. Here in Haloarcula hispanica, we demonstrate that the accurate duplication of its 30-bp repeat requires two conserved mid-repeat motifs, AACCC and GTGGG. The AACCC motif was essential and needed to be ∼10 bp downstream from the leader-repeat junction site, where duplication consistently started. Interestingly, repeat duplication terminated sequence-independently and usually with a specific distance from the GTGGG motif, which seemingly served as an anchor site for a molecular ruler. Accordingly, altering the spacing between the two motifs led to an aberrant duplication size (29, 31, 32 or 33 bp). We propose the adaptation complex may recognize these mid-repeat elements to enable measuring the repeat DNA for spacer integration. PMID:27085805

  8. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Tam L; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2014-02-20

    ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

  9. State-Dependent Modulation of Slow Wave Motifs towards Awakening

    PubMed Central

    Shimaoka, Daisuke; Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Slow cortical waves that propagate across the cerebral cortex forming large-scale spatiotemporal propagation patterns are a hallmark of non-REM sleep and anesthesia, but also occur during resting wakefulness. To investigate how the spatial temporal properties of slow waves change with the depth of anesthetic, we optically imaged population voltage transients generated by mouse layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons across one or two cortical hemispheres dorsally with a genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI). From deep barbiturate anesthesia to light barbiturate sedation, depolarizing wave events recruiting at least 50% of the imaged cortical area consistently appeared as a conserved repertoire of distinct wave motifs. Toward awakening, the incidence of individual motifs changed systematically (the motif propagating from visual to motor areas increased while that from somatosensory to visual areas decreased) and both local and global cortical dynamics accelerated. These findings highlight that functional endogenous interactions between distant cortical areas are not only constrained by anatomical connectivity, but can also be modulated by the brain state. PMID:28484371

  10. State-Dependent Modulation of Slow Wave Motifs towards Awakening.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Daisuke; Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Slow cortical waves that propagate across the cerebral cortex forming large-scale spatiotemporal propagation patterns are a hallmark of non-REM sleep and anesthesia, but also occur during resting wakefulness. To investigate how the spatial temporal properties of slow waves change with the depth of anesthetic, we optically imaged population voltage transients generated by mouse layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons across one or two cortical hemispheres dorsally with a genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI). From deep barbiturate anesthesia to light barbiturate sedation, depolarizing wave events recruiting at least 50% of the imaged cortical area consistently appeared as a conserved repertoire of distinct wave motifs. Toward awakening, the incidence of individual motifs changed systematically (the motif propagating from visual to motor areas increased while that from somatosensory to visual areas decreased) and both local and global cortical dynamics accelerated. These findings highlight that functional endogenous interactions between distant cortical areas are not only constrained by anatomical connectivity, but can also be modulated by the brain state.

  11. An update on cell surface proteins containing extensin-motifs.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Cecilia; Sede, Ana R; Mecchia, Martin A; Salgado Salter, Juan D; Marzol, Eliana; Muschietti, Jorge P; Estevez, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that there are several molecular links that interconnect the plant cell surface continuum, which is highly important in many biological processes such as plant growth, development, and interaction with the environment. The plant cell surface continuum can be defined as the space that contains and interlinks the cell wall, plasma membrane and cytoskeleton compartments. In this review, we provide an updated view of cell surface proteins that include modular domains with an extensin (EXT)-motif followed by a cytoplasmic kinase-like domain, known as PERKs (for proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases); with an EXT-motif and an actin binding domain, known as formins; and with extracellular hybrid-EXTs. We focus our attention on the EXT-motifs with the short sequence Ser-Pro(3-5), which is found in several different protein contexts within the same extracellular space, highlighting a putative conserved structural and functional role. A closer understanding of the dynamic regulation of plant cell surface continuum and its relationship with the downstream signalling cascade is a crucial forthcoming challenge.

  12. Physical Motif Clustering within Intrinsically Disordered Nucleoporin Sequences Reveals Universal Functional Features

    PubMed Central

    Ando, David; Colvin, Michael; Rexach, Michael; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Bioinformatics of disordered proteins is especially challenging given high mutation rates for homologous proteins and that functionality may not be strongly related to sequence. Here we have performed a novel bioinformatic analysis, based on the spatial clustering of physically relevant features such as binding motifs and charges within disordered proteins, on thousands of Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) FG motif containing proteins (FG nups). The biophysical mechanism by which FG nups regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport has remained elusive. Our analysis revealed a set of highly conserved spatial features in the sequence structure of individual FG nups, such as the separation, localization, and ordering of FG motifs and charged residues along the protein chain. These functionally conserved features provide insight into the particular biophysical mechanisms responsible for regulation of nucleocytoplasmic traffic in the NPC, strongly constraining current models. Additionally this method allows us to identify potentially functionally analogous disordered proteins across distantly related species. PMID:24066078

  13. Mining, compressing and classifying with extensible motifs

    PubMed Central

    Apostolico, Alberto; Comin, Matteo; Parida, Laxmi

    2006-01-01

    Background Motif patterns of maximal saturation emerged originally in contexts of pattern discovery in biomolecular sequences and have recently proven a valuable notion also in the design of data compression schemes. Informally, a motif is a string of intermittently solid and wild characters that recurs more or less frequently in an input sequence or family of sequences. Motif discovery techniques and tools tend to be computationally imposing, however, special classes of "rigid" motifs have been identified of which the discovery is affordable in low polynomial time. Results In the present work, "extensible" motifs are considered such that each sequence of gaps comes endowed with some elasticity, whereby the same pattern may be stretched to fit segments of the source that match all the solid characters but are otherwise of different lengths. A few applications of this notion are then described. In applications of data compression by textual substitution, extensible motifs are seen to bring savings on the size of the codebook, and hence to improve compression. In germane contexts, in which compressibility is used in its dual role as a basis for structural inference and classification, extensible motifs are seen to support unsupervised classification and phylogeny reconstruction. Conclusion Off-line compression based on extensible motifs can be used advantageously to compress and classify biological sequences. PMID:16722593

  14. Classification of protein motifs based on subcellular localization uncovers evolutionary relationships at both sequence and functional levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most proteins have evolved in specific cellular compartments that limit their functions and potential interactions. On the other hand, motifs define amino acid arrangements conserved between protein family members and represent powerful tools for assigning function to protein sequences. The ideal motif would identify all members of a protein family but in practice many motifs identify both family members and unrelated proteins, referred to as True Positive (TP) and False Positive (FP) sequences, respectively. Results To address the relationship between protein motifs, protein function and cellular localization, we systematically assigned subcellular localization data to motif sequences from the comprehensive PROSITE sequence motif database. Using this data we analyzed relationships between localization and function. We find that TPs and FPs have a strong tendency to localize in different compartments. When multiple localizations are considered, TPs are usually distributed between related cellular compartments. We also identified cases where FPs are concentrated in particular subcellular regions, indicating possible functional or evolutionary relationships with TP sequences of the same motif. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the systematic examination of subcellular localization has the potential to uncover evolutionary and functional relationships between motif-containing sequences. We believe that this type of analysis complements existing motif annotations and could aid in their interpretation. Our results shed light on the evolution of cellular organelles and potentially establish the basis for new subcellular localization and function prediction algorithms. PMID:23865897

  15. WildSpan: mining structured motifs from protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Automatic extraction of motifs from biological sequences is an important research problem in study of molecular biology. For proteins, it is desired to discover sequence motifs containing a large number of wildcard symbols, as the residues associated with functional sites are usually largely separated in sequences. Discovering such patterns is time-consuming because abundant combinations exist when long gaps (a gap consists of one or more successive wildcards) are considered. Mining algorithms often employ constraints to narrow down the search space in order to increase efficiency. However, improper constraint models might degrade the sensitivity and specificity of the motifs discovered by computational methods. We previously proposed a new constraint model to handle large wildcard regions for discovering functional motifs of proteins. The patterns that satisfy the proposed constraint model are called W-patterns. A W-pattern is a structured motif that groups motif symbols into pattern blocks interleaved with large irregular gaps. Considering large gaps reflects the fact that functional residues are not always from a single region of protein sequences, and restricting motif symbols into clusters corresponds to the observation that short motifs are frequently present within protein families. To efficiently discover W-patterns for large-scale sequence annotation and function prediction, this paper first formally introduces the problem to solve and proposes an algorithm named WildSpan (sequential pattern mining across large wildcard regions) that incorporates several pruning strategies to largely reduce the mining cost. Results WildSpan is shown to efficiently find W-patterns containing conserved residues that are far separated in sequences. We conducted experiments with two mining strategies, protein-based and family-based mining, to evaluate the usefulness of W-patterns and performance of WildSpan. The protein-based mining mode of WildSpan is developed for

  16. WildSpan: mining structured motifs from protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chen-Ming; Chen, Chien-Yu; Liu, Baw-Jhiune

    2011-03-31

    Automatic extraction of motifs from biological sequences is an important research problem in study of molecular biology. For proteins, it is desired to discover sequence motifs containing a large number of wildcard symbols, as the residues associated with functional sites are usually largely separated in sequences. Discovering such patterns is time-consuming because abundant combinations exist when long gaps (a gap consists of one or more successive wildcards) are considered. Mining algorithms often employ constraints to narrow down the search space in order to increase efficiency. However, improper constraint models might degrade the sensitivity and specificity of the motifs discovered by computational methods. We previously proposed a new constraint model to handle large wildcard regions for discovering functional motifs of proteins. The patterns that satisfy the proposed constraint model are called W-patterns. A W-pattern is a structured motif that groups motif symbols into pattern blocks interleaved with large irregular gaps. Considering large gaps reflects the fact that functional residues are not always from a single region of protein sequences, and restricting motif symbols into clusters corresponds to the observation that short motifs are frequently present within protein families. To efficiently discover W-patterns for large-scale sequence annotation and function prediction, this paper first formally introduces the problem to solve and proposes an algorithm named WildSpan (sequential pattern mining across large wildcard regions) that incorporates several pruning strategies to largely reduce the mining cost. WildSpan is shown to efficiently find W-patterns containing conserved residues that are far separated in sequences. We conducted experiments with two mining strategies, protein-based and family-based mining, to evaluate the usefulness of W-patterns and performance of WildSpan. The protein-based mining mode of WildSpan is developed for discovering

  17. Sampling Motif-Constrained Ensembles of Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rico; Leitão, Jorge C.; Peixoto, Tiago P.; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-10-01

    The statistical significance of network properties is conditioned on null models which satisfy specified properties but that are otherwise random. Exponential random graph models are a principled theoretical framework to generate such constrained ensembles, but which often fail in practice, either due to model inconsistency or due to the impossibility to sample networks from them. These problems affect the important case of networks with prescribed clustering coefficient or number of small connected subgraphs (motifs). In this Letter we use the Wang-Landau method to obtain a multicanonical sampling that overcomes both these problems. We sample, in polynomial time, networks with arbitrary degree sequences from ensembles with imposed motifs counts. Applying this method to social networks, we investigate the relation between transitivity and homophily, and we quantify the correlation between different types of motifs, finding that single motifs can explain up to 60% of the variation of motif profiles.

  18. Temporal motifs in time-dependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovanen, Lauri; Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Saramäki, Jari

    2011-11-01

    Temporal networks are commonly used to represent systems where connections between elements are active only for restricted periods of time, such as telecommunication, neural signal processing, biochemical reaction and human social interaction networks. We introduce the framework of temporal motifs to study the mesoscale topological-temporal structure of temporal networks in which the events of nodes do not overlap in time. Temporal motifs are classes of similar event sequences, where the similarity refers not only to topology but also to the temporal order of the events. We provide a mapping from event sequences to coloured directed graphs that enables an efficient algorithm for identifying temporal motifs. We discuss some aspects of temporal motifs, including causality and null models, and present basic statistics of temporal motifs in a large mobile call network.

  19. P-value-based regulatory motif discovery using positional weight matrices.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Holger; Guthöhrlein, Eckhart W; Siebert, Matthias; Luehr, Sebastian; Söding, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    To analyze gene regulatory networks, the sequence-dependent DNA/RNA binding affinities of proteins and noncoding RNAs are crucial. Often, these are deduced from sets of sequences enriched in factor binding sites. Two classes of computational approaches exist. The first describe binding motifs by sequence patterns and search the patterns with highest statistical significance for enrichment. The second class uses the more powerful position weight matrices (PWMs). Instead of maximizing the statistical significance of enrichment, they maximize a likelihood. Here we present XXmotif (eXhaustive evaluation of matriX motifs), the first PWM-based motif discovery method that can optimize PWMs by directly minimizing their P-values of enrichment. Optimization requires computing millions of enrichment P-values for thousands of PWMs. For a given PWM, the enrichment P-value is calculated efficiently from the match P-values of all possible motif placements in the input sequences using order statistics. The approach can naturally combine P-values for motif enrichment, conservation, and localization. On ChIP-chip/seq, miRNA knock-down, and coexpression data sets from yeast and metazoans, XXmotif outperformed state-of-the-art tools, both in numbers of correctly identified motifs and in the quality of PWMs. In segmentation modules of D. melanogaster, we detect the known key regulators and several new motifs. In human core promoters, XXmotif reports most previously described and eight novel motifs sharply peaked around the transcription start site, among them an Initiator motif similar to the fly and yeast versions. XXmotif's sensitivity, reliability, and usability will help to leverage the quickly accumulating wealth of functional genomics data.

  20. Characterization of the tandem CWCH2 sequence motif: a hallmark of inter-zinc finger interactions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) domain is widely conserved among eukaryotic proteins. In Zic/Gli/Zap1 C2H2 ZF proteins, the two N-terminal ZFs form a single structural unit by sharing a hydrophobic core. This structural unit defines a new motif comprised of two tryptophan side chains at the center of the hydrophobic core. Because each tryptophan residue is located between the two cysteine residues of the C2H2 motif, we have named this structure the tandem CWCH2 (tCWCH2) motif. Results Here, we characterized 587 tCWCH2-containing genes using data derived from public databases. We categorized genes into 11 classes including Zic/Gli/Glis, Arid2/Rsc9, PacC, Mizf, Aebp2, Zap1/ZafA, Fungl, Zfp106, Twincl, Clr1, and Fungl-4ZF, based on sequence similarity, domain organization, and functional similarities. tCWCH2 motifs are mostly found in organisms belonging to the Opisthokonta (metazoa, fungi, and choanoflagellates) and Amoebozoa (amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum). By comparison, the C2H2 ZF motif is distributed widely among the eukaryotes. The structure and organization of the tCWCH2 motif, its phylogenetic distribution, and molecular phylogenetic analysis suggest that prototypical tCWCH2 genes existed in the Opisthokonta ancestor. Within-group or between-group comparisons of the tCWCH2 amino acid sequence identified three additional sequence features (site-specific amino acid frequencies, longer linker sequence between two C2H2 ZFs, and frequent extra-sequences within C2H2 ZF motifs). Conclusion These features suggest that the tCWCH2 motif is a specialized motif involved in inter-zinc finger interactions. PMID:20167128

  1. Conservation of the three-dimensional structure in non-homologous or unrelated proteins.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Haney, Carl E; Cao, Jin; Sunchu, Bharath; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2012-08-02

    In this review, we examine examples of conservation of protein structural motifs in unrelated or non-homologous proteins. For this, we have selected three DNA-binding motifs: the histone fold, the helix-turn-helix motif, and the zinc finger, as well as the globin-like fold. We show that indeed similar structures exist in unrelated proteins, strengthening the concept that three-dimensional conservation might be more important than the primary amino acid sequence.

  2. MotifNet: a web-server for network motif analysis.

    PubMed

    Smoly, Ilan Y; Lerman, Eugene; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2017-06-15

    Network motifs are small topological patterns that recur in a network significantly more often than expected by chance. Their identification emerged as a powerful approach for uncovering the design principles underlying complex networks. However, available tools for network motif analysis typically require download and execution of computationally intensive software on a local computer. We present MotifNet, the first open-access web-server for network motif analysis. MotifNet allows researchers to analyze integrated networks, where nodes and edges may be labeled, and to search for motifs of up to eight nodes. The output motifs are presented graphically and the user can interactively filter them by their significance, number of instances, node and edge labels, and node identities, and view their instances. MotifNet also allows the user to distinguish between motifs that are centered on specific nodes and motifs that recur in distinct parts of the network. MotifNet is freely available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/motifnet . The website was implemented using ReactJs and supports all major browsers. The server interface was implemented in Python with data stored on a MySQL database. estiyl@bgu.ac.il or michaluz@cs.bgu.ac.il. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Efficient motif search in ranked lists and applications to variable gap motifs.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Limor; Yakhini, Zohar

    2012-07-01

    Sequence elements, at all levels-DNA, RNA and protein, play a central role in mediating molecular recognition and thereby molecular regulation and signaling. Studies that focus on -measuring and investigating sequence-based recognition make use of statistical and computational tools, including approaches to searching sequence motifs. State-of-the-art motif searching tools are limited in their coverage and ability to address large motif spaces. We develop and present statistical and algorithmic approaches that take as input ranked lists of sequences and return significant motifs. The efficiency of our approach, based on suffix trees, allows searches over motif spaces that are not covered by existing tools. This includes searching variable gap motifs-two half sites with a flexible length gap in between-and searching long motifs over large alphabets. We used our approach to analyze several high-throughput measurement data sets and report some validation results as well as novel suggested motifs and motif refinements. We suggest a refinement of the known estrogen receptor 1 motif in humans, where we observe gaps other than three nucleotides that also serve as significant recognition sites, as well as a variable length motif related to potential tyrosine phosphorylation.

  4. CompleteMOTIFs: DNA motif discovery platform for transcription factor binding experiments.

    PubMed

    Kuttippurathu, Lakshmi; Hsing, Michael; Liu, Yongchao; Schmidt, Bertil; Maskell, Douglas L; Lee, Kyungjoon; He, Aibin; Pu, William T; Kong, Sek Won

    2011-03-01

    CompleteMOTIFs (cMOTIFs) is an integrated web tool developed to facilitate systematic discovery of overrepresented transcription factor binding motifs from high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Comprehensive annotations and Boolean logic operations on multiple peak locations enable users to focus on genomic regions of interest for de novo motif discovery using tools such as MEME, Weeder and ChIPMunk. The pipeline incorporates a scanning tool for known motifs from TRANSFAC and JASPAR databases, and performs an enrichment test using local or precalculated background models that significantly improve the motif scanning result. Furthermore, using the cMOTIFs pipeline, we demonstrated that multiple transcription factors could cooperatively bind to the upstream of important stem cell differentiation regulators. http://cmotifs.tchlab.org.

  5. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theme of a statement is called "lie motif" by the authors when schizophrenic patients say "I have lied to anybody". We tried to analyse of the psychopathological characteristics and anthropological meanings of the lie motifs in schizophrenia, which has not been thematically examined until now, based on 4 cases, and contrasting with the lie motif (Lügenmotiv) in depression taken up by A. Kraus (1989). We classified the lie motifs in schizophrenia into the following two types: a) the past directive lie motif: the patients speak about their real lie regarding it as a 'petty fault' in their distant past with self-guilty feeling, b) the present directive lie motif: the patients say repeatedly 'I have lied' (about their present speech and behavior), retreating from their previous commitments. The observed false confessions of innocent fault by the patients seem to belong to the present directed lie motif. In comparison with the lie motif in depression, it is characteristic for the lie motif in schizophrenia that the patients feel themselves to already have been caught out by others before they confess the lie. The lie motif in schizophrenia seems to come into being through the attribution process of taking the others' blame on ones' own shoulders, which has been pointed out to be common in the guilt experience in schizophrenia. The others' blame on this occasion is due to "the others' gaze" in the experience of the initial self-centralization (i.e. non delusional self-referential experience) in the early stage of schizophrenia (S. Kato 1999). The others' gaze is supposed to bring about the feeling of amorphous self-revelation which could also be regarded as the guilt feeling without content, to the patients. When the guilt feeling is bound with a past concrete fault, the patients tell the past directive lie motif. On the other hand, when the patients cannot find a past fixed content, and feel their present actions as uncertain and experience them as lies, the

  6. Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-21

    Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by patterns in

  7. Functional implications of local DNA structures in regulatory motifs.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of DNA has been proposed to be a major determinant for functional transcription factors (TFs) and DNA interaction. Here, we use hydroxyl radical cleavage pattern as a measure of local DNA structure. We compared the conservation between DNA sequence and structure in terms of information content and attempted to assess the functional implications of DNA structures in regulatory motifs. We used statistical methods to evaluate the structural divergence of substituting a single position within a binding site and applied them to a collection of putative regulatory motifs. The following are our major observations: (i) we observed more information in structural alignment than in the corresponding sequence alignment for most of the transcriptional factors; (ii) for each TF, majority of positions have more information in the structural alignment as compared to the sequence alignment; (iii) we further defined a DNA structural divergence score (SD score) for each wild-type and mutant pair that is distinguished by single-base mutation. The SD score for benign mutations is significantly lower than that of switch mutations. This indicates structural conservation is also important for TFBS to be functional and DNA structures will provide previously unappreciated information for TF to realize the binding specificity.

  8. MoD Tools: regulatory motif discovery in nucleotide sequences from co-regulated or homologous genes

    PubMed Central

    Pavesi, Giulio; Mereghetti, Paolo; Zambelli, Federico; Stefani, Marco; Mauri, Giancarlo; Pesole, Graziano

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the complex mechanisms regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is one of the greatest challenges of the post-genomic era. The MoD (MOtif Discovery) Tools web server comprises a set of tools for the discovery of novel conserved sequence and structure motifs in nucleotide sequences, motifs that in turn are good candidates for regulatory activity. The server includes the following programs: Weeder, for the discovery of conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in nucleotide sequences from co-regulated genes; WeederH, for the discovery of conserved TFBSs and distal regulatory modules in sequences from homologous genes; RNAProfile, for the discovery of conserved secondary structure motifs in unaligned RNA sequences whose secondary structure is not known. In this way, a given gene can be compared with other co-regulated genes or with its homologs, or its mRNA can be analyzed for conserved motifs regulating its post-transcriptional fate. The web server thus provides researchers with different strategies and methods to investigate the regulation of gene expression, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Available at and . PMID:16845071

  9. Stochastic motif extraction using hidden Markov model

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Yukiko; Asogawa, Minoru; Konagaya, Akihiko

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we study the application of an HMM (hidden Markov model) to the problem of representing protein sequences by a stochastic motif. A stochastic protein motif represents the small segments of protein sequences that have a certain function or structure. The stochastic motif, represented by an HMM, has conditional probabilities to deal with the stochastic nature of the motif. This HMM directive reflects the characteristics of the motif, such as a protein periodical structure or grouping. In order to obtain the optimal HMM, we developed the {open_quotes}iterative duplication method{close_quotes} for HMM topology learning. It starts from a small fully-connected network and iterates the network generation and parameter optimization until it achieves sufficient discrimination accuracy. Using this method, we obtained an HMM for a leucine zipper motif. Compared to the accuracy of a symbolic pattern representation with accuracy of 14.8 percent, an HMM achieved 79.3 percent in prediction. Additionally, the method can obtain an HMM for various types of zinc finger motifs, and it might separate the mixed data. We demonstrated that this approach is applicable to the validation of the protein databases; a constructed HMM b as indicated that one protein sequence annotated as {open_quotes}lencine-zipper like sequence{close_quotes} in the database is quite different from other leucine-zipper sequences in terms of likelihood, and we found this discrimination is plausible.

  10. VARUN: discovering extensible motifs under saturation constraints.

    PubMed

    Apostolico, Alberto; Comin, Matteo; Parida, Laxmi

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of motifs in biosequences is frequently torn between the rigidity of the model on one hand and the abundance of candidates on the other hand. In particular, motifs that include wild cards or "don't cares" escalate exponentially with their number, and this gets only worse if a don't care is allowed to stretch up to some prescribed maximum length. In this paper, a notion of extensible motif in a sequence is introduced and studied, which tightly combines the structure of the motif pattern, as described by its syntactic specification, with the statistical measure of its occurrence count. It is shown that a combination of appropriate saturation conditions and the monotonicity of probabilistic scores over regions of constant frequency afford us significant parsimony in the generation and testing of candidate overrepresented motifs. A suite of software programs called Varun is described, implementing the discovery of extensible motifs of the type considered. The merits of the method are then documented by results obtained in a variety of experiments primarily targeting protein sequence families. Of equal importance seems the fact that the sets of all surprising motifs returned in each experiment are extracted faster and come in much more manageable sizes than would be obtained in the absence of saturation constraints.

  11. Designing synthetic RNAs to determine the relevance of structural motifs in picornavirus IRES elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Lozano, Gloria; Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Ramajo, Jorge; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion

    2016-04-01

    The function of Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) elements is intimately linked to their RNA structure. Viral IRES elements are organized in modular domains consisting of one or more stem-loops that harbor conserved RNA motifs critical for internal initiation of translation. A conserved motif is the pyrimidine-tract located upstream of the functional initiation codon in type I and II picornavirus IRES. By computationally designing synthetic RNAs to fold into a structure that sequesters the polypyrimidine tract in a hairpin, we establish a correlation between predicted inaccessibility of the pyrimidine tract and IRES activity, as determined in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Our data supports the hypothesis that structural sequestration of the pyrimidine-tract within a stable hairpin inactivates IRES activity, since the stronger the stability of the hairpin the higher the inhibition of protein synthesis. Destabilization of the stem-loop immediately upstream of the pyrimidine-tract also decreases IRES activity. Our work introduces a hybrid computational/experimental method to determine the importance of structural motifs for biological function. Specifically, we show the feasibility of using the software RNAiFold to design synthetic RNAs with particular sequence and structural motifs that permit subsequent experimental determination of the importance of such motifs for biological function.

  12. Prevalence of the EH1 Groucho interaction motif in the metazoan Fox family of transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Yaklichkin, Sergey; Vekker, Alexander; Stayrook, Steven; Lewis, Mitchell; Kessler, Daniel S

    2007-01-01

    Background The Fox gene family comprises a large and functionally diverse group of forkhead-related transcriptional regulators, many of which are essential for metazoan embryogenesis and physiology. Defining conserved functional domains that mediate the transcriptional activity of Fox proteins will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the biological function of Fox family genes. Results Systematic analysis of 458 protein sequences of the metazoan Fox family was performed to identify the presence of the engrailed homology-1 motif (eh1), a motif known to mediate physical interaction with transcriptional corepressors of the TLE/Groucho family. Greater than 50% of Fox proteins contain sequences with high similarity to the eh1 motif, including ten of the nineteen Fox subclasses (A, B, C, D, E, G, H, I, L, and Q) and Fox proteins of early divergent species such as marine sponge. The eh1 motif is not detected in Fox proteins of the F, J, K, M, N, O, P, R and S subclasses, or in yeast Fox proteins. The eh1-like motifs are positioned C-terminal to the winged helix DNA-binding domain in all subclasses except for FoxG proteins, which have an N-terminal motif. Two similar eh1-like motifs are found in the zebrafish FoxQ1 and in FoxG proteins of sea urchin and amphioxus. The identification of eh1-like motifs by manual sequence alignment was validated by statistical analyses of the Swiss protein database, confirming a high frequency of occurrence of eh1-like sequences in Fox family proteins. Structural predictions suggest that the majority of identified eh1-like motifs are short α-helices, and wheel modeling revealed an amphipathicity that supports this secondary structure prediction. Conclusion A search for eh1 Groucho interaction motifs in the Fox gene family has identified eh1-like sequences in greater than 50% of Fox proteins. The results predict a physical and functional interaction of TLE/Groucho corepressors with many members of the Fox family of transcriptional

  13. One motif to bind them: A small-XXX-small motif affects transmembrane domain 1 oligomerization, function, localization, and cross-talk between two yeast GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Lock, Antonia; Forfar, Rachel; Weston, Cathryn; Bowsher, Leo; Upton, Graham J G; Reynolds, Christopher A; Ladds, Graham; Dixon, Ann M

    2014-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell-surface receptors in mammals and facilitate a range of physiological responses triggered by a variety of ligands. GPCRs were thought to function as monomers, however it is now accepted that GPCR homo- and hetero-oligomers also exist and influence receptor properties. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe GPCR Mam2 is a pheromone-sensing receptor involved in mating and has previously been shown to form oligomers in vivo. The first transmembrane domain (TMD) of Mam2 contains a small-XXX-small motif, overrepresented in membrane proteins and well-known for promoting helix-helix interactions. An ortholog of Mam2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2, contains an analogous small-XXX-small motif which has been shown to contribute to receptor homo-oligomerization, localization and function. Here we have used experimental and computational techniques to characterize the role of the small-XXX-small motif in function and assembly of Mam2 for the first time. We find that disruption of the motif via mutagenesis leads to reduction of Mam2 TMD1 homo-oligomerization and pheromone-responsive cellular signaling of the full-length protein. It also impairs correct targeting to the plasma membrane. Mutation of the analogous motif in Ste2 yielded similar results, suggesting a conserved mechanism for assembly. Using co-expression of the two fungal receptors in conjunction with computational models, we demonstrate a functional change in G protein specificity and propose that this is brought about through hetero-dimeric interactions of Mam2 with Ste2 via the complementary small-XXX-small motifs. This highlights the potential of these motifs to affect a range of properties that can be investigated in other GPCRs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Efficient motif search in ranked lists and applications to variable gap motifs

    PubMed Central

    Leibovich, Limor; Yakhini, Zohar

    2012-01-01

    Sequence elements, at all levels—DNA, RNA and protein, play a central role in mediating molecular recognition and thereby molecular regulation and signaling. Studies that focus on measuring and investigating sequence-based recognition make use of statistical and computational tools, including approaches to searching sequence motifs. State-of-the-art motif searching tools are limited in their coverage and ability to address large motif spaces. We develop and present statistical and algorithmic approaches that take as input ranked lists of sequences and return significant motifs. The efficiency of our approach, based on suffix trees, allows searches over motif spaces that are not covered by existing tools. This includes searching variable gap motifs—two half sites with a flexible length gap in between—and searching long motifs over large alphabets. We used our approach to analyze several high-throughput measurement data sets and report some validation results as well as novel suggested motifs and motif refinements. We suggest a refinement of the known estrogen receptor 1 motif in humans, where we observe gaps other than three nucleotides that also serve as significant recognition sites, as well as a variable length motif related to potential tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:22416066

  15. RSAT peak-motifs: motif analysis in full-size ChIP-seq datasets.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Herrmann, Carl; Defrance, Matthieu; Sand, Olivier; Thieffry, Denis; van Helden, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    ChIP-seq is increasingly used to characterize transcription factor binding and chromatin marks at a genomic scale. Various tools are now available to extract binding motifs from peak data sets. However, most approaches are only available as command-line programs, or via a website but with size restrictions. We present peak-motifs, a computational pipeline that discovers motifs in peak sequences, compares them with databases, exports putative binding sites for visualization in the UCSC genome browser and generates an extensive report suited for both naive and expert users. It relies on time- and memory-efficient algorithms enabling the treatment of several thousand peaks within minutes. Regarding time efficiency, peak-motifs outperforms all comparable tools by several orders of magnitude. We demonstrate its accuracy by analyzing data sets ranging from 4000 to 1,28,000 peaks for 12 embryonic stem cell-specific transcription factors. In all cases, the program finds the expected motifs and returns additional motifs potentially bound by cofactors. We further apply peak-motifs to discover tissue-specific motifs in peak collections for the p300 transcriptional co-activator. To our knowledge, peak-motifs is the only tool that performs a complete motif analysis and offers a user-friendly web interface without any restriction on sequence size or number of peaks.

  16. RSAT peak-motifs: motif analysis in full-size ChIP-seq datasets

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Herrmann, Carl; Defrance, Matthieu; Sand, Olivier; Thieffry, Denis; van Helden, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    ChIP-seq is increasingly used to characterize transcription factor binding and chromatin marks at a genomic scale. Various tools are now available to extract binding motifs from peak data sets. However, most approaches are only available as command-line programs, or via a website but with size restrictions. We present peak-motifs, a computational pipeline that discovers motifs in peak sequences, compares them with databases, exports putative binding sites for visualization in the UCSC genome browser and generates an extensive report suited for both naive and expert users. It relies on time- and memory-efficient algorithms enabling the treatment of several thousand peaks within minutes. Regarding time efficiency, peak-motifs outperforms all comparable tools by several orders of magnitude. We demonstrate its accuracy by analyzing data sets ranging from 4000 to 1 28 000 peaks for 12 embryonic stem cell-specific transcription factors. In all cases, the program finds the expected motifs and returns additional motifs potentially bound by cofactors. We further apply peak-motifs to discover tissue-specific motifs in peak collections for the p300 transcriptional co-activator. To our knowledge, peak-motifs is the only tool that performs a complete motif analysis and offers a user-friendly web interface without any restriction on sequence size or number of peaks. PMID:22156162

  17. Predicting candidate genomic sequences that correspond to synthetic functional RNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Laserson, Uri; Gan, Hin Hark; Schlick, Tamar

    2005-01-01

    Riboswitches and RNA interference are important emerging mechanisms found in many organisms to control gene expression. To enhance our understanding of such RNA roles, finding small regulatory motifs in genomes presents a challenge on a wide scale. Many simple functional RNA motifs have been found by in vitro selection experiments, which produce synthetic target-binding aptamers as well as catalytic RNAs, including the hammerhead ribozyme. Motivated by the prediction of Piganeau and Schroeder [(2003) Chem. Biol., 10, 103–104] that synthetic RNAs may have natural counterparts, we develop and apply an efficient computational protocol for identifying aptamer-like motifs in genomes. We define motifs from the sequence and structural information of synthetic aptamers, search for sequences in genomes that will produce motif matches, and then evaluate the structural stability and statistical significance of the potential hits. Our application to aptamers for streptomycin, chloramphenicol, neomycin B and ATP identifies 37 candidate sequences (in coding and non-coding regions) that fold to the target aptamer structures in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Further energetic screening reveals that several candidates exhibit energetic properties and sequence conservation patterns that are characteristic of functional motifs. Besides providing candidates for experimental testing, our computational protocol offers an avenue for expanding natural RNA's functional repertoire. PMID:16254081

  18. A systematic approach to identify functional motifs within vertebrate developmental enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Ritter, Deborah; Yang, Nan; Dong, Zhiqiang; Li, Hao; Chuang, Jeffrey H.; Guo, Su

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering the cis-regulatory logic of developmental enhancers is critical to understanding the role of non-coding DNA in development. However, it is cumbersome to identify functional motifs within enhancers, and thus few vertebrate enhancers have their core functional motifs revealed. Here we report a combined experimental and computational approach for discovering regulatory motifs in developmental enhancers. Making use of the zebrafish gene expression database, we computationally identified conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) likely to have a desired tissue-specificity based on the expression of nearby genes. Through a high throughput and robust enhancer assay, we tested the activity of ~100 such CNEs and efficiently uncovered developmental enhancers with desired spatial and temporal expression patterns in the zebrafish brain. Application of de novo motif prediction algorithms on a group of forebrain enhancers identified five top-ranked motifs, all of which were experimentally validated as critical for forebrain enhancer activity. These results demonstrate a systematic approach to discover important regulatory motifs in vertebrate developmental enhancers. Moreover, this dataset provides a useful resource for further dissection of vertebrate brain development and function. PMID:19850031

  19. SALAD database: a motif-based database of protein annotations for plant comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Motohiro; Itoh, Takeshi; Izawa, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Proteins often have several motifs with distinct evolutionary histories. Proteins with similar motifs have similar biochemical properties and thus related biological functions. We constructed a unique comparative genomics database termed the SALAD database (http://salad.dna.affrc.go.jp/salad/) from plant-genome-based proteome data sets. We extracted evolutionarily conserved motifs by MEME software from 209,529 protein-sequence annotation groups selected by BLASTP from the proteome data sets of 10 species: rice, sorghum, Arabidopsis thaliana, grape, a lycophyte, a moss, 3 algae, and yeast. Similarity clustering of each protein group was performed by pairwise scoring of the motif patterns of the sequences. The SALAD database provides a user-friendly graphical viewer that displays a motif pattern diagram linked to the resulting bootstrapped dendrogram for each protein group. Amino-acid-sequence-based and nucleotide-sequence-based phylogenetic trees for motif combination alignment, a logo comparison diagram for each clade in the tree, and a Pfam-domain pattern diagram are also available. We also developed a viewer named 'SALAD on ARRAYs' to view arbitrary microarray data sets of paralogous genes linked to the same dendrogram in a window. The SALAD database is a powerful tool for comparing protein sequences and can provide valuable hints for biological analysis.

  20. SALAD database: a motif-based database of protein annotations for plant comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Motohiro; Itoh, Takeshi; Izawa, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Proteins often have several motifs with distinct evolutionary histories. Proteins with similar motifs have similar biochemical properties and thus related biological functions. We constructed a unique comparative genomics database termed the SALAD database (http://salad.dna.affrc.go.jp/salad/) from plant-genome-based proteome data sets. We extracted evolutionarily conserved motifs by MEME software from 209 529 protein-sequence annotation groups selected by BLASTP from the proteome data sets of 10 species: rice, sorghum, Arabidopsis thaliana, grape, a lycophyte, a moss, 3 algae, and yeast. Similarity clustering of each protein group was performed by pairwise scoring of the motif patterns of the sequences. The SALAD database provides a user-friendly graphical viewer that displays a motif pattern diagram linked to the resulting bootstrapped dendrogram for each protein group. Amino-acid-sequence-based and nucleotide-sequence-based phylogenetic trees for motif combination alignment, a logo comparison diagram for each clade in the tree, and a Pfam-domain pattern diagram are also available. We also developed a viewer named ‘SALAD on ARRAYs’ to view arbitrary microarray data sets of paralogous genes linked to the same dendrogram in a window. The SALAD database is a powerful tool for comparing protein sequences and can provide valuable hints for biological analysis. PMID:19854933

  1. What Determines the Assembly of Transcriptional Network Motifs in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Camas, Francisco M.; Poyatos, Juan F.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional networks are constituted by a collection of building blocks known as network motifs. Why do motifs appear? An adaptive model of motif emergence was recently questioned in favor of neutralist scenarios. Here, we provide a new picture of motif assembly in Escherichia coli which partially clarifies these contrasting explanations. This is based on characterizing the linkage between motifs and sensing or response specificity of their constituent transcriptional factors (TFs). We find that sensing specificity influences the distribution of autoregulation, while the tendency of a TF to establish feed-forward loops (FFLs) depends on response specificity, i.e., regulon size. Analysis of the latter pattern reveals that coregulation between large regulon-size TFs is common under a network neutral model, leading to the assembly of a great number of FFLs and bifans. In addition, neutral exclusive regulation also leads to a collection of single input modules -the fourth basic motif. On the whole, and even under the conservative neutralist scenario considered, a substantial group of regulatory structures revealed adaptive. These structures visibly function as fully-fledged working units. PMID:18987754

  2. Sequence-motif Detection of NAD(P)-binding Proteins: Discovery of a Unique Antibacterial Drug Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yun Hao; Wu, Chih Yuan; Sargsyan, Karen; Lim, Carmay

    2014-09-01

    Many enzymes use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)) as essential coenzymes. These enzymes often do not share significant sequence identity and cannot be easily detected by sequence homology. Previously, we determined all distinct locally conserved pyrophosphate-binding structures (3d motifs) from NAD(P)-bound protein structures, from which 1d sequence motifs were derived. Here, we aim to establish the precision of these 3d and 1d motifs to annotate NAD(P)-binding proteins. We show that the pyrophosphate-binding 3d motifs are characteristic of NAD(P)-binding proteins, as they are rarely found in nonNAD(P)-binding proteins. Furthermore, several 1d motifs could distinguish between proteins that bind only NAD and those that bind only NADP. They could also distinguish between NAD(P)-binding proteins from nonNAD(P)-binding ones. Interestingly, one of the pyrophosphate-binding 3d and corresponding 1d motifs was found only in enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases, which are enzymes essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This unique 3d motif serves as an attractive novel drug target, as it is conserved across many bacterial species and is not found in human proteins.

  3. Homodimerization of RBPMS2 through a new RRM-interaction motif is necessary to control smooth muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sagnol, Sébastien; Yang, Yinshan; Bessin, Yannick; Allemand, Fréderic; Hapkova, Ilona; Notarnicola, Cécile; Guichou, Jean-François; Faure, Sandrine; Labesse, Gilles; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2014-09-01

    In vertebrates, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can reversibly switch between contractile and proliferative phenotypes. This involves various molecular mechanisms to reactivate developmental signaling pathways and induce cell dedifferentiation. The protein RBPMS2 regulates early development and plasticity of digestive SMCs by inhibiting the bone morphogenetic protein pathway through its interaction with NOGGIN mRNA. RBPMS2 contains only one RNA recognition motif (RRM) while this motif is often repeated in tandem or associated with other functional domains in RRM-containing proteins. Herein, we show using an extensive combination of structure/function analyses that RBPMS2 homodimerizes through a particular sequence motif (D-x-K-x-R-E-L-Y-L-L-F: residues 39-51) located in its RRM domain. We also show that this specific motif is conserved among its homologs and paralogs in vertebrates and in its insect and worm orthologs (CPO and MEC-8, respectively) suggesting a conserved molecular mechanism of action. Inhibition of the dimerization process through targeting a conserved leucine inside of this motif abolishes the capacity of RBPMS2 to interact with the translational elongation eEF2 protein, to upregulate NOGGIN mRNA in vivo and to drive SMC dedifferentiation. Our study demonstrates that RBPMS2 possesses an RRM domain harboring both RNA-binding and protein-binding properties and that the newly identified RRM-homodimerization motif is crucial for the function of RBPMS2 at the cell and tissue levels.

  4. Homodimerization of RBPMS2 through a new RRM-interaction motif is necessary to control smooth muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sagnol, Sébastien; Yang, Yinshan; Bessin, Yannick; Allemand, Fréderic; Hapkova, Ilona; Notarnicola, Cécile; Guichou, Jean-François; Faure, Sandrine; Labesse, Gilles; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can reversibly switch between contractile and proliferative phenotypes. This involves various molecular mechanisms to reactivate developmental signaling pathways and induce cell dedifferentiation. The protein RBPMS2 regulates early development and plasticity of digestive SMCs by inhibiting the bone morphogenetic protein pathway through its interaction with NOGGIN mRNA. RBPMS2 contains only one RNA recognition motif (RRM) while this motif is often repeated in tandem or associated with other functional domains in RRM-containing proteins. Herein, we show using an extensive combination of structure/function analyses that RBPMS2 homodimerizes through a particular sequence motif (D-x-K-x-R-E-L-Y-L-L-F: residues 39–51) located in its RRM domain. We also show that this specific motif is conserved among its homologs and paralogs in vertebrates and in its insect and worm orthologs (CPO and MEC-8, respectively) suggesting a conserved molecular mechanism of action. Inhibition of the dimerization process through targeting a conserved leucine inside of this motif abolishes the capacity of RBPMS2 to interact with the translational elongation eEF2 protein, to upregulate NOGGIN mRNA in vivo and to drive SMC dedifferentiation. Our study demonstrates that RBPMS2 possesses an RRM domain harboring both RNA-binding and protein-binding properties and that the newly identified RRM-homodimerization motif is crucial for the function of RBPMS2 at the cell and tissue levels. PMID:25064856

  5. Network motif identification in stochastic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rui; Tu, Zhidong; Chen, Ting; Sun, Fengzhu

    2006-06-01

    Network motifs have been identified in a wide range of networks across many scientific disciplines and are suggested to be the basic building blocks of most complex networks. Nonetheless, many networks come with intrinsic and/or experimental uncertainties and should be treated as stochastic networks. The building blocks in these networks thus may also have stochastic properties. In this article, we study stochastic network motifs derived from families of mutually similar but not necessarily identical patterns of interconnections. We establish a finite mixture model for stochastic networks and develop an expectation-maximization algorithm for identifying stochastic network motifs. We apply this approach to the transcriptional regulatory networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the protein-protein interaction networks of seven species, and identify several stochastic network motifs that are consistent with current biological knowledge. expectation-maximization algorithm | mixture model | transcriptional regulatory network | protein-protein interaction network

  6. DNA Motif Databases and Their Uses.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Gary D

    2015-09-03

    Transcription factors (TFs) recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences. The specificity of a TF is usually represented as a position weight matrix (PWM). Several databases of DNA motifs exist and are used in biological research to address important biological questions. This overview describes PWMs and some of the most commonly used motif databases, as well as a few of their common applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. SA-Mot: a web server for the identification of motifs of interest extracted from protein loops.

    PubMed

    Regad, Leslie; Saladin, Adrien; Maupetit, Julien; Geneix, Colette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-07-01

    The detection of functional motifs is an important step for the determination of protein functions. We present here a new web server SA-Mot (Structural Alphabet Motif) for the extraction and location of structural motifs of interest from protein loops. Contrary to other methods, SA-Mot does not focus only on functional motifs, but it extracts recurrent and conserved structural motifs involved in structural redundancy of loops. SA-Mot uses the structural word notion to extract all structural motifs from uni-dimensional sequences corresponding to loop structures. Then, SA-Mot provides a description of these structural motifs using statistics computed in the loop data set and in SCOP superfamily, sequence and structural parameters. SA-Mot results correspond to an interactive table listing all structural motifs extracted from a target structure and their associated descriptors. Using this information, the users can easily locate loop regions that are important for the protein folding and function. The SA-Mot web server is available at http://sa-mot.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr.

  8. Chaotic Motifs in Gene Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ye, Weiming; Qian, Yu; Zheng, Zhigang; Huang, Xuhui; Hu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Chaos should occur often in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) which have been widely described by nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, if their dimensions are no less than 3. It is therefore puzzling that chaos has never been reported in GRNs in nature and is also extremely rare in models of GRNs. On the other hand, the topic of motifs has attracted great attention in studying biological networks, and network motifs are suggested to be elementary building blocks that carry out some key functions in the network. In this paper, chaotic motifs (subnetworks with chaos) in GRNs are systematically investigated. The conclusion is that: (i) chaos can only appear through competitions between different oscillatory modes with rivaling intensities. Conditions required for chaotic GRNs are found to be very strict, which make chaotic GRNs extremely rare. (ii) Chaotic motifs are explored as the simplest few-node structures capable of producing chaos, and serve as the intrinsic source of chaos of random few-node GRNs. Several optimal motifs causing chaos with atypically high probability are figured out. (iii) Moreover, we discovered that a number of special oscillators can never produce chaos. These structures bring some advantages on rhythmic functions and may help us understand the robustness of diverse biological rhythms. (iv) The methods of dominant phase-advanced driving (DPAD) and DPAD time fraction are proposed to quantitatively identify chaotic motifs and to explain the origin of chaotic behaviors in GRNs. PMID:22792171

  9. Chaotic motifs in gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ye, Weiming; Qian, Yu; Zheng, Zhigang; Huang, Xuhui; Hu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Chaos should occur often in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) which have been widely described by nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, if their dimensions are no less than 3. It is therefore puzzling that chaos has never been reported in GRNs in nature and is also extremely rare in models of GRNs. On the other hand, the topic of motifs has attracted great attention in studying biological networks, and network motifs are suggested to be elementary building blocks that carry out some key functions in the network. In this paper, chaotic motifs (subnetworks with chaos) in GRNs are systematically investigated. The conclusion is that: (i) chaos can only appear through competitions between different oscillatory modes with rivaling intensities. Conditions required for chaotic GRNs are found to be very strict, which make chaotic GRNs extremely rare. (ii) Chaotic motifs are explored as the simplest few-node structures capable of producing chaos, and serve as the intrinsic source of chaos of random few-node GRNs. Several optimal motifs causing chaos with atypically high probability are figured out. (iii) Moreover, we discovered that a number of special oscillators can never produce chaos. These structures bring some advantages on rhythmic functions and may help us understand the robustness of diverse biological rhythms. (iv) The methods of dominant phase-advanced driving (DPAD) and DPAD time fraction are proposed to quantitatively identify chaotic motifs and to explain the origin of chaotic behaviors in GRNs.

  10. Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Walters, R F S; DeGrado, W F

    2006-09-12

    The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs, we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity (rmsd motifs whose structural features can be understood in terms of simple principles of helix-helix packing. Thus, the universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. The largest cluster, which comprises 29% of the library members, consists of an antiparallel motif with left-handed packing angles, and it is frequently stabilized by packing of small side chains occurring every seven residues in the sequence. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins.

  11. iMotifs: an integrated sequence motif visualization and analysis environment

    PubMed Central

    Piipari, Matias; Down, Thomas A.; Saini, Harpreet; Enright, Anton; Hubbard, Tim J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Short sequence motifs are an important class of models in molecular biology, used most commonly for describing transcription factor binding site specificity patterns. High-throughput methods have been recently developed for detecting regulatory factor binding sites in vivo and in vitro and consequently high-quality binding site motif data are becoming available for increasing number of organisms and regulatory factors. Development of intuitive tools for the study of sequence motifs is therefore important. iMotifs is a graphical motif analysis environment that allows visualization of annotated sequence motifs and scored motif hits in sequences. It also offers motif inference with the sensitive NestedMICA algorithm, as well as overrepresentation and pairwise motif matching capabilities. All of the analysis functionality is provided without the need to convert between file formats or learn different command line interfaces. The application includes a bundled and graphically integrated version of the NestedMICA motif inference suite that has no outside dependencies. Problems associated with local deployment of software are therefore avoided. Availability: iMotifs is licensed with the GNU Lesser General Public License v2.0 (LGPL 2.0). The software and its source is available at http://wiki.github.com/mz2/imotifs and can be run on Mac OS X Leopard (Intel/PowerPC). We also provide a cross-platform (Linux, OS X, Windows) LGPL 2.0 licensed library libxms for the Perl, Ruby, R and Objective-C programming languages for input and output of XMS formatted annotated sequence motif set files. Contact: matias.piipari@gmail.com; imotifs@googlegroups.com PMID:20106815

  12. Modeling gene regulatory network motifs using statecharts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene regulatory networks are widely used by biologists to describe the interactions among genes, proteins and other components at the intra-cellular level. Recently, a great effort has been devoted to give gene regulatory networks a formal semantics based on existing computational frameworks. For this purpose, we consider Statecharts, which are a modular, hierarchical and executable formal model widely used to represent software systems. We use Statecharts for modeling small and recurring patterns of interactions in gene regulatory networks, called motifs. Results We present an improved method for modeling gene regulatory network motifs using Statecharts and we describe the successful modeling of several motifs, including those which could not be modeled or whose models could not be distinguished using the method of a previous proposal. We model motifs in an easy and intuitive way by taking advantage of the visual features of Statecharts. Our modeling approach is able to simulate some interesting temporal properties of gene regulatory network motifs: the delay in the activation and the deactivation of the "output" gene in the coherent type-1 feedforward loop, the pulse in the incoherent type-1 feedforward loop, the bistability nature of double positive and double negative feedback loops, the oscillatory behavior of the negative feedback loop, and the "lock-in" effect of positive autoregulation. Conclusions We present a Statecharts-based approach for the modeling of gene regulatory network motifs in biological systems. The basic motifs used to build more complex networks (that is, simple regulation, reciprocal regulation, feedback loop, feedforward loop, and autoregulation) can be faithfully described and their temporal dynamics can be analyzed. PMID:22536967

  13. Experimental Support for the Evolution of Symmetric Protein Architecture from a Simple Peptide Motif

    SciTech Connect

    J Lee; M Blaber

    2011-12-31

    The majority of protein architectures exhibit elements of structural symmetry, and 'gene duplication and fusion' is the evolutionary mechanism generally hypothesized to be responsible for their emergence from simple peptide motifs. Despite the central importance of the gene duplication and fusion hypothesis, experimental support for a plausible evolutionary pathway for a specific protein architecture has yet to be effectively demonstrated. To address this question, a unique 'top-down symmetric deconstruction' strategy was utilized to successfully identify a simple peptide motif capable of recapitulating, via gene duplication and fusion processes, a symmetric protein architecture (the threefold symmetric {beta}-trefoil fold). The folding properties of intermediary forms in this deconstruction agree precisely with a previously proposed 'conserved architecture' model for symmetric protein evolution. Furthermore, a route through foldable sequence-space between the simple peptide motif and extant protein fold is demonstrated. These results provide compelling experimental support for a plausible evolutionary pathway of symmetric protein architecture via gene duplication and fusion processes.

  14. Surface expression of Kv1 channels is governed by a C-terminal motif.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Takimoto, K; Levitan, E S

    2000-04-21

    Voltage-gated K(+) channel subunits must reach the plasma membrane to repolarize action potentials. Yet the efficiency of cell surface targeting varies among Kv subunits with some requiring auxiliary subunits for optimal expression. Here we identify a conserved motif located in the variable C-terminal region of Kv1 channels that controls the efficiency of functional channel expression. Variations among wild type channels in the optimal sequence VXXSL produce differences in distribution and the requirement for auxiliary subunits. Furthermore, deletion of this motif decreases subunit glycosylation and surface localization but does not prohibit subunit multimerization. Finally, the action of the essential sequence is shown to be independent of the chaperone effect of Kvbeta subunits. Thus, the newly identified C-terminal motif governs processing and cell surface expression of Kv1 voltage-gated K(+) channels.

  15. The VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family of Plant-Specific Transcriptional Regulators1

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yanjun; Lin, Rongcheng

    2015-01-01

    The VQ motif-containing proteins (designated as VQ proteins) are a class of plant-specific proteins with a conserved and single short FxxhVQxhTG amino acid sequence motif. VQ proteins regulate diverse developmental processes, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed development, and photomorphogenesis. In this Update, we summarize and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the regulation and function of VQ proteins and the role of the VQ motif in mediating transcriptional regulation and protein-protein interactions in signaling pathways. Based on the accumulated evidence, we propose a general mechanism of action for the VQ protein family, which likely defines a novel class of transcriptional regulators specific to plants. PMID:26220951

  16. Genome-wide analysis of ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif-containing transcriptional regulators in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kagale, Sateesh; Links, Matthew G; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif is a transcriptional regulatory motif identified in members of the ethylene-responsive element binding factor, C2H2, and auxin/indole-3-acetic acid families of transcriptional regulators. Sequence comparison of the core EAR motif sites from these proteins revealed two distinct conservation patterns: LxLxL and DLNxxP. Proteins containing these motifs play key roles in diverse biological functions by negatively regulating genes involved in developmental, hormonal, and stress signaling pathways. Through a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis, we have identified the complete repertoire of the EAR repressome in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) comprising 219 proteins belonging to 21 different transcriptional regulator families. Approximately 72% of these proteins contain a LxLxL type of EAR motif, 22% contain a DLNxxP type of EAR motif, and the remaining 6% have a motif where LxLxL and DLNxxP are overlapping. Published in vitro and in planta investigations support approximately 40% of these proteins functioning as negative regulators of gene expression. Comparative sequence analysis of EAR motif sites and adjoining regions has identified additional preferred residues and potential posttranslational modification sites that may influence the functionality of the EAR motif. Homology searches against protein databases of poplar (Populus trichocarpa), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) revealed that the EAR motif is conserved across these diverse plant species. This genome-wide analysis represents the most extensive survey of EAR motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis to date and provides a resource enabling investigations into their biological roles and the mechanism of EAR motif-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  17. Cryptic protein-protein interaction motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of MHCI proteins.

    PubMed

    Frietze, Karla K; Pappy, Adlai L; Melson, Jack W; O'Driscoll, Emily E; Tyler, Carolyn M; Perlman, David H; Boulanger, Lisa M

    2016-07-19

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) proteins present antigenic peptides for immune surveillance and play critical roles in nervous system development and plasticity. Most MHCI are transmembrane proteins. The extracellular domain of MHCI interacts with immunoreceptors, peptides, and co-receptors to mediate immune signaling. While the cytoplasmic domain also plays important roles in endocytic trafficking, cross-presentation of extracellularly derived antigens, and CTL priming, the molecular mediators of cytoplasmic signaling by MHCI remain largely unknown. Here we show that the cytoplasmic domain of MHCI contains putative protein-protein interaction domains known as PDZ (PSD95/disc large/zonula occludens-1) ligands. PDZ ligands are motifs that bind to PDZ domains to organize and mediate signaling at cell-cell contacts. PDZ ligands are short, degenerate motifs, and are therefore difficult to identify via sequence homology alone, but several lines of evidence suggest that putative PDZ ligand motifs in MHCI are under positive selective pressure. Putative PDZ ligands are found in all of the 99 MHCI proteins examined from diverse species, and are enriched in the cytoplasmic domain, where PDZ interactions occur. Both the position of the PDZ ligand and the class of ligand motif are conserved across species, as well as among genes within a species. Non-synonymous substitutions, when they occur, frequently preserve the motif. Of the many specific possible PDZ ligand motifs, a handful are strikingly and selectively overrepresented in MHCI's cytoplasmic domain, but not elsewhere in the same proteins. Putative PDZ ligands in MHCI encompass conserved serine and tyrosine residues that are targets of phosphorylation, a post-translational modification that can regulate PDZ interactions. Finally, proof-of-principle in vitro interaction assays demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domains of particular MHCI proteins can bind directly and specifically to PDZ1 and PDZ4&5 of MAGI

  18. Identification of a novel motif in DNA ligases exemplified by DNA ligase IV.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Caterina; Walker, Sarah A; Odreman, Federico; Vindigni, Alessandro; Doherty, Aidan J; Jeggo, Penny

    2006-07-13

    DNA ligase IV is an essential protein that functions in DNA non-homologous end-joining, the major mechanism that rejoins DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. LIG4 syndrome represents a human disorder caused by mutations in DNA ligase IV that lead to impaired but not ablated activity. Thus far, five conserved motifs in DNA ligases have been identified. We previously reported G469E as a mutational change in a LIG4 syndrome patient. G469 does not lie in any of the previously reported motifs. A sequence comparison between DNA ligases led us to identify residues 468-476 of DNA ligase IV as a further conserved motif, designated motif Va, present in eukaryotic DNA ligases. We carried out mutational analysis of residues within motif Va examining the impact on adenylation, double-stranded ligation, and DNA binding. We interpret our results using the DNA ligase I:DNA crystal structure. Substitution of the glycine at position 468 with an alanine or glutamic acid severely compromises protein activity and stability. Substitution of G469 with an alanine or glutamic acid is better tolerated but still impacts upon activity and protein stability. These finding suggest that G468 and G469 are important for protein stability and provide insight into the hypomorphic nature of the G469E mutation identified in a LIG4 syndrome patient. In contrast, residues 470, 473 and 476 within motif Va can be changed to alanine residues without any impact on DNA binding or adenylation activity. Importantly, however, such mutational changes do impact upon double-stranded ligation activity. Considered in light of the DNA ligase I:DNA crystal structure, our findings suggest that residues 470-476 function as part of a molecular pincer that maintains the DNA in a conformation that is required for ligation.

  19. Isosteric and nonisosteric base pairs in RNA motifs: molecular dynamics and bioinformatics study of the sarcin-ricin internal loop.

    PubMed

    Havrila, Marek; Réblová, Kamila; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B; Šponer, Jiří

    2013-11-21

    The sarcin-ricin RNA motif (SR motif) is one of the most prominent recurrent RNA building blocks that occurs in many different RNA contexts and folds autonomously, that is, in a context-independent manner. In this study, we combined bioinformatics analysis with explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to better understand the relation between the RNA sequence and the evolutionary patterns of the SR motif. A SHAPE probing experiment was also performed to confirm the fidelity of the MD simulations. We identified 57 instances of the SR motif in a nonredundant subset of the RNA X-ray structure database and analyzed their base pairing, base-phosphate, and backbone-backbone interactions. We extracted sequences aligned to these instances from large rRNA alignments to determine the frequency of occurrence for different sequence variants. We then used a simple scoring scheme based on isostericity to suggest 10 sequence variants with a highly variable expected degree of compatibility with the SR motif 3D structure. We carried out MD simulations of SR motifs with these base substitutions. Nonisosteric base substitutions led to unstable structures, but so did isosteric substitutions which were unable to make key base-phosphate interactions. The MD technique explains why some potentially isosteric SR motifs are not realized during evolution. We also found that the inability to form stable cWW geometry is an important factor in the case of the first base pair of the flexible region of the SR motif. A comparison of structural, bioinformatics, SHAPE probing, and MD simulation data reveals that explicit solvent MD simulations neatly reflect the viability of different sequence variants of the SR motif. Thus, MD simulations can efficiently complement bioinformatics tools in studies of conservation patterns of RNA motifs and provide atomistic insight into the role of their different signature interactions.

  20. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  1. Sequential motif profile of natural visibility graphs.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    The concept of sequential visibility graph motifs-subgraphs appearing with characteristic frequencies in the visibility graphs associated to time series-has been advanced recently along with a theoretical framework to compute analytically the motif profiles associated to horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs). Here we develop a theory to compute the profile of sequential visibility graph motifs in the context of natural visibility graphs (VGs). This theory gives exact results for deterministic aperiodic processes with a smooth invariant density or stochastic processes that fulfill the Markov property and have a continuous marginal distribution. The framework also allows for a linear time numerical estimation in the case of empirical time series. A comparison between the HVG and the VG case (including evaluation of their robustness for short series polluted with measurement noise) is also presented.

  2. CSMET: Comparative Genomic Motif Detection via Multi-Resolution Phylogenetic Shadowing

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Mladen; Xing, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    Functional turnover of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), such as whole-motif loss or gain, are common events during genome evolution. Conventional probabilistic phylogenetic shadowing methods model the evolution of genomes only at nucleotide level, and lack the ability to capture the evolutionary dynamics of functional turnover of aligned sequence entities. As a result, comparative genomic search of non-conserved motifs across evolutionarily related taxa remains a difficult challenge, especially in higher eukaryotes, where the cis-regulatory regions containing motifs can be long and divergent; existing methods rely heavily on specialized pattern-driven heuristic search or sampling algorithms, which can be difficult to generalize and hard to interpret based on phylogenetic principles. We propose a new method: Conditional Shadowing via Multi-resolution Evolutionary Trees, or CSMET, which uses a context-dependent probabilistic graphical model that allows aligned sites from different taxa in a multiple alignment to be modeled by either a background or an appropriate motif phylogeny conditioning on the functional specifications of each taxon. The functional specifications themselves are the output of a phylogeny which models the evolution not of individual nucleotides, but of the overall functionality (e.g., functional retention or loss) of the aligned sequence segments over lineages. Combining this method with a hidden Markov model that autocorrelates evolutionary rates on successive sites in the genome, CSMET offers a principled way to take into consideration lineage-specific evolution of TFBSs during motif detection, and a readily computable analytical form of the posterior distribution of motifs under TFBS turnover. On both simulated and real Drosophila cis-regulatory modules, CSMET outperforms other state-of-the-art comparative genomic motif finders. PMID:18535663

  3. Overlapping ETS and CRE Motifs ((G/C)CGGAAGTGACGTCA) preferentially bound by GABPα and CREB proteins.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Zhao, Jianfei; He, Ximiao; Shlyakhtenko, Andrey; Mann, Ishminder; Waterfall, Joshua J; Meltzer, Paul; Sathyanarayana, B K; FitzGerald, Peter C; Vinson, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Previously, we identified 8-bps long DNA sequences (8-mers) that localize in human proximal promoters and grouped them into known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We now examine split 8-mers consisting of two 4-mers separated by 1-bp to 30-bps (X(4)-N(1-30)-X(4)) to identify pairs of TFBS that localize in proximal promoters at a precise distance. These include two overlapping TFBS: the ETS⇔ETS motif ((C/G)CCGGAAGCGGAA) and the ETS⇔CRE motif ((C/G)CGGAAGTGACGTCAC). The nucleotides in bold are part of both TFBS. Molecular modeling shows that the ETS⇔CRE motif can be bound simultaneously by both the ETS and the B-ZIP domains without protein-protein clashes. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the ETS protein GABPα and the B-ZIP protein CREB preferentially bind to the ETS⇔CRE motif only when the two TFBS overlap precisely. In contrast, the ETS domain of ETV5 and CREB interfere with each other for binding the ETS⇔CRE. The 11-mer (CGGAAGTGACG), the conserved part of the ETS⇔CRE motif, occurs 226 times in the human genome and 83% are in known regulatory regions. In vivo GABPα and CREB ChIP-seq peaks identified the ETS⇔CRE as the most enriched motif occurring in promoters of genes involved in mRNA processing, cellular catabolic processes, and stress response, suggesting that a specific class of genes is regulated by this composite motif.

  4. Overlapping ETS and CRE Motifs (G/CCGGAAGTGACGTCA) Preferentially Bound by GABPα and CREB Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Zhao, Jianfei; He, Ximiao; Shlyakhtenko, Andrey; Mann, Ishminder; Waterfall, Joshua J.; Meltzer, Paul; Sathyanarayana, B. K.; FitzGerald, Peter C.; Vinson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we identified 8-bps long DNA sequences (8-mers) that localize in human proximal promoters and grouped them into known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We now examine split 8-mers consisting of two 4-mers separated by 1-bp to 30-bps (X4-N1-30-X4) to identify pairs of TFBS that localize in proximal promoters at a precise distance. These include two overlapping TFBS: the ETS⇔ETS motif (C/GCCGGAAGCGGAA) and the ETS⇔CRE motif (C/GCGGAAGTGACGTCAC). The nucleotides in bold are part of both TFBS. Molecular modeling shows that the ETS⇔CRE motif can be bound simultaneously by both the ETS and the B-ZIP domains without protein-protein clashes. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the ETS protein GABPα and the B-ZIP protein CREB preferentially bind to the ETS⇔CRE motif only when the two TFBS overlap precisely. In contrast, the ETS domain of ETV5 and CREB interfere with each other for binding the ETS⇔CRE. The 11-mer (CGGAAGTGACG), the conserved part of the ETS⇔CRE motif, occurs 226 times in the human genome and 83% are in known regulatory regions. In vivo GABPα and CREB ChIP-seq peaks identified the ETS⇔CRE as the most enriched motif occurring in promoters of genes involved in mRNA processing, cellular catabolic processes, and stress response, suggesting that a specific class of genes is regulated by this composite motif. PMID:23050235

  5. Genome-wide upstream motif analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum genes clustered by expression profile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are very few molecular genetic tools available to study the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The organism is not amenable to continuous in vitro cultivation or transfection, and purification of intracellular developmental stages in sufficient numbers for most downstream molecular applications is difficult and expensive since animal hosts are required. As such, very little is known about gene regulation in C. parvum. Results We have clustered whole-genome gene expression profiles generated from a previous study of seven post-infection time points of 3,281 genes to identify genes that show similar expression patterns throughout the first 72 hours of in vitro epithelial cell culture. We used the algorithms MEME, AlignACE and FIRE to identify conserved, overrepresented DNA motifs in the upstream promoter region of genes with similar expression profiles. The most overrepresented motifs were E2F (5′-TGGCGCCA-3′); G-box (5′-G.GGGG-3′); a well-documented ApiAP2 binding motif (5′-TGCAT-3′), and an unknown motif (5′-[A/C] AACTA-3′). We generated a recombinant C. parvum DNA-binding protein domain from a putative ApiAP2 transcription factor [CryptoDB: cgd8_810] and determined its binding specificity using protein-binding microarrays. We demonstrate that cgd8_810 can putatively bind the overrepresented G-box motif, implicating this ApiAP2 in the regulation of many gene clusters. Conclusion Several DNA motifs were identified in the upstream sequences of gene clusters that might serve as potential cis-regulatory elements. These motifs, in concert with protein DNA binding site data, establish for the first time the beginnings of a global C. parvum gene regulatory map that will contribute to our understanding of the development of this zoonotic parasite. PMID:23895416

  6. Genome-wide upstream motif analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum genes clustered by expression profile.

    PubMed

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Joseph, Sandeep J; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2013-07-29

    There are very few molecular genetic tools available to study the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The organism is not amenable to continuous in vitro cultivation or transfection, and purification of intracellular developmental stages in sufficient numbers for most downstream molecular applications is difficult and expensive since animal hosts are required. As such, very little is known about gene regulation in C. parvum. We have clustered whole-genome gene expression profiles generated from a previous study of seven post-infection time points of 3,281 genes to identify genes that show similar expression patterns throughout the first 72 hours of in vitro epithelial cell culture. We used the algorithms MEME, AlignACE and FIRE to identify conserved, overrepresented DNA motifs in the upstream promoter region of genes with similar expression profiles. The most overrepresented motifs were E2F (5'-TGGCGCCA-3'); G-box (5'-G.GGGG-3'); a well-documented ApiAP2 binding motif (5'-TGCAT-3'), and an unknown motif (5'-[A/C] AACTA-3'). We generated a recombinant C. parvum DNA-binding protein domain from a putative ApiAP2 transcription factor [CryptoDB: cgd8_810] and determined its binding specificity using protein-binding microarrays. We demonstrate that cgd8_810 can putatively bind the overrepresented G-box motif, implicating this ApiAP2 in the regulation of many gene clusters. Several DNA motifs were identified in the upstream sequences of gene clusters that might serve as potential cis-regulatory elements. These motifs, in concert with protein DNA binding site data, establish for the first time the beginnings of a global C. parvum gene regulatory map that will contribute to our understanding of the development of this zoonotic parasite.

  7. Protein modules conserved since LUCA.

    PubMed

    Sobolevsky, Yehoshua; Trifonov, Edward N

    2006-11-01

    Universal scale of the sequence conservation has been recently introduced based on omnipresence of the protein sequence motifs across species. A large spectrum of short sequences, up to eight residues has been found to reside in all or almost all prokaryotic organisms. By this discovery a principally novel quantitative approach is introduced to the problem of reconstruction of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). The most conserved elements (protein modules) with defined structures and sequences harboring the omnipresent motifs are outlined in this work, by combining the sequence and protein crystal structure data. The structurally conserved modules involve 25-30 amino acid residues and have appearance of closed loops, loop-n-lock structures. This confirms earlier conclusions on the loop-fold structure of globular proteins. Many of the topmost conserved modules represent the primary closed loop prototypes, that have been derived by whole genome sequence searches. The data presented, thus, make a basis for further developments toward the earliest stages of protein evolution.

  8. RNA tertiary interactions in the large ribosomal subunit: The A-minor motif

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Poul; Ippolito, Joseph A.; Ban, Nenad; Moore, Peter B.; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2009-10-07

    Analysis of the 2.4-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui reveals the existence of an abundant and ubiquitous structural motif that stabilizes RNA tertiary and quaternary structures. This motif is termed the A-minor motif, because it involves the insertion of the smooth, minor groove edges of adenines into the minor groove of neighboring helices, preferentially at C-G base pairs, where they form hydrogen bonds with one or both of the 2' OHs of those pairs. A-minor motifs stabilize contacts between RNA helices, interactions between loops and helices, and the conformations of junctions and tight turns. The interactions between the 3' terminal adenine of tRNAs bound in either the A site or the P site with 23S rRNA are examples of functionally significant A-minor interactions. The A-minor motif is by far the most abundant tertiary structure interaction in the large ribosomal subunit; 186 adenines in 23S and 5S rRNA participate, 68 of which are conserved. It may prove to be the universally most important long-range interaction in large RNA structures.

  9. A gating motif in the translocation channel sets the hydrophobicity threshold for signal sequence function

    PubMed Central

    Trueman, Steven F.; Mandon, Elisabet C.

    2012-01-01

    A critical event in protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum is the structural transition between the closed and open conformations of Sec61, the eukaryotic translocation channel. Channel opening allows signal sequence insertion into a gap between the N- and C-terminal halves of Sec61. We have identified a gating motif that regulates the transition between the closed and open channel conformations. Polar amino acid substitutions in the gating motif cause a gain-of-function phenotype that permits translocation of precursors with marginally hydrophobic signal sequences. In contrast, hydrophobic substitutions at certain residues in the gating motif cause a protein translocation defect. We conclude that the gating motif establishes the hydrophobicity threshold for functional insertion of a signal sequence into the Sec61 complex, thereby allowing the wild-type translocation channel to discriminate between authentic signal sequences and the less hydrophobic amino acid segments in cytosolic proteins. Bioinformatic analysis indicates that the gating motif is conserved between eubacterial and archaebacterial SecY and eukaryotic Sec61. PMID:23229898

  10. Intronic motif pairs cooperate across exons to promote pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A very early step in splice site recognition is exon definition, a process that is as yet poorly understood. Communication between the two ends of an exon is thought to be required for this step. We report genome-wide evidence for exons being defined through the combinatorial activity of motifs located in flanking intronic regions. Results Strongly co-occurring motifs were found to specifically reside in four intronic regions surrounding a large number of human exons. These paired motifs occur around constitutive and alternative exons but not pseudo exons. Most co-occurring motifs are limited to intronic regions within 100 nucleotides of the exon. They are preferentially associated with weaker exons. Their pairing is conserved in evolution and they exhibit a lower frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism when paired. Paired motifs display specificity with respect to distance from the exon borders and in constitutive versus alternative splicing. Many resemble binding sites for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Specific pairs are associated with tissue-specific genes, the higher expression of which coincides with that of the pertinent RNA binding proteins. Tested pairs acted synergistically to enhance exon inclusion, and this enhancement was found to be exon-specific. Conclusions The exon-flanking sequence pairs identified here by genomic analysis promote exon inclusion and may play a role in the exon definition step in pre-mRNA splicing. We propose a model in which multiple concerted interactions are required between exonic sequences and flanking intronic sequences to effect exon definition. PMID:20704715

  11. Novel DNA binding motifs in the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease III crystal structure.

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, M M; Ahern, H; Xing, D; Cunningham, R P; Tainer, J A

    1995-01-01

    The 1.85 A crystal structure of endonuclease III, combined with mutational analysis, suggests the structural basis for the DNA binding and catalytic activity of the enzyme. Helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and [4Fe-4S] cluster loop (FCL) motifs, which we have named for their secondary structure, bracket the cleft separating the two alpha-helical domains of the enzyme. These two novel DNA binding motifs and the solvent-filled pocket in the cleft between them all lie within a positively charged and sequence-conserved surface region. Lys120 and Asp138, both shown by mutagenesis to be catalytically important, lie at the mouth of this pocket, suggesting that this pocket is part of the active site. The positions of the HhH motif and protruding FCL motif, which contains the DNA binding residue Lys191, can accommodate B-form DNA, with a flipped-out base bound within the active site pocket. The identification of HhH and FCL sequence patterns in other DNA binding proteins suggests that these motifs may be a recurrent structural theme for DNA binding proteins. Images PMID:7664751

  12. A novel secondary structure based on fused five-membered rings motif

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Jesmita; Kishore, Raghuvansh; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of protein structures indicates the existence of a novel, fused five-membered rings motif, comprising of two residues (i and i + 1), stabilized by interresidue Ni+1–H∙∙∙Ni and intraresidue Ni+1–H∙∙∙O=Ci+1 hydrogen bonds. Fused-rings geometry is the common thread running through many commonly occurring motifs, such as β-turn, β-bulge, Asx-turn, Ser/Thr-turn, Schellman motif, and points to its structural robustness. A location close to the beginning of a β-strand is rather common for the motif. Devoid of side chain, Gly seems to be a key player in this motif, occurring at i, for which the backbone torsion angles cluster at ~(−90°, −10°) and (70°, 20°). The fused-rings structures, distant from each other in sequence, can hydrogen bond with each other, and the two segments aligned to each other in a parallel fashion, give rise to a novel secondary structure, topi, which is quite common in proteins, distinct from two major secondary structures, α-helix and β-sheet. Majority of the peptide segments making topi are identified as aggregation-prone and the residues tend to be conserved among homologous proteins. PMID:27511362

  13. Different electrostatic potentials define ETGE and DLG motifs as hinge and latch in oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kit I; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Kobayashi, Akira; Shang, Chengwei; Hirotsu, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2007-11-01

    Nrf2 is the regulator of the oxidative/electrophilic stress response. Its turnover is maintained by Keap1-mediated proteasomal degradation via a two-site substrate recognition mechanism in which two Nrf2-Keap1 binding sites form a hinge and latch. The E3 ligase adaptor Keap1 recognizes Nrf2 through its conserved ETGE and DLG motifs. In this study, we examined how the ETGE and DLG motifs bind to Keap1 in a very similar fashion but with different binding affinities by comparing the crystal complex of a Keap1-DC domain-DLG peptide with that of a Keap1-DC domain-ETGE peptide. We found that these two motifs interact with the same basic surface of either Keap1-DC domain of the Keap1 homodimer. The DLG motif works to correctly position the lysines within the Nrf2 Neh2 domain for efficient ubiquitination. Together with the results from calorimetric and functional studies, we conclude that different electrostatic potentials primarily define the ETGE and DLG motifs as a hinge and latch that senses the oxidative/electrophilic stress.

  14. The MARVEL transmembrane motif of occludin mediates oligomerization and targeting to the basolateral surface in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Yakey; Shepshelovitch, Jeanne; Nevo-Yassaf, Inbar; Yeheskel, Adva; Shmerling, Hedva; Kwiatek, Joanna M; Gaus, Katharina; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Hirschberg, Koret

    2012-08-01

    Occludin (Ocln), a MARVEL-motif-containing protein, is found in all tight junctions. MARVEL motifs are comprised of four transmembrane helices associated with the localization to or formation of diverse membrane subdomains by interacting with the proximal lipid environment. The functions of the Ocln MARVEL motif are unknown. Bioinformatics sequence- and structure-based analyses demonstrated that the MARVEL domain of Ocln family proteins has distinct evolutionarily conserved sequence features that are consistent with its basolateral membrane localization. Live-cell microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were used to analyze the intracellular distribution and self-association of fluorescent-protein-tagged full-length human Ocln or the Ocln MARVEL motif excluding the cytosolic C- and N-termini (amino acids 60-269, FP-MARVEL-Ocln). FP-MARVEL-Ocln efficiently arrived at the plasma membrane (PM) and was sorted to the basolateral PM in filter-grown polarized MDCK cells. A series of conserved aromatic amino acids within the MARVEL domain were found to be associated with Ocln dimerization using BiFC. FP-MARVEL-Ocln inhibited membrane pore growth during Triton-X-100-induced solubilization and was shown to increase the membrane-ordered state using Laurdan, a lipid dye. These data demonstrate that the Ocln MARVEL domain mediates self-association and correct sorting to the basolateral membrane.

  15. Motif-based embedding for graph clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sungsu; Lee, Jae-Gil

    2016-12-01

    Community detection in complex networks is a fundamental problem that has been extensively studied owing to its wide range of applications. However, because community detection methods typically rely on the relations between vertices in networks, they may fail to discover higher-order graph substructures, called the network motifs. In this paper, we propose a novel embedding method for graph clustering that considers higher-order relationships involving multiple vertices. We show that our embedding method, which we call motif-based embedding, is more effective in detecting communities than existing graph embedding methods, spectral embedding and force-directed embedding, both theoretically and experimentally.

  16. EAR motif-mediated transcriptional repression in plants: an underlying mechanism for epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kagale, Sateesh; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif-mediated transcriptional repression is emerging as one of the principal mechanisms of plant gene regulation. The EAR motif, defined by the consensus sequence patterns of either LxLxL or DLNxxP, is the most predominant form of transcriptional repression motif so far identified in plants. Additionally, this active repression motif is highly conserved in transcriptional regulators known to function as negative regulators in a broad range of developmental and physiological processes across evolutionarily diverse plant species. Recent discoveries of co-repressors interacting with EAR motifs, such as TOPLESS (TPL) and AtSAP18, have begun to unravel the mechanisms of EAR motif-mediated repression. The demonstration of genetic interaction between mutants of TPL and AtHDA19, co-complex formation between TPL-related 1 (TPR1) and AtHDA19, as well as direct physical interaction between AtSAP18 and AtHDA19 support a model where EAR repressors, via recruitment of chromatin remodeling factors, facilitate epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here, we discuss the biological significance of EAR-mediated gene regulation in the broader context of plant biology and present literature evidence in support of a model for EAR motif-mediated repression via the recruitment and action of chromatin modifiers. Additionally, we discuss the possible influences of phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the function and turnover of EAR repressors.

  17. The TetA(K) Tetracycline/H+ Antiporter from Staphylococcus aureus: Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of Motif C

    PubMed Central

    Ginn, Samantha L.; Brown, Melissa H.; Skurray, Ronald A.

    2000-01-01

    Conserved motif C, identified within members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transport proteins that mediate drug export, was examined in the tetracycline resistance efflux protein TetA(K) from Staphylococcus aureus; motif C is contained within transmembrane segment 5. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the importance of the conserved glycine (G151, G155, G159, and G160) and proline (P156) residues within this motif was investigated. Over 40 individual amino acid replacements were introduced; however, only alanine and serine substitutions for glycine at G151, G155, and G160 were found to retain significant levels of tetracycline resistance and transport activity in cells expressing mutant proteins. Notably, P156 and G159 appear to be crucial, as amino acid replacements at these positions either significantly reduced or abolished tetracycline/H+ activity. The highly conserved nature of motif C and its distribution throughout drug exporters imply that the residues of motif C play a similar role in all MFS proteins that function as antiporters. PMID:10692352

  18. The ABBA motif binds APC/C activators and is shared by APC/C substrates and regulators

    PubMed Central

    Hagting, Anja; Izawa, Daisuke; Mansfeld, Jörg; Gibson, Toby J.; Pines, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    The APC/C is the ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitosis by targeting specific proteins for degradation at specific times under the control of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC). How the APC/C recognises its different substrates is a key problem in the control of cell division. Here, we have identified the ABBA motif in Cyclin A, BUBR1, BUB1 and Acm1, and show that it binds to the APC/C co-activator CDC20. The ABBA motif in Cyclin A is required for its proper degradation in prometaphase through competing with BUBR1 for the same site on CDC20. Moreover, the ABBA motifs in BUBR1 and BUB1 are necessary for the SAC to work at full strength and to recruit CDC20 to kinetochores. Thus, we have identified a conserved motif integral to the proper control of mitosis that connects APC/C substrate recognition with the SAC. PMID:25669885

  19. The 'helix clamp' in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: a new nucleic acid binding motif common in nucleic acid polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, T; Meier, T; Götte, M; Heumann, H

    1994-01-01

    Amino acid sequences homologous to 259KLVGKL (X)16KLLR284 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) are conserved in several nucleotide polymerizing enzymes. This amino acid motif has been identified in the crystal structure model as an element of the enzyme's nucleic acid binding apparatus. It is part of the helix-turn-helix structure, alpha H-turn-alpha I, within the 'thumb' region of HIV-1 RT. The motif grasps the complexed nucleic acid at one side. Molecular modeling studies on HIV-1 RT in complex with a nucleic acid fragment suggest that the motif has binding function in the p66 subunit as well as in the p51 subunit, acting as a kind of 'helix clamp'. Given its wide distribution within the nucleic acid polymerases, the helix clamp motif is assumed to be a structure of general significance for nucleic acid binding. Images PMID:7527138

  20. Solution NMR characterization of Sgf73(1-104) indicates that Zn ion is required to stabilize zinc finger motif

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chaohua; Wu, Minhao; Li, Pan; Shi, Chaowei; Tian, Changlin; Zang, Jianye

    2010-07-02

    Zinc finger motif contains a zinc ion coordinated by several conserved amino acid residues. Yeast Sgf73 protein was identified as a component of SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase) multi-subunit complex and Sgf73 protein was known to contain two zinc finger motifs. Sgf73(1-104), containing the first zinc finger motif, was necessary to modulate the deubiquitinase activity of SAGA complex. Here, Sgf73(1-104) was over-expressed using bacterial expression system and purified for solution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) structural studies. Secondary structure and site-specific relaxation analysis of Sgf73(1-104) were achieved after solution NMR backbone assignment. Solution NMR and circular dichroism analysis of Sgf73(1-104) after zinc ion removal using chelation reagent EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) demonstrated that zinc ion was required to maintain stable conformation of the zinc finger motif.

  1. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of motif N from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, L.; Duong, A; Prasad, A; Duncker, B; Guarne, A

    2009-01-01

    The Cdc7-Dbf4 complex plays an instrumental role in the initiation of DNA replication and is a target of replication-checkpoint responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cdc7 is a conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activity depends on association with its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. A conserved sequence near the N-terminus of Dbf4 (motif N) is necessary for the interaction of Cdc7-Dbf4 with the checkpoint kinase Rad53. To understand the role of the Cdc7-Dbf4 complex in checkpoint responses, a fragment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4 encompassing motif N was isolated, overproduced and crystallized. A complete native data set was collected at 100 K from crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.75 {angstrom} resolution and structure determination is currently under way.

  2. Redefining Escherichia coli σ70 Promoter Elements: −15 Motif as a Complement of the −10 Motif ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Classical elements of σ70 bacterial promoters include the −35 element (−35TTGACA−30), the −10 element (−12TATAAT−7), and the extended −10 element (−15TG−14). Although the −35 element, the extended −10 element, and the upstream-most base in the −10 element (−12T) interact with σ70 in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) form, the downstream bases in the −10 motif (−11ATAAT−7) are responsible for σ70-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) interactions. In order to directly reflect this correspondence, an extension of the extended −10 element to a so-called −15 element (−15TGnT−12) has been recently proposed. I investigated here the sequence specificity of the proposed −15 element and its relationship to other promoter elements. I found a previously undetected significant conservation of −13G and a high degeneracy at −15T. I therefore defined the −15 element as a degenerate motif, which, together with the conserved stretch of sequence between −15 and −12, allows treating this element analogously to −35 and −10 elements. Furthermore, the strength of the −15 element inversely correlates with the strengths of the −35 element and −10 element, whereas no such complementation between other promoter elements was found. Despite the direct involvement of −15 element in σ70-dsDNA interactions, I found a significantly stronger tendency of this element to complement weak −10 elements that are involved in σ70-ssDNA interactions. This finding is in contrast to the established view, according to which the −15 element provides a sufficient number of σ70-dsDNA interactions, and suggests that the main parameter determining a functional promoter is the overall promoter strength. PMID:21908667

  3. MEME SUITE: tools for motif discovery and searching.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Timothy L; Boden, Mikael; Buske, Fabian A; Frith, Martin; Grant, Charles E; Clementi, Luca; Ren, Jingyuan; Li, Wilfred W; Noble, William S

    2009-07-01

    The MEME Suite web server provides a unified portal for online discovery and analysis of sequence motifs representing features such as DNA binding sites and protein interaction domains. The popular MEME motif discovery algorithm is now complemented by the GLAM2 algorithm which allows discovery of motifs containing gaps. Three sequence scanning algorithms--MAST, FIMO and GLAM2SCAN--allow scanning numerous DNA and protein sequence databases for motifs discovered by MEME and GLAM2. Transcription factor motifs (including those discovered using MEME) can be compared with motifs in many popular motif databases using the motif database scanning algorithm TOMTOM. Transcription factor motifs can be further analyzed for putative function by association with Gene Ontology (GO) terms using the motif-GO term association tool GOMO. MEME output now contains sequence LOGOS for each discovered motif, as well as buttons to allow motifs to be conveniently submitted to the sequence and motif database scanning algorithms (MAST, FIMO and TOMTOM), or to GOMO, for further analysis. GLAM2 output similarly contains buttons for further analysis using GLAM2SCAN and for rerunning GLAM2 with different parameters. All of the motif-based tools are now implemented as web services via Opal. Source code, binaries and a web server are freely available for noncommercial use at http://meme.nbcr.net.

  4. MEME Suite: tools for motif discovery and searching

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Timothy L.; Boden, Mikael; Buske, Fabian A.; Frith, Martin; Grant, Charles E.; Clementi, Luca; Ren, Jingyuan; Li, Wilfred W.; Noble, William S.

    2009-01-01

    The MEME Suite web server provides a unified portal for online discovery and analysis of sequence motifs representing features such as DNA binding sites and protein interaction domains. The popular MEME motif discovery algorithm is now complemented by the GLAM2 algorithm which allows discovery of motifs containing gaps. Three sequence scanning algorithms—MAST, FIMO and GLAM2SCAN—allow scanning numerous DNA and protein sequence databases for motifs discovered by MEME and GLAM2. Transcription factor motifs (including those discovered using MEME) can be compared with motifs in many popular motif databases using the motif database scanning algorithm Tomtom. Transcription factor motifs can be further analyzed for putative function by association with Gene Ontology (GO) terms using the motif-GO term association tool GOMO. MEME output now contains sequence LOGOS for each discovered motif, as well as buttons to allow motifs to be conveniently submitted to the sequence and motif database scanning algorithms (MAST, FIMO and Tomtom), or to GOMO, for further analysis. GLAM2 output similarly contains buttons for further analysis using GLAM2SCAN and for rerunning GLAM2 with different parameters. All of the motif-based tools are now implemented as web services via Opal. Source code, binaries and a web server are freely available for noncommercial use at http://meme.nbcr.net. PMID:19458158

  5. Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme–pRNA intermediate formation

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Julie; Ogino, Minako; Green, Todd J.; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3–8)ΦxGxζx(P/A) (motif A; Φ, hydrophobic; ζ, hydrophilic), (Y/W)ΦGSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and ζxxΦx(F/Y)QxxΦ (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L-pRNA intermediate formation, but not for the GTPase activity that generates GDP (pRNA acceptor). Cap defective mutations in these residues induced termination of mRNA synthesis at position +40 followed by aberrant stop–start transcription, and abolished virus gene expression in host cells. These results suggest that the conserved motifs constitute the active site of the PRNTase domain and the L-pRNA intermediate formation followed by the cap formation is essential for successful synthesis of full-length mRNAs. PMID:26602696

  6. Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formation.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Julie; Ogino, Minako; Green, Todd J; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-08

    The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3-8)ΦxGxζx(P/A) (motif A; Φ, hydrophobic; ζ, hydrophilic), (Y/W)ΦGSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and ζxxΦx(F/Y)QxxΦ (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L-pRNA intermediate formation, but not for the GTPase activity that generates GDP (pRNA acceptor). Cap defective mutations in these residues induced termination of mRNA synthesis at position +40 followed by aberrant stop-start transcription, and abolished virus gene expression in host cells. These results suggest that the conserved motifs constitute the active site of the PRNTase domain and the L-pRNA intermediate formation followed by the cap formation is essential for successful synthesis of full-length mRNAs.

  7. The Motif of Meeting in Digital Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheail, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on theoretical work which considers the composition of meetings, in order to think about the form of the meeting in digital environments for higher education. To explore the motif of meeting, I undertake a "compositional interpretation" (Rose, 2012) of the default interface offered by "Collaborate", an…

  8. The Motif of Meeting in Digital Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheail, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on theoretical work which considers the composition of meetings, in order to think about the form of the meeting in digital environments for higher education. To explore the motif of meeting, I undertake a "compositional interpretation" (Rose, 2012) of the default interface offered by "Collaborate", an…

  9. Network motifs modulate druggability of cellular targets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Ma, Cong; Tan, Cheemeng

    2016-01-01

    Druggability refers to the capacity of a cellular target to be modulated by a small-molecule drug. To date, druggability is mainly studied by focusing on direct binding interactions between a drug and its target. However, druggability is impacted by cellular networks connected to a drug target. Here, we use computational approaches to reveal basic principles of network motifs that modulate druggability. Through quantitative analysis, we find that inhibiting self-positive feedback loop is a more robust and effective treatment strategy than inhibiting other regulations, and adding direct regulations to a drug-target generally reduces its druggability. The findings are explained through analytical solution of the motifs. Furthermore, we find that a consensus topology of highly druggable motifs consists of a negative feedback loop without any positive feedback loops, and consensus motifs with low druggability have multiple positive direct regulations and positive feedback loops. Based on the discovered principles, we predict potential genetic targets in Escherichia coli that have either high or low druggability based on their network context. Our work establishes the foundation toward identifying and predicting druggable targets based on their network topology. PMID:27824147

  10. Motifs and structural blocks retrieval by GHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Virginio; Ferone, Alessio; Petrosino, Alfredo; Polat, Ozlem

    2014-06-01

    The structure of a protein gives more insight on the protein function than its amino acid sequence. Protein structure analysis and comparison are important for understanding the evolutionary relationships among proteins, predicting protein functions, and predicting protein folding. Proteins are formed by two basic regular 3D structural patterns, called Secondary Structures (SSs): helices and sheets. A structural motif is a compact 3D protein block referring to a small specific combination of secondary structural elements, which appears in a variety of molecules. In this paper we compare a few approaches for motif retrieval based on the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT). A primary technique is to adopt the single SS as structural primitives; alternatives are to adopt a SSs pair as primitive structural element, or a SSs triplet, and so on up-to an entire motif. The richer the primitive, the higher the time for pre-analysis and search, and the simpler the inspection process on the parameter space for analyzing the peaks. Performance comparisons, in terms of precision and computation time, are here presented considering the retrieval of motifs composed by three to five SSs for more than 15 million searches. The approach can be easily applied to the retrieval of greater blocks, up to protein domains, or even entire proteins.

  11. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  12. Novel motifs distinguish multiple homologues of Polycomb in vertebrates: expansion and diversification of the epigenetic toolkit

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain expression pattern of genes set early during development. Although originally isolated as regulators of homeotic genes, PcG members play a key role in epigenetic mechanism that maintains the expression state of a large number of genes. Polycomb (PC) is conserved during evolution and while invertebrates have one PC gene, vertebrates have five or more homologues. It remains unclear if different vertebrate PC homologues have distinct or overlapping functions. We have identified and compared the sequence of PC homologues in various organisms to analyze similarities and differences that shaped the evolutionary history of this key regulatory protein. Results All PC homologues have an N-terminal chromodomain and a C-terminal Polycomb Repressor box. We searched the protein and genome sequence database of various organisms for these signatures and identified ~100 PC homologues. Comparative analysis of these sequences led to the identification of a novel insect specific motif and several novel and signature motifs in the vertebrate homologue: two in CBX2 (Cx2.1 and Cx2.2), four in CBX4 (Cx4.1, Cx4.2, Cx4.3 and Cx4.4), three in CBX6 (Cx6.1, Cx6.2 and Cx6.3) and one in CBX8 (Cx8.1). Additionally, adjacent to the chromodomain, all the vertebrate homologues have a DNA binding motif - AT-Hook in case of CBX2, which was known earlier, and 'AT-Hook Like' motif, from this study, in other PC homologues. Conclusion Our analysis shows that PC is an ancient gene dating back to pre bilaterian origin that has not only been conserved but has also expanded during the evolution of complexity. Unique motifs acquired by each homologue have been maintained for more than 500 millions years indicating their functional relevance in boosting the epigenetic 'tool kit'. We report the presence of a DNA interaction motif adjacent to chromodomain in all vertebrate PC homologues and suggest a three-way 'PC-histoneH3-DNA' interaction that can restrict

  13. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Tak-Ming; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2013-09-01

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k=8∼10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/kmerHMM.

  14. Unitary circular code motifs in genomes of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    El Soufi, Karim; Michel, Christian J

    A set X of 20 trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses, which has in average the highest occurrence in reading frame compared to its two shifted frames (Michel, 2015; Arquès and Michel, 1996). This set X has an interesting mathematical property as X is a circular code (Arquès and Michel, 1996). Thus, the motifs from this circular code X, called X motifs, have the property to always retrieve, synchronize and maintain the reading frame in genes. The origin of this circular code X in genes is an open problem since its discovery in 1996. Here, we first show that the unitary circular codes (UCC), i.e. sets of one word, allow to generate unitary circular code motifs (UCC motifs), i.e. a concatenation of the same motif (simple repeats) leading to low complexity DNA. Three classes of UCC motifs are studied here: repeated dinucleotides (D(+) motifs), repeated trinucleotides (T(+) motifs) and repeated tetranucleotides (T(+) motifs). Thus, the D(+), T(+) and T(+) motifs allow to retrieve, synchronize and maintain a frame modulo 2, modulo 3 and modulo 4, respectively, and their shifted frames (1 modulo 2; 1 and 2 modulo 3; 1, 2 and 3 modulo 4 according to the C(2), C(3) and C(4) properties, respectively) in the DNA sequences. The statistical distribution of the D(+), T(+) and T(+) motifs is analyzed in the genomes of eukaryotes. A UCC motif and its comp lementary UCC motif have the same distribution in the eukaryotic genomes. Furthermore, a UCC motif and its complementary UCC motif have increasing occurrences contrary to their number of hydrogen bonds, very significant with the T(+) motifs. The longest D(+), T(+) and T(+) motifs in the studied eukaryotic genomes are also given. Surprisingly, a scarcity of repeated trinucleotides (T(+) motifs) in the large eukaryotic genomes is observed compared to the D(+) and T(+) motifs. This result has been investigated and may be explained by two outcomes. Repeated trinucleotides (T(+) motifs

  15. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  16. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof. Sandor Pongor, Dr. Yuriy Gusev, and Dr. Shyam Prabhakar (nominated by Prof. Limsoon Wong). PMID:24555784

  17. CombiMotif: A new algorithm for network motifs discovery in protein-protein interaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiawei; Li, Guanghui; Song, Dan; Liang, Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Discovering motifs in protein-protein interaction networks is becoming a current major challenge in computational biology, since the distribution of the number of network motifs can reveal significant systemic differences among species. However, this task can be computationally expensive because of the involvement of graph isomorphic detection. In this paper, we present a new algorithm (CombiMotif) that incorporates combinatorial techniques to count non-induced occurrences of subgraph topologies in the form of trees. The efficiency of our algorithm is demonstrated by comparing the obtained results with the current state-of-the art subgraph counting algorithms. We also show major differences between unicellular and multicellular organisms. The datasets and source code of CombiMotif are freely available upon request.

  18. A Discriminative Approach for Unsupervised Clustering of DNA Sequence Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Wingender, Edgar; Borlak, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Algorithmic comparison of DNA sequence motifs is a problem in bioinformatics that has received increased attention during the last years. Its main applications concern characterization of potentially novel motifs and clustering of a motif collection in order to remove redundancy. Despite growing interest in motif clustering, the question which motif clusters to aim at has so far not been systematically addressed. Here we analyzed motif similarities in a comprehensive set of vertebrate transcription factor classes. For this we developed enhanced similarity scores by inclusion of the information coverage (IC) criterion, which evaluates the fraction of information an alignment covers in aligned motifs. A network-based method enabled us to identify motif clusters with high correspondence to DNA-binding domain phylogenies and prior experimental findings. Based on this analysis we derived a set of motif families representing distinct binding specificities. These motif families were used to train a classifier which was further integrated into a novel algorithm for unsupervised motif clustering. Application of the new algorithm demonstrated its superiority to previously published methods and its ability to reproduce entrained motif families. As a result, our work proposes a probabilistic approach to decide whether two motifs represent common or distinct binding specificities. PMID:23555204

  19. Regulatory motif finding by logic regression.

    PubMed

    Keles, Sündüz; van der Laan, Mark J; Vulpe, Chris

    2004-11-01

    Multiple transcription factors coordinately control transcriptional regulation of genes in eukaryotes. Although many computational methods consider the identification of individual transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), very few focus on the interactions between these sites. We consider finding TFBSs and their context specific interactions using microarray gene expression data. We devise a hybrid approach called LogicMotif composed of a TFBS identification method combined with the new regression methodology logic regression. LogicMotif has two steps: First, potential binding sites are identified from transcription control regions of genes of interest. Various available methods can be used in this step when the genes of interest can be divided into groups such as up-and downregulated. For this step, we also develop a simple univariate regression and extension method MFURE to extract candidate TFBSs from a large number of genes in the availability of microarray gene expression data. MFURE provides an alternative method for this step when partitioning of the genes into disjoint groups is not preferred. This first step aims to identify individual sites within gene groups of interest or sites that are correlated with the gene expression outcome. In the second step, logic regression is used to build a predictive model of outcome of interest (either gene expression or up- and down-regulation) using these potential sites. This 2-fold approach creates a rich diverse set of potential binding sites in the first step and builds regression or classification models in the second step using logic regression that is particularly good at identifying complex interactions. LogicMotif is applied to two publicly available datasets. A genome-wide gene expression data set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for validation. The regression models obtained are interpretable and the biological implications are in agreement with the known resuts. This analysis suggests that LogicMotif

  20. Unique motifs identify PIG-A proteins from glycosyltransferases of the GT4 family

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis is catalyzed by PIG-A, an enzyme that transfers N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol. This protein is present in all eukaryotic organisms ranging from protozoa to higher mammals, as part of a larger complex of five to six 'accessory' proteins whose individual roles in the glycosyltransferase reaction are as yet unclear. The PIG-A gene has been shown to be an essential gene in various eukaryotes. In humans, mutations in the protein have been associated with paroxysomal noctural hemoglobuinuria. The corresponding PIG-A gene has also been recently identified in the genome of many archaeabacteria although genes of the accessory proteins have not been discovered in them. The present study explores the evolution of PIG-A and the phylogenetic relationship between this protein and other glycosyltransferases. Results In this paper we show that out of the twelve conserved motifs identified by us eleven are exclusively present in PIG-A and, therefore, can be used as markers to identify PIG-A from newly sequenced genomes. Three of these motifs are absent in the primitive eukaryote, G. lamblia. Sequence analyses show that seven of these conserved motifs are present in prokaryote and archaeal counterparts in rudimentary forms and can be used to differentiate PIG-A proteins from glycosyltransferases. Using partial least square regression analysis and data involving presence or absence of motifs in a range of PIG-A and glycosyltransferases we show that (i) PIG-A may have evolved from prokaryotic glycosyltransferases and lipopolysaccharide synthases, members of the GT4 family of glycosyltransferases and (ii) it is possible to uniquely classify PIG-A proteins versus glycosyltransferases. Conclusion Besides identifying unique motifs and showing that PIG-A protein from G. lamblia and some putative PIG-A proteins from archaebacteria are evolutionarily closer to glycosyltransferases, these studies

  1. Genome-wide analysis of VQ motif-containing proteins in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujiao; Liu, Huanlong; Zhu, Dongyue; Gao, Yameng; Yan, Hanwei; Xiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    29 Moso bamboo VQ proteins were genome-wide identified for the first time, and bioinformatics analysis was performed to investigate phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary divergence. The qRT-PCR data show that PeVQ genes response to different stress treatments. Accumulating evidence suggests that VQ motif-containing proteins in rice (Oryza sativa), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and maize (Zea mays) play fundamental roles in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the functions of VQ family proteins in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). In this study, we performed a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis and expression profiling of PeVQ genes. A total of 29 VQ genes was identified and divided into seven subgroups (I-VII) based on phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis revealed that 25 of 29 VQ genes contained no introns. Multiple sequence alignment showed that Moso bamboo VQ motif-containing proteins contained five variations of the conserved motif. The time of duplication and divergence of Moso bamboo from rice and maize was calculated using K s analysis. A heat map was generated using microarray data from 29 Moso bamboo VQ genes suggesting that these genes were expressed in different tissues or developmental stages. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and promoter analysis indicated that PeVQ genes were differentially regulated following treatment with polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid and salicylic acid. Our results provide a solid foundation for further research of the specific functions of VQ motif-containing proteins in Moso bamboo.

  2. Conservation Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Maurice R.; Daniel, Tommy C.; Schweizer, Edward E.; Allmaras, Raymond R.

    1985-11-01

    Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more.

  3. An intuitionistic approach to scoring DNA sequences against transcription factor binding site motifs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando; Blanco, Armando; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2010-11-08

    Transcription factors (TFs) control transcription by binding to specific regions of DNA called transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). The identification of TFBSs is a crucial problem in computational biology and includes the subtask of predicting the location of known TFBS motifs in a given DNA sequence. It has previously been shown that, when scoring matches to known TFBS motifs, interdependencies between positions within a motif should be taken into account. However, this remains a challenging task owing to the fact that sequences similar to those of known TFBSs can occur by chance with a relatively high frequency. Here we present a new method for matching sequences to TFBS motifs based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS) theory, an approach that has been shown to be particularly appropriate for tackling problems that embody a high degree of uncertainty. We propose SCintuit, a new scoring method for measuring sequence-motif affinity based on IFS theory. Unlike existing methods that consider dependencies between positions, SCintuit is designed to prevent overestimation of less conserved positions of TFBSs. For a given pair of bases, SCintuit is computed not only as a function of their combined probability of occurrence, but also taking into account the individual importance of each single base at its corresponding position. We used SCintuit to identify known TFBSs in DNA sequences. Our method provides excellent results when dealing with both synthetic and real data, outperforming the sensitivity and the specificity of two existing methods in all the experiments we performed. The results show that SCintuit improves the prediction quality for TFs of the existing approaches without compromising sensitivity. In addition, we show how SCintuit can be successfully applied to real research problems. In this study the reliability of the IFS theory for motif discovery tasks is proven.

  4. An ion-responsive motif in the second transmembrane segment of rhodopsin-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Parker, M S; Wong, Y Y; Parker, S L

    2008-06-01

    A L(M)xxxD(N, E) motif (x=a non-ionic amino acid residue, most frequently A, S, L or F; small capitals indicating a minor representation) is found in the second transmembrane (tm2) segment of most G-protein coupling metazoan receptors of the rhodopsin family (Rh-GPCRs). Changes in signal transduction, agonist binding and receptor cycling are known for numerous receptors bearing evolved or experimentally introduced mutations in this tm2 motif, especially of its aspartate residue. The [Na(+)] sensitivity of the receptor-agonist interaction relates to this aspartate in a number of Rh-GPCRs. Native non-conservative mutations in the tm2 motif only rarely coincide with significant changes in two other ubiquitous features of the rhodopsin family, the seventh transmembrane N(D)PxxY(F) motif and the D(E)RY(W,F) or analogous sequence at the border of the third transmembrane helix and the second intracellular loop. Native tm2 mutations with Rh-GPCRs frequently result in constitutive signaling, and with visual opsins also in shifts to short-wavelength sensitivity. Substitution of a strongly basic residue for the tm2 aspartate in Taste-2 receptors could be connected to a lack of sodium sensing by these receptors. These properties could be consistent with ionic interactions, and even of ion transfer, that involve the tm2 motif. A decrease in cation sensing by this motif is usually connected to an enhanced constitutive interaction of the mutated receptors with cognate G- proteins, and also relates to both the constitutive and the overall activity of the short-wavelength opsins.

  5. Structural Relationships in the Lysozyme Superfamily: Significant Evidence for Glycoside Hydrolase Signature Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wohlkönig, Alexandre; Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René

    2010-01-01

    Background Chitin is a polysaccharide that forms the hard, outer shell of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi and some algae. Peptidoglycan is a polymer of sugars and amino acids constituting the cell walls of most bacteria. Enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these cell membrane polymers generally play important roles for protecting plants and animals against infection with insects and pathogens. A particular group of such glycoside hydrolase enzymes share some common features in their three-dimensional structure and in their molecular mechanism, forming the lysozyme superfamily. Results Besides having a similar fold, all known catalytic domains of glycoside hydrolase proteins of lysozyme superfamily (families and subfamilies GH19, GH22, GH23, GH24 and GH46) share in common two structural elements: the central helix of the all-α domain, which invariably contains the catalytic glutamate residue acting as general-acid catalyst, and a β-hairpin pointed towards the substrate binding cleft. The invariant β-hairpin structure is interestingly found to display the highest amino acid conservation in aligned sequences of a given family, thereby allowing to define signature motifs for each GH family. Most of such signature motifs are found to have promising performances for searching sequence databases. Our structural analysis further indicates that the GH motifs participate in enzymatic catalysis essentially by containing the catalytic water positioning residue of inverting mechanism. Conclusions The seven families and subfamilies of the lysozyme superfamily all have in common a β-hairpin structure which displays a family-specific sequence motif. These GH β-hairpin motifs contain potentially important residues for the catalytic activity, thereby suggesting the participation of the GH motif to catalysis and also revealing a common catalytic scheme utilized by enzymes of the lysozyme superfamily. PMID:21085702

  6. A Review of Functional Motifs Utilized by Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Haitham

    2016-01-01

    Short linear motifs (SLiM) are short peptides that facilitate protein function and protein-protein interactions. Viruses utilize these motifs to enter into the host, interact with cellular proteins, or egress from host cells. Studying functional motifs may help to predict protein characteristics, interactions, or the putative cellular role of a protein. In virology, it may reveal aspects of the virus tropism and help find antiviral therapeutics. This review highlights the recent understanding of functional motifs utilized by viruses. Special attention was paid to the function of proteins harboring these motifs, and viruses encoding these proteins. The review highlights motifs involved in (i) immune response and post-translational modifications (e.g., ubiquitylation, SUMOylation or ISGylation); (ii) virus-host cell interactions, including virus attachment, entry, fusion, egress and nuclear trafficking; (iii) virulence and antiviral activities; (iv) virion structure; and (v) low-complexity regions (LCRs) or motifs enriched with residues (Xaa-rich motifs). PMID:28248213

  7. Sequential motif profile of natural visibility graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    The concept of sequential visibility graph motifs—subgraphs appearing with characteristic frequencies in the visibility graphs associated to time series—has been advanced recently along with a theoretical framework to compute analytically the motif profiles associated to horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs). Here we develop a theory to compute the profile of sequential visibility graph motifs in the context of natural visibility graphs (VGs). This theory gives exact results for deterministic aperiodic processes with a smooth invariant density or stochastic processes that fulfill the Markov property and have a continuous marginal distribution. The framework also allows for a linear time numerical estimation in the case of empirical time series. A comparison between the HVG and the VG case (including evaluation of their robustness for short series polluted with measurement noise) is also presented.

  8. Chiral Alkyl Halides: Underexplored Motifs in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gál, Bálint; Bucher, Cyril; Burns, Noah Z.

    2016-01-01

    While alkyl halides are valuable intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry, their use as bioactive motifs in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry is rare in comparison. This is likely attributable to the common misconception that these compounds are merely non-specific alkylators in biological systems. A number of chlorinated compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as a growing number of halogenated marine natural products showing unique bioactivity, illustrate the role that chiral alkyl halides can play in drug discovery. Through a series of case studies, we demonstrate in this review that these motifs can indeed be stable under physiological conditions, and that halogenation can enhance bioactivity through both steric and electronic effects. Our hope is that, by placing such compounds in the minds of the chemical community, they may gain more traction in drug discovery and inspire more synthetic chemists to develop methods for selective halogenation. PMID:27827902

  9. On the Kernelization Complexity of Colorful Motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambalath, Abhimanyu M.; Balasundaram, Radheshyam; Rao H., Chintan; Koppula, Venkata; Misra, Neeldhara; Philip, Geevarghese; Ramanujan, M. S.

    The Colorful Motif problem asks if, given a vertex-colored graph G, there exists a subset S of vertices of G such that the graph induced by G on S is connected and contains every color in the graph exactly once. The problem is motivated by applications in computational biology and is also well-studied from the theoretical point of view. In particular, it is known to be NP-complete even on trees of maximum degree three [Fellows et al, ICALP 2007]. In their pioneering paper that introduced the color-coding technique, Alon et al. [STOC 1995] show, inter alia, that the problem is FPT on general graphs. More recently, Cygan et al. [WG 2010] showed that Colorful Motif is NP-complete on comb graphs, a special subclass of the set of trees of maximum degree three. They also showed that the problem is not likely to admit polynomial kernels on forests.

  10. Anticipated synchronization in neuronal network motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, F. S.; Gollo, L. L.; Carelli, P. V.; Copelli, M.; Mirasso, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Two identical dynamical systems coupled unidirectionally (in a so called master-slave configuration) exhibit anticipated synchronization (AS) if the one which receives the coupling (the slave) also receives a negative delayed self-feedback. In oscillatory neuronal systems AS is characterized by a phase-locking with negative time delay τ between the spikes of the master and of the slave (slave fires before the master), while in the usual delayed synchronization (DS) regime τ is positive (slave fires after the master). A 3-neuron motif in which the slave self-feedback is replaced by a feedback loop mediated by an interneuron can exhibits both AS and DS regimes. Here we show that AS is robust in the presence of noise in a 3 Hodgkin-Huxley type neuronal motif. We also show that AS is stable for large values of τ in a chain of connected slaves-interneurons.

  11. Functional Motifs in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, John J.; Novák, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The signal-response characteristics of a living cell are determined by complex networks of interacting genes, proteins, and metabolites. Understanding how cells respond to specific challenges, how these responses are contravened in diseased cells, and how to intervene pharmacologically in the decision-making processes of cells requires an accurate theory of the information-processing capabilities of macromolecular regulatory networks. Adopting an engineer’s approach to control systems, we ask whether realistic cellular control networks can be decomposed into simple regulatory motifs that carry out specific functions in a cell. We show that such functional motifs exist and review the experimental evidence that they control cellular responses as expected. PMID:20055671

  12. A Basic Set of Homeostatic Controller Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Drengstig, T.; Jolma, I.W.; Ni, X.Y.; Thorsen, K.; Xu, X.M.; Ruoff, P.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation and homeostasis are essential properties of all living systems. However, our knowledge about the reaction kinetic mechanisms leading to robust homeostatic behavior in the presence of environmental perturbations is still poor. Here, we describe, and provide physiological examples of, a set of two-component controller motifs that show robust homeostasis. This basic set of controller motifs, which can be considered as complete, divides into two operational work modes, termed as inflow and outflow control. We show how controller combinations within a cell can integrate uptake and metabolization of a homeostatic controlled species and how pathways can be activated and lead to the formation of alternative products, as observed, for example, in the change of fermentation products by microorganisms when the supply of the carbon source is altered. The antagonistic character of hormonal control systems can be understood by a combination of inflow and outflow controllers. PMID:23199928

  13. Analyzing network reliability using structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Khorramzadeh, Yasamin; Youssef, Mina; Eubank, Stephen; Mowlaei, Shahir

    2015-04-01

    This paper uses the reliability polynomial, introduced by Moore and Shannon in 1956, to analyze the effect of network structure on diffusive dynamics such as the spread of infectious disease. We exhibit a representation for the reliability polynomial in terms of what we call structural motifs that is well suited for reasoning about the effect of a network's structural properties on diffusion across the network. We illustrate by deriving several general results relating graph structure to dynamical phenomena.

  14. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  15. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  16. Motif mining based on network space compression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A network motif is a recurring subnetwork within a network, and it takes on certain functions in practical biological macromolecule applications. Previous algorithms have focused on the computational efficiency of network motif detection, but some problems in storage space and searching time manifested during earlier studies. The considerable computational and spacial complexity also presents a significant challenge. In this paper, we provide a new approach for motif mining based on compressing the searching space. According to the characteristic of the parity nodes, we cut down the searching space and storage space in real graphs and random graphs, thereby reducing the computational cost of verifying the isomorphism of sub-graphs. We obtain a new network with smaller size after removing parity nodes and the "repeated edges" connected with the parity nodes. Random graph structure and sub-graph searching are based on the Back Tracking Method; all sub-graphs can be searched for by adding edges progressively. Experimental results show that this algorithm has higher speed and better stability than its alternatives.

  17. Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

  18. HeliCis: a DNA motif discovery tool for colocalized motif pairs with periodic spacing.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Erik; Lindahl, Per; Mostad, Petter

    2007-10-28

    Correct temporal and spatial gene expression during metazoan development relies on combinatorial interactions between different transcription factors. As a consequence, cis-regulatory elements often colocalize in clusters termed cis-regulatory modules. These may have requirements on organizational features such as spacing, order and helical phasing (periodic spacing) between binding sites. Due to the turning of the DNA helix, a small modification of the distance between a pair of sites may sometimes drastically disrupt function, while insertion of a full helical turn of DNA (10-11 bp) between cis elements may cause functionality to be restored. Recently, de novo motif discovery methods which incorporate organizational properties such as colocalization and order preferences have been developed, but there are no tools which incorporate periodic spacing into the model. We have developed a web based motif discovery tool, HeliCis, which features a flexible model which allows de novo detection of motifs with periodic spacing. Depending on the parameter settings it may also be used for discovering colocalized motifs without periodicity or motifs separated by a fixed gap of known or unknown length. We show on simulated data that it can efficiently capture the synergistic effects of colocalization and periodic spacing to improve detection of weak DNA motifs. It provides a simple to use web interface which interactively visualizes the current settings and thereby makes it easy to understand the parameters and the model structure. HeliCis provides simple and efficient de novo discovery of colocalized DNA motif pairs, with or without periodic spacing. Our evaluations show that it can detect weak periodic patterns which are not easily discovered using a sequential approach, i.e. first finding the binding sites and second analyzing the properties of their pairwise distances.

  19. Export of malaria proteins requires co-translational processing of the PEXEL motif independent of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate binding

    PubMed Central

    Boddey, Justin A.; O'Neill, Matthew T.; Lopaticki, Sash; Carvalho, Teresa G.; Hodder, Anthony N.; Nebl, Thomas; Wawra, Stephan; van West, Pieter; Ebrahimzadeh, Zeinab; Richard, Dave; Flemming, Sven; Spielmann, Tobias; Przyborski, Jude; Babon, Jeff J.; Cowman, Alan F.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum exports proteins into erythrocytes using the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) motif, which is cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by plasmepsin V (PMV). A recent study reported that phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P) concentrated in the ER binds to PEXEL motifs and is required for export independent of PMV, and that PEXEL motifs are functionally interchangeable with RxLR motifs of oomycete effectors. Here we show that the PEXEL does not bind PI(3)P, and that this lipid is not concentrated in the ER. We find that RxLR motifs cannot mediate export in P. falciparum. Parasites expressing a mutated version of KAHRP, with the PEXEL motif repositioned near the signal sequence, prevented PMV cleavage. This mutant possessed the putative PI(3)P-binding residues but is not exported. Reinstatement of PEXEL to its original location restores processing by PMV and export. These results challenge the PI(3)P hypothesis and provide evidence that PEXEL position is conserved for co-translational processing and export. PMID:26832821

  20. The cysteine-cluster motif of c-Yes, Lyn and FAK as a suppressive module for the kinases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Senga, Takeshi; Oo, Myat Lin; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Biswas, Md Helal Uddin; Mon, Naing Naing; Huang, Pengyu; Ito, Satoko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2008-04-01

    The Src family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases plays a critical role in the progression of human cancers so that the development of its specific inhibitors is important as a therapeutic tool. We previously reported that cysteine residues in the cysteine-cluster (CC) motif of v-Src were critical for the kinase inactivation by the SH-alkylating agents such as N-(9-acridinyl) maleimide (NAM), whereas other cysteine residues were dispensable. We found similar CC-motifs in other Src-family kinases and a non-Src-family kinase, FAK. In this study, we explored the function of the CC-motif in Yes, Lyn and FAK. While Src has four cysteines in the CC-motif, c-Yes and Lyn have three and two of the four cysteines, respectively. Two conserved cysteines of the Src family kinases, corresponding to Cys487 and Cys498 of Src, were essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM, whereas the first cysteine of c-Yes, which is absent in Lyn, was less important. FAK has similar CC-motifs with two cysteines and both cysteines were again essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM. Taken together, modification of cysteine residues of the CC-motif causes a repressor effect on the catalytic activity of the Src family kinases and FAK.

  1. Visualization of conformational distribution of short to medium size segments in globular proteins and identification of local structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Tomii, Kentaro; Yokomizo, Tsuyoshi; Mitomo, Daisuke; Maruyama, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Shinya; Higo, Junichi

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the conformational distribution of polypeptide segments in a conformational space is the first step for understanding a principle of structural diversity of proteins. Here, we present a statistical analysis of protein local structures based on interatomic C(alpha) distances. Using principal component analysis (PCA) on the intrasegment C(alpha)-C(alpha) atomic distances, the conformational space of protein segments, which we call the protein segment universe, has been visualized, and three essential coordinate axes, suitable for describing the universe, have been identified. Three essential axes specified radius of gyration, structural symmetry, and separation of hairpin structures from other structures. Among the segments of arbitrary length, 6-22 residues long, the conservation of those axes was uncovered. Further application of PCA to the two largest clusters in the universe revealed local structural motifs. Although some of motifs have already been reported, we identified a possibly novel strand motif. We also showed that a capping box, which is one of the helix capping motifs, was separated into independent subclusters based on the C(alpha) geometry. Implications of the strand motif, which may play a role for protein-protein interaction, are discussed. The currently proposed method is useful for not only mapping the immense universe of protein structures but also identification of structural motifs.

  2. Sequence-specific high mobility group box factors recognize 10-12-base pair minor groove motifs.

    PubMed

    van Beest, M; Dooijes, D; van De Wetering, M; Kjaerulff, S; Bonvin, A; Nielsen, O; Clevers, H

    2000-09-01

    Sequence-specific high mobility group (HMG) box factors bind and bend DNA via interactions in the minor groove. Three-dimensional NMR analyses have provided the structural basis for this interaction. The cognate HMG domain DNA motif is generally believed to span 6-8 bases. However, alignment of promoter elements controlled by the yeast genes ste11 and Rox1 has indicated strict conservation of a larger DNA motif. By site selection, we identify a highly specific 12-base pair motif for Ste11, AGAACAAAGAAA. Similarly, we show that Tcf1, MatMc, and Sox4 bind unique, highly specific DNA motifs of 12, 12, and 10 base pairs, respectively. Footprinting with a deletion mutant of Ste11 reveals a novel interaction between the 3' base pairs of the extended DNA motif and amino acids C-terminal to the HMG domain. The sequence-specific interaction of Ste11 with these 3' base pairs contributes significantly to binding and bending of the DNA motif.

  3. Application of motif-based tools on evolutionary analysis of multipartite single-stranded DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Iu; Chang, Chih-Hung; Lin, Po-Heng; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Tang, Chuanyi; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Multipartite viruses contain more than one distinctive genome component, and the origin of multipartite viruses has been suggested to evolve from a non-segmented wild-type virus. To explore whether recombination also plays a role in the evolution of the genomes of multipartite viruses, we developed a systematic approach that employs motif-finding tools to detect conserved motifs from divergent genomic regions and applies statistical approaches to select high-confidence motifs. The information that this approach provides helps us understand the evolution of viruses. In this study, we compared our motif-based strategy with current alignment-based recombination-detecting methods and applied our methods to the analysis of multipartite single-stranded plant DNA viruses, including bipartite begomoviruses, Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) (consisting of 6 genome components) and Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) (consisting of 8 genome components). Our analysis revealed that recombination occurred between genome components in some begomoviruses, BBTV and FBNYV. Our data also show that several unusual recombination events have contributed to the evolution of BBTV genome components. We believe that similar approaches can be applied to resolve the evolutionary history of other viruses.

  4. Exploiting Publicly Available Biological and Biochemical Information for the Discovery of Novel Short Linear Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Ahmed; Briganti, Leonardo; Tramontano, Anna; Via, Allegra

    2011-01-01

    The function of proteins is often mediated by short linear segments of their amino acid sequence, called Short Linear Motifs or SLiMs, the identification of which can provide important information about a protein function. However, the short length of the motifs and their variable degree of conservation makes their identification hard since it is difficult to correctly estimate the statistical significance of their occurrence. Consequently, only a small fraction of them have been discovered so far. We describe here an approach for the discovery of SLiMs based on their occurrence in evolutionarily unrelated proteins belonging to the same biological, signalling or metabolic pathway and give specific examples of its effectiveness in both rediscovering known motifs and in discovering novel ones. An automatic implementation of the procedure, available for download, allows significant motifs to be identified, automatically annotated with functional, evolutionary and structural information and organized in a database that can be inspected and queried. An instance of the database populated with pre-computed data on seven organisms is accessible through a publicly available server and we believe it constitutes by itself a useful resource for the life sciences (http://www.biocomputing.it/modipath). PMID:21799808

  5. Application of Motif-Based Tools on Evolutionary Analysis of Multipartite Single-Stranded DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiang-Iu; Chang, Chih-Hung; Lin, Po-Heng; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Tang, ChuanYi; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Multipartite viruses contain more than one distinctive genome component, and the origin of multipartite viruses has been suggested to evolve from a non-segmented wild-type virus. To explore whether recombination also plays a role in the evolution of the genomes of multipartite viruses, we developed a systematic approach that employs motif-finding tools to detect conserved motifs from divergent genomic regions and applies statistical approaches to select high-confidence motifs. The information that this approach provides helps us understand the evolution of viruses. In this study, we compared our motif-based strategy with current alignment-based recombination-detecting methods and applied our methods to the analysis of multipartite single-stranded plant DNA viruses, including bipartite begomoviruses, Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) (consisting of 6 genome components) and Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) (consisting of 8 genome components). Our analysis revealed that recombination occurred between genome components in some begomoviruses, BBTV and FBNYV. Our data also show that several unusual recombination events have contributed to the evolution of BBTV genome components. We believe that similar approaches can be applied to resolve the evolutionary history of other viruses. PMID:23936517

  6. A minimal i-motif stabilized by minor groove G:T:G:T tetrads

    PubMed Central

    Escaja, Núria; Viladoms, Júlia; Garavís, Miguel; Villasante, Alfredo; Pedroso, Enrique; González, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The repetitive DNA sequences found at telomeres and centromeres play a crucial role in the structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes. This role may be related to the tendency observed in many repetitive DNAs to adopt non-canonical structures. Although there is an increasing recognition of the importance of DNA quadruplexes in chromosome biology, the co-existence of different quadruplex-forming elements in the same DNA structure is still a matter of debate. Here we report the structural study of the oligonucleotide d(TCGTTTCGT) and its cyclic analog d. Both sequences form dimeric quadruplex structures consisting of a minimal i-motif capped, at both ends, by a slipped minor groove-aligned G:T:G:T tetrad. These mini i-motifs, which do not exhibit the characteristic CD spectra of other i-motif structures, can be observed at neutral pH, although they are more stable under acidic conditions. This finding is particularly relevant since these oligonucleotide sequences do not contain contiguous cytosines. Importantly, these structures resemble the loop moiety adopted by an 11-nucleotide fragment of the conserved centromeric protein B (CENP-B) box motif, which is the binding site for the CENP-B. PMID:23042679

  7. Functional Analysis of the Putative Integrin Recognition Motif on Adeno-associated Virus 9*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shen; Berry, Garrett E.; Castellanos Rivera, Ruth M.; Cheung, Roland Y.; Troupes, Andrew N.; Brown, Sarah M.; Kafri, Tal; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) display a highly conserved NGR motif on the capsid surface. Earlier studies have established this tripeptide motif as being essential for integrin-mediated uptake of recombinant AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) in cultured cells. However, functional attributes of this putative integrin recognition motif in other recombinant AAV serotypes displaying systemic transduction in vivo remain unknown. In this study, we dissect the biology of an integrin domain capsid mutant derived from the human isolate AAV9 in mice. The AAV9/NGA mutant shows decreased systemic transduction in mice. This defective phenotype was accompanied by rapid clearance of mutant virions from the blood circulation and nonspecific sequestration by the spleen. Transient vascular hyperpermeability, induced by histamine coinjection, exacerbated AAV9/NGA uptake by the spleen but not the liver. However, such treatment did not affect AAV9 virions, suggesting a potential entry/post-entry defect for the mutant in different tissues. Further characterization revealed modestly decreased cell surface binding but a more pronounced defect in the cellular entry of mutant virions. These findings were corroborated by the observation that blocking multiple integrins adversely affected recombinant AAV9 transduction in different cell types, albeit with variable efficiencies. From a structural perspective, we observed that the integrin recognition motif is located in close proximity to the galactose binding footprint on AAV9 capsids and postulate that this feature could influence cell surface attachment, cellular uptake at the tissue level, and systemic clearance by the reticuloendothelial system. PMID:25404742

  8. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  9. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  10. tRNase Z Catalysis and Conserved Residues on the Carboxy Side of the His Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Karkashon, Shay; Hopkinson, Angela; Levinger, Louis

    2008-01-01

    tRNAs are transcribed as precursors and processed in a series of required reactions leading to aminoacylation and translation. The 3′ end trailer can be removed by the pre-tRNA processing endonuclease tRNase Z, an ancient, conserved member of the β-lactamase superfamily of metal-dependent hydrolases. The signature sequence of this family, the His domain (HxHxDH, Motif II), and histidines in Motifs III and V and aspartate in Motif IV contribute seven side chains for coordination of two divalent metal ions. We previously investigated the effects on catalysis of substitutions in Motif II, and in the PxKxRN loop and Motif I on the amino side of Motif II. Herein we present the effects of substitutions on the carboxy side of Motif II within Motifs III, IV, the HEAT and HST loops and Motif V. Substitution of the Motif IV aspartate reduces catalytic efficiency more than 10,000-fold. Histidines in Motif III, V and the HST loop are also functionally important. Strikingly, replacement of Glu in the HEAT loop with Ala reducesefficiency by ~1000-fold. Proximity and orientation of this Glu side chain relative to His in the HST loop and the importance of both residues for catalysis suggest that they function as a duo in a proton transfer at the final stage of reaction, characteristic of the tRNase Z class of RNA endonucleases. PMID:17655328

  11. Computational study enlightens the structural role of the alcohol acyltransferase DFGWG motif.

    PubMed

    Morales-Quintana, Luis; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) catalyze the esterification reaction of alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. Despite the high divergence between AAT enzymes, two important and conserved motifs are shared: the catalytic HxxxD motif, and the DFGWG motif. The latter is proposed to play a structural role; however, its function remains unclear. The DFGWG motif is located in loop 21 and stabilized by a hydrogen bond between residues Y52 and D381. Also, this motif is distant from the HxxxD motif, and most probably without a direct role in the substrate interaction. To evaluate the role of the DFGWG motif, in silico analysis was performed in the VpAAT1 protein. Three mutants (Y52F, D381A and D381E) were evaluated. Major changes (size and shape) in the solvent channels were found, although no differences were revealed in the entire 3D structure. Molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies described unfavorable energies for interaction of the mutant proteins with different substrates, as well as unfavored ligand orientations in the solvent channel. Additionally, we examined the contribution of different energetic parameters to the total free energy of protein-ligand complexes by the MM-GBSA method. The complexes differed mainly in their van der Waals contributions and have unfavorable electrostatic interactions. VpAAT1, Y52F and D381A mutants showed a dramatic reduction in the binding capacity to several substrates, which is related to differences in electrostatic potential on the protein surfaces, suggesting that D381 from the DFGWG motif and residue Y52 play a crucial role in maintenance of the adequate solvent channel structure required for catalysis. Graphical abstract Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM-GBSA free energy calculations were employed to obtain quantitative estimates for the binding free energies of wild type Vasconcellea pubescens alcohol acyltransferase (VpAAT1-WT) and the protein mutants. Left VpAAT1

  12. Occurrence probability of structured motifs in random sequences.

    PubMed

    Robin, S; Daudin, J-J; Richard, H; Sagot, M-F; Schbath, S

    2002-01-01

    The problem of extracting from a set of nucleic acid sequences motifs which may have biological function is more and more important. In this paper, we are interested in particular motifs that may be implicated in the transcription process. These motifs, called structured motifs, are composed of two ordered parts separated by a variable distance and allowing for substitutions. In order to assess their statistical significance, we propose approximations of the probability of occurrences of such a structured motif in a given sequence. An application of our method to evaluate candidate promoters in E. coli and B. subtilis is presented. Simulations show the goodness of the approximations.

  13. The Q Motif Is Involved in DNA Binding but Not ATP Binding in ChlR1 Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Guo, Manhong; Vidhyasagar, Venkatasubramanian; Talwar, Tanu; Wu, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    Helicases are molecular motors that couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of structured DNA or RNA and chromatin remodeling. The conversion of energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into unwinding and remodeling is coordinated by seven sequence motifs (I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, and VI). The Q motif, consisting of nine amino acids (GFXXPXPIQ) with an invariant glutamine (Q) residue, has been identified in some, but not all helicases. Compared to the seven well-recognized conserved helicase motifs, the role of the Q motif is less acknowledged. Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11) gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, which is characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. To examine the roles of the Q motif in ChlR1 helicase, we performed site directed mutagenesis of glutamine to alanine at residue 23 in the Q motif of ChlR1. ChlR1 recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from HEK293T cells. ChlR1-Q23A mutant abolished the helicase activity of ChlR1 and displayed reduced DNA binding ability. The mutant showed impaired ATPase activity but normal ATP binding. A thermal shift assay revealed that ChlR1-Q23A has a melting point value similar to ChlR1-WT. Partial proteolysis mapping demonstrated that ChlR1-WT and Q23A have a similar globular structure, although some subtle conformational differences in these two proteins are evident. Finally, we found ChlR1 exists and functions as a monomer in solution, which is different from FANCJ, in which the Q motif is involved in protein dimerization. Taken together, our results suggest that the Q motif is involved in DNA binding but not ATP binding in ChlR1 helicase. PMID:26474416

  14. Late assembly motifs of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and their relative roles in particle release.

    PubMed

    Heidecker, Gisela; Lloyd, Patricia A; Fox, Kristi; Nagashima, Kunio; Derse, David

    2004-06-01

    Three late assembly domain consensus motifs, namely PTAP, PPPY, and LYPXL, have been identified in different retroviruses. They have been shown to interact with the cellular proteins TSG101, Nedd4, and AP2 or AIP, respectively. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a PPPY and a PTAP motif, separated by two amino acids, located at the end of MA, but only the PPPY motif is conserved in the deltaretrovirus group. Like other retroviral peptides carrying the late motif, MA is mono- or di-ubiquitinated. A mutational analysis showed that 90% of PPPY mutant particles were retained in the cell compared to 15% for the wild-type virus. Mutations of the PTAP motif resulted in a 20% decrease in particle release. In single-cycle infectivity assays, the infectious titers of late motif mutants correlated with the amounts of released virus, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed binding of MA to the WW domains of the Nedd4 family member WWP1 but not to the amino-terminal ubiquitin E2 variant domain of TSG101 in mammalian two-hybrid analyses. The binding to WWP1 was eliminated when the PPPY motif was mutated. However, MA showed binding to TSG101 in the yeast two-hybrid system that was dependent on an intact PTAP motif. A dominant-negative (DN) mutant of WWP1 could inhibit budding of the intact HTLV-1 virus. In contrast, DN TSG101 only affected the release of virus-like particles encoded by Gag expression plasmids. Electron and fluorescent microscopy showed that Gag accumulates in large patches in the membranes of cells expressing viruses with PPPY mutations. Very few tethered immature particles could be detected in these samples, suggesting that budding is impaired at an earlier step than in other retroviruses.

  15. The RXL motif of the African cassava mosaic virus Rep protein is necessary for rereplication of yeast DNA and viral infection in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hipp, Katharina; Rau, Peter; Schäfer, Benjamin; Gronenborn, Bruno; Jeske, Holger

    2014-08-15

    Geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA plant viruses, encode a replication-initiator protein (Rep) that is indispensable for virus replication. A potential cyclin interaction motif (RXL) in the sequence of African cassava mosaic virus Rep may be an alternative link to cell cycle controls to the known interaction with plant homologs of retinoblastoma protein (pRBR). Mutation of this motif abrogated rereplication in fission yeast induced by expression of wildtype Rep suggesting that Rep interacts via its RXL motif with one or several yeast proteins. The RXL motif is essential for viral infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants, since mutation of this motif in infectious clones prevented any symptomatic infection. The cell-cycle link (Clink) protein of a nanovirus (faba bean necrotic yellows virus) was investigated that activates the cell cycle by binding via its LXCXE motif to pRBR. Expression of wildtype Clink and a Clink mutant deficient in pRBR-binding did not trigger rereplication in fission yeast. - Highlights: • A potential cyclin interaction motif is conserved in geminivirus Rep proteins. • In ACMV Rep, this motif (RXL) is essential for rereplication of fission yeast DNA. • Mutating RXL abrogated viral infection completely in Nicotiana benthamiana. • Expression of a nanovirus Clink protein in yeast did not induce rereplication. • Plant viruses may have evolved multiple routes to exploit host DNA synthesis.

  16. No tradeoff between versatility and robustness in gene circuit motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Joshua L.

    2016-05-01

    Circuit motifs are small directed subgraphs that appear in real-world networks significantly more often than in randomized networks. In the Boolean model of gene circuits, most motifs are realized by multiple circuit genotypes. Each of a motif's constituent circuit genotypes may have one or more functions, which are embodied in the expression patterns the circuit forms in response to specific initial conditions. Recent enumeration of a space of nearly 17 million three-gene circuit genotypes revealed that all circuit motifs have more than one function, with the number of functions per motif ranging from 12 to nearly 30,000. This indicates that some motifs are more functionally versatile than others. However, the individual circuit genotypes that constitute each motif are less robust to mutation if they have many functions, hinting that functionally versatile motifs may be less robust to mutation than motifs with few functions. Here, I explore the relationship between versatility and robustness in circuit motifs, demonstrating that functionally versatile motifs are robust to mutation despite the inherent tradeoff between versatility and robustness at the level of an individual circuit genotype.

  17. RNA structural motif recognition based on least-squares distance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Wong, Hau-San; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhang, Lin

    2013-09-01

    RNA structural motifs are recurrent structural elements occurring in RNA molecules. RNA structural motif recognition aims to find RNA substructures that are similar to a query motif, and it is important for RNA structure analysis and RNA function prediction. In view of this, we propose a new method known as RNA Structural Motif Recognition based on Least-Squares distance (LS-RSMR) to effectively recognize RNA structural motifs. A test set consisting of five types of RNA structural motifs occurring in Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA is compiled by us. Experiments are conducted for recognizing these five types of motifs. The experimental results fully reveal the superiority of the proposed LS-RSMR compared with four other state-of-the-art methods.

  18. MProfiler: A Profile-Based Method for DNA Motif Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarawy, Doaa; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Ghanem, Sahar M.

    Motif Finding is one of the most important tasks in gene regulation which is essential in understanding biological cell functions. Based on recent studies, the performance of current motif finders is not satisfactory. A number of ensemble methods have been proposed to enhance the accuracy of the results. Existing ensemble methods overall performance is better than stand-alone motif finders. A recent ensemble method, MotifVoter, significantly outperforms all existing stand-alone and ensemble methods. In this paper, we propose a method, MProfiler, to increase the accuracy of MotifVoter without increasing the run time by introducing an idea called center profiling. Our experiments show improvement in the quality of generated clusters over MotifVoter in both accuracy and cluster compactness. Using 56 datasets, the accuracy of the final results using our method achieves 80% improvement in correlation coefficient nCC, and 93% improvement in performance coefficient nPC over MotifVoter.

  19. Chaotic motif sampler: detecting motifs from biological sequences by using chaotic neurodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Takafumi; Ikeguchi, Tohru

    Identification of a region in biological sequences, motif extraction problem (MEP) is solved in bioinformatics. However, the MEP is an NP-hard problem. Therefore, it is almost impossible to obtain an optimal solution within a reasonable time frame. To find near optimal solutions for NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems such as traveling salesman problems, quadratic assignment problems, and vehicle routing problems, chaotic search, which is one of the deterministic approaches, has been proposed and exhibits better performance than stochastic approaches. In this paper, we propose a new alignment method that employs chaotic dynamics to solve the MEPs. It is called the Chaotic Motif Sampler. We show that the performance of the Chaotic Motif Sampler is considerably better than that of the conventional methods such as the Gibbs Site Sampler and the Neighborhood Optimization for Multiple Alignment Discovery.

  20. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    DOE PAGES

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; ...

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-likemore » subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.« less

  1. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.

  2. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas: Computational methods for extraction, organization and evaluation of RNA motifs.

    PubMed

    Parlea, Lorena G; Sweeney, Blake A; Hosseini-Asanjan, Maryam; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2016-07-01

    RNA 3D motifs occupy places in structured RNA molecules that correspond to the hairpin, internal and multi-helix junction "loops" of their secondary structure representations. As many as 40% of the nucleotides of an RNA molecule can belong to these structural elements, which are distinct from the regular double helical regions formed by contiguous AU, GC, and GU Watson-Crick basepairs. With the large number of atomic- or near atomic-resolution 3D structures appearing in a steady stream in the PDB/NDB structure databases, the automated identification, extraction, comparison, clustering and visualization of these structural elements presents an opportunity to enhance RNA science. Three broad applications are: (1) identification of modular, autonomous structural units for RNA nanotechnology, nanobiology and synthetic biology applications; (2) bioinformatic analysis to improve RNA 3D structure prediction from sequence; and (3) creation of searchable databases for exploring the binding specificities, structural flexibility, and dynamics of these RNA elements. In this contribution, we review methods developed for computational extraction of hairpin and internal loop motifs from a non-redundant set of high-quality RNA 3D structures. We provide a statistical summary of the extracted hairpin and internal loop motifs in the most recent version of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. We also explore the reliability and accuracy of the extraction process by examining its performance in clustering recurrent motifs from homologous ribosomal RNA (rRNA) structures. We conclude with a summary of remaining challenges, especially with regard to extraction of multi-helix junction motifs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bases of motifs for generating repeated patterns with wild cards.

    PubMed

    Pisanti, Nadia; Crochemore, Maxime; Grossi, Roberto; Sagot, Marie-France

    2005-01-01

    Motif inference represents one of the most important areas of research in computational biology, and one of its oldest ones. Despite this, the problem remains very much open in the sense that no existing definition is fully satisfying, either in formal terms, or in relation to the biological questions that involve finding such motifs. Two main types of motifs have been considered in the literature: matrices (of letter frequency per position in the motif) and patterns. There is no conclusive evidence in favor of either, and recent work has attempted to integrate the two types into a single model. In this paper, we address the formal issue in relation to motifs as patterns. This is essential to get at a better understanding of motifs in general. In particular, we consider a promising idea that was recently proposed, which attempted to avoid the combinatorial explosion in the number of motifs by means of a generator set for the motifs. Instead of exhibiting a complete list of motifs satisfying some input constraints, what is produced is a basis of such motifs from which all the other ones can be generated. We study the computational cost of determining such a basis of repeated motifs with wild cards in a sequence. We give new upper and lower bounds on such a cost, introducing a notion of basis that is provably contained in (and, thus, smaller) than previously defined ones. Our basis can be computed in less time and space, and is still able to generate the same set of motifs. We also prove that the number of motifs in all bases defined so far grows exponentially with the quorum, that is, with the minimal number of times a motif must appear in a sequence, something unnoticed in previous work. We show that there is no hope to efficiently compute such bases unless the quorum is fixed.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4-like carrying an MEY motif instead of a TXY motif is involved in ozone tolerance and regulation of stomatal closure in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Yuki; Yoda, Hiroshi; Osaki, Kohei; Amano, Yuta; Aono, Mitsuko; Seo, Shigemi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/MPKs) are important factors in the regulation of signal transduction in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previously, we characterized a MAPK from tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum MPK4 (NtMPK4). Here, we found a highly homologous gene, NtMPK4-like (NtMPK4L), in tobacco as well as other species in Solanaceae and Gramineae. Deduced amino acid sequences of their translation products carried MEY motifs instead of conserved TXY motifs of the MAPK family. We isolated the full length NtMPK4L gene and examined the physiological functions of NtMPK4L. We revealed that NtMPK4L was activated by wounding, like NtMPK4. However, a constitutively active salicylic acid-induced protein kinase kinase (SIPKKEE), which phosphorylates NtMPK4, did not phosphorylate NtMPK4L. Moreover, a tyrosine residue in the MEY motif was not involved in NtMPK4L activation. We also found that NtMPK4L-silenced plants showed rapid transpiration caused by remarkably open stomata. In addition, NtMPK4L-silenced plants completely lost the ability to close stomata upon ozone treatment and were highly sensitive to ozone, suggesting that this atypical MAPK plays a role in ozone tolerance through stomatal regulation. PMID:27126796

  5. Multilayer motif analysis of brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Chavez, Mario; Latora, Vito

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, network science has shed new light both on the structural (anatomical) and on the functional (correlations in the activity) connectivity among the different areas of the human brain. The analysis of brain networks has made possible to detect the central areas of a neural system and to identify its building blocks by looking at overabundant small subgraphs, known as motifs. However, network analysis of the brain has so far mainly focused on anatomical and functional networks as separate entities. The recently developed mathematical framework of multi-layer networks allows us to perform an analysis of the human brain where the structural and functional layers are considered together. In this work, we describe how to classify the subgraphs of a multiplex network, and we extend the motif analysis to networks with an arbitrary number of layers. We then extract multi-layer motifs in brain networks of healthy subjects by considering networks with two layers, anatomical and functional, respectively, obtained from diffusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate that subgraphs in which the presence of a physical connection between brain areas (links at the structural layer) coexists with a non-trivial positive correlation in their activities are statistically overabundant. Finally, we investigate the existence of a reinforcement mechanism between the two layers by looking at how the probability to find a link in one layer depends on the intensity of the connection in the other one. Showing that functional connectivity is non-trivially constrained by the underlying anatomical network, our work contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the structure and function in the human brain.

  6. A compendium of RNA-binding motifs for decoding gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Debashish; Kazan, Hilal; Cook, Kate B.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Najafabadi, Hamed S.; Li, Xiao; Gueroussov, Serge; Albu, Mihai; Zheng, Hong; Yang, Ally; Na, Hong; Irimia, Manuel; Matzat, Leah H.; Dale, Ryan K.; Smith, Sarah A.; Yarosh, Christopher A.; Kelly, Seth M.; Nabet, Behnam; Mecenas, Desirea; Li, Weimin; Laishram, Rakesh S.; Qiao, Mei; Lipshitz, Howard D.; Piano, Fabio; Corbett, Anita H.; Carstens, Russ P.; Frey, Brendan J.; Anderson, Richard A.; Lynch, Kristen W.; Penalva, Luiz O. F.; Lei, Elissa P.; Fraser, Andrew G.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Morris, Quaid D.; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are key regulators of gene expression, yet only a small fraction have been functionally characterized. Here we report a systematic analysis of the RNA motifs recognized by RNA-binding proteins, encompassing 205 distinct genes from 24 diverse eukaryotes. The sequence specificities of RNA-binding proteins display deep evolutionary conservation, and the recognition preferences for a large fraction of metazoan RNA-binding proteins can thus be inferred from their RNA-binding domain sequence. The motifs that we identify in vitro correlate well with in vivo RNA-binding data. Moreover, we can associate them with distinct functional roles in diverse types of post-transcriptional regulation, enabling new insights into the functions of RNA-binding proteins both in normal physiology and in human disease. These data provide an unprecedented overview of RNA-binding proteins and their targets, and constitute an invaluable resource for determining post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. PMID:23846655

  7. Regulation of α2B-Adrenerigc Receptor Export Trafficking by Specific Motifs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangyu; Davis, Jason E; Zhang, Maoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular trafficking and precise targeting to specific locations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control the physiological functions of the receptors. Compared to the extensive efforts dedicated to understanding the events involved in the endocytic and recycling pathways, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport of the GPCR superfamily from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi to the plasma membrane are relatively less well defined. Over the past years, we have used α(2B)-adrenergic receptor (α(2B)-AR) as a model to define the factors that control GPCR export trafficking. In this chapter, we will review specific motifs identified to mediate the export of nascent α(2B)-AR from the ER and the Golgi and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. As these motifs are highly conserved among GPCRs, they may provide common mechanisms for export trafficking of these receptors.

  8. Feedback loops and reciprocal regulation: recurring motifs in the systems biology of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, James E

    2013-12-01

    The study of eukaryotic cell cycle regulation over the last several decades has led to a remarkably detailed understanding of the complex regulatory system that drives this fundamental process. This allows us to now look for recurring motifs in the regulatory system. Among these are negative feedback loops, which underpin checkpoints and generate cell cycle oscillations; positive feedback loops, which promote oscillations and make cell cycle transitions switch-like and unidirectional; and reciprocal regulation, which can increase the control a key regulator exerts. These simple motifs are found at multiple points in the cell cycle (e.g. S-phase and M-phase control) and are conserved in diverse organisms. These findings argue for an underlying unity in the principles of cell cycle control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of the RGG Box Motif in Shadoo: RNA-Binding and Signaling Roles?

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Susan M.; Gready, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    Using comparative genomics and in-silico analyses, we previously identified a new member of the prion-protein (PrP) family, the gene SPRN, encoding the protein Shadoo (Sho), and suggested its functions might overlap with those of PrP. Extended bioinformatics and conceptual biology studies to elucidate Sho’s functions now reveal Sho has a conserved RGG-box motif, a well-known RNA-binding motif characterized in proteins such as FragileX Mental Retardation Protein. We report a systematic comparative analysis of RGG-box containing proteins which highlights the motif’s functional versatility and supports the suggestion that Sho plays a dual role in cell signaling and RNA binding in brain. These findings provide a further link to PrP, which has well-characterized RNA-binding properties. PMID:19812790

  10. Conservation endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  11. Conserved aspartic acid 233 and alanine 231 are not required for poliovirus polymerase function in replicons

    PubMed Central

    Freistadt, Marion S; Eberle, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid polymerases have similar structures and motifs. The function of an aspartic acid (conserved in all classes of nucleic acid polymerases) in motif A remains poorly understood in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. We mutated this residue to alanine in a poliovirus replicon. The resulting mutant could still replicate, although at a reduced level. In addition, mutation A231C (also in motif A) yielded high levels of replication. Taken together these results show that poliovirus polymerase conserved residues D233 and A231 are not essential to poliovirus replicon function. PMID:17352827

  12. The Distribution of GYR- and YLP-Like Motifs in Drosophila Suggests a General Role in Cuticle Assembly and Other Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cornman, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Arthropod cuticle is composed predominantly of a self-assembling matrix of chitin and protein. Genes encoding structural cuticular proteins are remarkably abundant in arthropod genomes, yet there has been no systematic survey of conserved motifs across cuticular protein families. Methodology/Principal Findings Two short sequence motifs with conserved tyrosines were identified in Drosophila cuticular proteins that were similar to the GYR and YLP Interpro domains. These motifs were found in members of the CPR, Tweedle, CPF/CPFL, and (in Anopheles gambiae) CPLCG cuticular protein families, and the Dusky/Miniature family of cuticle-associated proteins. Tweedle proteins have a characteristic motif architecture that is shared with the Drosophila protein GCR1 and its orthologs in other species, suggesting that GCR1 is also cuticular. A resilin repeat, which has been shown to confer elasticity, matched one of the motifs; a number of other Drosophila proteins of unknown function exhibit a motif architecture similar to that of resilin. The motifs were also present in some proteins of the peritrophic matrix and the eggshell, suggesting molecular convergence among distinct extracellular matrices. More surprisingly, gene regulation, development, and proteolysis were statistically over-represented ontology terms for all non-cuticular matches in Drosophila. Searches against other arthropod genomes indicate that the motifs are taxonomically widespread. Conclusions This survey suggests a more general definition for GYR and YLP motifs and reveals their contribution to several types of extracellular matrix. They may define sites of protein interaction with DNA or other proteins, based on ontology analysis. These results can help guide experimental studies on the biochemistry of cuticle assembly. PMID:20824096

  13. GRISOTTO: A greedy approach to improve combinatorial algorithms for motif discovery with prior knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Position-specific priors (PSP) have been used with success to boost EM and Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery algorithms. PSP information has been computed from different sources, including orthologous conservation, DNA duplex stability, and nucleosome positioning. The use of prior information has not yet been used in the context of combinatorial algorithms. Moreover, priors have been used only independently, and the gain of combining priors from different sources has not yet been studied. Results We extend RISOTTO, a combinatorial algorithm for motif discovery, by post-processing its output with a greedy procedure that uses prior information. PSP's from different sources are combined into a scoring criterion that guides the greedy search procedure. The resulting method, called GRISOTTO, was evaluated over 156 yeast TF ChIP-chip sequence-sets commonly used to benchmark prior-based motif discovery algorithms. Results show that GRISOTTO is at least as accurate as other twelve state-of-the-art approaches for the same task, even without combining priors. Furthermore, by considering combined priors, GRISOTTO is considerably more accurate than the state-of-the-art approaches for the same task. We also show that PSP's improve GRISOTTO ability to retrieve motifs from mouse ChiP-seq data, indicating that the proposed algorithm can be applied to data from a different technology and for a higher eukaryote. Conclusions The conclusions of this work are twofold. First, post-processing the output of combinatorial algorithms by incorporating prior information leads to a very efficient and effective motif discovery method. Second, combining priors from different sources is even more beneficial than considering them separately. PMID:21513505

  14. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  15. Cross-disciplinary detection and analysis of network motifs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Tam L; DeLuccia, Luke; McDonald, Aidan F; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The detection of network motifs has recently become an important part of network analysis across all disciplines. In this work, we detected and analyzed network motifs from undirected and directed networks of several different disciplines, including biological network, social network, ecological network, as well as other networks such as airlines, power grid, and co-purchase of political books networks. Our analysis revealed that undirected networks are similar at the basic three and four nodes, while the analysis of directed networks revealed the distinction between networks of different disciplines. The study showed that larger motifs contained the three-node motif as a subgraph. Topological analysis revealed that similar networks have similar small motifs, but as the motif size increases, differences arise. Pearson correlation coefficient showed strong positive relationship between some undirected networks but inverse relationship between some directed networks. The study suggests that the three-node motif is a building block of larger motifs. It also suggests that undirected networks share similar low-level structures. Moreover, similar networks share similar small motifs, but larger motifs define the unique structure of individuals. Pearson correlation coefficient suggests that protein structure networks, dolphin social network, and co-authorships in network science belong to a superfamily. In addition, yeast protein-protein interaction network, primary school contact network, Zachary's karate club network, and co-purchase of political books network can be classified into a superfamily.

  16. The BIR Motifs Mediate Dominant Interference and Oligomerization of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Op-IAP

    PubMed Central

    Hozak, Rebecca R.; Manji, Gulam A.; Friesen, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    The defining structural motif of the inhibitor of apoptosis (iap) protein family is the BIR (baculovirus iap repeat), a highly conserved zinc coordination domain of ∼70 residues. Although the BIR is required for inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) function, including caspase inhibition, its molecular role in antiapoptotic activity in vivo is unknown. To define the function of the BIRs, we investigated the activity of these structural motifs within Op-IAP, an efficient, virus-derived IAP. We report here that Op-IAP1–216, a loss-of-function truncation which contains two BIRs but lacks the C-terminal RING motif, potently interfered with Op-IAP's capacity to block apoptosis induced by diverse stimuli. In contrast, Op-IAP1–216 had no effect on apoptotic suppression by caspase inhibitor P35. Consistent with a mechanism of dominant inhibition that involves direct interaction between Op-IAP1–216 and full-length Op-IAP, both proteins formed an immunoprecipitable complex in vivo. Op-IAP also self-associated. In contrast, the RING motif-containing truncation Op-IAP183–268 failed to interact with or interfere with Op-IAP function. Substitution of conserved residues within BIR 2 caused loss of dominant inhibition by Op-IAP1–216 and coincided with loss of interaction with Op-IAP. Thus, residues encompassing the BIRs mediate dominant inhibition and oligomerization of Op-IAP. Consistent with dominant interference by interaction with an endogenous cellular IAP, Op-IAP1–216 also lowered the survival threshold of cultured insect cells. Taken together, these data suggest a new model wherein the antiapoptotic function of IAP requires homo-oligomerization, which in turn mediates specific interactions with cellular apoptotic effectors. PMID:10669762

  17. Positive Evolutionary Selection of an HD Motif on Alzheimer Precursor Protein Orthologues Suggests a Functional Role

    PubMed Central

    Miklós, István; Zádori, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    HD amino acid duplex has been found in the active center of many different enzymes. The dyad plays remarkably different roles in their catalytic processes that usually involve metal coordination. An HD motif is positioned directly on the amyloid beta fragment (Aβ) and on the carboxy-terminal region of the extracellular domain (CAED) of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and a taxonomically well defined group of APP orthologues (APPOs). In human Aβ HD is part of a presumed, RGD-like integrin-binding motif RHD; however, neither RHD nor RXD demonstrates reasonable conservation in APPOs. The sequences of CAEDs and the position of the HD are not particularly conserved either, yet we show with a novel statistical method using evolutionary modeling that the presence of HD on CAEDs cannot be the result of neutral evolutionary forces (p<0.0001). The motif is positively selected along the evolutionary process in the majority of APPOs, despite the fact that HD motif is underrepresented in the proteomes of all species of the animal kingdom. Position migration can be explained by high probability occurrence of multiple copies of HD on intermediate sequences, from which only one is kept by selective evolutionary forces, in a similar way as in the case of the “transcription binding site turnover.” CAED of all APP orthologues and homologues are predicted to bind metal ions including Amyloid-like protein 1 (APLP1) and Amyloid-like protein 2 (APLP2). Our results suggest that HDs on the CAEDs are most probably key components of metal-binding domains, which facilitate and/or regulate inter- or intra-molecular interactions in a metal ion-dependent or metal ion concentration-dependent manner. The involvement of naturally occurring mutations of HD (Tottori (D7N) and English (H6R) mutations) in early onset Alzheimer's disease gives additional support to our finding that HD has an evolutionary preserved function on APPOs. PMID:22319430

  18. Identification of polymorphic motifs using probabilistic search algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Analabha; Chaudhuri, Probal; Majumder, Partha P.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of identifying motifs comprising nucleotides at a set of polymorphic DNA sites, not necessarily contiguous, arises in many human genetic problems. However, when the sites are not contiguous, no efficient algorithm exists for polymorphic motif identification. A search based on complete enumeration is computationally inefficient. We have developed probabilistic search algorithms to discover motifs of known or unknown lengths. We have developed statistical tests of significance for assessing a motif discovery, and a statistical criterion for simultaneously estimating motif length and discovering it. We have tested these algorithms on various synthetic data sets and have shown that they are very efficient, in the sense that the “true” motifs can be detected in the vast majority of replications and in a small number of iterations. Additionally, we have applied them to some real data sets and have shown that they are able to identify known motifs. In certain applications, it is pertinent to find motifs that contain contrasting nucleotides at the sites included in the motif (e.g., motifs identified in case-control association studies). For this, we have suggested appropriate modifications. Using simulations, we have discovered that the success rate of identification of the correct motif is high in case-control studies except when relative risks are small. Our analyses of evolutionary data sets resulted in the identification of some motifs that appear to have important implications on human evolutionary inference. These algorithms can easily be implemented to discover motifs from multilocus genotype data by simple numerical recoding of genotypes. PMID:15632091

  19. A novel RNA-binding motif in omnipotent suppressors of translation termination, ribosomal proteins and a ribosome modification enzyme?

    PubMed

    Koonin, E V; Bork, P; Sander, C

    1994-06-11

    Using computer methods for database search, multiple alignment, protein sequence motif analysis and secondary structure prediction, a putative new RNA-binding motif was identified. The novel motif is conserved in yeast omnipotent translation termination suppressor SUP1, the related DOM34 protein and its pseudogene homologue; three groups of eukaryotic and archaeal ribosomal proteins, namely L30e, L7Ae/S6e and S12e; an uncharacterized Bacillus subtilis protein related to the L7A/S6e group; and Escherichia coli ribosomal protein modification enzyme RimK. We hypothesize that a new type of RNA-binding domain may be utilized to deliver additional activities to the ribosome.

  20. Motif-directed redesign of enzyme specificity.

    PubMed

    Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J

    2014-03-01

    Computational protein design relies on several approximations, including the use of fixed backbones and rotamers, to reduce protein design to a computationally tractable problem. However, allowing backbone and off-rotamer flexibility leads to more accurate designs and greater conformational diversity. Exhaustive sampling of this additional conformational space is challenging, and often impossible. Here, we report a computational method that utilizes a preselected library of native interactions to direct backbone flexibility to accommodate placement of these functional contacts. Using these native interaction modules, termed motifs, improves the likelihood that the interaction can be realized, provided that suitable backbone perturbations can be identified. Furthermore, it allows a directed search of the conformational space, reducing the sampling needed to find low energy conformations. We implemented the motif-based design algorithm in Rosetta, and tested the efficacy of this method by redesigning the substrate specificity of methionine aminopeptidase. In summary, native enzymes have evolved to catalyze a wide range of chemical reactions with extraordinary specificity. Computational enzyme design seeks to generate novel chemical activities by altering the target substrates of these existing enzymes. We have implemented a novel approach to redesign the specificity of an enzyme and demonstrated its effectiveness on a model system.

  1. Promoter Motifs in NCLDVs: An Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Boratto, Paulo Victor Miranda; Silva, Ludmila Karen dos Santos; Dornas, Fábio Pio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-01-01

    For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’) that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations. PMID:28117683

  2. Promoter Motifs in NCLDVs: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Ana Cláudia Dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Boratto, Paulo Victor Miranda; Silva, Ludmila Karen Dos Santos; Dornas, Fábio Pio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-01-20

    For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses' evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters' evolutionary scenarios and propose the term "MEGA-box" to designate an ancestor promoter motif ('TATATAAAATTGA') that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides' gain and loss and point mutations.

  3. Specific regulatory motifs predict glucocorticoid responsiveness of hippocampal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Datson, N A; Polman, J A E; de Jonge, R T; van Boheemen, P T M; van Maanen, E M T; Welten, J; McEwen, B S; Meiland, H C; Meijer, O C

    2011-10-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is an ubiquitously expressed ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates effects of cortisol in relation to adaptation to stress. In the brain, GR affects the hippocampus to modulate memory processes through direct binding to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) in the DNA. However, its effects are to a high degree cell specific, and its target genes in different cell types as well as the mechanisms conferring this specificity are largely unknown. To gain insight in hippocampal GR signaling, we characterized to which GRE GR binds in the rat hippocampus. Using a position-specific scoring matrix, we identified evolutionary-conserved putative GREs from a microarray based set of hippocampal target genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we were able to confirm GR binding to 15 out of a selection of 32 predicted sites (47%). The majority of these 15 GREs are previously undescribed and thus represent novel GREs that bind GR and therefore may be functional in the rat hippocampus. GRE nucleotide composition was not predictive for binding of GR to a GRE. A search for conserved flanking sequences that may predict GR-GRE interaction resulted in the identification of GC-box associated motifs, such as Myc-associated zinc finger protein 1, within 2 kb of GREs with GR binding in the hippocampus. This enrichment was not present around nonbinding GRE sequences nor around proven GR-binding sites from a mesenchymal stem-like cell dataset that we analyzed. GC-binding transcription factors therefore may be unique partners for DNA-bound GR and may in part explain cell-specific transcriptional regulation by glucocorticoids in the context of the hippocampus.

  4. Regulation of GPCR Anterograde Trafficking by Molecular Chaperones and Motifs.

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Wertman, Jaime; Dupré, Denis J